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Sample records for real textile wastewater

  1. Photo-assisted electrochemical degradation of real textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves, P A; Malpass, G R P; Johansen, H D; Azevedo, E B; Gomes, L M; Vilela, W F D; Motheo, A J

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, photo-assisted electrochemical degradation of real textile wastewater was performed. Degradation assays were performed at constant current (40 mA cm(-2)) in a combined electro/photochemical flow-cell using a Ti/Ru(0.3)Ti(0.7)O(2) DSA type electrode. The results show that the method is capable of removing color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the effluent. Additionally, the effect of initial pH and type of supporting electrolyte (Na(2)SO(4) or NaCl) was investigated. The principal figures of merit used in this study were COD removal and color removal (605 nm). The results show that up to 72% color and up to 59% COD removal in 120 min is possible under the operating conditions employed. Studies of the phytotoxicity of the wastewater before and after the photo-assisted degradation assays are also presented and the results demonstrate that the toxicity of the effluent is dependent on the length of electrolysis time and the treatment procedure employed.

  2. UV/Tio2 photocatalytic reactor for real textile wastewaters treatment.

    PubMed

    da Motta, Maurício; Pereira, Raquel; Madalena Alves, M; Pereira, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Textile dye wastewaters are characterized by strong colour, salts and other additives, high pH, temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biodegradable materials. Being aesthetically and environmentally unacceptable, these wastewaters need to be treated before their discharge. Anaerobic bioprocesses have been proposed as being environmentally friendly and relatively cheap; however, when applied to real effluent with a complex composition, they can fail. In this study, a photoreactor combining UV light and TiO2, immobilized in cellulosic fabric, was applied for the treatment of two industrial textile wastewaters. High colour and COD removal, and detoxification, were achieved for both wastewaters, at controlled pH of 5.5. Effluents showed very poor biodegradability due to their complex composition; thus, the proposed process is an efficient alternative.

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of COD from real textile wastewaters: Kinetic study and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiaxiu; Peng, Xiaolan; Li, Miao; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Bing; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the electrochemical oxidation of real wastewaters discharged by textile industry was carried out using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of operational variables, such as applied current density (20-100 mA·cm(-2)), NaCl concentration added to the real wastewaters (0-3 g·L(-1)), and pH value (2.0-10.0), on the kinetics of COD oxidation and on the energy consumption was carefully investigated. The obtained experimental results could be well matched with a proposed kinetic model, in which the indirect oxidation mediated by electrogenerated strong oxidants would be described through a pseudo-first-order kinetic constant k. Values of k exhibited a linear increase with increasing applied current density and decreasing pH value, and an exponential increase with NaCl concentration. Furthermore, high oxidation kinetics resulted in low specific energy consumption, but this conclusion was not suitable to the results obtained under different applied current density. Under the optimum operational conditions, it only took 3 h to complete remove the COD in the real textile wastewaters and the specific energy consumption could be as low as 11.12 kWh·kg(-1) COD. The obtained results, low energy consumption and short electrolysis time, allowed to conclude that the electrochemical oxidation based on BDD anodes would have practical industrial application for the treatment of real textile wastewater.

  4. Enhancement of biodegradability of real textile and dyeing wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shijun; Sun, Weihua; Wang, Jianlong; Chen, Lvjun; Zhang, Youxue; Yu, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    A textile and dyeing wastewater treatment plant is going to be upgraded due to the stringent discharge standards in Jiangsu province, China, and electron beam irradiation is considering to be used. In order to determine the suitable location of the electron accelerator in the process of wastewater treatment plant, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the biodegradability of various real wastewater samples collecting from the different stages of the wastewater treatment plant, the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and the ratio of BOD5 and COD (BOD5/COD), were compared before and after EB irradiation. During EB irradiation process, color indices and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254) of wastewater were also determined. The results showed that EB irradiation pre-treatment cannot improve the biodegradability of raw textile and dyeing wastewater, which contains a large amount of biodegradable organic matters. In contrast, as to the final effluent of biological treatment process, EB irradiation can enhance the biodegradability to 224%. Therefore, the promising way is to apply EB irradiation as a post-treatment of the conventional biological process.

  5. Insights into real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater treatment using solar advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Manenti, Diego R; Souza, Selene M A G U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-01-01

    Different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to the treatment of a real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater as a pre-oxidation step to enhance the biodegradability of the recalcitrant compounds, which can be further oxidized using a biological process. Tests were conducted on a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation and at pilot scale with compound parabolic collectors using natural solar radiation. The cotton-textile dyeing wastewater presents a lilac color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (pH = 8.2), moderate organic content (DOC = 152 mg C L(-1), COD = 684 mg O2 L(-1)) and low-moderate biodegradability (40 % after 28 days in Zahn-Wellens test). All the tested processes contributed to an effective decolorization and mineralization, but the most efficient process was the solar-photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 98.5% decolorization and 85.5% mineralization after less than 0.1 and 5.8 kJUV L(-1), respectively. In order to achieve a final wastewater with a COD below 250 mg O2 L(-1) (discharge limit into water bodies imposed by the Portuguese Legislation-Portaria no. 423/97 of 25 June 1997), considering the combination of a solar-photo-Fenton reaction with a biological process, the phototreatment energy required is 0.5 kJUV L(-1), consuming 7.5 mM hydrogen peroxide, resulting in 58.4% of mineralization [Formula: see text].

  6. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of a real textile wastewater effluent treated by an optimized electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Soares, Petrick A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Palácio, Soraya M; Borba, Fernando H; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the application of an iron electrode-based electrocoagulation (EC) process on the treatment of a real textile wastewater (RTW) was investigated. In order to perform an efficient integration of the EC process with a biological oxidation one, an enhancement in the biodegradability and low toxicity of final compounds was sought. Optimal values of EC reactor operation parameters (pH, current density and electrolysis time) were achieved by applying a full factorial 3(3) experimental design. Biodegradability and toxicity assays were performed on treated RTW samples obtained at the optimal values of: pH of the solution (7.0), current density (142.9 A m(-2)) and different electrolysis times. As response variables for the biodegradability and toxicity assessment, the Zahn-Wellens test (Dt), the ratio values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) relative to low-molecular-weight carboxylates anions (LMCA) and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were used. According to the Dt, the DOC/LMCA ratio and LC50, an electrolysis time of 15 min along with the optimal values of pH and current density were suggested as suitable for a next stage of treatment based on a biological oxidation process.

  7. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of real textile dye house wastewater by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sayed Mohammad Bagher; Fallah, Narges; Royaee, Sayed Javid

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the advanced oxidation process for decolorization of real textile dyeing wastewater containing azo and disperse dye by TiO2 and UV radiation. Among effective parameters on the photocatalytic process, effects of three operational parameters (TiO2 concentration, initial pH and aeration flow rate) were examined with response surface methodology. The F-value (136.75) and p-value <0.0001 imply that the model is significant. The 'Pred R-Squared' of 0.95 is in reasonable agreement with the 'Adj R-Squared' of 0.98, which confirms the adaptability of this model. From the quadratic models developed for degradation and subsequent analysis of variance (ANOVA) test using Design Expert software, the concentration of catalyst was found to be the most influential factor, while all the other factors were also significant. To achieve maximum dye removal, optimum conditions were found at TiO2 concentration of 3 g L(-1), initial pH of 7 and aeration flow rate of 1.50 L min(-1). Under the conditions stated, the percentages of dye and chemical oxygen demand removal were 98.50% and 91.50%, respectively. Furthermore, the mineralization test showed that total organic compounds removal was 91.50% during optimum conditions.

  8. Decolorization and COD removal from real textile wastewater by chemical and electrochemical Fenton processes: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the presence of non-biodegradable and toxic compounds, textile wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional methods. In the present study, Electrochemical Fenton (EF) and Chemical Fenton (CF) processes were studied and compared for the treatment of real textile wastewater. The effects of electrical current, ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide concentration and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of COD and color were investigated. All the experiments were carried out at pH = 3. Results Both EF and CF processes were mostly efficient within hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1978 mg/L (H2O2: COD ~ 1.1). The highest COD and color removal efficiencies were 70.6% and 72.9% respectively which were obtained through the EF process in 350 mA electrical current, 1978 mg/L hydrogen peroxide and 60 minutes reaction time. Furthermore, the operational costs of EF and CF processes were 17.56 and 8.6 US$ per kilogram of the removed COD respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that the electrochemical Fenton process was more efficient than the chemical Fenton process in the degradation of textile wastewater. Likewise, Although EF process imposed higher operational costs than the CF; it dramatically decreased the reaction time to gain the highest degradation efficiency. PMID:24355087

  9. Performance analysis of a continuous serpentine flow reactor for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater: Energy consumption, mass transfer coefficient and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2017-05-15

    A continuous flow electrochemical reactor was developed, and its application was tested for the treatment of textile wastewater. A parallel plate configuration with serpentine flow was chosen for the continuous flow reactor. Uniparameter optimization was carried out for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater (collected from the inlet of the effluent treatment plant). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 90% was achieved for synthetic textile wastewater (initial COD - 780 mg L(-1)) at a flow rate of 500 mL h(-1) (retention time of 6 h) and a current density of 1.15 mA cm(-2) and the energy consumption for the degradation was 9.2 kWh (kg COD)(-1). The complete degradation of real textile wastewater (initial COD of 368 mg L(-1)) was obtained at a current density of 1.15 mA cm(-2), NaCl concentration of 1 g L(-1) and retention time of 6 h. Energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient of the reactions were calculated. The continuous flow reactor performed better than batch reactor with reference to energy consumption and economy. The overall treatment cost for complete COD removal of real textile wastewater was 5.83 USD m(-3).

  10. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic decolourization of a real textile wastewater in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2016-12-15

    This work describes the application of a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) for the removal of colour from a real textile wastewater containing reactive azo-dyes. Four polymers were tested over the pH range of 4-9 to select the most effective absorbant to be used as the partitioning phase in the TPPB. The best results were obtained with Hytrel 8206 at pH4 achieving ~70% colour removal, based on the dominant wavelength, in the first 5h of contact time, and 84% after 24h. Wastewater treatment was undertaken in a solid-liquid TPPB operated with Hytrel 8206 in sequential anaerobic-aerobic configuration. The reaction time of 23h was equally distributed between the anaerobic and aerobic phases and, to favour colour uptake, the pH was controlled at 4.5 in the first 4h of the anaerobic phase, and then increased to 7.5. Colour removal (for the dominant wavelength, 536nm) increased from 70 to 85% by modifying the bioreactor operation from single-phase to TPPB mode. Based on COD measurements nearly complete biodegradation of the intermediates produced in the anaerobic phase was obtained, both in the single-phase and two-phase mode, with better performance of the TPPB system reaching 75% CODDye removal.

  11. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal < 150 mg O2 L(-1)) at pH 3.6, requiring a UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2.

  12. Periodate-assisted pulsed sonocatalysis of real textile wastewater in the presence of MgO nanoparticles: Response surface methodological optimization.

    PubMed

    Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Safari, Mahdi

    2016-09-01

    The improvement of sonocatalytic treatment of real textile wastewater in the presence of MgO nanoparticles was the main goal of the present study. According to our preliminary results, the application of pulse mode of sonication, together with the addition of periodate ions, produced the greatest sonocatalytic activity and consequently, the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (73.95%) among all the assessed options. In the following, pulsed sonocatalysis of real textile wastewater in the presence of periodate ions was evaluated response surface methodologically on the basis of central composite design. Accordingly, a high correlation coefficient of 0.95 was attained for the applied statistical strategy to optimize the process. As results, a pulsed sonication time of 141min, MgO dosage of 2.4g/L, solution temperature of 314K and periodate concentration of 0.11M gave the maximum COD removal of about 85%. Under aforementioned operational conditions, the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was obtained to be 63.34% with the reaction rate constant of 7.1×10(-3)min(-1) based on the pseudo-first order kinetic model (R(2)=0.99). Overall, periodate-assisted pulsed sonocatalysis over MgO nanoparticles can be applied as an efficient alternative process for treating and mineralizing real textile wastewater with good reusability potential.

  13. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesized MgO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jorfi, Sahand; Barzegar, Gelavizh; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Alah Jafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nemat; Takdastan, Afshin; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-07-15

    Sequencing coagulation - photocatalytic degradation using UVA/MgO nanoparticles process was investigated for Acid red 73dye removal and then treatment of a real textile wastewater. Effective operational parameters including pH and coagulant and photocatalyst dosage were studied in synthetic wastewater and then the process was applied for real wastewater. Both coagulation and photocatalytic processes were pH dependent. At coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L and initial pH of 6, the dye concentration decreased from 200 to 31 mg/L. Complete removal of AR73 was observed with MgO nanoparticles of 0.8 g/L, initial pH of 5 and reaction time of 60 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was well fitted with removal results (R(2): 0.939-0.988 for different initial dye concentration). In the case of real textile wastewater, the sequence coagulation-UVA/MgO nanoparticles photocatalytic degradation yielded considerable total COD and TOC removal 98.3% and 86.9%respectively, after 300 min.

  14. Synthesis of Fe-doped Bi2O3 nanocatalyst and its sonophotocatalytic activity on synthetic dye and real textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, G Kumaravel; Anandan, Sambandam; Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam

    2016-10-01

    The catalysts such as Fe, Bi2O3, and Fe-doped Bi2O3 were synthesized for the sonophotocatalytic treatment of synthetic dye and real textile wastewater. The resultant catalysts were characterized for its size and uniform shape using x-ray diffractogram (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which signified the nanorod shape formed Bi2O3. The higher ultraviolet light absorbance capacity of the catalysts was also evident using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Initially, the effect of conventional parameters such as initial pH, gas bubbling (argon, oxygen, air and nitrogen) and oxidant addition (H2O2 and peroxymonosulfate) in the presence of sonolysis (22 and 37 kHz frequency) and photolysis (UV-C light) on 10 ppm Basic Brown 1 dye was studied. The results showed that highest decolorization of 62 % was attained for 3 g/L peroxymonosulfate under 37 kHz frequency sonolysis treatment. Secondly, with the catalyst study, highest of 46 % dye color removal was obtained with 4 g/L Fe under 37 kHz frequency sonolysis treatment. The sonophotocatalytic treatment of dye with Fe-doped Bi2O3 catalyst in combination with peroxymonosulfate showed highest color removal of 99 %. Finally, the sonophotocatalytic treatment of real textile wastewater in the presence of 3 g/L Fe-doped Bi2O3 and 6 g/L peroxymonosulfate reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) level to 77 and 91 %, respectively, in 180 min. The reported treatment process was found to treat the synthetic dye and real textile wastewater effectively.

  15. Electrochemical removal of dyes from textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrich, K.D. )

    1988-09-01

    There are many technologies available for treating wastewater from the textile industry. Included are (1) biological treatment, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) carbon absorption, (4) ultrafiltration, and (5) oxidation with ozone. The main drawback of these technologies is that they generally lack the broad scope of treatment efficiency required to reduce all types of pollutants present in textile wastewater. However, when one approach does look promising, its capital costs or operating costs often become prohibitive when applied to the large water needs common to this industry. It has recently been shown that an electrochemical technology developed in the 1970s by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. effectively removes many of the contaminants including toxic dye species and heavy metals along with significant BOD and COD reduction across many types of textile wastewater and dye species. The removal of dyes and other pollutants in textile wastewater can be accomplished very efficiently with the electrochemical process. Actual operating data, along with actual water samples, will be presented along with economics and operating characteristics of this type of a system. Additional considerations such as removal of other components such as BOD and COD, theoretical interpretations, and the possibility of water reuse will also be discussed.

  16. Single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) with a cathodic microalgal biofilm: A preliminary assessment of the generation of bioelectricity and biodegradation of real dye textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Logroño, Washington; Pérez, Mario; Urquizo, Gladys; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Echeverría, Magdy; Recalde, Celso; Rákhely, Gábor

    2017-06-01

    An air exposed single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using microalgal biocathodes was designed. The reactors were tested for the simultaneous biodegradation of real dye textile wastewater (RTW) and the generation of bioelectricity. The results of digital image processing revealed a maximum coverage area on the biocathodes by microalgal cells of 42%. The atmospheric and diffused CO2 could enable good algal growth and its immobilized operation on the cathode electrode. The biocathode-SCMFCs outperformed an open circuit voltage (OCV), which was 18%-43% higher than the control. Furthermore, the maximum volumetric power density achieved was 123.2 ± 27.5 mW m(-3). The system was suitable for the treatment of RTW and the removal/decrease of COD, colour and heavy metals. High removal efficiencies were observed in the SCMFCs for Zn (98%) and COD (92-98%), but the removal efficiencies were considerably lower for Cr (54-80%). We observed that this single chamber MFC simplifies a double chamber system. The bioelectrochemical performance was relatively low, but the treatment capacity of the system seems encouraging in contrast to previous studies. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that the microalgal biocathode could operate in air exposed conditions, seems to be a promising alternative to a Pt cathode and is an efficient and cost-effective approach to improve the performance of single chamber MFCs.

  17. Enhanced removal of hazardous dye form aqueous solutions and real textile wastewater using bifunctional chitin/lignin biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Bartczak, Przemysław; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-06-01

    A new biomaterial based on chitin and lignin was prepared and applied for the removal of hazardous dye C.I. Direct Blue 71 (DB71) from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. The dye sorption on the chitin/lignin biosorbent (Ch/L) was examined depending on the initial dye concentration (50-200mg/L), phase contact time (1-1440min), kind of auxiliaries (NaCl, Na2SO4, anionic surfactant SDS) and their concentrations (1-20g/L salts, 0.1-0.75g/L SDS), initial solution pH as well as temperature (20-50°C). The equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of C.I. Direct Blue 71 uptake by chitin/lignin followed by the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order model rather than the Langmuir, Tempkin models, and pseudo-first order model. C.I. Direct Blue 71 adsorption on chitin/lignin was spontaneous (-2.86 to -8.14kJ/mol) and endothermic (60.1kJ/mol). The possibilities of dye elution and reuse by means of the batch method were investigated and as follows the chemical reaction is an inseparable sorption mechanism. Purification of wastewaters containing direct dyes was made with 91% efficiency after 1h of phase contact time. For comparison, data obtained or obtained results in the DB71-chitin (Ch) system were also presented.

  18. Application of solar photo-Fenton toward toxicity removal and textile wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique Rodrigues; de Souza, Felipe Antônio Ribeiro; Oliveira, Sílvia Corrêa; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2016-08-27

    Solar photo-Fenton represents an innovative and low-cost option for the treatment of recalcitrant industrial wastewater, such as the textile wastewater. Textile wastewater usually shows high acute toxic and variability and may be composed of many different chemical compounds. This study aimed at optimizing and validating solar photo-Fenton treatment of textile wastewater in a semi-pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) for toxicity removal and wastewater reclamation. In addition, treated wastewater reuse feasibility was investigated through pilot tests. Experimental design performed in this study indicated optimum condition for solar photo-Fenton reaction (20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 500 mg L(-1) of H2O2; pH 2.8), which achieved 96 % removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 99 % absorbance removal. A toxicity peak was detected during treatment, suggesting that highly toxic transformation products were formed during reaction. Toxic intermediates were properly removed during solar photo-Fenton (SPF) treatment along with the generation of oxalic acid as an ultimate product of degradation and COS increase. Different samples of real textile wastewater were treated in order to validate optimized treatment condition with regard to wastewater variability. Results showed median organic carbon removal near 90 %. Finally, reuse of treated textile wastewater in both dyeing and washing stages of production was successful. These results confirm that solar photo-Fenton, as a single treatment, enables wastewater reclamation in the textile industry. Graphical abstract Solar photo-Fenton as a revolutionary treatment technology for "closing-the-loop" in the textile industry.

  19. Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo

    2007-06-01

    Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process.

  20. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process.

  1. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    PubMed

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using silver ion-doped TiO₂ and its application to the degradation of real textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K; Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue dye (MB) was degraded photocatalytically in aqueous solution using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) under UV irradiation. The degradations of the dye using untreated TiO(2) and Ag(+) doped TiO(2) were compared. Ag(+) doped TiO(2) was found to be more efficient. Using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) the filtration process was eliminated, as the particles became more settleable. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, depth of solution, degree of adsorption, pH and O(2) on dye degradation was studied. The extent of mineralization was studied by observing the COD removal at different time intervals. The effects of various interfering ions such as Cl(-), NO(3) (-), CO(3) (2-), SO(4) (2-), Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) and electron acceptors such as H(2)O(2), KBrO(3) and (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) on the dye degradation was also studied. The degradation kinetics fitted well to Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo first order rate law. An aqueous solution of MB (20ppm) degraded by more than 99% after UV irradiation for 180 min with Ag(+) doped TiO(2) (2 g/L) and by more than 95% with untreated TiO(2) (2 g/L)(.) The COD removal was more than 91% with Ag(+)doped TiO(2) and more than 86% with untreated TiO(2) after 240 min. The degradation and COD removal of 5 times diluted textile wastewater was more than 98% and 79% respectively with 1 g/L Ag(+) doped TiO(2) after UV irradiation for 420 min.

  3. A kinetic study of textile dyeing wastewater degradation by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Durruty, Ignacio; Fasce, Diana; González, Jorge Froilán; Wolski, Erika Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    The potential of Penicillium chrysogenum to decolorize azo dyes and a real industrial textile wastewater was studied. P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize and degrade three azo dyes (200 mg L(-1)), either independently or in a mixture of them, using glucose as a carbon source. A kinetic model for degradation was developed and it allowed predicting the degradation kinetics of the mixture of the three azo dyes. In addition, P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize real industrial wastewater. The kinetic model proposed was also able to predict the decolorization of the real wastewater. The calibration of the proposed model makes it a useful tool for future wastewater facilities' design and for practical applications.

  4. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  5. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  6. Textile Design for the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    Textile design is a multimillion-dollar business that affects all of us. However, the idea of textile design is often ignored in art classes. This paper describes a project that challenges students to identify functional art in their everyday lives. In this project, students analyze textile designs, then create their own motifs and repeat them to…

  7. Water recycle as a must: decolorization of textile wastewaters by plant-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    Tegli, Stefania; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bonnanni, Marco; Bianchini, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Textile dye effluents are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Low cost and ecocompatible bioremediation processes offer a promising alternative to the conventional and aspecific physico-chemical procedures adopted so far. Here, microorganisms resident on three real textile dyeing effluent were isolated, characterized, and tested for their decolorizing performances. Although able to survive on these real textile-dyeing wastewaters, they always showed a very low decolorizing activity. On the contrary, several plant-associated fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Funalia trogii, Irpex lacteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes hirsuta, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus nidulans) were also assayed and demonstrated to be able both to survive and to decolorize to various extents the three effluents, used as such in liquid cultures. The decolorizing potential of these fungi was demonstrated to be influenced by nutrient availability and pH. Best performances were constantly obtained using B. adusta and A. nidulans, relying on two strongly different mechanisms for their decolorizing activities: degradation for B. adusta and biosorption for A. nidulans. Acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna showed a substantial reduction in toxicity of the three textile dyeing effluents when treated with B. adusta and A. nidulans, as suggested by mass spectrometric analysis as well.

  8. Electrochemical Treatment of Textile Dye Wastewater by Mild Steel Anode.

    PubMed

    Bhavya, J G; Rekha, H B; Murthy, Usha N

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the results of the treatment of textile dye wastewater generated from a textile processing industry by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at current densities of 12, 24 and 48 A/m2 using mild steel as anode and cathode. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, color and BOD5 were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. It was observed that increasing the electrolysis time and increased current density bring down the concentration of pollutants. Also COD removal rate and energy consumption during the electrolysis were calculated and presented in this paper. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment using MS as anode for TDW oxidation.

  9. Fate of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the wastewater from six textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Rui-Jing; Wen, Wei-Bin; Chen, Chang-Min; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and isopropylbenzene (BTEXSI) from 6 textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants (TDWTPs) were investigated in this study. The practical capacities of the 6 representative plants, which used the activated sludge process, ranged from 1200 to 26000 m(3) d(-1). The results indicated that BTEXSI were ubiquitous in the raw textile dyeing wastewater, except for isopropylbenzene, and that toluene and xylenes were predominant in raw wastewaters (RWs). TDWTP-E was selected to study the residual BTEXSI at different stages. The total BTEXSI reduction on the aerobic process of TDWTP-E accounted for 82.2% of the entire process. The total BTEXSI concentrations from the final effluents (FEs) were observed to be below 1 μg L(-1), except for TDWTP-F (2.12 μg L(-1)). Volatilization and biodegradation rather than sludge sorption contributed significantly to BTEXSI removal in the treatment system. BTEXSI were not found to be the main contaminants in textile dyeing wastewater.

  10. Treatment of the textile wastewater by combined electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Can, O T; Kobya, M; Demirbas, E; Bayramoglu, M

    2006-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) due to some advantages over chemical coagulation is becoming a popular process to be used for wastewater treatment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of initial addition of a chemical coagulant such as polyaluminum chloride (PAC) or alum on the COD removal efficiency of EC treatment of textile wastewaters. The two salts exhibited the same performance in chemical coagulation, but in the combined electrocoagulation (CEC), PAC was found to significantly enhance the COD removal rate and efficiency, depending on the amount of the total aluminum supplied, by initial addition and electrochemical generation. A comparative operating cost analysis was also given and it was found that with the same operating cost per mass of COD removed, CEC performance was 80%, in contrast to 23% with EC, in 5 min of operation.

  11. Microbiological and performance evaluation of sequencing batch reactor for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ogleni, Nurtac; Arifoglu, Yasemin Damar; Ileri, Recep

    2012-04-01

    This study focused on laboratory-scaled and real-scaled treatment plant performances and microbiological investigations for the optimum treatment of textile industry wastewater performed with sequencing batch reactor (SBR). As a result of experimental studies of laboratory-scaled SBR treatment unit, optimum treatment efficiency was taken from 0.5 h filling to 1.5 h. reaction to 1.5 h. settlement to 0.5 h. discharge-idle periods. Average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of SBR of laboratory-scaled textile industry was 75%, whereas average turbidity and color removal (coloration number [RES, m(-1)] 586 nm) efficiencies were 90% and 75%, respectively. Optimum reaction and settlement periods were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for parameters such as COD, phenol, pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge volume index (SVI). In this study, optimum reaction and settlement periods for treatment of textile industry wastewater were determined within a SBR in a laboratory-scaled plant. These reaction and settlement periods were verified with the measurement of COD, color, and turbidity parameters. Floc structure and protozoa-metazoa species of activated sludge in a SBR were also determined. Optimum reaction and settlement times were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for COD, Phenol, pH, MLSS, and SVI parameters. The corresponding values were found as appropriate, acceptable, and meaningful because of variance value of statistical analysis. Protozoa and metazoan in the activated sludge in the laboratory-scaled plant were investigated. Peranema sp., Epistylis sp., Didinium sp., Chilodonella sp., Opercularia sp., Vorticella sp. as protozoa species and Habrotrocha sp., Philodina sp. as metazoa species were determined.

  12. Effect of treatment in a constructed wetland on toxicity of textile wastewater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baughman, G.L.; Perkins, W.S.; Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands for treating wastewater have proliferated in recent years and their characteristics have been studied extensively. In most cases, constructed wetlands have been used primarily for removal of nutrients and heavy metals. Extensive literature is available concerning construction and use of wetlands for treatment of wastewater. Even so, quantitative descriptions of wetland function and processes are highly empirical and difficult to extrapolate. The processes involved in removal of pollutants by wetlands are poorly understood, especially for waste streams as complex as textile effluents. The few studies conducted on treatment of textile wastewater in constructed wetlands were cited in earlier publications. Results of a two-year study of a full-scale wetland treating textile effluent are presented here. The paper describes the effects of the wetland on aquatic toxicity of the wastewater and draws conclusions about the utility and limitations of constructed wetlands for treatment of textile effluents.

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Rajendra; Joshi, Himanshu; Mall, Indra D; Srivastava, Vimal C

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, studies have been performed on the electrochemical (EC) oxidation of actual textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes. Multi-response optimization of four independent parameters namely initial pH (pHo): 4-10, current density (j): 27.78-138.89 A/m(2), NaCl concentration (w): 0-2 g/L and electrolysis time (t): 10-130 min have been performed using Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design. It was aimed to simultaneously maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiencies and minimize specific energy consumption using desirability function approach. Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value for COD (R(2) = 0.8418), color (R(2) = 0.7010) and specific energy (R(2) = 0.9125) between the experimental values and the predicted values by a second-order regression model. Maximum COD and color removal and minimum specific energy consumed was 90.78%, 96.27% and 23.58 kWh/kg COD removed, respectively, were observed at optimum conditions. The wastewater, sludge and scum obtained after treatment at optimum condition have been characterized by various techniques. UV-visible study showed that all azo bonds of the dyes present in the wastewater were totally broken and most of the aromatic rings were mineralized during EC oxidation with graphite electrode. Carbon balance showed that out of the total carbon eroded from the graphite electrodes, 27-29.2% goes to the scum, 71.1-73.3% goes into the sludge and rest goes to the treated wastewater. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the generated sludge and scum can be dried and used as a fuel in the boilers/incinerators.

  14. Textiles wastewater treatment using anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhimin; Zhang, Yugao; Wang, Xiaojun

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the performance of the anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter (AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF) process treating real textile dyeing wastewater was investigated. After more than 2 month process operation, the average effluent COD concentration of the AFB, BWB, O(3)-BAF were 704.8 mg/L, 294.6 mg/L and 128.8 mg/L, with HRT being 8.1-7.7h, 9.2h and 5.45 h, respectively. Results showed that the effluent COD concentration of the AFB decreased with new carriers added and the average removal COD efficiency was 20.2%. During operation conditions, HRT of the BWB and O(3)-BAF was increased, resulting in a decrease in the effluent COD concentration. However, on increasing the HRT, the COD reduction capability expressed by the unit carrier COD removal loading of the BWB reactor increased, while that of the O(3)-BAF reactor decreased. This study is a beneficial attempt to utilize the AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF combine process for textile wastewater treatment.

  15. Color removal from textile wastewater by using treated flute reed in a fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Tipprasertsin, Kannika; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of acid treated flute reed to adsorb color (dye) from synthetic reactive dye solutions, and actual dyeing and printing textile wastewaters in a laboratory scale fixed bed column. The effects of particle size, initial reactive dye concentration, bed depth and flow rate on adsorption performances were examined. The results from experiments with synthetic reactive dye solutions showed that the volume treated (until the breakthrough occurred) increased with decreasing particle size, influent reactive dye concentration and flow rate, and increasing bed depth. The bed depth service time model was suitable for describing the experimental data. The treated flute reed was able to reduce color efficiently, 99% for dyeing textile wastewater with ten adsorption columns in series and 78% for printing textile wastewater with a single adsorption column. The difference in the numbers of columns used for the two types of actual textile wastewater led to a substantial discrepancy in suspended solids removal, 99% for dyeing wastewater and 12% for printing wastewater. Similar pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) results were obtained for the two types of textile wastewater. The acid pretreatment of flute reed resulted in dramatic decreases in pH after the adsorption and very acidic effluents (pH 3). Increases of COD after the adsorption due to organic leaching from the treated flute reed were observed. A different pretreatment method to solve these pH and COD problems is needed before flute reed can be used in practice.

  16. Assessing the composition of microbial communities in textile wastewater treatment plants in comparison with municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Meerbergen, Ken; Van Geel, Maarten; Waud, Michael; Willems, Kris A; Dewil, Raf; Van Impe, Jan; Appels, Lise; Lievens, Bart

    2017-02-01

    It is assumed that microbial communities involved in the biological treatment of different wastewaters having a different chemical composition harbor different microbial populations which are specifically adapted to the environmental stresses encountered in these systems. Yet, little is known about the composition of these microbial communities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the microbial community composition over two seasons (winter and summer) in activated sludge from well-operating textile wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in comparison with municipal WWTPs, and to explain observed differences by environmental variables. 454-pyrosequencing generated 160 archaeal and 1645 bacterial species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), with lower observed richness in activated sludge from textile WWTPs compared to municipal WWTPs. The bacterial phyla Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, and Acidobacteria were more abundant in activated sludge samples from textile WWTPs, together with archaeal members of Thaumarchaeota. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of the microbial communities showed that microbial communities from textile and municipal WWTPs were significantly different, with a seasonal effect on archaea. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria as well as phosphate-accumulation bacteria were more abundant in municipal WWTPs, while sulfate-reducing bacteria were almost only detected in textile WWTPs. Additionally, microbial communities from textile WWTPs were more dissimilar than those of municipal WWTPs, possibly due to a wider diversity in environmental stresses to which microbial communities in textile WWTPs are subjected to. High salinity, high organic loads, and a higher water temperature were important potential variables driving the microbial community composition in textile WWTPs. This study provides a general view on the composition of microbial communities in activated sludge of textile WWTPs, and may provide novel insights

  17. Physico-chemical treatment of wastewater from clusters of small scale cotton textile units.

    PubMed

    Pathe, P P; Biswas, A K; Rao, N N; Kaul, S N

    2005-03-01

    Small scale industries can not own individual wastewater treatment facility due to non-availability of land and skilled manpower for operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. A centralized wastewater treatment facility for clusters of small scale industries is appropriate. This concept is gaining popularity in recent years. In India, various textile process operations are undertaken by individual small scale units. The wastewater generated at these units is conveyed to a common effluent treatment facility comprising of equalization, flocculation-clarification, activated sludge process, secondary clarification and finally discharge into inland surface water bodies. The wastewater from small scale cotton textile processing units was highly coloured and alkaline with average BOD and COD concentration of 205 and 790 mg l(-1), respectively. Due to the presence of several dyes, particularly reactive dyes, the biological treatment is often found less effective. Therefore, applicability of various physico-chemical treatment methods needs to be investigated in pursuit of an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater. A physico-chemical treatment scheme, involving chemical coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon adsorption followed by chemical oxidation was investigated in this paper. The quality of final treated wastewater in terms of BOD and COD was 18-24 and 230-240 mg l(-1), respectively through this scheme. A scheme of treatment comprising coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon, chemical oxidation may be considered as an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater.

  18. Optimization and kinetic studies on treatment of textile dye wastewater using Pleurotus floridanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathian, S.; Radha, G.; Shanmugapriya, V.; Rajasimman, M.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried using Pleurotus floridanus in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation speed and dye wastewater concentration for the decolorization of textile dye wastewater. The optimum conditions for the maximum decolorization was: pH 6.6, temperature 28.8 °C, agitation speed 183 rpm and dye wastewater concentration 1:2. From the results it was found that, the linear effect of agitation speed and initial textile dye wastewater concentration were more significant than other factors for the textile dye wastewater treatment. At these optimized conditions, the maximum decolorization and COD reduction was found to be 71.2 and 80.5 %, respectively. Kinetics of textile dye degradation process was studied by various models like first order, diffusional and Singh model. From the results it was found that the degradation follows first order model with R 2 value of 0.9550.

  19. Perovskite-type titanate zirconate as photocatalyst for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Lima, A M; Ueda, A C; Bergamo, E A; Marques, R G; Ferri, E A V; Pinto, C S; Pereira, C A A; Yassue-Cordeiro, P H; Souza, R P

    2016-09-10

    Calcium titanate zirconate, Ca(Ti(1-x)Zrx)O3 (CZT), powders have been synthesised by the polymeric precursor method. The structural analysis of the CZT powders was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and textural analysis. The photocatalytic properties were evaluated by methylene blue (MB) decomposition and real textile wastewater (RTW) combined treatment (coagulation/flocculation/photocatalysis). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of RTW was successfully reduced from 6195 mg L(-1) (untreated) to 662 mg L(-1) after coagulation/flocculation with a tannin-based coagulant (Tanfloc®) and finally to 471 mg L(-1) after combined treatment (coagulation/flocculation/photocatalysis) applying ultraviolet radiation and CaTiO3 as photocatalyst.

  20. Contrasting effects of untreated textile wastewater onto the soil available nitrogen-phosphorus and enzymatic activities in aridisol.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Riaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Buttler, Alexandre; Garcıa-Gil, Juan Carlos; Roohi, Mahnaz; Rasool, Akhtar

    2016-02-01

    Water shortage and soil qualitative degradation are significant environmental problems in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The increasing demand for water in agriculture and industry has resulted in the emergence of wastewater use as an alternative in these areas. Textile wastewater is produced in surplus amounts which poses threat to the environment as well as associated flora and fauna. A 60-day incubation study was performed to assess the effects of untreated textile wastewater at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% dilution levels on the physico-chemical and some microbial and enzymatic properties of an aridisol soil. The addition of textile wastewater provoked a significant change in soil pH and electrical conductivity and soil dehydrogenase and urease activities compared to the distilled-water treated control soil. Moreover, compared to the control treatment, soil phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly increased from 25 to 75% application rates, but decreased at 100% textile wastewater application rate. Total and available soil N contents increased significantly in response to application of textile wastewater. Despite significant increases in the soil total P contents after the addition of textile wastewater, soil available P content decreased with increasing concentration of wastewater. Changes in soil nutrient contents and related enzymatic activities suggested a dynamic match between substrate availability and soil N and P contents. Aridisols have high fixation and low P availability, application of textile wastewater to such soils should be considered only after careful assessment.

  1. Decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Norlirubayah; Teo Ming, Ting; Ahmadun, Fakhru'l-Razi; Sobri, Shafreeza

    2010-01-01

    The research conducted a study on decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process. The purposes of this research are to remove pollutant through decomposition and to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater. The wastewater is treated using electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment before undergo an activated sludge process. As a result, for non-irradiated wastewater, the COD removal was achieved to be between 70% and 79% after activated sludge process. The improvement of COD removal efficiency increased to 94% after irradiation of treated effluent at the dose of 50 kGy. Meanwhile, the BOD(5) removal efficiencies of non-irradiated and irradiated textile wastewater were reported to be between 80 and 87%, and 82 and 99.2%, respectively. The maximum BOD(5) removal efficiency was achieved at day 1 (HRT 5 days) of the process of an irradiated textile wastewater which is 99.2%. The biodegradability ratio of non-irradiated wastewater was reported to be between 0.34 and 0.61, while the value of biodegradability ratio of an irradiated wastewater increased to be between 0.87 and 0.96. The biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater is increased with increasing the doses. Therefore, an electron beam radiation holds a greatest application of removing pollutants and also on enhancing the biodegradability of textile wastewater.

  2. Production integrated treatment of textile wastewater by closing raw material cycles.

    PubMed

    Krull, R

    2005-01-01

    A method for the in-house treatment of partial wastewater flows and the recycling of treated process water into the textile finishing process was developed in order to recycle effluents from textile finishing industry and feed them back into the production process. The method is based on a two-stage biological anaerobic-aerobic process to split colouring wastewater agents and to degrade organic substances contained in the water as well as a chemical stage to remove the remaining color of the water with the help of ozone. In the framework of a research and development project a demonstration plant for a treatment capacity of 1440 m3 per working day was installed and started in a textile finishing company. At the plant, a wastewater flow and a recycling flow are treated separately in two different treatment lanes. Approximately 40% of the total wastewater flows, i.e. 576 m3/d are treated in the wastewater lane, and a maximum of 60% of total wastewater, i.e. 864 m3/d are treated in the recycling lane. Thanks to the preliminary treatment of wastewater flows, which are discharged into the municipal sewage works, a reduction of average COD levels in the sewage works effluents could be achieved.

  3. Recalcitrant organic matter removal from textile wastewater by an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonil; Han, Dukkyu; Cui, Fenghao; Bae, Wookeun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of textile wastewater is difficult because of its recalcitrant organic content. The biological removal of recalcitrant organics requires a long retention time for microbial growth. Activated sludge was immobilized in a polyethylene glycol pellet to allow for sufficient sludge retention time. The pellets were filled in an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column (CIPC) reactor in order to investigate the removal of recalcitrant organics from textile wastewater. A textile wastewater effluent treated by a conventional activated sludge reactor was used as a target wastewater. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the aerobic CIPC reactor at various empty bed contact times was in the range of 42.2-60.5%. Half of the input COD was removed in the lower part (bottom 25% of the reactor volume) of the reactor when the organic loading rate was less than 1.5 kg COD/(m(3)•d). About 15-30% of the input COD was removed in the remaining part of the column reactor. The COD removed in this region was limitedly biodegradable. The biodegradation of recalcitrant organics could be carried out by the interactional functions of the various bacteria consortia by using a cell-immobilization process. The CIPC process could effectively treat textile wastewater using a short retention time because the microorganisms that degrade limitedly biodegradable organics were dominant in the reactor.

