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Sample records for real textile wastewater

  1. Anaerobic treatment of real textile wastewater with a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Demirer, G N

    2003-04-01

    Anaerobic treatability of a real cotton textile wastewater was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with pumice as the support material. The immobilized biomass or attached volatile solids level on the support material was 0.073 g VSS/g support material at the end of the 128-d start-up period. During the operation period, real cotton textile wastewater was fed to the anaerobic FBR both unsupplemented (in Stages 1 and 2) and supplemented (with synthetic municipal wastewater in Stage 3 and glucose in Stages 4-6). The effect of operational conditions such as organic loading rate (OLR), hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent glucose concentration as the co-substrate, etc. was investigated to achieve the maximum color removal efficiency in the reactor. Results indicated that anaerobic treatment of textile wastewater studied was possible with the supplementation of an external carbon source in the form of glucose (about 2g/l). The corresponding maximum COD, BOD(5) and color removals were found to be around 82%, 94% and 59%, respectively, for HRT of around 24h and OLR of 3 kg COD/m(3)/d. Further increase in external carbon source added to real textile wastewater did not improve the color removal efficiency of the anaerobic FBR reactor.

  2. Enhancement of biodegradability of real textile and dyeing wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shijun; Sun, Weihua; Wang, Jianlong; Chen, Lvjun; Zhang, Youxue; Yu, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    A textile and dyeing wastewater treatment plant is going to be upgraded due to the stringent discharge standards in Jiangsu province, China, and electron beam irradiation is considering to be used. In order to determine the suitable location of the electron accelerator in the process of wastewater treatment plant, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the biodegradability of various real wastewater samples collecting from the different stages of the wastewater treatment plant, the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and the ratio of BOD5 and COD (BOD5/COD), were compared before and after EB irradiation. During EB irradiation process, color indices and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254) of wastewater were also determined. The results showed that EB irradiation pre-treatment cannot improve the biodegradability of raw textile and dyeing wastewater, which contains a large amount of biodegradable organic matters. In contrast, as to the final effluent of biological treatment process, EB irradiation can enhance the biodegradability to 224%. Therefore, the promising way is to apply EB irradiation as a post-treatment of the conventional biological process.

  3. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of real textile wastewater: evaluation of reaction kinetics and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K; Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    Real textile wastewater collected from the cotton dyeing bath of a fabric dyeing and finishing plant was subjected to heterogeneous photocatalysis using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. The photocatalysts were characterized by FESEM, XRD, EDS, FTIR, DRS and BET analyses. The kinetics of the reaction was also evaluated. Colour removal was more than 88%, 94% and 99%, respectively for undiluted, 2 times diluted and 5 times diluted wastewater with Ag(+) doped TiO(2) (2.5 g/L) after UV irradiation for 360 minutes. The COD removal for undiluted, 2 times diluted and 5 times diluted wastewater was 47%, 70% and 92%, respectively under similar conditions. The reaction followed Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo first order kinetic model and the data fitted well to polynomial regression analysis.

  4. Efficiency comparison of ozonation, photolysis, photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis methods in real textile wastewater decolorization.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Juliano Carvalho; Bessegato, Guilherme Garcia; Boldrin Zanoni, Maria Valnice

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of real effluents from industries using AOPs stands to be an imperative task of crucial importance yet quite huge a challenge largely given the nature of complexity of these wastewaters. The present work sought to develop a versatile system aimed at the treatment of real wastewater using a bubbling annular reactor, which enables us to test the efficiency of photolysis; photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and direct ozonation using oxygen or ozone as gas flow. A TiO2 nanotubes electrode was used as photocatalyst in photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic measurements with and without coupling with ozonation under pH 3.0 and pH 8.0 leading to 50% of color removal after 60 min reaction. However, the results indicated 90% of color removal upon the bubbling of ozone after 15 min of treatment. A synergistic effect was observed in all experiments using the AOPs in the presence of ozone under both pH values. Interestingly though, 85% of decolorization was obtained through direct ozonation without any change in the effluent following 10 min of treatment. The results were discussed in terms of electric energy per order and were compared to those reported previously. For real textile wastewater, ozonation appears to be a promising candidate for full-scale effluent decolorization. PMID:27076061

  5. Insights into real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater treatment using solar advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Manenti, Diego R; Souza, Selene M A G U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-01-01

    Different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to the treatment of a real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater as a pre-oxidation step to enhance the biodegradability of the recalcitrant compounds, which can be further oxidized using a biological process. Tests were conducted on a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation and at pilot scale with compound parabolic collectors using natural solar radiation. The cotton-textile dyeing wastewater presents a lilac color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (pH = 8.2), moderate organic content (DOC = 152 mg C L(-1), COD = 684 mg O2 L(-1)) and low-moderate biodegradability (40 % after 28 days in Zahn-Wellens test). All the tested processes contributed to an effective decolorization and mineralization, but the most efficient process was the solar-photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 98.5% decolorization and 85.5% mineralization after less than 0.1 and 5.8 kJUV L(-1), respectively. In order to achieve a final wastewater with a COD below 250 mg O2 L(-1) (discharge limit into water bodies imposed by the Portuguese Legislation-Portaria no. 423/97 of 25 June 1997), considering the combination of a solar-photo-Fenton reaction with a biological process, the phototreatment energy required is 0.5 kJUV L(-1), consuming 7.5 mM hydrogen peroxide, resulting in 58.4% of mineralization [Formula: see text].

  6. Insights into real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater treatment using solar advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Manenti, Diego R; Souza, Selene M A G U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-01-01

    Different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to the treatment of a real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater as a pre-oxidation step to enhance the biodegradability of the recalcitrant compounds, which can be further oxidized using a biological process. Tests were conducted on a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation and at pilot scale with compound parabolic collectors using natural solar radiation. The cotton-textile dyeing wastewater presents a lilac color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (pH = 8.2), moderate organic content (DOC = 152 mg C L(-1), COD = 684 mg O2 L(-1)) and low-moderate biodegradability (40 % after 28 days in Zahn-Wellens test). All the tested processes contributed to an effective decolorization and mineralization, but the most efficient process was the solar-photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 98.5% decolorization and 85.5% mineralization after less than 0.1 and 5.8 kJUV L(-1), respectively. In order to achieve a final wastewater with a COD below 250 mg O2 L(-1) (discharge limit into water bodies imposed by the Portuguese Legislation-Portaria no. 423/97 of 25 June 1997), considering the combination of a solar-photo-Fenton reaction with a biological process, the phototreatment energy required is 0.5 kJUV L(-1), consuming 7.5 mM hydrogen peroxide, resulting in 58.4% of mineralization [Formula: see text]. PMID:23832802

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor in removal of colour and reduction of COD in real textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Somasiri, Wijetunga; Li, Xiu-Fen; Ruan, Wen-Quan; Jian, Chen

    2008-06-01

    The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was evaluated for its efficacy in decolourization and reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of real textile wastewater (RTW) under different operational conditions. The efficiency of UASB reactor in reducing COD was found to be over 90%. Over 92% of colour removal due to biodegradation was achieved. The activities of the anaerobic granules were not affected during the treatment of textile wastewater. Cocci-shaped bacteria were the dominant group over Methanothrix like bacteria in textile wastewater treatment. Alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA) content and pH in effluents indicated that the anaerobic process was not inhibited by textile wastewater. It is concluded that UASB reactor system can effectively be used in the treatment of textile wastewater for the removal of colour and in the reduction of COD.

  8. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of a real textile wastewater effluent treated by an optimized electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Soares, Petrick A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Palácio, Soraya M; Borba, Fernando H; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the application of an iron electrode-based electrocoagulation (EC) process on the treatment of a real textile wastewater (RTW) was investigated. In order to perform an efficient integration of the EC process with a biological oxidation one, an enhancement in the biodegradability and low toxicity of final compounds was sought. Optimal values of EC reactor operation parameters (pH, current density and electrolysis time) were achieved by applying a full factorial 3(3) experimental design. Biodegradability and toxicity assays were performed on treated RTW samples obtained at the optimal values of: pH of the solution (7.0), current density (142.9 A m(-2)) and different electrolysis times. As response variables for the biodegradability and toxicity assessment, the Zahn-Wellens test (Dt), the ratio values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) relative to low-molecular-weight carboxylates anions (LMCA) and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were used. According to the Dt, the DOC/LMCA ratio and LC50, an electrolysis time of 15 min along with the optimal values of pH and current density were suggested as suitable for a next stage of treatment based on a biological oxidation process.

  9. Decolorization and COD removal from real textile wastewater by chemical and electrochemical Fenton processes: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the presence of non-biodegradable and toxic compounds, textile wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional methods. In the present study, Electrochemical Fenton (EF) and Chemical Fenton (CF) processes were studied and compared for the treatment of real textile wastewater. The effects of electrical current, ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide concentration and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of COD and color were investigated. All the experiments were carried out at pH = 3. Results Both EF and CF processes were mostly efficient within hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1978 mg/L (H2O2: COD ~ 1.1). The highest COD and color removal efficiencies were 70.6% and 72.9% respectively which were obtained through the EF process in 350 mA electrical current, 1978 mg/L hydrogen peroxide and 60 minutes reaction time. Furthermore, the operational costs of EF and CF processes were 17.56 and 8.6 US$ per kilogram of the removed COD respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that the electrochemical Fenton process was more efficient than the chemical Fenton process in the degradation of textile wastewater. Likewise, Although EF process imposed higher operational costs than the CF; it dramatically decreased the reaction time to gain the highest degradation efficiency. PMID:24355087

  10. Colour removal of dyes from synthetic and real textile wastewaters in one- and two-stage anaerobic systems.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Paulo Igor M; da Silva, Marcos Erick R; Cervantes, Francisco J; dos Santos, André B

    2010-10-01

    Decolourisation of the azo dye model compound, Congo Red (CR), and real textile wastewater, was assessed in one- and two-stage anaerobic treatment systems (R₁ and R₂, respectively). High colour removals were achieved in both treatment systems even when a very high CR concentration (1.2 mM) was applied. However, R₂ presented a slightly better stability, in which the acidogenic reactor (R(2,A)) played a major role on dye reduction, as compared to the methanogenic reactor (R(2,M)), evidencing the role of fermentative microorganisms. The minimum electron donor concentration required to sustain dye reduction was much higher than the stoichiometric amount. Additionally, a decrease on the hydraulic retention time (from 24 to 12 h) did not significantly affect decolourisation, indicating that electron transfer was not a concern. Finally, experiments with real textile wastewater showed low decolourisation efficiencies in both systems, most likely due to the presence of dyes not susceptible to reductive decolourisation under these experimental conditions. PMID:20542688

  11. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal < 150 mg O2 L(-1)) at pH 3.6, requiring a UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2.

  12. Periodate-assisted pulsed sonocatalysis of real textile wastewater in the presence of MgO nanoparticles: Response surface methodological optimization.

    PubMed

    Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Safari, Mahdi

    2016-09-01

    The improvement of sonocatalytic treatment of real textile wastewater in the presence of MgO nanoparticles was the main goal of the present study. According to our preliminary results, the application of pulse mode of sonication, together with the addition of periodate ions, produced the greatest sonocatalytic activity and consequently, the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (73.95%) among all the assessed options. In the following, pulsed sonocatalysis of real textile wastewater in the presence of periodate ions was evaluated response surface methodologically on the basis of central composite design. Accordingly, a high correlation coefficient of 0.95 was attained for the applied statistical strategy to optimize the process. As results, a pulsed sonication time of 141min, MgO dosage of 2.4g/L, solution temperature of 314K and periodate concentration of 0.11M gave the maximum COD removal of about 85%. Under aforementioned operational conditions, the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was obtained to be 63.34% with the reaction rate constant of 7.1×10(-3)min(-1) based on the pseudo-first order kinetic model (R(2)=0.99). Overall, periodate-assisted pulsed sonocatalysis over MgO nanoparticles can be applied as an efficient alternative process for treating and mineralizing real textile wastewater with good reusability potential.

  13. Membrane contactors for textile wastewater ozonation.

    PubMed

    Ciardelli, Gianluca; Ciabatti, Ingrid; Ranieri, Laura; Capannelli, Gustavo; Bottino, Aldo

    2003-03-01

    This paper deals with the application of a membrane contactor for the ozone treatment of textile wastewater. Ceramic (alpha-Al(2)O(3)) membranes were chosen because of their ozone resistance. A thin metal oxide (TiO(2) and gamma-Al(2)O(3)) layer was deposited on the membrane surface to eliminate large defects. Membranes were characterized by bubble pressure and gas permeability tests. Mass transfer coefficients were calculated by using the double-film theory. Decolorization kinetics were studied with model dye solutions. Decolorization experiments with a real exhausted dyebath (untreated and after biological treatment) were also carried out. The potential advantages of membrane contactors for the treatment of these types of effluents are demonstrated.

  14. Biodegradability of industrial textile wastewater - batch tests.

    PubMed

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Wrębiak, Julita; Liwarska-Bizukojć, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Following new trends we applied oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests as well as long-term tests (in two batch bioreactors systems) in order to assess the biodegradability of textile wastewater. Effluents coming from a dyeing factory were divided into two streams which differed in inorganic and organic contaminants loads. Usefulness of the stream division was proved. Biodegradation of the low-loaded stream led to over 97% reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) together with 80% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Most of the controlled parameter values were below the levels allowed by legislation for influents to surface water, whereas the high-loaded stream was so contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds that despite the reduction of BOD5 by over 95%, COD, TOC, total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels exceeded permissible values. OUR tests were aimed at determination of the following kinetic parameters: maximum specific growth rate (μMax), half-saturation constant, hydrolysis constant and decay coefficient for activated sludge biomass for both types of textile wastewater studied. The values of kinetic parameters will be applied in activated sludge models used for prediction and optimisation of biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:27642827

  15. Cotton-textile wastewater management: investigating different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

    2012-01-01

    The cotton-textile industry consumes significant amounts of water during manufacturing, creating high volumes of wastewater needing treatment. The organic-load concentration of cotton-textile wastewater is equivalent to a medium-strength municipal wastewater; the color of the water, however, remains a significant environmental issue. This research, in cooperation with a cotton-textile manufacturer, investigated different treatment methods and different combinations of methods to identify the most cost-effective approaches to treating textile wastewater. Although activated-sludge is economical, it can only be used as part of an integrated wastewater management system because it cannot decolorize wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation methods are able to decolorize cotton-wastewater; however, this process creates high amounts of wastewater solids, thus significantly increasing total treatment costs. Chemical oxidation is an environmentally friendly technique that can only be used as a polishing step because of high operating costs. Anaerobic digestion in a series of fixed-bed bioreactors with immobilized methanogens using acetic acid as a substrate and a pH-control agent followed by activated-sludge treatment was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe cotton-textile wastewater management approach investigated.

  16. Multivariate analysis and chemometric characterisation of textile wastewater streams.

    PubMed

    Kavsek, Darja; Jeric, Tina; Le Marechal, Alenka Majcen; Vajnhandl, Simona; Bednárová, Adriána; Voncina, Darinka Brodnjak

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design a quick and reliable method for the evaluation and classification of wastewater streams into treatable and non-treatable effluents for reuse/recycling. Different chemometric methods were used for this purpose handling the enormous amount of data, and additionally to find any hidden information, which would increase our knowledge and improve the classification. The data obtained from the processes description, together with the analytical results of measured parameters' characterising the wastewater of a particular process, enabled us to build a fast-decision model for separating different textile wastewater outlets. Altogether 49 wastewater samples from the textile finishing company were analysed, and 19 different physical chemical measurements were performed for each of them. The resulting classification model was aimed at an automated decision about the choice of treatment technologies or a prediction about the reusability of wastewaters within any textile finishing or other company having similar characteristics of wastewater streams.

  17. Multivariate analysis and chemometric characterisation of textile wastewater streams.

    PubMed

    Kavsek, Darja; Jeric, Tina; Le Marechal, Alenka Majcen; Vajnhandl, Simona; Bednárová, Adriána; Voncina, Darinka Brodnjak

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design a quick and reliable method for the evaluation and classification of wastewater streams into treatable and non-treatable effluents for reuse/recycling. Different chemometric methods were used for this purpose handling the enormous amount of data, and additionally to find any hidden information, which would increase our knowledge and improve the classification. The data obtained from the processes description, together with the analytical results of measured parameters' characterising the wastewater of a particular process, enabled us to build a fast-decision model for separating different textile wastewater outlets. Altogether 49 wastewater samples from the textile finishing company were analysed, and 19 different physical chemical measurements were performed for each of them. The resulting classification model was aimed at an automated decision about the choice of treatment technologies or a prediction about the reusability of wastewaters within any textile finishing or other company having similar characteristics of wastewater streams. PMID:23878942

  18. Sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Fratino, Umberto; Mancini, Annalisa; Bergna, Giovanni

    2011-12-15

    Textile wastewater is difficult to treat as it usually contains considerable amounts of different pollutants, which are often recalcitrant, toxic and inhibitory. Therefore, complex treatment schemes based on the sequence of various steps are usually required for an effective treatment. This explains why textile effluents are often treated in centralized plants and sometimes mixed with municipal wastewater. The adoption of new technologies for on-site treatment, instead, would be optimal, deeply reducing treatment costs. An innovative technology exhibiting several characteristics appropriate for the attainment of such a goal is sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR). To assess the suitability of this technology, two lab-scale reactors were operated, treating mixed municipal-textile wastewater and a pure textile effluent, respectively. Results have demonstrated that mixed wastewater can be successfully treated with very low hydraulic retention times (less than 10 hours). Furthermore, SBBGR shows to be an effective pre-treatment for textile wastewater for discharge into sewer systems. The economic evaluation of the process showed operative costs of 0.10 and 0.19 € per m(3) of mixed wastewater and textile wastewater, respectively.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  20. Textile dyeing wastewater treatment in a sequencing batch reactor system.

    PubMed

    Vives, M T; Balaguer, M D; García, S; García, R; Colprim, J

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of treating biologically textile wastewater for organic carbon removal. The study was conducted over a lab scale SBR equipped with an in-house developed data acquisition and control software. From monitored operation of SBR and dissolved oxygen values, together with a simple compressed air ON/OFF control scheme, on-line Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) profiles during aerobic reaction periods were obtained. Due to the high variability of wastewater characteristics, periodical analyses of textile wastewater were conducted and thus characterized for pH, conductivity, total and volatile solids, COD, ammonia, and TKN. After an initial period of activated sludge adaptation to textile wastewater, the SBR was operated at step-feed strategy to reduce the effluent biodegradable matter presents in the wastewater by SBR water change ratio modification and feeding strategy.

  1. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    PubMed

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. PMID:27497312

  2. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    PubMed

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation.

  3. A kinetic study of textile dyeing wastewater degradation by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Durruty, Ignacio; Fasce, Diana; González, Jorge Froilán; Wolski, Erika Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    The potential of Penicillium chrysogenum to decolorize azo dyes and a real industrial textile wastewater was studied. P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize and degrade three azo dyes (200 mg L(-1)), either independently or in a mixture of them, using glucose as a carbon source. A kinetic model for degradation was developed and it allowed predicting the degradation kinetics of the mixture of the three azo dyes. In addition, P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize real industrial wastewater. The kinetic model proposed was also able to predict the decolorization of the real wastewater. The calibration of the proposed model makes it a useful tool for future wastewater facilities' design and for practical applications.

  4. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production.

  5. Textiles.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to the treatment alternatives for wastewater from the textile industries is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: a brief introduction on the implementation of the Best Available Techniques into textile industry, a review of the more promising treatment technologies distinguished into physico-chemical, biological and combined processes. PMID:27620097

  6. Removal of color from textile dyeing wastewater by foam separation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wu, Zhao-Liang

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of foam separation for color removal from direct dyes-containing wastewater was assessed using actual textile wastewater as the research system and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the collector. The influences of liquid loading volume, air flow rate, surfactant concentration, and initial pH on the removal efficiency and reuse of CTAB in the foamate were studied. The results indicated that using CTAB as a collector for foam separation can provide good foaming quality and effectively remove color from textile wastewater. Under optimum operational conditions (liquid loading volume 450 mL, gas flow rate of 500 mL/min, CTAB concentration 20 mg/L, and an initial pH of 7.0), the removal efficiency reached 88.9%. The residual dye content met the discharge standard for the dyeing and finishing textile industry (GB4287-92) published by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. Using recycled foamate in untreated wastewater, the removal efficiency of 87.5% was obtained with CTAB concentration 10 mg/L of the wastewater.

  7. Removal of color from textile dyeing wastewater by foam separation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wu, Zhao-Liang

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of foam separation for color removal from direct dyes-containing wastewater was assessed using actual textile wastewater as the research system and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the collector. The influences of liquid loading volume, air flow rate, surfactant concentration, and initial pH on the removal efficiency and reuse of CTAB in the foamate were studied. The results indicated that using CTAB as a collector for foam separation can provide good foaming quality and effectively remove color from textile wastewater. Under optimum operational conditions (liquid loading volume 450 mL, gas flow rate of 500 mL/min, CTAB concentration 20 mg/L, and an initial pH of 7.0), the removal efficiency reached 88.9%. The residual dye content met the discharge standard for the dyeing and finishing textile industry (GB4287-92) published by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. Using recycled foamate in untreated wastewater, the removal efficiency of 87.5% was obtained with CTAB concentration 10 mg/L of the wastewater. PMID:20599321

  8. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  9. Development of granular sludge for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Muda, Khalida; Aris, Azmi; Salim, Mohd Razman; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Yahya, Adibah; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Ahmad, Azlan; Nawahwi, Mohd Zaini

    2010-08-01

    Microbial granular sludge that is capable to treat textile wastewater in a single reactor under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions was developed in this study. The granules were cultivated using mixed sewage and textile mill sludge in combination with anaerobic granules collected from an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor as seed. The granules were developed in a single sequential batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic condition fed with synthetic textile wastewater. The characteristics of the microbial granular sludge were monitored throughout the study period. During this period, the average size of the granules increased from 0.02 +/- 0.01 mm to 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm and the average settling velocity increased from 9.9 +/- 0.7 m h(-1) to 80 +/- 8 m h(-1). This resulted in an increased biomass concentration (from 2.9 +/- 0.8 g L(-1) to 7.3 +/- 0.9 g L(-1)) and mean cell residence time (from 1.4 days to 8.3 days). The strength of the granules, expressed as the integrity coefficient also improved. The sequential batch reactor system demonstrated good removal of COD and ammonia of 94% and 95%, respectively, at the end of the study. However, only 62% of color removal was observed. The findings of this study show that granular sludge could be developed in a single reactor with an intermittent anaerobic-aerobic reaction phase and is capable in treating the textile wastewater.

  10. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B

    2008-05-30

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91+/-2% and 84+/-4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75+/-10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 microm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m2/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria.

  11. Textile Design for the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    Textile design is a multimillion-dollar business that affects all of us. However, the idea of textile design is often ignored in art classes. This paper describes a project that challenges students to identify functional art in their everyday lives. In this project, students analyze textile designs, then create their own motifs and repeat them to…

  12. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  13. Scale-up of a bioprocess for textile wastewater treatment using Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Antonella; Spina, Federica; Prigione, Valeria; Tigini, Valeria; Giansanti, Pietro; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Twelve basidiomycetes were investigated for their ability to degrade 13 industrial dyes and to treat four model wastewaters from textile and tannery industry, defined on the basis of discharged amounts, economic relevance and representativeness of chemical structures of the contained dyes. The best degradation yields were recorded for one strain of Bjerkandera adusta able to completely decolourise most of the dyes and to decolourise and detoxify three simulated wastewaters, showing a significant physiological versatility which is very useful for application purposes. The effects of different nutrient sources were investigated in order to optimize the yields of decolourisation and detoxification. Manganese-peroxidase and manganese-independent peroxidase were the only recorded enzymatic activities. In order to evaluate its true bioremediation potential, this strain was packed in a fixed-bed bioreactor, for treatment of large volumes of a real wastewater. The fungus resulted effective during 10 cycles of decolourisation, remaining active for a very long period, in non-sterile conditions.

  14. Water recycle as a must: decolorization of textile wastewaters by plant-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    Tegli, Stefania; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bonnanni, Marco; Bianchini, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Textile dye effluents are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Low cost and ecocompatible bioremediation processes offer a promising alternative to the conventional and aspecific physico-chemical procedures adopted so far. Here, microorganisms resident on three real textile dyeing effluent were isolated, characterized, and tested for their decolorizing performances. Although able to survive on these real textile-dyeing wastewaters, they always showed a very low decolorizing activity. On the contrary, several plant-associated fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Funalia trogii, Irpex lacteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes hirsuta, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus nidulans) were also assayed and demonstrated to be able both to survive and to decolorize to various extents the three effluents, used as such in liquid cultures. The decolorizing potential of these fungi was demonstrated to be influenced by nutrient availability and pH. Best performances were constantly obtained using B. adusta and A. nidulans, relying on two strongly different mechanisms for their decolorizing activities: degradation for B. adusta and biosorption for A. nidulans. Acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna showed a substantial reduction in toxicity of the three textile dyeing effluents when treated with B. adusta and A. nidulans, as suggested by mass spectrometric analysis as well.

  15. Electrochemical Treatment of Textile Dye Wastewater by Mild Steel Anode.

    PubMed

    Bhavya, J G; Rekha, H B; Murthy, Usha N

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the results of the treatment of textile dye wastewater generated from a textile processing industry by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at current densities of 12, 24 and 48 A/m2 using mild steel as anode and cathode. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, color and BOD5 were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. It was observed that increasing the electrolysis time and increased current density bring down the concentration of pollutants. Also COD removal rate and energy consumption during the electrolysis were calculated and presented in this paper. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment using MS as anode for TDW oxidation.

  16. Determination of kinetic constants of hybrid textile wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, S; Sarayu, K; Swaminathan, K

    2008-09-01

    The present study is related to treatment of textile wastewater in microaerophilic-aerobic hybrid reactor. The study showed the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater involving appropriate microorganism and suitable reactors. COD and color were reduced to 82-94%, and 99% respectively for textile wastewater. The reactor was operated at highest loading of 16.4 g COD g l(-1)d(-1) and obtained 80% COD and 72% color removal. Biokinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in continuously operated hybrid reactor. Treatment efficiencies of the reactor were investigated at different hydraulic retention times (2.3-9.1d) and organic loading rates (2.6-16.4 g COD l(-1)d(-1)). Second-order and a Stover-Kincannon models were best fitted to the hybrid column reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k(2(S))) was found as 41.44 d(-1) for hybrid reactor. Applying the modified Stover-Kincannon model to the hybrid reactor, the maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) and saturation value constant (K(B)) were found to be 212 g l(-1)d(-1) and 22.89 g l(-1)d(-1), respectively.

  17. Decoloration of textile wastewater by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

    2006-07-31

    Textile wastewater was treated by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria. The main target of this treatment was decoloration of the wastewater and transformation of the non-biodegradable azo-reactive dyes to the degradable, under aerobic biological conditions, aromatic amines. Special porous beads (Siran) were utilized as the microbial carriers. Acetic acid solution, enriched with nutrients and trace elements, served both as a pH-regulator and as an external substrate for the growth of methanogenic bacteria. The above technique was firstly applied on synthetic wastewater (an aqueous solution of a mixture of different azo-reactive dyes). Hydraulic residence time was gradually decreased from 24 to 6 h over a period of 3 months. Full decoloration of the wastewater could be achieved even at such a low hydraulic residence time (6 h), while methane-rich biogas was also produced. The same technique was then applied on real textile wastewater with excellent results (full decoloration at a hydraulic residence time of 6 h). Furthermore, the effluent proved to be highly biodegradable by aerobic microbes (activated-sludge). Thus, the above-described anaerobic/aerobic biological technique seems to be a very attractive method for treating textile wastewater since it is cost-effective and environment-friendly.

  18. Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, W

    2001-09-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh alum dosage, of which one third of the fresh alum can be saved. The back-diffusion of residued dye from the recycling sludge is detected but is easily controlled as long as a small amount of fresh alum is added to the system. The use of RAS is not recommended for the removal of hydrophilic dyes, since the high solubility characteristics of such dyes can cause deterioration in the water quality during recycling.

  19. Treatment of textile dyeing wastewater by biomass of Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus 12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Sayilgan, Emine; Cakmakci, Ozgur

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus 12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus as both cells and biomasses for the removal of dye from real textile dyeing wastewater. The removal experiments were conducted according to the Box-Behnken experimental design, and the regression equations for the removal of dye were determined by the Minitab 14 program. The optimum variables were found to be 10 g/L biomass concentration for biomasses, 3 for initial pH of the solution, and 20 °C for temperature with an observed dye removal efficiency of about 60 and 80 % with L. 12 and L. rhamnosus biomasses, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy images also showed that the biomass characteristics studied were favored by the sorption of the dye from the textile industry wastewater. Consequently, these biomasses may be considered as good biosorbents due to their effective yields and the lower cost of the removal of dyes from the effluents of the textile dyeing house.

  20. Fate of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the wastewater from six textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Rui-Jing; Wen, Wei-Bin; Chen, Chang-Min; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and isopropylbenzene (BTEXSI) from 6 textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants (TDWTPs) were investigated in this study. The practical capacities of the 6 representative plants, which used the activated sludge process, ranged from 1200 to 26000 m(3) d(-1). The results indicated that BTEXSI were ubiquitous in the raw textile dyeing wastewater, except for isopropylbenzene, and that toluene and xylenes were predominant in raw wastewaters (RWs). TDWTP-E was selected to study the residual BTEXSI at different stages. The total BTEXSI reduction on the aerobic process of TDWTP-E accounted for 82.2% of the entire process. The total BTEXSI concentrations from the final effluents (FEs) were observed to be below 1 μg L(-1), except for TDWTP-F (2.12 μg L(-1)). Volatilization and biodegradation rather than sludge sorption contributed significantly to BTEXSI removal in the treatment system. BTEXSI were not found to be the main contaminants in textile dyeing wastewater.

  1. Microbiological and performance evaluation of sequencing batch reactor for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ogleni, Nurtac; Arifoglu, Yasemin Damar; Ileri, Recep

    2012-04-01

    This study focused on laboratory-scaled and real-scaled treatment plant performances and microbiological investigations for the optimum treatment of textile industry wastewater performed with sequencing batch reactor (SBR). As a result of experimental studies of laboratory-scaled SBR treatment unit, optimum treatment efficiency was taken from 0.5 h filling to 1.5 h. reaction to 1.5 h. settlement to 0.5 h. discharge-idle periods. Average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of SBR of laboratory-scaled textile industry was 75%, whereas average turbidity and color removal (coloration number [RES, m(-1)] 586 nm) efficiencies were 90% and 75%, respectively. Optimum reaction and settlement periods were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for parameters such as COD, phenol, pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge volume index (SVI). In this study, optimum reaction and settlement periods for treatment of textile industry wastewater were determined within a SBR in a laboratory-scaled plant. These reaction and settlement periods were verified with the measurement of COD, color, and turbidity parameters. Floc structure and protozoa-metazoa species of activated sludge in a SBR were also determined. Optimum reaction and settlement times were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for COD, Phenol, pH, MLSS, and SVI parameters. The corresponding values were found as appropriate, acceptable, and meaningful because of variance value of statistical analysis. Protozoa and metazoan in the activated sludge in the laboratory-scaled plant were investigated. Peranema sp., Epistylis sp., Didinium sp., Chilodonella sp., Opercularia sp., Vorticella sp. as protozoa species and Habrotrocha sp., Philodina sp. as metazoa species were determined.

  2. Decolorization of dyes and textile wastewater by potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2005-05-01

    Decolorization of 10 types of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was studied. Effects of reaction conditions on the decolorization efficiency were examined in batch experiments. The pH value had a significant effect on the decolorization efficiency. When pH value <1.5, the decolorization efficiency was very high. When pH value >4.0, the dye solutions were almost not decolorized. Concentration of potassium permanganate and temperature also showed significant effects on the decolorization efficiency. The decolorization rate of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was rapid, and most of dye solutions can be decolorized effectively. The results of total organic carbon indicated that dye solutions were degraded incompletely by potassium permanganate. The results of treatment of textile wastewater by potassium permanganate indicated that the oxidation with potassium permanganate might be used as a pre-treatment process before biological treatment.

  3. Effect of treatment in a constructed wetland on toxicity of textile wastewater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baughman, G.L.; Perkins, W.S.; Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands for treating wastewater have proliferated in recent years and their characteristics have been studied extensively. In most cases, constructed wetlands have been used primarily for removal of nutrients and heavy metals. Extensive literature is available concerning construction and use of wetlands for treatment of wastewater. Even so, quantitative descriptions of wetland function and processes are highly empirical and difficult to extrapolate. The processes involved in removal of pollutants by wetlands are poorly understood, especially for waste streams as complex as textile effluents. The few studies conducted on treatment of textile wastewater in constructed wetlands were cited in earlier publications. Results of a two-year study of a full-scale wetland treating textile effluent are presented here. The paper describes the effects of the wetland on aquatic toxicity of the wastewater and draws conclusions about the utility and limitations of constructed wetlands for treatment of textile effluents.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Rajendra; Joshi, Himanshu; Mall, Indra D; Srivastava, Vimal C

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, studies have been performed on the electrochemical (EC) oxidation of actual textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes. Multi-response optimization of four independent parameters namely initial pH (pHo): 4-10, current density (j): 27.78-138.89 A/m(2), NaCl concentration (w): 0-2 g/L and electrolysis time (t): 10-130 min have been performed using Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design. It was aimed to simultaneously maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiencies and minimize specific energy consumption using desirability function approach. Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value for COD (R(2) = 0.8418), color (R(2) = 0.7010) and specific energy (R(2) = 0.9125) between the experimental values and the predicted values by a second-order regression model. Maximum COD and color removal and minimum specific energy consumed was 90.78%, 96.27% and 23.58 kWh/kg COD removed, respectively, were observed at optimum conditions. The wastewater, sludge and scum obtained after treatment at optimum condition have been characterized by various techniques. UV-visible study showed that all azo bonds of the dyes present in the wastewater were totally broken and most of the aromatic rings were mineralized during EC oxidation with graphite electrode. Carbon balance showed that out of the total carbon eroded from the graphite electrodes, 27-29.2% goes to the scum, 71.1-73.3% goes into the sludge and rest goes to the treated wastewater. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the generated sludge and scum can be dried and used as a fuel in the boilers/incinerators.