  4. Analysis of the best available techniques for wastewaters from a denim manufacturing textile mill.

    PubMed

    Yukseler, H; Uzal, N; Sahinkaya, E; Kitis, M; Dilek, F B; Yetis, U

    2017-03-22

    The present study was undertaken as the first plant scale application and evaluation of Best Available Techniques (BAT) within the context of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control/Industrial Emissions Directive to a textile mill in Turkey. A "best practice example" was developed for the textile sector; and within this context, BAT requirements for one of the World's leading denim manufacturing textile mills were determined. In order to achieve a sustainable wastewater management; firstly, a detailed wastewater characterization study was conducted and the possible candidate wastewaters to be reused within the mill were identified. A wastewater management strategy was adopted to investigate the possible reuse opportunities for the dyeing and finishing process wastewaters along with the composite mill effluent. In line with this strategy, production processes were analysed in depth in accordance with the BAT Reference Document not only to treat the generated wastewaters for their possible reuse, but also to reduce the amount of water consumed and wastewater generated. As a result, several applicable BAT options and strategies were determined such as reuse of dyeing wastewaters after treatment, recovery of caustic from alkaline finishing wastewaters, reuse of biologically treated composite mill effluent after membrane processes, minimization of wash water consumption in the water softening plant, reuse of concentrate stream from reverse osmosis plant, reducing water consumption by adoption of counter-current washing in the dyeing and finishing processes. The adoption of the selected in-process BAT options for the minimization of water use provided a 30% reduction in the total specific water consumption of the mill. The treatability studies adopted for both segregated and composite wastewaters indicated that nanofiltration is satisfactory in meeting the reuse criteria for all the wastewater streams considered.

  5. Continuous electrochemical treatment of simulated industrial textile wastewater from industrial components in a tubular reactor.

    PubMed

    Körbahti, Bahadir K; Tanyolaç, Abdurrahman

    2009-10-30

    The continuous electrochemical treatment of industrial textile wastewater in a tubular reactor was investigated. The synthetic wastewater was based on the real process information of pretreatment and dyeing stages of the industrial mercerized and non-mercerized cotton and viscon production. The effects of residence time on chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity removals and pH change were studied under response surface optimized conditions of 30 degrees C, 25 g/L electrolyte concentration and 3505 mg/L COD feed concentration with 123.97 mA/cm(2) current density. Increasing residence time resulted in steady profiles of COD and color removals with higher treatment performances. The best column performance was realized at 3h of residence time as 53.5% and 99.3% for COD and color removals, respectively, at the expense of 193.1 kWh/kg COD with a mass transfer coefficient of 9.47 x 10(-6) m/s.

  6. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    PubMed

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2016-12-30

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  7. Altering textile manufacture to minimize treatment needed for waste-water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Beja Neves, M.E.C.

    1989-01-01

    The research involved the uses of water and chemicals in the textile industry. A linear programming model was developed, capable of minimizing the cost of treatment needed for wastewater reclamation. This was accomplished through the selection of the optimum set of chemicals in respect to their removal from a wastewater by biodegradation, and by so doing, preventing the accumulation of inorganic dissolved solids in the reused wastewater, even with prolonged reuse. Different values were tested for the wastewater reclamation rate, and for the percentage of biodegradable materials used by the industry. The industrial processes themselves were considered as blocks, with different manufacturing objectives and using different kinds and quantities of chemicals. The cost of wastewater treatment was influenced by the nature of the chemicals and by the wastewater reclamation rate.

  8. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    PubMed

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2016-02-11

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m(-3) for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Eco-friendly and facile integrated biological-cum-photo assisted electrooxidation process for degradation of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Subramanyan, Vasudevan; Ferro, Sergio; Gopalakrishnan, Rajagopal

    2016-04-15

    The present article reports an integrated treatment method viz biodegradation followed by photo-assisted electrooxidation, as a new approach, for the abatement of textile wastewater. In the first stage of the integrated treatment scheme, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the real textile effluent was reduced by a biodegradation process using hydrogels of cellulose-degrading Bacillus cereus. The bio-treated effluent was then subjected to the second stage of the integrated scheme viz indirect electrooxidation (InDEO) as well as photo-assisted indirect electro oxidation (P-InDEO) process using Ti/IrO2-RuO2-TiO2 and Ti as electrodes and applying a current density of 20 mA cm(-2). The influence of cellulose in InDEO has been reported here, for the first time. UV-Visible light of 280-800 nm has been irradiated toward the anode/electrolyte interface in P-InDEO. The effectiveness of this combined treatment process in textile effluent degradation has been probed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements and (1)H - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The obtained results indicate that the biological treatment allows obtaining a 93% of cellulose degradation and 47% of COD removal, increasing the efficiency of the subsequent InDEO by a 33%. In silico molecular docking analysis ascertained that cellulose fibers affect the InDEO process by interacting with the dyes that are responsible of the COD. On the other hand, P-InDEO resulted in both 95% of decolorization and 68% of COD removal, as a result of radical mediators. Free radicals generated during P-InDEO were characterized as oxychloride (OCl) by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). This form of coupled approach is especially suggested for the treatment of textile wastewater containing cellulose.

  10. Homogeneous catalytic wet-air oxidation for the treatment of textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, L. Chen, G.; Hu, X.; Yue, P.L.

    2000-04-01

    An extensive series of experiments was performed to identify suitable catalysts to increase the reaction rate of wet-air oxidation of textile wastewater t relatively mild temperatures an pressures. Wastewater types treated included natural-fiber desizing wastewater, synthetic-fiber desizing wastewater, and printing and dyeing wastewater. Experimental results indicated that all catalysts tested in this investigation significantly increased the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal rates and total COD and TOC removals. Of all catalysts tested, copper salts were the most effective. Anions in the slat solutions played a role in the catalytic process. Nitrate ions were more effective than sulfate ions. Similarly, copper nitrates were more effective than copper sulfates. A mixture of salts containing different metals performed better than any single salt.

  11. Potential of combined fungal and bacterial treatment for color removal in textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Ceněk; Svobodová, Kateřina; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Heissenberger, Andreas; Fuchs, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Low efficiency of dye removal by mixed bacterial communities and high rates of dye decolorization by white-rot fungi suggest a combination of both processes to be an option of treatment of textile wastewaters containing dyes and high concentrations of organics. Bacteria were able to remove mono-azo dye but not other chemically different dyes whereas decolorization rates using Irpex lacteus mostly exceeded 90% within less than one week irrespective of dye structure. Decolorization rates for industrial textile wastewaters containing 2-3 different dyes by fungal trickling filters (FTF) attained 91%, 86%, 35% within 5-12 d. Sequential two-step application of FTF and bacterial reactors resulted in efficient decolorization in 1st step (various single dyes, 94-99% within 5 d; wastewater I, 90% within 7 d) and TOC reduction of 95-97% in the two steps. Large potential of combined use of white-rot fungi and traditional bacterial treatment systems for bioremediation of textile wastewaters was demonstrated.

  12. Improvement of activated sludge resistance to shock loading by fungal enzyme addition during textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Manai, Imène; Miladi, Baligh; El Mselmi, Abdellatif; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the additions of the fungal enzymatic extract were investigated in relation to the treatment of real textile wastewater (RTW) by the activated sludge process (ASP). The used enzyme cocktail was produced by a new isolated fungal Chaetomium globosum IMA1. The system that was operated with enzyme addition showed a better chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (95%) compared to the control system (75%). In addition, the improvement of color removal (OD620) efficiencies was around 15%, when the newly consortium fungal enzymes was added. As the organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.33 g to 0.66 g COD L(-1) d(-1), a decrease in the performance of the two reactors was observed by monitoring the quality of treated effluents. However, the ASP working with enzyme addition showed a strong resistance to shock loadings and restored after few days compared to the control system, which was strongly inhibited. In fact, the enzyme addition improved the sludge volume index (SVI) and the activity of microorganisms. A high activity of laccase (300 U.L(-1)) enzyme was observed throughout the decolorization process in the improved system.

  13. Effect of operating conditions on the performances of multichannel ceramic UF membranes for textile mercerization wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zebić Avdičević, Maja; Košutić, Krešimir; Dobrović, Slaven

    2017-01-01

    Textile wastewaters are rated as one of the most polluting in all industrial sectors, and membrane separation is the most promising technology for their treatment and reuse of auxiliary chemicals. This study evaluates the performance of three types of tubular ceramic ultrafiltration membranes differing by mean pore size (1, 2 and 500 kDa) treating textile mercerization wastewater from a textile mill at different operating conditions: cross-flow velocity (CFV) and temperature. Acceptable results were obtained with 1 kDa ceramic membrane, with rejection efficiencies 92% for suspended solids, 98% for turbidity, 98% for color and 53% for total organic carbon at 20°C and 3 m s(-1) CFV. Highest fouling effect was observed for 500 kDa membrane and lowest CFV. According to the observed results, 1 kDa membrane could be used for the treatment of wastewater from the textile mercerization process in terms of permeate quality.

  14. Experimental and kinetic studies for phycoremediation and dye removal by Chlorella pyrenoidosa from textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vinayak V; Kothari, Richa; Chopra, A K; Singh, D P

    2015-11-01

    Potential of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was experimentally investigated for phycoremediation and dye removal from textile wastewater (TWW) in batch cultures. Growth of alga was observed at various concentration of textile wastewater (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and was found in a range of 8.1-14 μg ml(-1) day(-1). Growth study revealed that alga potentially grows up to 75% concentrated textile wastewater and reduces phosphate, nitrate and BOD by 87%, 82% and 63% respectively. Methylene blue dye (MB) removal was also observed by using dry and wet algal biomass harvested after phycoremediation. Adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and kinetic models (pseudo first and second order) were applied on adsorption process. Dry algal biomass (DAB) was found more efficient biosorbent with large surface area and showed high binding affinity for MB dye in compare to wet algal biomass (WAB). The RL value for both biosorbent showed feasible adsorption process as the obtained value was between 0 and 1. Pseudo second order kinetic model with high degree of correlation coefficient and low sum of error squares (SSE %) value was found more suitable for representation of adsorption process in case of both biosorbents, however pseudo first order also showed high degree of correlation for both biosorbents.

  15. Application of the removal of pollutants from textile industry wastewater in constructed wetlands using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda; Postalcioglu, Seda

    2017-02-01

    There are more than a hundred textile industries in Turkey that discharge large quantities of dye-rich wastewater, resulting in water pollution. Such effluents must be treated to meet discharge limits imposed by the Water Framework Directive in Turkey. Industrial treatment facilities must be required to monitor operations, keep them cost-effective, prevent operational faults, discharge-limit infringements, and water pollution. This paper proposes the treatment of actual textile wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) systems operation and monitoring effluent wastewater quality using fuzzy logic with a graphical user interface. The treatment performance of VFCW is investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) content, color, and pH parameters during a 75-day period of operation. A computer program was developed with a fuzzy logic system (a decision- making tool) to graphically present (via a status analysis chart) the quality of treated textile effluent in relation to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. Fuzzy logic is used in the evaluation of data obtained from the VFCW systems and for notification of critical states exceeding the discharge limits. This creates a warning chart that reports any errors encountered in a reactor during the collection of any sample to the concerned party.

  16. Microbial Biotreatment of Actual Textile Wastewater in a Continuous Sequential Rice Husk Biofilter and the Microbial Community Involved

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Markus V.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Welander, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments. PMID:28114377

  17. Microbial Biotreatment of Actual Textile Wastewater in a Continuous Sequential Rice Husk Biofilter and the Microbial Community Involved.

    PubMed

    Forss, Jörgen; Lindh, Markus V; Pinhassi, Jarone; Welander, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments.

  18. UV/Fenton photo-oxidation of Drimarene Dark Red (DDR) containing textile-dye wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudaya, T.; Anthonios, J.; Septianto, E.

    2016-11-01

    Textile dye wastewater contains organic pollutants which are non-biodegradable, characterized by low BOD/COD ratio of typically < 0.01. Therefore to treat such wastewater, the destructive wastewater treatment methods which can be utilized are the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). One of the AOPs method which is the UV/H2O2/Fe2+ (or UV/Fenton) offers not only relatively low cost but also quite effective (in terms of color removal and reaction time) treatment. This particular research aimed to optimize the conditions of UV/Fenton photo-oxidation process for Drimarene Dark Red containing textile- dye wastewater. The two main operating conditions to be optimized were the initial concentration of H2O2 ranged between 0.022-0.078 %-w and the mol ratio of Fe2+: H2O2 was varied from 1: 13 up to 1: 45, using the Central Composite Design experimental matrix. The photo-oxidation was carried out at the optimum pH of 3 from some previous experiments. The best processing conditions of the photo-oxidation of Drimarene Dark Red (DDR) were found at the initial concentration of H2O2 at 0.050%-w and the mole ratio Fe2+: H2O2 of 1: 22. Under these conditions, the measured 2nd order pseudo-rate constantwas 0.021 M-1.min-1. The DDR color removal of 90% was surprisingly achievable within only 10 minutes reaction time.

  19. Application of ozonation process in industrial wastewaters: textile, kraft E1 and whey effluents.

    PubMed

    Assalin, M R; Almeida, E S; Rosa, M A; Moraes, S G; Duran, N

    2004-08-01

    A large variety of organic and inorganic compounds can be found in wastewater from industrial processes. In this work, Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) have been applied for the control of water pollution and the ozonation of different effluents was investigated. Wastewater from textile, kraft E1 and cheese manufacturing processes were chosen as examples of industrial effluents. The efficiency of substrate mineralization has been comparatively analyzed by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC), color, and toxicity. The results revealed that the ozonation process can be a method for decolorization of effluent, but it is not effective for TOC reduction. The whey effluent was the most recalcitrant wastewater for ozone treatment which produced no TOC removal.

  20. Distribution of free-living amoebae in a treatment system of textile industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Martinez, Blanca; Ayala, Reynaldo; Sainz, Guadalupe; Martinez, Maria Elena; Gonzalez, Maria Elena

    2014-11-01

    Free-living amoebae have been found in soil, air and a variety of aquatic environments, but few studies have been conducted on industrial wastewater and none on wastewater from the textile industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of free-living amoebae in a biological treatment system that treats textile industrial wastewater. Samples were taken from input, aeration tank, sedimentation tank and output. Samples were centrifuged at 1200g for 15min, the sediment was seeded on non-nutritive agar with Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE) and the plates were incubated at 30 and 37°C. Free-living amoebae were present in all stages of the treatment system. The highest number of amoebic isolates was found in the aeration tank and no seasonal distribution was observed during the year. A total of 14 amoeba genera were isolated: Acanthamoeba, Echinamoeba, Korotnevella, Mayorella, Naegleria, Platyamoeba, Saccamoeba, Stachyamoeba, Thecamoeba, Vahlkampfia, Vannella, Vermamoeba, Vexillifera and Willaertia. The most frequently found amoebae were Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba which were found in all treatment system stages. The constant presence and diversity of free-living amoebae in the treatment system were important findings due to the characteristics of the wastewater from the textile plant in terms of the residue content from colorants, fixers, carriers, surfactants, etc., used in fabric dyeing and finishing processes. The factors that determined the presence and distribution of amoebae in the activated sludge system were their capacity to form cysts, which allowed them to resist adverse conditions; food availability; an average temperature of 27-33°C; dissolved oxygen in average concentrations above 2mg/L, and pH in a range of 5.9-7.1.

  1. In situ gas fuel production during the treatment of textile wastewater at supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kıpçak, Ekin; Akgün, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification has recently received much attention as a potential alternative to energy conversion methods applied to aqueous/non-aqueous biomass sources, industrial wastes or fossil fuels such as coal because of the unique physical properties of water above its critical conditions (i.e. 374.8 °C and 22.1 MPa). This paper presents the results obtained for the hydrothermal gasification of textile wastewater at supercritical conditions. The experiments were carried out at five reaction temperatures (between 450 and 650 °C) and five reaction times (between 30 and 150 s), under a constant pressure of 25 MPa. It was found that the gaseous products contained considerable amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, such as methane, ethane, propane and propylene. The maximum amount of the obtained gaseous product was 1.23 mL per mL textile wastewater, at a reaction temperature of 600 °C, with a reaction time of 150 s. At this state, the product comprised 13.02% hydrogen, 38.93% methane, 4.33% ethane, 0.10% propane, 0.01% propylene, 7.97% carbon monoxide, 27.22% carbon dioxide and 8.00% nitrogen. In addition, a 62.88% decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) content was observed and the color of the wastewater was removed. Moreover, for the hydrothermal decomposition of the textile wastewater, a first-order reaction rate was designated with an activation energy of 50.42 (±2.33) kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 13.29 (±0.41) s(-1).

  2. Decolorization and biodegradability of photocatalytic treated azo dyes and wool textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Wang, Y

    1999-11-01

    The photodegradation and biodegradability have been investigated for four non-biodegradable commercial azo dyes, Reactive YellowKD-3G, Reactive Red 15, Reactive Red 24, Cationic Blue X-GRL, an indicator. Methyl Orange, and one industrial wool textile wastewater, using TiO2 suspensions irradiated with a medium pressure mercury lamp. The color removal of dyes solution and dyeing wastewater reached to above 90% within 20-30 min. of photocatalytic treatment. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was found to increase, while chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) decreased, so that the ratio of BOD5/COD of the wastewater increased from original zero up to 0.75. The result implies that photocatalytic oxidation enhanced the biodegradability of the dye-containing wastewater and therefore relationship between decolorization and biodegradability exists. When the color disappeared completely, the wastewater biodegraded normally and could be discharged for further treatment. The experimental results demonstrate that it is possible to combine photocatalysis with conventional biological treatment for the remedy of wastewater containing generally non-biodegradable azo dyes.

  3. Improving quality of textile wastewater with organic materials as multi soil layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyadi; Widijanto, H.; Pranoto; Dewi, AK

    2016-02-01

    On agricultural land, fresh water is needed especially for irrigation. Alternative ways to fulfill needs of fresh water is by utilizing wastewater from industry. Wastewater that produced in the industry in Surakarta is over flowing especially textile wastewater. Wastewater that produced from industry has many pollutants that affected decreasing fresh water quality for irrigation. Multi Soil Layering (MSL) is one of method that utilize the soil ability as main media by increasing its function of soil structure to purify wastewater, so it does not contaminate the environment and reusable. This research was purposed to know affectivity of organic materials (such as rice straw, baggase, sawdust, coconut fibre, and corncob) and dosage (5%, 10% and 25%) in MSL, also get alternative purification ways with easy and cheaper price as natural adsorbent. This study using field and laboratory experiment. The result shows that MSL can be an alternative method of purification of wastewater. The appropriate composition of organic materials that can be used as adsorbent is MSL with wood sawdust 10% dosage because it can increase pH, decrease the number of Cr, ammonia, and phosphate but less effective to decrease BOD and COD.

  4. Evaluation of starch-based flocculants for the flocculation of dissolved organic matter from textile dyeing secondary wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hu; Liu, Zhouzhou; Li, Aimin; Yang, Hu

    2017-05-01

    China is a major textile manufacturer in the world; as a result, large quantities of dyeing effluents are generated every year in the country. In this study, the performances of two cationic starch-based flocculants with different chain architectures, i.e., starch-graft-poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] (STC-g-PDMC) and starch-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (STC-CTA), in flocculating dissolved organic matter (DOM) in dyeing secondary effluents were investigated and compared with that of polyaluminum chloride (PAC). In the exploration of the flocculation mechanisms, humic acid (HA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were selected as main representatives of DOM in textile dyeing secondary effluents, which were humic/fulvic acid-like and protein-like extracellular matters according to the studied wastewater's characteristics based on its three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectrum. According to experimental results of the flocculation of both the real and synthetic wastewaters, STC-g-PDMC with cationic branches had remarkable advantages over STC-CTA and PAC because of the more efficient charge neutralization and bridging flocculation effects of STC-g-PDMC. Another interesting finding in this study was the reaggregation phenomenon after restabilization at an overdose during the flocculation of BSA effluents by STC-g-PDMC at a very narrow pH range under a nearly neutral condition. This phenomenon might be ascribed to the formation of STC-g-PDMC/BSA complexes induced by some local charge interactions between starch-based flocculant and the amino acid fragments of protein due to charge patch effects.

  5. Performance of innovative textile biofilters for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Błazejewski, Ryszard; Nawrot, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Two types of geotextile, TS 50 and TC/PP 300, were investigated as experimental filters. The raw wastewater, pre-treated in a septic tank, was intermittently dosed and filtered under hydrostatic pressure. At the beginning, the filter reactor comprised nine filters made of geotextiles (of three types: TS 10, TS 50 and TC/PP 300). At the end of the start-up period the TS 10 filters were removed due to their high outflow instability. After four months of working, the hydraulic capacities of the remaining filters were: 3.23 cm3/cm2/d for TS 50 and 4.14 cm3/cm2/d for TC/PP 300. The efficiencies of COD and BOD5 removal were similar for both types of geotextile (COD: 64%, BOD5: 80%). A small but statistically significant difference between ammonium nitrogen removal was observed (40% for TS 50 and 35% for TC/PP 300), most probably due to their different structure. Biological removal of P(tot) was relatively poor and similar for both geotextile types. The mean concentration of matter accumulated on the geotextiles was over one order of magnitude higher than conventional activated sludge concentrations. During the last weeks of the experiments the values of basic pollution indicators in the effluent were lower than the maximum permissible values (according to Polish law).

  6. Feasibility analysis of color removal from textile dyeing wastewater in a fixed-bed column system by surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Zahid; Faki, Aysegul; Engin, Ahmet Baki

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the ability of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) to remove color from real textile wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in a fixed-bed column reactor and the surface of natural zeolite was modified with a quaternary amine surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB). The zeolite bed that was modified at 1 g L(-1) HTAB concentration and HTAB flow rate of 0.015 L min(-1) showed good performance in removing color. Effects of wastewater color intensity, flow rates and bed heights were also studied. Wastewater was diluted several times in the ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% in order to assess the influence of wastewater strength. The breakthrough curves of the original and diluted wastewaters are dispersed due to the fact that breakthrough came late at lower color intensities and saturation of the bed appeared faster at higher color intensities. The column had a 3-cm diameter and four different bed heights of 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 cm, which treated 5.25, 19.50, 35.25 and 51 L original textile wastewater, respectively, at the breakthrough time at a flow rate of 0.025 L min(-1). The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different column variables. The calculated and theoretical values of the exchange zone height were found with a difference of 27%. The various design parameters obtained from fixed-bed experimental studies showed good correlation with corresponding theoretical values, under different bed heights. The regeneration of the SMZ was also evaluated using a solution consisting of 30 g L(-1) NaCl and 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH at pH 12 and temperature 30 degrees C. Twice-regenerated SMZ showed the best performance compared with the others while first- and thrice-regenerated perform lower than the original SMZ.

  7. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%.

  8. Photoeffects of textile dye wastewaters: Sensitization of singlet oxygen formation, oxidation of phenols and toxicity to bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Elovitz, M.S. . Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering); Colverson, P. . Life Science Dept.)

    1994-01-01

    An effluent sample from a municipal wastewater treatment plant that receives a heavy loading from two textile dyeing facilities was tested for a variety of photoeffects. Solar irradiation of solutions containing the effluent produced evidence for sensitized formation of transient oxidants, primarily singlet oxygen; dye-sensitized photooxidation of several phenols; and photoinhibition of Escherichia coli.

  9. Degradation of acid blue 40 dye solution and dye house wastewater from textile industry by photo-assisted electrochemical process.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Peterson B; Pelegrino, Rosangela R L; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, electrochemical and photo-assisted electrochemical processes are used for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation of one of the most abundant and strongly colored industrial wastewaters, which results from the dyeing of fibers and fabrics in the textile industry. The experiments were carried out in an 18 L pilot-scale tubular flow reactor with 70%TiO(2)/30%RuO(2) DSA. A synthetic acid blue 40 solution and real dye house wastewater, containing the same dye, were used for the experiments. By using current density of 80 mA cm(-2) electrochemical process has the capability to remove 80% of color, 46% of TOC and 69% of COD. When used the photochemical process with 4.6 mW cm(-2) of 254 nm UV-C radiation to assist the electrolysis, has been obtained 90% of color, 64% of TOC and 60% of COD removal in 90 minutes of processing; furthermore, 70% of initial color was degraded within the first 15 minutes. Experimental runs using dye house wastewater resulted in 78% of color, 26% of TOC and 49% of COD in electrolysis at 80 mA cm(-2) and 90 min; additionally, when photo-assisted, electrolysis resulted in removals of 85% of color, 42% of TOC and 58% of COD. For the operational conditions used in this study, color, TOC and COD showed pseudo-first-order decaying profiles. Apparent rate constants for degradation of TOC and COD were improved by one order of magnitude when the photo-electrochemical process was used.

  10. Bacteria in non-woven textile filters for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Starzyk, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary identification of heterotrophic and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) cell concentration in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for wastewater treatment. Filters of thicknesses 3.6 and 7.2 mm, made of non-woven textile TS20, were supplied with septic tank effluent and intermittently dosed and filtered under hydrostatic pressure. The cumulative loads of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids were about 1.36 and 1.06 kg/cm2, respectively. The filters under analysis reached a relatively high removal efficiency for organic pollution 70-90% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and 60-85% for COD. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency level proved to be unstable (15-55%). Biomass samples for dry mass identification were taken from two regions: continuously flooded with wastewater and intermittently flooded with wastewater. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria were determined as colony-forming units (CFUs) on microbiological-selective media by means of the plate method. AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were examined using the FISH technique. A relatively wide range of heterotrophic bacteria was observed from 7.4×10(5)/cm2 to 3.8×10(6)/cm2 in geotextile layers. The highest concentration of heterotrophic bacteria (3.8×10(6)/cm2) was observed in the first layer of the textile filter. AOB were identified occasionally--about 8-15% of all bacteria colonizing the last filter layer, but occasionally much higher concentrations and ammonia nitrogen efficiency were achieved. Bacteria oxidizing nitrite to nitrate were not observed. The relation of total and organic fraction of biomass to culturable heterotrophic bacteria was also found.

  11. Electrocoagulation using a rotated anode: A novel reactor design for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Naje, Ahmed Samir; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Zakaria, Zuriati; Abbas, Saad A

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the optimum operational conditions of a novel rotated bed electrocoagulation (EC) reactor for the treatment of textile wastewater. The effect of various operational parameters such as rotational speed, current density (CD), operational time (RT), pH, temperature, and inter-electrode distance (IED) on the pollutant removal efficiency were examined. In addition, the consumption of aluminum (Al) and electrical energy, as well as operating costs at optimum conditions were also calculated. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for the treatment of textile wastewater were achieved at CD = 4 mA/cm(2), RT = 10 min, rotational speed = 150 rpm, pH = 4.57, temperature = 25 °C, and IED = 1 cm. The electrode consumption, energy consumption, and operating costs were 0.038 kg/m(3), 4.66 kWh/m(3) and 0.44 US$/m(3), respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity and color were 97.10%, 95.55%, 98%, 96% and 98.50%, respectively, at the first 10 min of reaction time, while the phenol compound of the wastewater was almost entirely removed (99.99%). The experimental results confirm that the new reactor design with rotated anode impellers and cathode rings provided high treatment efficiency at a reduced reaction time and with lower energy consumption.

  12. Feasibility study to upgrade a textile wastewater treatment plant by a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor for effluent reuse.

    PubMed

    Malpei, F; Bonomo, L; Rozzi, A

    2003-01-01

    A pilot plant membrane bioreactor has been tested in parallel with a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant fed on the wastewater from a textile factory. The possibility to upgrade the final effluent for internal reuse was investigated. The pilot and full-scale plants are located in a textile factory (Boselli & C., Olgiate Comasco, North Italy) which manufactures and finishes polyester fabric. The activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is an extended aeration system. The MBR pilot plant is a ZW-10 bench hollow fibre module (membrane surface area: 0.93 m2) submerged in a 200 L tank. Performance and operation of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, total N and P, microbiological counts), of membrane specific flux (l m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1)) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and yield).

  13. Protozoa and metazoa relations to technological conditions of non-woven textile filters for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Sowińska, Aleksandra; Starzyk, Justyna; Masłowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was a preliminary identification of basic groups of micro-organisms in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for septic tank effluent (STE) treatment and their relations to technological conditions. Reactors with textile filters treating wastewater were investigated on a semi-technical scale. Filters were vertically situated and STE was filtered through them under hydrostatic pressure at a wastewater surface height of 7-20 cm. Filters were made of four layers of non-woven TS 20 geotextile of 0.9 mm thickness. Various groups of organisms were observed; the most abundant group comprised free-swimming and crawling ciliates, less abundant were stalked ciliates and the least numerous were nematodes. The individual counts of all groups of micro-organisms investigated during the study were variable according to time and space. The high abundance of Opercularia, a commonly observed genus of stalked ciliates, was related to the high efficiency of wastewater treatment and dissolved oxygen concentration of about 1.0 g/m3. Numbers of free-swimming and crawling ciliates had a tendency to decrease in relation to the depth of filter cross-sectional profile. The variability in counts of particular groups of organisms could be related to the local stress conditions. No correlation between identified organism count and total mass concentration in the cross-sectional filter profile was found.

  14. Combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) for potential treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Liang, Can-Zeng; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-03-15

    A novel combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) (FO-CF) has been experimentally conceived for the treatment and reuse of textile wastewater. FO is employed to spontaneously recover water from the wastewater via osmosis and thus effectively reduces its volume with a dramatically enhanced dye concentration. CF is then applied to precipitate and remove dyes from the FO concentrated stream with much improved efficiency and reduced chemical dosage. The FO-CF hybrid system exhibits unique advantages of high water flux and recovery rate, well controlled membrane fouling, high efficiency, and minimal environmental impact. Using a lab-made thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane, an initial water flux (Jw) of 36.0 L m(-2) h(-1) with a dye rejection of 99.9% has been demonstrated by using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and synthetic textile wastewater containing multiple textile dyes, inorganic salts and organic additives as the feed under the FO mode. The Jw could be maintained at a high value of 12.0 L m(-2) h(-1) even when the recovery rate of the wastewater reaches 90%. Remarkable reverse fouling behavior has also been observed where the Jw of the fouled membrane can be almost fully restored to the initial value by physical flushing without using any chemicals. Due to the great dye concentration in the FO concentrated wastewater stream, the CF process could achieve more than 95% dye removal with a small dosage of coagulants and flocculants at 500-1000 ppm. The newly developed FO-CF hybrid process may open up new exploration of alternative technologies for the effective treatment and reuse of textile effluents.

  15. Enhanced sonocatalysis of textile wastewater using bentonite-supported ZnO nanoparticles: Response surface methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Jorfi, Sahand; Safari, Mahdi; Rajaei, Mohammad-Sadegh

    2016-09-01

    The scope of this study was the use of bentonite as the carrier of ZnO nanoparticles for enhancing the sonocatalytic decolorization of Basic Red 46 (BR46) in the aqueous phase. The results demonstrated the higher sonocatalytic activity of bentonite-supported ZnO nanoparticles (BSZNs) in comparison with the suspended ZnO nanoparticles (SZNs). The particle size of BSZNs (5-40 nm) was lower than that of SZNs (20-120 nm). Due to the immobilization of ZnO nanoparticles, a specific surface area of 80.6 m(2)/g was obtained for the BSZNs, which was higher than the specific surface area of the raw bentonite (42.2 m(2)/g). Optimization of the process via response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) showed the maximum sonocatalytic decolorization efficiency (%) of 89.92% in which the initial dye concentration, the ZnO/bentonite ratio, the sonocatalyst dosage, and the initial pH were 6 mg/L, 0.3, 2.5 g/L and 9, respectively. The byproducts generated during the sonocatalysis of BR46 over BSZNs were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. From an application viewpoint, the sonocatalysis of real textile wastewater resulted in a COD removal efficiency (%) of about 44% within a reaction time of 150 min.

  16. Hybrid MF and membrane bioreactor process applied toward water and indigo reuse from denim textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Couto, Carolina Fonseca; Marques, Larissa Silva; Balmant, Janine; Maia, Andreza Penido de Oliveira; Moravia, Wagner Guadagnin; Amaral, Miriam Cristina Santos

    2017-03-24

    This work investigates the application of a microfiltration (MF) - membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid process for textile dyeing process wastewater reclamation. The indigo blue dye was efficiently retained by the MF membrane (100%), which allows its recovery from the concentrate stream. The MF promotes 100% of colour removal, and reduce the COD and conductivity by about 65% and 25%, respectively and improves the wastewater biodegradability. MF flux decline was mostly attributed to concentration polarization and the chemical cleaning was efficient enough to recover initial hydraulic resistance. The MBR provides to be a stable process maintaining its COD and ammonia removal efficiency (73% and 100%, respectively) mostly constant throughout and producing a permeate that meet the reuse criteria for some industry activities, such as washing-off and equipment wash down. The use of MF or UF membrane in the MBR does not impact the MBR performance in terms of COD removal. Although the membrane of MBR-UF shows permeability lower than MBR-MF membrane, the UF membrane contributes to a more stable operation in terms of permeability.

  17. Characterization of 4-nonylphenol-degrading bacterial consortium obtained from a textile wastewater pretreatment plant.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Diana; Salvadori, Laura; Zanaroli, Giulio; Coppini, Ester; Fava, Fabio; Barberio, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) isomers are toxic and recalcitrant compounds often resulting, together with short-chain ethoxylated nonylphenol (NPnEO, where n is the number of ethylene oxide units), from NPnEO biodegradation in conventional activated sludge plants. In this work, a microbial consortium, defined as Consortium A, capable of removing 100 mg/L of 4-NP with no accumulation of metabolites with aromatic moiety was isolated from textile wastewaters after enrichment with 4-NP. The consortium showed remarkable degradation activities toward several short-chain NPnEO congeners. Culture-dependent techniques were used to isolate from the consortium twenty-six strains assigned to seven different amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis groups. Two- and three-member cocultures were prepared with the strains showing highest 4-NP-degrading capabilities, but neither the single strains nor the cocultures were as efficient in 4-NP degradation as Consortium A. FISH was used to characterize the microbial composition of Consortium A: it evidenced a strong occurrence of Proteobacteria and, in particular, of Gammaproteobacteria along with a relevant stability of the culture. Therefore, the isolated consortium has the potential of being used in the development of a biotechnological process for the tertiary treatment of effluents of activated sludge plants fed with NPnEO-contaminated wastewaters.

  18. Conducting polypyrrole films as a potential tool for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in textile wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Smith, Warren T; Wong, Danny K Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate conducting polypyrrole films as a potential green technology for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in wastewaters using Acid Red 1 as a model analyte. These films were synthesised by anodically polymerising pyrrole in the presence of Acid Red 1 as a supporting electrolyte. In this way, the anionic Acid Red 1 is electrostatically attracted to the cationic polypyrrole backbone formed to maintain electroneutrality, and is thus entrapped in the film. These Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole films were characterised by electrochemical, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Based on a two-level factorial design, the solution pH, Acid Red 1 concentration and polymerisation duration were identified as significant parameters affecting the entrapment efficiency. The entrapment process will potentially aid in decolourising Acid Red 1-containing wastewaters. Similarly, in a cathodic process, electrons are supplied to neutralise the polypyrrole backbone, liberating Acid Red 1 into a solution. In this work, following an entrapment duration of 480 min in 2000 mg L(-1) Acid Red 1, we estimated 21% of the dye was liberated after a reduction period of 240 min. This allows the recovery of Acid Red 1 for recycling purposes. A distinctive advantage of this electrochemical Acid Red 1 treatment, compared to many other techniques, is that no known toxic by-products are generated in the treatment. Therefore, conducting polypyrrole films can potentially be applied as an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents.

  19. Flocculation behaviour of model textile wastewater treated with a food grade polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anuradha; Bajpai, Malvika

    2005-02-14

    In this study, the application of a food grade polysaccharide namely Plantago psyllium mucilage has been assessed for the removal of dyes from model textile wastewater containing golden yellow (C.I. Vat Yellow 4) and reactive black (C.I. Reactive Black 5). A series of contact time experiments were conducted to assess the system variables such as concentrations of mucilage and dyes and pH. This mucilage reduces the dye concentration by flocculation and settling. The optimal flocculant concentration required to affect flocculation is independent of dye concentration within the range examined. The dye removal obtained was influenced by the salts concentrations in the wastewater sample. The flocculation efficiency was sensitive to pH when pure aqueous solutions of dyes were used, but it was relatively unaffected by pH change when salts were added to the dye solutions. The experimental results show that the mucilage is more effective for removal of solubilised vat dye than for reactive black.

  20. Potential of Basidiomycetous Fungi Isolated from Gunung Barus Forest North Sumatera in Decolorization of Wastewater of Textile Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, E.; Priyani, N.; Suryanto, D.; Naimah, Z.

    2017-03-01

    A study of basidiomycetous fungi in decolorization of wastewater of textile industry has been started in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to obtain potential isolates and to examine their decolorization acitity. The fungi were isolated from local forest, Gunung Barus Forest, in North Sumatera and screened their ligninolytic activity qualitatively by bavendam method and the waste was obtained from local textile industry in Medan. Nineteen fungal isolates grew on plate agar medium containing 100% of waste supplemented with 2% glucose, and 6 of those exhibited good growth when glucose in the media was reduced to 1%. Surprisingly, these six potential isolates grew, although relatively at lower rate, when glucose was not included in the media. Meanwhile, there was no substantial decolorization of media could be observed on all plates cultures. Analyses of decolorization on liquid condition containing 25% of wastewater and no glucose showed that fungal grew at the bottom culture flask. All 6 isolates exhibited decolorization activity. Interestingly, mass of mycelia growth at the bottom absorbed dyes and dissolved suspended solid which was seemingly separated from very clean solution medium surrounding. These results indicated that the cultures utilized carbon source from waste and the extracellular matrixes produced by fungal isolates might involve in decolorization of textile wastewater.

  1. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    PubMed

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  2. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  3. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Ahmad, Pauzi; Zulkafli, Hashim, Siti A'aisah

    2014-09-01

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD5, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  4. Treatment of textile wastewater by submerged membrane bioreactor: In vitro bioassays for the assessment of stress response elicited by raw and reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Friha, Inès; Bradai, Mohamed; Johnson, Daniel; Hilal, Nidal; Loukil, Slim; Ben Amor, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Han, Junkuy; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-09-01

    The performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system for the treatment of textile wastewater was investigated. The MBR was continuously operated for 7 months. Very high treatment efficiencies were achieved (color, 100%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 98%; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 96%; suspended solids (SS), 100%). Furthermore, the MBR treatment efficiency was analyzed from a toxicological-risk assessment point of view, via different In vitro bioassays using Caco-2 cells, a widely used cell model in toxicological studies. Results showed that MBR treatment significantly reduced the raw textile wastewater (RTWW) cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells by 53% for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days. Additionally, the RTWW-induced disruption in the barrier function (BF) of the Caco-2 cell monolayer was also significantly reduced after MBR treatment under a HRT of 2 days (no disruption of BF was observed). Moreover, the effect of RTWW and treated wastewater on stress response was investigated using different stress genes: AHSA1, HSPD1, HSPA1A, HSPA5 and HSPA8. The cell exposure to RTWW significantly increased the expression of all used stress genes; interestingly, the treated wastewater (HRT 2 days) did not show any significant modulation of the stress genes.

  5. Varied effects of untreated textile wastewater onto soil carbon mineralization and associated biochemical properties of a dryland agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Tahir, Shermeen; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    Wastewater is an alternative, valuable and cost effective resource for irrigation in water-scarce arid and sami-arid regions of the world including Pakistan. Soils near urban centers are cultivated for vegetable and cash crops using untreated wastewater. Current study was performed with objectives of assessing impacts of untreated textile wastewater on some soil chemical, biological and enzymatic activities. The microcosm incubation study used a clay loam soil that received 0 (distilled-water), 25, 50 and 100% wastewater concentrations and incubated for 30 and 60 days under optimum temperature and moisture conditions. Soil respiration was measured periodically throughout the experiment over 60 days. After the incubation periods of 30- and 60-d, soils were destructively analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), water extractable organic matter (WEOM), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) and dehydrogenase enzymatic activity. Results revealed that wastewater and incubation time significantly altered chemical, biological and enzymatic properties of soils. The observed large surge in soil respiration, at initial stage, was stimulated by dissolved organic matter in wastewater. Dehydrogenase activity increased significantly with increasing wastewater concentrations. Increase in qCO2 with wastewater concentration and incubation time suggested more stress to microorganisms but also enhanced microbial activity under stress to synthesize biomass. We found significant positive (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001) relationship between soil respiration and MBC, however, correlation between WEOM and MBC was significant negative (R(2) = 0.18, p < 0.01) indicating a dynamic mismatch between carbon substrate, soil respiration and buildup of MBC pool. Wastewater concentration and incubation time interaction had significant (p < 0.01) effect on WEOM suggesting that WEOM accumulated over time and comparatively less utilized by microorganisms. Short

  6. Organics and nitrogen removal from textile auxiliaries wastewater with A2O-MBR in a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Sun, Faqian; Sun, Bin; Hu, Jian; He, Yangyang; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-04-09

    The removal of organic compounds and nitrogen in an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor process (A(2)O-MBR) for treatment of textile auxiliaries (TA) wastewater was investigated. The results show that the average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN) were about 119, 3 and 48 mg/L under an internal recycle ratio of 1.5. The average removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN were 87%, 96% and 55%, respectively. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis indicated that, although as much as 121 different types of organic compounds were present in the TA wastewater, only 20 kinds of refractory organic compounds were found in the MBR effluent, which could be used as indicators of effluents from this kind of industrial wastewater. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that bacterial foulants were significant contributors to membrane fouling. An examination of foulants components by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence showed that the combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds enhanced the formation of gel layer and thus caused membrane fouling. The results will provide valuable information for optimizing the design and operation of wastewater treatment system in the textile industry.

  7. Removal of disperse dyes from textile wastewater using bio-sludge.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Srisornsak, Parawee

    2007-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) did not show any significant adsorption ability on the disperse dyes, while resting (living) bio-sludge of a domestic wastewater treatment plant showed high adsorption abilities on both disperse dyes and organic matter. The dye adsorption ability of bio-sludge increased by approximately 30% through acclimatization with disperse dyes, and it decreased by autoclaving. The deteriorated bio-sludge could be reused after being washed with 0.1N NaOH solution. Disperse Red 60 was more easily adsorbed onto the bio-sludge than Disperse Blue 60. The Disperse Red 60, COD, and BOD5 adsorption capacities of acclimatized, resting bio-sludge were 40.0+/-0.1, 450+/-12, and 300+/-10mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. The GAC-SBR system could be applied to treat textile wastewater (TWW) containing disperse dyes with high dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of 93.0+/-1.1%, 88.0+/-3.1%, 92.2+/-2.7% and 51.5+/-7.0%, respectively without any excess bio-sludge production under an organic loading of 0.18 kg BOD5/m3-d. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies increased with the addition of glucose into the system. The dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of the GAC-SBR system with TWW containing 0.89 g/L glucose were 94.6+/-0.7%, 94.4+/-0.6%, 94.4+/-0.8% and 59.3+/-8.5%, respectively, under an SRT of 67+/-0.4 days.

  8. Integration of nanofiltration and biological degradation of textile wastewater containing azo dye.

    PubMed

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Ledakowicz, Stanisław; Sójka-Ledakowicz, Jadwiga; Mrozińska, Zdzisława; Zyłła, Renata

    2009-04-01

    The anaerobic biological azo dyes reduction process was successfully applied to decolourization of the concentrates from the nanofiltration treatment of real textile effluents. The anaerobic phase was followed by aerobic oxidation aimed at the destruction of the aromatic amine released from azo dye. In the first experiment sequential batch reactor (SBR) combining both the anaerobic and aerobic phase in one unit was used. In the second one the anaerobic stage was separated from the aerobic one. The anaerobic phase fulfilled its aim (decolourization) in both systems (over 90%). In opposite, the aromatic amine was completely degraded in the aerobic reactor (two-sludge system), whereas the orthanilic acid was not degraded (during the aerobic phase) in SBR reactor. The COD reduction was also higher in the two-sludge system than in SBR.

  9. Degradation of organic substances and reactive dye in an immobilized-cell sequencing batch reactor operation on simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S

    2003-01-01

    Textile wastewater generally consists of high organic substances and is strongly colored. Reactive dye has been used extensively in the textile industries. It is water soluble and difficult to remove by chemical coagulation. Removal of organic substances simultaneously with dye can be achieved by a biological process. This study aims to investigate the treatability of the organic substances and reactive dye in immobilized-cell sequencing batch reactors (SBR). Three different supporting medias namely activated carbon, steel slag and plastic were used. The performance of each reactor was compared with a conventional sequencing batch reactor. The simulated textile wastewater containing the reactive azo dye Procion Red H-E7B of a concentration of 40 mg/L and COD 300 mg/L, was fed into the reactors. The supporting media in the SBR system, it will enhance the capability of COD and dye operating of the SBRs consisted of 5 periods; Fill 1.5 h, React (anoxic:oxic) 20 (14:6) h, Settle 1.5 h, Draw 0.5 h and Idle 0.5 h. The results revealed that by adding removal. During a steady state of operation, the COD and dye concentrations of each period were investigated. In addition, the prolonged anoxic period brought about better decolorization efficiency.

  10. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3,000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO(3)(-) was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD(5) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7+/-4.9% and 50.2+/-6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD(5)). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW+glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW+TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28+/-1 days and 31+/-2 days with TWW+glucose and TWW+TRNWW, respectively.

  11. Advanced treatment of biotreated textile industry wastewater with ozone, virgin/ozonated granular activated carbon and their combination.

    PubMed

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Seremet, Ozden

    2004-01-01

    Biotreated textile wastewater (CODo = 248 mg L(-1); TOCo = 58 mg L(-1); A620 = 0.007 cm(-1); A525 = 0.181 cm(-1); A436 = 0.198 cm(-1)) was subjected to advanced treatment with ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in serial and simultaneous applications. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied ozone dose, ozone absorption rate, specific ozone absorption efficiency, GAC dose, and reaction pH on the treatment performance of the selected tertiary treatment scheme. In separate experiments, the impact of virgin GAC ozonation on its adsorptive capacity for biotreated and biotreated + ozonated textile effluent was also investigated. Ozonation appeared to be more effective for decolorization (kd = 0.15 min(-1) at pH = 3), whereas GAC adsorption yielded higher COD removal rates (54% at pH = 3). It was also found that GAC addition (4 g/L) at pH = 7 and 9 enhanced the COD abatement rate of the ozonation process significantly and that the sequential application of ozonation (at pH = 3-11, 675 mg L(-1) O3) followed by GAC adsorption (at pH = 3-7, 10 g L(-1) GAC) resulted in the highest treatment performances both in terms of color and COD reduction. Simultaneous application of GAC and ozone at acidic and alkaline pH seriously inhibited COD abatement rates as a consequence of competitive adsorption and partial oxidation of textile components and GAC. It could also be established that ozone absorption efficiency decreased after color removal was complete. Ozonation of biotreated textile wastewater with 113 mg L(-1) ozone resulted in an appreciable enhancement of GAC adsorptive capacity in terms of residual color removal. Ozonation of GAC at relatively low doses (= 10.8 mg/g GAC) did not improve its overall adsorption capacity.

  12. Decolorizing and detoxifying textile wastewater, containing both soluble and insoluble dyes, in a full scale combined anaerobic/aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Frijters, C T M J; Vos, R H; Scheffer, G; Mulder, R

    2006-03-01

    The wastewater originating from the bleaching and dyeing processes in the textile factory Ten Cate Protect in Nijverdal (the Netherlands) was successfully treated in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic system. In the system, a combination of an anaerobic 70-m3 fluidized bed reactor and a 450-m3 aerobic basin with integrated tilted plate settlers, 80-95% of the color was removed. The color was largely removed in the preacidification basin and the anaerobic reactor. Color, deriving from both reactive as well as disperse, was anaerobically removed, indicating that these type of dyes were reduced to colorless products. Interestingly, the vat dyes, the anthraquinones and indigoids, which were thought to be removed mainly aerobically, were largely anaerobically decolorized. Apparently the anaerobic system is capable of effectively removing the color of both soluble as insoluble dyes. The treated effluent of the sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment showed no toxicity towards the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fisheri (EC20 (95%) > 45%). Partially bypassing the anaerobic stage resulted in increased toxicity (EC20 (95%) of 9% and 14%) in the effluent of the aerobic treatment and caused significant decrease of color removal. The results of this study show a main contribution of anaerobic treatment in decolorizing and detoxifying the textile wastewater in the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system.

  13. Coupled electron beam radiation and MBR treatment of textile wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jun; Chen, Lujun; Wang, Jianlong; Zhang, Yongming

    2016-07-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) can be combined with biological treatments for recalcitrant organic pollutant decomposition. However, there has been no thorough investigation on the coupling of AOPs and membrane bioreactors (MBR) to treat polymer organic pollutants. This study proposes a new AOP that couples electron beam (EB) radiation and MBR treatment. This method was applied to treat real textile effluents containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). During the stable operation stage, 31 ± 7% (n = 28) COD was removed by the EB-MBR process. COD removal was enhanced to 45% at the end of the research period without process optimization. In addition, both the membrane flux and activated sludge system exhibited good stability. Only a 2% membrane flux decreased was observed after a 46 d operation period. PVA radiolysis and biofacies analysis mechanisms are also discussed. By contrast, PVA degradation using only the MBR treatment was ineffective in this study. This ineffectiveness was caused by membrane interception and floccule formation by PVA and activated sludge.

  14. Simultaneous laccase production and color removal by culturing fungus Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 in a textile wastewater effluent supplemented with a lignocellulosic waste Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiayang; Cai, Yujie; Liao, Xiangru; Huang, Qingguo; Hao, Zhikui; Hu, Mingming; Zhang, Dabing

    2012-08-01

    We conducted experiments to culture Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 in a medium comprising an industrial waste (dye-containing textile effluent) and a lignocellulosic waste (Phragmites australis) that achieved laccase production while having the color removed from the wastewater. Our experimental results showed that the fungus grew well in liquid submerged cultivation with the diluted textile effluent as the sole culture medium, but relatively low extracellular laccase activity (1.8 U/mL) was produced. Addition of the lignocellulosic biomass enhanced laccase production and color removal. The highest laccase activity was found to be 6.5 U/mL in the presence of Phragmites australis stem. Under this condition, 70 % color removal occurred in the culture medium. This study provided an alternative novel scheme to remove color in textile wastewater while having an economic value added by producing laccase.

  15. [Comprehensive Toxicity Evaluation and Toxicity Identification Used in Tannery and Textile Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Chen, Wen-yan; Wan, Yu-shan; Zheng, Guo-juan; Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    To better evaluate the toxicity of tannery and textile effluents from various emission stages, the research attempted battery of toxicological bioassays and toxicological indices. The bioassays employed Microtox test, zebra fish embryo-larval test and algae (Chlorella vulgaris) test. Meanwhile, toxicological indices including Toxicity Unit (TU), Average Toxicity (AvTx), Toxic Print (TxPr), Most Sensitive Test (MST) and Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) were applied. The results illustrated that PEEP was the most comprehensive index to take account of the emissions and toxic potential of effluents. PEEP values showed that the reduction rates of toxicity in tannery and textile effluents were 36. 8% and 23. 2%, respectively. Finally, based on the Microtox toxicity test, toxicants in textile effluent were identified through the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. The results indicated that the main toxicant of textile effluent was non-polar organic pollutants, followed by filterable compounds, heavy metals, oxidizing substances and volatile components.

  16. Treatment and reuse of textile wastewaters by mild solar photo-Fenton in the presence of humic-like substances.

    PubMed

    Negueroles, P G; Bou-Belda, E; Santos-Juanes, L; Amat, A M; Arques, A; Vercher, R F; Monllor, P; Vicente, R

    2016-10-25

    In this paper, the possibility of reusing textile effluents for new dyeing baths has been investigated. For this purpose, different trichromies using Direct Red 80, Direct Blue 106, and Direct Yellow 98 on cotton have been used. Effluents have been treated by means of a photo-Fenton process at pH 5. Addition of humic-like substances isolated form urban wastes is necessary in order to prevent iron deactivation because of the formation of non-active iron hydroxides. Laboratory-scale experiments carried out with synthetic effluents show that comparable results were obtained when using as solvent water treated by photo-Fenton with SBO and fresh deionized water. Experiments were scaled up to pilot plant illuminated under sunlight, using in this case a real textile effluent. Decoloration of the effluent could be achieved after moderate irradiation and cotton dyed with this water presented similar characteristics as when deionized water was used.

  17. Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P

    2009-07-01

    Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality.

  18. Chemical oxygen demand and color removal from textile wastewater by UV/H2O2 using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yonar, T; Kilic, M Yalili

    2014-11-01

    The photooxidation of pollutants, especially chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color, in textile industrial wastewater was performed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), using 256 nm UV light (15 W), to model the discoloration and COD elimination processes and characterize the influence of process variables. Within this study, data were obtained through a NeuroSolutions 5.06 model and successfully tested. Each sample was characterized by three independent variables (i.e., pH, H2O2 concentration, and time of operation) and two dependent variables (i.e., color and COD). The results indicated that pH was the predominant variable, and the reaction mean time and H2O2 volume were the less influential variables. The neural model obtained presented coefficients of correlation of 99% for COD and 97% for color, indicating the prediction power of the model and its character of generalization.

  19. [Analysis and research on the degradation and migration of organic pollutants in textile wastewater treatment process by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-jing; Zhang, Long; Wu, Wei; Tu, Yong

    2010-04-01

    In order to analyze the advantages/disadvantages of the combined treatment process between "physicochemical + biochemical" and "biochemical + physicochemical" in treatment of textile wastewater, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the degradation process of organic pollutants in this two totally different treatment processes. The same analysis was also conducted to the sludge and discharged water. The results showed that the "physicochemical + biochemical" process displayed a poorer effect than "biochemical + physicochemical" in degrading the organic pollutants. The latter was 6.2% higher than the former in removing the organic pollutants averagely. The difference was mainly manifested in the efficiency of anaerobic hydrolysis in the two coupled processes. Moreover, the implement of "physicochemical + biochemical" process resulted in the migration of plenty of typical organic pollutants to sludge from primary coagulation sedimentation process and to the discharged water, which would cause secondary pollution easily.

  20. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  1. Effect of natural mediators on the stability of Trametes trogii laccase during the decolourization of textile wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Khlifi-Slama, Rim; Mechichi, Tahar; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of natural mediators on the stability of the Trametes trogii crude laccase in the process of decolourization of textile effluents. Acetosyringone allowed the highest wastewaters decolourization rate of 25%. At higher concentrations of acetosyringone, the relative activity of laccase decreased approximately by between 38% and 88% after 5 days of incubation. T. trogii laccase was strongly inactivated at 3 mM syringaldehyde, after 3 days of incubation. However, laccase activity is more stable in the presence of the vanillin and m-coumarate. The T. trogii growth on solid effluent-based-medium was examined and evaluated by measuring the colony diameter in cm. T. trogii was completely inhibited on 100:0 and 80:20 effluent:water solid medium, however, colony diameter reached 5 cm on 60:40 effluent:water solid medium after 13-14 days incubation. When the textile effluent was pre-treated with laccase and laccase-acetosyringone system, the colony diameter of 2 cm of T. trogii on 80:20 effluent:water solid medium was reached after 14 and 10 days of incubation respectively.

  2. Biochemical response of crayfish Astacus leptodactylus exposed to textile wastewater treated by indigenous white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Onder; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Danabas, Durali; Danabas, Seval

    2015-02-01

    The discharge of textile effluents into the environment without appropriate treatment poses a serious threat for the aquatic organisms. The present study was undertaken to investigate biochemical response of crayfish Astacus leptodactylus exposed to textile wastewater (TW) treated by indigenous white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels in hepatopancreas and abdomen tissues of crayfish exposed to untreated, treated, and diluted rates (1/10) in both TW during 24 and 96 h were tested. Physiochemical parameters (electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, and total dissolved solid (TDS)) of TW were determined before and after treatment. Physiochemical parameters of TW decreased after treatment. The GST activity and AchE were generally increased, but CYP1A1 activity was decreased in hepatopancreas tissue of crayfish exposed to different kinds of untreated TW. After treatment by indigenous white rot fungus (C. versicolor), GST and CYP1A1 activities were returned to control values, while AchE activities were increasing further. In this study, only GST and CYP1A1 activities of A. leptodactylus confirmed the efficiency of TW treatment with C. versicolor.

  3. Removal of colour and COD from synthetic textile wastewaters using O3, PAC, H2O2 and HCO3-.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ensar; Keskinler, Bülent

    2008-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from synthetic textile wastewaters using O3, powder activated carbon (PAC), H2O2 and HCO3- in a semi-batch reactor. 1:2 metal complex dyestuffs containing two molecules of dyestuffs versus a chromium atom was used. Experiments were conducted under the various pHs (3-12), temperatures (18-70 degrees C), ozone doses (164-493 mg min(-1)). The combined effect of substances used on the removal of colour and COD was investigated. The mechanisms of colour and COD removal on the PAC were explained on the basis of the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, the zeta potential values of PAC, ozonated PAC and ozonated PAC contaminated with intermediates were determined. The zeta potential values and FTIR plots of PAC particulates showed that PAC acted as an adsorbent in the combined processes. It was thought that all of the substances used in the semi-batch reactor had the combined effect on the removal of colour and COD because of the short treatment time of 5 min and high efficiencies of the removal of colour and COD. The efficiencies of removal of colour and COD in combination were compared with adsorption and ozonation only. In this study, the efficiencies of colour and COD removal during a reaction time of 30 min were obtained as 99 and 95%, respectively. At the result of this study, it was concluded that O3, PAC and H2O2 were an important substances for the removal of colour and COD from synthetic textile wastewater when they were used in combination.

  4. COD and Color Removal from Real Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation.

    PubMed

    Yang, De-min; Yuan, Jian-mei

    2016-05-01

    Ozonation of real dye wastewater for removal of color and COD reduction covering a wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92.5% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions (pH=11; ozone flow rate: 6×10(-3) m(3)/minute). Further the biodegradability index of the dye effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment.

  5. Quinolines in clothing textiles--a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Ostman, Conny

    2014-05-01

    A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body.

  6. Decolorization of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Textile Wastewater by the UV/H2O2 Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Abbas; Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad; Jamalodin Hashemian, Sayed; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Khavanin, Ali; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    Photo-oxidation of dyes is a new concern among researchers since it offers an attractive method for decoloration of dyes and breaks them into simple mineral forms. An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, pH, initial dye concentration and UV dosage, on decolorization have been evaluated. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 2.5 mmol L-1 and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (55 w) in less than 30 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process was an effective technology for RB19 dye treatment in wastewater.

  7. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield.

  8. Vanadium(V) removal from aqueous solution and real wastewater using quaternized pine sawdust.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, T; Keränen, A; Vainionpää, N; Al Amir, J; Hormi, O; Tanskanen, J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked and quaternized pine sawdust was tested for vanadium removal from a synthetic aqueous solution as well as from real industrial wastewater which had a considerable amount of vanadium and other ions such as sulphate, ammonium and nickel. The maximum vanadium sorption capacity of the modified pine sawdust was found to be 130 mg/g in synthetic solution and 103 mg/g in real wastewater. Modified pine sawdust worked well over a wide range of pH. Column studies with real wastewater proved that vanadium was efficiently desorbed from the material with 2 M NaOH and that the material could be reused.

  9. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    PubMed

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites.

  10. Biodegradation of Basic Violet 3 by Candida krusei isolated from textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Deivasigamani, Charumathi; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-11-01

    Basic Violet 3 (BV) belongs to the most important group of synthetic colorants and is used extensively in textile industries. It is considered as xenobiotic compound which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. As Candida krusei could not use BV as sole carbon source, experiments were conducted to study the effect of cosubstrates on decolorization of BV in semi synthetic medium using glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, yeast extract, peptone, urea and ammonium sulphate. Maximum decolorization (74%) was observed in media supplemented with sucrose. Use of sugarcane bagasse extract as sole nutrient source showed 100% decolorization of BV within 24 h under optimized condition. UV-visible, FTIR spectral analysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of BV. Six degradation products were isolated and identified. We propose the biodegradation pathway for BV which occurs via stepwise reduction and demethylation process to yield mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-demethylated BV species which was degraded completely. The study of the enzymes responsible for decolorization showed the activities of lignin peroxidase, lacasse, tyrosinase, NADH-DCIP reductase, MG reductase and azoreductase in cells before and after decolorization. A significant increase in activities of NADH-DCIP reductase and laccase was observed in the cells after decolorization. The yeast C. krusei could show the ability to decolorize the textile dye BV using inexpensive source like sugarcane bagasse extract for decolorization.

  11. Enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction with ferric-organic ligands for the treatment of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Soares, Petrick A; Batalha, Mauro; Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-04-01

    Literature describes a kinetic mineralization profile for most of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewaters using a photo-Fenton reaction characterized by a slow degradation process and high reactants consumption. This work tries to elucidate that the slow decay on DOC concentration is associated with the formation of stable complexes between Fe(3+) and textile auxiliary products, limiting the photoreduction of Fe(3+). This work also evaluates the enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction through the use of different ferric-organic ligands applied to the treatment of a simulated acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater, as a pre-oxidation step to enhance its biodegradability. The photo-Fenton reaction was negatively affected by two dyeing auxiliary products: i) Sera(®) Tard A-AS, a surfactant mainly composed of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and ii) Sera(®) Sperse M-IW, a dispersing agent composed of polyglycol solvents. The catalytic activity of the organic ligands toward the ferrous-catalysed system followed this order: Fe(III)-Oxalate > Fe(III)-Citrate > Fe(III)-EDDS, and all were better than the traditional photo-Fenton reaction. Different design parameters such as iron concentration, pH, temperature, flow conditions, UV irradiance and H2O2 addition strategy and dose were evaluated. The ferrioxalate induced photo-Fenton process presented the best results, achieving 87% mineralization after 9.3 kJUV L(-1) and allowing to work until near neutral pH values. As expected, the biodegradability of the textile wastewater was significantly enhanced during the photo-Fenton treatment, achieving a value of 73%, consuming 32.4 mM of H2O2 and 5.7 kJUV L(-1).

  12. Real Science, Real Scientists: Student's Experiments with Natural and Artificial Wastewater Treatment in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    In this extended biology, ecology, and earth science activity, students construct hands-on models of natural wastewater treatment and wastewater treatment facilities to achieve an understanding of wastewater treatment process in nature and wastewater treatment facilities. During this simulation activity, students have opportunities to learn…

  13. A promising inert support for laccase production and decolouration of textile wastewater by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescesns.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2012-09-30

    Cubes of nylon sponge, cubes of polyurethane foam (PUF), cuttings of stainless steel sponges and the commercial carriers Kaldnes™ K1 were tested as inert supports for laccase production by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions. The cultures operating with Kaldnes™ K1 led to the highest laccase activity (3667 U/l). In addition this support could be re-utilised, making the whole process more economical. Subsequently, the decolouration of simulated textile wastewater (STW) by T. pubescens grown on the different tested supports under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions was studied. Decolouration percentages around 66-80% were obtained in 96 h. It was found that STW decolouration was due to two mechanisms: laccase action (biodegradation) and adsorption onto fungal mycelium, save for the PUF cultures in which decolouration was mainly due to adsorption onto the support. Further, the decolouration of STW by Kaldnes™ K1 cultures in three successive batches of 96 h each was studied. Decolouration percentages of 51.3, 70.0 and 69.8%, were attained for each batch, respectively.

  14. A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the pollutant removal efficiencies of two lab-scale hybrid wetland systems treating a textile wastewater. The two systems had identical configurations, each consisting of a vertical flow (VF) and a horizontal flow (HF) wetland that were filled with organic sugarcane bagasse and sylhet sand as the main media. The systems were operated under high hydraulic loading (HL) (566-5660 mm/d), and inorganic nitrogen (254-508 gN/m(2) d) and organics loadings (9840-19680 g COD/m(2) d and 2154-4307 g BOD(5)/m(2) d). Simultaneous removals of BOD(5) (74-79%) and ammonia (59-66%) were obtained in the first stage VF wetlands, demonstrating the efficiency of the media for oxygen transfer to cope with the high pollutant loads. The organic carbon (C) content of sugarcane bagasse facilitated denitrification in the VF wetlands. Second stage HF wetlands provided efficient color removal under predominantly anaerobic condition. Overall, the wetland systems showed stable removal performances under high, and unsteady, pollutant loadings.

  15. Low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater reduced labile C and enhanced organic-inorganic N and enzymatic activities in a semiarid alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Mian, Ishaq A

    2017-02-01

    Application of raw and treated wastewater for irrigation is an extensive practice for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Raw textile wastewater has been used for cultivation in urban and peri-urban areas in Pakistan without any systematic consideration to soil quality. We conducted a laboratory incubation study to investigate the effects of low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater on soil nitrogen (N) contents, labile carbon (C) as water-soluble C (WSC) contents, and activities of urease and dehydrogenase enzymes. The 60-day incubation study used an alkaline clay loam aridisol that received 0 (distilled water), 25, 50, and 100% wastewater concentrations, and microcosms were incubated aerobically under room temperature at 70% water holding capacity. Results revealed that raw wastewater significantly (p < 0.05) changed soil N pools and processes, WSC contents, and enzymatic activities. The organic and inorganic N species increased with increasing wastewater concentrations, whereas WSC contents followed an opposite trend. The highest NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents were observed in soil treated with 100% wastewater. The extractable organic N (EON) contents always represented >50% of the soil total Kjeldahl N (TKN) contents and served as the major N pool. However, nitrification index (NO3(-)-N/NH4(+)-N ratio) decreased at high wastewater concentrations. A significant negative correlation was observed between EON and WSC (p < 0.05) and between net nitrification and WSC/EON ratio (p < 0.01). In contrast, nitrification index and WSC contents were correlated, positively suggesting WSC potentially controlling N turnover in nutrient-poor aridisol. We found significant (p < 0.0001) positive correlations of soil urease and dehydrogenase enzymatic activities with soil-extractable mineral N contents indicating coupled N cycling and soil biological activity. Higher production and accumulation of soil NO3(-)-N and EON contents in concentrated wastewater

  16. Decontamination of textile wastewater via TiO2/activated carbon composite materials.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2010-09-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most urgent environmental turmoil for the 21st century. To date, the percolation of textile effluents into the waterways and aquifer systems, remain an intricate conundrum abroad the nations. With the renaissance of activated carbon, there has been a steadily growing interest in the research field. Recently, the adoption of titanium dioxide, a prestigious advanced photo-catalyst which formulates the new growing branch of activated carbon composites for enhancement of adsorption rate and discoloration capacity, has attracted stern consideration and supports worldwide. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of titanium dioxide/activated carbon composites technology, its fundamental background studies, and environmental implications. Moreover, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of activated carbons composites material represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the plausible improvement of environmental conservation.

  17. Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of alkaline textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-07-15

    The present work was aimed to secure biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of an alkaline textile industrial effluent (ATIE) using an alkaliphilic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis strain R-16 isolated from Gujarat coast. The isolate was capable and competent to bring down the pH of ATIE from 12.1 to 7.0 within 2 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources. Carboxylic group concentration (CGC), NMR and FT-IR analysis revealed production of carboxylic acid as a result of neutralization. The unconventional carbon and nitrogen sources like Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse supported the growth of bacterium with effective neutralization and biosorption of dyes from ATIE. The process proved to be efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly as compared to conventional chemical neutralization process.

  18. MnCl2 and MgCl2 for the removal of reactive dye Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA from synthetic textile wastewaters: an adsorption/aggregation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bouyakoub, A Z; Lartiges, B S; Ouhib, R; Kacha, S; El Samrani, A G; Ghanbaja, J; Barres, O

    2011-03-15

    Two divalent cation-based coagulants, magnesium chloride and manganese chloride, were used to treat synthetic textile wastewaters containing the azo-dye pigment Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA. The jar-tests were performed in the presence or absence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. They proved that (i) both divalent cation-based coagulants were effective in the treatment of those alkaline effluents, (ii) better performances in terms of color removal, residual turbidity, and settled volume, were achieved with manganese chloride, and (iii) the presence of dyeing auxiliaries significantly increases the required coagulant demand for treating the textile effluent. The dye removal mechanisms were investigated by combining observations of freeze-dried sediments with transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, adsorption experiments, and aggregates size measurements with a laser sizer under cyclic shear conditions. The results show that brucite (Mg(OH)(2)) particles are formed when applying MgCl(2) to the textile wastewaters, whereas a mixture of feitknechite (β-MnOOH) and hausmannite (Mn(3)O(4)) is obtained when using MnCl(2). More poorly crystallized particles are formed in presence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. The adsorption experiments suggested that the azo-dye pigment adsorbs onto the surface of precipitating phases, whereas the aggregation dynamics indicated that a charge-neutralization mechanism underlies the formation of aggregates. The dye removal is then consistent with a precipitation/adsorption mechanism.

  19. Alkaline textile wastewater biotreatment: A sulfate-reducing granular sludge based lab-scale study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qian; Hao, Tianwei; Mackey, Hamish Robert; Wei, Li; Guo, Gang; Chen, Guanghao

    2017-03-06

    In this study the feasibility of treating dyeing wastewater with sulfate reducing granular sludge was explored, focusing on decolorization/degradation of azo dye (Procion Red HE-7B) and the performance of microbial consortia under alkaline conditions (pH=11). Efficiency of HE-7B degradation was influenced strongly by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration which was examined in the range of 500-3000mg/L. COD removal efficiency was reduced at high COD concentration, while specific removal rate was enhanced to 17.5 mg-COD/gVSSh(-1). HE-7B removal was also improved at higher organic strength with more than 90% removal efficiency and a first-rate removal constant of 5.57h(-1) for dye degradation. Three dye-degradation metabolites were identified by HPLC-MS. The granular structure provided enhanced removal performance for HE-7B and COD in comparison to a near-identical floc SRB system and the key functional organisms were identified by high throughput sequencing. This study demonstrates an example of a niche application where SRB granules can be applied for high efficient and cost-effective treatment of a wastewater under adverse environmental conditions.

  20. Use of titanium dioxide photocatalysis on the remediation of model textile wastewaters containing azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Saggioro, Enrico Mendes; Oliveira, Anabela Sousa; Pavesi, Thelma; Maia, Cátia Gil; Ferreira, Luis Filipe Vieira; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2011-12-14

    The photocatalytic degradation of two commercial textile azo dyes, namely C.I Reactive Black 5 and C.I Reactive Red 239, has been studied. TiO(2) P25 Degussa was used as catalyst and photodegradation was carried out in aqueous solution under artificial irradiation with a 125 W mercury vapor lamp. The effects of the amount of TiO(2) used, UV-light irradiation time, pH of the solution under treatment, initial concentration of the azo dye and addition of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. The effect of the simultaneous photodegradation of the two azo dyes was also investigated and we observed that the degradation rates achieved in mono and bi-component systems were identical. The repeatability of photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was also tested. After five cycles of TiO(2) reuse the rate of colour lost was still 77% of the initial rate. The degradation was followed monitoring the change of azo dye concentration by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Results show that the use of an efficient photocatalyst and the adequate selection of optimal operational parameters may easily lead to a complete decolorization of the aqueous solutions of both azo dyes.

  1. Utilization of powdered waste sludge (PWS) for removal of textile dyestuffs from wastewater by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ozmihci, Serpil; Kargi, Fikret

    2006-11-01

    Acid pre-treated powdered waste sludge (PWS) was used for removal of textile dyestuffs from aqueous medium by adsorption as an alternative to the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC). The rate and extent of dysetuff removals were determined for four different dyestuffs at different PWS concentrations varying between 1 and 6 gl(-1). Biosorbed dyestuff concentrations at equilibrium decreased with increasing PWS concentration for all dyestuffs tested. PWS was more effective for adsorption of Remazol red RR and Chrisofonia direct yellow 12 as compared to the other dyestuffs tested. More than 80% percent dyestuff removal was obtained for all dyestuffs at PWS concentrations above 4 gl(-1) after 6h of incubation. Similar to percent dyestuff removal, the rate of adsorption was maximum at a PWS concentration of 4 gl(-1). Kinetics of adsorption of dyestuffs was investigated by using the first- and second-order kinetic models and the kinetic constants were determined. Second-order kinetics was found to fit the experimental data better than the first-order model for all dyestuffs tested. Adsorption isotherms were established for all dyestuffs used and the isotherm constants were determined by using the experimental data. Langmuir and the generalized adsorption isotherms were found to be more suitable than the Freundlich isotherm for correlation of equilibrium adsorption data. Acid pre-treated PWS was proven to be an effective adsorbent for dyestuff removal as compared to the other adsorbents reported in literature studies.

  2. Integrated nanofiltration and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treatment of textile wastewater for in-plant reuse.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Arlindo Canigo; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; de Pinho, Maria Norberta; Porter, John Jefferson

    2007-05-01

    The filtration characteristics of simulated dyeing effluents containing Acid Orange 7, sodium sulfate, and a pH buffer made of acetic acid and sodium acetate is described using a commercially available nanofiltration membrane. The original membrane filtration properties were characterized with deionized water to provide a baseline of membrane performance. At high volumetric concentration of the test solutions, greater than 98% rejection of dye and sodium sulfate were obtained. Rejection of buffering chemicals was approximately 50% in all experiments, giving a permeate water not suitable for reuse in most dyeing operations. The final composite concentrate had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) value > 2000 mg/L. No problems were encountered with anaerobic treatment of the concentrate obtained from the dyeing wastewater. Adjusting the sulfate concentration to give COD-to-sulfate ratios to 2.9, 5.4, and 18.2 in the reactor feed had no significant alterations in the performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

  3. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  4. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  5. Performances of anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactors for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Adem; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Aktaş, Özgür; Uçar, Deniz; Çınar, Özer; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at comparatively evaluating anaerobic and aerobic MBRs for the treatment of azo-dye containing synthetic wastewater. Also, the filtration performances of AnMBR and AeMBR were compared under similar operating conditions. In both MBRs, high COD removal efficiencies were observed. Although almost complete color removal was observed in AnMBR, only partial (30-50%) color removal was achieved in AeMBR. AnMBR was successfully operated up to 9 L/(m(2)h) (LMH) and no chemical cleaning was required at 4.5 LMH for around 50 days. AeMBR was operated successfully up to 20 LMH. The filtration resistance of AnMBR was generally higher compared to AeMBR although reversible fouling rates were comparable. In both MBRs, offline chemical cleaning with NaOCl and sulfuric acid almost completely removed irreversible fouling and the resistances of chemically cleaned membranes were close to those of new membranes.

  6. Decolorizing textile wastewater with Fenton's reagent electrogenerated with a solar photovoltaic cell.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Sandra; Vázquez, Leticia; Alvarez-Gallegos, A

    2009-02-01

    In this work it is demonstrated that Fenton's reagent can be electroproduced with abundant and cheap feedstock: oxygen saturated wastewater and solar energy. Experiments were carried out in a divided electrochemical flow cell using two electrodes: a three dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and stainless steel anode. Fenton's reagent is produced by oxygen reduction on the cathode in the presence of 1mM Fe(2+). The influence of electrolyte nature and its concentration and potential difference on the current efficiency, as well as the rate of Fenton's reagent electroproduction is discussed and it is concluded that over this extended range of conditions the current efficiency, for Fenton's reagent production, fell within the range 50-70%. It is possible to electroproduce a stoichiometric amount of Fenton reagent for the oxidation of 0.061mM Reactive Black 5 (in tap water+0.05M Na(2)SO(4), approximately pH 2.8). Similar results were obtained for solutions containing 0.1mM Acid Green 25. Some practical applications in the field of water treatment are included. The energy required for drive electrochemical reaction is supplied to the flow cell by means of a commercial solar panel.

  7. Treatment of textile dye wastewaters using ferrous sulphate in a chemical coagulation/flocculation process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation/flocculation treatment using FeSO4 x 7H2O as a coagulant is evaluated in this work for the removal of organic compounds and colour from synthetic effluents simulating the cotton, acrylic and polyester dyeing wastewaters. The coagulant dose, temperature, pH, stirring speed and stirring time that maximized the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour for each effluent are determined for the coagulation process. The effect of the stirring speed, stirring time and the dose of flocculant (Magnafloc 155 or Superfloc C-573) on the flocculation stage is also evaluated for effluents pretreated by coagulation at the optimal conditions previously determined. The obtained results showed that the optimal operating conditions are different for each effluent, and the process (coagulation/flocculation) as a whole was efficient in terms of colour removal (-91% for cotton, -94% for acrylic effluents; polyester effluent is practically colourless). However, the DOC removal observed is not significant (33% for polyester, -45% for cotton and -28% for acrylic effluents). On the other hand, the remaining dissolved iron content is appropriate for further integrating the treatment with an iron-catalysed Fenton process, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals in the overall treatment.

  8. Determination of labile copper, cobalt, and chromium in textile mill wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Essling, A.M.; Kiely, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Copper, chromium, and cobalt species present in filtered wastewater effluent were separated by cation exchange and reverse phase chromatography. Three sample fractions were obtained: one containing metal cations (i.e., trivalent Cr, divalent Cu, and divalent Co), one containing organic species (including metallized dyes), and one containing other unretained species. The metal content of each fraction was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The sum of the corrected data was compared to the metal content of a filtered effluent aliquot digested totally with fuming sulfuric acid. Other aliquots of the filtered effluent were spiked with the metals of interest and digested to confirm chemical yield and accuracy. Method detection limits were consistently below 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu, 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Co, and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cr. Spike recoveries for undifferentiated Cu and Cr were statistically indistinguishable from unity; although Co spike recoveries were slightly low ({approximately}95%), its chemical yield was 98%. Copper retention on the sodium sulfonate cation exchange resin was closely correlated with the [EDTA]/[Cu] ratio, suggesting that metals retained upon the cation exchange column were assignable to labile metal species; however, mass balances for all three elements, though reasonable ({approximately}90%), were significantly different from unity. Mechanical factors may have contributed to the material loss, but other data suggest that some metal species reacted irreversibly with the reverse phase column. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Coagulation-flocculation sequential with Fenton or Photo-Fenton processes as an alternative for the industrial textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    GilPavas, Edison; Dobrosz-Gómez, Izabela; Gómez-García, Miguel Ángel

    2017-04-15

    In this study, the industrial textile wastewater was treated using a chemical-based technique (coagulation-flocculation, C-F) sequential with an advanced oxidation process (AOP: Fenton or Photo-Fenton). During the C-F, Al2(SO4)3 was used as coagulant and its optimal dose was determined using the jar test. The following operational conditions of C-F, maximizing the organic matter removal, were determined: 700 mg/L of Al2(SO4)3 at pH = 9.96. Thus, the C-F allowed to remove 98% of turbidity, 48% of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and let to increase in the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.137 to 0.212. Subsequently, the C-F effluent was treated using each of AOPs. Their performances were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) coupled with a Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD). The following optimal conditions of both Fenton (Fe(2+)/H2O2) and Photo-Fenton (Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV) processes were found: Fe(2+) concentration = 1 mM, H2O2 dose = 2 mL/L (19.6 mM), and pH = 3. The combination of C-F pre-treatment with the Fenton reagent, at optimized conditions, let to remove 74% of COD during 90 min of the process. The C-F sequential with Photo-Fenton process let to reach 87% of COD removal, in the same time. Moreover, the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0.212 to 0.68 and from 0.212 to 0.74 using Fenton and Photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Thus, the enhancement of biodegradability with the physico-chemical treatment was proved. The depletion of H2O2 was monitored during kinetic study. Strategies for improving the reaction efficiency, based on the H2O2 evolution, were also tested.