  5. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  6. Textiles wastewater treatment using anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhimin; Zhang, Yugao; Wang, Xiaojun

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the performance of the anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter (AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF) process treating real textile dyeing wastewater was investigated. After more than 2 month process operation, the average effluent COD concentration of the AFB, BWB, O(3)-BAF were 704.8 mg/L, 294.6 mg/L and 128.8 mg/L, with HRT being 8.1-7.7h, 9.2h and 5.45 h, respectively. Results showed that the effluent COD concentration of the AFB decreased with new carriers added and the average removal COD efficiency was 20.2%. During operation conditions, HRT of the BWB and O(3)-BAF was increased, resulting in a decrease in the effluent COD concentration. However, on increasing the HRT, the COD reduction capability expressed by the unit carrier COD removal loading of the BWB reactor increased, while that of the O(3)-BAF reactor decreased. This study is a beneficial attempt to utilize the AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF combine process for textile wastewater treatment.

  7. Color removal from textile wastewater by using treated flute reed in a fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Tipprasertsin, Kannika; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of acid treated flute reed to adsorb color (dye) from synthetic reactive dye solutions, and actual dyeing and printing textile wastewaters in a laboratory scale fixed bed column. The effects of particle size, initial reactive dye concentration, bed depth and flow rate on adsorption performances were examined. The results from experiments with synthetic reactive dye solutions showed that the volume treated (until the breakthrough occurred) increased with decreasing particle size, influent reactive dye concentration and flow rate, and increasing bed depth. The bed depth service time model was suitable for describing the experimental data. The treated flute reed was able to reduce color efficiently, 99% for dyeing textile wastewater with ten adsorption columns in series and 78% for printing textile wastewater with a single adsorption column. The difference in the numbers of columns used for the two types of actual textile wastewater led to a substantial discrepancy in suspended solids removal, 99% for dyeing wastewater and 12% for printing wastewater. Similar pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) results were obtained for the two types of textile wastewater. The acid pretreatment of flute reed resulted in dramatic decreases in pH after the adsorption and very acidic effluents (pH 3). Increases of COD after the adsorption due to organic leaching from the treated flute reed were observed. A different pretreatment method to solve these pH and COD problems is needed before flute reed can be used in practice. PMID:20390911

  8. Color removal from textile wastewater by using treated flute reed in a fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Tipprasertsin, Kannika; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of acid treated flute reed to adsorb color (dye) from synthetic reactive dye solutions, and actual dyeing and printing textile wastewaters in a laboratory scale fixed bed column. The effects of particle size, initial reactive dye concentration, bed depth and flow rate on adsorption performances were examined. The results from experiments with synthetic reactive dye solutions showed that the volume treated (until the breakthrough occurred) increased with decreasing particle size, influent reactive dye concentration and flow rate, and increasing bed depth. The bed depth service time model was suitable for describing the experimental data. The treated flute reed was able to reduce color efficiently, 99% for dyeing textile wastewater with ten adsorption columns in series and 78% for printing textile wastewater with a single adsorption column. The difference in the numbers of columns used for the two types of actual textile wastewater led to a substantial discrepancy in suspended solids removal, 99% for dyeing wastewater and 12% for printing wastewater. Similar pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) results were obtained for the two types of textile wastewater. The acid pretreatment of flute reed resulted in dramatic decreases in pH after the adsorption and very acidic effluents (pH 3). Increases of COD after the adsorption due to organic leaching from the treated flute reed were observed. A different pretreatment method to solve these pH and COD problems is needed before flute reed can be used in practice.

  9. Integration of chemical and biological treatments for textile industry wastewater: a possible zero-discharge system.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Chen, G; Yue, P L

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have established that integrated treatment systems (mostly chemical and biological) for various industrial wastewaters can achieve better quality of treatment and can be cost-effective. In the present study, the objective is to minimize the use of process water in the textile industry by an economical recycle and reuse scheme. The textile wastewater was first characterized in terms of COD, BOD5, salinity and color. In order to recycle such wastewater, the contaminants should be mineralized and/or removed according to the reusable textile water quality standards. Typical results show that this is achievable. An economic analysis has been conducted on the proposed integrated system. The economic analysis shows that the integrated system is economically more attractive than any of the single treatment technologies for achieving the same target of treatment. The information presented in this paper provides a feasible option for the reduction of effluent discharges in the textile industry.

  10. Optimization and kinetic studies on treatment of textile dye wastewater using Pleurotus floridanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathian, S.; Radha, G.; Shanmugapriya, V.; Rajasimman, M.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried using Pleurotus floridanus in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation speed and dye wastewater concentration for the decolorization of textile dye wastewater. The optimum conditions for the maximum decolorization was: pH 6.6, temperature 28.8 °C, agitation speed 183 rpm and dye wastewater concentration 1:2. From the results it was found that, the linear effect of agitation speed and initial textile dye wastewater concentration were more significant than other factors for the textile dye wastewater treatment. At these optimized conditions, the maximum decolorization and COD reduction was found to be 71.2 and 80.5 %, respectively. Kinetics of textile dye degradation process was studied by various models like first order, diffusional and Singh model. From the results it was found that the degradation follows first order model with R 2 value of 0.9550.

  11. Membrane bio-reactor for advanced textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2004-01-01

    Textile wastewater contains slowly- or non-biodegradable organic substances whose removal or transformation calls for advanced tertiary treatments downstream Activated Sludge Treatment Plants (ASTP). This work is focused on the treatment of textile industry wastewater using Membrane Bio-reactor (MBR) technology. An experimental activity was carried out at the Baciacavallo Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) (Prato, Italy) to verify the efficiency of a pilot-scale MBR for the treatment of municipal wastewater, in which textile industry wastewater predominates. In the Baciacavallo WWTP the biological section is followed by a coagulation-flocculation treatment and ozonation. During the 5 months experimental period, the pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, 96% for ammonium and 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surf actants removal of pilot plant and WWTP were very similar (92.5 and 93.3% respectively), while the non-ionic surfactants removal was higher in the pilot plant (99.2 vs. 97.1). In conclusion the MBR technology demonstrated to be effective for textile wastewater reclamation, leading both to an improvement of pollutants removal and to a draw-plate simplification.

  12. Treatment of a textile dye wastewater by an electrochemical process.

    PubMed

    Fongsatitkul, P; Elefsiniotis, P; Boonyanitchakul, B

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of an electrochemical process to treat a sulfur dye wastewater from a textile industry. The treatment system included a 4.0 L reactor equipped with five steel electrode plates, and a separate sedimentation tank of equal liquid volume. The experimental part involved two distinct, sequential stages. In the first stage, the effect of initial pH and electrical charge (i.e., current times reaction time) on the treatment process was explored. Experiments were conducted in a factorial mode, involving three initial pH values (3, 4 and 5), and six electrical charges (ranging from 150 to 1,350 coulomb), respectively. Results indicated that chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and color removal efficiency improved with a decrease in initial pH and an increase in electrical charge. Overall, high percent removal values were observed ranging from 63% to 80% for COD, 81% to 96% for TSS, and 93% to 99% for color. During the second stage, the electrode corrosion pattern was investigated for a period of 45 days. Under stable operating conditions, electrode consumption was found to conform to Faraday's law. Moreover, process performance regarding COD, TSS, and color reduction was comparable to that obtained in the first stage of the study.

  13. Waste sizing solution as co-substrate for anaerobic decolourisation of textile dyeing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Bisschops, I; dos Santos, A B; Spanjers, H

    2005-01-01

    Dyeing wastewaters and residual size are textile factory waste streams that can be treated anaerobically. For successful anaerobic treatment of dyeing effluents, a co-substrate has to be added because of their low concentration of easily biodegradable compounds. Starch-based size contains easily biodegradable material, but is too concentrated to be treated without difficulties. Although residual size makes up only a small volume, when mixed with the other textile wastewater streams it has a considerable impact on the overall organic load. Many textile dyes can pass through a conventional aerobic treatment plant without being degraded. Anaerobic pre-treatment of the dyeing wastewaters before discharge to the aerobic plant can solve this problem, as many dyestuffs are partly degradable under anaerobic conditions, rendering aerobically degradable products. In this study, the possibility of using waste size as a co-substrate for the anaerobic pre-treatment of dyeing wastewaters was investigated. It was found that waste size was applicable as co-substrate for the decolourisation of the two textile dyeing wastewaters studied. Adding a redox mediator could enhance decolourisation rates for both wastewaters.

  14. Anodic oxidation of textile wastewaters on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential application of the anodic oxidation (AO) on two electrolytic cells (monopolar (Cell 1) and bipolar (Cell 2)) containing boron-doped diamond electrodes on the treatment of real textile effluents to study the reuse possibility of treated wastewater in the textile industry process. AO is applied in the flocculation coagulation pretreatment of both upstream (BH) and downstream (BS) effluents. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) results show that the final COD removal obtained for the BH effluent in the case of Cell 1 and Cell 2 is 800 and 150 mg O₂L⁻¹ after 5 and 6 h of electrolysis, respectively. The treatments of the BS effluent allow for obtaining a final COD of 76 mg L⁻¹ for Cell 1 and a total mineralization for Cell 2. The obtained results demonstrate that the apparent mineralization kinetics of both effluents when using Cell 2 are about four times faster than the one obtained by Cell 1 and highlight the important contribution of the bipolar cell. Besides, the energy consumption values show that the treatment of the BH effluent by Cell 1 consumes 865 kWh kg COD⁻¹ against 411 kWh kg COD(-1) by Cell 2. Therefore, the use of Cell 2 decreases the energy cost by 2.1-6.65 times when compared to Cell 1 in the case of the BH and BS effluent treatment, respectively.

  15. Anodic oxidation of textile wastewaters on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential application of the anodic oxidation (AO) on two electrolytic cells (monopolar (Cell 1) and bipolar (Cell 2)) containing boron-doped diamond electrodes on the treatment of real textile effluents to study the reuse possibility of treated wastewater in the textile industry process. AO is applied in the flocculation coagulation pretreatment of both upstream (BH) and downstream (BS) effluents. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) results show that the final COD removal obtained for the BH effluent in the case of Cell 1 and Cell 2 is 800 and 150 mg O₂L⁻¹ after 5 and 6 h of electrolysis, respectively. The treatments of the BS effluent allow for obtaining a final COD of 76 mg L⁻¹ for Cell 1 and a total mineralization for Cell 2. The obtained results demonstrate that the apparent mineralization kinetics of both effluents when using Cell 2 are about four times faster than the one obtained by Cell 1 and highlight the important contribution of the bipolar cell. Besides, the energy consumption values show that the treatment of the BH effluent by Cell 1 consumes 865 kWh kg COD⁻¹ against 411 kWh kg COD(-1) by Cell 2. Therefore, the use of Cell 2 decreases the energy cost by 2.1-6.65 times when compared to Cell 1 in the case of the BH and BS effluent treatment, respectively. PMID:26020517

  16. Contrasting effects of untreated textile wastewater onto the soil available nitrogen-phosphorus and enzymatic activities in aridisol.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Riaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Buttler, Alexandre; Garcıa-Gil, Juan Carlos; Roohi, Mahnaz; Rasool, Akhtar

    2016-02-01

    Water shortage and soil qualitative degradation are significant environmental problems in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The increasing demand for water in agriculture and industry has resulted in the emergence of wastewater use as an alternative in these areas. Textile wastewater is produced in surplus amounts which poses threat to the environment as well as associated flora and fauna. A 60-day incubation study was performed to assess the effects of untreated textile wastewater at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% dilution levels on the physico-chemical and some microbial and enzymatic properties of an aridisol soil. The addition of textile wastewater provoked a significant change in soil pH and electrical conductivity and soil dehydrogenase and urease activities compared to the distilled-water treated control soil. Moreover, compared to the control treatment, soil phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly increased from 25 to 75% application rates, but decreased at 100% textile wastewater application rate. Total and available soil N contents increased significantly in response to application of textile wastewater. Despite significant increases in the soil total P contents after the addition of textile wastewater, soil available P content decreased with increasing concentration of wastewater. Changes in soil nutrient contents and related enzymatic activities suggested a dynamic match between substrate availability and soil N and P contents. Aridisols have high fixation and low P availability, application of textile wastewater to such soils should be considered only after careful assessment.

  17. Contrasting effects of untreated textile wastewater onto the soil available nitrogen-phosphorus and enzymatic activities in aridisol.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Riaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Buttler, Alexandre; Garcıa-Gil, Juan Carlos; Roohi, Mahnaz; Rasool, Akhtar

    2016-02-01

    Water shortage and soil qualitative degradation are significant environmental problems in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The increasing demand for water in agriculture and industry has resulted in the emergence of wastewater use as an alternative in these areas. Textile wastewater is produced in surplus amounts which poses threat to the environment as well as associated flora and fauna. A 60-day incubation study was performed to assess the effects of untreated textile wastewater at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% dilution levels on the physico-chemical and some microbial and enzymatic properties of an aridisol soil. The addition of textile wastewater provoked a significant change in soil pH and electrical conductivity and soil dehydrogenase and urease activities compared to the distilled-water treated control soil. Moreover, compared to the control treatment, soil phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly increased from 25 to 75% application rates, but decreased at 100% textile wastewater application rate. Total and available soil N contents increased significantly in response to application of textile wastewater. Despite significant increases in the soil total P contents after the addition of textile wastewater, soil available P content decreased with increasing concentration of wastewater. Changes in soil nutrient contents and related enzymatic activities suggested a dynamic match between substrate availability and soil N and P contents. Aridisols have high fixation and low P availability, application of textile wastewater to such soils should be considered only after careful assessment. PMID:26787271

  18. Production integrated treatment of textile wastewater by closing raw material cycles.

    PubMed

    Krull, R

    2005-01-01

    A method for the in-house treatment of partial wastewater flows and the recycling of treated process water into the textile finishing process was developed in order to recycle effluents from textile finishing industry and feed them back into the production process. The method is based on a two-stage biological anaerobic-aerobic process to split colouring wastewater agents and to degrade organic substances contained in the water as well as a chemical stage to remove the remaining color of the water with the help of ozone. In the framework of a research and development project a demonstration plant for a treatment capacity of 1440 m3 per working day was installed and started in a textile finishing company. At the plant, a wastewater flow and a recycling flow are treated separately in two different treatment lanes. Approximately 40% of the total wastewater flows, i.e. 576 m3/d are treated in the wastewater lane, and a maximum of 60% of total wastewater, i.e. 864 m3/d are treated in the recycling lane. Thanks to the preliminary treatment of wastewater flows, which are discharged into the municipal sewage works, a reduction of average COD levels in the sewage works effluents could be achieved.

  19. H2O2/UV-C treatment of textile preparation wastewater: kinetic investigation on alternative combinations of commercial textile preparation auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Shayin, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Four different textile preparation effluents were simulated to examine the applicability of the hydrogen peroxide/ultraviolet-C (H2O2/UV-C) advanced oxidation process for the treatment of real textile preparation (desizing, scouring and bleaching) wastewater bearing the non-ionic surfactant nonyl phenol decaethoxylate (NP-10). In the absence of any textile preparation chemical, NP-10 degradation was complete in 15 min (rate coefficient: 0.22 min(-1)) accompanied by 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) (rate coefficient: 0.026 min(-1)) and 57% total organic carbon (TOC) (rate coefficient: 0.014 min(-1)) removals achieved after 60 min photochemical treatment. H2O2 consumption rates were not significantly affected by the introduction of carbonate and chloride ions (average rate coefficient: 0.032 min(-1)) at pH values <11.5, above which H2O2 dissociation to its conjugate base HO2(-) became pronounced. The organic, phosphonate-based sequestering agents competed with NP-10 for UV-C light absorption and HO* radicals. H2O2/UV-C oxidation of the simulated textile preparation effluent containing 3.0 g L(-1) Cl(-), 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH and 1.0 g L(-1) diethylenetriamine pentamethylene phosphonic acid (DTPMP) resulted in the worst treatment performance due to its high pH and organic carbon content. For this textile preparation effluent, NP-10 abatement was complete in 100min (rate coefficient: 0.018 min(-1)), while COD and TOC removals dropped down to only 16% and 8%, respectively, achieved after 60 min treatment. The highest H2O2/UV-C oxidation efficiency resulting in 34% COD and 28% TOC removals was obtained for the simulated textile preparation effluent comprising of 3.0 g L(-1) Cl(-), 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH and 1.0 g L(-1) 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). For this textile preparation effluent, NP-10 degradation was complete after 50 min (rate coefficient: 0.061 min(-1)) exposure to H2O2/UV-C treatment. PMID:22988612

  20. Altering textile manufacture to minimize treatment needed for waste-water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Beja Neves, M.E.C.

    1989-01-01

    The research involved the uses of water and chemicals in the textile industry. A linear programming model was developed, capable of minimizing the cost of treatment needed for wastewater reclamation. This was accomplished through the selection of the optimum set of chemicals in respect to their removal from a wastewater by biodegradation, and by so doing, preventing the accumulation of inorganic dissolved solids in the reused wastewater, even with prolonged reuse. Different values were tested for the wastewater reclamation rate, and for the percentage of biodegradable materials used by the industry. The industrial processes themselves were considered as blocks, with different manufacturing objectives and using different kinds and quantities of chemicals. The cost of wastewater treatment was influenced by the nature of the chemicals and by the wastewater reclamation rate.

  1. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    PubMed

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. PMID:15488936

  2. Is a sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor suitable for textile wastewater treatment?

    PubMed

    Lotito, A M; Fratino, U; Mancini, A; Bergna, G; Di Iaconi, C

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry releases highly polluted and complex wastewaters, which are difficult to treat and require numerous treatment steps. Innovative technologies for on-site treatment at each factory would permit cost reduction. For this reason, we ran a laboratory-scale study to assess the suitability of a sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR) for textile wastewater treatment, testing four different types of wastewater. Results demonstrate that wastewater characteristics greatly affect the reactor efficiency. Hence, a pre-study is advisable to define the best operational conditions and the maximum treatment capability for the wastewater under analysis. Nevertheless, SBBGR is a valuable biological treatment, effective in the reduction of pollutant load with stable performances despite the variability in wastewater composition. Tests with ozone integration have demonstrated that it is possible to dose small quantities of ozone to obtain an effluent suitable for direct discharge. However, a dynamic ozone dosage should be used to optimize the process as the correct ozone dose strongly depends on the wastewater composition.

  3. Determination of wastewater LC50 of the different process stages of the textile industry.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Navarro, A; Ramírez-M, Y; Salvador-S, M S; Gallardo, J M

    2001-01-01

    Textile plants are very important sources of toxic discharges. The purpose of the research described in this paper was to use bioassays with daphnids to determine the LC50 values of textile wastewater samples taken from different stages of the finishing textile industry. Toxicity due to dyeing, chlorination, and the absence of adequate physicochemical conditions for daphnid survival were considered. Wastewater samples corresponding to each process stage were collected at five finishing textile industries and assayed according to previously published procedures. The sensitivity of daphnids to chemicals was assayed using sodium dodecyl sulfate and was similar to other reports (14.6+/-6.8 vs 14.5+/-2.3 mg/L). All effluents from the five company samples were toxic in terms of LC50 and exhibited very high toxicity with acute toxicity unit (ATU) levels between 2.2 and 960, indicating that the five textile industries produced toxic water. The sensory characteristics indicated that the dyes contributed to overall sample toxicity at all process stages. The most toxic contaminant seemed to be ClO- at levels between 0.2 and 6.8 mg/L, suggesting that further research is needed on the economic costs of stage-by-stage and total effluent treatments.

  4. Homogeneous catalytic wet-air oxidation for the treatment of textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, L. Chen, G.; Hu, X.; Yue, P.L.

    2000-04-01

    An extensive series of experiments was performed to identify suitable catalysts to increase the reaction rate of wet-air oxidation of textile wastewater t relatively mild temperatures an pressures. Wastewater types treated included natural-fiber desizing wastewater, synthetic-fiber desizing wastewater, and printing and dyeing wastewater. Experimental results indicated that all catalysts tested in this investigation significantly increased the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal rates and total COD and TOC removals. Of all catalysts tested, copper salts were the most effective. Anions in the slat solutions played a role in the catalytic process. Nitrate ions were more effective than sulfate ions. Similarly, copper nitrates were more effective than copper sulfates. A mixture of salts containing different metals performed better than any single salt.

  5. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater*

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping; Siddiqi, M. Rehan; Islam, Ejaz ul; Azim, M. Rashid; Hayat, Yousaf

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells. The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants. PMID:16187412

  6. Potential of combined fungal and bacterial treatment for color removal in textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Ceněk; Svobodová, Kateřina; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Heissenberger, Andreas; Fuchs, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Low efficiency of dye removal by mixed bacterial communities and high rates of dye decolorization by white-rot fungi suggest a combination of both processes to be an option of treatment of textile wastewaters containing dyes and high concentrations of organics. Bacteria were able to remove mono-azo dye but not other chemically different dyes whereas decolorization rates using Irpex lacteus mostly exceeded 90% within less than one week irrespective of dye structure. Decolorization rates for industrial textile wastewaters containing 2-3 different dyes by fungal trickling filters (FTF) attained 91%, 86%, 35% within 5-12 d. Sequential two-step application of FTF and bacterial reactors resulted in efficient decolorization in 1st step (various single dyes, 94-99% within 5 d; wastewater I, 90% within 7 d) and TOC reduction of 95-97% in the two steps. Large potential of combined use of white-rot fungi and traditional bacterial treatment systems for bioremediation of textile wastewaters was demonstrated.

  7. Characterisation of microbial flocs formed from raw textile wastewater in aerobic biofilm reactor (ABR).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Zaharah; Amin, Mohamad Faiz Mohd; Yahya, Adibah; Aris, Azmi; Umor, Noor Azrimi; Muda, Khalida; Sofian, Nur Shalena

    2009-01-01

    Microbial flocs formed from raw textile wastewater in a prototype Aerobic Biofilm Reactor (ABR) system were characterised and studied for their potential use in the treatment of textile wastewater. After 90-100 days of operation, microbial flocs of loose irregular structures were obtained from the reactor with good settling velocity of 33 m/h and sludge volume index (SVI) of 48.2 mL/g. Molecular analysis of the flocs using PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequence showed 98% homology to those of Bacillus sp, Paenibacillus sp and Acromobacter sp. Detection of Ca(2+)(131 mg/g) and Fe(2+)(131 mg/g) using atomic absorption spectrometer might be implicated with the flocs formation. In addition, presence of Co(2+) and Ni(2+) were indicative of the flocs ability to accumulate at least a fraction of the metals' present in the wastewater. When the flocs were used for the treatment of raw textile wastewater, they showed good removal of COD and colour about 55% and 70% respectively, indicating their potential application.

  8. Integrated fungal biomass and activated sludge treatment for textile wastewaters bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Antonella; Spina, Federica; Romagnolo, Alice; Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2012-11-01

    A combined biological process was investigated for effective textile wastewater treatment. The process consisted of a first step performed by selected fungal biomasses, mainly devoted to the effluent decolourisation, and of a subsequent stage by means of activated sludge, in order to reduce the remaining COD and toxicity. In particular, the treatment with Trametes pubescens MUT 2400, selected over nine strains, achieved very good results in respect to all parameters. The final scale-up phase in a moving bed bioreactor with the supported biomass of the fungus allowed to verify the effectiveness of the treatment with high volumes. Despite promising results, further steps must be taken in order to optimize the use of these biomasses for a full exploitation of their oxidative potential in textile wastewater treatment.

  9. Application of fuzzy control on the electrocoagulation process to treat textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Y; Pekel, L C; Altınten, A; Alpbaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is one of the effective ways of removing colour, turbidity and chemical oxygen demand from wastewater. In spite of the high-power consumption, EC has been gaining increasingly more attention due to its simplicity and effectiveness compared to the technical challenges and costs of conventional processes. Conductivity and pH are the main factors that affect the efficiency of wastewater treatment and its cost. Controlling the conductivity and pH of a wastewater treatment system is very important since it directly determines the amount of energy that must be used. We propose the use of fuzzy logic to control both conductivity and pH during the EC process, and we apply this approach in the treatment of textile wastewater. Removal efficiencies and operating costs of the EC process for dynamic and fuzzy-controlled cases are compared. PMID:26040211

  10. Experimental and kinetic studies for phycoremediation and dye removal by Chlorella pyrenoidosa from textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vinayak V; Kothari, Richa; Chopra, A K; Singh, D P

    2015-11-01

    Potential of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was experimentally investigated for phycoremediation and dye removal from textile wastewater (TWW) in batch cultures. Growth of alga was observed at various concentration of textile wastewater (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and was found in a range of 8.1-14 μg ml(-1) day(-1). Growth study revealed that alga potentially grows up to 75% concentrated textile wastewater and reduces phosphate, nitrate and BOD by 87%, 82% and 63% respectively. Methylene blue dye (MB) removal was also observed by using dry and wet algal biomass harvested after phycoremediation. Adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and kinetic models (pseudo first and second order) were applied on adsorption process. Dry algal biomass (DAB) was found more efficient biosorbent with large surface area and showed high binding affinity for MB dye in compare to wet algal biomass (WAB). The RL value for both biosorbent showed feasible adsorption process as the obtained value was between 0 and 1. Pseudo second order kinetic model with high degree of correlation coefficient and low sum of error squares (SSE %) value was found more suitable for representation of adsorption process in case of both biosorbents, however pseudo first order also showed high degree of correlation for both biosorbents. PMID:26349408

  11. Characteristics of developed granules containing selected decolourising bacteria for the degradation of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Z; Amin, M F M; Yahya, A; Aris, A; Muda, K

    2010-01-01

    Textile wastewater, one of the most polluted industrial effluents, generally contains substantial amount of dyes and chemicals that will cause increase in the COD, colour and toxicity of receiving water bodies if not properly treated. Current treatment methods include chemical and biological processes; the efficiency of the biological treatment method however, remains uncertain since the discharged effluent is still highly coloured. In this study, granules consisting mixed culture of decolourising bacteria were developed and the physical and morphological characteristics were determined. After the sixth week of development, the granules were 3-10 mm in diameter, having good settling property with settling velocity of 70 m/h, sludge volume index (SVI) of 90 to 130 mL/g, integrity coefficient of 3.7, and density of 66 g/l. Their abilities to treat sterilised raw textile wastewater were evaluated based on the removal efficiencies of COD (initial ranging from 200 to 3,000 mg/L), colour (initial ranging from 450 to 2000 ADMI) of sterilised raw textile wastewater with pH from 6.8 to 9.4. Using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment cycle with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h, maximum removal of colour and COD achieved was 90% and 80%, respectively.

  12. Experimental and kinetic studies for phycoremediation and dye removal by Chlorella pyrenoidosa from textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vinayak V; Kothari, Richa; Chopra, A K; Singh, D P

    2015-11-01

    Potential of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was experimentally investigated for phycoremediation and dye removal from textile wastewater (TWW) in batch cultures. Growth of alga was observed at various concentration of textile wastewater (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and was found in a range of 8.1-14 μg ml(-1) day(-1). Growth study revealed that alga potentially grows up to 75% concentrated textile wastewater and reduces phosphate, nitrate and BOD by 87%, 82% and 63% respectively. Methylene blue dye (MB) removal was also observed by using dry and wet algal biomass harvested after phycoremediation. Adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and kinetic models (pseudo first and second order) were applied on adsorption process. Dry algal biomass (DAB) was found more efficient biosorbent with large surface area and showed high binding affinity for MB dye in compare to wet algal biomass (WAB). The RL value for both biosorbent showed feasible adsorption process as the obtained value was between 0 and 1. Pseudo second order kinetic model with high degree of correlation coefficient and low sum of error squares (SSE %) value was found more suitable for representation of adsorption process in case of both biosorbents, however pseudo first order also showed high degree of correlation for both biosorbents.

  13. Treatability studies of textile wastewater on an aerobic fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FABR): a case study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Thalla Arun; Saravanan, S

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a pilot scale aerobic fluidized bed biofilm process and chemical coagulation for textile wastewater treatment was studied. In order to enhance biological treatment efficiency of textile wastewater, poly urethane cubes were incorporated as a supporting media for attached growth. Fenton's reagent was used as a coagulant in the present study. The fluidized bed biofilm process was operated at four HRTs (3, 4.5, 6 and 8 hour) and the results showed that the COD removal efficiency increased from 69% to 94% when the HRT increased from 3 to 4.5 and there of the removal efficiency remained constant around 94%, even though using relatively low MLSS concentration and short sludge retention time. COD and TDS removals of 94.2% and 93.3% were achieved by overall combined process (FABR+Coagulation aided Sedimentation). After the treatment there is remarkable decrease in colour in addition to COD and TDS.This combined process was highly competitive in comparison to the other similar combined systems. It was concluded that this combined process was successfully employed and much effectively decreased they COD, TDS and color of textile wastewater treatment at pilot scale.

  14. Bio-kinetic analysis on treatment of textile dye wastewater using anaerobic batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Gnanapragasam, G; Senthilkumar, M; Arutchelvan, V; Velayutham, T; Nagarajan, S

    2011-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion technique was applied to textile dye wastewater aiming at the colour and COD removal. Pet bottles of 5 L capacity were used as reactor which contains methanogenic sludge of half a liter capacity which was used for the treatment of combined synthetic textile dye and starch wastewater at different mixing ratios of 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 with initial COD concentrations as 3520, 3440, 3360, 3264 and 3144 mg L(-1), respectively. The reactor was maintained at room temperature (30±3°C) with initial pH of 7. The maximum COD and colour removal were 81.0% and 87.3% at an optimum mixing ratio of 30:70 of textile dye and starch wastewaters. Both Monod's and Haldane's models were adopted in this study. The kinetic constants of cell growth under Haldane's model were satisfactory when compared to Monod's model. The kinetic constants obtained by Haldane's model were found to be in the range of μmax=0.037-0.146 h(-1), Ks=651.04-1372.88 mg L(-1) and Ki=5681.81-18727.59 mg L(-1).

  15. Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ≤2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse.

  16. Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ≤2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse. PMID:22814960

  17. Assessment of the best available wastewater management techniques for a textile mill: cost and benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bugce; Kerestecioglu, Merih; Yetis, Ulku

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, several water recovery and end-of-pipe wastewater treatment alternatives were evaluated towards the evaluation of Best Available Techniques (BATs) for the management of wastewaters from a denim textile mill in accordance with the European Union's Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. For this purpose, an assessment that translates the key environmental aspects into a quantitative measure of environmental performance and also financial analysis was performed for each of the alternatives. The alternatives considered for water recovery from dyeing wastewaters were nanofiltration (NF) with coagulation and/or microfiltration (MF) pre-treatment, ozonation or peroxone and Fenton oxidation. On the other hand, for the end-of-pipe treatment of the mill's mixed wastewater, ozonation, Fenton oxidation, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and activated sludge (AS) process followed by membrane filtration technologies were evaluated. The results have indicated that membrane filtration process with the least environmental impacts is the BAT for water recovery. On the other side, MBR technology has appeared as the BAT for the end-of-pipe treatment of the mill's mixed wastewater. A technical and financial comparison of these two BAT alternatives revealed that water recovery via membrane filtration from dyeing wastewaters is selected as the BAT for the water and wastewater management in the mill.

  18. Decontamination of synthetic textile wastewater by electrochemical processes: energetic and toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mountassir, Y; Benyaich, A; Rezrazi, M; Berçot, P; Gebrati, L

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater, prepared with several compounds used in the finishing of textile materials, was comparatively studied by electrochemical methods such as electrooxidation (EO) (titanium electrode) and electrocoagulation (EC) (with aluminum and iron electrodes). The influence of pH, current density and operating time on the treatment was assessed by the parameters used to measure the level of organic contaminants in the wastewater; i.e. color, toxicity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The experimental results showed that an effective electrochemical oxidation was achieved in which the wastewater was decolorized and 92% of COD was completely eliminated. In particular, the mineralization took place by indirect oxidation, mediated by active chlorine, and the treatment efficiency was enhanced by the addition of NaCl to the wastewater and by increasing the applied current density. The toxicity, still higher than the toxicity of the raw effluent, indicated a presence of toxic products after EO. Good results were obtained with the Al and Fe electrodes, mainly with respect to the removal of color and toxicity. EC is more economical than EO and the toxicity evaluation with the Daphnia magna test shows a significant reduction after EC.

  19. Oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and chemical agents used in a textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Lim, B R; Hu, H Y; Ahn, K H; Fujie, K

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and typical chemicals such as desizing, scouring, dispersing and swelling agents used in the textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process were experimentally studied. The refractory organic matters remained in the effluent of biological treatment process without degradation may be suitable for the improvement of biodegradability and mineralized to CO2 by combined ozonation with and without hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, the refractory chemicals contained in the scouring agent A and swelling agent may not be mineralized and their biodegradability may not be improved by ozonation. However, the BOD/DOC ratio of scouring agent B increased from 0.3 to 0.45 after ozonation. Based on the results described above, advanced treatment process involving the ozonation without and with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, followed by biological treatment was proposed for the treatment of refractory wastewater discharged from the textile-dyeing process.

  20. Application of ozonation process in industrial wastewaters: textile, kraft E1 and whey effluents.

    PubMed

    Assalin, M R; Almeida, E S; Rosa, M A; Moraes, S G; Duran, N

    2004-08-01

    A large variety of organic and inorganic compounds can be found in wastewater from industrial processes. In this work, Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) have been applied for the control of water pollution and the ozonation of different effluents was investigated. Wastewater from textile, kraft E1 and cheese manufacturing processes were chosen as examples of industrial effluents. The efficiency of substrate mineralization has been comparatively analyzed by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC), color, and toxicity. The results revealed that the ozonation process can be a method for decolorization of effluent, but it is not effective for TOC reduction. The whey effluent was the most recalcitrant wastewater for ozone treatment which produced no TOC removal.

  1. Decolorisation of synthetic dyes and textile wastewater using Polyporus rubidus.

    PubMed

    Dayaram, Poonam; Dasgupta, Debjani

    2008-11-01

    Effluent from textile industries were treated with enzyme from white rot fungi isolated from outskirts of Mumbai and identified as Polyporus rubidus in our laboratory. Decolorisation of 4 Reactive dyes commonly found in the effluents such as Reactive bue, Reactive orange, Ramazol black and Congo red was examined by treatment with enzyme from Polyporus rubidus. Treatment of effluent was done in a laboratory scale bioreactor constructed with laccase immobilized Na-alginate beads. Greater than 80% of dyes were degraded within 5 days under stationary incubation conditions. The enzyme had a maxmimum activity of 17.1U after 3 days and was found to be secreted extracellularly by Polyporus rubidus. In this study the Polyporus rubidus has been reported for the first time to have laccase activity offering a promising possibility to develop an easy and cost effective method for degradation of dangerous dyes.