  10. Electrochemical degradation of a real textile effluent using boron-doped diamond or β-PbO2 as anode.

    PubMed

    Aquino, José M; Pereira, Gabriel F; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Bocchi, Nerilso; Biaggio, Sonia R

    2011-09-15

    Constant current electrolyses are carried out in a filter-press reactor using a boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) or a Ti-Pt/β-PbO(2) anode, varying current density (j) and temperature. The degradation of the real textile effluent is followed by its decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement. The effect of adding NaCl (1.5 g L(-1)) on the degradation of the effluent is also investigated. The Nb/BDD anode yields much higher decolorization (attaining the DFZ limit) and COD-abatement rates than the Ti-Pt/β-PbO(2) anode, at any experimental condition. The best conditions are j = 5 mA cm(-2) and 55 °C, for the system's optimized hydrodynamic conditions. The addition of chloride ions significantly increases the decolorization rate; thus a decrease of more than 90% of the effluent relative absorbance is attained using an applied electric charge per unit volume of the electrolyzed effluent (Q(ap)) of only about 2 kA h m(-3). Practically total abatement of the effluent COD is attained with the Nb/BDD anode using a Q(ap) value of only 7 kA h m(-3), with an energy consumption of about 30 kW h m(-3). This result allows to conclude that the Nb/BDD electrode might be an excellent option for the remediation of textile effluents.

  11. Toxicity Testing of Pristine and Aged Silver Nanoparticles in Real Wastewaters Using Bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Mallevre, Florian; Alba, Camille; Milne, Craig; Gillespie, Simon; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Aspray, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Impact of aging on nanoparticle toxicity in real matrices is scarcely investigated due to a lack of suitable methodologies. Herein, the toxicity of pristine and aged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to a bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida bioreporter was measured in spiked crude and final wastewater samples (CWs and FWs, respectively) collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results showed lower toxicity of pristine Ag NPs in CWs than in FWs. The effect of the matrix on the eventual Ag NP toxicity was related to multiple physico-chemical parameters (biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) pH, ammonia, sulfide and chloride) based on a multivariate analysis. However, no collection site effect was concluded. Aged Ag NPs (up to eight weeks) were found less toxic than pristine Ag NPs in CWs; evident increased aggregation and decreased dissolution were associated with aging. However, Ag NPs exhibited consistent toxicity in FWs despite aging; comparable results were obtained in artificial wastewater (AW) simulating effluent. The study demonstrates the potency of performing nanoparticle acute toxicity testing in real and complex matrices such as wastewaters using relevant bacterial bioreporters. PMID:28344306

  12. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  13. Effect of an azo dye on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor treating a simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Franca, Rita D G; Vieira, Anabela; Mata, Ana M T; Carvalho, Gilda S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2015-11-15

    This study analyzed the effect of an azo dye (Acid Red 14) on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system operated with 6-h anaerobic-aerobic cycles for the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater. In this sense, two SBRs inoculated with AGS from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were run in parallel, being one supplied with the dye and the other used as a dye-free control. The AGS successfully adapted to the new hydrodynamic conditions forming smaller, denser granules in both reactors, with optimal sludge volume index values of 19 and 17 mL g(-1) after 5-min and 30-min settling, respectively. As a result, high biomass concentration levels and sludge age values were registered, up to 13 gTSS L(-1) and 40 days, respectively, when deliberate biomass wastage was limited to the sampling needs. Stable dye removal yields above 90% were attained during the anaerobic reaction phase, confirmed by the formation of one of the aromatic amines arising from azo bond reduction. The control of the sludge retention time (SRT) to 15 days triggered a 30% reduction in the biodecolorization yield. However, the increase of the SRT values back to levels above 25 days reverted this effect and also promoted the complete bioconversion of the identified aromatic amine during the aerobic reaction phase. The dye and its breakdown products did not negatively affect the treatment performance, as organic load removal yields higher than 80% were attained in both reactors, up to 77% occurring in the anaerobic phase. These high anaerobic organic removal levels were correlated to an increase of Defluviicoccus-related glycogen accumulating organisms in the biomass. Also, the capacity of the system to deal with shocks of high dye concentration and organic load was successfully demonstrated. Granule breakup after long-term operation only occurred in the dye-free control SBR, suggesting that the azo dye plays an important role in improving granule

  14. Textiles and Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, Jean; Renaud, François N. R.

    Microbes can be carried by and even multiply on textiles. The first real, premeditated, microbiological warfare happened in 1763, during the Anglo-French wars in North America, when Native American emissaries were given blankets or handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. Thus, a small epidemic started and spread rapidly, causing considerable damage to the rank and file of the Native Americans. Nowadays, it could be said that textiles could be vectors of infections in hospitals or communities. The making of antimicrobial textiles could prevent them from becoming a reservoir of microbes in the transmission of infections and in cases of voluntary contamination in a terrorist threat for example. However, methods have to show that textiles are really active and do not attack the cutaneous flora they are in contact with. In this chapter, the role of textiles in the transmission of infections is summarized and the main characteristics of antimicrobial textiles are described.

  15. Parameter optimisation of real-time control strategies for urban wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Schütze, M; Butler, D; Beck, M B

    2001-01-01

    Real-time control (RTC) of wastewater systems has been a topic of research and application for over two decades. Attempts so far have mainly focused on one of the parts of the urban wastewater system: either the sewer system, or the treatment plant or the river. Approaches to integrate these subsystems and considering them jointly for control purposes have been pursued only recently. Control of the systems aims at pursuing one (or several concomitant) objectives, which are expressed, for example, in terms of overflow volumes, loads, effluent concentrations, receiving water quality or monetary costs, to name just a few. This paper provides a general and formal definition of the problem to define a real time control algorithm for a given urban wastewater system. A general mathematical optimization problem is formulated, which describes the task of finding an (in some sense) optimum control algorithm. Since this optimization problem is, in the general case, highly non-linear with only limited information available about the objective function itself, optimization methods appropriate for this type of problem are identified. Here, the similarity of the problem to find a control algorithm and of the parameter estimation problem common in mathematical modelling becomes apparent. Hence, methods (and problems encountered) in parameter estimation can be transferred to the problem of determining optimum RTC algorithms. This parallelism is outlined in the paper. As an application of the parameterisation and optimization of control strategies, integrated control of an urban wastewater system is discussed. Since the analysis of integrated control as just described poses certain requirements on a simulation engine, a novel modelling tool, called SYNOPSIS, is utilized here. This simulation tool, comprising of modules simulating water quantity and quality processes in all parts of the urban wastewater system, is embedded into a suite of optimization procedures. An integrated RTC

  16. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater with methanol addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification effluent is a typical refractory industrial wastewater with a very poor anaerobic biodegradability due to its toxicity. Methanol was introduced to improve anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater, and the effect of methanol addition on the performance was investigated in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hr. Experimental results indicated that anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater was feasible with the addition of methanol. The corresponding maximum COD and phenol removal rates were 71% and 75%, respectively, with methanol concentration of 500 mg COD/L for a total organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/(m3 x day) and a phenol loading rate of 0.6 kg/(m3 x day). The phenol removal rate was not improved with a higher methanol concentration of 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization rate (SUR) tests indicated that the SURs of phenol were 106, 132, and 83 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) at methanol concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 mg COD/L, respectively, and only 45 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) in the control reactor. The presence of methanol could reduce the toxicity of coal gasification wastewater and increase the biodegradation of phenolic compounds.

  17. Modelling effluent quality based on a real-time optical monitoring of the wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Koivuranta, Elisa; Kuokkanen, Anna; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2017-01-01

    A novel optical monitoring device was used for imaging an activated sludge process in situ during a period of over one year. In this study, the dependencies between the results of image analysis and the process measurements were studied, and the optical monitoring results were utilized to predict the important quality parameters for the wastewater treatment process efficiency: suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorous in biologically treated wastewater. The optimal subsets of variables for each model were searched using five variable selection methods. It was shown that online optical analysis results have clear dependencies on some process variables and the purification result. The model based on optical monitoring and process variables from the early stage of the treatment process can be used to predict the levels of important quality parameters, and to show the quality of the biologically treated wastewater hours in advance. This study confirms that the optical monitoring method is a valuable tool for monitoring a wastewater treatment process and receiving new information in real time. Combined with predictive modelling, it has the potential to be used in process control, keeping the process in a stable operating condition and avoiding environmental risks.

  18. Inhibition and recovery of nitrification in treating real coal gasification wastewater with moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiqiang; Han, Hongjun; Du, Maoan; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used to treat real coal gasification wastewater. Nitrification of the MBBR was inhibited almost completely during start-up period. Sudden increase of influent total NH3 concentration was the main factor inducing nitrification inhibition. Increasing DO concentration in the bulk liquid (from 2 to 3 mg/L) had little effect on nitrification recovery. Nitrification of the MBBR recovered partially by the addition of nitrifying sludge into the reactor and almost ceased within 5 days. Nitrification ratio of the MBBR achieved 65% within 12 days by increasing dilute ratio of the influent wastewater with tap water. The ratio of nitrification decreased to 25% when influent COD concentration increased from 650 to 1000 mg/L after nitrification recovery and recovered 70% for another 4 days.

  19. Treatment of real wastewater produced from Mobil car wash station using electrocoagulation technique.

    PubMed

    El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z; Amin, N K; Fouad, Y O

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the electrocoagulation of real wastewater produced from a car wash station using a new cell design featuring a horizontal spiral anode placed above a horizontal disc cathode. The study dealt with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and turbidity removal using electrodes in a batch mode. Various operating parameters such as current density, initial pH, NaCl concentration, temperature, and electrode material were examined to optimize the performance of the process. Also, characterization of sludge formed during electrocoagulation was carried out. The results indicated that the COD reduction and turbidity removal increase with increasing the current density and NaCl concentration; pH from 7 to 8 was found to be optimum for treating the wastewater. Temperature was found to have an insignificant effect on the process. Aluminum was superior to iron as a sacrificial electrode material in treating car wash wastewater. Energy consumption based on COD reduction ranged from 2.32 to 15.1 kWh/kg COD removed depending on the operating conditions. Finally, the sludge produced during electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis.

  20. Valorization of the Vicia faba mucilage on textile wastewater treatment as a bio-flocculant: process development and optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Bouatay, Feriel; Eljebsi, Nesrine; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Farouk

    2017-02-01

    The Vicia faba membranes are an abundant and a low cost product. In the present research paper, the extracted Vicia faba mucilage was tested as an eco-friendly flocculant for textile wastewater treatment. Its performance as flocculant, in decolorization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the concentration of total suspended solids was checked. The natural extracted product was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The total sugars were determined in the extracted product. The effect study, followed by an optimization and modeling analysis, of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance, using Vicia faba mucilage (as a flocculant), combined with aluminum sulfate (as a coagulant), showed that the best conditions for the flocculation process were pH of the effluent about 7, flocculant dose about 6.75 mg/L, flocculation mixing time about 3 min and flocculation mixing speed about 30 rpm, leading to a decolorization equal to 92.32%, COD removal of about 97.52% and total suspended solids of about 15.3 mg/L. A comparison study between the flocculation performance of commercial reagents and the bio-agent showed that the natural product presented a good flocculation performance.

  1. Characterization and quantitative analysis of surfactants in textile wastewater by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González, Susana; Petrović, Mira; Radetic, Maja; Jovancic, Petar; Ilic, Vesna; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-01

    A method based on the application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqTOF-MS) with an electrospray (ESI) interface has been developed for the screening and confirmation of several anionic and non-ionic surfactants: linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS), alkylsulfate (AS), alkylethersulfate (AES), dihexyl sulfosuccinate (DHSS), alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), coconut diethanolamide (CDEA), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and their degradation products (nonylphenol carboxylate (NPEC), octylphenol carboxylate (OPEC), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-octylphenol (OP) and NPEO sulfate (NPEO-SO4). The developed methodology permits reliable quantification combined with a high accuracy confirmation based on the accurate mass of the (de)protonated molecules in the TOFMS mode. For further confirmation of the identity of the detected compounds the QqTOF mode was used. Accurate masses of product ions obtained by performing collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the (de)protonated molecules of parent compounds were matched with the ions obtained for a standard solution. The method was applied for the quantitative analysis and high accuracy confirmation of surfactants in complex mixtures in effluents from the textile industry. Positive identification of the target compounds was based on accurate mass measurement of the base peak, at least one product ion and the LC retention time of the analyte compared with that of a standard. The most frequently surfactants found in these textile effluents were NPEO and NPEO-SO4 in concentrations ranging from 0.93 to 5.68 mg/L for NPEO and 0.06 to 4.30 mg/L for NPEO-SO4. AEOs were also identified.

  2. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling.

  3. Smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Catrysse, Michael; Puers, Robert; Van Egmond, Harko; Matthijs, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    After technical textiles and functional textiles, also smart textiles came into force a few years ago. The term 'smart textiles' covers a broad range. The application possibilities are only limited by our imagination and creativity. In this presentation, it is further explored what smart textiles precisely mean. In a second part, an analysis is made of the possibilities, the state of affairs and the needs for further research.

  4. Crude soybean hull peroxidase treatment of phenol in synthetic and real wastewater: enzyme economy enhanced by Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Steevensz, Aaron; Madur, Sneha; Feng, Wei; Taylor, Keith E; Bewtra, Jatinder K; Biswas, Nihar

    2014-02-05

    Soybean peroxidase (SBP)-catalyzed removal of phenol from wastewater has been demonstrated as a feasible wastewater treatment strategy and a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, has the potential for increasing the enzyme economy of the process. Systematic studies on the enzyme-surfactant system have been lacking as well as demonstration of its applicability to industrial wastewater. This paper addresses those two gaps, the latter based on real wastewater from alkyd resin manufacture. The minimum effective Triton X-100 concentrations for crude SBP-catalyzed phenol conversion (≥95%) over 1-10 mM showed a linear trend. To illustrate translation of such lab results to real-world samples, this data were used to optimize crude SBP needed for phenol conversion over that concentration range. Triton X-100 increases enzyme economy by 10- to 13-fold. This treatment protocol was directly applied to tote-scale (700-1000 L) treatment of alkyd resin wastewater, with phenol ranging from 7 to 28 mM and total organic carbon content of >40 g/L, using a crude SBP extract derived from dry soybean hulls by simple aqueous elution. This extract can be used to remove phenol from a complex industrial wastewater and the process is markedly more efficient in the presence of Triton X-100. The water is thus rendered amenable to conventional biological treatment whilst the hulls could still be used in feed, thus adding further value to the crop.

  5. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices.

  6. Optimization of electrocoagulation (EC) process for the purification of a real industrial wastewater from toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Gatsios, Evangelos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the efficiency evaluation of electrocoagulation (EC) in removing toxic metals from a real industrial wastewater, collected from Aspropyrgos, Athens, Greece was investigated. Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at respective concentrations of 5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L were present in the wastewater (pH=6), originated from the wastes produced by EBO-PYRKAL munitions industry and Hellenic Petroleum Elefsis Refineries. The effect of operational parameters such as electrode combination and distance, applied current, initial pH and initial metal concentration, was studied. The results indicated that Cu and Zn were totally removed in all experiments, while Mn exhibited equally high removal percentages (approximately 90%). Decreasing the initial pH and increasing the distance between electrodes, resulted in a negative effect on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. On the other hand, increasing the applied current, favored metal removal but resulted in a power consumption increase. Different initial concentrations did not affect metal removal efficiency. The optimal results, regarding both cost and EC efficiency, were obtained with a combination of iron electrodes, at 2 cm distance, at initial current of 0.1 A and pH=6. After 90 min of treatment, maximum removal percentages obtained were 89% for Mn, 100% for Cu and 100% for Zn, at an energy consumption of 2.55 kWh/m(3).

  7. Selective removal and recovery of Black B reactive dye from simulated textile wastewater using the supported liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin; Ee Sin, Andeline Lim; Raja Sulaiman, Raja Norimie

    2015-01-01

    Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70 ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70 ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001 M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150 ml/min and 0.2 M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition.

  8. Flux influence on membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor system under real conditions with urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poyatos, Jose M; Molina-Munoz, Marisa; Delgado, Fernando; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2008-12-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of flux on membrane fouling, the performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated under real conditions at different flux rates. The pilot plant was located at the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Spain). Influent used in the experiments came from the primary settling tank. Assays carried out under different operating conditions indicated that dTMP/dt increased in accordance with the increase in flux. The results showed a significant impact on the rate of transmembrane pressure, while the behavior of membrane fouling was logarithmic with respect to the flux. These findings could be of some importance for understanding the behavior of the membrane, since over 20.57 L m(-2) h(-1) the flux rate produced a significant increase in transmembrane pressure. The data therefore suggest that an increase in the net flux significantly affects membrane fouling.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Real-Time PCR Methods for Human Noroviruses in Wastewater and Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Konta, Yoshimitsu; Kazama, Shinobu; Inaba, Manami; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Omura, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best quantitative PCR assay is essential to detect human norovirus genome effectively from clinical and environmental samples because no cell lines have been developed to propagate this virus. The real-time PCR methods for noroviruses GI (4 assays) and GII (3 assays) were evaluated using wastewater (n = 70) and norovirus-positive stool (n = 77) samples collected in Japan between 2012 and 2013. Standard quantitative PCR assays recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, International Organization for Standardization, and Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, together with recently reported assays were included. Significant differences in positive rates and quantification cycles were observed by non-parametric analysis. The present study identifies the best assay for norovirus GI and GII to amplify norovirus genomes efficiently. PMID:27525654

  10. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations.

  11. Sorption isotherms, kinetic and optimization process of amino acid proline based polymer nanocomposite for the removal of selected textile dyes from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sharista; Anand, K; Gengan, R M; Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Maity, Arjun

    2016-12-01

    In this article, adsorption and kinetic studies were carried out on three textile dyes, namely Reactive Blue 222 (RB 222), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145). The dyes studied in a mixture were adsorbed under various conditions onto PRO-BEN, a bentonite modified with a new cationic proline polymer (l-proline-epichlorohydrin polymer). The proline polymer was characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. The PRO-BEN composite was characterized by FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS) (zeta potential), TEM imaging, SEM/EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (characterize the binding energy). During adsorption studies, factors involving pH, temperature, the initial concentrations of the dyes and the quantity of PRO-BEN used during adsorption were established. The results revealed that the adsorption mechanism was categorized by the Langmuir type 1 isotherm. The adsorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model indicated that adsorption did not only depend on the intraparticle diffusion of the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters verified that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs free energy values indicated that physisorption had occurred. Successful adsorption of dyes from an industrial effluent was achieved. Desorption studies concluded that PRO-BEN desorbed the dyes better than alumina. This can thereby be viewed as a recyclable remediation material. The PRO-BEN composite could be a cost efficient alternative towards the removal of organic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  12. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay.

    PubMed

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Porfido, Arianna; Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Gilli, Giorgio

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17β-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35±1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72±0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18±3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53±2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p<0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67±26% and 52±27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S=0.650, p=0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms.

  13. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater.

  14. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency.

  17. Auxetic textiles.

    PubMed

    Rant, Darja; Rijavec, Tatjana; Pavko-Čuden, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Common materials have Poisson's ratio values ranging from 0.0 to 0.5. Auxetic materials exhibit negative Poisson's ratio. They expand laterally when stretched longitudinally and contract laterally when compressed. In recent years the use of textile technology to fabricate auxetic materials has attracted more and more attention. It is reflected in the extent of available research work exploring the auxetic potential of various textile structures and subsequent increase in the number of research papers published. Generally there are two approaches to producing auxetic textiles. The first one includes the use of auxetic fibers to produce an auxetic textile structure, whereas the other utilizes conventional fibres to produce a textile structure with auxetic properties. This review deals with auxetic materials in general and in the specific context of auxetic polymers, auxetic fibers, and auxetic textile structures made from conventional fibers and knitted structures with auxetic potential.

  18. Solid-state fermentation: tool for bioremediation of adsorbed textile dyestuff on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass using isolated Bacillus cereus strain EBT1.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Kamatkar, Jeevan D; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-02-01

    Bioremediation of textile dyestuffs under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using industrial wastes as substrate pose an economically feasible, promising, and eco-friendly alternative. The purpose of this study was to adsorb Red M5B dye, a sample of dyes mixture and a real textile effluent on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass (DIW-YB) and its further bioremediation using Bacillus cereus EBT1 under SSF. Textile dyestuffs were allowed to adsorb on DIW-YB. DIW-YB adsorbed dyestuffs were decolorized under SSF by using B. cereus. Enzyme analysis was carried out to ensure decolorization of Red M5B. Metabolites after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC, and GC-MS. DIW-YB showed adsorption of Red M5B, dyes mixture and a textile wastewater sample up to 87, 70, and 81 %, respectively. DIW-YB adsorbed Red M5B was decolorized up to 98 % by B. cereus in 36 h. Whereas B. cereus could effectively reduce American Dye Manufacture Institute value from DIW-YB adsorbed mixture of textile dyes and textile wastewater up to 70 and 100 %, respectively. Induction of extracellular enzymes such as laccase and azoreductase suggests their involvement in dye degradation. Repeated utilization of DIW-YB showed consistent adsorption and ADMI removal from textile wastewater up to seven cycles. HPLC and FTIR analysis confirms the biodegradation of Red M5B. GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of new metabolites. B. cereus has potential to bioremediate adsorbed textile dyestuffs on DIW-YB. B. cereus along with DIW-YB showed enhanced decolorization performance in tray bioreactor which suggests its potential for large-scale treatment procedures.

  19. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-01-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L−1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L−1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h−l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  20. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-06-16

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L-1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L-1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h-l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents.

  1. Degradation of synthetic pollutants in real wastewater using laccase encapsulated in core-shell magnetic copper alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao Thanh; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Lee, Chung-Seop; Vu, Chi Huong; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jeon, Jong-Rok

    2016-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase has been highlighted to enhance their stability and reusability in bioremediation. In this study, we provide a novel immobilization technique that is very suitable to real wastewater treatment. A perfect core-shell system composing copper alginate for the immobilization of laccase (Lac-beads) was produced. Additionally, nFe2O3 was incorporated for the bead recycling through magnetic force. The beads were proven to immobilize 85.5% of total laccase treated and also to be structurally stable in water, acetate buffer, and real wastewater. To test the Lac-beads reactivity, triclosan (TCS) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) were employed. The Lac-beads showed a high percentage of TCS removal (89.6%) after 8h and RBBR decolonization at a range from 54.2% to 75.8% after 4h. Remarkably, the pollutants removal efficacy of the Lac-beads was significantly maintained in real wastewater with the bead recyclability, whereas that of the corresponding free laccase was severely deteriorated.

  2. Distribution and mass balance of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a subsurface, horizontal flow (SF-h) constructed wetland operating as post-treatment of textile wastewater for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, Donatella; Doumett, Saer; Lepri, Luciano; Checchini, Leonardo; Gonnelli, Cristina; Coppini, Ester; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2012-01-15

    In this study, during a two-year period, we investigated the fate of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a full-scale subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis. The reed bed operated as post-treatment of the effluent wastewater from an activated sludge plant serving the textile industrial district and the city of Prato (Italy). Chromium speciation was performed in influent and effluent wastewater and in water-suspended solids, at different depths and distances from the inlet; plants were also analyzed for total chromium along the same longitudinal profile. Removals of hexavalent and trivalent chromium equal to 72% and 26%, respectively were achieved. The mean hexavalent chromium outlet concentration was 1.6 ± 0.9 μg l(-1) and complied with the Italian legal limits for water reuse. Chromium in water-suspended solids was in the trivalent form, thus indicating that its removal from wastewater was obtained by the reduction of hexavalent chromium to the trivalent form, followed by accumulation of the latter inside the reed bed. Chromium in water-suspended solids was significantly affected by the distance from the inlet. Chromium concentrations in the different plant organs followed the same trend of suspended solids along the longitudinal profile and were much lower than those found in the solid material, evidencing a low metal accumulation in P. australis.

  3. Real-time water and wastewater quality monitoring using LED-based fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgeman, John; Zakharova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there have been a number of attempts to design and introduce into water management tools that are capable of measuring organic and microbial matter in real time and in situ. This is important, as the delivery of safe water to customers, and the discharge of good quality effluent to rivers are primary concerns to water undertakers. A novel, LED-based portable fluorimeter 'Duo Fluor' has been designed and constructed at the University of Birmingham to monitor the quality of (waste)water continuously and in real time, and its performance has been assessed in a range of environments. To be of use across a range of environments, special attention must be paid to two crucially important characteristics of such instruments, i.e. their sensitivity and robustness. Thus, the objectives of this study were: 1. To compare the performance (in terms of their sensitivity and robustness) of the Duo Fluor and two other commercial fluorescence devices in laboratory conditions. 2. To assess the performance of the Duo Fluor in situ, in real time at a 450,000PE WwTW. Initially, the impact of quinine sulphate (QS), a highly fluorescent alkaloid with high quantum fluorescence yield, on peak T fluorescence in environmental waters was examined for the Duo Fluor and two commercially available, chamber-based fluorimeters, (F1) and (F2). The instruments' responses to three scenarios were assessed: 1. Deionised water (DW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 2. Environmental water (pond water, PW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 3. Different water samples from various environmental source. The results show that the facility to amend gain settings and the suitable choice of gain are crucial to obtaining reliable data on both peaks T and C in a wide range of water types. The Duo Fluor offers both of these advantages whilst commercially available instruments currently do not. The Duo Fluor was subsequently fixed at the final effluent (FE) discharge point of a WwTW and FE

  4. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-28

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H₂ production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H₂ production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation.

  5. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G. N.; Mohan, S. Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H2 production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H2 production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  6. Surface-Roughness-Based Virtual Textiles: Evaluation Using a Multi-Contactor Display.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Matthew; Summers, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Virtual textiles, generated in response to exploratory movements, are presented to the fingertip via a 24-contactor vibrotactile array. Software models are based on surface-roughness profiles from real textiles. Results suggest that distinguishable "textile-like" surfaces are produced, but these lack the necessary accuracy for reliable matching to real textiles.

  7. Textile Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Kristy Alana

    Innovative and interdisciplinary solutions to wearable textile energy storage are explored as power sources for wearable electronics and smart textiles. Due to their long cycle life, non-toxic and inexpensive materials, supercapacitors were converted into textiles. Textile supercapacitors were developed using scalable fabrication methods including screen-printing, yarn making, and 3D computerized knitting. The electrode materials reported in this thesis undergo thorough electrochemical analysis, and are capable of storing up to 0.5 F/cm2 which is on par with conventionally solid supercapacitors (0.6 F/cm2). Capacitive yarns are capable of storing up to 37 mF/cm and are shown to be knittable on industrial knitting equipment. Both are some of the highest reported capacitance for all-carbon systems in the field. Yet both are the only systems composed of inexpensive and non-toxic activated carbon, the most commonly used electrode material used in supercapacitors, opposed to carbon nanotubes or graphene, which are typically more 10-100 times more expensive. However, all of the fabrication techniques reported here are also capable of incorporating a wide variety of materials, ultimately broadening the applications of textile energy storage as a whole. Fully machine knitted supercapacitors are also explored and electrochemically characterized in order to determine how the textile structure affects the capacitance. In conclusion, a wide variety of fabrication techniques for making textile supercapacitors were successfully explored.

  8. Disinfection of water and wastewater by UV-A and UV-C irradiation: application of real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Droumpali, Ariadni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Venieri, Danae

    2011-03-02

    The disinfection efficiency of synthetic and real wastewater by means of UV-A and UV-C irradiation in the presence or absence of TiO(2) was investigated. A reference strain of Escherichia coli suspended in sterile 0.8% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solution was used as a synthetic wastewater, while real wastewater samples were collected from the outlet of the secondary treatment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. E. coli inactivation was monitored both by the conventional culture technique and by the real-time PCR method. Culture method showed that UV-C irradiation (11 W lamp) achieved total E. coli inactivation of 100% within 3 min of photolytic treatment. On the other hand, UV-A (9 W lamp)/TiO(2); [TiO(2)]=200 mg L(-1) (i.e. best operating conditions) required 60 min to achieve total disinfection of the synthetic wastewater. Real time PCR revealed compatible results, regarding the better efficiency of UV-C. However, it showed different times of bacterial inactivation, probably due to the phenomenon of "viable but not culturable bacteria". Disinfection durability tests in the dark and under natural sunlight irradiation showed that there is cell repair when UV-C irradiation is used for synthetic wastewater disinfection. Regarding real wastewater it was observed that only UV-C irradiation was capable of totally inactivating E. coli population in short time. Comparing results obtained from both methods, real time PCR proved to be more reliable and accurate, concerning the bacterial detection and enumeration in aquatic samples after the application of UV irradiation.

  9. Efficient decolorization of real dye wastewater and bioelectricity generation using a novel single chamber biocathode-microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2012-09-01

    Large scale applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been severely hindered by several problems such as high internal resistance, low power output, expensive materials, and complicated configuration. To address these issues, a granular activated carbon based single chamber microbial fuel cell (GACB-SCMFC) has been designed using GAC-biocathodes without using any expensive materials for the simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and electricity generation. The GACB-SCMFC produced a power density of 8 W/m(3) which indicates the GAC-biocathode can be a good alternative to platinum and other chemical catalysts. The dye wastewater was primarily treated at the anode and further polishing steps were occurred at the aerobic cathode. Toxicity measurement shows that the effluent after GACB-SCMFC operation was much less toxic compared to the original dye wastewater. Additional advantage of the GACB-SCMFC is that pH was automatically adjusted from 12.2 to 8 during 48 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT).

  10. Granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2011-12-15

    Decolorization of dye wastewater before discharge is pivotal because of its immense color and toxicities. In this study, a granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell (GACB-MFC) was used without using any expensive materials like Nafion membrane and platinum catalyst for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and bioelectricity generation. After 48 hours of GACB-MFC operation, 73% color was removed at anode and 77% color was removed at cathode. COD removal was 71% at the anode and 76% at the cathode after 48 hours. Toxicity measurements showed that cathode effluent was almost nontoxic after 24 hours. The anode effluent was threefold less toxic compared to original dye wastewater after 48 hours. The GACB-MFC produced a power density of 1.7 W/m(3) with an open circuit voltage 0.45 V. One of the advantages of the GACB-MFC system is that pH was automatically adjusted from 12.4 to 7.2 and 8.0 at the anode and cathode during 48 hours operation.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  12. Color removal from textile dyebath effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor: determination of optimum process conditions using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Engin, Ahmet Baki; Ozdemir, Ozgür; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Z

    2008-11-30

    Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design to determine optimum conditions for color removal from textile dyebath house effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor. After the parameters were determined to treat real textile wastewater, adsorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves for adsorption studies were constructed under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent color intensity (C/C(0)) versus time (min) or bed volumes (BV). The chosen experimental parameters and their ranges are: HTAB concentration (C(htab)), 1-7.5 gL(-1); HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab)), 0.015-0.075 L min(-1); textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye)), 0.025-0.050 L min(-1) and zeolite bed height (H(bed)), 25-50 cm, respectively. Mixed orthogonal array L(16) (4(2)x2(2)) for experimental plan and the larger the better response category were selected to determine the optimum conditions. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: HTAB concentration (C(htab))=1g L(-1), HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab))=0.015 L min(-1), textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye))=0.025 L min(-1) and bed height (H(bed))=50 cm. Under these conditions, the treated wastewater volume reached a maximum while the bed volumes (BV) were about 217. While HTAB concentration, gL(-1) (A); zeolite bed height, cm (D) and wastewater flowrate, L min(-1) (C) were found to be significant parameters, respectively, whereas, HTAB flowrate, L min(-1) (B) was found to be an insignificant parameter.

  13. Impact of synthetic or real urban wastewater on membrane bioreactor (MBR) performances and membrane fouling under stable conditions.

    PubMed

    Villain, Maud; Bourven, Isabelle; Guibaud, Gilles; Marrot, Benoît

    2014-03-01

    Influence of substrate type (synthetic (SWW) or real wastewater (RWW)) on lab scale MBR performances (e.g. COD and N-NH4(+) removal rates and bioactivities) was assessed. Membrane fouling was related to MBR biological medium characteristics. With RWW, autotrophic biomass was better acclimated with complete ammonium removal. MBR biological medium was characterized by main soluble microbial products (SMP) (proteins, polysaccharides and humic-like substances) quantification and molecular weights (MW) distribution determination. The biological medium of SWW acclimation contained 60mgL(-1) more of SMP, mainly composed of proteins and polysaccharides. A protein fraction having high MW (>600kDa) could be responsible for higher removable fouling fraction in that case. SMP of RWW experiment were mainly composed of small proteic and humic-like fractions, poorly retained by the membrane and resulting in a weak augmentation of irremovable and irreversible fouling fractions compared to SWW acclimation. Therefore RWW utilization is preferable to approach real operating MBR.

  14. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  15. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of total and propidium monoazide-resistant fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Varma, M; Field, R; Stinson, M; Rukovets, B; Wymer, L; Haugland, R

    2009-11-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. These methods were used in the analyses of wastewater samples to investigate their feasibility as alternatives to current fecal indicator bacteria culture methods for predicting the efficiency of viral pathogen removal by standard treatment processes. PMA treatment was effective in preventing qPCR detection of target sequences from non-viable cells. Concentrates of small volume, secondary-treated wastewater samples, collected from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) under normal operating conditions, had little influence on this effectiveness. Higher levels of total suspended solids, such as those associated with normal primary treatment and all treatment stages during storm flow events, appeared to interfere with PMA effectiveness under the sample preparation conditions employed. During normal operating conditions at three different POTWs, greater reductions were observed in PMA-qPCR detectable target sequences of both Enterococcus and Bacteroidales than in total qPCR detectable sequences. These reductions were not as great as those observed for cultivable fecal indicator bacteria in response to wastewater disinfection. Reductions of PMA-qPCR as well as total qPCR detectable target sequences from enterococci and, to a lesser extent, Bacteroidales correlated well with reductions in infectious viruses during both normal and storm flow operating conditions and therefore may have predictive value in determining the efficiency at which these pathogens are removed.

  16. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José L; Amorós, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantification of viable and heat-treated Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater. We observed a reduction in detection of heat-treated Giardia duodenalis cysts of 83.2, 89.9, 98.2, or 97% with PMA-qPCR assays amplifying a 75 base-pair (bp) β-giardin target, 77-bp triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), 133-bp glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 143-bp β-giardin gene target, respectively. Thus, the exclusion of dead cysts was more effective when qPCR assays that produced larger amplicons were used. The PMA treatment of Cryptosporidium oocysts plus/minus heat treatment abolished the fluorescent signal for dead oocysts with a PMA-qPCR assay amplifying a Cryptosporidium parvum (150-bp) oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. The PMA-qPCR 143-bp β-giardin assay for Giardia and the PMA-qPCR 150-bp COWP assay for Cryptosporidium accurately quantified live oo(cysts), and failed to detect dead oo(cysts), when phosphate-buffered saline and tertiary effluent wastewater were spiked with concentrations of 10(3) or 10(2) dead oo(cysts), respectively. Therefore, these assays are suitable for the detection of viable parasites that are typically present in tertiary wastewater effluents at concentrations of <10(3) oo(cysts)/l and can provide rapid risk assessments of environmental water.

  17. Pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment in a continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile real hospital wastewater after a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Parladé, E; Llorca, M; Villagrasa, M; Barceló, D; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Martinez-Alonso, M; Gaju, N; Caminal, G; Sarrà, M

    2017-03-08

    Hospital wastewaters are a main source of pharmaceutical active compounds, which are usually highly recalcitrant and can accumulate in surface and groundwater bodies. Fungal treatments can remove these contaminants prior to discharge, but real wastewater poses a problem to fungal survival due to bacterial competition. This study successfully treated real non-spiked, non-sterile wastewater in a continuous fungal fluidized bed bioreactor coupled to a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment for 56 days. A control bioreactor without the fungus was also operated and the results were compared. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing approach was used to study the microbial community arisen in both reactors and as a result some bacterial degraders are proposed. The fungal operation successfully removed analgesics and anti-inflammatories, and even the most recalcitrant pharmaceutical families such as antibiotics and psychiatric drugs.

  18. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied.

  19. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater containing the Reactive Orange 16 azo dye by a combination of ozonation and moving-bed biofilm reactor: evaluating the performance, toxicity, and oxidation by-products.

    PubMed

    Castro, Francine D; Bassin, João Paulo; Dezotti, Márcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an aqueous solution containing the azo dye Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was subjected to two sequential treatment processes, namely: ozonation and biological treatment in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most appropriate ozonation pretreatment conditions for the biological process and the toxicity of the by-products resulting from RO16 ozone oxidation were evaluated. The results showed that more than 97 % of color removal from the dye solutions with RO16 concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mg/L was observed in 5 min of ozone exposure. However, the maximum total organic carbon removal achieved by ozonation was only 48 %, indicating partial mineralization of the dye. Eleven intermediate organic compounds resulting from ozone treatment of RO16 solution were identified by LC/MS analyses at different contact times. The toxicity of the dye-containing solution decreased after 2 min of ozonation, but increased at longer contact times. The results further demonstrated that the ozonolysis products did not affect the performance of the subsequent MBBR, which achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium removal of 93 ± 1 and 97 ± 2 %, respectively. A second MBBR system fed with non-ozonated dye-containing wastewater was run in parallel for comparison purposes. This reactor also showed an appreciable COD (90 ± 1 %) and ammonium removal (97 ± 2 %), but was not effective in removing color, which remained practically invariable over the system. The use of short ozonation times (5 min) and a compact MBBR has shown to be effective for the treatment of the simulated textile wastewater containing the RO16 azo dye.

  20. Assessing the effects of solids residence time and volatile fatty acid augmentation on biological phosphorus removal using real wastewater.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Christopher J; Coats, Erik R; Loge, Frank J

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the research presented herein was to evaluate the effects of solids residence time (SRT) and organic acid augmentation on biological phosphorus removal (BPR), with a focus on how these operational variables affect key metabolisms and the distribution of the microbial population. Using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors seeded with a mixed microbial consortium and fed real wastewater, we observed that longer SRTs can improve BPR performance; organic acid augmentation can stabilize BPR, but it is not necessary for process success; and higher volatile suspended solids concentrations correlate with improved phosphorus removal. The results also suggest that organic acids may not be critical in driving anaerobic phosphorus release, but in driving aerobic growth. Finally, given an observed population similarity across all tested bioreactors, BPR variability appears to be less influenced by the presence of specific microbes and more affected by the induction of critical metabolisms.

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater collected from a textile factory before and after treatment by coagulation-flocculation methods.

    PubMed

    Makene, Vedastus W; Tijani, Jimoh O; Petrik, Leslie F; Pool, Edmund J

    2016-08-01

    Effective treatment of textile effluent prior to discharge is necessary in order to avert the associated adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life. In the present investigation, coagulation/flocculation processes were evaluated for the effectiveness of the individual treatment. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the physicochemical characteristics. The quality of the pre-treated and post-flocculation treated effluent was further evaluated by determination of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity was determined using WST-1 assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were used as biomarkers of inflammation. NO was determined in cell culture supernatant using the Griess reaction assay. The IL-6 secretion was determined using double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (DAS ELISA). Cytotoxicity results show that raw effluent reduced the cell viability significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the negative control. All effluent samples treated by coagulation/flocculation processes at 1 in 100 dilutions had no cytotoxic effects on RAW264.7 cells. The results on inflammatory activities show that the raw effluent and effluent treated with 1.6 g/L of Fe-Mn oxide induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher NO production than the negative control. The inflammatory results further show that the raw effluent induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher production of IL-6 than the negative control. Among the coagulants/flocculants evaluated Al2(SO4)3.14H2O at a dosage of 1.6 g/L was the most effective to remove both toxic and inflammatory pollutants. In conclusion, the inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells can be used as sensitive biomarkers for monitoring the effectiveness of coagulation/flocculation processes used for textile effluent treatment.

  2. Real-Time Wastewater System Operational Strategy Adaptation for Rainfall Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schmidt, A.; Ostfeld, A.; Treinish, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Management strategies for many large-scale wastewater systems are based on longstanding rules and may not effectively utilize system capacity for every storm event. Conservative operational rules are established to prevent flow instabilities. However, the rules may be modified to retain more wastewater and reduce overflows while continuing to avoid hydraulic conditions that lead to transients. Possible adaptation of system decision rules can be evaluated through coupling radar rainfall, a hydrologic system model, and an optimization routine. In this study, genetic algorithm optimization is evaluated for a hydrologic test case modeled after the Chicago Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) that minimizes combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharge to nearby waterways. This approach identifies potential new operational rules that reliably utilize deep tunnel storage and reduce overflows for a variety of historic storm events. The study utilizes a model based on the portion of the TARP deep tunnel system that flows directly under the North Branch of the Chicago River. Potential overflows coming from the upstream pipe and interceptor system are directed into the deep tunnel through sluice gates. System decision variables consist of sluice gate positions that control whether water enters the deep tunnel or flows into the river, as well as a treatment plant pumping rate on the interceptor lines. For different optimization runs, modifications are made to existing hydraulic structures to evaluate solution robustness for comparable hydraulic systems. The operational objective is to minimize the total volume of overflows for each storm event through a decision sequence, generated at discretized intervals, within a model predictive control (MPC) framework. Current operational strategies restrict water entry to the deep tunnel when an averaged tunnel water level reaches 70 percent of the diameter to avoid hydraulic transients. The optimization routine implements constraints that

  3. A method for dye extraction using an aqueous two-phase system: Effect of co-occurrence of contaminants in textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriella Alexandre; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Penido, Jussara Alves; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; Rodrigues, Guilherme Dias

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a green and efficient procedure for extraction of the dyes Malachite Green (MG), Methylene Blue (MB), and Reactive Red 195 (RR) using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). An ATPS consists mainly of water, together with polymer and salt, and does not employ any organic solvent. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by means of the partition coefficients (K) and residual percentages (%R) of the dyes, under different experimental conditions, varying the tie-line length (TLL) of the system, the pH, the type of ATPS-forming electrolyte, and the type of ATPS-forming polymer. For MG, the best removal (K = 4.10 × 10(4), %R = 0.0069%) was obtained with the ATPS: PEO 1500 + Na2C4H4O6 (TLL = 50.21% (w/w), pH = 6.00). For MB, the maximum extraction (K = 559.9, %R = 0.258%) was achieved with the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 1.00). Finally for RR, the method that presented the best results (K = 3.75 × 10(4), %R = 0.237%) was the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 6.00). The method was applied to the recovery of these dyes from a textile effluent sample, resulting in values of K of 1.17 × 10(4), 724.1, and 3.98 × 10(4) for MG, MB, and RR, respectively, while the corresponding %R values were 0.0038, 0.154, and 0.023%, respectively. In addition, the ATPS methodology provided a high degree of color removal (96.5-97.95%) from the textile effluent.

  4. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  5. Real-time determination of the efficacy of residual disinfection to limit wastewater contamination in a water distribution system using filtration-based luminescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyoung; Deininger, Rolf A

    2010-05-01

    Water distribution systems can be vulnerable to microbial contamination through cross-connections, wastewater backflow, the intrusion of soiled water after a loss of pressure resulting from an electricity blackout, natural disaster, or intentional contamination of the system in a bioterrrorism event. The most urgent matter a water treatment utility would face in this situation is detecting the presence and extent of a contamination event in real-time, so that immediate action can be taken to mitigate the problem. The current approved microbiological detection methods are culture-based plate count methods, which require incubation time (1 to 7 days). This long period of time would not be useful for the protection of public health. This study was designed to simulate wastewater intrusion in a water distribution system. The objectives were 2-fold: (1) real-time detection of water contamination, and (2) investigation of the sustainability of drinking water systems to suppress the contamination with secondary disinfectant residuals (chlorine and chloramine). The events of drinking water contamination resulting from a wastewater addition were determined by filtration-based luminescence assay. The water contamination was detected by luminescence method within 5 minutes. The signal amplification attributed to wastewater contamination was clear-102-fold signal increase. After 1 hour, chlorinated water could inactivate 98.8% of the bacterial contaminant, while chloraminated water reduced 77.2%.

  6. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  7. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption. PMID:26517827

  8. Potential of immobilized bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidases in the decolorization and removal of textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Suhail; Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-07-01

    Immobilized peroxidases from Momordica charantia were highly effective in decolorizing reactive textile dyes compared to its soluble counterpart. Dye solutions, 50-200 mg/l, were treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidases (specific activity of 99.0 EU per mg protein). The decolorization of dyes with soluble and immobilized enzyme was maximum in the range of pH 3.0-4.0. The effect of different temperatures on the dye decolorization was monitored and it was observed that all the dyes were maximally decolorized at 40 degrees C. In order to examine the operational stability of the immobilized preparation, the enzyme was repeatedly exploited for the decolorization of the dyes from fresh batch of dye solutions. Even after 10 cycles in each case the immobilized preparation retained nearly 50% of the initial enzyme activity. The immobilized enzyme exhibited more than 90% of the original activity while the soluble enzyme lost 33% of the initial activity when stored for 40 d at room temperature. Mixtures of three, four and eight dyes were prepared and treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with immobilized enzyme. Dyeing effluent collected from local dyers was treated with both types of enzyme preparations. Immobilized enzyme was capable of removing remarkably high concentration of color from the effluent. TOC content of soluble and immobilized enzyme treated individual dyes, mixture of dyes and dyeing effluent was determined and it was observed that higher TOC was removed after treatment with immobilized enzyme.

  9. Impact of a real-time controlled wastewater subsurface drip disposal system on the selected chemical properties of a vertisol.

    PubMed

    Hea, Jiajie; Dougherty, Mark; Arriaga, Francisco J; AbdelGadir, Abdelaziz H

    2013-01-01

    The operation of onsite septic effluent disposal without considering seasonal moisture changes in drain field conditions can be a major cause of the failure of conventional septic systems. This study addressed this issue from a soil hydraulic perspective by using real-time drain field soil moisture levels to limit septic effluent disposal in a vertisol via subsurface drip irrigation. A prototype system was field-tested in a Houston clay soil and results describe the subsequent impact on selected soil chemical properties. After one year of hydraulic dosing with a synthetic wastewater, soil total carbon and nitrogen concentrations increased, but no increase in soil total phosphorus concentration was observed. Soil NO3-N leaching potential was noted, but soil NH4-N concentrations decreased, which could be ascribed to NH4-N nitrification, fixation within clay sheets and NH3 volatilization. Soil K+, Mg2+ and Na+ concentrations increased in soil layers above the drip lines, but decreased in soil layers below drip lines. Soil electrical conductivity accordingly increased in soil layers above drip lines, but the range was significantly lower than the threshold for soil salinity. Although the moisture-controlled effluent disposal strategy successfully avoided hydraulic dosing during unfavourable wet drain field conditions and prevented accumulation of soil salts in the soil profile beneath the drip lines, soil salts tended to accumulate in top soil layers. These adverse effects warrant system corrections before large-scale implementation of subsurface drip irrigation of effluent in similar vertisols.

  10. Combination of nanofiltration and ozonation for the remediation of real municipal wastewater effluents: Acute and chronic toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Miralles-Cuevas, S; Oller, I; Agüera, A; Llorca, M; Sánchez Pérez, J A; Malato, S

    2017-02-05

    The purpose of this work was to study the ozonation of nanofiltration (NF) retentates of real municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents for removal of microcontaminants (MCs) and toxicity. MCs present in these effluents were monitored using LC-MS/MS. Acute and chronic toxicity was addressed with Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and Selenastrum capricornutum. Up to 40 MCs were found, most of them in concentrations over 100ng/L. 90% degradation of the sum of MCs was the critical point of comparison. When the NF membrane system was applied to MWTP effluents, treatment of NF rejection needed 2.75-4.5g O3/m(3),4.5g O3/m(3), which is less than 50% of the ozone needed for direct treatment of MWTP effluent. Treatment time (lower than 11min) was not influenced by MCs concentration, at least in the range tested (25-190μg/L). It has been demonstrated that consumption of ozone increased with organic load and inorganic content of different real effluents. MCs were eliminated by ozonation but acute toxicity (against V. fischeri and D. magna) increased. Chronic toxicity results were different and contrary in D. magna and S. capricornutum, due to the generation of new transformation products more toxic to D. magna than the parent contaminants. S. capricornutum inhibition percentage decreased in all cases after ozonation treatment. According to these results, before ozonation is implemented in MWTPs for the removal of MCs, the transformation products must first be examined and the treatment time or ozone doses should be extended to complete degradation if necessary.

  11. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  12. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality.

  13. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Comparative study of the degradation of real textile effluents by photocatalytic reactions involving UV/TiO2/H2O2 and UV/Fe2+/H2O2 systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J C; Oliveira, J L; Silva, A E C; Oliveira, C C; Nozaki, J; de Souza, N E

    2007-08-17

    This work investigated the treatability of real textile effluents using several systems involving advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as UV/H2O2, UV/TiO2, UV/TiO2/H2O2, and UV/Fe2+/H2O2. The efficiency of each technique was evaluated according to the reduction levels observed in the UV absorbance of the effluents, COD, and organic nitrogen reduction, as well as mineralization as indicated by the formation of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions. The results indicate the association of TiO2 and H2O2 as the most efficient treatment for removing organic pollutants from textile effluents. In spite of their efficiency, Fenton reactions based treatment proved to be slower and exhibited more complicated kinetics than the ones using TiO2, which are pseudo-first-order reactions. Decolorization was fast and effective in all the experiments despite the fact that only H2O2 was used.

  17. Smart Textiles: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Schwarz, Anne

    This chapter introduces smart textiles and explains how textile materials and structures can be used as sensors, actuators, communication devices, energy sources and storage tools, and even processors. Conductive materials serve as the base for smart textiles. There are several advantages of using textiles as a substrate for smart functions; this chapter explains their important role in thermoregulation and highlights a smart suit for rescue workers.

  18. Textiles and Apparel Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on textiles and apparel design. The units cover: (1) fiber/fiber characteristics and textile development (including fabrication and dyeing, printing, and finishing); (2) textile and apparel design industries (including their history and…

  19. Career Awareness through Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domalski, Beverly

    This collection of art units is intended to be incorporated into the curriculum throughout the career motivation program, kindergarten through grade six. The units use simulated classroom art projects to provide students with exposure to the work done in textile decoration. General information about the textile industry and textile decoration, a…

  20. 4-H Textile Science Textile Arts Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H textile arts projects for students in the textile sciences area. The projects cover weaving, knitting, and crocheting. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects for the area. Projects can be adapted for beginning, intermediate, or advanced…

  1. Constructed wetland treatment system in textile industry and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Davies, L C; Pedro, I S; Ferreira, R A; Freire, F G; Novais, J M; Martins-Dias, S

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of the adequacy and sustainability of a constructed wetland (CW), with vertical flow (VF) design to treat a strongly coloured textile wastewater.Secondly an accidental AO7 overloaded discharge (700 mg l(-1)) was studied. A set of three similar VFCW beds (3x1 m2), operating in series, allowed also the efficient treatment of the AO7 heavy loaded wastewaters. The treated effluent quality enables water reuse for irrigation purposes or within the process.

  2. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  3. Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Marin, Alejandro; Mendoza-Espinosa, Leopoldo G; Stephenson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Two species of microalgae growing as immobilized and free-cells were compared to test its ability to remove N and P in batch cultures of urban wastewater. The best microalgae-cell growth configuration was selected to be tested in bioreactor operated in semi-continuous mode. Scenedesmus obliquus showed a higher N and P uptake rate in urban wastewater than Chlorella vulgaris. When tested in semi-continuous mode and with the re-calcification of beads, S. obliquus was more effective in removing N and P for longer periods (181 h) than batch cultures; fecal coliforms removal was good (95%) although the final concentration was still unsuitable for discharge to natural water bodies. Protein and lipids content analysis suggest that, from a practical point of view, immobilized systems could facilitate the separation of the biomass from the treated wastewater although in terms of nutritional value of the biomass, immobilized systems do not represent an advantage over free-cell systems.

  4. Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation of biodegraded textile effluent by fungal ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-01-01

    Colored effluents from the textile industry have led to severe environmental pollution, and this has emerged as a global issue. The feasibility of ligninolytic enzymes for the detoxification and degradation of textile wastewater was investigated. Ganoderma lucidum crude ligninolytic enzymes extract (MnP 717.7, LiP 576.3, and Laccase 323.2 IU/mL) was produced using solid-state culture using wheat bran as substrate. The biodegradation treatment efficiency was evaluated on the basis of degradation and detoxification of textile effluents. Standard bioassays were employed for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation before and after biodegradation. The degradation of Masood Textile, Kalash Textile, Khyber Textile and Sitara Textile effluents was achieved up to 87.29%, 80.17%, 77.31% and 69.04%, respectively. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and total organic carbon were improved considerably as a result of biodegradation of textile effluents, which were beyond the permissible limits established by the National Environmental Quality Standards before treatment. The cytotoxicity (Allium cepa, hemolytic, Daphnia magna and brine shrimp), mutagenicity (Ames TA98 and TA100) and phytotoxicity (Triticum aestivum) tests revealed that biodegradation significantly (P < 0.05) detoxifies the toxic agents in wastewater. Results revealed that biodegradation could possibly be used for remediation of textile effluents. However, detoxification monitoring is crucial and should always be used to evaluate the bio-efficiency of a treatment technique.

  6. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  7. Textile solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Guadard, Y.; Guillemaud, H.

    1982-04-27

    Disclosed is a solar collector employing a liquid collecting medium. A textile collection surface of which the thickness possesses different densities is employed to carry the medium. These densities are such that the densities increase from the surface exposed to the sun to the opposite surface, in order to enable the liquid to run in the upper thickness. The textile collecting surface consists of at least one nonwoven textile thickness.

  8. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  9. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  10. Microbial community structure and dynamics in a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor aerobically treating domestic wastewater under real operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Molina-Muñoz, M; Poyatos, J M; Sánchez-Peinado, M; Hontoria, E; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

    2009-06-15

    A pilot scale submerged ultra-filtration membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater over 9 months of year 2006 (28th March to 21st December). The MBR was installed at a municipal wastewater facility (EMASAGRA, Granada, Spain) and was fed with real wastewater. The experimental work was divided in 4 stages run under different sets of operation conditions. Operation parameters (total and volatile suspended solids, dissolved oxygen concentration) and environmental variables (temperature, pH, COD and BOD(5) of influent water) were daily monitored. In all the experiments conducted, the MBR generated an effluent of optimal quality complying with the requirements of the European Law (91/271/CEE 1991). A cultivation-independent approach (polymerase chain reaction-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, PCR-TGGE) was used to analyze changes in the structure of the bacterial communities in the sludge. Cluster analysis of TGGE profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure related to variations of the operation parameters and environmental factors. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that temperature, hydraulic retention time and concentration of volatile suspended solids were the factors mostly influencing community structure. 23 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, allowing gaining insight into the identities of predominantly present bacterial populations in the sludge. Retrieved partial 16S-rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to the alpha-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria and gamma-Proteobacteria classes. The community established in the MBR in each of the four stages of operation significantly differed in species composition and the sludge generated displayed dissimilar rates of mineralization, but these differences did not influence the performance of the bioreactor (quality of the permeate). These data indicate that the flexibility of the bacterial community

  11. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.

    PubMed

    Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The

  12. NIR Analysis for Textiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been found to be a useful technique to characterize raw materials and finished textile products, and NIR methods and techniques continue to find increasingly diverse and wide-ranging quantitative and qualitative applications in the textile industry. NIR methods ...

  13. Textile industry needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immediate customer of the cotton gin is the producer; however the ultimate customers are the textile mill and the consumer. The ginner has the challenging job to satisfy both the producer and the textile industry. The classing and grading systems are intended to assign economic value to the ba...

  14. Smart textiles: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherenack, Kunigunde; van Pieterson, Liesbeth

    2012-11-01

    Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.

  15. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6.

  16. Real-time monitoring of biofoulants in a membrane bioreactor during saline wastewater treatment for anti-fouling strategies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Songwen; Hou, Yang; Cui, Chunzhi; Chen, Xuncai; Li, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a novel, fast and simple monitoring-responding method at the very early stages of membrane bio-fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) during saline wastewater treatment. The impacts of multiple environmental shocks on membrane fouling were studied. The transmembrane pressure exceeded the critical fouling pressure within 8days in the case of salinity shock or temperature shock. In the case of DO shock, the transmembrane pressure exceeded the critical fouling pressure after 16days, showing the lower impact of DO shock on the MBR. In another study, the membrane fouling was observed within 4days responding to mixed environmental shocks. To decrease the potential of membrane bio-fouling, another bioreactor was integrated immediately with the MBR as a quickly-responded countermeasure, when an early warning of membrane bio-fouling was provided. After the bioreactor enhancement, the time required for membrane fouling increased from 4 to 10days.

  17. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water.

  18. Inactivation of natural enteric bacteria in real municipal wastewater by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Gómez, E; Esteban García, B; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Fernández Ibáñez, P; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2014-10-15

    This study analyses the use of the solar photo-Fenton treatment in compound parabolic collector photo-reactors at neutral pH for the inactivation of wild enteric Escherichia coli and total coliform present in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP). Control experiments were carried out to find out the individual effects of mechanical stress, pH, reactants concentration, and UVA radiation as well as the combined effects of UVA-Fe and UVA-H2O2. The synergistic germicidal effect of solar-UVA with 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 led to complete disinfection (up to the detection limit) of total coliforms within 120 min. The disinfection process was accelerated by photo-Fenton, achieving total inactivation in 60 min reducing natural bicarbonate concentration found in the SEWWTP from 250 to 100 mg L(-1) did not give rise to a significant enhancement in bacterial inactivation. Additionally, the effect of hydrogen peroxide and iron dosage was evaluated. The best conditions were 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+). Due to the variability of the SEWWTP during autumn and winter seasons, the inactivation kinetic constant varied between 0.07 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.04 min(-1). Moreover, the water treated by solar photo-Fenton fulfilled the microbiological quality requirement for wastewater reuse in irrigation as per the WHO guidelines and in particular for Spanish legislation.

  19. UV254 absorbance as real-time monitoring and control parameter for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment with powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Massa, Lukas; Sperlich, Alexander; Gnirss, Regina; Jekel, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the applicability of UV absorbance measurements at 254 nm (UVA254) to serve as a simple and reliable surrogate parameter to monitor and control the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in advanced wastewater treatment applying powdered activated carbon (PAC). Correlations between OMP removal and corresponding UVA254 reduction were determined in lab-scale adsorption batch tests and successfully applied to a pilot-scale PAC treatment stage to predict OMP removals in aggregate samples with good accuracy. Real-time UVA254 measurements were utilized to evaluate adapted PAC dosing strategies and proved to be effective for online monitoring of OMP removal. Furthermore, active PAC dosing control according to differential UVA254 measurements was implemented and tested. While precise removal predictions based on real-time measurements were not accurate for all OMPs, UVA254-controlled dynamic PAC dosing was capable of achieving stable OMP removals. UVA254 can serve as an effective surrogate parameter for OMP removal in technical PAC applications. Even though the applicability as control parameter to adjust PAC dosing to water quality changes might be limited to applications with fast response between PAC adjustment and adsorptive removal (e.g. direct filtration), UVA254 measurements can also be used to monitor the adsorption efficiency in more complex PAC applications.

  20. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  1. Flame-resistant textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.

  2. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified.

  3. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  4. Two novel real time cell-based assays quantify beta-blocker and NSAID specific effects in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Kevin; Stahl, Cordula; Martens, Regina; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita; Scheurer, Marco; Frey, Manfred

    2017-05-15

    Pharmaceuticals, such as beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as their metabolites are introduced into the water cycle via municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in all industrialized countries. As the amino acid sequences of the biological target molecules of these pharmaceuticals - the beta-1 adrenergic receptor for beta-blockers and the cyclooxygenase for NSAIDs - are phylogenetically conserved among vertebrates it is reasonable that wildlife vertebrates including fish physiologically respond in a similar way to them as documented in humans. Consequently, beta-blockers and NSAIDs both exhibit their effects according to their mode of action on one hand, but on the other hand that may lead to unwanted side effects in non-target species. To determine whether residuals of beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists and cyclooxygenase inhibitors may pose a risk to aquatic organisms, one has to know the extent to which such organisms respond to the total of active compounds, their metabolites and transformation products with the same modes of action. To cope with this demand, two cell-based assays were developed, by which the total beta-blocker and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity can be assessed in a given wastewater or surface water extract in real time. The measured activity is quantified as metoprolol equivalents (MetEQ) of the lead substance metoprolol in the beta-blocker assay, and diclofenac equivalents (DicEQ) in the NSAID assay. Even though MetEQs and DicEQs were found to surpass the concentration of the respective lead substances (metoprolol, diclofenac), as determined by chemical analysis by a factor of two to three, this difference was shown to be reasonably explained by the presence and action of additional active compounds with the same mode of action in the test samples. Thus, both in vitro assays were proven to integrate effectively over beta-blocker and NSAID activities in WWTP effluents in a very sensitive

  5. Short-term soil nutrient impact in a real-time drain field soil moisture controlled SDI wastewater disposal system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Alabama Black Belt area is widespread of Vertisols that are generally unsuitable for conventional septic systems; nonetheless, systems of this type have been widely used in this region for decades. In order to explore alternatives for these conventional septic systems, a real-time soil moisture ...

  6. Treatment of real coal gasification wastewater using a novel integrated system of anoxic hybrid two stage aerobic processes: performance and the role of pure oxygen microbubble.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Shan, Shengdao

    2016-06-01

    A novel integrated system of anoxic-pure oxygen microbubble-activated sludge reactor-moving bed biofilm reactor was employed in treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed the integrated system had efficient performance of pollutants removal in short hydraulic retention time. While pure oxygen microbubble with the flow rate of 1.5 L/h and NaHCO3 dosage ratio of 2:1 (amount NaHCO3 to NH4 (+)-N ratio, mol: mol) were used, the removal efficiencies of COD, total phenols (TPh) and NH4 (+)-N reached 90, 95, and 95 %, respectively, with the influent loading rates of 3.4 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.81 kg TPh/(m(3) d), and 0.28 kg NH4 (+)-N/(m(3) d). With the recycle ratio of 300 %, the concentrations of NO2 (-)-N and NO3 (-)-N in effluent decreased to 12 and 59 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, pure oxygen microbubble significantly improved the enzymatic activities and affected the effluent organic compositions and reduced the foam expansion. Thus, the novel integrated system with efficient, stable, and economical advantages was suitable for engineering application.

  7. Assessing membrane fouling and the performance of pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater during winter season in Nordic regions.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Khum; Ncibi, Mohamed Chaker; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater was assessed at low temperatures (7 to 20°C) in Nordic regions. First, the effect of low temperatures on membrane fouling was evaluated by monitoring trans-membrane pressure. A significant membrane fouling was observed when the sludge temperature inside the MBR unit was below 10°C with a 75% permeability drop, thus indicating high deterioration of the membrane performance at low temperatures. Moreover, increasing values of sludge volume index (SVI) during low temperatures showed high deterioration of sludge settleability. As for the pollution removal, MBR achieved high performances primarily for pathogens and emerging micropollutants. The average log reductions of 1.82, 3.02, and 1.94 log units were achieved for norovirus GI, norovirus GII, and adenoviruses, respectively. Among the four trace organic compounds (TrOCs), the average removal efficiencies of bisoprolol, diclofenac and bisphenol A were 65%, 38%, and >97%, respectively. However, carbamazepine was not efficiently removed (-89% to 28%). Regarding trace metals, an average removal of >80% was achieved for Cd, Pb, and V. For the rest of the metals, the removal capacities were between 30 and 60%.

  8. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  9. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction.

    PubMed

    Cavallin, Jenna E; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Lee, Kathy E; Schroeder, Anthony L; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P; Nelson, Krysta R; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Blackwell, Brett R; Berninger, Jason P; LaLone, Carlie A; Blanksma, Chad; Jicha, Terri; Elonen, Colleen; Johnson, Rodney; Ankley, Gerald T

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  10. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid oxidation in sulfate and real olive oil mill wastewater by electrochemical advanced processes with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Flores, Nelly; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi

    2017-01-05

    The degradation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, a ubiquitous component of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW), has been studied by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed in either a 0.050M Na2SO4 solution or a real OOMW at pH 3.0, using a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 generation. Hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface from water oxidation in all processes and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2 in EF and PEF were the main oxidants. In both matrices, the oxidation ability of the processes increased in the order AO-H2O2real OOMW.

  11. Performance evaluation of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor pilot plant system used in treating real wastewater from recycled paper industry.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot scale granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor with a capacity of 2.2 m3 was operated for over three months to evaluate its performance treating real recycled paper industry wastewater under different operational conditions. In this study, dissolved air floatation (DAF) and clarifier effluents were used as influent sources of the pilot plant. During the course of the study, the reactor was able to biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming recycled paper mill wastewater in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX; specifically 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiencies at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1-3 days, aeration rates (ARs) of 2.1-3.4 m3/min and influent feed concentration of 40-950 mg COD/l. Percentages of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals increased with increasing HRT, resulting in more than 90% COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals at HRT values above two days. Degradation of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N were seriously affected by variation of ARs, which resulted in significant decrease of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals by decreasing ARs from 3.4 m3/min to 2.1 m3/min, varying in the ranges of 24-80%, 6-96% and 5-42%, respectively. In comparison to the clarifier effluent, the treatment performance of DAF effluent, containing high COD concentration, resulted in a higher COD removal of 82%. The use of diluted DAF effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal. Higher NH3-N removal efficiency of almost 100% was observed during operation after maintenance shutdown compared to normal operation, even at the same HRT of one day due to the higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (1-7 mg/l), while no significant difference in COD removal efficiency was observed.

  12. Textile technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Bharat M.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and develop window belt and side panel structural design concepts, to evaluate textile material properties, and to develop low cost manufacturing and tooling processes for the automated manufacturing of fuselage primary structures. This research was in support of the NASA and Langley Research Center (LaRc) Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technologies for Primary Aircraft Structures program.

  13. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  14. Novel antimicrobial textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Unchin

    2003-10-01

    Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer

  15. Decolourisation of Red 5 MB dye by microbes isolated from textile dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Subashini, P; Hiranmaiyadav, R; Premalatha, M S

    2010-07-01

    One of the major environmental problems is the presence of dye materials in textile wastewater, which need to be removed before releasing into the environment. Some dyes are toxic and carcinogenic in nature. The discharge of the textile effluent into rivers and lakes leads to higher BOD causing threat to aquatic life. Development of efficient dye degradation requires suitable strain and its use under favorable condition to realize the degradation potential. In this study, three microorganisms were isolated from the Red 5 MB dye containing textile wastewater. They were identified and tested for the dye decolourisation provided with different sugars as carbon source. The percentage of dye decolorized by Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus were found to be about 40%, 75% and 53.8% respectively.

  16. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater.

  17. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Doris; Schlich, Karsten; Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute; Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2015-07-15

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  18. Characterization of silver release from commercially available functional (nano)textiles.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, C; Windler, L; von Goetz, N; Lehmann, R P; Schuppler, M; Hungerbühler, K; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B

    2012-10-01

    Silver, both in the nano as well as in other forms, is used in many applications including antimicrobial textiles. Washing of such textiles has already been identified as an important process that results in the release of silver into wastewater. This study thus investigated the release of silver from eight different commercially available silver-textiles during a washing and rinsing cycle. The silver released was size-fractionated and characterized using electron microscopy. In addition, the antimicrobial functionality of the textiles was tested before and after washing. Three of the textiles contained nanosized silver (labeled or confirmed by manufacturers' information), another used a metallic silver wire and four contained silver in undeclared form. The initial silver content of the textiles was between 1.5 and 2925mg Ag/kg. Only four of the investigated textiles leached detectable amounts of silver, of which 34-80% was in the form of particles larger than 450nm. Microscopic analysis of the particles released in the washing solutions identified Ti/Si-AgCl nanocomposites, AgCl nanoparticles, large AgCl particles, nanosilver sulfide and metallic nano-Ag, respectively. The nanoparticles were mainly found in highly agglomerated form. The identified nanotextiles showed the highest antimicrobial activity, whereas some of the other textiles, e.g. the one with a silver wire and the one with the lowest silver content, did not reduce the growth of bacteria at all. The results show that different silver textiles release different forms of silver during washing and that among the textiles investigated AgCl was the most frequently observed chemical form in the washwater.

  19. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The presen...

  20. Woven-Yarn Thermoelectric Textiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ah; Aliev, Ali E; Bykova, Julia S; de Andrade, Mônica Jung; Kim, Daeyoung; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lepró, Xavier; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Roth, Siegmar; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication and characterization of highly flexible textiles are reported. These textiles can harvest thermal energy from temperature gradients in the desirable through-thickness direction. The tiger yarns containing n- and p-type segments are woven to provide textiles containing n-p junctions. A high power output of up to 8.6 W m(-2) is obtained for a temperature difference of 200 °C.

  1. An efficient and economical treatment for batik textile wastewater containing high levels of silicate and organic pollutants using a sequential process of acidification, magnesium oxide, and palm shell-based activated carbon application.

    PubMed

    Birgani, Payam Moradi; Ranjbar, Navid; Abdullah, Rosniah Che; Wong, Kien Tiek; Lee, Gooyong; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Park, Chulhwan; Yoon, Yeomin; Jang, Min

    2016-12-15

    Considering the chemical properties of batik effluents, an efficient and economical treatment process was established to treat batik wastewater containing not only high levels of Si and chemical oxygen demand (COD), but also toxic heavy metals. After mixing the effluents obtained from the boiling and soaking steps in the batik process, acidification using concentrated hydrochloric acid (conc. HCl) was conducted to polymerize the silicate under acidic conditions. Consequently, sludge was produced and floated. XRD and FT-IR analyses showed that wax molecules were coordinated by hydrogen bonding with silica (SiO2). The acidification process removed ∼78-95% of COD and ∼45-50% of Si, depending on the pH. In the next stage, magnesium oxide (MgO) was applied to remove heavy metals completely and almost 90% of the Si in the liquid phase. During this step, about 70% of COD was removed in the hydrogel that arose as a consequence of the crosslinking characteristics of the formed nano-composite, such as magnesium silicate or montmorillonite. The hydrogel was composed mainly of waxes with polymeric properties. Then, the remaining Si (∼300 mg/L) in the wastewater combined with the effluents from the rinsing steps was further treated using 50 mg/L MgO. As a final step, palm-shell activated carbon (PSAC) was used to remove the remaining COD to < 50 mg/L at pH 3. Overall, the sequential process of acidification and MgO/PSAC application developed could serve as an economical and effective treatment option for treating heavily polluted batik effluents.

  2. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  3. Smart Textiles for Strengthening of Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górski, Marcin; Krzywoń, Rafał; Dawczyński, Szymon; Szojda, Leszek; Salvado, Rita; Lopes, Catarina; Araujo, Pedro; Velez, Fernando Jose; Castro-Gomes, Joao

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents results of mechanical tests on a prototype of an innovative structural strengthening in form of self-monitoring fabric. Smart textile employs carbon fibers conductivity for measuring strains while monitoring changes of electric resistance under increasing load. A general solution was tested in a series of calibrating tests on strengthening of small size concrete slabs. Promising results of simple specimen, has encouraged the research team to perform the next tests using mastered carbon fibre reinforced fabric. Main tests were performed on natural scale RC beam. Smart textile proved its efficiency in both: strengthening and monitoring of strains during load increase. New strengthening proposal was given 10% increase of loading capacity and the readings of strain changes were similar to those obtained in classical methods. In order to calibrate the prototype and to define range limits of solution usability, textile sensor was tested in areas of large deformations (timber beam) and aswell as very small strains (bridge bearing block). In both cases, the prototype demonstrated excellent performance in the range of importance for structural engineering. This paper also presents an example of use of the smart strengthening in situ, in a real life conditions.

  4. E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

  5. Decolorization of adsorbed textile dyes by developed consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Telke, Amar A; Jagtap, Sujit S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop consortium using Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 to decolorize adsorbed dyes from textile effluent wastewater under solid state fermentation. Among various agricultural wastes rice bran showed dye adsorption up to 90, 62 and 80% from textile dye reactive navy blue HE2R (RNB HE2R) solution, mixture of textile dyes and textile industry wastewater, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 showed 62 and 38% decolorization of RNB HE2R adsorbed on rice bran in 24h under solid state fermentation. However, the consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 (consortium-PA) showed 80% decolorization in 24h. The consortium-PA showed effective ADMI removal ratio of adsorbed dyes from textile industry wastewater (77%), mixture of textile dyes (82%) and chemical precipitate of textile dye effluent (CPTDE) (86%). Secretion of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, azoreductase, tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase and their significant induction in the presence of adsorbed dye suggests their role in the decolorization of RNB HE2R. GCMS and HPLC analysis of product suggests the different fates of biodegradation of RNB HE2R when used Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 and consortium PA.

  6. Textile dryer heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J. S.

    1985-08-06

    A textile dryer heat recovery system includes a textile dryer and a heat exchanger. A duct is provided for directing dryer exhaust gas to the heat exchanger for preheating dryer input air. A cleaning system within the heat exchanger removes dryer exhaust gas contaminants deposited in the heat exchanger.

  7. SYBR green real time-polymerase chain reaction as a rapid and alternative assay for the efficient identification of all existing Escherichia coli biotypes approved directly in wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Chetta, Massimiliano; Bafunno, Valeria; Grillo, Rosalba; Mele, Antonio; Lo Perfido, Pietro; Notarnicola, Michele; Cellini, Francesco; Cifarelli, Rosa Anna

    2012-07-01

    Escherichia coli has been recognized as the principal indicator of fecal contamination of water. Indeed, E. coli is the only species in the coliform group found in relationship with gastrointestinal tract of human and warm-blooded animals and subsequently excreted in large numbers in the human feces. To obtain a complete picture of water quality and therefore, a better protection of public health, different techniques for water analysis have been proposed. In this article, we describe an alternative method that uses SYBR green real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to identify and quantify all E. coli biotypes in a group of wastewater samples collected from a wastewater depurator located in South of Italy. This new RT-PCR protocol is accurate in measuring the concentration of chromosomal E. coli DNA using the amplification of three new specific fragments of the following bacteria genes: CadC, HNS, and Allan whose sequence is specific for E. coli family and conserved in all E. coli subtypes. This method allowed us to detect the presence of all E. coli biotypes directly in wastewater samples and estimated the correspondence between colony forming units and bacterial DNA concentrations. The availability of a rapid and sensitive method may be useful to monitor the persistence of E. coli in water, to evaluate the efficiency of wastewater purification treatments and the possible recycle for agricultural use. Furthermore, the development of a simple and routine method to monitor water quality with RT-PCR analysis can encourage the testing of a higher number of samples.

  8. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing.

  9. Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles--a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny

    2015-04-01

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from "organic cotton" equipped with the "Nordic Ecolabel" ("Svanenmärkt"). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  10. Microscopic contact area and friction between medical textiles and skin.

    PubMed

    Derler, S; Rotaru, G-M; Ke, W; El Issawi-Frischknecht, L; Kellenberger, P; Scheel-Sailer, A; Rossi, R M

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical contact between medical textiles and skin is relevant in the health care for patients with vulnerable skin or chronic wounds. In order to gain new insights into the skin-textile contact on the microscopic level, the 3D surface topography of a normal and a new hospital bed sheet with a regular surface structure was measured using a digital microscope. The topographic data was analysed concerning material distribution and real contact area against smooth surfaces as a function of surface deformations. For contact conditions that are relevant for the skin of patients lying in a hospital bed it was found that the order of magnitude of the ratio of real and apparent contact area between textiles and skin or a mechanical skin model lies between 0.02 and 0.1 and that surface deformations, i.e. penetration of the textile surface asperities into skin or a mechanical skin model, range from 10 to 50µm. The performed analyses of textile 3D surface topographies and comparisons with previous friction measurement results provided information on the relationship between microscopic surface properties and macroscopic friction behaviour of medical textiles. In particular, the new bed sheet was found to be characterised by a trend towards a smaller microscopic contact area (up to a factor of two) and by a larger free interfacial volume (more than a factor of two) in addition to a 1.5 times lower shear strength when in contact with counter-surfaces. The applied methods can be useful to develop improved and skin-adapted materials and surfaces for medical applications.

  11. Applying NISHIJIN historical textile technique for e-Textile.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Hirano, Kikuo; Sugimura, Kazushige; Adachi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Hidetsugu; Ueshima, Kazuo; Nakamura, Hideo; Nambu, Masayuki; Doi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The e-Textile is the key technology for continuous ambient health monitoring to increase quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. The authors introduce techniques of Japanese historical textile, NISHIJIN, which illustrate almost any pattern from one continuous yarn within the machine weaving process, which is suitable for mixed flow production. Thus, NISHIJIN is suitable for e-Textile production, which requires rapid prototyping and mass production of very complicated patterns. The authors prototyped and evaluated a few vests to take twelve-lead electrocardiogram. The result tells that the prototypes obtains electrocardiogram, which is good enough for diagnosis.

  12. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  13. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  14. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Energy conservation in the textile industry: 10 case histories

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Presented are ten case studies of energy conserving technologies that have been implemented by the textile industry. For each case is given: the name and location of the plant and an employee contact, description of products, energy consumption and costs in years before and after the energy conserving technology was implemented, energy savings since the energy conserving technology was implemented, description of investment decision-making process, and description of any institutional and environmental considerations. Measures included are: tandem preparation line, dyebath reuse, bump-and-run (dyebath temperature drifts for the last 85% of the hold time), foam finishing, wastewater heat recovery, wastewater chlorination and reuse, oven exhaust air counterflow, boiler economizer, wood-fired boiler, and solar industrial process heat. Several other energy conserving technologies that were not studied are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  16. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C. (Editor); Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advance Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry.

  17. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, C.C.; Harris, C.E.

    1995-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advance Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry. Separate abstracts were prepared for articles from this document.

  18. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, C.C. Jr.; Harris, C.E.

    1995-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for articles from this conference.

  19. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Doris; Schlich, Karsten; Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute; Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2015-07-01

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  20. Textile Organic Electrochemical Transistors as a Platform for Wearable Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualandi, I.; Marzocchi, M.; Achilli, A.; Cavedale, D.; Bonfiglio, A.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-09-01

    The development of wearable chemical sensors is receiving a great deal of attention in view of non-invasive and continuous monitoring of physiological parameters in healthcare applications. This paper describes the development of a fully textile, wearable chemical sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) entirely made of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS). The active polymer patterns are deposited into the fabric by screen printing processes, thus allowing the device to actually “disappear” into it. We demonstrate the reliability of the proposed textile OECTs as a platform for developing chemical sensors capable to detect in real-time various redox active molecules (adrenaline, dopamine and ascorbic acid), by assessing their performance in two different experimental contexts: i) ideal operation conditions (i.e. totally dipped in an electrolyte solution); ii) real-life operation conditions (i.e. by sequentially adding few drops of electrolyte solution onto only one side of the textile sensor). The OECTs response has also been measured in artificial sweat, assessing how these sensors can be reliably used for the detection of biomarkers in body fluids. Finally, the very low operating potentials (<1 V) and absorbed power (~10‑4 W) make the here described textile OECTs very appealing for portable and wearable applications.

  1. Textile Organic Electrochemical Transistors as a Platform for Wearable Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, I; Marzocchi, M; Achilli, A; Cavedale, D; Bonfiglio, A; Fraboni, B

    2016-09-26

    The development of wearable chemical sensors is receiving a great deal of attention in view of non-invasive and continuous monitoring of physiological parameters in healthcare applications. This paper describes the development of a fully textile, wearable chemical sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) entirely made of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS). The active polymer patterns are deposited into the fabric by screen printing processes, thus allowing the device to actually "disappear" into it. We demonstrate the reliability of the proposed textile OECTs as a platform for developing chemical sensors capable to detect in real-time various redox active molecules (adrenaline, dopamine and ascorbic acid), by assessing their performance in two different experimental contexts: i) ideal operation conditions (i.e. totally dipped in an electrolyte solution); ii) real-life operation conditions (i.e. by sequentially adding few drops of electrolyte solution onto only one side of the textile sensor). The OECTs response has also been measured in artificial sweat, assessing how these sensors can be reliably used for the detection of biomarkers in body fluids. Finally, the very low operating potentials (<1 V) and absorbed power (~10(-4 )W) make the here described textile OECTs very appealing for portable and wearable applications.