  2. Decolourisation of textile wastewater in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Spagni, Alessandro; Casu, Stefania; Grilli, Selene

    2012-08-01

    Azo dye decolourisation can be easily achieved by biological reduction under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) for the decolourisation of dyeing wastewater containing azo dyes. The reactive orange 16 was used as model of an azo dye. The results demonstrated that very high decolourisation (higher than 99%) can be achieved by SAMBRs. Although decolourisation was not significantly influenced by the azo dye concentrations up to 3.2 g L(-1), methane production was greatly inhibited (up to 80-85%). Since volatile fatty acids accumulated in the treatment system with the azo dye concentration increase, methanogenes seem to be the most sensitive microbial populations of the anaerobic ecological community. The results demonstrated that anaerobic process combined with membrane filtration can deal with highly concentrated wastewaters that result from stream separation of industrial discharges.

  3. In situ gas fuel production during the treatment of textile wastewater at supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kıpçak, Ekin; Akgün, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification has recently received much attention as a potential alternative to energy conversion methods applied to aqueous/non-aqueous biomass sources, industrial wastes or fossil fuels such as coal because of the unique physical properties of water above its critical conditions (i.e. 374.8 °C and 22.1 MPa). This paper presents the results obtained for the hydrothermal gasification of textile wastewater at supercritical conditions. The experiments were carried out at five reaction temperatures (between 450 and 650 °C) and five reaction times (between 30 and 150 s), under a constant pressure of 25 MPa. It was found that the gaseous products contained considerable amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, such as methane, ethane, propane and propylene. The maximum amount of the obtained gaseous product was 1.23 mL per mL textile wastewater, at a reaction temperature of 600 °C, with a reaction time of 150 s. At this state, the product comprised 13.02% hydrogen, 38.93% methane, 4.33% ethane, 0.10% propane, 0.01% propylene, 7.97% carbon monoxide, 27.22% carbon dioxide and 8.00% nitrogen. In addition, a 62.88% decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) content was observed and the color of the wastewater was removed. Moreover, for the hydrothermal decomposition of the textile wastewater, a first-order reaction rate was designated with an activation energy of 50.42 (±2.33) kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 13.29 (±0.41) s(-1).

  4. Distribution of free-living amoebae in a treatment system of textile industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Martinez, Blanca; Ayala, Reynaldo; Sainz, Guadalupe; Martinez, Maria Elena; Gonzalez, Maria Elena

    2014-11-01

    Free-living amoebae have been found in soil, air and a variety of aquatic environments, but few studies have been conducted on industrial wastewater and none on wastewater from the textile industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of free-living amoebae in a biological treatment system that treats textile industrial wastewater. Samples were taken from input, aeration tank, sedimentation tank and output. Samples were centrifuged at 1200g for 15min, the sediment was seeded on non-nutritive agar with Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE) and the plates were incubated at 30 and 37°C. Free-living amoebae were present in all stages of the treatment system. The highest number of amoebic isolates was found in the aeration tank and no seasonal distribution was observed during the year. A total of 14 amoeba genera were isolated: Acanthamoeba, Echinamoeba, Korotnevella, Mayorella, Naegleria, Platyamoeba, Saccamoeba, Stachyamoeba, Thecamoeba, Vahlkampfia, Vannella, Vermamoeba, Vexillifera and Willaertia. The most frequently found amoebae were Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba which were found in all treatment system stages. The constant presence and diversity of free-living amoebae in the treatment system were important findings due to the characteristics of the wastewater from the textile plant in terms of the residue content from colorants, fixers, carriers, surfactants, etc., used in fabric dyeing and finishing processes. The factors that determined the presence and distribution of amoebae in the activated sludge system were their capacity to form cysts, which allowed them to resist adverse conditions; food availability; an average temperature of 27-33°C; dissolved oxygen in average concentrations above 2mg/L, and pH in a range of 5.9-7.1.

  5. Decolorization and biodegradability of photocatalytic treated azo dyes and wool textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Wang, Y

    1999-11-01

    The photodegradation and biodegradability have been investigated for four non-biodegradable commercial azo dyes, Reactive YellowKD-3G, Reactive Red 15, Reactive Red 24, Cationic Blue X-GRL, an indicator. Methyl Orange, and one industrial wool textile wastewater, using TiO2 suspensions irradiated with a medium pressure mercury lamp. The color removal of dyes solution and dyeing wastewater reached to above 90% within 20-30 min. of photocatalytic treatment. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was found to increase, while chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) decreased, so that the ratio of BOD5/COD of the wastewater increased from original zero up to 0.75. The result implies that photocatalytic oxidation enhanced the biodegradability of the dye-containing wastewater and therefore relationship between decolorization and biodegradability exists. When the color disappeared completely, the wastewater biodegraded normally and could be discharged for further treatment. The experimental results demonstrate that it is possible to combine photocatalysis with conventional biological treatment for the remedy of wastewater containing generally non-biodegradable azo dyes.

  6. Improving quality of textile wastewater with organic materials as multi soil layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyadi; Widijanto, H.; Pranoto; Dewi, AK

    2016-02-01

    On agricultural land, fresh water is needed especially for irrigation. Alternative ways to fulfill needs of fresh water is by utilizing wastewater from industry. Wastewater that produced in the industry in Surakarta is over flowing especially textile wastewater. Wastewater that produced from industry has many pollutants that affected decreasing fresh water quality for irrigation. Multi Soil Layering (MSL) is one of method that utilize the soil ability as main media by increasing its function of soil structure to purify wastewater, so it does not contaminate the environment and reusable. This research was purposed to know affectivity of organic materials (such as rice straw, baggase, sawdust, coconut fibre, and corncob) and dosage (5%, 10% and 25%) in MSL, also get alternative purification ways with easy and cheaper price as natural adsorbent. This study using field and laboratory experiment. The result shows that MSL can be an alternative method of purification of wastewater. The appropriate composition of organic materials that can be used as adsorbent is MSL with wood sawdust 10% dosage because it can increase pH, decrease the number of Cr, ammonia, and phosphate but less effective to decrease BOD and COD.

  7. Bacterial monitoring by molecular tools of a continuous stirred tank reactor treating textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khelifi, Eltaief; Bouallagui, Hassib; Touhami, Youssef; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of the bacterial diversity changes on the performances of a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating textile wastewater. The molecular fingerprint established using polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods showed that bacterial community profiles changed simultaneously with the increase of the wastewater loading rates (WLR). For the two WLR of 0.28 g l(-1)d(-1) and 0.37 g l(-1)d(-1), the reactor maintained good performances, suggesting that the large bacterial community present a high specific activity. The increase of the WLR from 0.37 to 1.12 g l(-1)d(-1) decreased the colour and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies from 90% to 55% and from 85% to 30%, respectively, explained by the decrease of the bacterial diversity and activity. The changes of the bacterial dominance had no affect on the reactor performances. However, the decrease of the bacterial diversity significantly affected the colour and the COD removal efficiencies. It should conclude that indigo dye-containing textile wastewater treatment required the concerted activity of multiple bacterial populations.

  8. Treatment and toxicity reduction of textile dyeing wastewater using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Lae; Cho, Jong-Bok; Park, Yong-Jin; Cho, Il-Hyoung

    2016-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EC-EF) process to treat textile dyeing raw wastewater to evaluate treatment performance. The effects of some key factors, such as current density, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and removal of conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color were investigated. The operating variables were current density of 0-300 A m(-2), HRT of 0-30 min, and a coagulant (anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM)) dosage of 0-30 mg L(-1). Daphnia magna was used to test acute toxicity in raw and treated wastewater. Under the operating conditions without added coagulant, maxima of 51%, 88%, 84%, and 99% of conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were removed, respectively, with a HRT of 30 min. The coagulant enhanced removal of all wastewater parameters. Removal maxima of 59%, 92%, 94%, and 98% for conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were observed, respectively, with an optimal dosage of 30 mg L(-1) and a shortened HRT of 20 min. The 48 h-LC50 D. magna test showed that the raw wastewater was highly toxic. However, the EC-EF process decreased toxicity of the treated samples significantly, and >70% toxicity reduction was achieved by the EC-EF process with the addition of 15-30 mg L(-1) coagulant, HRT of 20 min, and current density of 150-300 A m(-2). The pilot scale test (0.3 m(3 )h(-1)) shows that the EC-EF process with added coagulant effectively treated textile dyeing wastewater.

  9. Treatment and toxicity reduction of textile dyeing wastewater using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Lae; Cho, Jong-Bok; Park, Yong-Jin; Cho, Il-Hyoung

    2016-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EC-EF) process to treat textile dyeing raw wastewater to evaluate treatment performance. The effects of some key factors, such as current density, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and removal of conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color were investigated. The operating variables were current density of 0-300 A m(-2), HRT of 0-30 min, and a coagulant (anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM)) dosage of 0-30 mg L(-1). Daphnia magna was used to test acute toxicity in raw and treated wastewater. Under the operating conditions without added coagulant, maxima of 51%, 88%, 84%, and 99% of conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were removed, respectively, with a HRT of 30 min. The coagulant enhanced removal of all wastewater parameters. Removal maxima of 59%, 92%, 94%, and 98% for conductivity, TSS, COD, and color were observed, respectively, with an optimal dosage of 30 mg L(-1) and a shortened HRT of 20 min. The 48 h-LC50 D. magna test showed that the raw wastewater was highly toxic. However, the EC-EF process decreased toxicity of the treated samples significantly, and >70% toxicity reduction was achieved by the EC-EF process with the addition of 15-30 mg L(-1) coagulant, HRT of 20 min, and current density of 150-300 A m(-2). The pilot scale test (0.3 m(3 )h(-1)) shows that the EC-EF process with added coagulant effectively treated textile dyeing wastewater. PMID:27089124

  10. Removal of Cr, Mn, and Co from textile wastewater by horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Tonci; Santek, Bozidar; Rezić, Iva; Hann, Stephan; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    Environmental pollution by industrial wastewaters polluted with toxic heavy metals is of great concern. Various guidelines regulate the quality of water released from industrial plants and of surface waters. In wastewater treatment, bioreactors with microbial biofilms are widely used. A horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB) is a combination of a thin layer and a biodisc reactor with an interior divided by O-ring shaped partition walls as carriers for microbial biomass. Using a biofilm of heavy metal resistant bacteria in combination with this special design provides various advantages for wastewater treatment proven in a pilot study. In the presented study, the applicability of HRTB for removing metals commonly present in textile wastewaters (chromium, manganese, cobalt) was investigated. Artificial wastewaters with a load of 125 mg/L of each metal underwent the bioreactor treatment. Different process parameters (inflow rate, rotation speed) were applied for optimizing the removal efficiency. Samples were drawn along the bioreactor length for monitoring the metal contents on site by UV-vis spectrometry. The metal uptake of the biomass was determined by ICP-MS after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The maximum removal rates obtained for chromium, manganese, and cobalt were: 100%, 94%, and 69%, respectively.

  11. Biodecolorization of Reactive Yellow-2 by Serratia sp. RN34 Isolated from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Najme, Rabia; Hussain, Sabir; Maqbool, Zahid; Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Faisal; Manzoor, Hamid; Yasmeen, Tahira; Shehzad, Tanvir

    2015-12-01

    Remediation of colored textile wastewaters is a matter of interest. In this study, 49 bacteria were isolated from the textile wastewater and tested for their ability to decolorize reactive yellow-2 (RY2) dye. The most efficient isolate, RN34, was identified through amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rDNA and was designated as Serratia sp. RN34. This bacterium was also found capable of decolorizing other related reactive azo-dyes, including reactive black-5, reactive red-120, and reactive orange-16 but at varying rates. The optimum pH for decolorization of RY2 by the strain RN34 was 7.5 using yeast extract as cosubstrate under static incubation at 30 °C. The strain RN34 also showed potential to decolorize RY2 in the presence of considerable amounts of hexavalent chromium and sodium chloride. A phytotoxicity study demonstrated relatively reduced toxicity of RY2 decolorized products on Vigna radiata plant as compared to the uninoculated RY2 solution.

  12. Textile wastewater treatment using a UF hollow-fibre submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR).

    PubMed

    Niren, P; Jigisha, P

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of a laboratory-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) system for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater containing disperse red dye. The SMBR system was run aerobically in a continuous flow mode at five different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24,18,14.4,11.28 and 8.4 h respectively, with an average permeate flux of 20 L/(m2 x h). The performance of the system was not adversely affected by decreased HRT and the consequent rise in the food/microorganism ratio (0.07 to 0.14 g BOD/(g SS x d)) and organic loading rate (OLR: 0.4 to 1.24 BOD kg/(m3 x d)). The average removal rate for COD, BOD and colour were 92.33%, 93.69% and 91.36%, respectively. To maintain a stable flux and prevent fouling, the membrane was covered with a cylindrical wire-mesh cage, and routine chemical backwashing and chemical cleaning procedures were adapted. Transmembrane pressure increased from 29.47 to 58.42 kPa (0.29 to 0.58 bar) during each run of HRT. The results indicated that synthetic textile wastewater could be treated very effectively by the SMBR system. PMID:21970167

  13. Textile wastewater treatment using a UF hollow-fibre submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR).

    PubMed

    Niren, P; Jigisha, P

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of a laboratory-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) system for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater containing disperse red dye. The SMBR system was run aerobically in a continuous flow mode at five different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24,18,14.4,11.28 and 8.4 h respectively, with an average permeate flux of 20 L/(m2 x h). The performance of the system was not adversely affected by decreased HRT and the consequent rise in the food/microorganism ratio (0.07 to 0.14 g BOD/(g SS x d)) and organic loading rate (OLR: 0.4 to 1.24 BOD kg/(m3 x d)). The average removal rate for COD, BOD and colour were 92.33%, 93.69% and 91.36%, respectively. To maintain a stable flux and prevent fouling, the membrane was covered with a cylindrical wire-mesh cage, and routine chemical backwashing and chemical cleaning procedures were adapted. Transmembrane pressure increased from 29.47 to 58.42 kPa (0.29 to 0.58 bar) during each run of HRT. The results indicated that synthetic textile wastewater could be treated very effectively by the SMBR system.

  14. Chemical or electrochemical techniques, followed by ion exchange, for recycle of textile dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Raghu, S; Ahmed Basha, C

    2007-10-22

    This paper examines the use of chemical or electrocoagulation treatment process followed by ion-exchange process of the textile dye effluent. The dye effluent was treated using polymeric coagulant (cationic dye-fixing agent) or electrocoagulation (iron and aluminum electrode) process under various conditions such as various current densities and effect of pH. Efficiencies of COD reduction, colour removal and power consumption were studied for each process. The chemical or electrochemical treatment are indented primarily to remove colour and COD of wastewater while ion exchange is used to further improve the removal efficiency of the colour, COD, Fe concentration, conductivity, alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS). From the results chemical coagulation, maximum COD reduction of about 81.3% was obtained at 300 mg/l of coagulant whereas in electrocoagulation process, maximum COD removal of about 92.31% (0.25 A/dm2) was achieved with energy consumption of about 19.29 k Wh/kg of COD and 80% (1A/dm(2)) COD removal was obtained with energy consumption of about 130.095 k Wh/kg of COD at iron and aluminum electrodes, respectively. All the experimental results, throughout the present study, have indicated that chemical or electrocoagulation treatment followed by ion-exchange methods were very effective and were capable of elevating quality of the treated wastewater effluent to the reuse standard of the textile industry.

  15. Performance of membrane bioreactors used for the treatment of wastewater from the chemical and textile industries.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, S; Schröder, H F; Pinnekamp, J

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of the study, nine waste waters from the chemical and textile industries were treated in bench-scale (laboratory scale) and small-scale (pilot scale) membrane bioreactors. Depending on wastewater characteristics, the resulting performance varied significantly. It was observed that MBR effectiveness was determined primarily by the degree of biodegradability of the wastewater. In the course of several months of operation, no significant changes associated with the complete retention of the biomass by the membranes were observed. In some cases, it was possible to improve effluent quality by using smaller molecular separation sizes. The flux performance of the membrane modules was dependent on wastewater composition. Occasionally, non-degradable macromolecular substances concentrated in the bioreactor, resulting in strongly reduced filterability and flow performance of the membrane modules, consequently also reducing the economic viability of the process. The results demonstrate that wastewater-specific pilot tests are absolutely necessary, in particular if the technology is to be used for new applications.

  16. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%.

  17. The effect of nutrient deficiency on removal of organic solvents from textile manufacturing wastewater during activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D L; Payauys, A M; Karanfil, T

    2005-02-01

    Textile manufacturing wastewater is often deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus and contains hazardous solvents, including methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), toluene (TOL), and xylenes (XYL). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of a short-term batch assay for predicting when a nutrient deficient condition exists in textile wastewater activated sludge, and to determine if nutrient deficiency affects biodegradation of MEK, MIBK, TOL,and p-XYL to a greater or lesser extent than bulk soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). Addition of N + P significantly improved sCOD removal during treatment of textile wastewater in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Batch tests using mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) from the SBRs correctly predicted the nutrient deficiency in the reactors that received unamended wastewater. During batch tests in sealed containers (to prevent volatilization) when N + P were added, the solvents biodegraded faster and to a greater extent than the bulk wastewater sCOD. MEK and MIBK were also completely consumed in MLSS from the SBR that received unamended wastewater, indicating that a shortage of nutrients did not significantly impact biodegradation of these ketones. However, nutrient deficient conditions significantly decreased the rate of TOL and p-XYL biodegradation. The difference in biodegradability of the ketones and monoaromatics under nutrient deficient conditions may be related to loss of plasmids required for aerobic catabolism of TOL and p-XYL. These results demonstrate that N + P addition to nutrient-deficient textile wastewater improves bulk sCOD removal and also significantly improves the biodegradability of TOL and p-XYL, thereby reducing the amount released to the atmosphere by volatilization.

  18. Bacteria in non-woven textile filters for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Starzyk, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary identification of heterotrophic and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) cell concentration in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for wastewater treatment. Filters of thicknesses 3.6 and 7.2 mm, made of non-woven textile TS20, were supplied with septic tank effluent and intermittently dosed and filtered under hydrostatic pressure. The cumulative loads of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids were about 1.36 and 1.06 kg/cm2, respectively. The filters under analysis reached a relatively high removal efficiency for organic pollution 70-90% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and 60-85% for COD. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency level proved to be unstable (15-55%). Biomass samples for dry mass identification were taken from two regions: continuously flooded with wastewater and intermittently flooded with wastewater. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria were determined as colony-forming units (CFUs) on microbiological-selective media by means of the plate method. AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were examined using the FISH technique. A relatively wide range of heterotrophic bacteria was observed from 7.4×10(5)/cm2 to 3.8×10(6)/cm2 in geotextile layers. The highest concentration of heterotrophic bacteria (3.8×10(6)/cm2) was observed in the first layer of the textile filter. AOB were identified occasionally--about 8-15% of all bacteria colonizing the last filter layer, but occasionally much higher concentrations and ammonia nitrogen efficiency were achieved. Bacteria oxidizing nitrite to nitrate were not observed. The relation of total and organic fraction of biomass to culturable heterotrophic bacteria was also found.

  19. Aerobic decolourization of the indigo dye-containing textile wastewater using continuous combined bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Khelifi, Eltaief; Gannoun, Hana; Touhami, Youssef; Bouallagui, Hassib; Hamdi, Moktar

    2008-04-01

    An aerobic bioprocess was applied to Indigo dye-containing textile wastewater treatment aiming at the colour elimination and biodegradation. A combined aerobic system using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed film bioreactor (FFB) was continuously operated at constant temperature and fed with the textile wastewater (pH: 7.5 and total chemical oxygen demand (COD): 1185 mg l(-1)). The CSTR is a 1l continuous flow stirred tank reactor with a 700 ml working volume, and operated with a variable wastewater loading rate (WLR) from 0.92 to 3.7 g l(-1) d(-1). The FFB is a 1.5l continuous flow with three compartments packed with a rippled cylindrical polyethylene support, operated with a variable WLR between 0.09 and 0.73 g l(-1) d(-1). The combined two bioreactors were inoculated by an acclimated microbial consortium and continuously operated with four total WLR. This system presented high COD elimination and colour removal efficiencies of 97.5% and 97.3%, respectively, obtained with a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days and total WLR of 0.29 g l(-1) d(-1). The effects of WLR on absorption phenomena on the yield of conversion of substrate on biomass (R(TSS/COD)) and on the yield of conversion of substrate on active biomass (R(VVS/COD)) are discussed. The increase of WLR and the decrease of HRT diminished the performances of this system in terms of decolourization and COD removal explained by the sloughing of biofilm, and the washout phenomena.

  20. Electrocoagulation using a rotated anode: A novel reactor design for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Naje, Ahmed Samir; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Zakaria, Zuriati; Abbas, Saad A

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the optimum operational conditions of a novel rotated bed electrocoagulation (EC) reactor for the treatment of textile wastewater. The effect of various operational parameters such as rotational speed, current density (CD), operational time (RT), pH, temperature, and inter-electrode distance (IED) on the pollutant removal efficiency were examined. In addition, the consumption of aluminum (Al) and electrical energy, as well as operating costs at optimum conditions were also calculated. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for the treatment of textile wastewater were achieved at CD = 4 mA/cm(2), RT = 10 min, rotational speed = 150 rpm, pH = 4.57, temperature = 25 °C, and IED = 1 cm. The electrode consumption, energy consumption, and operating costs were 0.038 kg/m(3), 4.66 kWh/m(3) and 0.44 US$/m(3), respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity and color were 97.10%, 95.55%, 98%, 96% and 98.50%, respectively, at the first 10 min of reaction time, while the phenol compound of the wastewater was almost entirely removed (99.99%). The experimental results confirm that the new reactor design with rotated anode impellers and cathode rings provided high treatment efficiency at a reduced reaction time and with lower energy consumption. PMID:27039362

  1. Electrocoagulation using a rotated anode: A novel reactor design for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Naje, Ahmed Samir; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Zakaria, Zuriati; Abbas, Saad A

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the optimum operational conditions of a novel rotated bed electrocoagulation (EC) reactor for the treatment of textile wastewater. The effect of various operational parameters such as rotational speed, current density (CD), operational time (RT), pH, temperature, and inter-electrode distance (IED) on the pollutant removal efficiency were examined. In addition, the consumption of aluminum (Al) and electrical energy, as well as operating costs at optimum conditions were also calculated. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for the treatment of textile wastewater were achieved at CD = 4 mA/cm(2), RT = 10 min, rotational speed = 150 rpm, pH = 4.57, temperature = 25 °C, and IED = 1 cm. The electrode consumption, energy consumption, and operating costs were 0.038 kg/m(3), 4.66 kWh/m(3) and 0.44 US$/m(3), respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity and color were 97.10%, 95.55%, 98%, 96% and 98.50%, respectively, at the first 10 min of reaction time, while the phenol compound of the wastewater was almost entirely removed (99.99%). The experimental results confirm that the new reactor design with rotated anode impellers and cathode rings provided high treatment efficiency at a reduced reaction time and with lower energy consumption.

  2. Modeling the performance of biodegradation of textile wastewater using polyurethane foam sponge cube as a supporting medium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale fixed-biofilm reactor (FBR) was established to treat textile wastewater to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional treatment processes that involve activated sludge and coagulation units. A kinetic model was developed to describe the biodegradation of textile wastewater by FBR. Batch kinetic tests were performed to evaluate the biokinetic parameters that are used in the model. FBR column test was fed with a mean COD of 692 mg/L of textile wastewater from flow equalization unit. The influent flow rate was maintained at 48.4 L/h for FBR column test. Experimental data and model-predicted data for substrate effluent concentration (as COD), concentration of suspended biomass in effluent and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) produced in the effluent agree closely with each other. Microscopic observations demonstrated that the biofilm exhibited a uniform distribution on the surface of polyurethane foam sponge. Under a steady-state condition, the effluent COD from FBR was about 14.7 mg COD/L (0.0213 S(b0)), meeting the discharge standard (COD < 100 mg/L) that has been set by the government of Taiwan for textile wastewater effluent. The amount of biofilm and suspended biomass reached a maximal value in the steady state when the substrate flux reached a constant value and remained maximal. Approximately 33% of the substrate concentration (as COD) was converted to CO(2) during biodegradation in the FBR test. The experimental and modeling schemes proposed in this study could be employed to design a full-scale FBR to treat textile wastewater.

  3. Potentials of high-temperature anaerobic treatment and redox mediators for the reductive decolorization of azo dyes from textile wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, A B; Cervantes, F J; van Lier, J B

    2006-01-01

    The discharge of dye-colored wastewaters in surface water represents a serious environmental problem because it may decrease the water transparency, therefore having an effect on photosynthesis, and a public health concern because dyes and their reducing products are carcinogenic. In recent years, big achievements have been made in the use of anaerobic granular sludge not only on colored wastewaters but also on the detoxification of other xenobiotics compounds. This paper compiles some important findings related to the potentials of high-temperature anaerobic treatment and redox mediators on the reductive decolorization of azo dyes from textile wastewaters.

  4. Feasibility study to upgrade a textile wastewater treatment plant by a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor for effluent reuse.

    PubMed

    Malpei, F; Bonomo, L; Rozzi, A

    2003-01-01

    A pilot plant membrane bioreactor has been tested in parallel with a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant fed on the wastewater from a textile factory. The possibility to upgrade the final effluent for internal reuse was investigated. The pilot and full-scale plants are located in a textile factory (Boselli & C., Olgiate Comasco, North Italy) which manufactures and finishes polyester fabric. The activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is an extended aeration system. The MBR pilot plant is a ZW-10 bench hollow fibre module (membrane surface area: 0.93 m2) submerged in a 200 L tank. Performance and operation of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, total N and P, microbiological counts), of membrane specific flux (l m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1)) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and yield).

  5. Protozoa and metazoa relations to technological conditions of non-woven textile filters for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Sowińska, Aleksandra; Starzyk, Justyna; Masłowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was a preliminary identification of basic groups of micro-organisms in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for septic tank effluent (STE) treatment and their relations to technological conditions. Reactors with textile filters treating wastewater were investigated on a semi-technical scale. Filters were vertically situated and STE was filtered through them under hydrostatic pressure at a wastewater surface height of 7-20 cm. Filters were made of four layers of non-woven TS 20 geotextile of 0.9 mm thickness. Various groups of organisms were observed; the most abundant group comprised free-swimming and crawling ciliates, less abundant were stalked ciliates and the least numerous were nematodes. The individual counts of all groups of micro-organisms investigated during the study were variable according to time and space. The high abundance of Opercularia, a commonly observed genus of stalked ciliates, was related to the high efficiency of wastewater treatment and dissolved oxygen concentration of about 1.0 g/m3. Numbers of free-swimming and crawling ciliates had a tendency to decrease in relation to the depth of filter cross-sectional profile. The variability in counts of particular groups of organisms could be related to the local stress conditions. No correlation between identified organism count and total mass concentration in the cross-sectional filter profile was found.

  6. Protozoa and metazoa relations to technological conditions of non-woven textile filters for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Sowińska, Aleksandra; Starzyk, Justyna; Masłowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was a preliminary identification of basic groups of micro-organisms in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for septic tank effluent (STE) treatment and their relations to technological conditions. Reactors with textile filters treating wastewater were investigated on a semi-technical scale. Filters were vertically situated and STE was filtered through them under hydrostatic pressure at a wastewater surface height of 7-20 cm. Filters were made of four layers of non-woven TS 20 geotextile of 0.9 mm thickness. Various groups of organisms were observed; the most abundant group comprised free-swimming and crawling ciliates, less abundant were stalked ciliates and the least numerous were nematodes. The individual counts of all groups of micro-organisms investigated during the study were variable according to time and space. The high abundance of Opercularia, a commonly observed genus of stalked ciliates, was related to the high efficiency of wastewater treatment and dissolved oxygen concentration of about 1.0 g/m3. Numbers of free-swimming and crawling ciliates had a tendency to decrease in relation to the depth of filter cross-sectional profile. The variability in counts of particular groups of organisms could be related to the local stress conditions. No correlation between identified organism count and total mass concentration in the cross-sectional filter profile was found. PMID:25704123

  7. Toxicity assessment from electro-coagulation treated-textile dye wastewaters by bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palácio, Soraya M; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Borba, Fernando H; Silva, Fernando G

    2009-12-15

    In this study the pollutant removal from a textile dyeing wastewater has been investigated by using the electro-coagulation technique with iron electrodes. In order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables, a 3(3) full factorial experimental design was applied. The electro-coagulation (EC) process response was evaluated on the basis of COD removal and decolourization values. The electrolysis time and density current were statistically significant for the COD removal and decolourization. Based on the lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the lowest toxicity level was achieved in 5 min of electrolysis time. Due to the remaining high toxicity level above 30 min of electrolysis time, the EC process is not adequate to be used in a single effluent treatment, suggesting that this electrochemical process of up to 5 min could be used as part of a complete effluent treatment system. PMID:19640647

  8. Toxicity assessment from electro-coagulation treated-textile dye wastewaters by bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palácio, Soraya M; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Borba, Fernando H; Silva, Fernando G

    2009-12-15

    In this study the pollutant removal from a textile dyeing wastewater has been investigated by using the electro-coagulation technique with iron electrodes. In order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables, a 3(3) full factorial experimental design was applied. The electro-coagulation (EC) process response was evaluated on the basis of COD removal and decolourization values. The electrolysis time and density current were statistically significant for the COD removal and decolourization. Based on the lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the lowest toxicity level was achieved in 5 min of electrolysis time. Due to the remaining high toxicity level above 30 min of electrolysis time, the EC process is not adequate to be used in a single effluent treatment, suggesting that this electrochemical process of up to 5 min could be used as part of a complete effluent treatment system.

  9. Bioaugmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a GAC-packed zone for high rate textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hai, Faisal Ibney; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2011-03-01

    The long-term performance of a bioaugmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) containing a GAC-packed anaerobic zone for treatment of textile wastewater containing structurally different azo dyes was observed. A unique feeding strategy, consistent with the mode of evolution of separate waste streams in textile plants, was adopted to make the best use of the GAC-zone for dye removal. Dye was introduced through the GAC-zone while the rest of the colorless media was simultaneously fed through the aerobic zone. Preliminary experiments confirmed the importance of coupling the GAC-amended anaerobic zone to the aerobic MBR and also evidenced the efficacy of the adopted feeding strategy. Following this, the robustness of the process under gradually increasing dye-loading was tested. The respective average dye concentrations (mg/L) in the sample from GAC-zone and the membrane-permeate under dye-loadings of 0.1 and 1 g/L.d were as follows: GAC-zone (3, 105), permeate (0, 5). TOC concentration in membrane-permeate for the aforementioned loadings were 3 and 54 mg/L, respectively. Stable decoloration along with significant TOC removal during a period of over 7 months under extremely high dye-loadings demonstrated the superiority of the proposed hybrid process.

  10. Treatment of textile dyeing wastewater using UV/solar photofenton oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Sarayu, G; Kanmani, S

    2003-04-01

    Colour removal of effluent from textile dyeing and finishing industry is becoming important because of aesthetic as well as environmental concerns. Conventional treatment methods have several limitations. Hence emerging technologies like advanced oxidation processes which were based on generation of hydroxyl free radicals (OH) were investigated. In the present work, photofenton oxidation process was used to treat textile dyeing wastewater and the study was carried out at different Fenton molar ratio's (H2O2/Fe2+) like 25:1, 50:1, 75:1, 100:1. It was found that maximum decolourisation occurred at a fenton molar ration of 50:1 and pH 3. A maximum colour removal of 97% was achieved after a contact time of 30 minutes and 70% COD reduction was observed after a contact time of 60 minutes in UV photofenton oxidation process. Whereas 80% colour removal and 50-55% COD reduction was observed after a contact time of 2 hrs in solar photofenton oxidation process.

  11. Combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) for potential treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Liang, Can-Zeng; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-03-15

    A novel combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) (FO-CF) has been experimentally conceived for the treatment and reuse of textile wastewater. FO is employed to spontaneously recover water from the wastewater via osmosis and thus effectively reduces its volume with a dramatically enhanced dye concentration. CF is then applied to precipitate and remove dyes from the FO concentrated stream with much improved efficiency and reduced chemical dosage. The FO-CF hybrid system exhibits unique advantages of high water flux and recovery rate, well controlled membrane fouling, high efficiency, and minimal environmental impact. Using a lab-made thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane, an initial water flux (Jw) of 36.0 L m(-2) h(-1) with a dye rejection of 99.9% has been demonstrated by using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and synthetic textile wastewater containing multiple textile dyes, inorganic salts and organic additives as the feed under the FO mode. The Jw could be maintained at a high value of 12.0 L m(-2) h(-1) even when the recovery rate of the wastewater reaches 90%. Remarkable reverse fouling behavior has also been observed where the Jw of the fouled membrane can be almost fully restored to the initial value by physical flushing without using any chemicals. Due to the great dye concentration in the FO concentrated wastewater stream, the CF process could achieve more than 95% dye removal with a small dosage of coagulants and flocculants at 500-1000 ppm. The newly developed FO-CF hybrid process may open up new exploration of alternative technologies for the effective treatment and reuse of textile effluents. PMID:26820358

  12. Combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) for potential treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Liang, Can-Zeng; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-03-15

    A novel combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) (FO-CF) has been experimentally conceived for the treatment and reuse of textile wastewater. FO is employed to spontaneously recover water from the wastewater via osmosis and thus effectively reduces its volume with a dramatically enhanced dye concentration. CF is then applied to precipitate and remove dyes from the FO concentrated stream with much improved efficiency and reduced chemical dosage. The FO-CF hybrid system exhibits unique advantages of high water flux and recovery rate, well controlled membrane fouling, high efficiency, and minimal environmental impact. Using a lab-made thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane, an initial water flux (Jw) of 36.0 L m(-2) h(-1) with a dye rejection of 99.9% has been demonstrated by using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and synthetic textile wastewater containing multiple textile dyes, inorganic salts and organic additives as the feed under the FO mode. The Jw could be maintained at a high value of 12.0 L m(-2) h(-1) even when the recovery rate of the wastewater reaches 90%. Remarkable reverse fouling behavior has also been observed where the Jw of the fouled membrane can be almost fully restored to the initial value by physical flushing without using any chemicals. Due to the great dye concentration in the FO concentrated wastewater stream, the CF process could achieve more than 95% dye removal with a small dosage of coagulants and flocculants at 500-1000 ppm. The newly developed FO-CF hybrid process may open up new exploration of alternative technologies for the effective treatment and reuse of textile effluents.

  13. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon.