  2. Textile Organic Electrochemical Transistors as a Platform for Wearable Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Gualandi, I.; Marzocchi, M.; Achilli, A.; Cavedale, D.; Bonfiglio, A.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of wearable chemical sensors is receiving a great deal of attention in view of non-invasive and continuous monitoring of physiological parameters in healthcare applications. This paper describes the development of a fully textile, wearable chemical sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) entirely made of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS). The active polymer patterns are deposited into the fabric by screen printing processes, thus allowing the device to actually “disappear” into it. We demonstrate the reliability of the proposed textile OECTs as a platform for developing chemical sensors capable to detect in real-time various redox active molecules (adrenaline, dopamine and ascorbic acid), by assessing their performance in two different experimental contexts: i) ideal operation conditions (i.e. totally dipped in an electrolyte solution); ii) real-life operation conditions (i.e. by sequentially adding few drops of electrolyte solution onto only one side of the textile sensor). The OECTs response has also been measured in artificial sweat, assessing how these sensors can be reliably used for the detection of biomarkers in body fluids. Finally, the very low operating potentials (<1 V) and absorbed power (~10−4 W) make the here described textile OECTs very appealing for portable and wearable applications. PMID:27667396

  3. Wearable solar cells by stacking textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shaowu; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Deng, Jue; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-10

    A new and general method to produce flexible, wearable dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) textiles by the stacking of two textile electrodes has been developed. A metal-textile electrode that was made from micrometer-sized metal wires was used as a working electrode, while the textile counter electrode was woven from highly aligned carbon nanotube fibers with high mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities. The resulting DSC textile exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency that was well maintained under bending. Compared with the woven DSC textiles that are based on wire-shaped devices, this stacked DSC textile unexpectedly exhibited a unique deformation from a rectangle to a parallelogram, which is highly desired in portable electronics. This lightweight and wearable stacked DSC textile is superior to conventional planar DSCs because the energy conversion efficiency of the stacked DSC textile was independent of the angle of incident light.

  4. Tensile properties of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avva, V. Sarma; Sadler, Robert L.; Lyon, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    The importance of textile composite materials in aerospace structural applications has been gaining momentum in recent years. With a view to better understand the suitability of these materials in aerospace applications, an experimental program was undertaken to assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Specifically, the braided textile preforms were infiltrated with suitable polymeric matrices leading to the fabrication of composite test coupons. Evaluation of the tensile properties and the analyses of the results in the form of strength moduli, Poisson's ratio, etc., for the braided composites are presented. Based on our past experience with the textile coupons, the fabrication techniques have been modified (by incorporating glass microballoons in the matrix and/or by stabilizing the braid angle along the length of the specimen with axial fibers) to achieve enhanced mechanical properties of the textile composites. This paper outlines the preliminary experimental results obtained from testing these composites.

  5. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  6. Textile wastes. [Processing and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of process technology applied to secondary effluents of textile plants is presented. Studies of waste heat recovery from dyehouse effluents indicate that energy consumption of dyehouses could be reduced by 50% or more. Included are 25 references.

  7. NICE3 Textile Finishing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

  8. Vibration in textile mills.

    PubMed

    Sorainen, E

    1988-12-01

    The vibration in nine halls of the six weaving mills was measured in 1978-80. The measurements were taken at regular intervals in the working area of the weavers, which was the wooden support attached to the machine or the floor of the textile mill. The accelerometer was mounted with screws onto the working area, and all vibration samples were analyzed immediately, in situ. The vibration of the floor was tangent to or exceeded slightly the "reduced comfort boundary" specified in International Standard ISO 2631/1 (1985) only in the areas where the floor was not against the ground. The greatest amount of vibration occurred on the supports which had been attached to the machines. On these supports the vibration in places exceeded the "fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary."

  9. Durable and Rechargeable Antimicrobial Textiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    manufacturing. Precision Fabrics has been ISO -registered to 9001 since 1993 and upgraded to 9001 -2008 in October 2009. Medetech anticipates working with PFG for...antimicrobial textiles have the potential to significantly improve the quality of infection control with soldiers and military healthcare personnel through... management of odor issues and textile related infections. The treated fabrics will provide long-lasting and rechargeable protection against bacteria

  10. Sensor yarns for real-time in situ detection of damage behavior for the purpose of structural health monitoring of textile-reinforced thermoset composites: development of a continuous wet-chemical silvering process for high-performance filament yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onggar, T.; Häntzsche, E.; Nocke, A.; Hund, R. D.; Cherif, Ch

    2017-04-01

    High-performance textile yarns such as glass filament (GF) yarn will be used as the base material for the development of sensor yarns because glass filament yarns offer both high tensile strengths and moduli of elasticity, as well as high melting temperatures and elongation. A new continuous wet-chemical metallization process has been developed for GF yarns on a laboratory scale to achieve special properties such as electrical conductivity. The aim of the work is to develop a continuous wet-chemical silver plating process for the GF-filament yarn in order to achieve electrical conductivity on the GF-surface. The process was carried out continuously in order to metallize the GF, which is sensitive to the shear force. A homogeneous, completely covered and adhered silver layer on the GF yarn surfaces was obtained by the application of this technology. The surface morphology was been determined by light and scanning electron microscopy to assess the silver layer properties such as structure, homogeneity, and cracking. The chemical structure of the surfaces was analyzed by means of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. For structural analysis, GF yarns were investigated using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The dispersive and polar component of the surface energy of the sized and silvered GF yarn was measured by using a single fiber Tensiometer K100. The silver layer thickness and the silver content were determined after the metallization. Textile physical tests of the tensile strength, elasticity modulus, elongation at break, and yarn fineness of the single GF yarns as well as GF bundle were carried out.

  11. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Bioremediation concepts for treatment of dye containing wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Keharia, Haresh; Madamwar, Datta

    2003-09-01

    Synthetic dyes are extensively used in wide range of industries amongst which textile processing industries are the major consumers. Large amounts of dyes are lost in wastewaters of these industries during dyeing and subsequent washing steps of textiles. These dyes are resistant to de gradation by conventional wastewater treatment plants and are released into environment untreated thus causing pollution of surface and ground waters in the areas of the world harboring such industries. Presence of color in wastewaters has become major environmental concern and stringent discharge standards are being enforced on release of colored wastewaters in environment. The seriousness of the problem is apparent from the magnitude of the research done in this field in last decade. Increasing number of microorganisms are being described for their ability to decolorize and degrade artificial dyes and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment dye bearing wastewaters are being worked out. In this review we have investigated potential microbial processes for developing feasible remediation technology to combat environmental pollution due to dye bearing wastewaters.

  13. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Sun Mok; Hyun, Tae Ahn; Joeng, Tai Kim

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  14. Membrane filtration and sonication for industrial wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Caretti, C; Coppini, E; Fatarella, E; Lubello, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study aimed at estimating the efficiency of the innovative process of ultrafiltration (UF) combined with sonication (Son.) for the refinement of treated effluent to be reused in wet textile processes. Such a novel approach, which has not yet been employed on a full industrial scale, has been experienced at pilot scale on the secondary effluent of the Baciacavallo wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats part of the effluent from one of the largest textile industry districts in Italy. The combined treatment efficiency was assessed both on ozonated and non-ozonated Baciacavallo secondary effluent. The membrane filtration process was optimized in terms of running time, backwash, chemical addition and cleaning procedures. The sonication treatment was optimized on laboratory-scale with synthetic solutions (demineralized water added with dyestuffs) in terms of hydroxyl radicals formation rate, frequency, acoustic power, hydrogen peroxide addition, contact time and pH. The optimal conditions have been applied on the pilot-scale sonicator which was used in combination with the UF treatment. According to the experimental results, the best configuration within the Baciacavallo WWTP was the sonication of non-ozonated wastewater followed by the UF. The combined treatment guaranteed the compliance with the target values for wastewater reuse in wet textile industries. This study is part of the Research Project PURIFAST (Purification of industrial and mixed wastewater by combined membrane filtration and sonochemical technologies) LIFE + ENV/IT/000439.

  15. Decoloration and degradation of some textile dyes by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    2002-11-01

    The textile industry has long been one of the largest water users and polluters. Wastewater released by textile industries contains toxic refractory dye stuff at high concentration. Most of the dyes in the textile industry are non-degradable, therefore, effective treatment of dye waste effluent has not been achieved by ordinary processes. Ionizing radiation has been considered a promising process for the treatment of textile dye waste effluents. In this study, the possibility of using gamma rays to degrade or decolorize reactive dyes in water was investigated. Two different reactive dyes (Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Black 5) in aqueous solutions were irradiated at doses of 0.1-15 kGy, at 2.87 and 0.14 kGy/h dose rates. The change of absorption spectra, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the degree of decoloration (percent reduction in optical density) were examined in the presence of air and H 2O 2. The absorption bands at 664, 640, 340, 260 nm and 596, 392, 312 nm for RB15 and RB5 decreased rapidly with increasing irradiation dose. The degree of decoloration of each dye solution with irradiation dose appeared to be 100 percent for the lower concentration (50 ppm) dye solutions. The complete decoloration was observed after 1 and 15 kGy doses for RB5 and RB15, respectively. pH of RB5 and RB15 solutions was decreased from 6.15 and 6.98 to 3.40 and 3.68 with the irradiation dose. The COD reduction for all the dye solutions was approximately 76-80% at 1 and 15 kGy for RB5 and RB15. The COD reduction and the change of pH for all the dye solutions were examined similar to each other.

  16. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  17. Illustrated glossary of textile terms for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A glossary was developed to define textile terminology applicable to the manufacture of composites. Terms describing fabric structure were illustrated for clarity. Descriptive terms for defects from both textile and composites industry were included.

  18. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  19. Physiological comfort of biofunctional textiles.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2006-01-01

    Statistics show that the wear comfort is the most important property of clothing demanded by users and consumers. Hence, biofunctional textiles only have a high market potential, if they are comfortable. In this work it is shown how the thermophysiological and skin sensorial wear comfort of biofunctional textiles can be measured effectively by means of the Skin Model and skin sensorial test apparatus. From these measurements, wear comfort votes can be predicted, assessing a textile's wear comfort in practice. These wear comfort votes match exactly the subjective perceptions of test persons. As a result validated by wearer trials with human test subjects, biofunctional textiles can offer the same good wear comfort as classical, non-biofunctional materials. On the other hand, some of the biofunctional treatments lead to a perceivably poorer wear comfort. In particular, the skin sensorial comfort is negatively affected by hydrophobic, smooth (flat) surfaces that easily cling to sweat-wetted skin, or which tend to make textiles stiffer. As guidelines for the improvement of the thermophysiological or skin sensorial wear comfort, it is recommended to use hydrophilic treatments in a suitable concentration and spun yarns instead of filaments.

  20. Medical Textiles For Uniform Bacteria Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Research (SBIR) contract with Natick Soldier Center developed a textile finishing process to produce advanced bio- textiles that will incorporate both...quaternary ammonium silane in a synergistic manner to produce anti-microbial bio- textiles from woven, braided, stitched, or knit configurations

  1. Defined UV protection by apparel textiles.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Laperre, J; Avermaete, A; Altmeyer, P; Gambichler, T

    2001-08-01

    This article was written to update information on test methods and standards for determining the UV protection of apparel textiles and on factors affecting UV protective properties of fabrics, from dermatological and textile technological viewpoints. Articles from dermatological and textile technological journals published from 1990 to 2001 were identified from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, World Textiles, and Textile Technology Digest. Peer-reviewed dermatological articles, textile technological research articles, and normative publications were selected. Independent data extraction was performed by several observers. Spectrophotometry is the preferred method for determining UV protection factor of textile materials. Various textile qualities affect the UV protection factor of a finished garment; important elements are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight, and thickness. The application of UV absorbers in the yarns significantly improves the UV protection factor of a garment. With wear and use, several factors can alter the UV protective properties of a textile, including stretch, wetness, and degradation due to laundering. Standards in the field exist in Australia and Great Britain, and organizations such as the European Standardization Commission in Europe and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists and the American Society for Testing and Materials in the United States are also establishing standards for the determination and labeling of sun protective clothing. Various textile qualities and conditions of wear and use affect UV protective properties of apparel textiles. The use of UV blocking fabrics can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV protective clothing.

  2. Pollution prevention in the textile industries

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    Not surprisingly, the textile industry has faced increasing pressure regarding environmental and waste-related concerns as a result of the quantity and toxicity of generated wastewaters; this was illustrated in 1989 when the industry was listed among the top ten toxic waste generators in the US Environmental Protection Agency TRI report (for 1987 releases), the majority of toxics (52%) being released to water media. The industry has since made significant reductions in waste generation through equipment changes, recycling, and non-process-related measures such as housekeeping, as well as research and development activities centered on technology for waste minimization. Specific examples of these activities are discussed. Recent developments in the industry are providing for more recycle and reuse of process water and chemicals. Furthermore, interest in media other than the traditional water-based systems, such as solvents and foams, for chemical application is increasing. Accordingly, the industry is finding that, beyond meeting regulations, the potential economic gain through reductions in treatment costs and wasted resources is enormous.

  3. Novel wireless-communicating textiles made from multi-material and minimally-invasive fibers.

    PubMed

    Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications.

  4. Novel Wireless-Communicating Textiles Made from Multi-Material and Minimally-Invasive Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Gorgutsa, Stepan; Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications. PMID:25325335

  5. Novel wireless-communicating textiles made from multi-material and minimally-invasive fibers.

    PubMed

    Gorgutsa, Stepan; Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes

    2014-10-16

    The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications.

  6. Construction of a high efficiency copper adsorption bacterial system via peptide display and its application on copper dye polluted wastewater.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Ganesh, Irisappan; Ravikumar, Sambandam; Yun, Hyungdon; Yoo, Ik-Keun; Hong, Soon Ho

    2015-11-01

    For the construction of an efficient copper waste treatment system, a cell surface display strategy was employed. The copper adsorption ability of recombinant bacterial strains displaying three different copper binding peptides were evaluated in LB Luria-Bertani medium (LB), artificial wastewater, and copper phthalocyanine containing textile dye industry wastewater samples. Structural characteristics of the three peptides were also analyzed by similarity-based structure modeling. The best binding peptide was chosen for the construction of a dimeric peptide display and the adsorption ability of the monomeric and dimeric peptide displayed strains were compared. The dimeric peptide displayed strain showed superior copper adsorption in all three tested conditions (LB, artificial wastewater, and textile dye industry wastewater). When the strains were exposed to copper phthalocyanine dye polluted wastewater, the dimeric peptide display [543.27 µmol/g DCW dry cell weight (DCW)] showed higher adsorption of copper when compared with the monomeric strains (243.53 µmol/g DCW).

  7. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    PubMed Central

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn. PMID:25952133

  8. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-05-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn.

  9. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.; Xu, X.

    1997-03-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

  10. Textile composite fuselage structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Chu, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Phase 2 of the NASA ACT Contract (NAS1-18888), Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technology for Transport Aircraft Structures, focuses on textile technology, with resin transfer molding or powder coated tows. The use of textiles has the potential for improving damage tolerance, reducing cost and saving weight. This program investigates resin transfer molding (RTM), as a maturing technology for high fiber volume primary structures and powder coated tows as an emerging technology with a high potential for significant cost savings and superior structural properties. Powder coated tow technology has promise for significantly improving the processibility of high temperature resins such as polyimides.

  11. Electrical properties of textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rattfalt, Linda; Chedid, Michel; Hult, Peter; Lindén, Maria; Ask, Per

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the behavior of textile electrodes due to their construction techniques. Three textile electrodes were tested for electrode impedance and polarization potentials. The multifilament yarn (A) is favorable for its low thread resistance. Although, when knitted into electrodes, the staple fiber yarn (B) showed a comparable and satisfiable electrode impedance. The multifilament yarn had however a lower polarization potential drift then the other specimens. The monofilament yarn (C) had high electrode impedance and varying mean polarization potentials due to its conductive material and small contact area with the skin.

  12. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  13. Textile Science Leader's Guide. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This instructor's guide provides an overview of 4-H student project modules in the textile sciences area. The guide includes short notes explaining how to use the project modules, a flowchart chart showing how the project areas are sequenced, a synopsis of the design and content of the modules, and some program planning tips. For each of the…

  14. Automated quality control for stitching of textile articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Markus, Alan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Quality control for stitching of a textile article is performed by measuring thread tension in the stitches as the stitches are being made, determining locations of the stitches, and generating a map including the locations and stitching data derived from the measured thread tensions. The stitching data can be analyzed, off-line or in real time, to identify defective stitches. Defective stitches can then be repaired. Real time analysis of the thread tensions allows problems such as broken needle threads to be corrected immediately.

  15. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored.

  16. Removal of textile dyes and metallic ions using polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Caldera Villalobos, M; Peláez Cid, A A; Herrera González, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the removal of textile dyes and metallic ions by means of adsorption and coagulation-flocculation using two polyelectrolytes and two macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups. The adsorption of textile dyes was studied in aqueous solutions containing cationic dyes and in wastewater containing a vat dye. Also, removal of vat and naphthol dyes was studied using the process of coagulation-flocculation. The results show these materials possess elevated adsorption capacity, and they accomplished removal rates above 97% in aqueous solutions. The removal of the vat dye improved the quality of the wastewater notably, and an uncolored effluent was obtained at the end of the treatment. The treatment using adsorption decreased the values for coloration, conductivity, suspended solids, and pH. The removal of vat and naphthol dyes by means of coagulation-flocculation was studied as well, and removal rates of 90% were obtained. The polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes also proved effective in the adsorption of metallic ions in wastewater. The treatment using adsorption accomplished high removal rates of metallic ions, and it showed greater selectivity towards Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Pb(2+). A decrease in the content of solids as well as the values for COD and conductivity was observed in the wastewater as well. The analyses of FT-IR indicated that cationic dyes and metallic ions were chemisorbed by means of ionic exchange.

  17. Wastewater Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn't treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before ... is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  18. Evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR method with propidium monazide treatment for analyses of viable fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is currently evaluating rapid, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for determining recreational water quality based on measurements of fecal indicator bacteria DNA sequences. In order to potentially use qPCR for other Clean Water Act needs, such as updating cri...

  19. Clothing and Textile Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Forty-seven performance-based instructional modules on six major topics are provided for the home economics content area of clothing and textiles. The six topics are (1) planning basics (psychological, physical, social, and behavioral aspects of clothing; elements of design; principles of design; and style and fashion in clothing), (2) buyership…

  20. Micromechanical models for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Bhavani V.; Marrey, Ramesh V.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical and analytical micromechanical models are presented to predict the thermoelastic behavior of a textile composite. In the numerical model, the unit-cell is discretized with finite elements, and periodic boundary conditions are imposed between opposite faces of the unit-cell. For a thin textile composite, stress gradients effects through the thickness are demonstrated. The consequent difference in the stiffness and strength behavior of thick and thin composites are discussed. The numerical model is implemented to predict 3-D thermo-elastic constants for a thick textile composite, and the plate thermo-mechanical properties for a thin textile composite. The numerical model is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses due to processing to predict the composite failure envelopes. An analytical model - Selective Averaging Method (SAM) - is proposed, which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging to estimate the 3-D elastic constants. Both the models are tested and verified for several examples by comparing the stiffness properties with elasticity solutions and available results.

  1. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  2. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  3. Systematic development of technical textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, M.; Schrank, V.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Technical textiles are used in various fields of applications, ranging from small scale (e.g. medical applications) to large scale products (e.g. aerospace applications). The development of new products is often complex and time consuming, due to multiple interacting parameters. These interacting parameters are production process related and also a result of the textile structure and used material. A huge number of iteration steps are necessary to adjust the process parameter to finalize the new fabric structure. A design method is developed to support the systematic development of technical textiles and to reduce iteration steps. The design method is subdivided into six steps, starting from the identification of the requirements. The fabric characteristics vary depending on the field of application. If possible, benchmarks are tested. A suitable fabric production technology needs to be selected. The aim of the method is to support a development team within the technology selection without restricting the textile developer. After a suitable technology is selected, the transformation and correlation between input and output parameters follows. This generates the information for the production of the structure. Afterwards, the first prototype can be produced and tested. The resulting characteristics are compared with the initial product requirements.

  4. Integrated microelectronics for smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Christl; Glaser, Rupert; Savio, Domnic; Schnell, Markus; Weber, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The combination of textile fabrics with microelectronics will lead to completely new applications, thus achieving elements of ambient intelligence. The integration of sensor or actuator networks, using fabrics with conductive fibres as a textile motherboard enable the fabrication of large active areas. In this paper we describe an integration technology for the fabrication of a "smart textile" based on a wired peer-to-peer network of microcontrollers with integrated sensors or actuators. A self-organizing and fault-tolerant architecture is accomplished which detects the physical shape of the network. Routing paths are formed for data transmission, automatically circumventing defective or missing areas. The network architecture allows the smart textiles to be produced by reel-to-reel processes, cut into arbitrary shapes subsequently and implemented in systems at low installation costs. The possible applications are manifold, ranging from alarm systems to intelligent guidance systems, passenger recognition in car seats, air conditioning control in interior lining and smart wallpaper with software-defined light switches.

  5. Perspectives on the feasibility of using microalgae for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Guo, Wan-Qian; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-12-01

    Although microalgae can serve as an appropriate alternative feedstock for biofuel production, the high microalgal cultivation cost has been a major obstacle for commercializing such attempts. One of the feasible solution for cost reduction is to couple microalgal biofuel production system with wastewater treatment, as microalgae are known to effectively eliminate a variety of nutrients/pollutants in wastewater, such as nitrogen/phosphate, organic carbons, VFAs, pharmaceutical compounds, textile dye compounds, and heavy metals. This review aims to critically discuss the feasibility of microalgae-based wastewater treatment, including the strategies for strain selection, the effect of wastewater types, photobioreactor design, economic feasibility assessment, and other key issues that influence the treatment performance. The potential of microalgae-bacteria consortium for treatment of industrial wastewaters is also discussed. This review provides useful information for developing an integrated wastewater treatment with microalgal biomass and biofuel production facilities and establishing efficient co-cultivation for microalgae and bacteria in such systems.

  6. Toxic and biomedical effects of textiles and textile production. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity associated with textiles. Vapors from burning flame-resistant fabric, magnesium vapors from polyester foam, and toxic emissions from insulation, clothing, and upholstery are described and evaluated. Health effects resulting from formaldehyde treatment of fabrics for crease-resistance, lubricant addition to polyester fabrics, and exposure to textile mill effluents and airborne particulates from textile mill rooms are examined. (Contains a minimum of 150 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Emulsion liquid membrane for textile dye removal: Stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumastuti, Adhi; Syamwil, Rodia; Anis, Samsudin

    2017-03-01

    Although textile dyes is basically available in very low concentration; it should be removed due to the toxicity to human body and environment. Among the existing methods, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is a promising method by providing high interfacial area and the ability to remove a very low concentration of the solute. The optimal emulsions were produced using commercially supplied homogeniser. The drop size was measured by the aid of microscope and image J software. Initially, methylene blue in simulated wastewater was extracted using a stirrer. Methylene blue concentration was determined using spectrophotometer. The research obtained optimal emulsion at surfactant concentration of 4 wt. %, kerosene as diluent, emulsification time of 30 min, emulsification speed of 2000 rpm. The lowest membrane breakage and the longest stability time were about 0.11% and 150 min, respectively.

  8. Stormwater and Wastewater Infrastructure Monitoring Test Bed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing application of stormwater and wastewater management in urban and urbanizing environments is increasing the demand for monitoring technologies and systems that can provide reliable performance data, in real-time or near real-time, for operation and maintenance decision...

  9. American standards for UV-protective textiles.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Kathryn L

    2002-01-01

    During the last 3 years, three standard documents that pertain to the testing and labeling of UV-protective textile products have been published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC). The titles of these documents, which are available for purchase at www.astm.org and www.aatcc.org are: ASTM D 6544 "Standard Practice for the Preparation of Textiles Prior to UV Transmission Testing", AATCC 183 "Test Method for Transmittance or Blocking of Erythemally Weighted Ultraviolet Radiation Through Fabrics", and ASTM 6603 "Standard Guide to Labeling of UV-protective Textiles". This chapter summarizes the content of each document and shows how the documents are linked together to make a comprehensive plan for the testing and labeling of UV-protective textile products to be sold in the United States. It also describes the intended future work in the United States on UV-protective textile standards.

  10. Chitosan beads immobilized manganese peroxidase catalytic potential for detoxification and decolorization of textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-08-01

    Textile industry has led to severe environmental pollution and is posing a serious threat to the ecosystems. Immobilized biocatalysts have gained importance as potential bio-remediating agent. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was immobilized onto glutaraldehyde activated chitosan beads by crosslinking and employed for the degradation and detoxification of dyes in textile effluents. The efficiency of chitosan-immobilized MnP (CI-MnP) was evaluated on the basis of decolorization, water quality improvement and toxicity reduction. Maximum color removal of 97.31% was recorded and up to 82.40%, 78.30% and 91.7% reductions in COD, TOC, and BOD were achieved, respectively. The cytotoxicity of bio-treated effluents reduced significantly and 38.46%, 43.47% and 41.83% Allium cepa root length, root count and mitotic index were increased, respectively, whereas brine shrimp nauplii death reduced up to 63.64%. Mutagenicity (Ames test) reduced up to 73.44% and 75.43% for TA98 and TA100 strains, respectively. The CI-MnP retained 60% activity after 10 repeated decolorization batches. The CI-MnP showed excellent efficiency for the bioremediation of textile effluents and can be used for the remediation of toxic agents in wastewater. The monitoring of processed wastewater using bioassays is suggested to evaluate bio-efficiency of treatment method for safe disposal of effluents into water bodies.

  11. Textile electrodes and integrated smart textile for reliable biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, R; Pacelli, M

    2011-01-01

    Since birth the first and the most natural interface for the body is fabric, a soft, warm and reassuring material. Cloth is usually covering more than 80 % of the skin; which leads us to consider textile material as the most appropriate interface where new sensorial and interactive functions can be implemented. The new generation of personalised monitoring systems is based on this paradigm: functions like sensing, transmission and elaboration are implementable in the materials through the textile technology. Functional yarns and fibres are usable to realise garments where electrical and computing properties are combined with the traditional mechanical characteristics, giving rise to textile platforms that are comparable with the cloths that are normally used to produce our garments. The feel of the fabric is the same, but the functionality is augmented. Nowadays, consumers demand user-friendly connectivity and interactivity; sensing clothes are the most natural and ordinary interface able to follow us, everywhere in a non-intrusive way, in natural harmony with our body.

  12. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  13. Exploring redox-mediating characteristics of textile dye-bearing microbial fuel cells: thionin and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Xu, Bin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies indicated that biodecolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as electron shuttles to stimulate wastewater decolorization and bioelectricity generation (WD&BG) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tended to explore whether non-azo textile dyes (i.e., thionin and malachite green) could also own such redox-mediating capabilities for WD&BG. Prior findings mentioned that OH and/or NH2 substitute-containing auxochrome compounds (e.g., 2-aminophenol and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene) could effectively mediate electron transport in MFCs for simultaneous WD&BG. This work clearly suggested that the presence of electron-mediating textile dyes (e.g., thionin and malachite green (MG)) in MFCs is promising to stimulate color removal and bioelectricity generation. That is, using MFCs as operation strategy for wastewater biodecolorization is economically promising in industrial applications due to autocatalytic acceleration of electron-flux for WD&BG in MFCs.

  14. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  15. Opportunities and challenges for textile reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.

    2000-03-01

    For several decades researchers have been interested in textile processes for the production of composite reinforcement. These technologies have offered several promises: reduced fabrication costs, 3-D multiaxial reinforcement, and damage tolerance. Despite these advantages, textile composites have not reached the level of implementation of laminated composites. In this paper, the opportunities provided by textile reinforced composites and the challenges that limit their implementation will be discussed in detail. Textile composites refer to a family of processes: weaving, braiding, knitting, and hybrids thereof. The various families of textiles will be defined and the basics of fabric formation for each family will be detailed. In particular, the strengths and weaknesses of each manufacturing technique will be addressed to provide a view of the applicability of each technology. This will include some guidance on shape formation capability, property ranges, size limitations, and estimates of cost to produce. Potential applications for these materials will be presented. Among the limitations on the application of textile reinforced composites is the lack of adequate modeling capabilities for these materials. Textile composites have rather large unit cell structures and are highly inhomogeneous throughout their volumes. These features provide benefits in manufacturing, but require novel modeling techniques to correctly understand the mechanical behavior. A review of analytical techniques applied to textile composites will be presented along with a discussion of the benefits and weaknesses of each of these methods. The enabling technologies needed to further the implementation of textile composites in structural applications will be discussed.

  16. Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Worley, S. Dave

    2005-01-01

    Unlike the widely used slow-releasing biocidal mechanism now employed in biocidal textiles, a novel regenerable process, based on a regeneration principle and halamine chemistry, has been developed in antimicrobial finishing of textiles. Halamine-modified textile materials demonstrate durable and regenerable antimicrobial functions and execute rapid inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms by contact without yielding drug resistance. The unique properties of the products render them useful materials for medical-use and hygienic textiles. The chemistry of the biocidal materials is be discussed. See Featured Molecules .

  17. Econazole imprinted textiles with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Lalloz, Augustine; Benhaddou, Aicha; Pagniez, Fabrice; Raymond, Martine; Le Pape, Patrice; Simard, Pierre; Théberge, Karine; Leblond, Jeanne

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose pharmaceutical textiles imprinted with lipid microparticles of Econazole nitrate (ECN) as a mean to improve patient compliance while maintaining drug activity. Lipid microparticles were prepared and characterized by laser diffraction (3.5±0.1 μm). Using an optimized screen-printing method, microparticles were deposited on textiles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The drug content of textiles (97±3 μg/cm(2)) was reproducible and stable up to 4 months storage at 25 °C/65% Relative Humidity. Imprinted textiles exhibited a thermosensitive behavior, as witnessed by a fusion temperature of 34.8 °C, which enabled a larger drug release at 32 °C (temperature of the skin) than at room temperature. In vitro antifungal activity of ECN textiles was compared to commercial 1% (wt/wt) ECN cream Pevaryl®. ECN textiles maintained their antifungal activity against a broad range of Candida species as well as major dermatophyte species. In vivo, ECN textiles also preserved the antifungal efficacy of ECN on cutaneous candidiasis infection in mice. Ex vivo percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated that ECN released from pharmaceutical textiles concentrated more in the upper skin layers, where the fungal infections develop, as compared to dermal absorption of Pevaryl®. Overall, these results showed that this technology is promising to develop pharmaceutical garments textiles for the treatment of superficial fungal infections.

  18. Organic field effect transistors for textile applications.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Annalisa; De Rossi, Danilo; Kirstein, Tünde; Locher, Ivo R; Mameli, Fulvia; Paradiso, Rita; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, several issues concerning the development of textiles endowed with electronic functions will be discussed. In particular, issues concerning materials, structures, electronic models, and the mechanical constraints due to textile technologies will be detailed. The idea starts from an already developed organic field-effect transistor that is realized on a flexible film that can be applied, after the assembly, on whatever kind of substrate, in particular, on textiles. This could pave the way to a variety of applications aimed to conjugate the favorable mechanical properties of textiles with the electronic functions of transistors. Furthermore, a possible perspective for the developments of organic sensors based on this structure are described.

  19. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment as a tool for water management optimization in textile finishing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantini, Mario; Scalbi, Simona; Misceo, Monica; Verità, Simona

    2004-12-01

    In several countries, due to the increasing cost and shortage of water, textile finishing industries are looking for non conventional water resources. The use of reclaimed wastewater appears a technically feasible solution and is gaining a growing consensus. A European Union research project (TOWEF0, Towards effluent zero) with the aim of elaborating a multicriteria integrated and coherent methodology to support the implementation of sustainable water reuse in textile finishing processes has been recently concluded. In order to achieve an optimal compromise between minimization of environmental impacts of the production processes and maximum recovery of resources, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied to selected textile products manufactured within Belgian and Italian textile finishing companies. The study identified the key environmental issues within the finishing processes of a variety of natural (cotton, silk) and man-made (polyester, acetate, viscose) fibers and fabrics and analyzed alternative water reuse scenarios. Significant margins exist for impressive reductions in water consumption with almost no additional environmental impact adopting in situ membrane filtration technology. In this paper the methodological approach and the results of the LCA analyses applied to a flax-polyester product are presented and discussed.

  1. Remediation of textile effluents by membrane based treatment techniques: a state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Jhilly; Sikder, Jaya; Chakraborty, Sudip; Curcio, Stefano; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The textile industries hold an important position in the global industrial arena because of their undeniable contributions to basic human needs satisfaction and to the world economy. These industries are however major consumers of water, dyes and other toxic chemicals. The effluents generated from each processing step comprise substantial quantities of unutilized resources. The effluents if discharged without prior treatment become potential sources of pollution due to their several deleterious effects on the environment. The treatment of heterogeneous textile effluents therefore demands the application of environmentally benign technology with appreciable quality water reclamation potential. These features can be observed in various innovative membrane based techniques. The present review paper thus elucidates the contributions of membrane technology towards textile effluent treatment and unexhausted raw materials recovery. The reuse possibilities of water recovered through membrane based techniques, such as ultrafiltration and nanofiltration in primary dye houses or auxiliary rinse vats have also been explored. Advantages and bottlenecks, such as membrane fouling associated with each of these techniques have also been highlighted. Additionally, several pragmatic models simulating transport mechanism across membranes have been documented. Finally, various accounts dealing with techno-economic evaluation of these membrane based textile wastewater treatment processes have been provided.

  2. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  3. Mathematics for the Workplace. Applications from Textile Manufacturing (Milliken & Company, Peerless Plant). A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Johnny M.; Powell, Mike

    This module presents a real-world context in which mathematics skills are used as part of a daily routine. The context is the textile production area of machine operations, and the module aims to help students understand the significance of mathematics skills in interpreting charts and graphs. Materials in the module, most of which are designed…

  4. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications.

  5. BIOTEX--biosensing textiles for personalised healthcare management.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Shirley; Lau, King-Tong; Moyna, Niall; O'Gorman, Donal; Diamond, Dermot; Di Francesco, Fabio; Costanzo, Daniele; Salvo, Pietro; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; De Rossi, Danilo Emilio; Taccini, Nicola; Paradiso, Rita; Porchet, Jacque-André; Ridolfi, Andrea; Luprano, Jean; Chuzel, Cyril; Lanier, Thierry; Revol-Cavalier, Frdéric; Schoumacker, Sébastien; Mourier, Véronique; Chartier, Isabelle; Convert, Reynald; De-Moncuit, Henri; Bini, Christina

    2010-03-01

    Textile-based sensors offer an unobtrusive method of continually monitoring physiological parameters during daily activities. Chemical analysis of body fluids, noninvasively, is a novel and exciting area of personalized wearable healthcare systems. BIOTEX was an EU-funded project that aimed to develop textile sensors to measure physiological parameters and the chemical composition of body fluids, with a particular interest in sweat. A wearable sensing system has been developed that integrates a textile-based fluid handling system for sample collection and transport with a number of sensors including sodium, conductivity, and pH sensors. Sensors for sweat rate, ECG, respiration, and blood oxygenation were also developed. For the first time, it has been possible to monitor a number of physiological parameters together with sweat composition in real time. This has been carried out via a network of wearable sensors distributed around the body of a subject user. This has huge implications for the field of sports and human performance and opens a whole new field of research in the clinical setting.

  6. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  7. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-05-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l(-1). The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters.

  8. Use of talc as low-cost clarifier for wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grafia, Ana L; Castillo, Luciana A; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2014-01-01

    Talc is proposed as a low-cost mineral for wastewater clarification. In this sense, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions was studied comparatively by using sepiolite (qualified as very good adsorbent) and two talc samples with different particle size and purity degree. The MB adsorption was assessed by determining remnant dye in the supernatant using UV-vis spectroscopy and by detecting dye adsorbed on mineral samples through thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Both isothermal curves and kinetic studies demonstrate that talc is a good dye adsorbent. Particularly, with dye concentrations similar to those of textile wastewater, talc was demonstrated to adsorb the same dye content of sepiolite at similar times. Natural talc could be employed as a low-cost alternative in wastewater treatment for the removal of cationic dyes.

  9. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from ten textile dyeing plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Lin, Mei-Qing; Shen, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Wang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2014-07-01

    As components of synthetic dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present as contaminants in textile dyeing sludge due to the recalcitrance in wastewater treatment process, which may pose a threat to environment in the process of sludge disposal. In order to evaluate PAHs in textile dyeing sludge, comprehensive investigation comprising 10 textile dyeing plants was undertaken. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of 16 EPA-priority PAHs were analyzed in this study. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 1463 ± 177 ng g(-1) to 16,714 ± 1,507 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 6386 ng g(-1). The composition profiles of PAHs were characterized by 3- and 4-ring PAHs, among which phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene were the most dominant components. The mean benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration of ∑16 PAHs in textile dyeing sludge was 423 ng g(-1), which was 2-3 times higher than concentrations reported for urban soil. According to ecological risk assessment, the levels of PAHs in the textile dyeing sludge may cause a significant risk to soil ecosystem after landfill or dumping on soil.

  10. Problem Based Learning in Constructed Textile Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Kate; Wilson, Jacquie; Challis, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Staff observing undergraduate students enrolled on the BSc Hons Textile Design and Design Management programme in The School of Materials, The University of Manchester, identified difficulties with knowledge retention in the area of constructed textile design. Consequently an experimental pilot was carried out in seamless knitwear design using a…

  11. Environmental Considerations for Flame Resistant Textiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virtually all common textiles will ignite and burn. There are mandatory and voluntary cigarette and open-flame ignition regulations to address unreasonable fire risks associated with textile products that require them to be treated with and/or contain flame retardant chemicals to make them flame res...

  12. Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang Sun; Worley, S. Dave

    2005-01-01

    Antimicrobial textiles can be categorized into two groups, biocidal and biostatic materials, according to their functions. Biostatic functions refer to inhibiting growth of microorganisms on textiles and preventing the materials from biodegradation and biocidal materials are able to kill microorganisms, thus eliminating their growth, sterilizing…

  13. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  14. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nannan; Chen, Jun; Huang, Yi; Guo, Wanwan; Yang, Jin; Du, Jun; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-13

    A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to plants absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, humans can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering small electronic devices.

  15. On the real performance of cation exchange resins in wastewater treatment under conditions of cation competition: the case of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Prelot, Benedicte; Ayed, Imen; Marchandeau, Franck; Zajac, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sorption performance of cation-exchange resins Amberlite® IRN77 and Amberlite™ IRN9652 toward Cs(I) and Sr(II) has been tested in single-component aqueous solutions and simulated waste effluents containing other monovalent (Effluent 1) or divalent (Effluent 2) metal cations, as well as nitrate, borate, or carbonate anions. The individual sorption isotherms of each main component were measured by the solution depletion method. The differential molar enthalpy changes accompanying the ion-exchange between Cs+ or Sr2+ ions and protons at the resin surface from single-component nitrate solutions were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and they showed a higher specificity of the two resins toward cesium. Compared to the retention limits of both resins under such idealized conditions, an important depression in the maximum adsorption capacity toward each main component was observed in multication systems. The overall effect of ion exchange process appeared to be an unpredictable outcome of the individual sorption capacities of the two resins toward various cations as a function of the cation charge, size, and concentration. The cesium retention capacity of the resins was diminished to about 25% of the "ideal" value in Effluent 1 and 50% in Effluent 2; a further decrease to about 15% was observed upon concomitant strontium addition. The uptake of strontium by the resins was found to be less sensitive to the addition of other metal components: the greatest decrease in the amount adsorbed was 60% of the ideal value in the two effluents for Amberlite® IRN77 and 75% for Amberlite™ IRN9652. It was therefore demonstrated that any performance tests carried out under idealized conditions should be exploited with much caution to predict the real performance of cation exchange resins under conditions of cation competition.

  16. Developing Novel Antimicrobial and Antiviral Textile Products.

    PubMed

    Iyigundogdu, Zeynep Ustaoglu; Demir, Okan; Asutay, Ayla Burcin; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2017-03-01

    In conjunction with an increasing public awareness of infectious diseases, the textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan are applied to cotton fabrics in order to gain antimicrobial and antiviral properties for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of textiles treated with 3 % sodium pentaborate pentahydrate, 0.03 % triclosan, and 7 % Glucapon has been investigated against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Moreover, modified cotton fabrics were tested against adenovirus type 5 and poliovirus type 1. According to the test results, the modified textile goods attained very good antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan solution-treated textiles can be considered in the development of antimicrobial and antiviral textile finishes.