  14. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon. PMID:16765044

  15. Oxidation of Levafix CA reactive azo-dyes in industrial wastewater of textile dyeing by electro-generated Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Zidan, Naglaa M

    2010-03-15

    The indirect electrochemical removal of pollutants from effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. Removal (decolorization and mineralization) of Levafix Blue CA and Levafix Red CA reactive azo-dyes from aqueous media by electro-generated Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) using a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and a platinum gauze anode was optimized. Progress of oxidation (decolorization and mineralization) of the investigated azo-dyes with time of electro-Fenton's reaction was monitored by UV-visible absorbance measurements, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the electro-Fenton's oxidation system is efficient for treatment of such types of reactive dyes. Oxidation of each of the investigated azo-dyes by electro-generated Fenton's reagent up to complete decolorization and approximately 90-95% mineralization was achieved. Moreover, the optimized electro-Fenton's oxidation was successfully applied for complete decolorization and approximately 85-90% mineralization of both azo-dyes in real industrial wastewater samples collected from textile dyeing house at El-Mahalla El-Kobra, Egypt.

  16. Enhanced sonocatalysis of textile wastewater using bentonite-supported ZnO nanoparticles: Response surface methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Jorfi, Sahand; Safari, Mahdi; Rajaei, Mohammad-Sadegh

    2016-09-01

    The scope of this study was the use of bentonite as the carrier of ZnO nanoparticles for enhancing the sonocatalytic decolorization of Basic Red 46 (BR46) in the aqueous phase. The results demonstrated the higher sonocatalytic activity of bentonite-supported ZnO nanoparticles (BSZNs) in comparison with the suspended ZnO nanoparticles (SZNs). The particle size of BSZNs (5-40 nm) was lower than that of SZNs (20-120 nm). Due to the immobilization of ZnO nanoparticles, a specific surface area of 80.6 m(2)/g was obtained for the BSZNs, which was higher than the specific surface area of the raw bentonite (42.2 m(2)/g). Optimization of the process via response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) showed the maximum sonocatalytic decolorization efficiency (%) of 89.92% in which the initial dye concentration, the ZnO/bentonite ratio, the sonocatalyst dosage, and the initial pH were 6 mg/L, 0.3, 2.5 g/L and 9, respectively. The byproducts generated during the sonocatalysis of BR46 over BSZNs were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. From an application viewpoint, the sonocatalysis of real textile wastewater resulted in a COD removal efficiency (%) of about 44% within a reaction time of 150 min.

  17. Enhanced sonocatalysis of textile wastewater using bentonite-supported ZnO nanoparticles: Response surface methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Jorfi, Sahand; Safari, Mahdi; Rajaei, Mohammad-Sadegh

    2016-09-01

    The scope of this study was the use of bentonite as the carrier of ZnO nanoparticles for enhancing the sonocatalytic decolorization of Basic Red 46 (BR46) in the aqueous phase. The results demonstrated the higher sonocatalytic activity of bentonite-supported ZnO nanoparticles (BSZNs) in comparison with the suspended ZnO nanoparticles (SZNs). The particle size of BSZNs (5-40 nm) was lower than that of SZNs (20-120 nm). Due to the immobilization of ZnO nanoparticles, a specific surface area of 80.6 m(2)/g was obtained for the BSZNs, which was higher than the specific surface area of the raw bentonite (42.2 m(2)/g). Optimization of the process via response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) showed the maximum sonocatalytic decolorization efficiency (%) of 89.92% in which the initial dye concentration, the ZnO/bentonite ratio, the sonocatalyst dosage, and the initial pH were 6 mg/L, 0.3, 2.5 g/L and 9, respectively. The byproducts generated during the sonocatalysis of BR46 over BSZNs were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. From an application viewpoint, the sonocatalysis of real textile wastewater resulted in a COD removal efficiency (%) of about 44% within a reaction time of 150 min. PMID:27173890

  18. Decolorization and COD reduction of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill using thermolysis and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2008-05-01

    The decolorization and reduction of COD of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill was conducted using catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) accompanied with/without coagulation. Thermolysis in presence of a homogeneous copper sulphate catalyst was found to be the most effective in comparison to other catalysts (FeCl(3), FeSO(4), CuO, ZnO and PAC) used. A maximum reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of dyeing wastewater of 66.85% and 71.4%, respectively, was observed with a catalyst concentration of 5 kg/m(3) at pH 8. Commercial alum was found most effective coagulant among various coagulants (aluminum potassium sulphate, PAC, FeCl(3) and FeSO(4)) tested during coagulation operations, resulting in 58.57% COD and 74% color reduction at pH 4 and coagulant dose of 5 kg/m(3). Coagulation of the clear fluid (supernatant) obtained after treatment by thermolysis at the conditions previously used resulted in an overall reduction of 89.91% COD and 94.4% color at pH 4 and a coagulant dose of 2 kg/m(3). The application of thermolysis followed by coagulation, thus, is the most effective treatment method in removing nearly 90% COD and 95% color at a lower dose of coagulant (2 kg/m(3)). The sludge thus produced would contain lower inorganic mass coagulant and, therefore, less amount of inorganic sludge.

  19. Conducting polypyrrole films as a potential tool for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in textile wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Smith, Warren T; Wong, Danny K Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate conducting polypyrrole films as a potential green technology for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in wastewaters using Acid Red 1 as a model analyte. These films were synthesised by anodically polymerising pyrrole in the presence of Acid Red 1 as a supporting electrolyte. In this way, the anionic Acid Red 1 is electrostatically attracted to the cationic polypyrrole backbone formed to maintain electroneutrality, and is thus entrapped in the film. These Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole films were characterised by electrochemical, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Based on a two-level factorial design, the solution pH, Acid Red 1 concentration and polymerisation duration were identified as significant parameters affecting the entrapment efficiency. The entrapment process will potentially aid in decolourising Acid Red 1-containing wastewaters. Similarly, in a cathodic process, electrons are supplied to neutralise the polypyrrole backbone, liberating Acid Red 1 into a solution. In this work, following an entrapment duration of 480 min in 2000 mg L(-1) Acid Red 1, we estimated 21% of the dye was liberated after a reduction period of 240 min. This allows the recovery of Acid Red 1 for recycling purposes. A distinctive advantage of this electrochemical Acid Red 1 treatment, compared to many other techniques, is that no known toxic by-products are generated in the treatment. Therefore, conducting polypyrrole films can potentially be applied as an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents.

  20. Decolorization and COD reduction of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill using thermolysis and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2008-05-01

    The decolorization and reduction of COD of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill was conducted using catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) accompanied with/without coagulation. Thermolysis in presence of a homogeneous copper sulphate catalyst was found to be the most effective in comparison to other catalysts (FeCl(3), FeSO(4), CuO, ZnO and PAC) used. A maximum reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of dyeing wastewater of 66.85% and 71.4%, respectively, was observed with a catalyst concentration of 5 kg/m(3) at pH 8. Commercial alum was found most effective coagulant among various coagulants (aluminum potassium sulphate, PAC, FeCl(3) and FeSO(4)) tested during coagulation operations, resulting in 58.57% COD and 74% color reduction at pH 4 and coagulant dose of 5 kg/m(3). Coagulation of the clear fluid (supernatant) obtained after treatment by thermolysis at the conditions previously used resulted in an overall reduction of 89.91% COD and 94.4% color at pH 4 and a coagulant dose of 2 kg/m(3). The application of thermolysis followed by coagulation, thus, is the most effective treatment method in removing nearly 90% COD and 95% color at a lower dose of coagulant (2 kg/m(3)). The sludge thus produced would contain lower inorganic mass coagulant and, therefore, less amount of inorganic sludge. PMID:17931773

  1. Integration of biotechnological wastewater treatment units in textile finishing factories: from end of the pipe solutions to combined production and wastewater treatment units.

    PubMed

    Feitkenhauer, H; Meyer, U

    2001-08-23

    Increasing costs for water, wastewater and energy put pressure on textile finishing plants to increase the efficiency of wet processing. An improved water management can decrease the use of these resources and is a prerequisite for the integration of an efficient, anaerobic on-site pretreatment of effluents that will further cut wastewater costs. A two-phase anaerobic treatment is proposed, and successful laboratory experiments with model effluents from the cotton finishing industry are reported. The chemical oxygen demand of this wastewater was reduced by over 88% at retention times of 1 day or longer. The next step to boost the efficiency is to combine the production and wastewater treatment. The example of cotton fabric desizing (removing size from the fabric) illustrates how this final step of integration uses the acidic phase bioreactor as a part of the production and allows to close the water cycle of the system.

  2. Textile wastewater treatment in a bench-scale anaerobic-biofilm anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor combined with nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Selene; Piscitelli, Daniela; Mattioli, Davide; Casu, Stefania; Spagni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatability of textile wastewaters in a bench-scale experimental system, comprising an anaerobic biofilter, an anoxic reactor and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The MBR effluent was thereafter treated by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. The proposed system was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the textile wastewater under the operating conditions applied in the study. The MBR system achieved a good COD (90-95%) removal; due to the presence of the anaerobic biofilter, also effective color removal was obtained (70%). The addition of the NF membrane allowed the further improvement in COD (50-80%), color (70-90%) and salt removal (60-70% as conductivity). In particular the NF treatment allowed the almost complete removal of the residual color and a reduction of the conductivity such as to achieve water quality suitable for reuse.

  3. Efficient secretory production of CotA-laccase and its application in the decolorization and detoxification of industrial textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-Bing; Shui, Yan; Song, Chen-Meng; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Yu-Jie; Liao, Xiang-Ru

    2015-06-01

    Fungal laccases are typically unstable at high pH and temperature conditions, which limit their application in the decolorization of textile wastewater. By contrast, the highly stable bacterial laccases can function within a wider pH range and at high temperatures, thus have significant potential in treatment for textile wastewater. In our previous work, a thermo-alkali-stable CotA-laccase gene was cloned from Bacillus pumilus W3 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In this study, the robust CotA-laccase achieved efficient secretory expression in Bacillus subtilis WB600 by screening a suitable signal peptide. A maximum CotA-laccase yield of 373.1 U/mL was obtained at optimum culture conditions in a 3-L fermentor. Furthermore, the decolorization and detoxification of textile industry effluent by the purified recombinant CotA-laccase in the presence and absence of redox mediators were investigated. Among the potential mediators that enhanced effluent decolorization, acetosyringone (ACS) was the most effective. The toxicity of the CotA-laccase-ACS-treated effluent was greatly reduced compared with that of the crude effluent. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the heterologous expression of CotA-laccase in B. subtilis. The recombinant strain B. subtilis WB600-5 has a great potential in the industrial production of this bacterial enzyme, and the CotA-laccase-ACS system is a promising candidate for the biological treatment of industrial textile effluents.

  4. A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic. PMID:17583772

  5. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Ahmad, Pauzi; Zulkafli, Hashim, Siti A'aisah

    2014-09-01

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD5, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  6. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  7. Color removal from cotton textile industry wastewater in an activated sludge system with various additives.

    PubMed

    Pala, Ayşegül; Tokat, Enis

    2002-06-01

    The low biodegradability of many dyes and textile chemicals indicates that biological treatment is not always successful in the treatment of cotton textile wastewater, in terms of color removal. In this study, a specific organic flocculant (Marwichem DEC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), bentonite, activated clay and commercial synthetic inorganic clay (Macrosorb) were directly added into the activated sludge laboratory pilot plant model. Before dosage, the optimum sludge retention time and hydraulic retention time were determined as 30 days and 1.6 days, respectively. The Monod kinetic constants were determined as Y = 0.76 kg MLSS/kg COD, Kd = 0.026 l/day, K(S) = 113.3 mg/L, k = 0.42 l/day and mu(max) = 0.32 kg MLSS/kg COD day. Under these conditions the average COD removal was 94% and color removal was 36%. The addition of these materials did not change COD removal significantly. The most effective materials were found to be DEC and PAC for color removal. While the color removal efficiency for 120 mg/L DEC addition was 78%, it was 65% for 100 mg/L, 77% for 200 mg/L and 86% for 400 mg/L PAC addition. The advantage of DEC compared to PAC was the lower sludge production. Statistical analyses using multiple linear regression indicate that there is no relationship between the effluent color with the influent color and total suspended solids (TSS) for DEC and PAC addition. On the other hand, when only bentonite, activated clay and Macrosorb were added, the effluent color was primarily dependent on the influent color and the TSS concentration had little effect. When the data is examined by using Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests and it was found that there was a significant difference between the color data groups.

  8. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    PubMed

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  9. Treatment of textile wastewater by submerged membrane bioreactor: In vitro bioassays for the assessment of stress response elicited by raw and reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Friha, Inès; Bradai, Mohamed; Johnson, Daniel; Hilal, Nidal; Loukil, Slim; Ben Amor, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Han, Junkuy; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-09-01

    The performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system for the treatment of textile wastewater was investigated. The MBR was continuously operated for 7 months. Very high treatment efficiencies were achieved (color, 100%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 98%; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 96%; suspended solids (SS), 100%). Furthermore, the MBR treatment efficiency was analyzed from a toxicological-risk assessment point of view, via different In vitro bioassays using Caco-2 cells, a widely used cell model in toxicological studies. Results showed that MBR treatment significantly reduced the raw textile wastewater (RTWW) cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells by 53% for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days. Additionally, the RTWW-induced disruption in the barrier function (BF) of the Caco-2 cell monolayer was also significantly reduced after MBR treatment under a HRT of 2 days (no disruption of BF was observed). Moreover, the effect of RTWW and treated wastewater on stress response was investigated using different stress genes: AHSA1, HSPD1, HSPA1A, HSPA5 and HSPA8. The cell exposure to RTWW significantly increased the expression of all used stress genes; interestingly, the treated wastewater (HRT 2 days) did not show any significant modulation of the stress genes.

  10. Treatment of textile wastewater by submerged membrane bioreactor: In vitro bioassays for the assessment of stress response elicited by raw and reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Friha, Inès; Bradai, Mohamed; Johnson, Daniel; Hilal, Nidal; Loukil, Slim; Ben Amor, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Han, Junkuy; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-09-01

    The performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system for the treatment of textile wastewater was investigated. The MBR was continuously operated for 7 months. Very high treatment efficiencies were achieved (color, 100%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 98%; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 96%; suspended solids (SS), 100%). Furthermore, the MBR treatment efficiency was analyzed from a toxicological-risk assessment point of view, via different In vitro bioassays using Caco-2 cells, a widely used cell model in toxicological studies. Results showed that MBR treatment significantly reduced the raw textile wastewater (RTWW) cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells by 53% for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days. Additionally, the RTWW-induced disruption in the barrier function (BF) of the Caco-2 cell monolayer was also significantly reduced after MBR treatment under a HRT of 2 days (no disruption of BF was observed). Moreover, the effect of RTWW and treated wastewater on stress response was investigated using different stress genes: AHSA1, HSPD1, HSPA1A, HSPA5 and HSPA8. The cell exposure to RTWW significantly increased the expression of all used stress genes; interestingly, the treated wastewater (HRT 2 days) did not show any significant modulation of the stress genes. PMID:26108634

  11. Organics and nitrogen removal from textile auxiliaries wastewater with A2O-MBR in a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Sun, Faqian; Sun, Bin; Hu, Jian; He, Yangyang; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-04-01

    The removal of organic compounds and nitrogen in an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor process (A(2)O-MBR) for treatment of textile auxiliaries (TA) wastewater was investigated. The results show that the average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN) were about 119, 3 and 48 mg/L under an internal recycle ratio of 1.5. The average removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN were 87%, 96% and 55%, respectively. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis indicated that, although as much as 121 different types of organic compounds were present in the TA wastewater, only 20 kinds of refractory organic compounds were found in the MBR effluent, which could be used as indicators of effluents from this kind of industrial wastewater. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that bacterial foulants were significant contributors to membrane fouling. An examination of foulants components by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence showed that the combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds enhanced the formation of gel layer and thus caused membrane fouling. The results will provide valuable information for optimizing the design and operation of wastewater treatment system in the textile industry.

  12. Treatment of composite wastewater of a cotton textile mill by thermolysis and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2008-03-01

    Catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) accompanied with coagulation was used for the removal of COD and color of composite wastewater from a cotton textile mill. CuSO4, FeSO4, FeCl3, CuO, ZnO and PAC were used as catalytic agents during thermolysis. Homogeneous copper sulphate at a mass loading of 6 kg/m3 was found to be the most active. Similarly during coagulation aluminum potassium sulphate [KAl(SO4)(2).16H2O] at a coagulant concentration of 5 kg/m3 was found to be the best among the other coagulants tested, namely, commercial alum, FeSO4, FeCl3 and PAC. During thermolysis, a reduction in COD and color of composite wastewater of about 77.9 and 92.85%, respectively, was observed at pH 12. Coagulation of fresh composite waste using aluminum potassium sulphate resulted in 88.62% COD reduction and 95.4% color reduction at pH 8. Coagulation of the supernatant obtained after treatment by catalytic thermolysis resulted in overall reduction of 97.3% COD and close to 100% color reductions at pH 8 at a lesser coagulant concentration of 3 kg/m3. The results reveal that the application of coagulation after thermolysis is most effective in removing nearly 100% of COD and color at a lower dose of coagulant. The sludge thus produced would contain lower inorganic mass coagulant and can be used as a solid fuel with high calorific value of about 16 MJ/kg, close to that of Indian coal.

  13. Removal of disperse dyes from textile wastewater using bio-sludge.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Srisornsak, Parawee

    2007-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) did not show any significant adsorption ability on the disperse dyes, while resting (living) bio-sludge of a domestic wastewater treatment plant showed high adsorption abilities on both disperse dyes and organic matter. The dye adsorption ability of bio-sludge increased by approximately 30% through acclimatization with disperse dyes, and it decreased by autoclaving. The deteriorated bio-sludge could be reused after being washed with 0.1N NaOH solution. Disperse Red 60 was more easily adsorbed onto the bio-sludge than Disperse Blue 60. The Disperse Red 60, COD, and BOD5 adsorption capacities of acclimatized, resting bio-sludge were 40.0+/-0.1, 450+/-12, and 300+/-10mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. The GAC-SBR system could be applied to treat textile wastewater (TWW) containing disperse dyes with high dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of 93.0+/-1.1%, 88.0+/-3.1%, 92.2+/-2.7% and 51.5+/-7.0%, respectively without any excess bio-sludge production under an organic loading of 0.18 kg BOD5/m3-d. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies increased with the addition of glucose into the system. The dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of the GAC-SBR system with TWW containing 0.89 g/L glucose were 94.6+/-0.7%, 94.4+/-0.6%, 94.4+/-0.8% and 59.3+/-8.5%, respectively, under an SRT of 67+/-0.4 days.

  14. The treatment and reuse of wastewater in the textile industry by means of ozonation and electroflocculation.

    PubMed

    Ciardelli, G; Ranieri, N

    2001-02-01

    Two different oxidation treatments, ozonation and electroflocculation, were experimented on a pilot scale to test their efficiency in removing polluting substances from wastewaters of textile industries. Both pilot plants used reproduced very closely a full-scale treatment in order to obtain indications about the feasibility of a transfer on industrial scale. By means of ozone treatment very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and treated waters were reused satisfactorily in dyeing even with light colours. This evidence despite the fact that the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, especially for dyeing light colours. Treating plants working at the above-mentioned conditions should guarantee low operating costs. A biological pre-treatment and a sand filtration are absolutely essential. The transfer on industrial scale of the treatment is currently under development under an already financed European project. Electrochemical treatment showed to be very efficient in removing colour (80-100%) and chemical oxygen demand (70-90%). Moreover, a sensible decrease of chloride and sulphate ions was detected. Removal of flocculated material (post-treatment) must be, however, perfected in order to establish a correct costs-to-benefits ratio and therefore, propose an implementation of the technique on an industrial scale.

  15. Integrating photobiological hydrogen production with dye-metal bioremoval from simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Anubha; Mona, Sharma; Kaushik, C P

    2011-11-01

    The study reports production of hydrogen in photobioreactors with free (PBR(Fr)) and immobilized (PBR(Imm)) Nostoc biomass at enhanced and sustained rates. Before running the photobioreactors, effects of different immobilization matrices and cyanobacterial dose on hydrogen production were studied in batch mode. As hydrogen production in the PBRs declined spent biomass from the photobioreactors were collected and utilized further for column biosorption of highly toxic dyes (Reactive Red 198+Crystal Violet) and metals (hexavalent chromium and bivalent cobalt) from simulated textile wastewater. Breakthrough time, adsorption capacity and exhaustion time of the biosorption column were studied. The photobioreactors with free and immobilized cyanobacterium produced hydrogen at average rates of 101 and 151 μmol/h/mg Chl a, respectively over 15 days, while the adsorption capacity of the spent biomass was up to 1.4 and 0.23 mg/g for metals and 15 and 1.75 mg/g for the dyes, respectively in continuous column mode.

  16. Integration of nanofiltration and biological degradation of textile wastewater containing azo dye.

    PubMed

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Ledakowicz, Stanisław; Sójka-Ledakowicz, Jadwiga; Mrozińska, Zdzisława; Zyłła, Renata

    2009-04-01

    The anaerobic biological azo dyes reduction process was successfully applied to decolourization of the concentrates from the nanofiltration treatment of real textile effluents. The anaerobic phase was followed by aerobic oxidation aimed at the destruction of the aromatic amine released from azo dye. In the first experiment sequential batch reactor (SBR) combining both the anaerobic and aerobic phase in one unit was used. In the second one the anaerobic stage was separated from the aerobic one. The anaerobic phase fulfilled its aim (decolourization) in both systems (over 90%). In opposite, the aromatic amine was completely degraded in the aerobic reactor (two-sludge system), whereas the orthanilic acid was not degraded (during the aerobic phase) in SBR reactor. The COD reduction was also higher in the two-sludge system than in SBR.

  17. Toxicities effects of pharmaceutical, olive mill and textile wastewaters before and after degradation by Pseudomonas putida mt-2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Removal of numerous classes of chemical pollutants from the industrial wastewater such as textile, pharmaceutical and olive mill using conventional wastewater treatment, is incomplete and several studies suggested that improvement of this situation would require the application of biological treatment techniques. Dyes, polyphenols and drugs are an environmental pollutants extremely toxics to plants and other living organisms including humans. These effluents were previously treated by Pseudomonas putida. The main of this work was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of the three wastewaters. Methods Writhes and convulsant effect of effluents were carried out and were compared to the treated effluents. Only pharmaceutical wastewater was exhibited a convulsant effect which observed in mice treated by effluent. On the other hand, all industrial wastewater induced significantly an algogenic effects particularly when mice were treated by the pharmaceutical wastewater (Number of writhes = 44). Conclusion Toxicity was totally removed when mice were treated by the bio remediated effluent. This indicates that P. putida was able to completely detoxify the toxic industrial effluent. PMID:22314194

  18. Decolorization does not always mean detoxification: case study of a newly isolated Pseudomonas peli for decolorization of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dellai, Afef; Dridi, Dorra; Lemorvan, Valerie; Robert, Jacques; Cherif, Ameur; Mosrati, Ridha; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2013-08-01

    The textile industry is a favor to the Tunisian economy by offering several job positions. However, it's not environmentally friendly. In fact, textile industries discharge high volumes of wastewater which contain several toxic pollutants such as dyes, fixator, and whiteness. In our study, Pseudomonas peli, isolated and characterized from Oued Hamdoun (center of Tunisia), was found able to decolorize textile effluent about 81 % after 24 h shaking incubation. On the other hand, the in vitro antiproliferative effects of the untreated and treated effluent was evaluated by their potential cytotoxic activity using the MTT colorimetric method against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cell carcinoma; HT29, colon adenocarcinoma; and MCF7, breast adenocarcinoma). Results showed that intact textile effluent and its content azo dyes didn't inhibit the proliferation of all tested cell lines. However, the cytotoxic effect was remarkable when we tested effluent obtained after treatment by P. peli in a dose-dependent manner. This activity was attributed to the presence, in our treated effluent, of some azo products of dyes which are responsible for inhibition of human cell lines proliferation. Thus, the use of this strain for testing on the industrial scale seems impossible and disadvantageous.

  19. Treatment of reactive azo dye from textile wastewater by burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) in constructed wetland: Effect of molecular size.

    PubMed

    Noonpui, Sirikan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2011-01-01

    The potential of burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) for the treatment of textile wastewater has been investigated. Reactive red 2; RR2 [MW=615], reactive red 120; RR120 [MW=1469] and reactive red 141; RR141 [MW=1775] were studied in order to determine the effect of molecular size on the efficiency of dye removal by plants in batch systems of constructed wetlands under soil and soil-free conditions. Dye concentrations, total dissolve solids (TDS), conductivity and pH in the effluents, and the relative growth rates (RGR) of plants were measured. The highest efficiency of dye removal during 7 days under soil-free conditions was RR2 (33.09 μmol(RR2)kg(-1)(FW)), followed by RR120 (13.35 μmol(RR120)kg(-1)(FW)) and RR141 (10.57 μmol(RR141)kg(-1)(FW)), respectively. This suggests that the structure and size of dye molecule strongly affects the efficiency of dye removal by plant. The results from a synthetic wetland experiment found that dye removal was 96 % at 4 days and 6 days under soil and soil-free conditions, respectively. Furthermore, plants were able to decrease TDS (42 %), conductivity (50 %) and pH (from 9.5 to 7.4) within 2 days in the synthetic reactive red(141) dye wastewater (SRRW141) under soil-free conditions, thus demonstrating the potential of burhead for textile wastewater treatment.

  20. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3,000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO(3)(-) was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD(5) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7+/-4.9% and 50.2+/-6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD(5)). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW+glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW+TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28+/-1 days and 31+/-2 days with TWW+glucose and TWW+TRNWW, respectively.

  1. Advanced treatment of biotreated textile industry wastewater with ozone, virgin/ozonated granular activated carbon and their combination.

    PubMed

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Seremet, Ozden

    2004-01-01

    Biotreated textile wastewater (CODo = 248 mg L(-1); TOCo = 58 mg L(-1); A620 = 0.007 cm(-1); A525 = 0.181 cm(-1); A436 = 0.198 cm(-1)) was subjected to advanced treatment with ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in serial and simultaneous applications. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied ozone dose, ozone absorption rate, specific ozone absorption efficiency, GAC dose, and reaction pH on the treatment performance of the selected tertiary treatment scheme. In separate experiments, the impact of virgin GAC ozonation on its adsorptive capacity for biotreated and biotreated + ozonated textile effluent was also investigated. Ozonation appeared to be more effective for decolorization (kd = 0.15 min(-1) at pH = 3), whereas GAC adsorption yielded higher COD removal rates (54% at pH = 3). It was also found that GAC addition (4 g/L) at pH = 7 and 9 enhanced the COD abatement rate of the ozonation process significantly and that the sequential application of ozonation (at pH = 3-11, 675 mg L(-1) O3) followed by GAC adsorption (at pH = 3-7, 10 g L(-1) GAC) resulted in the highest treatment performances both in terms of color and COD reduction. Simultaneous application of GAC and ozone at acidic and alkaline pH seriously inhibited COD abatement rates as a consequence of competitive adsorption and partial oxidation of textile components and GAC. It could also be established that ozone absorption efficiency decreased after color removal was complete. Ozonation of biotreated textile wastewater with 113 mg L(-1) ozone resulted in an appreciable enhancement of GAC adsorptive capacity in terms of residual color removal. Ozonation of GAC at relatively low doses (= 10.8 mg/g GAC) did not improve its overall adsorption capacity.

  2. Membrane photoreactor treatment of 1,4-dioxane-containing textile wastewater effluent: Performance, modeling, and fouling control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Chang; Beak, Ha-Ju; Choo, Kwang-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A membrane photoreactor (MPR) system was investigated for the purification of textile wastewater effluent containing 1,4-dioxane for potential reuse. The effects of TiO2 dosage, alkalinity, particulate matter, and sunlight radiation on the removal of 1,4-dioxane from the effluent were evaluated. The photocatalytic 1,4-dioxane degradation followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. A considerably large dose of TiO2 catalyst (5 g/L) was required for maximal 1,4-dioxane degradation by MPR. The high alkalinity (∼ 550 mg/L) of the textile wastewater effluent negatively affected the 1,4-dioxane degradation rate, whereas 1,4-dioxane degradation was not impacted by the presence of particulate matter. Solar photocatalysis of 1,4-dioxane was as effective as that achieved with UV lamps in the MPR, which could lead to energy savings. Continuous flow MPR was effective for continuous degradation of 1,4-dioxane; the unsteady- and steady-state performances were well-predicted at various hydraulic residence times (HRTs). The quality of the MPR product obtained at an HRT of 8.57 h satisfied the drinking water guidelines. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) buildup, which is indicative of fouling, was dependent on the TiO2 dose and permeate flux. The TMP buildup was marginal at low flux, but increased dramatically beyond a flux level of >60 L/m(2)-h. However, the fouling layer could be sufficiently removed by periodic backwashing, even at an extremely high flux of 100 L/m(2)-h. The membrane permeability was sustained without any sign of irreversible fouling during MPR treatment of textile wastewater effluents.

  3. Use of ozone in a pilot-scale plant for textile wastewater pre-treatment: physico-chemical efficiency, degradation by-products identification and environmental toxicity of treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Somensi, Cleder A; Simionatto, Edésio L; Bertoli, Sávio L; Wisniewski, Alberto; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2010-03-15

    In this study, ozonation of raw textile wastewater was conducted in a pilot-scale plant and the efficiency of this treatment was evaluated based on the parameters color removal and soluble organic matter measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), at two pH values (9.1 and 3.0). Identification of intermediate and final degradation products of ozone pre-treatment, as well as the evaluation of the final ecotoxicity (Lumistox test) of pre-treated wastewater, was also carried out. After 4h of ozone treatment with wastewater recirculation (flow rate of 0.45 m(3)h(-1)) the average efficiencies for color removal were 67.5% (pH 9.1) and 40.6% (pH 3.0), while COD reduction was 25.5% (pH 9.1) and 18.7% (pH 3.0) for an ozone production capacity of 20 g h(-1). Furthermore, ozonation enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater (BOD(5)/COD ratios) by a factor of up to 6.8-fold. A GC-MS analysis of pre-treated textile wastewater showed that some products were present at the end of the pre-treatment time. In spite of this fact, the bacterial luminescence inhibition test (Lumistox test) showed a significant toxicity reduction on comparing the raw and treated textile wastewater. In conclusion, pre-ozonation of textile wastewater is an important step in terms of improving wastewater biodegradability, as well as reducing acute ecotoxicity, which should be removed completely through sequential biological treatment.

  4. Techno-economical evaluation of electrocoagulation for the textile wastewater using different electrode connections.

    PubMed

    Kobya, Mehmet; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Eyvaz, Murat

    2007-09-01

    The bench scale of an electrocoagulation (EC) unit requires a detailed study discerning the effects of continuous variables such as pH, current density and operating time, and type variables such as electrode material and connection mode. This paper presents the results of the treatment of a textile wastewater by EC process. Two electrode materials, aluminum and iron, were connected in three modes namely, monopolar-parallel (MP-P), monopolar-serial (MP-S), and bipolar-serial (BP-S). COD and turbidity removals were selected as performance criteria. For a high COD removal, acidic medium is preferable for both electrode materials. For a high turbidity removal, acidic medium is preferable for aluminum, and neutral medium for iron. High current density is favorable for both removals in the case of iron. In the aluminum case, the current density exhibits a pronounced effect on COD removal, depending strongly on the connection mode, but it has a negligible effect on the turbidity removal. MP-P with iron or MP-S with aluminum electrode are suitable configurations in regard with the overall process performance. Moreover, process economy is as important as removal efficiencies during the process evaluation task. Various direct and indirect cost items including electrical, sacrificial electrodes, labor, sludge handling, maintenance and depreciation costs have been considered in the calculation of the total cost. The results show that MP-P mode is the most cost-effective for both electrode types. Both electrodes show similar results in reducing COD and turbidity, but iron is preferred as a low cost material. Finally, a comparative study showed that EC was faster and more economic; consumed less material and produced less sludge, and pH of the medium was more stabilized than chemical coagulation (CC) for similar COD and turbidity removal levels. For CC, FeCl(3) was the preferable salt in view of its techno-economic performance. On the other hand, iron was the preferred

  5. Techno-economical evaluation of electrocoagulation for the textile wastewater using different electrode connections.

    PubMed

    Kobya, Mehmet; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Eyvaz, Murat

    2007-09-01

    The bench scale of an electrocoagulation (EC) unit requires a detailed study discerning the effects of continuous variables such as pH, current density and operating time, and type variables such as electrode material and connection mode. This paper presents the results of the treatment of a textile wastewater by EC process. Two electrode materials, aluminum and iron, were connected in three modes namely, monopolar-parallel (MP-P), monopolar-serial (MP-S), and bipolar-serial (BP-S). COD and turbidity removals were selected as performance criteria. For a high COD removal, acidic medium is preferable for both electrode materials. For a high turbidity removal, acidic medium is preferable for aluminum, and neutral medium for iron. High current density is favorable for both removals in the case of iron. In the aluminum case, the current density exhibits a pronounced effect on COD removal, depending strongly on the connection mode, but it has a negligible effect on the turbidity removal. MP-P with iron or MP-S with aluminum electrode are suitable configurations in regard with the overall process performance. Moreover, process economy is as important as removal efficiencies during the process evaluation task. Various direct and indirect cost items including electrical, sacrificial electrodes, labor, sludge handling, maintenance and depreciation costs have been considered in the calculation of the total cost. The results show that MP-P mode is the most cost-effective for both electrode types. Both electrodes show similar results in reducing COD and turbidity, but iron is preferred as a low cost material. Finally, a comparative study showed that EC was faster and more economic; consumed less material and produced less sludge, and pH of the medium was more stabilized than chemical coagulation (CC) for similar COD and turbidity removal levels. For CC, FeCl(3) was the preferable salt in view of its techno-economic performance. On the other hand, iron was the preferred

  6. Simultaneous laccase production and color removal by culturing fungus Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 in a textile wastewater effluent supplemented with a lignocellulosic waste Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiayang; Cai, Yujie; Liao, Xiangru; Huang, Qingguo; Hao, Zhikui; Hu, Mingming; Zhang, Dabing

    2012-08-01

    We conducted experiments to culture Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 in a medium comprising an industrial waste (dye-containing textile effluent) and a lignocellulosic waste (Phragmites australis) that achieved laccase production while having the color removed from the wastewater. Our experimental results showed that the fungus grew well in liquid submerged cultivation with the diluted textile effluent as the sole culture medium, but relatively low extracellular laccase activity (1.8 U/mL) was produced. Addition of the lignocellulosic biomass enhanced laccase production and color removal. The highest laccase activity was found to be 6.5 U/mL in the presence of Phragmites australis stem. Under this condition, 70 % color removal occurred in the culture medium. This study provided an alternative novel scheme to remove color in textile wastewater while having an economic value added by producing laccase.

  7. [Comprehensive Toxicity Evaluation and Toxicity Identification Used in Tannery and Textile Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Chen, Wen-yan; Wan, Yu-shan; Zheng, Guo-juan; Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    To better evaluate the toxicity of tannery and textile effluents from various emission stages, the research attempted battery of toxicological bioassays and toxicological indices. The bioassays employed Microtox test, zebra fish embryo-larval test and algae (Chlorella vulgaris) test. Meanwhile, toxicological indices including Toxicity Unit (TU), Average Toxicity (AvTx), Toxic Print (TxPr), Most Sensitive Test (MST) and Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) were applied. The results illustrated that PEEP was the most comprehensive index to take account of the emissions and toxic potential of effluents. PEEP values showed that the reduction rates of toxicity in tannery and textile effluents were 36. 8% and 23. 2%, respectively. Finally, based on the Microtox toxicity test, toxicants in textile effluent were identified through the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. The results indicated that the main toxicant of textile effluent was non-polar organic pollutants, followed by filterable compounds, heavy metals, oxidizing substances and volatile components.

  8. Ipomoea hederifolia rooted soil bed and Ipomoea aquatica rhizofiltration coupled phytoreactors for efficient treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rane, Niraj R; Patil, Swapnil M; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Kadam, Suhas K; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-06-01

    Ipomoea aquatica, a macrophyte was found to degrade a highly sulfonated and diazo textile dye Brown 5R up to 94% within 72 h at a concentration of 200 mg L(-1). Induction in the activities of enzymes such as azoreductase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, DCIP reductase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed in leaf and root tissue in response to Brown 5R exposure. There was significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll a (25%), chlorophyll b (17%) and carotenoids (30%) in the leaves of plants. HPLC, FTIR, UV-vis spectrophotometric and HPTLC analyses confirmed the biotransformation and removal of parent dye from solution. Enzymes activities and GC-MS analysis of degradation products lead to the proposal of a possible pathway of phytotransformation of dye. The proposed pathway of dye metabolism revealed the formation of Napthalene-1,2-diamine and methylbenzene. Toxicity study on HepG2 cell lines showed a 3 fold decrease in toxicity of Brown 5R after phytoremediation by I. aquatica. Hydrophytic nature of I. aquatica leads to its exploration in a combinatorial phytoreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia soil bed system. Rhizofiltration with I. aquatica and soil bed treatment by I. hederifolia treated 510 L of effluent effectively within 72 h. I. aquatica along with I. hederifolia could decolorize textile industry effluent within 72 h of treatment as evident from the significant reductions in the values of COD, BOD, solids and ADMI. Further on field trials of treatment of textile wastewater was successfully carried out in a constructed lagoon. PMID:27016633

  9. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  10. [Analysis and research on the degradation and migration of organic pollutants in textile wastewater treatment process by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-jing; Zhang, Long; Wu, Wei; Tu, Yong

    2010-04-01

    In order to analyze the advantages/disadvantages of the combined treatment process between "physicochemical + biochemical" and "biochemical + physicochemical" in treatment of textile wastewater, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the degradation process of organic pollutants in this two totally different treatment processes. The same analysis was also conducted to the sludge and discharged water. The results showed that the "physicochemical + biochemical" process displayed a poorer effect than "biochemical + physicochemical" in degrading the organic pollutants. The latter was 6.2% higher than the former in removing the organic pollutants averagely. The difference was mainly manifested in the efficiency of anaerobic hydrolysis in the two coupled processes. Moreover, the implement of "physicochemical + biochemical" process resulted in the migration of plenty of typical organic pollutants to sludge from primary coagulation sedimentation process and to the discharged water, which would cause secondary pollution easily.

  11. Biosorption of reactive dye from textile wastewater by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mahmoud A

    2008-09-01

    The potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a biosorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi component textile wastewater. The results showed that pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomasses with autoclaving increased the removal of dye than pre-treatment with gamma-irradiation. The effects of operational parameters (pH, temperature, biomass concentration and time) on dye removal were examined. The results obtained revealed that dried autoclaved biomass of A. niger and Spirogyra sp. exhibited maximum dye removal (88% and 85%, respectively) at pH3, temperature 30 degrees C and 8 gl(-1)(w/v) biomass conc. after 18h contact time. The stability and efficiency of both organisms in the long-term repetitive operation were also investigated. The results showed that the non-viable biomasses possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches.

  12. Effect of natural mediators on the stability of Trametes trogii laccase during the decolourization of textile wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Khlifi-Slama, Rim; Mechichi, Tahar; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of natural mediators on the stability of the Trametes trogii crude laccase in the process of decolourization of textile effluents. Acetosyringone allowed the highest wastewaters decolourization rate of 25%. At higher concentrations of acetosyringone, the relative activity of laccase decreased approximately by between 38% and 88% after 5 days of incubation. T. trogii laccase was strongly inactivated at 3 mM syringaldehyde, after 3 days of incubation. However, laccase activity is more stable in the presence of the vanillin and m-coumarate. The T. trogii growth on solid effluent-based-medium was examined and evaluated by measuring the colony diameter in cm. T. trogii was completely inhibited on 100:0 and 80:20 effluent:water solid medium, however, colony diameter reached 5 cm on 60:40 effluent:water solid medium after 13-14 days incubation. When the textile effluent was pre-treated with laccase and laccase-acetosyringone system, the colony diameter of 2 cm of T. trogii on 80:20 effluent:water solid medium was reached after 14 and 10 days of incubation respectively.

  13. Quinolines in clothing textiles--a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Ostman, Conny

    2014-05-01

    A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body. PMID:24604325

  14. Quinolines in clothing textiles--a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Ostman, Conny

    2014-05-01

    A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body.

  15. COD and Color Removal from Real Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation.

    PubMed

    Yang, De-min; Yuan, Jian-mei

    2016-05-01

    Ozonation of real dye wastewater for removal of color and COD reduction covering a wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92.5% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions (pH=11; ozone flow rate: 6×10(-3) m(3)/minute). Further the biodegradability index of the dye effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment. PMID:27131304

  16. Decolorization of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Textile Wastewater by the UV/H2O2 Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Abbas; Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad; Jamalodin Hashemian, Sayed; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Khavanin, Ali; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    Photo-oxidation of dyes is a new concern among researchers since it offers an attractive method for decoloration of dyes and breaks them into simple mineral forms. An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, pH, initial dye concentration and UV dosage, on decolorization have been evaluated. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 2.5 mmol L-1 and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (55 w) in less than 30 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process was an effective technology for RB19 dye treatment in wastewater.

  17. Rapid decolorization and mineralization of simulated textile wastewater in a heterogeneous Fenton like system with/without external energy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lu, Xiaohua; Wang, Jia; Wong, Fook-Sin; Li, Yaozhong

    2009-06-15

    A novel Fenton like system, employing Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) and air bubbling, was developed to treat a simulated textile wastewater containing azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). By dioxygen activation, H(2)O(2) was self-produced continuously in the system through a series of iron-EDTA ligands reactions. After 3h reaction, the removal rates of RB5, EDTA, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were 100%, 96.5%, 68.6% and 92.2%, respectively. The effects of pH, atmosphere as well as the initial concentration of RB5, EDTA and ZVI were also investigated. Two types of external energy-Ultrasound (US) and Ultraviolet (UV) were introduced into the Fenton like system, respectively. The effect of these external energies on the degradation of the wastewater was assessed. It was demonstrated that US presented significant synergistic effect on the degradation and mineralization of both RB5 and EDTA, while UV could not achieve any improvement.

  18. Influence of co-substrate on textile wastewater treatment and microbial community changes in the anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A; Lee, Dae Sung

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich synthetic textile wastewater in three sulfidogenic sequential batch reactors (SBRs). The experimental protocol was designed to examine the effect of three different co-substrates (lactate, glucose, and ethanol) and their concentrations on wastewater treatment performance. Sulfate reduction and dye degradation were improved when lactate and ethanol were used as electron donors, as compared with glucose. Moreover, under co-substrate limited concentrations, color, sulfate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were declined. By reducing co-substrate COD gradually from 3000 to 500 mg/L, color removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.23% to 78.46%, 63.37%, and 69.10%, whereas, sulfate removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.42%, 82.35%, and 87.0%, to 30.27%, 21.50%, and 10.13%, for lactate, glucose, and ethanol fed reactors, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and total aromatic amine analysis revealed lactate to be a potential co-substrate for further biodegradation of intermediate metabolites formed after dye degradation. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that microbial community structure was significantly affected by the co-substrate. The reactor with lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs), followed by ethanol, whereas the glucose-fed reactor showed the lowest relative abundance of SRB. PMID:26241771

  19. A real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for wearable textile sensors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mu-Huo; Chen, Li-Chung; Hung, Ying-Che; Yang, Chang Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for ECG data measured via wearable textile sensors. The ECG signals measured from wearable dry electrodes are notorious for its susceptibility to interference from the respiration or the motion of wearing person such that the signal quality may degrade dramatically. To overcome these obstacles, in the proposed heart-rate estimator we first employ the subspace approach to remove the wandering baseline, then use a simple nonlinear absolute operation to reduce the high-frequency noise contamination, and finally apply the maximum likelihood estimation technique for estimating the interval of R-R peaks. A parameter derived from the byproduct of maximum likelihood estimation is also proposed as an indicator for signal quality. To achieve the goal of real-time, we develop a simple adaptive algorithm from the numerical power method to realize the subspace filter and apply the fast-Fourier transform (FFT) technique for realization of the correlation technique such that the whole estimator can be implemented in an FPGA system. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system. PMID:19162641

  20. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield.

  1. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield. PMID:27003085

  2. Electron beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater: operation of pilot plant and industrial plant construction.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Kim, J; Kim, Y; Choi, J S; Makarov, I E; Ponomarev, A V

    2005-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with an electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborating the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability for instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in the flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day each, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  3. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    PubMed

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites. PMID:27115482

  4. Vanadium(V) removal from aqueous solution and real wastewater using quaternized pine sawdust.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, T; Keränen, A; Vainionpää, N; Al Amir, J; Hormi, O; Tanskanen, J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked and quaternized pine sawdust was tested for vanadium removal from a synthetic aqueous solution as well as from real industrial wastewater which had a considerable amount of vanadium and other ions such as sulphate, ammonium and nickel. The maximum vanadium sorption capacity of the modified pine sawdust was found to be 130 mg/g in synthetic solution and 103 mg/g in real wastewater. Modified pine sawdust worked well over a wide range of pH. Column studies with real wastewater proved that vanadium was efficiently desorbed from the material with 2 M NaOH and that the material could be reused.

  5. Biodegradation of Basic Violet 3 by Candida krusei isolated from textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Deivasigamani, Charumathi; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-11-01

    Basic Violet 3 (BV) belongs to the most important group of synthetic colorants and is used extensively in textile industries. It is considered as xenobiotic compound which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. As Candida krusei could not use BV as sole carbon source, experiments were conducted to study the effect of cosubstrates on decolorization of BV in semi synthetic medium using glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, yeast extract, peptone, urea and ammonium sulphate. Maximum decolorization (74%) was observed in media supplemented with sucrose. Use of sugarcane bagasse extract as sole nutrient source showed 100% decolorization of BV within 24 h under optimized condition. UV-visible, FTIR spectral analysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of BV. Six degradation products were isolated and identified. We propose the biodegradation pathway for BV which occurs via stepwise reduction and demethylation process to yield mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-demethylated BV species which was degraded completely. The study of the enzymes responsible for decolorization showed the activities of lignin peroxidase, lacasse, tyrosinase, NADH-DCIP reductase, MG reductase and azoreductase in cells before and after decolorization. A significant increase in activities of NADH-DCIP reductase and laccase was observed in the cells after decolorization. The yeast C. krusei could show the ability to decolorize the textile dye BV using inexpensive source like sugarcane bagasse extract for decolorization.

  6. Characterisation and application of a novel positively charged nanofiltration membrane for the treatment of textile industry wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuying; Oatley, Darren L; Williams, Paul M; Wright, Chris J

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the high potential for the application of a novel self assembled positively charged nanofiltration membrane, PA6DT-C, in processes such as the recovery of valuable cationic macromolecules in the bioprocess and pharmaceutical industries or removal of multi-valent cations such as dyes and heavy metals in the paper and pulp, textiles, nuclear, and automotive industries. The nanofiltration membrane, prepared in this laboratory, is further characterised and then tested for the removal and recovery of Methylene Blue from a synthetic dye house wastewater. The characterisation process involved the construction of a rejection profile for NaCl over a wide range of pH and concentration, which illustrates that the optimal process conditions for the removal of small cations using this membrane is in the region pH <8.0 and concentration less than 15 mol m(-3). The salt rejection data was used to calculate the magnitude of the effective membrane charge density and this was found to be significantly higher for the PA6DT-C membrane than two commercially available membranes (Desal-DK and Nanomax-50). The membrane flux for this new membrane is also superior to the commercial membranes with an approximate increase of 3-4 fold. The PA6DT-C membrane was successful in removal of Methylene Blue dye from synthetic dye house wastewaters achieving 98% rejection and a membrane flux of ≈ 17 LMH bar(-1). Thus, this new membrane both adds to and complements the existing short supply of positively charged NF membranes.

  7. Enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction with ferric-organic ligands for the treatment of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Soares, Petrick A; Batalha, Mauro; Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-04-01

    Literature describes a kinetic mineralization profile for most of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewaters using a photo-Fenton reaction characterized by a slow degradation process and high reactants consumption. This work tries to elucidate that the slow decay on DOC concentration is associated with the formation of stable complexes between Fe(3+) and textile auxiliary products, limiting the photoreduction of Fe(3+). This work also evaluates the enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction through the use of different ferric-organic ligands applied to the treatment of a simulated acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater, as a pre-oxidation step to enhance its biodegradability. The photo-Fenton reaction was negatively affected by two dyeing auxiliary products: i) Sera(®) Tard A-AS, a surfactant mainly composed of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and ii) Sera(®) Sperse M-IW, a dispersing agent composed of polyglycol solvents. The catalytic activity of the organic ligands toward the ferrous-catalysed system followed this order: Fe(III)-Oxalate > Fe(III)-Citrate > Fe(III)-EDDS, and all were better than the traditional photo-Fenton reaction. Different design parameters such as iron concentration, pH, temperature, flow conditions, UV irradiance and H2O2 addition strategy and dose were evaluated. The ferrioxalate induced photo-Fenton process presented the best results, achieving 87% mineralization after 9.3 kJUV L(-1) and allowing to work until near neutral pH values. As expected, the biodegradability of the textile wastewater was significantly enhanced during the photo-Fenton treatment, achieving a value of 73%, consuming 32.4 mM of H2O2 and 5.7 kJUV L(-1).

  8. A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the pollutant removal efficiencies of two lab-scale hybrid wetland systems treating a textile wastewater. The two systems had identical configurations, each consisting of a vertical flow (VF) and a horizontal flow (HF) wetland that were filled with organic sugarcane bagasse and sylhet sand as the main media. The systems were operated under high hydraulic loading (HL) (566-5660 mm/d), and inorganic nitrogen (254-508 gN/m(2) d) and organics loadings (9840-19680 g COD/m(2) d and 2154-4307 g BOD(5)/m(2) d). Simultaneous removals of BOD(5) (74-79%) and ammonia (59-66%) were obtained in the first stage VF wetlands, demonstrating the efficiency of the media for oxygen transfer to cope with the high pollutant loads. The organic carbon (C) content of sugarcane bagasse facilitated denitrification in the VF wetlands. Second stage HF wetlands provided efficient color removal under predominantly anaerobic condition. Overall, the wetland systems showed stable removal performances under high, and unsteady, pollutant loadings. PMID:23201526

  9. A promising inert support for laccase production and decolouration of textile wastewater by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescesns.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2012-09-30

    Cubes of nylon sponge, cubes of polyurethane foam (PUF), cuttings of stainless steel sponges and the commercial carriers Kaldnes™ K1 were tested as inert supports for laccase production by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions. The cultures operating with Kaldnes™ K1 led to the highest laccase activity (3667 U/l). In addition this support could be re-utilised, making the whole process more economical. Subsequently, the decolouration of simulated textile wastewater (STW) by T. pubescens grown on the different tested supports under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions was studied. Decolouration percentages around 66-80% were obtained in 96 h. It was found that STW decolouration was due to two mechanisms: laccase action (biodegradation) and adsorption onto fungal mycelium, save for the PUF cultures in which decolouration was mainly due to adsorption onto the support. Further, the decolouration of STW by Kaldnes™ K1 cultures in three successive batches of 96 h each was studied. Decolouration percentages of 51.3, 70.0 and 69.8%, were attained for each batch, respectively. PMID:22819474

  10. Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of alkaline textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-07-15

    The present work was aimed to secure biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of an alkaline textile industrial effluent (ATIE) using an alkaliphilic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis strain R-16 isolated from Gujarat coast. The isolate was capable and competent to bring down the pH of ATIE from 12.1 to 7.0 within 2 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources. Carboxylic group concentration (CGC), NMR and FT-IR analysis revealed production of carboxylic acid as a result of neutralization. The unconventional carbon and nitrogen sources like Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse supported the growth of bacterium with effective neutralization and biosorption of dyes from ATIE. The process proved to be efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly as compared to conventional chemical neutralization process.

  11. Real Science, Real Scientists: Student's Experiments with Natural and Artificial Wastewater Treatment in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    In this extended biology, ecology, and earth science activity, students construct hands-on models of natural wastewater treatment and wastewater treatment facilities to achieve an understanding of wastewater treatment process in nature and wastewater treatment facilities. During this simulation activity, students have opportunities to learn…

  12. Textile dye removal from wastewater effluents using bioflocculants produced by indigenous bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Buthelezi, Simphiwe P; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2012-11-30

    Bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant located in Durban, South Africa, and identified using standard biochemical tests as well as the analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bioflocculants produced by these organisms were ethanol precipitated, purified using 2% (w/v) cetylpyridinium chloride solution and evaluated for removal of wastewater dyes under different pH, temperature and nutritional conditions. Bioflocculants from these indigenous bacteria were very effective for decolourizing the different dyes tested in this study, with a removal rate of up to 97.04%. The decolourization efficiency was largely influenced by the type of dye, pH, temperature, and flocculant concentration. A pH of 7 was found to be optimum for the removal of both whale and mediblue dyes, while the optimum pH for fawn and mixed dye removal was found to be between 9 and 10. Optimum temperature for whale and mediblue dye removal was 35 °C, and that for fawn and mixed dye varied between 40–45 °C and 35–40 °C, respectively. These bacterial bioflocculants may provide an economical and cleaner alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents, since they are biodegradable and easily sustainable.

  13. Use of titanium dioxide photocatalysis on the remediation of model textile wastewaters containing azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Saggioro, Enrico Mendes; Oliveira, Anabela Sousa; Pavesi, Thelma; Maia, Cátia Gil; Ferreira, Luis Filipe Vieira; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2011-12-14

    The photocatalytic degradation of two commercial textile azo dyes, namely C.I Reactive Black 5 and C.I Reactive Red 239, has been studied. TiO(2) P25 Degussa was used as catalyst and photodegradation was carried out in aqueous solution under artificial irradiation with a 125 W mercury vapor lamp. The effects of the amount of TiO(2) used, UV-light irradiation time, pH of the solution under treatment, initial concentration of the azo dye and addition of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. The effect of the simultaneous photodegradation of the two azo dyes was also investigated and we observed that the degradation rates achieved in mono and bi-component systems were identical. The repeatability of photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was also tested. After five cycles of TiO(2) reuse the rate of colour lost was still 77% of the initial rate. The degradation was followed monitoring the change of azo dye concentration by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Results show that the use of an efficient photocatalyst and the adequate selection of optimal operational parameters may easily lead to a complete decolorization of the aqueous solutions of both azo dyes.

  14. Integrated nanofiltration and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treatment of textile wastewater for in-plant reuse.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Arlindo Canigo; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; de Pinho, Maria Norberta; Porter, John Jefferson

    2007-05-01

    The filtration characteristics of simulated dyeing effluents containing Acid Orange 7, sodium sulfate, and a pH buffer made of acetic acid and sodium acetate is described using a commercially available nanofiltration membrane. The original membrane filtration properties were characterized with deionized water to provide a baseline of membrane performance. At high volumetric concentration of the test solutions, greater than 98% rejection of dye and sodium sulfate were obtained. Rejection of buffering chemicals was approximately 50% in all experiments, giving a permeate water not suitable for reuse in most dyeing operations. The final composite concentrate had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) value > 2000 mg/L. No problems were encountered with anaerobic treatment of the concentrate obtained from the dyeing wastewater. Adjusting the sulfate concentration to give COD-to-sulfate ratios to 2.9, 5.4, and 18.2 in the reactor feed had no significant alterations in the performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

  15. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  16. Performances of anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactors for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Adem; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Aktaş, Özgür; Uçar, Deniz; Çınar, Özer; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at comparatively evaluating anaerobic and aerobic MBRs for the treatment of azo-dye containing synthetic wastewater. Also, the filtration performances of AnMBR and AeMBR were compared under similar operating conditions. In both MBRs, high COD removal efficiencies were observed. Although almost complete color removal was observed in AnMBR, only partial (30-50%) color removal was achieved in AeMBR. AnMBR was successfully operated up to 9 L/(m(2)h) (LMH) and no chemical cleaning was required at 4.5 LMH for around 50 days. AeMBR was operated successfully up to 20 LMH. The filtration resistance of AnMBR was generally higher compared to AeMBR although reversible fouling rates were comparable. In both MBRs, offline chemical cleaning with NaOCl and sulfuric acid almost completely removed irreversible fouling and the resistances of chemically cleaned membranes were close to those of new membranes.

  17. Performances of anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactors for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Adem; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Aktaş, Özgür; Uçar, Deniz; Çınar, Özer; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at comparatively evaluating anaerobic and aerobic MBRs for the treatment of azo-dye containing synthetic wastewater. Also, the filtration performances of AnMBR and AeMBR were compared under similar operating conditions. In both MBRs, high COD removal efficiencies were observed. Although almost complete color removal was observed in AnMBR, only partial (30-50%) color removal was achieved in AeMBR. AnMBR was successfully operated up to 9 L/(m(2)h) (LMH) and no chemical cleaning was required at 4.5 LMH for around 50 days. AeMBR was operated successfully up to 20 LMH. The filtration resistance of AnMBR was generally higher compared to AeMBR although reversible fouling rates were comparable. In both MBRs, offline chemical cleaning with NaOCl and sulfuric acid almost completely removed irreversible fouling and the resistances of chemically cleaned membranes were close to those of new membranes. PMID:26093251

  18. Determination of labile copper, cobalt, and chromium in textile mill wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Essling, A.M.; Kiely, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Copper, chromium, and cobalt species present in filtered wastewater effluent were separated by cation exchange and reverse phase chromatography. Three sample fractions were obtained: one containing metal cations (i.e., trivalent Cr, divalent Cu, and divalent Co), one containing organic species (including metallized dyes), and one containing other unretained species. The metal content of each fraction was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The sum of the corrected data was compared to the metal content of a filtered effluent aliquot digested totally with fuming sulfuric acid. Other aliquots of the filtered effluent were spiked with the metals of interest and digested to confirm chemical yield and accuracy. Method detection limits were consistently below 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu, 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Co, and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cr. Spike recoveries for undifferentiated Cu and Cr were statistically indistinguishable from unity; although Co spike recoveries were slightly low ({approximately}95%), its chemical yield was 98%. Copper retention on the sodium sulfonate cation exchange resin was closely correlated with the [EDTA]/[Cu] ratio, suggesting that metals retained upon the cation exchange column were assignable to labile metal species; however, mass balances for all three elements, though reasonable ({approximately}90%), were significantly different from unity. Mechanical factors may have contributed to the material loss, but other data suggest that some metal species reacted irreversibly with the reverse phase column. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Decolorizing textile wastewater with Fenton's reagent electrogenerated with a solar photovoltaic cell.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Sandra; Vázquez, Leticia; Alvarez-Gallegos, A

    2009-02-01

    In this work it is demonstrated that Fenton's reagent can be electroproduced with abundant and cheap feedstock: oxygen saturated wastewater and solar energy. Experiments were carried out in a divided electrochemical flow cell using two electrodes: a three dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and stainless steel anode. Fenton's reagent is produced by oxygen reduction on the cathode in the presence of 1mM Fe(2+). The influence of electrolyte nature and its concentration and potential difference on the current efficiency, as well as the rate of Fenton's reagent electroproduction is discussed and it is concluded that over this extended range of conditions the current efficiency, for Fenton's reagent production, fell within the range 50-70%. It is possible to electroproduce a stoichiometric amount of Fenton reagent for the oxidation of 0.061mM Reactive Black 5 (in tap water+0.05M Na(2)SO(4), approximately pH 2.8). Similar results were obtained for solutions containing 0.1mM Acid Green 25. Some practical applications in the field of water treatment are included. The energy required for drive electrochemical reaction is supplied to the flow cell by means of a commercial solar panel. PMID:18977506

  20. Decolorizing textile wastewater with Fenton's reagent electrogenerated with a solar photovoltaic cell.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Sandra; Vázquez, Leticia; Alvarez-Gallegos, A

    2009-02-01

    In this work it is demonstrated that Fenton's reagent can be electroproduced with abundant and cheap feedstock: oxygen saturated wastewater and solar energy. Experiments were carried out in a divided electrochemical flow cell using two electrodes: a three dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and stainless steel anode. Fenton's reagent is produced by oxygen reduction on the cathode in the presence of 1mM Fe(2+). The influence of electrolyte nature and its concentration and potential difference on the current efficiency, as well as the rate of Fenton's reagent electroproduction is discussed and it is concluded that over this extended range of conditions the current efficiency, for Fenton's reagent production, fell within the range 50-70%. It is possible to electroproduce a stoichiometric amount of Fenton reagent for the oxidation of 0.061mM Reactive Black 5 (in tap water+0.05M Na(2)SO(4), approximately pH 2.8). Similar results were obtained for solutions containing 0.1mM Acid Green 25. Some practical applications in the field of water treatment are included. The energy required for drive electrochemical reaction is supplied to the flow cell by means of a commercial solar panel.

  1. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  2. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  3. Real time control of urban wastewater systems—where do we stand today?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Manfred; Campisano, Alberto; Colas, Hubert; Schilling, Wolfgang; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the current state of the art of real time control (RTC) of urban wastewater systems. Control options not only of the sewer system, but also of the wastewater treatment plant and of receiving water bodies are considered. One section of the paper provides concise definitions of terms frequently used in the literature. Recent developments in the field of RTC include the consideration of the urban wastewater system in its entirety. This allows information from all parts of the wastewater system to be used for control decisions and can lead to a significant improvement of the performance of the wastewater system. Some fundamental concepts of this approach are outlined. Particular emphasis in this paper is laid on methodologies of how to derive a control procedure for a given system. As an example of an RTC system operational in practice, the Québec Urban Community global predictive RTC system is presented. The paper concludes with an outlook into current and future developments in the area of real time control. The authors are members of the Working Group on Real Time Control of the Joint Committee of the International Association of Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and the International Water Association (IWA).

  4. Some properties of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch reactor (GAC-SBR) system for treatment of textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sadahiro, Ohmomo; Salee, Paneeta

    2007-10-01

    Resting (living) bio-sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as an adsorbent of both direct dyes and organic matter in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system. The dye adsorption capacity of the bio-sludge was not increased by acclimatization with direct dyes. The adsorption of Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 201 onto the bio-sludge was almost the same. The resting bio-sludge showed higher adsorption capacity than the autoclaved bio-sludge. The resting bio-sludge that was acclimatized with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) without direct dyes showed the highest Direct Blue 201, COD, and BOD(5) removal capacities of 16.1+/-0.4, 453+/-7, and 293+/-9 mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. After reuse, the dye adsorption ability of deteriorated bio-sludge was recovered by washing with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The direct dyes in the STWW were also easily removed by a GAC-SBR system. The dye removal efficiencies were higher than 80%, even when the system was operated under a high organic loading of 0.36kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The GAC-SBR system, however, showed a low direct dye removal efficiency of only 57+/-2.1% with raw textile wastewater (TWW) even though the system was operated with an organic loading of only 0.083kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The dyes, COD, BOD(5), and total kjeldalh nitrogen removal efficiencies increased up to 76.0+/-2.8%, 86.2+/-0.5%, 84.2+/-0.7%, and 68.2+/-2.1%, respectively, when 0.89 g/L glucose (organic loading of 0.17kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d) was supplemented into the TWW.

  5. Electrochemical sulfide removal from synthetic and real domestic wastewater at high current densities.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide generation is the key cause of sewer pipe corrosion, one of the major issues in water infrastructure. Current abatement strategies typically involve addition of various types of chemicals to the wastewater, which incurs large operational costs. The transport, storage and application of these chemicals also constitute occupational and safety hazards. In this study, we investigated high rate electrochemical oxidation of sulfide at Ir/Ta mixed metal oxide (MMO) coated titanium electrodes as a means to remove sulfide from wastewater. Both synthetic and real wastewaters were used in the experiments. Electrochemical sulfide oxidation by means of indirect oxidation with in-situ produced oxygen appeared to be the main reaction mechanism at Ir/Ta MMO coated titanium electrodes. The maximum obtained sulfide removal rate was 11.8 ± 1.7 g S m(-2) projected anode surface h(-1) using domestic wastewater at sulfide concentrations of ≥ 30 mg L(-1) or higher. The final products of the oxidation were sulfate, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. Chloride and acetate concentrations did not entail differences in sulfide removal, nor were the latter two components affected by the electrochemical oxidation. Hence, the use of electrodes to generate oxygen in sewer systems may constitute a promising method for reagent-free removal of sulfide from wastewater. PMID:21300393

  6. Textiles and Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, Jean; Renaud, François N. R.

    Microbes can be carried by and even multiply on textiles. The first real, premeditated, microbiological warfare happened in 1763, during the Anglo-French wars in North America, when Native American emissaries were given blankets or handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. Thus, a small epidemic started and spread rapidly, causing considerable damage to the rank and file of the Native Americans. Nowadays, it could be said that textiles could be vectors of infections in hospitals or communities. The making of antimicrobial textiles could prevent them from becoming a reservoir of microbes in the transmission of infections and in cases of voluntary contamination in a terrorist threat for example. However, methods have to show that textiles are really active and do not attack the cutaneous flora they are in contact with. In this chapter, the role of textiles in the transmission of infections is summarized and the main characteristics of antimicrobial textiles are described.

  7. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater. PMID:27164876

  8. Effect of electron donor source on the treatment of Cr(VI)-containing textile wastewater using sulfate-reducing fluidized bed reactors (FBRs).

    PubMed

    Cirik, Kevser; Dursun, Nesrin; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Cinar, Ozer

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of Cr(VI) containing textile wastewater was studied in ethanol and glucose-fed sulfate-reducing fluidized bed reactors at 35°C for around 250 days. The synthetic wastewater contained Cr(VI) (5-45 mg L(-1)), azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R) (100-200 mg L(-1)), sulfate (2000 mg L(-1)) and ethanol or glucose (2000 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)). The robustness of two FBRs was assessed under varying Cr(VI) and azo dye loadings. Both reactors performed well in terms of COD, sulfate, color and Cr(VI) removals. However, ethanol-fed FBR performed better than glucose-fed one. The COD, sulfate, chromium and color removals at the highest Cr(VI) concentration (45 mg L(-1)) in ethanol-fed FBR were around 75%, 95%, 93%, and 99%, respectively. Further increase in influent Cr(VI) concentration adversely effected reactor performance. The COD, sulfate, chromium and color removals at 45 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in glucose-fed FBR were around 60%, 50%, 93%, and 76%, respectively.

  9. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  10. Effect of an azo dye on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor treating a simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Franca, Rita D G; Vieira, Anabela; Mata, Ana M T; Carvalho, Gilda S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2015-11-15

    This study analyzed the effect of an azo dye (Acid Red 14) on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system operated with 6-h anaerobic-aerobic cycles for the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater. In this sense, two SBRs inoculated with AGS from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were run in parallel, being one supplied with the dye and the other used as a dye-free control. The AGS successfully adapted to the new hydrodynamic conditions forming smaller, denser granules in both reactors, with optimal sludge volume index values of 19 and 17 mL g(-1) after 5-min and 30-min settling, respectively. As a result, high biomass concentration levels and sludge age values were registered, up to 13 gTSS L(-1) and 40 days, respectively, when deliberate biomass wastage was limited to the sampling needs. Stable dye removal yields above 90% were attained during the anaerobic reaction phase, confirmed by the formation of one of the aromatic amines arising from azo bond reduction. The control of the sludge retention time (SRT) to 15 days triggered a 30% reduction in the biodecolorization yield. However, the increase of the SRT values back to levels above 25 days reverted this effect and also promoted the complete bioconversion of the identified aromatic amine during the aerobic reaction phase. The dye and its breakdown products did not negatively affect the treatment performance, as organic load removal yields higher than 80% were attained in both reactors, up to 77% occurring in the anaerobic phase. These high anaerobic organic removal levels were correlated to an increase of Defluviicoccus-related glycogen accumulating organisms in the biomass. Also, the capacity of the system to deal with shocks of high dye concentration and organic load was successfully demonstrated. Granule breakup after long-term operation only occurred in the dye-free control SBR, suggesting that the azo dye plays an important role in improving granule

  11. Inhibition and recovery of nitrification in treating real coal gasification wastewater with moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiqiang; Han, Hongjun; Du, Maoan; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used to treat real coal gasification wastewater. Nitrification of the MBBR was inhibited almost completely during start-up period. Sudden increase of influent total NH3 concentration was the main factor inducing nitrification inhibition. Increasing DO concentration in the bulk liquid (from 2 to 3 mg/L) had little effect on nitrification recovery. Nitrification of the MBBR recovered partially by the addition of nitrifying sludge into the reactor and almost ceased within 5 days. Nitrification ratio of the MBBR achieved 65% within 12 days by increasing dilute ratio of the influent wastewater with tap water. The ratio of nitrification decreased to 25% when influent COD concentration increased from 650 to 1000 mg/L after nitrification recovery and recovered 70% for another 4 days.

  12. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams.