  17. Micromechanical models for textile structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrey, Ramesh V.; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop micromechanical models for predicting the stiffness and strength properties of textile composite materials. Two models are presented to predict the homogeneous elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of a textile composite. The first model is based on rigorous finite element analysis of the textile composite unit-cell. Periodic boundary conditions are enforced between opposite faces of the unit-cell to simulate deformations accurately. The second model implements the selective averaging method (SAM), which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging. For thin textile composites, both models can predict the plate stiffness coefficients and plate thermal coefficients. The finite element procedure is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses, and to estimate the initial failure envelope for textile composites.

  18. Simulation of magnetic coatings on textile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    While the properties of conductive fibres and coatings on textiles can easily be measured and calculated, magnetic coatings of fibres, yarns and fabrics still lack descriptions of their physical properties. Since magnetic textiles can be used for a variety of applications, from magnetic filters to invisible water-marks to magnetic coils and sensors, simulations would be supportive to understand and utilize their properties. The article gives an overview of different coatings on textile fibres, varying the magnetic materials as well as the fibre composition, giving rise to the interactions between neighbouring coated fibres. In this way, it is possible to understand the strong shape anisotropy which must be taken into account when the magnetic properties of textiles are to be tailored. Additionally, the differences between several possible magnetic coating materials become visible. This study can help adjusting the magnetic properties of textile fabrics to a desired application.

  19. 19 CFR 10.553 - Textile and apparel site visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile and apparel site visits. 10.553 Section 10... Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.553 Textile and apparel site visits. (a... Textile Agreements (CITA), exclude from the territory of the United States textile or apparel...

  20. Transformation of Four Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater and Post-processing of Sewage Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing use of silver (Ag) nanoparticles [containing either elemental Ag (Ag-NPs) or AgCl (AgCl-NPs)] in commercial products such as textiles will most likely result in these materials reaching wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies indicate that a conversion of Ag-...

  1. Analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater through chemical coagulation-adsorption process-A case study of Clariant Pakistan limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Shah, Syed Farman; Shah, Abdul Karim; Mehdi, Ahmad; Memon, Aziza Aftab; Harijan, Khanji; Ali, Zeenat M.

    2012-05-01

    Textile dye manufacture processes are known as the most polluting chemical processes of industrial sectors of the world. Colored wastewaters along with many polluting agents are troublesome. They are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. Current study applies a coupled technology for wastewater treatment. Combined coagulation-adsorption process was utilized for treatment of complex nature effluents of dyes, binder emulsion, pigments and textile chemicals plants at Clariant Pakistan. Cost effective coagulant and adsorbent was selected by using waste material from a power generation unit of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan. The treated effluent could be reused. Alum+ Activated Carbon, Ferrous sulfate+ Activated Carbon, Ferric chloride + Activated Carbon. Almost complete decolourization was achieved along with reduction in COD up to 65%. Pre and post treatment, TDS, COD, Turbidity and suspended solids were improved.

  2. Textile Messages: Dispatches from the World of E-Textiles and Education. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies. Volume 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buechley, Leah, Ed.; Peppler, Kylie, Ed.; Eisenberg, Michael, Ed.; Yasmin, Kafai, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Textile Messages" focuses on the emerging field of electronic textiles, or e-textiles--computers that can be soft, colorful, approachable, and beautiful. E-textiles are articles of clothing, home furnishings, or architectures that include embedded computational and electronic elements. This book introduces a collection of tools that…

  3. Silver nanowire decorated heatable textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doganay, Doga; Coskun, Sahin; Polat Genlik, Sevim; Emrah Unalan, Husnu

    2016-10-01

    The modification of insulating fabrics with electrically conductive nanomaterials has opened up a novel application field. With the help of Joule heating mechanism, conductive fabrics can be used as mobile heaters. In this work, heatable textiles are fabricated using silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Cotton fabrics are decorated with polyol synthesized Ag NWs via a simple dip-and-dry method. The time-dependent thermal response of the fabrics under different applied voltages is investigated. It is found that the fabrics can be heated to 50 °C under an applied power density of as low as 0.05 W cm-2. Uniform deposition of Ag NWs resulted in the homogeneous generation of heat. In addition, the stability of the fabrics with time and under different bending and washing conditions is examined. Moreover, a simple control circuit is fabricated and integrated in order to demonstrate the high potential of the fabrics for mobile applications. This work provides a roadmap for researchers who would like to work on heatable textiles with metallic NWs.

  4. Silver nanowire decorated heatable textiles.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Doga; Coskun, Sahin; Genlik, Sevim Polat; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-10-28

    The modification of insulating fabrics with electrically conductive nanomaterials has opened up a novel application field. With the help of Joule heating mechanism, conductive fabrics can be used as mobile heaters. In this work, heatable textiles are fabricated using silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Cotton fabrics are decorated with polyol synthesized Ag NWs via a simple dip-and-dry method. The time-dependent thermal response of the fabrics under different applied voltages is investigated. It is found that the fabrics can be heated to 50 °C under an applied power density of as low as 0.05 W cm(-2). Uniform deposition of Ag NWs resulted in the homogeneous generation of heat. In addition, the stability of the fabrics with time and under different bending and washing conditions is examined. Moreover, a simple control circuit is fabricated and integrated in order to demonstrate the high potential of the fabrics for mobile applications. This work provides a roadmap for researchers who would like to work on heatable textiles with metallic NWs.

  5. Interactive textiles for warrior systems applications.

    PubMed

    Leitch, D Paul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the basis of the U.S. Army's interest in Interactive Textiles and to describe some of the salient needs in the area of healthcare and E-Textiles and finally to indicate the current and near term market for interactive textile solutions. The basis of current Army, indeed DoD interest in Interactive Textiles including E-Textiles is found in the concept of Network-Centric Warfare. The individual soldier in this concept is often at the hub of a vast information network than shares information across platforms such as vehicles and aircraft as well as across echelongs of command from the font line to the rearmost command and control centers. In order to realize the advantages of such a war fighting concept, E-Textiles are required in a number of areas including soldier's uniforms, tentage and airdrop systems. With respect to healthcare, the Army's interest in E-Textile solutions lie in the areas of human performance monitoring (broadly defined to include physiological states such as blood pressure and hydration as well as the more difficult to measure states of attentiveness and cognitive functioning), wound detection and treatment, energy harvesting and flexible displays.

  6. Stretchable, porous, and conductive energy textiles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Mantia, Fabio La; Cui, Lifeng; Jeong, Sangmoo; Deshazer, Heather Dawn; Choi, Jang Wook; Han, Seung Min; Cui, Yi

    2010-02-10

    Recently there is strong interest in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronics to meet the technological demands of modern society. Integrated energy storage devices of this type are a key area that is still significantly underdeveloped. Here, we describe wearable power devices using everyday textiles as the platform. With an extremely simple "dipping and drying" process using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ink, we produced highly conductive textiles with conductivity of 125 S cm(-1) and sheet resistance less than 1 Omega/sq. Such conductive textiles show outstanding flexibility and stretchability and demonstrate strong adhesion between the SWNTs and the textiles of interest. Supercapacitors made from these conductive textiles show high areal capacitance, up to 0.48F/cm(2), and high specific energy. We demonstrate the loading of pseudocapacitor materials into these conductive textiles that leads to a 24-fold increase of the areal capacitance of the device. These highly conductive textiles can provide new design opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications.

  7. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  8. Advances in textile sensing and actuation for e-textile applications.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Rita; De Rossi, Danilo

    2008-01-01

    SMART fabrics and interactive textiles (SFIT) are conceived as innovative textile structure integrating sensing, actuation, electronic, and power and/or communication functions. Due to their multifunctional interactivity, enabled by wearable devices that are flexible and conformable to the human body, e-textiles are considered relevant promoters of a higher quality of life and progress in biomedicine, as well as in several health-focused disciplines, such as biomonitoring, rehabilitation, telemedicine, teleassistance, ergonomics and sport medicine.

  9. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Resin transfer molding of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

    1993-01-01

    The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

  12. On the structural analysis of textile composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    The local structural inhomogeneities which distinguish textile composites from laminated materials are discussed. Techniques for quantifying these inhomogeneities through three dimensional geometric modelling are introduced and methods of translating them into elastic properties are presented. Some basic ideas on application of spline functions to the stress field analysis in textile composites are proposed. The significance of internal continuity conditions for these materials is emphasized. Several analytical techniques based on the concept of a meso-volume are discussed. An example is presented to demonstrate the application of the method to structural analysis of textile composites.

  13. Handbook of Analytical Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian N.; Flanagan, Gerry

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to introduce models and computer codes for predicting the properties of textile composites. The handbook includes several models for predicting the stress-strain response all the way to ultimate failure; methods for assessing work of fracture and notch sensitivity; and design rules for avoiding certain critical mechanisms of failure, such as delamination, by proper textile design. The following textiles received some treatment: 2D woven, braided, and knitted/stitched laminates and 3D interlock weaves, and braids.

  14. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C., Jr. (Editor); Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry.

  15. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  16. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  17. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Abdul Aziz, A. R.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising. PMID:23881131

  5. Visible-light photoactive Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 nanostructures prepared in a water-soluble ionic liquid for degradation of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padervand, Mohsen

    2016-11-01

    Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 photocatalysts, prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted precipitation method, were used as an efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic system for removal of wastewater and pathogenic bacteria from the aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction powder, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET) analysis methods were used to characterize the nanostructures. Photodegradation mechanism was investigated and the results showed that the prepared samples were too efficient for the degradation of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) azo dye, and E. coli cells under visible light. The photogenerated electron-hole pairs reacted with the species in the solution and produced super active radicals such as {{O}}{{{H}}^ \\cdot }, {{H}}{{{O}}^ \\cdot }_{{2}}, and {{{O}}^{ \\cdot - }}_{{2}} which are responsible for the degradation of the environmental pollutions. TEM images were used to clarify the antibacterial activity of the products. Finally, as a practical application of the prepared photocatalysts, their ability evaluated for degradation of a real wastewater sample which was provided from the textile industries.

  6. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.

    PubMed

    Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

  7. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  8. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant

    PubMed Central

    Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, U.; Frei, K. M.; Gleba, M.; Scharff, A. B.; Skals, I.; Heinemeier, J.; Nosch, M. -L; Holst, B.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe. PMID:23024858

  9. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  10. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts were evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy materials are now under development.

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  12. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts have been evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy material is now under development.

  13. Geometrical modelling of textile reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.; Birger, Alexander B.; Clyburn, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of textile composites are dictated by the arrangement of yarns contained within the material. Thus, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the performance of these materials, it is necessary to develop a geometrical model of the fabric structure. This task is quite complex, as the fabric is made from highly flexible yarn systems which experience a certain degree of compressibility. Furthermore there are tremendous forces acting on the fabric during densification typically resulting in yarn displacement and misorientation. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for characterizing the geometry of yarns within a fabric structure including experimental techniques for evaluating these models. Furthermore, some applications of these geometric results to mechanical property predictions models are demonstrated.

  14. Geometrical modelling of textile reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.; Birger, Alexander B.; Clyburn, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of textile composites are dictated by the arrangement of yarns contained with the material. Thus to develop a comprehensive understanding of the performance of these materials, it is necessary to develop a geometrical model of the fabric structure. This task is quite complex, as the fabric is made form highly flexible yarn systems which experience a certain degree of compressability. Furthermore there are tremendous forces acting on the fabric during densification typically resulting in yarn displacement and misorientation. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for characterizing the geometry of yarns within a fabric structure including experimental techniques for evaluating these models. Furthermore, some applications of these geometric results to mechanical prediction models are demonstrated. Although more costly than its predecessors, the present analysis is based on the detailed architecture developed by one of the authors and his colleagues and accounts for many of the geometric complexities that other analyses ignore.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  16. Control of Bypass Transition for Textile Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shimoji, Masayuki; Watanabe, Hideo; Kohama, Yasuaki

    The present research deals with turbulent friction reduction for bypass transition on a flat plate with a textile surface. Unique boundary layers such as those found in swimsuits, sail wings, or skiwear, where certain boundary layer trip structure-like folded edges or masts of a sailboat exist, contain limited turbulence level in the boundary layer even under laminar conditions. A turbulent transition delay in such boundary layers is observed for textile surfaces.

  17. Decolorization potential of mixed microbial consortia for reactive and disperse textile dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, H N; Shah, S A H; Asad, M Javaid; Legge, R L

    2007-06-01

    Four different aerobic mixed consortia collected from basins of wastewater streams coming out of dying plants of Crescent Textile (CT), Sitara Textile (ST), Chenab Fabrics (CF) and Noor Fatima Textile (NF), Faisalabad, Pakistan were applied for decolorization of Drimarene Orange K-GL, Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL, Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN for 10 days using the shake flask technique. CT culture showed the best decolorization potential on all dyestuffs followed by ST, NF and CF, respectively. CT could completely decolorize all dyes within 3-5 days. ST cultures showed effective decolorization potential on Foron Yellow SE4G and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL but complete color removal was achieved after 4 and 7 days, respectively. NF culture showed 100% decolorization efficiencies on Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN but it took comparatively longer time periods (5-7 days). Where as, the NF culture had decolorized only 40% and 50% of Drimarene orange and red, respectively, after 10 days. CF caused complete decolorization of Foron Blue RDGLN and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL after 4 and 8 days, respectively but it showed poor performance on other two dyes.

  18. Aromatic amine contents, component distributions and risk assessment in sludge from 10 textile-dyeing plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Liang, Jie-Ying; Li, Rui-Jing; Hong, Zhen; Wang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Ken-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yang, Zuo-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs), which are components of synthetic dyes, are recalcitrant to the wastewater treatment process and can accumulate in sludge produced by textile-dyeing, which may pose a threat to the environment. A comprehensive investigation of 10 textile-dyeing plants was undertaken in Guangdong Province in China. The contents and component distributions of AAs were evaluated in this study, and a risk assessment was performed. The total concentrations of 14 AAs (Σ14 AAs) varied from 11 μg g(-1)dw to 82.5 μg g(-1)dw, with a mean value of 25 μg g(-1)dw. The component distributions of AAs were characterized by monocyclic anilines, of which 2-methoxy-5-methylaniline and 5-nitro-o-toluidine were the most dominant components. The risk quotient (RQ) value was used to numerically evaluate the ecological risk of 14 AAs in the environment. The result showed that the 14 AAs contents in textile-dyeing sludge may pose a high risk to the soil ecosystem after being discarded on soil or in a landfill.

  19. Characterization of Textile-Insulated Capacitive Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charn Loong; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2017-03-12

    Capacitive biosensors are an emerging technology revolutionizing wearable sensing systems and personal healthcare devices. They are capable of continuously measuring bioelectrical signals from the human body while utilizing textiles as an insulator. Different textile types have their own unique properties that alter skin-electrode capacitance and the performance of capacitive biosensors. This paper aims to identify the best textile insulator to be used with capacitive biosensors by analysing the characteristics of 6 types of common textile materials (cotton, linen, rayon, nylon, polyester, and PVC-textile) while evaluating their impact on the performance of a capacitive biosensor. A textile-insulated capacitive (TEX-C) biosensor was developed and validated on 3 subjects. Experimental results revealed that higher skin-electrode capacitance of a TEX-C biosensor yields a lower noise floor and better signal quality. Natural fabric such as cotton and linen were the two best insulating materials to integrate with a capacitive biosensor. They yielded the lowest noise floor of 2 mV and achieved consistent electromyography (EMG) signals measurements throughout the performance test.

  20. Greensilica(®) vectors for smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Matos, Joana C; Avelar, Inês; Martins, M Bárbara F; Gonçalves, M Clara

    2017-01-20

    The present work aims developing a versatile Greensilica(®) vector/carrier, able to bind to a wide range of textile matrices of carbohydrate polymers and susceptible of being loaded with chemicals/drugs/therapeutic molecules, to create a green tailor-made (multi)functional high-tech textile. A green, eco-friendly, ammonia-free, easily scalable, time-saving sol-gel process was established for the production of those silica-based colloidal particles (SiO2, amine-SiO2, diamine-SiO2, and epoxy-SiO2). Two different textile matrices (cotton, polyester) were functionalized, through the impregnation of Greensilica® particles. The impregnation was performed with and without cure. Diamine-SiO2 colloidal particles exhibited the higher bonding efficiency in cured textile matrices (both cotton and polyester), while with no cure the best adherence to cotton and polyester textile matrices was achieved with diamine-SiO2 and amine-SiO2, respectively. Use once and throw away and continued use applications were envisaged and screened through washing tests. The efficiency of the textiles impregnation was confirmed by SEM, and quantified by ICP.

  1. Biocidal textiles can help fight nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The rates of nosocomial infections, especially by those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, are increasing alarmingly over the globe. Although more rigorous infection control measures are being implemented, it is clear that the current modalities to reduce nosocomial infections are not sufficient. Textiles are an excellent substrate for bacterial growth under appropriate moisture and temperature conditions. Patients shed bacteria and contaminate their pyjamas and sheets. The temperature and humidity between the patients and the bed are appropriate conditions allowing for effective bacterial proliferation. Several studies have found that personnel in contact with contaminated textiles were the source of transmission of the micro-organisms to susceptible patients. Furthermore, it has been reported that bed making in hospitals releases large quantities of micro-organisms into the air, which contaminate the immediate and non-immediate surroundings. Contaminated textiles in hospitals can thus be an important source of microbes contributing to endogenous, indirect-contact, and aerosol transmission of nosocomial related pathogens. We hypothesize that the use of antimicrobial textiles, especially in those textiles that are in close contact with the patients, may significantly reduce bioburden in clinical settings and consequently reduce the risk of nosocomial infections. These textiles should possess broad spectrum biocidal properties. They should be safe for use and highly effective against antibiotic resistant micro-organisms, including those that are commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections, and they should not permit the development of resistant micro-organisms to the active compound.

  2. Characterization of Textile-Insulated Capacitive Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Charn Loong; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2017-01-01

    Capacitive biosensors are an emerging technology revolutionizing wearable sensing systems and personal healthcare devices. They are capable of continuously measuring bioelectrical signals from the human body while utilizing textiles as an insulator. Different textile types have their own unique properties that alter skin-electrode capacitance and the performance of capacitive biosensors. This paper aims to identify the best textile insulator to be used with capacitive biosensors by analysing the characteristics of 6 types of common textile materials (cotton, linen, rayon, nylon, polyester, and PVC-textile) while evaluating their impact on the performance of a capacitive biosensor. A textile-insulated capacitive (TEX-C) biosensor was developed and validated on 3 subjects. Experimental results revealed that higher skin-electrode capacitance of a TEX-C biosensor yields a lower noise floor and better signal quality. Natural fabric such as cotton and linen were the two best insulating materials to integrate with a capacitive biosensor. They yielded the lowest noise floor of 2 mV and achieved consistent electromyography (EMG) signals measurements throughout the performance test. PMID:28287493

  3. Research and development in the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

  4. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.

  5. Emissions of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in a Textile Manufacturing Plant in China and Their Relevance for Workers' Exposure.

    PubMed

    Heydebreck, Franziska; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2016-10-04

    The manufacturing of high-performance fabrics requires numerous chemical treatment steps that involve the use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to protect apparel against water, stain, and oil penetration. However, air and wastewater emissions of PFASs generated during this manufacturing are a potential threat to both factory workers and the environment. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of PFASs in wastewater, air, airborne particles, and settled dust in a textile manufacturing plant in China. PFOA and PFDA or their precursor compounds 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH were the dominant compounds in all environmental media tested, revealing that long-chain PFASs were preferably used for the manufacturing of functional garments. Besides, PFASs were detected along the textile manufacturing chain, indicating that they were used as durable water repellents and as surfactants in, for example, coating agents. The workers' exposure to FTOHs via air inhalation was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than the background exposure of the general western population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing information regarding the emission of PFASs during the manufacturing of textiles via various environmental media.

  6. Long-term natural remediation process in textile dye-polluted river sediment driven by bacterial community changes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsukasa; Adachi, Yusuke; Yamanashi, Yu; Shimada, Yosuke

    2016-09-01

    The textile and dyeing industries are major sources of environmental water pollution all over the world. The textile wastewater effluents discharged into rivers often appear dark red-purple in color due to azo dyes, which can be transformed into carcinogenic aromatic amines. The chemicals used in dyeing are not readily degraded in nature and thus precipitate in river sediment. However, little is known about how dyeing chemicals affect river sediment and river water or how long they persist because they are difficult to monitor. To assess undetectable dyes and byproducts in river sediments, we evaluated the potential of river sediment bacteria to degrade dyes and aromatic amines. We describe the natural remediation of river sediment long-contaminated by textile dyeing effluent. After cessation of wastewater discharge, the dye-degradation potential decreased, and the aromatic amine-degradation potential increased initially and then declined over time. The changes in degradation potential were consistent with changes in the sediment bacterial community. The transition occurred on the order of years. Our data strongly suggest that dyes remained in the river sediment and that aromatic amines were produced even in transparent- and no longer colored-river water, but these chemicals were degraded by the changing sediment bacteria. Time-course monitoring of the degradation activities of key bacteria thus enables assessment of the fate of dye pollutants in river sediments.

  7. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in crop plants grown near Almeda Textile Factory, Adwa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gitet, Hintsa; Hilawie, Masho; Muuz, Mehari; Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Gebremichael, Dawit; Gebremedhin, Desta

    2016-09-01

    The contents of heavy metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) present in water (wastewater and wetland), soils, and food crops collected from the vicinity of Almeda Textile Factory were quantified using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS) in order to assess the environmental impact of the textile factory. The contents of heavy metals determined in the wastewater were found below the recommended limit set by WHO and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) except for Cr, which was found slightly higher than WHO permissible limit. Besides, the contents of the heavy metals determined in soils were below the permissible level of FAO/WHO and Canada maximum allowable limits. Moreover, only the concentrations of Cd and Pb were found above the permissible level set by FAO/WHO in the crop plants studied. Generally, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the plants were in the decreasing order of: Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Cr > Cd. Nevertheless, higher bioconcentration factor (BCF) was found for Cd (0.108-1.156) followed by Zn (0.081-0.499). In conclusion, comparison of heavy metal concentrations with the permissible limits in all collected sample types i.e. water, soil, and crop plants did not show significant pollution from the factory.

  8. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  9. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  10. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons.

  11. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  12. Size distribution of wastewater COD fractions as an index for biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Dulekgurgen, Ebru; Doğruel, Serdar; Karahan, Ozlem; Orhon, Derin

    2006-01-01

    The study proposes direct particle size measurement by sequential filtration and ultrafiltration as a convenient method for wastewater characterization for appropriate treatment technology. It also explores the correlation between particle size distribution (PSD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation, as an index for biological treatability. Profiles obtained through PSD-based COD fractionation serve as the fingerprints for wastewaters, and as demonstrated in this study, reflect different pictures for textile wastewater and domestic sewage. PSD-based COD fractionation profiles identify the soluble range below 2 nm as the size interval housing both the soluble inert COD initially present in the wastewater and soluble inert microbial products generated during biological treatment, as also supported by the metabolic fractionation attained through respirometric analyses. Moreover, PSD-based color profiling offers a good index for the fate of biologically resistant chemicals passing through biological treatment. Compatible results obtained from comparative evaluation of PSD-based COD and color profiles provide useful information on the biodegradability of the textile wastewater studied.

  13. Coping with arsenic-based pesticides on Dine (Navajo) textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jae R.

    Arsenic-based pesticide residues have been detected on Arizona State Museum's (ASM) Dine (Navajo) textile collection using a handheld portable X-ray (pXRF) spectrometer. The removal of this toxic pesticide from historic textiles in museums collections is necessary to reduce potential health risks to Native American communities, museum professionals, and visitors. The research objective was divided into three interconnected stages: (1) empirically calibrate the pXRF instrument for arsenic contaminated cotton and wool textiles; (2) engineer an aqueous washing treatment exploring the effects of time, temperature, agitation, and pH conditions to efficiently remove arsenic from wool textiles while minimizing damage to the structure and properties of the textile; (3) demonstrate the devised aqueous washing treatment method on three historic Navajo textiles known to have arsenic-based pesticide residues. The preliminary results removed 96% of arsenic from a high arsenic concentration (~1000 ppm) textile opposed to minimal change for low arsenic concentration textiles (<100 ppm).

  14. Submicrometre particle filtration with a dc activated plasma textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasipuram, S. C.; Wu, M.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Levine, J. F.; Jasper, W. J.; Saveliev, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma textiles are novel fabrics incorporating the advantages of cold plasma and low-cost non-woven or woven textile fabrics. In plasma textiles, electrodes are integrated into the fabric, and a corona discharge is activated within and on the surface of the fabric by applying high voltages above 10 kV between the electrodes. When the plasma textile is activated, submicrometre particles approaching the textile are charged by the deposition of ions and electrons produced by the corona, and then collected by the textile material. A stable plasma discharge was experimentally verified on the surface of the textile that was locally smooth but not rigid. A filtration efficiency close to 100% was observed in experiments conducted on salt particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 nm. Unlike conventional fibrous filters, the plasma textile provided uniform filtration in this range, without exhibiting a maximum particle penetration size.

  15. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... yarn, fabric, or group of fibers. (b) Textile or apparel goods put up in sets. Notwithstanding the specific rules specified in General Note 27(h), HTSUS, textile or apparel goods classifiable as goods...

  16. Determination of Diameter and Index of Refraction of Textile Fibers by Laser Backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    H. Okuda; B. Stratton; L. Meixler; P. Efthimion; D.Mansfield

    2003-07-24

    A new method was developed to determine both diameters and indices of refraction and hence the birefringence of cylindrical textile and industrial fibers and bundles by measuring intensity patterns of the scattered light over an interval of scattering angles. The measured intensity patterns are compared with theoretical predictions (Mie theory) to determine fiber diameter and index of refraction. It is shown that the method is simple and accurate and may be useful as an on-line, noncontact diagnostic tool in real time.

  17. Smart hydrogel-functionalized textile system with moisture management property for skin application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Yang, Zongyue; He, Liang; Kong, Yeeyee; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a functional textile-based material for topical skin application was fabricated by coating a thermoresponsive hydrogel onto one side of absorbent nonwoven fabric. The thermoresponsive hydrogel was synthesized easily through coupling of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a chemical linker. The chemical structure of the as-prepared triblock copolymer hydrogel was unraveled by FTIR and 1H NMR analysis. The hydrogel showed a temperature-triggered sol-gel transition behavior and high potential for use as drug controlled release. When the surrounding temperature was close to the skin temperature of around 34 °C, it became a moisture management system where the liquids including sweat, blood, and other body fluids can be transported unidirectionally from one fabric side with the hydrophobic hydrogel coating to the untreated opposite side. This thereby showed that the thermoresponsive hydrogel-coated textile materials had a function to keep topical skin area clean, breathable, and comfortable, thus suggesting a great potential and significance for long-term skin treatment application. The structure and surface morphology of the thermoresponsive hydrogel, in vitro drug release behavior, and the mechanism of unidirectional water transport were investigated in detail. Our success in preparation of the functional textile composites will pave the way for development of various polymer- or textile-based functional materials that are applicable in the real world.

  18. A dynamic tester to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and moisture behaviour of the microclimate of textiles is crucial in determining the physiological comfort of apparel, but it has not been investigated sufficiently due to the lack of particular evaluation techniques. Based on sensing, temperature controlling and wireless communicating technology, a specially designed tester has been developed in this study to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles in moving status. A temperature acquisition system and a temperature controllable hotplate have been established to test temperature and simulate the heat of human body, respectively. Relative humidity of the surface of fabric in the dynamic process has been successfully tested through sensing. Meanwhile, wireless communication technology was applied to transport the acquired data of temperature and humidity to computer for further processing. Continuous power supply was achieved by intensive contact between an elastic copper plate and copper ring on the rotating shaft. This tester provides the platform to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of textiles. It enables users to conduct a dynamic analysis on the temperature and humidity together with the thermal and moisture transport behaviour of the surface of fabric in moving condition. Development of this tester opens the door of investigation on the micro-climate of textiles in real time service, and eventually benefits the understanding of the sensation comfort and wellbeing of apparel wearers.

  19. Development and characterization of textile batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, M.; Grethe, T.; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-02-01

    During the past years, smart textiles have gained more and more attention. Products cover a broad range of possible applications, from fashion items such as LED garments to sensory shirts detecting vital signs to clothes with included electrical stimulation of muscles. For all electrical or electronic features included in garments, a power supply is needed - which is usually the bottleneck in the development of smart textiles, since common power supplies are not flexible and often not lightweight, prohibiting their unobtrusive integration in electronic textiles. In a recent project, textile-based batteries are developed. For this, metallized woven fabrics (e.g. copper, zinc, or silver) are used in combinations with carbon fabrics. The article gives an overview of our recent advances in optimizing power storage capacity and durability of the textile batteries by tailoring the gel-electrolyte. The gel-electrolyte is modified with respect to thickness and electrolyte concentration; additionally, the influence of additives on the long-time stability of the batteries is examined.

  20. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric.

  1. Instrumental color control in textile printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Roland L., Sr.

    1996-03-01

    In textile printing there are several color outputs that need to be controlled. Just as important is the color coordination of these outputs. The types of color output are the video display on the textile design system (CATD for Computer Aided Textile Design), the color scanner, the color pattern printer, and the actual pattern printed on the textile substrate. Each of these systems has its own gamut(s) that is partially overlapping of the others and will require mapping and/or truncation to adequately represent the colors of the final print in the other systems. One of the goals of instrumentation systems is to control these devices so that the message of the pattern is the same on all four media. To accomplish this is a significant task that has yet to be completed to meet the rigorous requirements of the textile and apparel industries. Several of the major problems and directions for solving them will be discussed in this paper. These include getting good instrumental measurements, translation of data between systems, and specific problems related to the hard copy output.

  2. Supercritical water oxidation treatment of textile sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Li, Yanhui; Lu, Jinling; Chen, Senlin; Luo, XingQi

    2016-10-17

    In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water. Serious coking occurred during the high pressure water at 250-450°C for the Reactive Orange 7, while at 300 and 350°C for the polyvinyl alcohol. The addition of NaOH not only accelerated the destruction of organic contaminants in the SCWO reactor, but effectively inhibited the dehydration conversion of textile compounds during the preheating process, which was favorable for the treatment system of textile sludge. The corrosion experiment results indicate that the stainless steel 316 could be competent for the body materials of the reactor and the heat exchangers. Furthermore, there was prominent enhancement of sodium hydroxide for the corrosion resistance of 316 in subcritical water. On the contrary the effect was almost none during SCWO.

  3. Color management in textile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Vannucci, Massimiliano; Buonopane, Massimo; Fabroni, Cosimo; Fabrini, Francesco

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this research was to study a system of acquisition and processing of images capable of confronting colored wool with a reference specimen, in order to define the conformity using objective parameters. The first step of the research was to comprise and to analyze in depth the problem: there has been numerous implications of technical, physical, cultural, biological and also psychological character, that come down from the attempt of giving a quantitative appraisal to the color. In the scene of the national and international scientific and technological research, little has been made as regards measurement of color through digital processing of the images through linear CCD. The reason is fundamentally of technological nature: only during the last years we found the presence on the market of low cost equipment capable of acquiring and processing images with adequate performances and qualities. The job described has permitted to create a first prototype of system for the color measuring with use of CCD linear devices. -Hardware identification to carry out a series of tests and experiments in laboratory. -Verification of such device in a textile facility. -Statistics analysis of the collected data and of the employed models.

  4. Cutaneous Recording and Stimulation of Muscles Using Organic Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Papaiordanidou, Maria; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Rezaei-Mazinani, Shahab; Lonjaret, Thomas; Martin, Alain; Ismailova, Esma

    2016-08-01

    Electronic textiles are an emerging field providing novel and non-intrusive solutions for healthcare. Conducting polymer-coated textiles enable a new generation of fully organic surface electrodes for electrophysiological evaluations. Textile electrodes are able to assess high quality muscular monitoring and to perform transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

  5. Success Skills for Textile Workers. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Susan

    The Success Skills for Textile Workers project was established in November 1994 by Alabama educational institutions and textile manufacturers to provide workplace literacy training for textile workers. This report details project objectives and outcomes through October 31, 1997. Introductory materials describe project components and list…

  6. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and are...), when tested as described in § 1610.6 shall be classified as Class 1, Normal flammability, when the...

  7. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and are...), when tested as described in § 1610.6 shall be classified as Class 1, Normal flammability, when the...

  8. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  9. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  10. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  11. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  12. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the United States shall be labeled or marked in accordance with...

  13. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the United States shall be labeled or marked in accordance with...

  14. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  15. Textile-based sampling for potentiometric determination of ions.

    PubMed

    Lisak, Grzegorz; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Bobacka, Johan

    2015-06-02

    Potentiometric sensing utilizing textile-based micro-volume sampling was applied and evaluated for the determination of clinically (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) and environmentally (Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and pH) relevant analytes. In this technological design, calibration solutions and samples were absorbed into textiles while the potentiometric cells (ion-selective electrodes and reference electrode) were pressed against the textile. Once the liquid, by wicking action, reached the place where the potentiometric cell was pressed onto the textile, hence closing the electric circuit, the potentiometric response was obtained. Cotton, polyamide, polyester and their blends with elastane were applied for micro-volume sampling. The textiles were found to influence the determination of pH in environmental samples with pH close to neutral and Pb(2+) at low analyte concentrations. On the other hand, textile-based micro-volume sampling was successfully applied in measurements of Na(+) using solid-contact sodium-selective electrodes utilizing all the investigated textiles for sampling. It was found that in order to extend the application of textile-based sampling toward environmental analysis of ions it will be necessary to tailor the physio-chemical properties of the textile materials. In general, textile-based sampling opens new possibilities for direct chemical analysis of small-volume samples and provide a simple and low-cost method to screen various textiles for their effects on samples to identify which textiles are the most suitable for on-body sensing.

  16. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1,...

  17. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11.12b Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the...

  18. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1,...

  19. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1,...

  20. Fundamental studies of the adhesion of explosives to textile and non-textile surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, H A; Becker, T; Nic Daeid, N; Lewis, S W

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the interactions between explosives crystals and different surfaces. Crystals of TNT, PETN and RDX were mounted onto tipless AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought into contact with a range of surfaces (n=15), including textile and non-textile surfaces. The adhesion force during each contact was measured, and the results are presented in this work. The results suggest that explosives crystals display a higher adhesion to smoother, non-textile surfaces, particularly glass. This finding may be of use for forensic explosives investigators when deciding the best types of debris to target for explosives recovery.

  1. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    SciTech Connect

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  3. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  4. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    PubMed

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  5. Antioxidant cosmeto-textiles: skin assessment.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Martínez, Vanessa; Rubio, Laia; Parra, José L; Coderch, Luisa

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol, a natural product, has been reported to have antioxidant activities such as the scavenging of free radicals. This compound could be used in the dermocosmetic field to protect the skin from oxidative stress. In this work, the percutaneous profile of resveratrol in ethanol solutions through pig skin was determinated by an in vitro methodology. The percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was measured and compared with trolox, an analogous of Vitamin E. Both antioxidants were found in all skin sections (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Besides, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol and trolox has been evaluated using DPPH method. The effective dose (ED₅₀) of compounds and DPPH radical inhibition in each skin layer were evaluated. Under the conditions used for these experiments, it can be deduced that resveratrol is more efficient than trolox as an antioxidant, also in the inner skin layers. The cosmeto-textiles with an active substance incorporated into their structure are increasingly used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The action of several cosmeto-textiles on the skin was assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Samples of these cosmeto-textiles were prepared with resveratrol incorporated into cotton and polyamide fabrics. An in vitro percutaneous absorption was used to demonstrate the delivery of the resveratrol from the textile to the different skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Additionally, these cosmeto-textiles containing the antioxidant were applied onto the forearms of volunteers to evaluate the textiles' efficacy in skin penetration. The antioxidant's antiradical capacity was evaluated using the DPPH method. Results showed that resveratrol could be detected in the dermis, epidermis, and stratum corneum (SC) by an in vitro percutaneous absorption method and was also detected in the outermost layers of the SC by an in vivo method (stripping). A smaller amount of resveratrol was

  6. Flexible textile light diffuser for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selm, Barbel; Camenzind, Martin

    2005-03-01

    In this article a new medical application is introduced using textile production techniques to deliver a defined radiation dose. The advantage for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is that a flat luminous textile structure can homogeneously illuminate unequal body surfaces. The optical properties of this two-dimensional luminous pad are characterized with a set of bench-scale tests. In vitro investigations on petri dishes with cultivated cells and first clinical tests on animal patients are promising. In addition first measurement results are presented together with an outlook to future developments.

  7. Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pudnos, Eric

    1992-01-01

    The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C.

  8. Upholstery textile performance following exposure to daylight

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, S.; Guerin, D.

    1986-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of exposure to daylight on upholstery textiles. Eleven fabrics preferred by consumers were exposed to daylight in outdoor test cabinets for six months. Exposed and unexposed specimens were tested for tensile strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, and colorfastness. Statistical analysis indicated highly significant fabric/exposure interactive effects; significant losses in warp and filling strength, warp and filling elongation, and the resistance to abrasion in most of the exposed upholstery textiles tested. Color change was also found in the majority of exposed fabrics. Results indicate that careful selection of upholstery fabrics is required by energy-conscious consumers and designers.

  9. Fluorescence spectroscopy for wastewater monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Reynolds, Darren M

    2016-05-15

    Wastewater quality is usually assessed using physical, chemical and microbiological tests, which are not suitable for online monitoring, provide unreliable results, or use hazardous chemicals. Hence, there is an urgent need to find a rapid and effective method for the evaluation of water quality in natural and engineered systems and for providing an early warning of pollution events. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable technique to characterize and monitor wastewater in surface waters for tracking sources of pollution, and in treatment works for process control and optimization. This paper reviews the current progress in applying fluorescence to assess wastewater quality. Studies have shown that, in general, wastewater presents higher fluorescence intensity compared to natural waters for the components associated with peak T (living and dead cellular material and their exudates) and peak C (microbially reprocessed organic matter). Furthermore, peak T fluorescence is significantly reduced after the biological treatment process and peak C is almost completely removed after the chlorination and reverse osmosis stages. Thus, simple fluorometers with appropriate wavelength selectivity, particularly for peaks T and C could be used for online monitoring in wastewater treatment works. This review also shows that care should be taken in any attempt to identify wastewater pollution sources due to potential overlapping fluorophores. Correlations between fluorescence intensity and water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been developed and dilution of samples, typically up to ×10, has been shown to be useful to limit inner filter effect. It has been concluded that the following research gaps need to be filled: lack of studies on the on-line application of fluorescence spectroscopy in wastewater treatment works and lack of data processing tools suitable for rapid correction and extraction of

  10. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications.