  13. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams. PMID:26395288

  14. Vermiconversion of wastewater sludge from textile mill mixed with anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry employing Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Kaushik, Priya; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2006-11-01

    Vermicomposting is commonly used for the management of organic wastes. We have investigated the potential of an epigeic earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to transform solid textile mill sludge (STMS) spiked with anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry (BPS) into vermicompost to evaluate the feasibility of vermicomposting in industries for waste management. The growth and reproduction of E. foetida was monitored in a range of different feed mixtures for 15 weeks in laboratory under controlled experimental conditions. E. foetida did not survive in fresh STMS. But worms grew and reproduced in STMS spiked with BPS feed mixtures. A greater percentage of STMS in feed mixture affected biomass gain and cocoon production by earthworms. The maximum growth was recorded in 100% BPS. The net weight gain by E. foetida in 100% BPS was two-four-fold higher than STMS-containing feed mixtures. After 15 weeks, maximum cocoons (78) were counted in 100% BPS and minimum (26) in 60% BPS+40% STMS feed. Vermicomposting resulted in pH shift toward acidic, significant reduction in C:N ratio, and increase in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents. Microbial activity measured as dehydrogenase activity increased with time up to day 75 but decreased on day 90, indicating the exhaustion of feed and decrease in microbial activity. These experiments demonstrate that vermicomposting can be an alternate technology for the recycling and environmentally safe disposal/management of textile mill sludge using an epigeic earthworm, E. foetida, if mixed with anaerobically digested BPS in appropriate ratios.

  15. From the design to real e-textile platforms for Rehabilitation and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases care.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Rita; Caldani, Laura; De Toma, Gianluca

    2015-08-01

    In this paper is described the work done to move from the concept of a monitoring system based on a sensing textile platform to the working prototype, in the frame of two different European projects: INTERACTION and WELCOME.

  16. Treatment of real wastewater produced from Mobil car wash station using electrocoagulation technique.

    PubMed

    El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z; Amin, N K; Fouad, Y O

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the electrocoagulation of real wastewater produced from a car wash station using a new cell design featuring a horizontal spiral anode placed above a horizontal disc cathode. The study dealt with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and turbidity removal using electrodes in a batch mode. Various operating parameters such as current density, initial pH, NaCl concentration, temperature, and electrode material were examined to optimize the performance of the process. Also, characterization of sludge formed during electrocoagulation was carried out. The results indicated that the COD reduction and turbidity removal increase with increasing the current density and NaCl concentration; pH from 7 to 8 was found to be optimum for treating the wastewater. Temperature was found to have an insignificant effect on the process. Aluminum was superior to iron as a sacrificial electrode material in treating car wash wastewater. Energy consumption based on COD reduction ranged from 2.32 to 15.1 kWh/kg COD removed depending on the operating conditions. Finally, the sludge produced during electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis.

  17. Characterization and quantitative analysis of surfactants in textile wastewater by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González, Susana; Petrović, Mira; Radetic, Maja; Jovancic, Petar; Ilic, Vesna; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-01

    A method based on the application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqTOF-MS) with an electrospray (ESI) interface has been developed for the screening and confirmation of several anionic and non-ionic surfactants: linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS), alkylsulfate (AS), alkylethersulfate (AES), dihexyl sulfosuccinate (DHSS), alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), coconut diethanolamide (CDEA), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and their degradation products (nonylphenol carboxylate (NPEC), octylphenol carboxylate (OPEC), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-octylphenol (OP) and NPEO sulfate (NPEO-SO4). The developed methodology permits reliable quantification combined with a high accuracy confirmation based on the accurate mass of the (de)protonated molecules in the TOFMS mode. For further confirmation of the identity of the detected compounds the QqTOF mode was used. Accurate masses of product ions obtained by performing collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the (de)protonated molecules of parent compounds were matched with the ions obtained for a standard solution. The method was applied for the quantitative analysis and high accuracy confirmation of surfactants in complex mixtures in effluents from the textile industry. Positive identification of the target compounds was based on accurate mass measurement of the base peak, at least one product ion and the LC retention time of the analyte compared with that of a standard. The most frequently surfactants found in these textile effluents were NPEO and NPEO-SO4 in concentrations ranging from 0.93 to 5.68 mg/L for NPEO and 0.06 to 4.30 mg/L for NPEO-SO4. AEOs were also identified. PMID:18398847

  18. Evaluation of an eventual ecotoxicity induced by textile effluents using a battery of biotests.

    PubMed

    Bedoui, Ahmed; Tigini, Valeria; Ghedira, Kamel; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Chekir Ghedira, Leila

    2015-11-01

    Textile industry is considered as one of the important factors of the economic growth in Tunisia. However, this prominent role has certainly some drawbacks mainly represented by the huge amounts of textile wastewaters generated that become a real menace to nature. Many previous studies showed the purifying potential of some activated sludge and bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) to decolourize textile effluents. However, in many cases, decolourization of wastewaters is not necessary associated with detoxification, generating a real risk for the ecosystem in general. We evaluated in this work the induced toxicity of a textile effluent before and after its treatment with activated sludge followed by P. putida, using a battery of biotests. This study proved the detoxifying power of the activated sludge according to most of ecotoxicity tests. The treatment with P. putida did not improve the quality of the effluent; on the contrary, it could increase its toxicity. Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata appear to be the most sensitive organisms in assessing eventual toxicity caused by this kind of wastewaters.

  19. Evaluation of an eventual ecotoxicity induced by textile effluents using a battery of biotests.

    PubMed

    Bedoui, Ahmed; Tigini, Valeria; Ghedira, Kamel; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Chekir Ghedira, Leila

    2015-11-01

    Textile industry is considered as one of the important factors of the economic growth in Tunisia. However, this prominent role has certainly some drawbacks mainly represented by the huge amounts of textile wastewaters generated that become a real menace to nature. Many previous studies showed the purifying potential of some activated sludge and bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) to decolourize textile effluents. However, in many cases, decolourization of wastewaters is not necessary associated with detoxification, generating a real risk for the ecosystem in general. We evaluated in this work the induced toxicity of a textile effluent before and after its treatment with activated sludge followed by P. putida, using a battery of biotests. This study proved the detoxifying power of the activated sludge according to most of ecotoxicity tests. The treatment with P. putida did not improve the quality of the effluent; on the contrary, it could increase its toxicity. Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata appear to be the most sensitive organisms in assessing eventual toxicity caused by this kind of wastewaters. PMID:26087930

  20. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling. PMID:24759425

  1. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling.

  2. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Crude soybean hull peroxidase treatment of phenol in synthetic and real wastewater: enzyme economy enhanced by Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Steevensz, Aaron; Madur, Sneha; Feng, Wei; Taylor, Keith E; Bewtra, Jatinder K; Biswas, Nihar

    2014-02-01

    Soybean peroxidase (SBP)-catalyzed removal of phenol from wastewater has been demonstrated as a feasible wastewater treatment strategy and a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, has the potential for increasing the enzyme economy of the process. Systematic studies on the enzyme-surfactant system have been lacking as well as demonstration of its applicability to industrial wastewater. This paper addresses those two gaps, the latter based on real wastewater from alkyd resin manufacture. The minimum effective Triton X-100 concentrations for crude SBP-catalyzed phenol conversion (≥95%) over 1-10 mM showed a linear trend. To illustrate translation of such lab results to real-world samples, this data were used to optimize crude SBP needed for phenol conversion over that concentration range. Triton X-100 increases enzyme economy by 10- to 13-fold. This treatment protocol was directly applied to tote-scale (700-1000 L) treatment of alkyd resin wastewater, with phenol ranging from 7 to 28 mM and total organic carbon content of >40 g/L, using a crude SBP extract derived from dry soybean hulls by simple aqueous elution. This extract can be used to remove phenol from a complex industrial wastewater and the process is markedly more efficient in the presence of Triton X-100. The water is thus rendered amenable to conventional biological treatment whilst the hulls could still be used in feed, thus adding further value to the crop.

  4. Selective removal and recovery of Black B reactive dye from simulated textile wastewater using the supported liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin; Ee Sin, Andeline Lim; Raja Sulaiman, Raja Norimie

    2015-01-01

    Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70 ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70 ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001 M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150 ml/min and 0.2 M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition.

  5. Optimization of electrocoagulation (EC) process for the purification of a real industrial wastewater from toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Gatsios, Evangelos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the efficiency evaluation of electrocoagulation (EC) in removing toxic metals from a real industrial wastewater, collected from Aspropyrgos, Athens, Greece was investigated. Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at respective concentrations of 5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L were present in the wastewater (pH=6), originated from the wastes produced by EBO-PYRKAL munitions industry and Hellenic Petroleum Elefsis Refineries. The effect of operational parameters such as electrode combination and distance, applied current, initial pH and initial metal concentration, was studied. The results indicated that Cu and Zn were totally removed in all experiments, while Mn exhibited equally high removal percentages (approximately 90%). Decreasing the initial pH and increasing the distance between electrodes, resulted in a negative effect on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. On the other hand, increasing the applied current, favored metal removal but resulted in a power consumption increase. Different initial concentrations did not affect metal removal efficiency. The optimal results, regarding both cost and EC efficiency, were obtained with a combination of iron electrodes, at 2 cm distance, at initial current of 0.1 A and pH=6. After 90 min of treatment, maximum removal percentages obtained were 89% for Mn, 100% for Cu and 100% for Zn, at an energy consumption of 2.55 kWh/m(3).

  6. Phosphate removal from synthetic and real wastewater using steel slags produced in Europe.

    PubMed

    Barca, Cristian; Gérente, Claire; Meyer, Daniel; Chazarenc, Florent; Andrès, Yves

    2012-05-01

    Electric arc furnace steel slags (EAF-slags) and basic oxygen furnace steel slags (BOF-slags) were used to remove phosphate from synthetic solutions and real wastewater. The main objective of this study was to establish an overview of the phosphate removal capacities of steel slags produced in Europe. The influences of parameters, including pH, and initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, on phosphate removal were studied in a series of batch experiments. Phosphate removal mechanisms were also investigated via an in-depth study. The maximum capacities of phosphate removal from synthetic solutions ranged from 0.13 to 0.28 mg P/g using EAF-slags and from 1.14 to 2.49 mg P/g using BOF-slags. Phosphate removal occurred predominantly via the precipitation of Ca-phosphate complexes (most probably hydroxyapatite) according to two consecutive reactive phases: first, dissolution of CaO-slag produced an increase in Ca(2+) and OH(-) ion concentrations; then the Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions reacted with the phosphates to form hydroxyapatite. It was found that the release of Ca(2+) from slag was not always enough to enable hydroxyapatite precipitation. However, our results indicated that the Ca(2+) content of wastewater represented a further source of Ca(2+) ions that were available for hydroxyapatite precipitation, thus leading to an increase in phosphate removal efficiencies.

  7. Real-time PCR quantification of nitrifying bacteria in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Harms, Gerda; Layton, Alice C; Dionisi, Hebe M; Gregory, Igrid R; Garrett, Victoria M; Hawkins, Shawn A; Robinson, Kevin G; Sayler, Gary S

    2003-01-15

    Real-time PCR assays using TaqMan or Molecular Beacon probes were developed and optimized for the quantification of total bacteria, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira, and Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using a single-sludge nitrification process. The targets for the real-time PCR assays were the 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) for bacteria and Nitrospira spp. and the amoA gene for N. oligotropha. A previously reported assay for AOB 16S rDNA was also tested for its application to activated sludge. The Nitrospira 16S rDNA, AOB 16S rDNA, and N. oligotropha-like amoA assays were log-linear over 6 orders of magnitude and the bacterial 16S rDNA real-time PCR assay was log-linear over 4 orders of magnitude with DNA standards. When these real-time PCR assays were applied to DNA extracted from MLSS, dilution of the DNA extracts was necessary to prevent PCR inhibition. The optimal DNA dilution range was broad for the bacterial 16S rDNA (1000-fold) and Nitrospira 16S rDNA assays (2500-fold) but narrow for the AOB 16S rDNA assay (10-fold) and N. oligotropha-like amoA real-time PCR assay (5-fold). In twelve MLSS samples collected over one year, mean cell per L values were 4.3 +/- 2.0 x 10(11) for bacteria, 3.7 +/- 3.2 x 10(10) for Nitrospira, 1.2 +/- 0.9 x 10(10) for all AOB, and 7.5 +/- 6.0 x 10(9) for N. oligotropha-like AOB. The percent of the nitrifying population was 1.7% N. oligotropha-like AOB based on the N. oligotropha amoA assay, 2.9% total AOB based on the AOB 16S rDNA assay, and 8.6% nitrite-oxidizing bacteria based on the Nitrospira 16S rDNA assay. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the wastewater treatment plant were estimated to oxidize 7.7 +/- 6.8 fmol/hr/cell based on the AOB 16S rDNA assay and 12.4 +/- 7.3 fmol/hr/cell based on the N. oligotropha amoA assay.

  8. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices.

  9. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices. PMID:26297680

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Real-Time PCR Methods for Human Noroviruses in Wastewater and Human Stool.

    PubMed

    Masago, Yoshifumi; Konta, Yoshimitsu; Kazama, Shinobu; Inaba, Manami; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Omura, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best quantitative PCR assay is essential to detect human norovirus genome effectively from clinical and environmental samples because no cell lines have been developed to propagate this virus. The real-time PCR methods for noroviruses GI (4 assays) and GII (3 assays) were evaluated using wastewater (n = 70) and norovirus-positive stool (n = 77) samples collected in Japan between 2012 and 2013. Standard quantitative PCR assays recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, International Organization for Standardization, and Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, together with recently reported assays were included. Significant differences in positive rates and quantification cycles were observed by non-parametric analysis. The present study identifies the best assay for norovirus GI and GII to amplify norovirus genomes efficiently. PMID:27525654

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Real-Time PCR Methods for Human Noroviruses in Wastewater and Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Konta, Yoshimitsu; Kazama, Shinobu; Inaba, Manami; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Omura, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best quantitative PCR assay is essential to detect human norovirus genome effectively from clinical and environmental samples because no cell lines have been developed to propagate this virus. The real-time PCR methods for noroviruses GI (4 assays) and GII (3 assays) were evaluated using wastewater (n = 70) and norovirus-positive stool (n = 77) samples collected in Japan between 2012 and 2013. Standard quantitative PCR assays recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, International Organization for Standardization, and Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, together with recently reported assays were included. Significant differences in positive rates and quantification cycles were observed by non-parametric analysis. The present study identifies the best assay for norovirus GI and GII to amplify norovirus genomes efficiently. PMID:27525654

  12. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations.

  13. Flux influence on membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor system under real conditions with urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poyatos, Jose M; Molina-Munoz, Marisa; Delgado, Fernando; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2008-12-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of flux on membrane fouling, the performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated under real conditions at different flux rates. The pilot plant was located at the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Spain). Influent used in the experiments came from the primary settling tank. Assays carried out under different operating conditions indicated that dTMP/dt increased in accordance with the increase in flux. The results showed a significant impact on the rate of transmembrane pressure, while the behavior of membrane fouling was logarithmic with respect to the flux. These findings could be of some importance for understanding the behavior of the membrane, since over 20.57 L m(-2) h(-1) the flux rate produced a significant increase in transmembrane pressure. The data therefore suggest that an increase in the net flux significantly affects membrane fouling. PMID:18988106

  14. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater.

  15. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-06-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L-1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L-1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h-l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  17. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-01-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L−1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L−1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h−l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  18. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-06-16

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L-1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L-1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h-l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents.

  19. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

  20. Solid-state fermentation: tool for bioremediation of adsorbed textile dyestuff on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass using isolated Bacillus cereus strain EBT1.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Kamatkar, Jeevan D; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-02-01

    Bioremediation of textile dyestuffs under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using industrial wastes as substrate pose an economically feasible, promising, and eco-friendly alternative. The purpose of this study was to adsorb Red M5B dye, a sample of dyes mixture and a real textile effluent on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass (DIW-YB) and its further bioremediation using Bacillus cereus EBT1 under SSF. Textile dyestuffs were allowed to adsorb on DIW-YB. DIW-YB adsorbed dyestuffs were decolorized under SSF by using B. cereus. Enzyme analysis was carried out to ensure decolorization of Red M5B. Metabolites after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC, and GC-MS. DIW-YB showed adsorption of Red M5B, dyes mixture and a textile wastewater sample up to 87, 70, and 81 %, respectively. DIW-YB adsorbed Red M5B was decolorized up to 98 % by B. cereus in 36 h. Whereas B. cereus could effectively reduce American Dye Manufacture Institute value from DIW-YB adsorbed mixture of textile dyes and textile wastewater up to 70 and 100 %, respectively. Induction of extracellular enzymes such as laccase and azoreductase suggests their involvement in dye degradation. Repeated utilization of DIW-YB showed consistent adsorption and ADMI removal from textile wastewater up to seven cycles. HPLC and FTIR analysis confirms the biodegradation of Red M5B. GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of new metabolites. B. cereus has potential to bioremediate adsorbed textile dyestuffs on DIW-YB. B. cereus along with DIW-YB showed enhanced decolorization performance in tray bioreactor which suggests its potential for large-scale treatment procedures.

  1. Degradation of synthetic pollutants in real wastewater using laccase encapsulated in core-shell magnetic copper alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao Thanh; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Lee, Chung-Seop; Vu, Chi Huong; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jeon, Jong-Rok

    2016-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase has been highlighted to enhance their stability and reusability in bioremediation. In this study, we provide a novel immobilization technique that is very suitable to real wastewater treatment. A perfect core-shell system composing copper alginate for the immobilization of laccase (Lac-beads) was produced. Additionally, nFe2O3 was incorporated for the bead recycling through magnetic force. The beads were proven to immobilize 85.5% of total laccase treated and also to be structurally stable in water, acetate buffer, and real wastewater. To test the Lac-beads reactivity, triclosan (TCS) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) were employed. The Lac-beads showed a high percentage of TCS removal (89.6%) after 8h and RBBR decolonization at a range from 54.2% to 75.8% after 4h. Remarkably, the pollutants removal efficacy of the Lac-beads was significantly maintained in real wastewater with the bead recyclability, whereas that of the corresponding free laccase was severely deteriorated. PMID:27240236

  2. Distribution and mass balance of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a subsurface, horizontal flow (SF-h) constructed wetland operating as post-treatment of textile wastewater for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, Donatella; Doumett, Saer; Lepri, Luciano; Checchini, Leonardo; Gonnelli, Cristina; Coppini, Ester; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2012-01-15

    In this study, during a two-year period, we investigated the fate of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a full-scale subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis. The reed bed operated as post-treatment of the effluent wastewater from an activated sludge plant serving the textile industrial district and the city of Prato (Italy). Chromium speciation was performed in influent and effluent wastewater and in water-suspended solids, at different depths and distances from the inlet; plants were also analyzed for total chromium along the same longitudinal profile. Removals of hexavalent and trivalent chromium equal to 72% and 26%, respectively were achieved. The mean hexavalent chromium outlet concentration was 1.6 ± 0.9 μg l(-1) and complied with the Italian legal limits for water reuse. Chromium in water-suspended solids was in the trivalent form, thus indicating that its removal from wastewater was obtained by the reduction of hexavalent chromium to the trivalent form, followed by accumulation of the latter inside the reed bed. Chromium in water-suspended solids was significantly affected by the distance from the inlet. Chromium concentrations in the different plant organs followed the same trend of suspended solids along the longitudinal profile and were much lower than those found in the solid material, evidencing a low metal accumulation in P. australis.

  3. Real-time water and wastewater quality monitoring using LED-based fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgeman, John; Zakharova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there have been a number of attempts to design and introduce into water management tools that are capable of measuring organic and microbial matter in real time and in situ. This is important, as the delivery of safe water to customers, and the discharge of good quality effluent to rivers are primary concerns to water undertakers. A novel, LED-based portable fluorimeter 'Duo Fluor' has been designed and constructed at the University of Birmingham to monitor the quality of (waste)water continuously and in real time, and its performance has been assessed in a range of environments. To be of use across a range of environments, special attention must be paid to two crucially important characteristics of such instruments, i.e. their sensitivity and robustness. Thus, the objectives of this study were: 1. To compare the performance (in terms of their sensitivity and robustness) of the Duo Fluor and two other commercial fluorescence devices in laboratory conditions. 2. To assess the performance of the Duo Fluor in situ, in real time at a 450,000PE WwTW. Initially, the impact of quinine sulphate (QS), a highly fluorescent alkaloid with high quantum fluorescence yield, on peak T fluorescence in environmental waters was examined for the Duo Fluor and two commercially available, chamber-based fluorimeters, (F1) and (F2). The instruments' responses to three scenarios were assessed: 1. Deionised water (DW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 2. Environmental water (pond water, PW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 3. Different water samples from various environmental source. The results show that the facility to amend gain settings and the suitable choice of gain are crucial to obtaining reliable data on both peaks T and C in a wide range of water types. The Duo Fluor offers both of these advantages whilst commercially available instruments currently do not. The Duo Fluor was subsequently fixed at the final effluent (FE) discharge point of a WwTW and FE

  4. Textile Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Kristy Alana

    Innovative and interdisciplinary solutions to wearable textile energy storage are explored as power sources for wearable electronics and smart textiles. Due to their long cycle life, non-toxic and inexpensive materials, supercapacitors were converted into textiles. Textile supercapacitors were developed using scalable fabrication methods including screen-printing, yarn making, and 3D computerized knitting. The electrode materials reported in this thesis undergo thorough electrochemical analysis, and are capable of storing up to 0.5 F/cm2 which is on par with conventionally solid supercapacitors (0.6 F/cm2). Capacitive yarns are capable of storing up to 37 mF/cm and are shown to be knittable on industrial knitting equipment. Both are some of the highest reported capacitance for all-carbon systems in the field. Yet both are the only systems composed of inexpensive and non-toxic activated carbon, the most commonly used electrode material used in supercapacitors, opposed to carbon nanotubes or graphene, which are typically more 10-100 times more expensive. However, all of the fabrication techniques reported here are also capable of incorporating a wide variety of materials, ultimately broadening the applications of textile energy storage as a whole. Fully machine knitted supercapacitors are also explored and electrochemically characterized in order to determine how the textile structure affects the capacitance. In conclusion, a wide variety of fabrication techniques for making textile supercapacitors were successfully explored.

  5. Surface-Roughness-Based Virtual Textiles: Evaluation Using a Multi-Contactor Display.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Matthew; Summers, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Virtual textiles, generated in response to exploratory movements, are presented to the fingertip via a 24-contactor vibrotactile array. Software models are based on surface-roughness profiles from real textiles. Results suggest that distinguishable "textile-like" surfaces are produced, but these lack the necessary accuracy for reliable matching to real textiles.

  6. Production of high concentrations of H2O2 in a bioelectrochemical reactor fed with real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems can be used to energy-efficiently produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. Organic compounds in the wastewater are oxidized by microorganisms using the anode as electron acceptor. H2O2 is produced by reduction of oxygen on the cathode. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time production of high concentrations of H2O2 production from real municipal wastewater. A concentration of 2.26 g/L H2O2 was produced in 9 h at 8.3 kWh/kgH2O2. This concentration could potentially be useful for membrane cleaning at membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants. With an acetate-containing nutrient medium as anode feed, a H2O2 concentration of 9.67 g/L was produced in 21 h at an energy cost of 3.0 kWh/kgH2O2. The bioelectrochemical reactor used in this study suffered from a high internal resistance, most likely caused by calcium carbonate deposits on the cathode-facing side of the cation exchange membrane separating the anode and cathode compartments.

  7. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H₂ production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H₂ production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  8. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G. N.; Mohan, S. Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H2 production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H2 production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  10. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  11. Efficient decolorization of real dye wastewater and bioelectricity generation using a novel single chamber biocathode-microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2012-09-01

    Large scale applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been severely hindered by several problems such as high internal resistance, low power output, expensive materials, and complicated configuration. To address these issues, a granular activated carbon based single chamber microbial fuel cell (GACB-SCMFC) has been designed using GAC-biocathodes without using any expensive materials for the simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and electricity generation. The GACB-SCMFC produced a power density of 8 W/m(3) which indicates the GAC-biocathode can be a good alternative to platinum and other chemical catalysts. The dye wastewater was primarily treated at the anode and further polishing steps were occurred at the aerobic cathode. Toxicity measurement shows that the effluent after GACB-SCMFC operation was much less toxic compared to the original dye wastewater. Additional advantage of the GACB-SCMFC is that pH was automatically adjusted from 12.2 to 8 during 48 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT).

  12. Recovery comparison of two virus concentration methods from wastewater using cell culture and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Amdiouni, Hasna; Maunula, Leena; Hajjami, Kawtar; Faouzi, Abdellah; Soukri, Abdelaziz; Nourlil, Jalal

    2012-10-01

    Enteric viruses are shed in the feces and may be present in environmental waters. Their detection in wastewater, even at low concentration, is a major challenge. In this study, recoveries of Echovirus 7 (EV7), virions and RNA in wastewater, using virus concentration methods were determined to evaluate the detection of infectious viruses and the possibility of recovering viral genomes. Two virus concentration methods, PEG precipitation method and two-phase separation method, were applied to recovery experiments of EV7-virions from wastewater, in parallel with recovery experiments of EV7 RNA. The titration of EV7 virions was carried out by cell culture using human rhabdomyosarcoma tumor tissue and the EV7 RNA quantification was performed by real-time PCR. The mean recovery yields of EV7 virions using the PEG precipitation method and the two-phase separation method were 78.5 ± 10.99 and 83.1 ± 0.28 %, respectively. Besides, EV7 RNA recoveries obtained using the PEG precipitation method were four times higher than those using the two-phase separation method. According to our results, the two methods enable to concentrate both infectious viruses and viral genomes. Moreover, considering the protocol time and cost together with the ratio of the EV7 virion recovery to the EV7 RNA recovery, the two-phase separation method (83.1/2.71 %, or 30.6) seems to be more appropriate for selective concentration of viral virions than the PEG precipitation method (78.5/10.33 %, or 7.6).

  13. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José L; Amorós, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantification of viable and heat-treated Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater. We observed a reduction in detection of heat-treated Giardia duodenalis cysts of 83.2, 89.9, 98.2, or 97% with PMA-qPCR assays amplifying a 75 base-pair (bp) β-giardin target, 77-bp triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), 133-bp glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 143-bp β-giardin gene target, respectively. Thus, the exclusion of dead cysts was more effective when qPCR assays that produced larger amplicons were used. The PMA treatment of Cryptosporidium oocysts plus/minus heat treatment abolished the fluorescent signal for dead oocysts with a PMA-qPCR assay amplifying a Cryptosporidium parvum (150-bp) oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. The PMA-qPCR 143-bp β-giardin assay for Giardia and the PMA-qPCR 150-bp COWP assay for Cryptosporidium accurately quantified live oo(cysts), and failed to detect dead oo(cysts), when phosphate-buffered saline and tertiary effluent wastewater were spiked with concentrations of 10(3) or 10(2) dead oo(cysts), respectively. Therefore, these assays are suitable for the detection of viable parasites that are typically present in tertiary wastewater effluents at concentrations of <10(3) oo(cysts)/l and can provide rapid risk assessments of environmental water.

  14. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied.

  15. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

  16. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater collected from a textile factory before and after treatment by coagulation-flocculation methods.

    PubMed

    Makene, Vedastus W; Tijani, Jimoh O; Petrik, Leslie F; Pool, Edmund J

    2016-08-01

    Effective treatment of textile effluent prior to discharge is necessary in order to avert the associated adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life. In the present investigation, coagulation/flocculation processes were evaluated for the effectiveness of the individual treatment. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the physicochemical characteristics. The quality of the pre-treated and post-flocculation treated effluent was further evaluated by determination of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity was determined using WST-1 assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were used as biomarkers of inflammation. NO was determined in cell culture supernatant using the Griess reaction assay. The IL-6 secretion was determined using double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (DAS ELISA). Cytotoxicity results show that raw effluent reduced the cell viability significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the negative control. All effluent samples treated by coagulation/flocculation processes at 1 in 100 dilutions had no cytotoxic effects on RAW264.7 cells. The results on inflammatory activities show that the raw effluent and effluent treated with 1.6 g/L of Fe-Mn oxide induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher NO production than the negative control. The inflammatory results further show that the raw effluent induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher production of IL-6 than the negative control. Among the coagulants/flocculants evaluated Al2(SO4)3.14H2O at a dosage of 1.6 g/L was the most effective to remove both toxic and inflammatory pollutants. In conclusion, the inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells can be used as sensitive biomarkers for monitoring the effectiveness of coagulation/flocculation processes used for textile effluent treatment.

  17. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater collected from a textile factory before and after treatment by coagulation-flocculation methods.

    PubMed

    Makene, Vedastus W; Tijani, Jimoh O; Petrik, Leslie F; Pool, Edmund J

    2016-08-01

    Effective treatment of textile effluent prior to discharge is necessary in order to avert the associated adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life. In the present investigation, coagulation/flocculation processes were evaluated for the effectiveness of the individual treatment. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the physicochemical characteristics. The quality of the pre-treated and post-flocculation treated effluent was further evaluated by determination of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity was determined using WST-1 assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were used as biomarkers of inflammation. NO was determined in cell culture supernatant using the Griess reaction assay. The IL-6 secretion was determined using double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (DAS ELISA). Cytotoxicity results show that raw effluent reduced the cell viability significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the negative control. All effluent samples treated by coagulation/flocculation processes at 1 in 100 dilutions had no cytotoxic effects on RAW264.7 cells. The results on inflammatory activities show that the raw effluent and effluent treated with 1.6 g/L of Fe-Mn oxide induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher NO production than the negative control. The inflammatory results further show that the raw effluent induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher production of IL-6 than the negative control. Among the coagulants/flocculants evaluated Al2(SO4)3.14H2O at a dosage of 1.6 g/L was the most effective to remove both toxic and inflammatory pollutants. In conclusion, the inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells can be used as sensitive biomarkers for monitoring the effectiveness of coagulation/flocculation processes used for textile effluent treatment. PMID:27418078

  18. A method for dye extraction using an aqueous two-phase system: Effect of co-occurrence of contaminants in textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriella Alexandre; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Penido, Jussara Alves; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; Rodrigues, Guilherme Dias

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a green and efficient procedure for extraction of the dyes Malachite Green (MG), Methylene Blue (MB), and Reactive Red 195 (RR) using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). An ATPS consists mainly of water, together with polymer and salt, and does not employ any organic solvent. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by means of the partition coefficients (K) and residual percentages (%R) of the dyes, under different experimental conditions, varying the tie-line length (TLL) of the system, the pH, the type of ATPS-forming electrolyte, and the type of ATPS-forming polymer. For MG, the best removal (K = 4.10 × 10(4), %R = 0.0069%) was obtained with the ATPS: PEO 1500 + Na2C4H4O6 (TLL = 50.21% (w/w), pH = 6.00). For MB, the maximum extraction (K = 559.9, %R = 0.258%) was achieved with the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 1.00). Finally for RR, the method that presented the best results (K = 3.75 × 10(4), %R = 0.237%) was the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 6.00). The method was applied to the recovery of these dyes from a textile effluent sample, resulting in values of K of 1.17 × 10(4), 724.1, and 3.98 × 10(4) for MG, MB, and RR, respectively, while the corresponding %R values were 0.0038, 0.154, and 0.023%, respectively. In addition, the ATPS methodology provided a high degree of color removal (96.5-97.95%) from the textile effluent. PMID:27591846

  19. A method for dye extraction using an aqueous two-phase system: Effect of co-occurrence of contaminants in textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriella Alexandre; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Penido, Jussara Alves; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; Rodrigues, Guilherme Dias

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a green and efficient procedure for extraction of the dyes Malachite Green (MG), Methylene Blue (MB), and Reactive Red 195 (RR) using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). An ATPS consists mainly of water, together with polymer and salt, and does not employ any organic solvent. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by means of the partition coefficients (K) and residual percentages (%R) of the dyes, under different experimental conditions, varying the tie-line length (TLL) of the system, the pH, the type of ATPS-forming electrolyte, and the type of ATPS-forming polymer. For MG, the best removal (K = 4.10 × 10(4), %R = 0.0069%) was obtained with the ATPS: PEO 1500 + Na2C4H4O6 (TLL = 50.21% (w/w), pH = 6.00). For MB, the maximum extraction (K = 559.9, %R = 0.258%) was achieved with the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 1.00). Finally for RR, the method that presented the best results (K = 3.75 × 10(4), %R = 0.237%) was the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 6.00). The method was applied to the recovery of these dyes from a textile effluent sample, resulting in values of K of 1.17 × 10(4), 724.1, and 3.98 × 10(4) for MG, MB, and RR, respectively, while the corresponding %R values were 0.0038, 0.154, and 0.023%, respectively. In addition, the ATPS methodology provided a high degree of color removal (96.5-97.95%) from the textile effluent.

  20. Biological nitrogen removal in a step-feed CAST with real-time control treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ma; Chengyao, Peng; Li, Wang; Shuying, Wang; Yang, Liu; Ningping, Ma; Xia, Yu; Yongzhen, Peng

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a 18 L step-feed cyclic activated sludge technology (CAST) combined with real-time control treating real municipal wastewater was evaluated. The operation strategies employed pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) as on-line control parameters, which can control the durations of oxic and anoxic phases flexibly. The obtained results showed that the studied process had achieved advanced and enhanced nitrogen removal by several phases of consecutive oxic/anoxic periods. Total nitrogen in effluent was lower than 2 mg/L and the average TN removal efficiency was higher than 98%, while only requiring small amount of external carbon source. Unexpected characteristic points in pH and ORP profiles denoting the depletion of nitrate were also observed during the last anoxic phase. Denitrification rate was found to be more dependent on the system temperature compared to nitrification rate. Moreover, a stable and efficient phosphorus removal rate above 90% was achieved by using step-feed strategy which enabled the influent carbon source to be fully used and the favourable condition for phosphorus releasing to be created during the anoxic phases.

  1. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  2. Characterization and biofiltration of a real odorous emission from wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Rangel, M Gabriela L; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-02-15

    Biofilters have been widely employed for the treatment of malodorous emissions from sludge handling activities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), although their optimized design has been usually hindered by the lack of information about the dynamics of odorant formation. Besides, the odour abatement efficiency of biofilters has been rarely assessed on an individual odorant elimination basis. In this context, the characterization of odours from WWTP sludge in this study revealed the occurrence of a wide range of chemicals, including reduced sulphur compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with a dynamic concentration profile. The abatement of these odorants was evaluated in a compost-based biofilter at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs). Removal efficiencies (REs) higher than 99% were recorded for limonene, ketones and benzene, while toluene and DMTS REs exceeded 80% at an EBRT of 60 s. A stable biofilter performance was recorded despite the inlet odorant concentration fluctuations. Conversely, DMS and acetic acid were poorly removed due to their likely formation within the biofilter packing material. No correlation between the odorant elimination efficiency and their individual partition coefficients was herein observed.

  3. Potential of immobilized bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidases in the decolorization and removal of textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Suhail; Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-07-01

    Immobilized peroxidases from Momordica charantia were highly effective in decolorizing reactive textile dyes compared to its soluble counterpart. Dye solutions, 50-200 mg/l, were treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidases (specific activity of 99.0 EU per mg protein). The decolorization of dyes with soluble and immobilized enzyme was maximum in the range of pH 3.0-4.0. The effect of different temperatures on the dye decolorization was monitored and it was observed that all the dyes were maximally decolorized at 40 degrees C. In order to examine the operational stability of the immobilized preparation, the enzyme was repeatedly exploited for the decolorization of the dyes from fresh batch of dye solutions. Even after 10 cycles in each case the immobilized preparation retained nearly 50% of the initial enzyme activity. The immobilized enzyme exhibited more than 90% of the original activity while the soluble enzyme lost 33% of the initial activity when stored for 40 d at room temperature. Mixtures of three, four and eight dyes were prepared and treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with immobilized enzyme. Dyeing effluent collected from local dyers was treated with both types of enzyme preparations. Immobilized enzyme was capable of removing remarkably high concentration of color from the effluent. TOC content of soluble and immobilized enzyme treated individual dyes, mixture of dyes and dyeing effluent was determined and it was observed that higher TOC was removed after treatment with immobilized enzyme.

  4. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  5. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption. PMID:26517827

  6. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  7. Smart Textiles: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Schwarz, Anne

    This chapter introduces smart textiles and explains how textile materials and structures can be used as sensors, actuators, communication devices, energy sources and storage tools, and even processors. Conductive materials serve as the base for smart textiles. There are several advantages of using textiles as a substrate for smart functions; this chapter explains their important role in thermoregulation and highlights a smart suit for rescue workers.

  8. Response of a sludge-minimizing lab-scale BNR reactor when the operation is changed to real primary effluent from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    The activated sludge process is the most widely used treatment method for municipal wastewater. However, the excessive amount of biomass generated during the process is a major drawback. Earlier studies using the activated sludge process running in a biomass fasting and feasting mode demonstrated both nutrient removal and a minimization of biomass production. However, these studies were conducted using synthetic wastewater. In this study, we report findings from a lab-scale sludge-minimizing biological nutrient removing (BNR) reactor when its operation was changed from synthetic to real wastewater (primary effluent). Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors, one in sludge minimization mode (hereafter called modified-SBR), and the other in conventional activated sludge mode (referred as control-SBR), were operated for more than 300 days. Both reactors were started and operated with synthetic feed. Gradually the feed to both reactors was changed to 100% primary effluent collected from a local full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Irrespective of the feed composition, more than 98% NH3-N removal was recorded in both SBRs. However, while 89% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% synthetic feed, only 80% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% primary effluent in both SBRs. The overall observed sludge reduction in the modified-SBR as compared to the control-SBR also decreased from 65% to 39% when the feed was changed from 100% synthetic to 100% primary effluent. The specific oxygen uptake rate for the modified-SBR was 80% higher than that for the control-SBR when the SBRs were fed with primary effluent wastewater. The modified-SBR showed a greater diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs) with synthetic wastewater as well as during the transition period than the control-SBR. Yet when the reactors were running on 100% real wastewater, only Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha were identified in both SBRs. The nitrite

  9. Textiles and Apparel Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on textiles and apparel design. The units cover: (1) fiber/fiber characteristics and textile development (including fabrication and dyeing, printing, and finishing); (2) textile and apparel design industries (including their history and…

  10. Career Awareness through Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domalski, Beverly

    This collection of art units is intended to be incorporated into the curriculum throughout the career motivation program, kindergarten through grade six. The units use simulated classroom art projects to provide students with exposure to the work done in textile decoration. General information about the textile industry and textile decoration, a…

  11. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality.

  15. Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

    2014-07-01

    Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

  16. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  17. Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation of biodegraded textile effluent by fungal ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-01-01

    Colored effluents from the textile industry have led to severe environmental pollution, and this has emerged as a global issue. The feasibility of ligninolytic enzymes for the detoxification and degradation of textile wastewater was investigated. Ganoderma lucidum crude ligninolytic enzymes extract (MnP 717.7, LiP 576.3, and Laccase 323.2 IU/mL) was produced using solid-state culture using wheat bran as substrate. The biodegradation treatment efficiency was evaluated on the basis of degradation and detoxification of textile effluents. Standard bioassays were employed for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation before and after biodegradation. The degradation of Masood Textile, Kalash Textile, Khyber Textile and Sitara Textile effluents was achieved up to 87.29%, 80.17%, 77.31% and 69.04%, respectively. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and total organic carbon were improved considerably as a result of biodegradation of textile effluents, which were beyond the permissible limits established by the National Environmental Quality Standards before treatment. The cytotoxicity (Allium cepa, hemolytic, Daphnia magna and brine shrimp), mutagenicity (Ames TA98 and TA100) and phytotoxicity (Triticum aestivum) tests revealed that biodegradation significantly (P < 0.05) detoxifies the toxic agents in wastewater. Results revealed that biodegradation could possibly be used for remediation of textile effluents. However, detoxification monitoring is crucial and should always be used to evaluate the bio-efficiency of a treatment technique. PMID:27191553

  19. Mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation of biodegraded textile effluent by fungal ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-01-01

    Colored effluents from the textile industry have led to severe environmental pollution, and this has emerged as a global issue. The feasibility of ligninolytic enzymes for the detoxification and degradation of textile wastewater was investigated. Ganoderma lucidum crude ligninolytic enzymes extract (MnP 717.7, LiP 576.3, and Laccase 323.2 IU/mL) was produced using solid-state culture using wheat bran as substrate. The biodegradation treatment efficiency was evaluated on the basis of degradation and detoxification of textile effluents. Standard bioassays were employed for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation before and after biodegradation. The degradation of Masood Textile, Kalash Textile, Khyber Textile and Sitara Textile effluents was achieved up to 87.29%, 80.17%, 77.31% and 69.04%, respectively. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and total organic carbon were improved considerably as a result of biodegradation of textile effluents, which were beyond the permissible limits established by the National Environmental Quality Standards before treatment. The cytotoxicity (Allium cepa, hemolytic, Daphnia magna and brine shrimp), mutagenicity (Ames TA98 and TA100) and phytotoxicity (Triticum aestivum) tests revealed that biodegradation significantly (P < 0.05) detoxifies the toxic agents in wastewater. Results revealed that biodegradation could possibly be used for remediation of textile effluents. However, detoxification monitoring is crucial and should always be used to evaluate the bio-efficiency of a treatment technique.

  20. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  1. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles. PMID:27005410

  2. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  3. Treatment of colour industry wastewaters with concomitant bioelectricity production in a sequential stacked mono-chamber microbial fuel cells-aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey; Fonseka, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    The scalability of any microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based system is of vital importance if it is to be utilized for potential field applications. In this study, an integrated MFC-aerobic bioreactor system was investigated for its scalability with the purpose of treating a simulated dye wastewater and industrial wastewaters originated from textile dyebaths and leather tanning. The influent containing real wastewater was fed into the reactor in continuous mode at ambient temperature. Three MFC units were integrated to act in unison as a single module for wastewater treatment and a continuously stirred aerobic bioreactor operating downstream to the MFC module was installed in order to ensure more complete degradation of colouring agents found in the wastewater. Total colour removal in the final effluent exceeded 90% in all experiments where both synthetic (AO-7 containing) and real wastewater were used as the influent feed. The chemical oxygen demand reduction also exceeded 80% in all experiments under the same conditions. The MFC modules connected in parallel configuration allowed obtaining higher current densities than that can be obtained from a single MFC unit. The maximum current density of the MFC stack reached 1150 mA m(-2) when connected in a parallel configuration. The outcome of this work implies that suitably up-scaled MFC-aerobic integrated bioprocesses could be used for colour industry wastewater treatment under industrially relevant conditions with possible prospects of bioelectricity generation. PMID:26212183

  4. Treatment of colour industry wastewaters with concomitant bioelectricity production in a sequential stacked mono-chamber microbial fuel cells-aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey; Fonseka, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    The scalability of any microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based system is of vital importance if it is to be utilized for potential field applications. In this study, an integrated MFC-aerobic bioreactor system was investigated for its scalability with the purpose of treating a simulated dye wastewater and industrial wastewaters originated from textile dyebaths and leather tanning. The influent containing real wastewater was fed into the reactor in continuous mode at ambient temperature. Three MFC units were integrated to act in unison as a single module for wastewater treatment and a continuously stirred aerobic bioreactor operating downstream to the MFC module was installed in order to ensure more complete degradation of colouring agents found in the wastewater. Total colour removal in the final effluent exceeded 90% in all experiments where both synthetic (AO-7 containing) and real wastewater were used as the influent feed. The chemical oxygen demand reduction also exceeded 80% in all experiments under the same conditions. The MFC modules connected in parallel configuration allowed obtaining higher current densities than that can be obtained from a single MFC unit. The maximum current density of the MFC stack reached 1150 mA m(-2) when connected in a parallel configuration. The outcome of this work implies that suitably up-scaled MFC-aerobic integrated bioprocesses could be used for colour industry wastewater treatment under industrially relevant conditions with possible prospects of bioelectricity generation.

  5. Clothing and Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The purpose of the subject area guide is to present clothing and textiles in the perspective of family living and to relate clothing and textiles to a variety of life styles. Initial emphasis is placed on curriculum planning and the taxonomy of educational objectives. Skills in clothing construction are developed throughout the four homemaking…

  6. Wrinkle resistant cellulosic textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchens, J.D.; Patton, R.T.; Nadar, R.S.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a process for treating a cellulosic textile material so as to impart wrinkle resistance and smooth drying properties. It comprises treating the cellulosic textile material with an aqueous solution comprising trans-1,2,3,4-cyclobutane tetracarboxylic acid, and a curing catalyst, and heating the treated material so as to produce esterification and crosslinking of the material with the acid.

  7. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.

    PubMed

    Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The

  8. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.

    PubMed

    Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The

  9. Handling difficult materials: Textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, T.

    1994-07-01

    As recyclable materials, textiles are a potentially valuable addition to community collection programs. They make up a fairly substantial fraction--about 4%--of the residential solid waste stream, a higher figure than corrugated cardboard or magazines. Textiles have well-established processing and marketing infrastructures, with annual sales of over $1 billion in the US And buyers are out there, willing to pay $40 to $100 per ton. There doesn't seem to be any cumbersome government regulations standing in the way, either. So why are so few municipalities and waste haulers currently attempting to recover textiles The answers can be found in the properties of the material itself and a lack of knowledge about the existing textile recycling industry. There are three main end markets that come from waste textiles. In descending order of market share, they are: used clothing, fiber for paper and re-processing, and industrial wiping and polishing cloths.

  10. Separate treatment of hospital and urban wastewaters: A real scale comparison of effluents and their effect on microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Chonova, Teofana; Keck, François; Labanowski, Jérôme; Montuelle, Bernard; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès

    2016-01-15

    Hospital wastewaters (HWW) contain wider spectrum and higher quantity of pharmaceuticals than urban wastewaters (UWW), but they are generally discharged in sewers without pretreatment. Since traditional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are not designed to treat HWWs, treated effluents may still contain pollutants that could impair receiving aquatic environments. Hence, a better understanding of the effect of pharmaceuticals in the environment is required. Biofilms are effective "biological sensors" for assessing the environmental effects of pharmaceuticals due to their ability to respond rapidly to physical, chemical and biological fluctuations by changes in their structure and composition. This study evaluated the efficiency of biological treatment with conventional activated sludge system performed parallel on HWW and UWW. Furthermore, six successive monthly colonizations of biofilms were done on autoclaved stones, placed in grid-baskets in the hospital treated effluents (HTE) and urban treated effluents (UTE). The biomass of these biofilms as well as the structure and diversity of their bacterial communities were investigated. Results showed better treatment efficiency for phosphate and nitrite/nitrate during the treatment of UWW. Pharmaceuticals from all investigated therapeutic classes (beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, analgesics and anticonvulsants) were efficiently removed, except for carbamazepine. The removal efficiency of the antibiotics, NSAIDs and beta-blockers was higher during the treatment of HWW. HTE and UTE shaped the bacterial communities in different ways. Higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the HTE caused adapted development of the microbial community, leading to less developed biomass and lower bacterial diversity. Seasonal changes in solar irradiance and temperature, caused changes in the community composition of biofilms in both effluents. According to the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals

  11. Evaluation of five antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment systems of swine farms by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chi-Wei; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Chun-Po; Shen, Shu-Min; Shen, Tzung-Yu; Wan, Terng-Jou; Huang, Yu-Li

    2014-10-15

    Antibiotics are widely used in livestock for infection treatment and growth promotion. Wastes from animal husbandry are a potential environmental source of antibiotic-insensitive pathogens, and the removal efficiency of the resistance genotypes in current wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is unknown. In this study, quantitative PCR was used for evaluating antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes. Six wastewater treatment plants in different swine farms were included in this study, and five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were tested for each treatment procedure. All of the tested ARGs including tetA, tetW, sulI, sulII, and blaTEM genes were detected in six swine farms with considerable amounts. The results showed that antibiotic resistance is prevalent in livestock farming. The ARG levels were varied by wastewater treatment procedure, frequently with the highest level at anaerobic treatment tank and lowest in the activated sludge unit and the effluents. After normalizing the ARG levels to 16S rRNA gene copies, the results showed that ARGs in WWTP units fluctuated partly with the quantity of bacteria. Regardless of its importance in biodegradation, the anaerobic procedure may facilitate bacterial growth thus increasing the sustainability of the antibiotic resistance genotypes. After comparing the copy numbers in influx and efflux samples, the mean removal efficiency of ARGs ranged between 33.30 and 97.56%. The results suggested that treatments in the WWTP could partially reduce the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and additional procedures such as sedimentation may not critically affect the removal efficiency.

  12. Smart textiles: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherenack, Kunigunde; van Pieterson, Liesbeth

    2012-11-01

    Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.

  13. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  14. Solar detoxification of wastewater in a novel aerated cascade photoreactor (ACP).

    PubMed

    Xi, W; Geissen, S U; Vogelpohl, A

    2001-01-01

    A newly developed aerated cascade photoreactor (ACP), based on a non-concentrating suspension photoreactor, combines the advantages of a cascade with the increased mass-transfer and the use of oxygen from air as an oxidizing agent in a bubble column. Systematic studies of the limiting hydrodynamic conditions in the ACP and the solid/liquid-separation of the photocatalyst from the treated wastewater have shown that the ACP is technically and commercially attractive. The ACP outperforms the thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR) with respect to a 3-13 times higher degradation efficiency for the model compound dichloroacetic acid (DCA). The treatment of two biologically pretreated real wastewaters, one from a textile factory and one from car-washing, have been successfully carried out under artificial light and sunlight.

  15. Flame-resistant textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.

  16. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  17. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6.

  18. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6. PMID:26547269

  19. Inactivation of natural enteric bacteria in real municipal wastewater by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Gómez, E; Esteban García, B; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Fernández Ibáñez, P; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2014-10-15

    This study analyses the use of the solar photo-Fenton treatment in compound parabolic collector photo-reactors at neutral pH for the inactivation of wild enteric Escherichia coli and total coliform present in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP). Control experiments were carried out to find out the individual effects of mechanical stress, pH, reactants concentration, and UVA radiation as well as the combined effects of UVA-Fe and UVA-H2O2. The synergistic germicidal effect of solar-UVA with 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 led to complete disinfection (up to the detection limit) of total coliforms within 120 min. The disinfection process was accelerated by photo-Fenton, achieving total inactivation in 60 min reducing natural bicarbonate concentration found in the SEWWTP from 250 to 100 mg L(-1) did not give rise to a significant enhancement in bacterial inactivation. Additionally, the effect of hydrogen peroxide and iron dosage was evaluated. The best conditions were 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+). Due to the variability of the SEWWTP during autumn and winter seasons, the inactivation kinetic constant varied between 0.07 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.04 min(-1). Moreover, the water treated by solar photo-Fenton fulfilled the microbiological quality requirement for wastewater reuse in irrigation as per the WHO guidelines and in particular for Spanish legislation.

  20. UV254 absorbance as real-time monitoring and control parameter for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment with powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Massa, Lukas; Sperlich, Alexander; Gnirss, Regina; Jekel, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the applicability of UV absorbance measurements at 254 nm (UVA254) to serve as a simple and reliable surrogate parameter to monitor and control the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in advanced wastewater treatment applying powdered activated carbon (PAC). Correlations between OMP removal and corresponding UVA254 reduction were determined in lab-scale adsorption batch tests and successfully applied to a pilot-scale PAC treatment stage to predict OMP removals in aggregate samples with good accuracy. Real-time UVA254 measurements were utilized to evaluate adapted PAC dosing strategies and proved to be effective for online monitoring of OMP removal. Furthermore, active PAC dosing control according to differential UVA254 measurements was implemented and tested. While precise removal predictions based on real-time measurements were not accurate for all OMPs, UVA254-controlled dynamic PAC dosing was capable of achieving stable OMP removals. UVA254 can serve as an effective surrogate parameter for OMP removal in technical PAC applications. Even though the applicability as control parameter to adjust PAC dosing to water quality changes might be limited to applications with fast response between PAC adjustment and adsorptive removal (e.g. direct filtration), UVA254 measurements can also be used to monitor the adsorption efficiency in more complex PAC applications. PMID:26963606

  1. The status of water reuse in European textile sector.

    PubMed

    Vajnhandl, Simona; Valh, Julija Volmajer

    2014-08-01

    The textile finishing industry is known as a very fragmented and heterogeneous industrial sector dominated mainly by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As with many other industrial sectors in Europe, it is obliged to act more sustainably in regard to increasingly limited natural resources such as water. This paper presents in-depth survey of wastewater reuse programmes over the last ten years covering the European textile finishing industry. Different wastewater treatment solutions developed are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the project AquaFit4Use (7th Framework Programme), where almost five years of project work has resulted in valuable know-how practices in water reuse for the most water consuming sectors in Europe i.e. paper, food, chemical and textile. Only the latter is discussed in this paper. The main negative impacts by the textile finishing sector on the environment are still related to intensive water consumption and wastewater discharge, characterised by greater amounts of organic chemicals and colouring agents, low biodegradability, and high salinity. End of pipe treatment of such complex effluents in order to produce reusable water is not feasible. Therefore, separation of waste effluents regarding their pollution level and their separate treatment was the basic approach used in the project. As a result waste effluents with a big reuse potential could be effectively treated by combination of conventional treatment technologies. Proposed water treatment scenarios enable more than 40% reduction in fresh water consumption. Since different guidelines of minimum water quality to be safely reuse in textile processes exist at this stage this issue is discussed as well.

  2. The status of water reuse in European textile sector.

    PubMed

    Vajnhandl, Simona; Valh, Julija Volmajer

    2014-08-01

    The textile finishing industry is known as a very fragmented and heterogeneous industrial sector dominated mainly by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As with many other industrial sectors in Europe, it is obliged to act more sustainably in regard to increasingly limited natural resources such as water. This paper presents in-depth survey of wastewater reuse programmes over the last ten years covering the European textile finishing industry. Different wastewater treatment solutions developed are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the project AquaFit4Use (7th Framework Programme), where almost five years of project work has resulted in valuable know-how practices in water reuse for the most water consuming sectors in Europe i.e. paper, food, chemical and textile. Only the latter is discussed in this paper. The main negative impacts by the textile finishing sector on the environment are still related to intensive water consumption and wastewater discharge, characterised by greater amounts of organic chemicals and colouring agents, low biodegradability, and high salinity. End of pipe treatment of such complex effluents in order to produce reusable water is not feasible. Therefore, separation of waste effluents regarding their pollution level and their separate treatment was the basic approach used in the project. As a result waste effluents with a big reuse potential could be effectively treated by combination of conventional treatment technologies. Proposed water treatment scenarios enable more than 40% reduction in fresh water consumption. Since different guidelines of minimum water quality to be safely reuse in textile processes exist at this stage this issue is discussed as well. PMID:24768832

  3. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of Ln3+-TiO2 nanomaterial using fluorescence technique for real wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, M.; Aboul-Fotouh, S. M. K.; El-Molla, S. A.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Ismail, L. F. M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation the photocatalytic activity of different Ln3+ modified TiO2 nanomaterials using fluorescence based technique has rarely been reported. In the present work, x mol Ln3+ modified TiO2 nanomaterials (Ln = Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Dy3+ and Er3+ ions; x = 0.005, 0.008, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using different advanced techniques. The photocatalytic efficiency of the modified TiO2 expressed in the charge carrier separation and rad OH radicals formation were assigned using TiO2 fluorescence quenching and fluorescence probe methods, respectively. The obtained fluorescence measurements confirm that doping treatment significantly decreases the electron-hole recombination probability in the obtained Ln3+/TiO2. Moreover, the rate of rad OH radicals formation is increased by doping. The highly active nanoparticles (0.02Gd3+/TiO2 and 0.01Eu3+/TiO2) were applied for industrial wastewater treatment using solar radiation as a renewable energy source.

  4. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of Ln3+-TiO2 nanomaterial using fluorescence technique for real wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Saif, M; Aboul-Fotouh, S M K; El-Molla, S A; Ibrahim, M M; Ismail, L F M

    2014-07-15

    Evaluation the photocatalytic activity of different Ln(3+) modified TiO2 nanomaterials using fluorescence based technique has rarely been reported. In the present work, xmol Ln(3+) modified TiO2 nanomaterials (Ln = Nd(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Dy(3+) and Er(3+) ions; x = 0.005, 0.008, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using different advanced techniques. The photocatalytic efficiency of the modified TiO2 expressed in the charge carrier separation and OH radicals formation were assigned using TiO2 fluorescence quenching and fluorescence probe methods, respectively. The obtained fluorescence measurements confirm that doping treatment significantly decreases the electron-hole recombination probability in the obtained Ln(3+)/TiO2. Moreover, the rate of OH radicals formation is increased by doping. The highly active nanoparticles (0.02Gd(3+)/TiO2 and 0.01Eu(3+)/TiO2) were applied for industrial wastewater treatment using solar radiation as a renewable energy source.

  5. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  6. Textile technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Bharat M.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and develop window belt and side panel structural design concepts, to evaluate textile material properties, and to develop low cost manufacturing and tooling processes for the automated manufacturing of fuselage primary structures. This research was in support of the NASA and Langley Research Center (LaRc) Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technologies for Primary Aircraft Structures program.

  7. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  8. Formation, physical characteristics and microbial community structure of aerobic granules in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor for real wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Moy, Benjamin; Kong, Yun-Hua; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2010-05-01

    In this study, aerobic granular sludge was successfully developed in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) installed on site to treat real wastewater using traditional activated sludge as inoculum. Compared with 1 or 2 months required by lab-scale reactor for aerobic granulation, it took about 400 days for activated sludge to transform into granule-dominant sludge in the pilot-scale SBR on site. Although the sludge in the reactor after 400-day operation was a mixture of flocs and granules with floc ratio ranged from 5 to 30%, sludge volume index with 5min settling (SVI5) always maintained at around 30mL/g. The similar microbial community structures represented by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) between coexisted flocs and granules in the reactor indicated no strong microbial selection after the granules were dominant in the reactor. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies were above 80 and 98%, respectively, after 50-day operation, and the total inorganic N removal efficiency was about 50%. The results in this study demonstrate that it is feasible to form aerobic granules in pilot-scale SBR reactor and maintain the long-term stability of granular sludge with a high influent quality fluctuation. Meanwhile, stable COD and NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies can be obtained in the reactor.

  9. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction.

    PubMed

    Cavallin, Jenna E; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Lee, Kathy E; Schroeder, Anthony L; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P; Nelson, Krysta R; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Blackwell, Brett R; Berninger, Jason P; LaLone, Carlie A; Blanksma, Chad; Jicha, Terri; Elonen, Colleen; Johnson, Rodney; Ankley, Gerald T

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  10. On the performance of Fe and Fe,F doped Ti-Pt/PbO2 electrodes in the electrooxidation of the Blue Reactive 19 dye in simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo S; Ruotolo, Luís Augusto M; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Bocchi, Nerilso; Biaggio, Sonia R; Iniesta, Jesús; García-Garcia, Vicente; Montiel, Vicente

    2007-02-01

    The electrochemical performance of pure Ti-Pt/beta-PbO2 electrodes, or doped with Fe and F (together or separately), in the oxidation of simulated wastewaters containing the Blue Reactive 19 dye (BR-19), using a filter-press reactor, was investigated and then compared with that of a boron-doped diamond electrode supported on a niobium substrate (Nb/BDD). The electrooxidation of the dye simulated wastewater (volume of 0.1 l, with a BR-19 initial concentration of 25 mg l(-1)) was carried out under the following conditions: current density of 50 mA cm(-2), volume flow rate of 2.4 l h(-1), temperature of 25 degrees C and electrode area of 5 cm2. The performances of the electrodes in the dye decolorization were quite similar, achieving 100% decolorization, and in some cases 90% decolorization was achieved by applying only ca. 0.3 A h l(-1) (8 min of electrolysis). The reduction of the simulated wastewater organic load, monitored by its total organic carbon content (TOC), was greater for the Ti-Pt/beta-PbO2-Fe,F electrode obtained from an electrodeposition bath containing 1 mM Fe3+ and 30 mM F-. In this case, after 2 h of electrolysis the obtained TOC reduction was 95%, while for the pure beta-PbO2 and the Nb/BDD electrodes the reductions were 84% and 82%, respectively.

  11. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  12. Textile dye dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

    1995-04-01

    The literature concerning textile dye dermatitis published during the last decade was reviewed. Sixty-one cases of dye-allergic contact dermatitis in which the presentation or course of the dermatitis was unusual or the dye allergen was one not previously reported have been described. The four new dye allergens discovered were Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 85, Disperse Brown 1, and Basic Red 46. The incidence of dye dermatitis varied from 1% to 15.9% depending on the country, patient sample, and number of dyes in the patch test series. The 10 new dye allergens discovered in these studies were Disperse Blue 153, Disperse Orange 13, Basic Black 1, Basic Brown 1, the acid dyes Supramine Yellow and Supramine Red, the direct dye Diazol Orange, the basic dye Brilliant Green, Turquoise Reactive, and Neutrichrome Red. Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 were shown to be the strongest clothing dye sensitizers to date. Standard screening patch test series were found to be inadequate for the detection of textile dye sensitivity; therefore textile dye patch test series should be used. It is difficult to determine whether the incidence of dye dermatitis is increasing or decreasing because controlled epidemiologic studies are lacking, but data suggest that textile dye sensitivity is more common than previously believed.

  13. Growing Backyard Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  14. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified. PMID:26918485

  15. Novel antimicrobial textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Unchin

    2003-10-01

    Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer

  16. Effect of textile auxiliaries on the biodegradation of dyehouse effluent in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Arslan Alaton, Idil; Insel, Güçlü; Eremektar, Gülen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos; Orhon, Derin

    2006-03-01

    The textile industry is confronted with serious environmental problems associated with its immense wastewater discharge, substantial pollution load, extremely high salinity, and alkaline, heavily coloured effluent. Particular sources of recalcitrance and toxicity in dyehouse effluent are two frequently used textile auxiliaries; i.e. dye carriers and biocidal finishing agents. The present experimental work reports the observation of scientific and practical significance related with the effect of two commercially important textile dye carriers and two biocidal finishing agents on biological activated sludge treatment at a textile preparation, dyeing and finishing plant in Istanbul. Respirometric measurements of the dyehouse effluent spiked with the selected textile chemicals were carried out for the assessment of the "readily biodegradable COD fraction" of the wastewater. The respirometric data obtained to visualize the effect of the selected textile auxiliaries on biomass activity was evaluated by an adopted activated sludge model. Results have indicated that the tested biocides did not exert any significant inhibitory effect on the treatment performance of the activated sludge reactor at the concentrations usually encountered in the final, total dyehouse effluent. The situation with the dye carriers was inherently different; one dye carrier appeared to be highly toxic and caused serious inhibition of the microbial respirometric activity, whereas the other dye carrier, also known as the more ecological alternative, i.e. the "Eco-Carrier", appeared to be biodegradable. Finally, the respirometric profile obtained for the Eco-Carrier was described by a simplified respirometric model. PMID:16098558

  17. Application of microencapsulation in textiles.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gordon

    2002-08-21

    The textile roots of yeast microencapsulation technology was introduced as were the wide range of applications in food and other business sectors. In microencapsulation in general the number of commercial applications in the textile industry continues to grow particularly in the textile industries of Western Europe, Japan and North America. The move by the more developed countries into textiles with new properties and added value, into medical textile and technical textiles for example has encouraged the industry to use microencapsulation processes as a means of imparting finishes and properties on textiles which were not possible or cost-effective using other technology. Textile manufacturers are demonstrating increasing interest in the application of durable fragrances to textile as well as skin softeners. Other potential applications include, insect repellents, dyes, vitamins, antimicrobials, phase change materials and in specific medical applications, antibiotics, hormones and other drugs. Examples of each technology are described. A short summary of a new microencapsulation technology with roots in the textile industry, yeast based microencapsulation, is also described.

  18. Application of microencapsulation in textiles.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gordon

    2002-08-21

    The textile roots of yeast microencapsulation technology was introduced as were the wide range of applications in food and other business sectors. In microencapsulation in general the number of commercial applications in the textile industry continues to grow particularly in the textile industries of Western Europe, Japan and North America. The move by the more developed countries into textiles with new properties and added value, into medical textile and technical textiles for example has encouraged the industry to use microencapsulation processes as a means of imparting finishes and properties on textiles which were not possible or cost-effective using other technology. Textile manufacturers are demonstrating increasing interest in the application of durable fragrances to textile as well as skin softeners. Other potential applications include, insect repellents, dyes, vitamins, antimicrobials, phase change materials and in specific medical applications, antibiotics, hormones and other drugs. Examples of each technology are described. A short summary of a new microencapsulation technology with roots in the textile industry, yeast based microencapsulation, is also described. PMID:12176225

  19. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    2016-01-01

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater. PMID:27533873

  20. Enhanced degradation of eletrooxidized textile effluent by petroleum degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC No.1201) at compressed gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Manikandan; Annamalai, Sivasankar; Umarkatha, Sayera Banu; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2015-03-01

    The textile dyeing industry produces large volumes of wastewater during dyeing processes where the major step includes the color removal and COD removal. In the present study, the combined electrooxidation process and a novel biological degradation at high compressed gas pressure were studied. The removal of color in the real textile dye effluent was achieved by electrooxidation with Titanium Substrate Insoluble anode and titanium as cathode through generation of hypochlorite. The hypochlorite produced during the electrooxidation was removed by exposing the solution to direct sunlight. The impact of compressed atmospheric condition on the degradation of organics by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC No.1201, GenBank Acc. No KC545414) was studied. The compressed gas pressure condition increases the level of dissolved gas in the liquid phase and exerts the pressure on the growing cells in the liquid phase. Interesting synchronization between the utilization of oxygen by active microbial cells and the dissolution of oxygen in the water from gas phase was observed which enhanced the bacterial degradation process. It should be mentioned here that the P. aeruginosa was grown without addition of nutrients. The compressed atmospheric pressure enhances the bacterial proliferation, EPS production and COD reduction in the electrooxidized effluent. FTIR and HPLC reveal the degradation of organics in the compressed pressure condition.

  1. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    2016-01-01

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater.

  2. Decolourisation of Red 5 MB dye by microbes isolated from textile dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Subashini, P; Hiranmaiyadav, R; Premalatha, M S

    2010-07-01

    One of the major environmental problems is the presence of dye materials in textile wastewater, which need to be removed before releasing into the environment. Some dyes are toxic and carcinogenic in nature. The discharge of the textile effluent into rivers and lakes leads to higher BOD causing threat to aquatic life. Development of efficient dye degradation requires suitable strain and its use under favorable condition to realize the degradation potential. In this study, three microorganisms were isolated from the Red 5 MB dye containing textile wastewater. They were identified and tested for the dye decolourisation provided with different sugars as carbon source. The percentage of dye decolorized by Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus were found to be about 40%, 75% and 53.8% respectively.

  3. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Doris; Schlich, Karsten; Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute; Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2015-07-15

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  4. Woven-Yarn Thermoelectric Textiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ah; Aliev, Ali E; Bykova, Julia S; de Andrade, Mônica Jung; Kim, Daeyoung; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lepró, Xavier; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Roth, Siegmar; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication and characterization of highly flexible textiles are reported. These textiles can harvest thermal energy from temperature gradients in the desirable through-thickness direction. The tiger yarns containing n- and p-type segments are woven to provide textiles containing n-p junctions. A high power output of up to 8.6 W m(-2) is obtained for a temperature difference of 200 °C.

  5. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment.

  6. E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

  7. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The presen...

  8. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics.

  9. Decolorization of adsorbed textile dyes by developed consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Telke, Amar A; Jagtap, Sujit S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop consortium using Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 to decolorize adsorbed dyes from textile effluent wastewater under solid state fermentation. Among various agricultural wastes rice bran showed dye adsorption up to 90, 62 and 80% from textile dye reactive navy blue HE2R (RNB HE2R) solution, mixture of textile dyes and textile industry wastewater, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 showed 62 and 38% decolorization of RNB HE2R adsorbed on rice bran in 24h under solid state fermentation. However, the consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 (consortium-PA) showed 80% decolorization in 24h. The consortium-PA showed effective ADMI removal ratio of adsorbed dyes from textile industry wastewater (77%), mixture of textile dyes (82%) and chemical precipitate of textile dye effluent (CPTDE) (86%). Secretion of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, azoreductase, tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase and their significant induction in the presence of adsorbed dye suggests their role in the decolorization of RNB HE2R. GCMS and HPLC analysis of product suggests the different fates of biodegradation of RNB HE2R when used Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 and consortium PA.

  10. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  11. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing.

  12. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing. PMID:27284809

  13. Microscopic contact area and friction between medical textiles and skin.

    PubMed

    Derler, S; Rotaru, G-M; Ke, W; El Issawi-Frischknecht, L; Kellenberger, P; Scheel-Sailer, A; Rossi, R M

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical contact between medical textiles and skin is relevant in the health care for patients with vulnerable skin or chronic wounds. In order to gain new insights into the skin-textile contact on the microscopic level, the 3D surface topography of a normal and a new hospital bed sheet with a regular surface structure was measured using a digital microscope. The topographic data was analysed concerning material distribution and real contact area against smooth surfaces as a function of surface deformations. For contact conditions that are relevant for the skin of patients lying in a hospital bed it was found that the order of magnitude of the ratio of real and apparent contact area between textiles and skin or a mechanical skin model lies between 0.02 and 0.1 and that surface deformations, i.e. penetration of the textile surface asperities into skin or a mechanical skin model, range from 10 to 50µm. The performed analyses of textile 3D surface topographies and comparisons with previous friction measurement results provided information on the relationship between microscopic surface properties and macroscopic friction behaviour of medical textiles. In particular, the new bed sheet was found to be characterised by a trend towards a smaller microscopic contact area (up to a factor of two) and by a larger free interfacial volume (more than a factor of two) in addition to a 1.5 times lower shear strength when in contact with counter-surfaces. The applied methods can be useful to develop improved and skin-adapted materials and surfaces for medical applications.