  11. Identification and classification of textile fibres using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Peets, Pilleriin; Leito, Ivo; Pelt, Jaan; Vahur, Signe

    2017-02-15

    The possibility of classification of single- and two-component textile materials using ATR-FT-IR spectra and chemometric methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis, was assessed. Altogether 89 textile samples belonging to 26 different types (11 one- and 15 two-component textiles) were investigated. It was found that PCA classification using only two or three principal components (PCs) enables identifying different one- and two-component textiles, although with two important limitations: it was not always possible to distinguish between the cellulose-based fibres (cotton, linen and in some cases viscose) and it was only partly possible to distinguish between silk and wool. The statistical discriminant analysis can use as many PCs as there are sample classes and due to that can discriminate between single-component fibres, including viscose from linen and cotton as well as silk from wool. Besides that, in both of these cases, involving optical microscopy as an additional technique enabled unequivocal identification of the fibres. The possibilities of semi-quantitative analysis of mixed fibres (cotton-polyester, wool-polyester and wool-polyamide) with PCA were investigated and it was found that approximate quantitative composition is obtainable if for the mixed fibre sample a number of spectra are averaged in order to minimize the effect of structural inhomogeneity. For approximate content determination 25 spectra of selected two-component samples were registered for calibration and the averaged spectrum for each sample was computed. Due to the structural inhomogeneity of mixed textiles, obtaining accurate quantitative composition from real samples is not possible with ATR-FT-IR. The main problems with ATR-FT-IR-PCA classification are (1) difficulties in getting high quality spectra from some textiles (e.g. polyacrylic), (2) inhomogeneity of the textile fibres in the case of two-component fibres and (3) intrinsic similarity between the

  12. Identification and classification of textile fibres using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peets, Pilleriin; Leito, Ivo; Pelt, Jaan; Vahur, Signe

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of classification of single- and two-component textile materials using ATR-FT-IR spectra and chemometric methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis, was assessed. Altogether 89 textile samples belonging to 26 different types (11 one- and 15 two-component textiles) were investigated. It was found that PCA classification using only two or three principal components (PCs) enables identifying different one- and two-component textiles, although with two important limitations: it was not always possible to distinguish between the cellulose-based fibres (cotton, linen and in some cases viscose) and it was only partly possible to distinguish between silk and wool. The statistical discriminant analysis can use as many PCs as there are sample classes and due to that can discriminate between single-component fibres, including viscose from linen and cotton as well as silk from wool. Besides that, in both of these cases, involving optical microscopy as an additional technique enabled unequivocal identification of the fibres. The possibilities of semi-quantitative analysis of mixed fibres (cotton-polyester, wool-polyester and wool-polyamide) with PCA were investigated and it was found that approximate quantitative composition is obtainable if for the mixed fibre sample a number of spectra are averaged in order to minimize the effect of structural inhomogeneity. For approximate content determination 25 spectra of selected two-component samples were registered for calibration and the averaged spectrum for each sample was computed. Due to the structural inhomogeneity of mixed textiles, obtaining accurate quantitative composition from real samples is not possible with ATR-FT-IR. The main problems with ATR-FT-IR-PCA classification are (1) difficulties in getting high quality spectra from some textiles (e.g. polyacrylic), (2) inhomogeneity of the textile fibres in the case of two-component fibres and (3) intrinsic similarity between the

  13. Exquisite textiles sensors and wireless sensor network device for home health care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Chen, Chin-Hsing; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chen, You-Yin; Huang, Jung-Lin; Yang, Chang Ming; Yang, Tzu Lin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we propose a wearing system with four sensors, ECG (electrocardiogram), three-axis accelerometer, temperature, and tight-switch, applied for remote monitoring system in home-care. The sensors ECG, measured with wearable electrodes made of the steel textile to generate the real-time heart-rate estimator, tight-switch, made of the steel textile to check whether wearing person dresses properly, accelerometer, and temperature parameters are received via the ZigBee receiver within an exquisite belt. Since the movable textile electrodes will cause of unfixed contacts when the wearing person is in motion, making the heart-rate estimation much a sophisticated work, the tight-switch sensor and FIR (Filter Impulse Response) filter technology are applied here to get the more satisfiable heart-rate. The other two bio-sensors can detect the whether fall-down or not and normal body-temperature of this wearing person. Moreover, the ZigBee device with small size, low-power consumption, and high-reliability characteristics is designed to transmit the detected bio-information from these four sensors. Therefore, the vital system embedded with the capability of real-time heart-rate estimation and transmission makes it highly suitable for applications of remote healthcare and wellness.

  14. Synchronous wearable wireless body sensor network composed of autonomous textile nodes.

    PubMed

    Vanveerdeghem, Peter; Van Torre, Patrick; Stevens, Christiaan; Knockaert, Jos; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-10-09

    A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system.

  15. Synchronous Wearable Wireless Body Sensor Network Composed of Autonomous Textile Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Vanveerdeghem, Peter; Van Torre, Patrick; Stevens, Christiaan; Knockaert, Jos; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system. PMID:25302808

  16. Surface water and wastewater treatment using a new tannin-based coagulant. Pilot plant trials.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Solera-Hernández, C

    2010-10-01

    A new tannin-based coagulant-flocculant (Tanfloc) was tested for water treatment at a pilot plant level. Four types of water sample were treated: surface water (collected from a river), and municipal, textile industry (simulated by a 100 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an acid dye), and laundry (simulated by a 50 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant) wastewaters. The pilot plant process consisted of coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration. The experiments were carried out with an average coagulant dosage of 92.2 mg L(-1) (except in the case of the surface water for which the dosage was 2 mg L(-1)). The efficacy of the water purification was notable in every case: total turbidity removal in the surface water and municipal wastewater, about 95% dye removal in the case of the textile industry wastewater, and about 80% surfactant removal in the laundry wastewater. Filtration improved the removal of suspended solids, both flocs and turbidity, and slightly improved the process as a whole. The efficiency of Tanfloc in these pilot studies was similar to or even better than that obtained in batch trials.

  17. Ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharges: a case study in Prato (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, E; Galli, S; Limberti, A; Giovannelli, L

    2004-01-01

    Textile wastewaters, which contain numerous chemicals such as dyes, surfactants, solvents, organic and inorganic salts, can cause severe pollution problems for the receiving freshwaters. The ecotoxicity of wastewaters in Prato, where there are about 14,000 textile and related factories, was investigated from 1996-1999 by means of bioassays. 147 samples of reclaimed wastewater were collected at the outlets of 4 centralized wastewater treatment plants. The acute and chronic toxicity of the effluents was measured with bioassays using three different target organisms: green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Toxicity was expressed as Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) and Toxic Units (TU). The results indicated that the effluents did not have significant acute toxicity: only 2.74% (EC50<100%, TU>1) of the 146 samples tested with crustaceans and 6.52% (EC50<50%, TU>2) of the 78 tested with bioluminescent bacteria showed toxic effects. With algae, slight chronic toxicity was found in 49.33% (mean EC50 value=86.56%, mean TU=1.16) of the 140 samples tested. The highest relative response was found with the algal assay using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: 49.33% of 140 samples showed chronic toxicity at 96 hours (EC50<100%).

  18. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  19. Decentralized wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tchobanoglous, G.

    1998-07-01

    Decentralized wastewater management systems maintain both the solid and liquid fractions of the wastewater near their point of origin. In the future, as long-term strategies are developed to optimize the use of water resources and to protect the environment, it is clear that decentralized systems will become an important element of those strategies.

  20. 77 FR 234 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 303 Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products... Rules and Regulations under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Rules'').\\1\\ The... the Textile Rules to implement the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 15 U.S.C. 70-70k....

  1. Smart technical textiles with integrated POF sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebber, Katerina; Lenke, Philipp; Liehr, Sascha; Witt, Jens; Schukar, Marcus

    2008-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors based on polymer optical fibers (POF) take advantage of the high elasticity and high break-down strain of POF. Because of their outstanding elastic properties, POF are well suited for integration into technical textiles like geotextiles and medical textiles. Smart textiles with incorporated POF sensors, able to sense various mechanical and physical quantities, can be realized. The integration of POF as a sensor into geotextiles for monitoring of displacement of soil is very attractive since POF can be used for distributed strain measurement of strain values of more than 40 %. An online monitoring of critical mechanical deformations of geotechnical structures like dikes, dams, slopes, embankments as well as of masonry structures can be ensured. Medical textiles that incorporate POF sensors can control vital physiological parameters like respiratory movement and can be used for wearable health monitoring of patients requiring a continuous medical assistance and treatment. The biocompatibility of POF is an important criterion for selecting POF as a medical sensor. The paper shows selected examples of using POF sensors for the mentioned monitoring purposes.

  2. 3-D textile reinforcements in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miravete, A.

    1999-11-01

    Laminated composite materials have been used in structural applications since the 1960s. However, their high cost and inability to accommodate fibers in the laminate`s thickness direction greatly reduce their damage tolerance and impact resistance. The second generation of materials--3-D textile reinforced composites--offers significant cost reduction, and by incorporating reinforcement in the thickness direction, dramatically increases damage tolerance and impact resistance. However, methods for predicting mechanical properties of 3-D textile reinforced composite materials tend to be more complex. These materials also have disadvantages--particularly in regard to crimps in the yarns--that require more research. Textile preforms, micro- and macromechanical modeling, manufacturing processes, and characterization all need further development. As researchers overcome these problems, this new generation of composites will emerge as a highly competitive family of materials. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of this promising technology. In it, top experts describe the manufacturing processes, highlight the advantages, identify the main applications, analyze methods for predicting mechanical properties, and detail various reinforcement strategies, including grid structure, knitted fabric composites, and the braiding technique. Armed with the information in this book, readers will be prepared to better exploit the advantages of 3-D textile reinforced composites, overcome its disadvantages, and contribute to the further development of the technology.

  3. Database of Mechanical Properties of Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delbrey, Jerry

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the approach followed to develop a database for mechanical properties of textile composites. The data in this database is assembled from NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) programs and from data in the public domain. This database meets the data documentation requirements of MIL-HDBK-17, Section 8.1.2, which describes in detail the type and amount of information needed to completely document composite material properties. The database focuses on mechanical properties of textile composite. Properties are available for a range of parameters such as direction, fiber architecture, materials, environmental condition, and failure mode. The composite materials in the database contain innovative textile architectures such as the braided, woven, and knitted materials evaluated under the NASA ACT programs. In summary, the database contains results for approximately 3500 coupon level tests, for ten different fiber/resin combinations, and seven different textile architectures. It also includes a limited amount of prepreg tape composites data from ACT programs where side-by-side comparisons were made.

  4. Research in textile composites at KU, Leuven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verpoest, Ignaas; Ivens, Jan; Willemvanvuure, Aart; Efstratiou, Vassilios

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the research on textile composites at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Three dimensionally woven sandwich fabric preforms are investigated for delamination resistant sandwich structures, velvet woven 2.5 dimensional fabrics for delamination resistant laminates, and knitted fabrics with good drapability for laminates of complex shape.

  5. Clothing and Textiles II. Semester Course. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Harriet; And Others

    The clothing and textiles guide for a second level semester course for grades 10-12 identifies objectives and learning experiences with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of students. It was developed for use with students who exhibited skill and a high degree of satisfaction from…

  6. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  7. Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction in Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan

    Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…

  8. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  9. Textiles, Tariffs, and Turnarounds: Profits Improved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronoff, Craig

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. textile industry may serve as a classic study on regeneration through market forces. The industry has recently made a turnaround in profits after having been recognized as an industry that was losing most of its profits to overseas producers. The reasons for the emerging strength of the industry is that it began to innovate after a…

  10. NASA CPAS Drogue Textile Riser Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennings, Elsa J.; Petersen, Michael L.; Anderson, Brian; Johnson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Steel cable was chosen for the lower end of the drogue and main parachute risers on NASA's Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) to protect the risers from extreme temperatures and abrasion should they contact the crew module during deployment, as was done for Apollo. Due to the weight and deployment complexity inherent in steel, there was significant interest in the possibility of substituting textile for steel for the drogue and main parachute risers. However, textile risers could be damaged when subjected to high temperature and abrasion. Investigations were consequently performed by a subset of the authors to determine whether sacrificial, non-load-bearing textile riser covers could be developed to mitigate the thermal and abrasion concerns. Multiple material combinations were tested, resulting in a cover design capable of protecting the riser against severe riser/crew module contact interactions. A feasibility study was then conducted to evaluate the performance of the textile drogue riser cover in relevant abrasive environments. This paper describes the testing performed and documents the results of this feasibility study.

  11. State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

  12. Textiles. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help students to acquire a competency: how to use knowledge of textile design to gain expertise in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys.…

  13. North Carolina Clothing and Textiles Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in clothing and textiles for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline,…

  14. Textile firm converts to wood fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The successful conversion in a textile firm from using oil and gas fired boilers to wood is described. The use of wood waste saved $2.50 per million Btu over what it would cost to burn it and the $2.7 million investment has almost paid for itself after four years of operation.

  15. Distributed fiber optic sensors embedded in technical textiles for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebber, Katerina; Lenke, Philipp; Liehr, Sascha; Noether, Nils; Wendt, Mario; Wosniok, Aleksander

    2010-09-01

    Technical textiles with embedded distributed fiber optic sensors have been developed for the purposes of structural health monitoring in geotechnical and civil engineering. The distributed fiber optic sensors are based on Brillouin scattering in silica optical fibers and OTDR in polymer optical fibers. Such "smart" technical textiles can be used for reinforcement of geotechnical and masonry structures and the embedded fiber optic sensors can provide information about the condition of the structures and detect the presence of any damages and destructions in real time. Thus, structural health monitoring of critical geotechnical and civil infrastructures can be realized. The paper highlights the results achieved in this innovative field in the framework of several German and European projects.

  16. Textile-Based Weft Knitted Strain Sensors: Effect of Fabric Parameters on Sensor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Ozgur; Kennon, William Richard; Husain, Muhammad Dawood

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of textile-based strain sensors has been a focus of research and many investigators have studied this subject. This paper presents a new textile-based strain sensor design and shows the effect of base fabric parameters on its sensing properties. Sensing fabric could be used to measure articulations of the human body in the real environment. The strain sensing fabric was produced by using electronic flat-bed knitting technology; the base fabric was produced with elastomeric yarns in an interlock arrangement and a conductive yarn was embedded in this substrate to create a series of single loop structures. Experimental results show that there is a strong relationship between base fabric parameters and sensor properties. PMID:23966199

  17. Development of smart textiles with embedded fiber optic chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Saif E.; Yuan, Jianming; El-Sherif, Mahmoud A.

    2004-03-01

    Smart textiles are defined as textiles capable of monitoring their own health conditions or structural behavior, as well as sensing external environmental conditions. Smart textiles appear to be a future focus of the textile industry. As technology accelerates, textiles are found to be more useful and practical for potential advanced technologies. The majority of textiles are used in the clothing industry, which set up the idea of inventing smart clothes for various applications. Examples of such applications are medical trauma assessment and medical patients monitoring (heart and respiration rates), and environmental monitoring for public safety officials. Fiber optics have played a major role in the development of smart textiles as they have in smart structures in general. Optical fiber integration into textile structures (knitted, woven, and non-woven) is presented, and defines the proper methodology for the manufacturing of smart textiles. Samples of fabrics with integrated optical fibers were processed and tested for optical signal transmission. This was done in order to investigate the effect of textile production procedures on optical fiber performance. The tests proved the effectiveness of the developed methodology for integration of optical fibers without changing their optical performance or structural integrity.

  18. Disperse Red 1 (textile dye) induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in mouse germ cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fábio Henrique; Bustos-Obregon, Eduardo; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2015-06-01

    Disperse Red 1 (DR1), which is widely used in the textile industry, is an azo dye that contributes to the toxicity and pollution of wastewater. To assess the toxic effects of DR1 on reproduction, sexually mature male mice (Mus musculus, strain CF-1) were orally (gavage) treated with single doses of the compound at 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Testicular features and sperm parameters were evaluated 8.3, 16.6 and 24.9 days after treatments. In addition to testicular toxicity caused by the dye, the data clearly showed an increased frequency of sperm with abnormal morphology and decreased fertility. An increased amount of DNA damage was also detected in testis cells 16.6 and 24.9 days after treatments with 100 and 500 mg/kg. This study demonstrated the toxic and genotoxic effects of DR1, indicating the harmful activity of this dye on reproductive health.

  19. Characteristics and aluminum reuse of textile sludge incineration residues after acidification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Manhong; Chen, Liang; Chen, Donghui; Zhou, Saijie

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and aluminum speciation of sludge incineration residue (SIR) were determined. Cementation of aluminum from sulfuric acid solution using SIR was studied. The results showed that acid-soluble inorganic aluminum was the predominant component in the sludge, and the total leached aluminum increased from 62.2% to 92.9% after incineration. Sulfuric acid dosage and reaction time were found to affect aluminum recovery positively. Conversely, the increase in temperature significantly inhibited recovery reactions. The optimized leaching condition was 1.66 g sulfuric acid per gram of SIR with a reaction time of 3 hr at 20 degrees C, resulting in the highest aluminum leaching rate of 96.7%. Compared to commercial aluminum sulfate solution coagulants, the leaching solution demonstrated higher COD(Cr), turbidity and color removal efficiency for textile wastewater.

  20. Analysis of natural red dyes (cochineal) in textiles of historical importance using HPLC and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Sousa, Micaela M; Hallett, Jessica; Lopes, João A; Oliveira, M Conceição

    2011-08-01

    A new analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate data analysis was applied and assessed for analyzing the red dye extracted from cochineal insects, used in precious historical textiles. The most widely used method of analysis involves quantification of specific minor compounds (markers), using HPLC-DAD. However, variation in the cochineal markers concentration, use of aggressive dye extraction methods and poor resolution of HPLC chromatograms can compromise the identification of the precise insect species used in the textiles. In this study, a soft extraction method combined with a new dye recovery treatment was developed, capable of yielding HPLC chromatograms with good resolution, for the first time, for historical cochineal-dyed textiles. After principal components analysis (PCA) and mass spectrometry (MS), it was possible to identify the cochineal species used in these textiles, in contrast to the accepted method of analysis. In order to compare both methodologies, 7 cochineal species and 63 historical cochineal insect specimens were analyzed using the two approaches, and then compared with the results for 15 historical textiles in order to assess their applicability to real complex samples. The methodology developed here was shown to provide more accurate and consistent information than the traditional method. Almost all of the historical textiles were dyed with Porphyrophora sp. insects. These results emphasize the importance of adopting the proposed methodology for future research on cochineal (and related red dyes). Mild extraction methods and HPLC-DAD/MS(n) analysis yield distinctive profiles, which, in combination with a PCA reference database, are a powerful tool for identifying red insect dyes.

  1. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    PubMed Central

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F.; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R.; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L−1) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  2. Biodegradable sizing agents from soy protein via controlled hydrolysis and dis-entanglement for remediation of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maiping; Xu, Helan; Hou, Xiuliang; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Yiqi

    2017-03-01

    Fully biodegradable textile sizes with satisfactory performance properties were developed from soy protein with controlled hydrolysis and dis-entanglement to tackle the intractable environmental issues associated with the non-biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in textile effluents. PVA derived from petroleum is the primary sizing agent due to its excellent sizing performance on polyester-containing yarns, especially in increasingly prevailing high-speed weaving. However, due to the poor biodegradability, PVA causes serious environmental pollution, and thus, should be substituted with more environmentally friendly polymers. Soy protein treated with high amount of triethanolamine was found with acceptable sizing properties. However, triethanolamine is also non-biodegradable and originated from petroleum, therefore, is not an ideal additive. In this research, soy sizes were developed from soy protein treated with glycerol, the biodegradable triol that could also be obtained from soy. The soy sizes had good film properties, adhesion to polyester and abrasion resistance close to PVA, rendering them qualified for sizing applications. Regarding desizing, consumption of water and energy for removal of soy size could be remarkably decreased, comparing to removal of PVA. Moreover, with satisfactory degradability, the wastewater containing soy sizes was readily dischargeable after treated in activated sludge for two days. In summary, the fully biodegradable soy sizes had potential to substitute PVA for sustainable textile processing.

  3. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Jagadale, Ashwini D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2015-01-01

    A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant-bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  4. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries.

  5. Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Brian

    1999-03-01

    OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

  6. Antimicrobial textiles, skin-borne flora and odour.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Along with climate and physical activity, textiles have an effect on sweating and the development of odours. Accordingly, textiles inadequately optimized in terms of clothing technology as a result of poorly cut structures or poor materials result in increased sweating and odour. However, the development of body odour itself cannot be avoided, even with optimally designed clothing. Therefore new textiles, 'treated with antimicrobial agents', have been developed, with the aim of reducing odour by decreasing the number of germs on the skin. From the scientific point of view, the interactions between textiles, sweat, skin and skin flora are extremely complex. For this reason, this article explains in more detail the basic principles of odour formation resulting from sweat and how this can be influenced by textiles treated with antimicrobial agents. With reference to the results of recent research, the article looks into questions of how textiles treated with antimicrobial agents have an effect on populations of skin bacteria.

  7. Stretchable biofuel cell with enzyme-modified conductive textiles.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yudai; Takai, Yuki; Kato, Yuto; Kai, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Takeo; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

    2015-12-15

    A sheet-type, stretchable biofuel cell was developed by laminating three components: a bioanode textile for fructose oxidation, a hydrogel sheet containing fructose as fuel, and a gas-diffusion biocathode textile for oxygen reduction. The anode and cathode textiles were prepared by modifying carbon nanotube (CNT)-decorated stretchable textiles with fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD), respectively. Enzymatic reaction currents of anode and cathode textiles were stable for 30 cycles of 50% stretching, with initial loss of 20-30% in the first few cycles due to the partial breaking of the CNT network at the junction of textile fibers. The assembled laminate biofuel cell showed power of ~0.2 mW/cm(2) with 1.2 kΩ load, which was stable even at stretched, twisted, and wrapped forms.

  8. The Enzymatic Decolorization of Textile Dyes by the Immobilized Polyphenol Oxidase from Quince Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Arabaci, Gulnur; Usluoglu, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents. PMID:24587743

  9. Biological treatment of textile dyes by agar-agar immobilized consortium in a packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh; Gupte, Akshaya

    2015-03-01

    The decolorization of Acid Maroon V was investigated using bacterial consortium EDPA containing Enterobacter dissolvens AGYP1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa AGYP2 immobilized in different entrapment matrices. The consortium displayed 96% removal of dye (100 mg/l) within 6 h when immobilized in agar-agar. Under optimum concentrations of agar-agar (3.0% w/v) and cell biomass (0.9 g% w/v), the consortium displayed decolorization for 18 successive batches of Acid Maroon V and also decolorized 14 other different textile dyes. A packed bed reactor under batch mode showed 89% decolorization of dye after 56 repetitive cycles. Under continuous flow mode, maximum color removal was achieved with bed length of 36 cm, hydraulic retention time of 2.66 h, and dye concentration of 100 mg/l. Additionally, the reactor decolorized relatively higher concentrations (100-2000 mg/l) of dye. The synthetic dye wastewater containing five textile dyes was decolorized 92% with 62% COD reduction using an immobilized consortium.

  10. FAHP ranking and selection of pretreatment module for membrane separation processes in textile cluster.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Pravin; Nandy, Tapas; Sargaonkar, Abha; Rathi, Barkha; Karthik, Manikavasagam

    2011-01-01

    Recent development in membrane manufacturing and extensive application of membranes in effluent treatment has opened up a new water resource. The effluent pretreatment module plays a critical role in membrane performance. Appropriate selection of conventional and advanced pretreatment modules in membrane separation processes (MSP) is significant to the success of zero effluent discharge (ZED). This study addresses performance assessment of eight conventional and advanced pretreatment modules implemented for wastewater management in a textile cluster in South India. The comparative pollutant reduction, capital, operation and maintenance (OM) cost of pretreatment modules are discussed. The ranking and interdependence of the pretreatment modules were analyzed through fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) with MATLAB software. The pretreatment module IV ranked third with a composite weight of 15.46%. The integrated study of performance assessment and FAHP resulted in an optimum pretreatment module IV comprising the sequence of chemical precipitation, bio-oxidation processes (activated sludge processes) followed by chemical precipitation, to achieve the ZED. This study provides a techno-economically feasible solution for selection of an effective pretreatment module for MSP in the textile cluster.

  11. Ecological impact and recovery of a Mediterranean river after receiving the effluent from a textile dyeing industry.

    PubMed

    Colin, Nicole; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Flor-Arnau, Núria; Mora, Josep; Fortuño, Pau; Vieira, Cristiana; Prat, Narcís; Cambra, Jaume; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    The textile industry is one of the largest sectors globally, representing up to 20% of industrial water pollution. However, there is limited insight into how fluvial ecosystems respond and recover from this impact. From summer 2012 to spring 2013, we examined water quality and ecological status upstream and 1.5km downstream the input of a textile industry wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Ripoll River, NE Spain. The ecological status was determined via diversity measures and 10 biotic indices based on diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish. Our results showed that the WWTP severely deteriorated water quality and biological communities at the discharge site, but that they improved at 1.5km downstream. Severity also varied across taxa and seasons, being fish the most affected taxa and spring the season with the best ecological status. The strong correlation amongst water quality variables and many biotic indices across taxa indicated that this is a chronic pollution event affecting multiple trophic levels. Thus, this study suggests that there is an urgent need to invest in wastewater treatment in this industry to preserve the ecological integrity of Ripoll River and especially its fish fauna. Likewise, it illustrates the diagnostic power of biotic indices based on diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish, as driven by the European Water Framework Directive.

  12. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into a municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant.

  13. Asbestos hazard in the reprocessed textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.M.; Kriebel, D.; Buiatti, E.; Paci, E.; Sini, S.; Vannucchi, G.; Zappa, M.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have identified an excess risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers in the reprocessed textile industry in Prato, Italy. These studies suggested that there may have been asbestos hazard in this industry although exposure was not known to exist. An industrial hygiene investigation was conducted to determine whether there was previous or current asbestos exposure in the industry. Walk-through surveys, environmental sampling, process documentation, and management and worker interviews were conducted in 13 textile reprocessing establishments. Polypropylene bags that once contained asbestos were found in 2 of the 13. Asbestos bags were cut open and used to cover bales of rags which were then distributed throughout the world. Workers were exposed to asbestos while handling the bags which were contaminated with chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. Additional sources of asbestos exposure that may have existed in the past in the industry are also discussed.

  14. Development of test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Ifju, Peter G.; Fedro, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Program was initiated in 1990 with the purpose of developing less costly composite aircraft structures. A number of innovative materials and processes were evaluated as a part of this effort. Chief among them are composite materials reinforced with textile preforms. These new forms of composite materials bring with them potential testing problems. Methods currently in practice were developed over the years for composite materials made from prepreg tape or simple 2-D woven fabrics. A wide variety of 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit preforms were suggested for application in the ACT program. The applicability of existing test methods to the wide range of emerging materials bears investigation. The overriding concern is that the values measured are accurate representations of the true material response. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish a set of test methods to evaluate the textile composites developed for the ACT Program.

  15. Optical textile tests MRI patients from afar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Paula

    2008-11-01

    Researchers in Europe have developed a wearable textile fitted with optical sensors that could be used to remotely monitor a patient's breathing patterns while they undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The new textile will allow medical staff to keep an eye on children and other vulnerable patients who often have to be calmed with sedatives or anaesthetic drugs to keep them still during a scan. The technique will be particularly useful if proposed European Union (EU) legislation that is designed to protect medical staff from being exposed to the high magnetic fields of MRI systems comes into force in 2012. The new rules would prevent nurses from being in the room where the scan is taking place.

  16. Quantification of processing artifacts in textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in developing detailed models of the mechanical response of textile reinforced composites is an accurate model of the reinforcing elements. In the case of elastic property prediction, the variation of fiber position may not have a critical role in performance. However, when considering highly localized stress events, such as those associated with cracks and holes, the exact position of the reinforcement probably dominates the failure mode. Models were developed for idealized reinforcements which provide an insight into the local behavior. However, even casual observations of micrographical images reveals that the actual material deviates strongly from the idealized models. Some of the deviations and causes are presented for triaxially braided and three dimensionally woven textile composites. The necessary modeling steps to accommodate these variations are presented with some examples. Some of the ramifications of not accounting for these discrepencies are also addressed.

  17. Stochastic damage evolution in textile laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzenis, Yuris A.; Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic model utilizing random material characteristics to predict damage evolution in textile laminates is presented. Model is based on a division of each ply into two sublaminas consisting of cells. The probability of cell failure is calculated using stochastic function theory and maximal strain failure criterion. Three modes of failure, i.e. fiber breakage, matrix failure in transverse direction, as well as matrix or interface shear cracking, are taken into account. Computed failure probabilities are utilized in reducing cell stiffness based on the mesovolume concept. A numerical algorithm is developed predicting the damage evolution and deformation history of textile laminates. Effect of scatter of fiber orientation on cell properties is discussed. Weave influence on damage accumulation is illustrated with the help of an example of a Kevlar/epoxy laminate.

  18. Applications of cyclodextrins in medical textiles - review.

    PubMed

    Radu, Cezar-Doru; Parteni, Oana; Ochiuz, Lacramioara

    2016-02-28

    This paper presents data on the general properties and complexing ability of cyclodextrins and assessment methods (phase solubility, DSC tests and X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectra, analytical method). It focuses on the formation of drug deposits on the surface of a textile underlayer, using a cyclodextrin compound favoring the inclusion of a drug/active principle and its release onto the dermis of patients suffering from skin disorders, or for protection against insects. Moreover, it presents the kinetics, duration, diffusion flow and release media of the cyclodextrin drug for in vitro studies, as well as the release modeling of the active principle. The information focuses on therapies: antibacterial, anti-allergic, antifungal, chronic venous insufficiency, psoriasis and protection against insects. The pharmacodynamic agents/active ingredients used on cotton, woolen and synthetic textile fabrics are presented.

  19. Textile Technologies and Tissue Engineering: A Path Toward Organ Weaving.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Tamayol, Ali; Bagherifard, Sara; Serex, Ludovic; Mostafalu, Pooria; Faramarzi, Negar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-06

    Textile technologies have recently attracted great attention as potential biofabrication tools for engineering tissue constructs. Using current textile technologies, fibrous structures can be designed and engineered to attain the required properties that are demanded by different tissue engineering applications. Several key parameters such as physiochemical characteristics of fibers, microarchitecture, and mechanical properties of the fabrics play important roles in the effective use of textile technologies in tissue engineering. This review summarizes the current advances in the manufacturing of biofunctional fibers. Different textile methods such as knitting, weaving, and braiding are discussed and their current applications in tissue engineering are highlighted.

  20. Textile Technologies and Tissue Engineering: A Path Towards Organ Weaving

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohsen; Tamayol, Ali; Bagherifard, Sara; Serex, Ludovic; Mostafalu, Pooria; Faramarzi, Negar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Textile technologies have recently attracted great attention as potential biofabrication tools for engineering tissue constructs. Using current textile technologies, fibrous structures can be designed and engineered to attain the required properties that are demanded by different tissue engineering applications. Several key parameters such as physiochemical characteristics of fibers, pore size and mechanical properties of the fabrics play important role in the effective use of textile technologies in tissue engineering. This review summarizes the current advances in the manufacturing of biofunctional fibers. Different textile methods such as knitting, weaving, and braiding are discussed and their current applications in tissue engineering are highlighted. PMID:26924450

  1. Virtual presentation for home textile product on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lie; Zhang, Mingmin; Wang, Peng; Pan, Zhigeng

    2004-03-01

    Computing technology, especial the Computer Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), Internet technology and their application, is one of the fast developing industry in the world. Currently, it is applied widely in many fields of textile industry. In this paper, we will focus on the application of information technology in the design and sale of the textile product. The paper will address the following technical problems in detail: virtual presentation and design of home textile product, electronic commerce for home textile product (interactive design and customization).

  2. Quantification of diarrhea risk related to wastewater contact in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Aleix; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    Wastewater reuse contributes to closing the nutrient recycling loop as a sustainable way of managing water resources. Bangkok has over a thousand man-made drainage and irrigation canals for such purposes. Its use for agricultural and recreational purposes has a long tradition in rural and peri-urban areas. However, the continuation of these practices is increasingly questioned since potential health risks are an issue if such practices are not appropriately managed. The microbial and chemical quality of canal water has considerably deteriorated over the last decade, mainly because of discharged, untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. It is important to understand the health risks of wastewater reuse and identify risky behaviors from the most highly exposed actors promote the safe use of wastewater. This study assessed diarrhea infection risks caused by the use of and contact with wastewater in Klong Luang municipality, a peri-urban setting in Northern Bangkok, using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wastewater samples were collected from canals, sewers at household level, and vegetables grown in the canals for consumption. Samples were also collected from irrigation water from the agricultural fields. Two protozoa, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, were quantified and analyzed by real-time PCR, exposure assessment was conducted, and finally, the risk of infection due to contact with wastewater in different scenarios was calculated. The results showed that canal water and vegetables were heavily contaminated with G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Infection risk was high in tested scenarios and largely exceeded the acceptable risk given by WHO guidelines.

  3. Clogging of fractured formations by biocolloids suspended in reclaimed wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, C.; Masciopinto, C.; La Mantia, R.; Manariotis, I. D.

    2009-12-01

    Two pilot-scale fractured filters consisting of horizontal limestone slabs were employed to investigate fracture aperture clogging due to deposition of biocolloids suspended in reclaimed wastewater. To better understand the behavior of real fractured aquifers, the filters intentionally were not “clean”. The fracture apertures were randomly spread with soil deposits and both filters were pre-flooded with reclaimed wastewater to simulate the field conditions of the Nardò fractured aquifer in the Salento area, Italy, where due to artificial groundwater recharge the fractures are not “clean”. One of the filters was injected with secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant collected prior to the chlorination step, and the other with exactly the same effluent, which was further treated in a commercial membrane reactor. Consequently, the organic and pathogen concentrations were considerably higher in the secondary effluent than the membrane reactor effluent. The injected wastewater was continuously recirculated. The pathogen removal by the filter was more significant for the secondary wastewater than the cleaner membrane reactor effluent. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe fracture clogging. The results suggest that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured filters can be significantly reduced from the retention of viable and inactivated biocolloids originating from reclaimed wastewater. Fracture aperture clogging is strongly related to the chemical oxygen demand of the reclaimed wastewater injected. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

  4. Environmental Baseline Survey, Real Property Transaction Between Nellis Air Force Base and the City of North Las Vegas for Construction of a Wastewater Treatment Facility, Clark County, Nevada. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-06

    FINAL PHASE I ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REAL PROPERTY TRANSACTION BETWEEN NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE AND THE CITY OF NORTH LAS...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey Real Property Transaction Between Nellis Air Force Base and the City of North...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Nellis Air Force Base 8

  5. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  6. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  7. Impact testing of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate the impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of a variety of textile composite materials. Static indentation and impact tests were performed on the stitched and unstitched uniweave composites constructed from AS4/3501-6 Carbon/Epoxy with a fiberglass yarn woven in to hold the fibers together while being stitched. Compression and tension were measured after the tests to determine the damage resistance, residual strength and the damage tolerance of the specimens.

  8. Textile damage caused by vapour cloud explosions.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, J; Krauss, W

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the project was to investigate the damage to garments caused by particular vapour cloud explosions. The authors would like to be able to provide investigators with specific information on how to link clothes to a specific type of crime: a particular case study was the inspiration for the examinations. Experiments were carried out in the fire reconstruction chamber of the laboratory using a selection of 26 clothes and 15 household garments differing in colour, fibre composition and textile construction.

  9. Mechanics Methodology for Textile Preform Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    NASA and its contractors have completed a program to develop a basic mechanics underpinning for textile composites. Three major deliverables were produced by the program: 1. A set of test methods for measuring material properties and design allowables; 2. Mechanics models to predict the effects of the fiber preform architecture and constituent properties on engineering moduli, strength, damage resistance, and fatigue life; and 3. An electronic data base of coupon type test data. This report describes these three deliverables.

  10. Method and apparatus for the application of textile treatment compositions to textile materials

    DOEpatents

    Argyle, Mark D.; Propp, William Alan

    1998-01-01

    A system for applying textile treatment compositions to textile materials. A conduit member is provided which includes a passageway having a first end, a second end, and a medial portion with a constricted (narrowed) region. The passageway may include at least one baffle having an opening therethrough. A yarn strand is then moved through the passageway. A textile treatment composition (a sizing agent or dye) dissolved in a carrier medium (a supercritical fluid or liquified gas) is thereafter introduced into the constricted region, preferably at an acute angle relative to the passageway. The carrier medium expands inside the passageway which causes delivery of the treatment composition to the yarn. The treated yarn then passes through the baffle (if used) which facilitates drying of the yarn. During this process, a carrier gas can be introduced into the passageway to ensure the production of a smooth, dry product.

  11. Method and apparatus for the application of textile treatment compositions to textile materials

    DOEpatents

    Argyle, M.D.; Propp, W.A.

    1998-01-20

    A system is described for applying textile treatment compositions to textile materials. A conduit member is provided which includes a passageway having a first end, a second end, and a medial portion with a constricted (narrowed) region. The passageway may include at least one baffle having an opening there through. A yarn strand is then moved through the passageway. A textile treatment composition (a sizing agent or dye) dissolved in a carrier medium (a supercritical fluid or liquefied gas) is thereafter introduced into the constricted region, preferably at an acute angle relative to the passageway. The carrier medium expands inside the passageway which causes delivery of the treatment composition to the yarn. The treated yarn then passes through the baffle (if used) which facilitates drying of the yarn. During this process, a carrier gas can be introduced into the passageway to ensure the production of a smooth, dry product. 1 fig.

  12. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  13. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  14. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dellamatrice, Priscila Maria; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.

  15. Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.

  16. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  17. Recent progress in NASA Langley textile reinforced composites program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. Benson; Harris, Charles E.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA LaRC is conducting and sponsoring research to explore the benefits of textile reinforced composites for civil transport aircraft primary structures. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the potential of affordable textile reinforced composite materials to meet design properties and damage tolerance requirements of advanced aircraft structural concepts. In addition to in-house research, the program was recently expanded to include major participation by the aircraft industry and aerospace textile companies. The major program elements include development of textile preforms, processing science, mechanics of materials, experimental characterization of materials, and development and evaluation of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. The NASA Langley in-house focus is as follows: development of a science-based understanding of resin transfer molding (RTM), development of powder-coated towpreg processes, analysis methodology, and development of a performance database on textile reinforced composites. The focus of the textile industry participation is on development of multidirectional, damage-tolerant preforms, and the aircraft industry participation is in the areas of design, fabrication and testing of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. Textile processes such as 3D weaving, 2D and 3D braiding, and knitting/stitching are being compared with conventional laminated tape processes for improved damage tolerance. Through-the-thickness reinforcements offer significant damage tolerance improvements. However, these gains must be weighed against potential loss in in-plane properties such as strength and stiffness. Analytical trade studies are underway to establish design guidelines for the application of textile material forms to meet specific loading requirements. Fabrication and testing of large structural components are required to establish the full potential of textile reinforced

  18. A nine-point pH titration method to determine low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hainan; Zhang, Daijun; Lu, Peili; He, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in wastewater is significant for understanding the wastewater nature and the wastewater treatment process optimization based on the usage of Activated Sludge Models (ASMs). In this study, a nine-point pH titration method was developed for the determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater. The method was evaluated using synthetic wastewater containing VFA with the concentration of 10-50 mg/l and the possible interfering buffer systems of carbonate, phosphate and ammonium similar to those in real municipal wastewater. In addition, the further evaluation was conducted through the assay of real wastewater using chromatography as reference. The results showed that the recovery of VFA in the synthetic wastewater was 92%-102 and the coefficient of variance (CV) of reduplicate measurements 1.68%-4.72%. The changing content of the buffering substances had little effect on the accuracy of the method. Moreover, the titration method was agreed with chromatography in the determination of VFA in real municipal wastewater with R(2)= 0.9987 and CV =1.3-1.7. The nine-point pH titration method is capable of satisfied determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

  19. Zinc chloride as a coagulant for textile dyes and treatment of generated dye sludge under the solid state fermentation: hybrid treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Lade, Harshad S; Lee, Dae Sung; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-01-01

    Dye sludge generation is major drawback of coagulation process. Efficient hybrid technology by combining coagulation and solid state fermentation (SSF) has capacity to solve generated dye sludge problem. Coagulation of 100mg/L Reactive Red 120 (RR120) using ZnCl2 showed 99% color removal. Mixture of textile dyes (MTD) and textile wastewater (TW) showed 96% and 98% ADMI (American Dye Manufacturing Institute) removal after coagulation by ZnCl2. 92% and 94% ADMI removal from MTD and TW dye sludge and 96% decolorization of RR120 sludge was observed respectively by developed microbial consortium (DCM) in 72h under SSF. Scale up of coagulation process by coagulation reactor (CR) having 50L capacity operated for 30min/cycle. CR showed average 94% ADMI removal from TW in 10 successive cycles. Scale up of SSF composting bioreactor (CB) showed complete dye removal from dye sludge obtained from CR (500L of TW) in 30days.

  20. Formaldehyde removal in synthetic and industrial wastewater by Rhodococcus erythropolis UPV-1.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A; Lopategi, A; Prieto, M; Serra, J L; Llama, M J

    2002-02-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis strain UPV-1 is able to grow on phenol as the only carbon and energy source and to remove formaldehyde completely from both synthetic and industrial wastewater. The rate of formaldehyde removal is independent of either initial biomass or formaldehyde concentration. The presence of viable, intact cells is strictly necessary for this removal to take place. Discontinuous and continuous formaldehyde-feed systems were successfully tested with synthetic wastewater in shaken flasks. Once biodegradation was well established in model synthetic wastewater, a real wastewater sample was obtained from a local phenolic and melamine resin-manufacturing company. Incubation of biomass with this wastewater at subtoxic concentrations of formaldehyde resulted in the complete removal of the pollutant. Parameters, such as chemical oxygen demand and toxicity, were assessed as indicators of wastewater cleanup progress.