  14. Applying NISHIJIN historical textile technique for e-Textile.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Hirano, Kikuo; Sugimura, Kazushige; Adachi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Hidetsugu; Ueshima, Kazuo; Nakamura, Hideo; Nambu, Masayuki; Doi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The e-Textile is the key technology for continuous ambient health monitoring to increase quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. The authors introduce techniques of Japanese historical textile, NISHIJIN, which illustrate almost any pattern from one continuous yarn within the machine weaving process, which is suitable for mixed flow production. Thus, NISHIJIN is suitable for e-Textile production, which requires rapid prototyping and mass production of very complicated patterns. The authors prototyped and evaluated a few vests to take twelve-lead electrocardiogram. The result tells that the prototypes obtains electrocardiogram, which is good enough for diagnosis.

  15. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  16. Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles--a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny

    2015-04-01

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from "organic cotton" equipped with the "Nordic Ecolabel" ("Svanenmärkt"). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  17. Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles--a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny

    2015-04-01

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from "organic cotton" equipped with the "Nordic Ecolabel" ("Svanenmärkt"). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater. PMID:25342452

  18. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, C.C.; Harris, C.E.

    1995-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advance Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry. Separate abstracts were prepared for articles from this document.

  19. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, C.C. Jr.; Harris, C.E.

    1995-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for articles from this conference.

  20. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C. (Editor); Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advance Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry.

  1. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  2. Textile Organic Electrochemical Transistors as a Platform for Wearable Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Gualandi, I.; Marzocchi, M.; Achilli, A.; Cavedale, D.; Bonfiglio, A.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of wearable chemical sensors is receiving a great deal of attention in view of non-invasive and continuous monitoring of physiological parameters in healthcare applications. This paper describes the development of a fully textile, wearable chemical sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) entirely made of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS). The active polymer patterns are deposited into the fabric by screen printing processes, thus allowing the device to actually “disappear” into it. We demonstrate the reliability of the proposed textile OECTs as a platform for developing chemical sensors capable to detect in real-time various redox active molecules (adrenaline, dopamine and ascorbic acid), by assessing their performance in two different experimental contexts: i) ideal operation conditions (i.e. totally dipped in an electrolyte solution); ii) real-life operation conditions (i.e. by sequentially adding few drops of electrolyte solution onto only one side of the textile sensor). The OECTs response has also been measured in artificial sweat, assessing how these sensors can be reliably used for the detection of biomarkers in body fluids. Finally, the very low operating potentials (<1 V) and absorbed power (~10−4 W) make the here described textile OECTs very appealing for portable and wearable applications. PMID:27667396

  3. Textile Organic Electrochemical Transistors as a Platform for Wearable Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualandi, I.; Marzocchi, M.; Achilli, A.; Cavedale, D.; Bonfiglio, A.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-09-01

    The development of wearable chemical sensors is receiving a great deal of attention in view of non-invasive and continuous monitoring of physiological parameters in healthcare applications. This paper describes the development of a fully textile, wearable chemical sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) entirely made of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS). The active polymer patterns are deposited into the fabric by screen printing processes, thus allowing the device to actually “disappear” into it. We demonstrate the reliability of the proposed textile OECTs as a platform for developing chemical sensors capable to detect in real-time various redox active molecules (adrenaline, dopamine and ascorbic acid), by assessing their performance in two different experimental contexts: i) ideal operation conditions (i.e. totally dipped in an electrolyte solution); ii) real-life operation conditions (i.e. by sequentially adding few drops of electrolyte solution onto only one side of the textile sensor). The OECTs response has also been measured in artificial sweat, assessing how these sensors can be reliably used for the detection of biomarkers in body fluids. Finally, the very low operating potentials (<1 V) and absorbed power (~10‑4 W) make the here described textile OECTs very appealing for portable and wearable applications.

  4. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Doris; Schlich, Karsten; Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute; Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2015-07-01

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  5. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Doris; Schlich, Karsten; Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute; Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2015-07-01

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  6. Energy conservation in the textile industry: 10 case histories

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Presented are ten case studies of energy conserving technologies that have been implemented by the textile industry. For each case is given: the name and location of the plant and an employee contact, description of products, energy consumption and costs in years before and after the energy conserving technology was implemented, energy savings since the energy conserving technology was implemented, description of investment decision-making process, and description of any institutional and environmental considerations. Measures included are: tandem preparation line, dyebath reuse, bump-and-run (dyebath temperature drifts for the last 85% of the hold time), foam finishing, wastewater heat recovery, wastewater chlorination and reuse, oven exhaust air counterflow, boiler economizer, wood-fired boiler, and solar industrial process heat. Several other energy conserving technologies that were not studied are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  7. NICE3 Textile Finishing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

  8. Tensile properties of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avva, V. Sarma; Sadler, Robert L.; Lyon, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    The importance of textile composite materials in aerospace structural applications has been gaining momentum in recent years. With a view to better understand the suitability of these materials in aerospace applications, an experimental program was undertaken to assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Specifically, the braided textile preforms were infiltrated with suitable polymeric matrices leading to the fabrication of composite test coupons. Evaluation of the tensile properties and the analyses of the results in the form of strength moduli, Poisson's ratio, etc., for the braided composites are presented. Based on our past experience with the textile coupons, the fabrication techniques have been modified (by incorporating glass microballoons in the matrix and/or by stabilizing the braid angle along the length of the specimen with axial fibers) to achieve enhanced mechanical properties of the textile composites. This paper outlines the preliminary experimental results obtained from testing these composites.

  9. Textile wastes. [Processing and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of process technology applied to secondary effluents of textile plants is presented. Studies of waste heat recovery from dyehouse effluents indicate that energy consumption of dyehouses could be reduced by 50% or more. Included are 25 references.

  10. Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

  11. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-11-15

    A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO2-RuO2-TiO2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC-MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater. PMID:27427887

  12. Experimental data for synthesis of bi-metalized chitosan particle for attenuating of an azo dye from wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Hajivandi, Abdollah; Farjadfard, Sima; Ramavandi, Bahman; Akbarzadeh, Samad

    2016-01-01

    In this data article, we introduce data acquired from new adsorbent, bi-metalized chitosan particle that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye, an azo dye, from textile wastewater. The adsorbent was meso- and macro-porous material with BET surface area of 12.69 m2/g and pHzpc 6.6. The simulated textile-wastewater can be significantly treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent. Overall, the use of bi-metalized chitosan particle can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively. Accordingly, these data will be useful for decolorizing of azo dyes from textile wastewater. PMID:26955651

  13. Experimental data for synthesis of bi-metalized chitosan particle for attenuating of an azo dye from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hajivandi, Abdollah; Farjadfard, Sima; Ramavandi, Bahman; Akbarzadeh, Samad

    2016-06-01

    In this data article, we introduce data acquired from new adsorbent, bi-metalized chitosan particle that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye, an azo dye, from textile wastewater. The adsorbent was meso- and macro-porous material with BET surface area of 12.69 m(2)/g and pHzpc 6.6. The simulated textile-wastewater can be significantly treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent. Overall, the use of bi-metalized chitosan particle can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively. Accordingly, these data will be useful for decolorizing of azo dyes from textile wastewater. PMID:26955651

  14. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  16. Illustrated glossary of textile terms for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A glossary was developed to define textile terminology applicable to the manufacture of composites. Terms describing fabric structure were illustrated for clarity. Descriptive terms for defects from both textile and composites industry were included.

  17. Integral Textile Ceramic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David B.; Cox, Brian N.

    2008-08-01

    A new paradigm for ceramic composite structural components enables functionality in heat exchange, transpiration, detailed shape, and thermal strain management that significantly exceeds the prior art. The paradigm is based on the use of three-dimensional fiber reinforcement that is tailored to the specific shape, stress, and thermal requirements of a structural application and therefore generally requires innovative textile methods for each realization. Key features include the attainment of thin skins (less than 1 mm) that are nevertheless structurally robust, transpiration holes formed without cutting fibers, double curvature, compliant integral attachment to other structures that avoids thermal stress buildup, and microcomposite ceramic matrices that minimize spalling and allow the formation of smooth surfaces. All these features can be combined into structures of very varied gross shape and function, using a wide range of materials such as all-oxide systems and SiC and carbon fibers in SiC matrices. Illustrations are drawn from rocket nozzles, thermal protection systems, and gas turbine engines. The new design challenges that arise for such material/structure systems are being met by specialized computational modeling that departs significantly in the representation of materials behavior from that used in conventional finite element methods.

  18. A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).

    PubMed

    Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

    2009-01-01

    Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structure of this plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of water and nutrients. Physico-chemical analysis revealed increasing amounts of sulfur, silicon, iron and calcium in the plant leafs and roots after exposure to wastewater. Proteins or amide groups in the plant might help in textile dye removal. Regarding decolorization, this plant accumulates dye in the intercellular space and still grows in this SRDW condition. Hence, it can be noted here that narrow-leaved cattails are efficient for textile dye wastewater treatment.

  19. A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).

    PubMed

    Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

    2009-01-01

    Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structure of this plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of water and nutrients. Physico-chemical analysis revealed increasing amounts of sulfur, silicon, iron and calcium in the plant leafs and roots after exposure to wastewater. Proteins or amide groups in the plant might help in textile dye removal. Regarding decolorization, this plant accumulates dye in the intercellular space and still grows in this SRDW condition. Hence, it can be noted here that narrow-leaved cattails are efficient for textile dye wastewater treatment. PMID:19759459

  20. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  1. Novel Wireless-Communicating Textiles Made from Multi-Material and Minimally-Invasive Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Gorgutsa, Stepan; Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications. PMID:25325335

  2. Novel wireless-communicating textiles made from multi-material and minimally-invasive fibers.

    PubMed

    Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications.

  3. Pollution prevention in the textile industries

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    Not surprisingly, the textile industry has faced increasing pressure regarding environmental and waste-related concerns as a result of the quantity and toxicity of generated wastewaters; this was illustrated in 1989 when the industry was listed among the top ten toxic waste generators in the US Environmental Protection Agency TRI report (for 1987 releases), the majority of toxics (52%) being released to water media. The industry has since made significant reductions in waste generation through equipment changes, recycling, and non-process-related measures such as housekeeping, as well as research and development activities centered on technology for waste minimization. Specific examples of these activities are discussed. Recent developments in the industry are providing for more recycle and reuse of process water and chemicals. Furthermore, interest in media other than the traditional water-based systems, such as solvents and foams, for chemical application is increasing. Accordingly, the industry is finding that, beyond meeting regulations, the potential economic gain through reductions in treatment costs and wasted resources is enormous.

  4. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers.

    PubMed

    Neves, A I S; Bointon, T H; Melo, L V; Russo, S; de Schrijver, I; Craciun, M F; Alves, H

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn. PMID:25952133

  5. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    PubMed Central

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn. PMID:25952133

  6. Textile composite fuselage structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Chu, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Phase 2 of the NASA ACT Contract (NAS1-18888), Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technology for Transport Aircraft Structures, focuses on textile technology, with resin transfer molding or powder coated tows. The use of textiles has the potential for improving damage tolerance, reducing cost and saving weight. This program investigates resin transfer molding (RTM), as a maturing technology for high fiber volume primary structures and powder coated tows as an emerging technology with a high potential for significant cost savings and superior structural properties. Powder coated tow technology has promise for significantly improving the processibility of high temperature resins such as polyimides.

  7. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  8. Textile Science Leader's Guide. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This instructor's guide provides an overview of 4-H student project modules in the textile sciences area. The guide includes short notes explaining how to use the project modules, a flowchart chart showing how the project areas are sequenced, a synopsis of the design and content of the modules, and some program planning tips. For each of the…

  9. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Sun Mok; Hyun, Tae Ahn; Joeng, Tai Kim

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  11. Automated quality control for stitching of textile articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Markus, Alan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Quality control for stitching of a textile article is performed by measuring thread tension in the stitches as the stitches are being made, determining locations of the stitches, and generating a map including the locations and stitching data derived from the measured thread tensions. The stitching data can be analyzed, off-line or in real time, to identify defective stitches. Defective stitches can then be repaired. Real time analysis of the thread tensions allows problems such as broken needle threads to be corrected immediately.

  12. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.; Xu, X.

    1997-03-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

  13. Pressure mapping with textile sensors for compression therapy monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Mazzocchi, Tommaso; Paoletti, Clara; Ricotti, Leonardo; Salvo, Pietro; Dini, Valentina; Laschi, Cecilia; Francesco, Fabio Di; Menciassi, Arianna

    2016-08-01

    Compression therapy is the cornerstone of treatment in the case of venous leg ulcers. The therapy outcome is strictly dependent on the pressure distribution produced by bandages along the lower limb length. To date, pressure monitoring has been carried out using sensors that present considerable drawbacks, such as single point instead of distributed sensing, no shape conformability, bulkiness and constraints on patient's movements. In this work, matrix textile sensing technologies were explored in terms of their ability to measure the sub-bandage pressure with a suitable temporal and spatial resolution. A multilayered textile matrix based on a piezoresistive sensing principle was developed, calibrated and tested with human subjects, with the aim of assessing real-time distributed pressure sensing at the skin/bandage interface. Experimental tests were carried out on three healthy volunteers, using two different bandage types, from among those most commonly used. Such tests allowed the trends of pressure distribution to be evaluated over time, both at rest and during daily life activities. Results revealed that the proposed device enables the dynamic assessment of compression mapping, with a suitable spatial and temporal resolution (20 mm and 10 Hz, respectively). In addition, the sensor is flexible and conformable, thus well accepted by the patient. Overall, this study demonstrates the adequacy of the proposed piezoresistive textile sensor for the real-time monitoring of bandage-based therapeutic treatments.

  14. Micromechanical models for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Bhavani V.; Marrey, Ramesh V.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical and analytical micromechanical models are presented to predict the thermoelastic behavior of a textile composite. In the numerical model, the unit-cell is discretized with finite elements, and periodic boundary conditions are imposed between opposite faces of the unit-cell. For a thin textile composite, stress gradients effects through the thickness are demonstrated. The consequent difference in the stiffness and strength behavior of thick and thin composites are discussed. The numerical model is implemented to predict 3-D thermo-elastic constants for a thick textile composite, and the plate thermo-mechanical properties for a thin textile composite. The numerical model is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses due to processing to predict the composite failure envelopes. An analytical model - Selective Averaging Method (SAM) - is proposed, which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging to estimate the 3-D elastic constants. Both the models are tested and verified for several examples by comparing the stiffness properties with elasticity solutions and available results.

  15. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  16. Integrated microelectronics for smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Christl; Glaser, Rupert; Savio, Domnic; Schnell, Markus; Weber, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The combination of textile fabrics with microelectronics will lead to completely new applications, thus achieving elements of ambient intelligence. The integration of sensor or actuator networks, using fabrics with conductive fibres as a textile motherboard enable the fabrication of large active areas. In this paper we describe an integration technology for the fabrication of a "smart textile" based on a wired peer-to-peer network of microcontrollers with integrated sensors or actuators. A self-organizing and fault-tolerant architecture is accomplished which detects the physical shape of the network. Routing paths are formed for data transmission, automatically circumventing defective or missing areas. The network architecture allows the smart textiles to be produced by reel-to-reel processes, cut into arbitrary shapes subsequently and implemented in systems at low installation costs. The possible applications are manifold, ranging from alarm systems to intelligent guidance systems, passenger recognition in car seats, air conditioning control in interior lining and smart wallpaper with software-defined light switches. PMID:16282655

  17. Systematic development of technical textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, M.; Schrank, V.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Technical textiles are used in various fields of applications, ranging from small scale (e.g. medical applications) to large scale products (e.g. aerospace applications). The development of new products is often complex and time consuming, due to multiple interacting parameters. These interacting parameters are production process related and also a result of the textile structure and used material. A huge number of iteration steps are necessary to adjust the process parameter to finalize the new fabric structure. A design method is developed to support the systematic development of technical textiles and to reduce iteration steps. The design method is subdivided into six steps, starting from the identification of the requirements. The fabric characteristics vary depending on the field of application. If possible, benchmarks are tested. A suitable fabric production technology needs to be selected. The aim of the method is to support a development team within the technology selection without restricting the textile developer. After a suitable technology is selected, the transformation and correlation between input and output parameters follows. This generates the information for the production of the structure. Afterwards, the first prototype can be produced and tested. The resulting characteristics are compared with the initial product requirements.

  18. Clothing and Textile Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Forty-seven performance-based instructional modules on six major topics are provided for the home economics content area of clothing and textiles. The six topics are (1) planning basics (psychological, physical, social, and behavioral aspects of clothing; elements of design; principles of design; and style and fashion in clothing), (2) buyership…

  19. Construction of a high efficiency copper adsorption bacterial system via peptide display and its application on copper dye polluted wastewater.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Ganesh, Irisappan; Ravikumar, Sambandam; Yun, Hyungdon; Yoo, Ik-Keun; Hong, Soon Ho

    2015-11-01

    For the construction of an efficient copper waste treatment system, a cell surface display strategy was employed. The copper adsorption ability of recombinant bacterial strains displaying three different copper binding peptides were evaluated in LB Luria-Bertani medium (LB), artificial wastewater, and copper phthalocyanine containing textile dye industry wastewater samples. Structural characteristics of the three peptides were also analyzed by similarity-based structure modeling. The best binding peptide was chosen for the construction of a dimeric peptide display and the adsorption ability of the monomeric and dimeric peptide displayed strains were compared. The dimeric peptide displayed strain showed superior copper adsorption in all three tested conditions (LB, artificial wastewater, and textile dye industry wastewater). When the strains were exposed to copper phthalocyanine dye polluted wastewater, the dimeric peptide display [543.27 µmol/g DCW dry cell weight (DCW)] showed higher adsorption of copper when compared with the monomeric strains (243.53 µmol/g DCW).

  20. Removal of textile dyes and metallic ions using polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Caldera Villalobos, M; Peláez Cid, A A; Herrera González, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the removal of textile dyes and metallic ions by means of adsorption and coagulation-flocculation using two polyelectrolytes and two macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups. The adsorption of textile dyes was studied in aqueous solutions containing cationic dyes and in wastewater containing a vat dye. Also, removal of vat and naphthol dyes was studied using the process of coagulation-flocculation. The results show these materials possess elevated adsorption capacity, and they accomplished removal rates above 97% in aqueous solutions. The removal of the vat dye improved the quality of the wastewater notably, and an uncolored effluent was obtained at the end of the treatment. The treatment using adsorption decreased the values for coloration, conductivity, suspended solids, and pH. The removal of vat and naphthol dyes by means of coagulation-flocculation was studied as well, and removal rates of 90% were obtained. The polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes also proved effective in the adsorption of metallic ions in wastewater. The treatment using adsorption accomplished high removal rates of metallic ions, and it showed greater selectivity towards Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Pb(2+). A decrease in the content of solids as well as the values for COD and conductivity was observed in the wastewater as well. The analyses of FT-IR indicated that cationic dyes and metallic ions were chemisorbed by means of ionic exchange.

  1. Removal of textile dyes and metallic ions using polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Caldera Villalobos, M; Peláez Cid, A A; Herrera González, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the removal of textile dyes and metallic ions by means of adsorption and coagulation-flocculation using two polyelectrolytes and two macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups. The adsorption of textile dyes was studied in aqueous solutions containing cationic dyes and in wastewater containing a vat dye. Also, removal of vat and naphthol dyes was studied using the process of coagulation-flocculation. The results show these materials possess elevated adsorption capacity, and they accomplished removal rates above 97% in aqueous solutions. The removal of the vat dye improved the quality of the wastewater notably, and an uncolored effluent was obtained at the end of the treatment. The treatment using adsorption decreased the values for coloration, conductivity, suspended solids, and pH. The removal of vat and naphthol dyes by means of coagulation-flocculation was studied as well, and removal rates of 90% were obtained. The polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes also proved effective in the adsorption of metallic ions in wastewater. The treatment using adsorption accomplished high removal rates of metallic ions, and it showed greater selectivity towards Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Pb(2+). A decrease in the content of solids as well as the values for COD and conductivity was observed in the wastewater as well. The analyses of FT-IR indicated that cationic dyes and metallic ions were chemisorbed by means of ionic exchange. PMID:27082258

  2. Toxic and biomedical effects of textiles and textile production. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity associated with textiles. Vapors from burning flame-resistant fabric, magnesium vapors from polyester foam, and toxic emissions from insulation, clothing, and upholstery are described and evaluated. Health effects resulting from formaldehyde treatment of fabrics for crease-resistance, lubricant addition to polyester fabrics, and exposure to textile mill effluents and airborne particulates from textile mill rooms are examined. (Contains a minimum of 150 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR method with propidium monazide treatment for analyses of viable fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is currently evaluating rapid, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for determining recreational water quality based on measurements of fecal indicator bacteria DNA sequences. In order to potentially use qPCR for other Clean Water Act needs, such as updating cri...

  4. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored.

  5. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored. PMID:27152994

  6. Textile electrodes and integrated smart textile for reliable biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, R; Pacelli, M

    2011-01-01

    Since birth the first and the most natural interface for the body is fabric, a soft, warm and reassuring material. Cloth is usually covering more than 80 % of the skin; which leads us to consider textile material as the most appropriate interface where new sensorial and interactive functions can be implemented. The new generation of personalised monitoring systems is based on this paradigm: functions like sensing, transmission and elaboration are implementable in the materials through the textile technology. Functional yarns and fibres are usable to realise garments where electrical and computing properties are combined with the traditional mechanical characteristics, giving rise to textile platforms that are comparable with the cloths that are normally used to produce our garments. The feel of the fabric is the same, but the functionality is augmented. Nowadays, consumers demand user-friendly connectivity and interactivity; sensing clothes are the most natural and ordinary interface able to follow us, everywhere in a non-intrusive way, in natural harmony with our body. PMID:22255038

  7. Statistical optimization for decolorization of textile dyes using Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S

    2009-06-15

    The conventional treatment of dark coloured textile wastewater using chemical coagulation generates large volume of sludge, which requires further treatment and disposal. In the present investigation, a systematic optimization study of the important variables influencing the decolorization of Reactive Orange-16 (RO-16) and Reactive Red-35 (RR-35) dyes by the white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) was carried out. A full factorial central composite design was employed for experimental design and optimization of results. The effect of concentrations of dye, glucose and ammonium chloride on decolorization was studied and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum decolorization of 94.5% and 90.7% for RO-16 and RR-35 was obtained at optimum concentrations of dye, glucose and ammonium chloride i.e., 0.66, 17.50 and 2.69 g/L for RO-16 and 0.68, 16.67 and 2.13 g/L for RR-35, respectively.

  8. [Reactions to fragrances and textiles].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M

    1987-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fragrances are caused by perfumes and perfume-containing items of our environment. The most important allergen is cinnamic aldehyde. By means of the mixed perfume test recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG), however, we are not able to detect more than half of the patients suffering from perfume allergy. Thus we suggest to make use of two new test series comprising most of the relevant fragrance components. Allergic reactions to textiles are mostly due to textile dyes. Special regard must be given to the disperse dyes of the azo group in nylon stockings and tights. The three most important allergens are disperse yellow 3, disperse orange 3, and disperse red 1. According to our experiments, the sensitizing potency of these dyes is comparatively low. In contrast, two recently introduced azo dyes (disperse blue 106 and 124), which are mainly used in blouses and trousers, proved to be strong sensitizers.

  9. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  10. Econazole imprinted textiles with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Lalloz, Augustine; Benhaddou, Aicha; Pagniez, Fabrice; Raymond, Martine; Le Pape, Patrice; Simard, Pierre; Théberge, Karine; Leblond, Jeanne

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose pharmaceutical textiles imprinted with lipid microparticles of Econazole nitrate (ECN) as a mean to improve patient compliance while maintaining drug activity. Lipid microparticles were prepared and characterized by laser diffraction (3.5±0.1 μm). Using an optimized screen-printing method, microparticles were deposited on textiles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The drug content of textiles (97±3 μg/cm(2)) was reproducible and stable up to 4 months storage at 25 °C/65% Relative Humidity. Imprinted textiles exhibited a thermosensitive behavior, as witnessed by a fusion temperature of 34.8 °C, which enabled a larger drug release at 32 °C (temperature of the skin) than at room temperature. In vitro antifungal activity of ECN textiles was compared to commercial 1% (wt/wt) ECN cream Pevaryl®. ECN textiles maintained their antifungal activity against a broad range of Candida species as well as major dermatophyte species. In vivo, ECN textiles also preserved the antifungal efficacy of ECN on cutaneous candidiasis infection in mice. Ex vivo percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated that ECN released from pharmaceutical textiles concentrated more in the upper skin layers, where the fungal infections develop, as compared to dermal absorption of Pevaryl®. Overall, these results showed that this technology is promising to develop pharmaceutical garments textiles for the treatment of superficial fungal infections. PMID:26883854

  11. Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Worley, S. Dave

    2005-01-01

    Unlike the widely used slow-releasing biocidal mechanism now employed in biocidal textiles, a novel regenerable process, based on a regeneration principle and halamine chemistry, has been developed in antimicrobial finishing of textiles. Halamine-modified textile materials demonstrate durable and regenerable antimicrobial functions and execute rapid inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms by contact without yielding drug resistance. The unique properties of the products render them useful materials for medical-use and hygienic textiles. The chemistry of the biocidal materials is be discussed. See Featured Molecules .

  12. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  13. Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Amit; Madamwar, Datta

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited by the dyes. Visible spectroscopy and TLC confirmed that color removal was due to degradation of the dyes.

  14. Eco- and genotoxicological assessments of two reactive textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de; Meireles, Gabriela; Brito, Lara Barroso; Rodrigues, Laís de Brito; Palma de Oliveira, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of natural waters has been one of the major problems of modern society and the textile industry is rated as an important polluting source, due to the generation of large amounts of wastewaters. The aim of this study was to assess textile dyes Reactive Blue 19 (RB19, anthraquinone dye) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120, azo dye) in terms of the potential to induce adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. Thus, these dyes were tested using the following assays: Microtox assay (Vibrio fischeri); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); Daphnia similis; and Comet with normal human dermal fibroblasts as well as Ames test (TA98, TA100, YG1041, YG1042--with and without S9). RB19 was relatively nontoxic to all aquatic bioindicators analyzed with an EC50 of more than 100 mg/L, whereas RR120 was only moderately toxic to A. salina with a EC50-48h of 81.89 mg/L. Mutagenicity through base pair substitution was observed with RB19 in the presence of S9 (Ames-positive). The comet assay did not demonstrate any apparent genotoxic effects for any tested dye. Although mutagenicity was detected with RB19, the mutagenic effect observed may be considered weak compared to the ability to induce DNA damage by other classes of dyes such as disperse dyes. Therefore, these dyes may be classified as nonmutagens (RR120) or weak mutagens (RB19) and relatively nontoxic for aquatic organisms. However, it is noteworthy that the weak acute toxicity to A. salina induced by RR120 is sufficient to suggest potential damage to the aquatic ecosystem and emphasizes the need for biomonitoring dye levels in wastewater systems.

  15. Chitosan beads immobilized manganese peroxidase catalytic potential for detoxification and decolorization of textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-08-01

    Textile industry has led to severe environmental pollution and is posing a serious threat to the ecosystems. Immobilized biocatalysts have gained importance as potential bio-remediating agent. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was immobilized onto glutaraldehyde activated chitosan beads by crosslinking and employed for the degradation and detoxification of dyes in textile effluents. The efficiency of chitosan-immobilized MnP (CI-MnP) was evaluated on the basis of decolorization, water quality improvement and toxicity reduction. Maximum color removal of 97.31% was recorded and up to 82.40%, 78.30% and 91.7% reductions in COD, TOC, and BOD were achieved, respectively. The cytotoxicity of bio-treated effluents reduced significantly and 38.46%, 43.47% and 41.83% Allium cepa root length, root count and mitotic index were increased, respectively, whereas brine shrimp nauplii death reduced up to 63.64%. Mutagenicity (Ames test) reduced up to 73.44% and 75.43% for TA98 and TA100 strains, respectively. The CI-MnP retained 60% activity after 10 repeated decolorization batches. The CI-MnP showed excellent efficiency for the bioremediation of textile effluents and can be used for the remediation of toxic agents in wastewater. The monitoring of processed wastewater using bioassays is suggested to evaluate bio-efficiency of treatment method for safe disposal of effluents into water bodies. PMID:27130652

  16. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications.

  17. Exploring redox-mediating characteristics of textile dye-bearing microbial fuel cells: thionin and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Xu, Bin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies indicated that biodecolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as electron shuttles to stimulate wastewater decolorization and bioelectricity generation (WD&BG) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tended to explore whether non-azo textile dyes (i.e., thionin and malachite green) could also own such redox-mediating capabilities for WD&BG. Prior findings mentioned that OH and/or NH2 substitute-containing auxochrome compounds (e.g., 2-aminophenol and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene) could effectively mediate electron transport in MFCs for simultaneous WD&BG. This work clearly suggested that the presence of electron-mediating textile dyes (e.g., thionin and malachite green (MG)) in MFCs is promising to stimulate color removal and bioelectricity generation. That is, using MFCs as operation strategy for wastewater biodecolorization is economically promising in industrial applications due to autocatalytic acceleration of electron-flux for WD&BG in MFCs.

  18. Exploring redox-mediating characteristics of textile dye-bearing microbial fuel cells: thionin and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Xu, Bin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies indicated that biodecolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as electron shuttles to stimulate wastewater decolorization and bioelectricity generation (WD&BG) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tended to explore whether non-azo textile dyes (i.e., thionin and malachite green) could also own such redox-mediating capabilities for WD&BG. Prior findings mentioned that OH and/or NH2 substitute-containing auxochrome compounds (e.g., 2-aminophenol and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene) could effectively mediate electron transport in MFCs for simultaneous WD&BG. This work clearly suggested that the presence of electron-mediating textile dyes (e.g., thionin and malachite green (MG)) in MFCs is promising to stimulate color removal and bioelectricity generation. That is, using MFCs as operation strategy for wastewater biodecolorization is economically promising in industrial applications due to autocatalytic acceleration of electron-flux for WD&BG in MFCs. PMID:25062539

  19. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater.

  20. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater. PMID:25459797

  1. pH-gradient real-time aeration control for nitritation community selection in a non-porous hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) with dilute wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Heng; Cotter, Samuel F; Reyes Prieri, Silvia C; Attalage, Dinu; Sung, Shihwu

    2013-02-01

    Nitritation (ammonium to nitrite) as a pre-treatment of Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) is a key step for an energy-efficient nitrogen-removal alternative from dilute wastewaters, e.g. anaerobically-treated sewage, with which limited study has achieved sustainable nitritation at ambient temperature and short hydraulic retention times. To this end, pH-gradient real-time aeration control in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor was observed at 20°C in the sequencing batch mode. An optimum oxygen supply via diffusion for ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was established, but nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) could be inhibited. The system achieved nitrite accumulation efficiencies varying from 88% to 94% with the aeration control. Mass balance and rate performance analyses indicate that this aeration control is able to supply an oxygen rate of 1.5 mol O(2) mol(-1) ammonium fed, the benchmark oxygenation rate based on stoichiometry for nitritation community selection. Microbial analyses confirmed AOB prevalence with NOB inhibition under this aeration control.

  2. Stormwater and Wastewater Infrastructure Monitoring Test Bed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing application of stormwater and wastewater management in urban and urbanizing environments is increasing the demand for monitoring technologies and systems that can provide reliable performance data, in real-time or near real-time, for operation and maintenance decision...

  3. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  4. Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang Sun; Worley, S. Dave

    2005-01-01

    Antimicrobial textiles can be categorized into two groups, biocidal and biostatic materials, according to their functions. Biostatic functions refer to inhibiting growth of microorganisms on textiles and preventing the materials from biodegradation and biocidal materials are able to kill microorganisms, thus eliminating their growth, sterilizing…

  5. Environmental Considerations for Flame Resistant Textiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virtually all common textiles will ignite and burn. There are mandatory and voluntary cigarette and open-flame ignition regulations to address unreasonable fire risks associated with textile products that require them to be treated with and/or contain flame retardant chemicals to make them flame res...

  6. Problem Based Learning in Constructed Textile Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Kate; Wilson, Jacquie; Challis, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Staff observing undergraduate students enrolled on the BSc Hons Textile Design and Design Management programme in The School of Materials, The University of Manchester, identified difficulties with knowledge retention in the area of constructed textile design. Consequently an experimental pilot was carried out in seamless knitwear design using a…

  7. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nannan; Chen, Jun; Huang, Yi; Guo, Wanwan; Yang, Jin; Du, Jun; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-13

    A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to plants absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, humans can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering small electronic devices.

  8. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  9. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-05-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l(-1). The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters.

  10. Micromechanical models for textile structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrey, Ramesh V.; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop micromechanical models for predicting the stiffness and strength properties of textile composite materials. Two models are presented to predict the homogeneous elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of a textile composite. The first model is based on rigorous finite element analysis of the textile composite unit-cell. Periodic boundary conditions are enforced between opposite faces of the unit-cell to simulate deformations accurately. The second model implements the selective averaging method (SAM), which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging. For thin textile composites, both models can predict the plate stiffness coefficients and plate thermal coefficients. The finite element procedure is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses, and to estimate the initial failure envelope for textile composites.

  11. Simulation of magnetic coatings on textile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    While the properties of conductive fibres and coatings on textiles can easily be measured and calculated, magnetic coatings of fibres, yarns and fabrics still lack descriptions of their physical properties. Since magnetic textiles can be used for a variety of applications, from magnetic filters to invisible water-marks to magnetic coils and sensors, simulations would be supportive to understand and utilize their properties. The article gives an overview of different coatings on textile fibres, varying the magnetic materials as well as the fibre composition, giving rise to the interactions between neighbouring coated fibres. In this way, it is possible to understand the strong shape anisotropy which must be taken into account when the magnetic properties of textiles are to be tailored. Additionally, the differences between several possible magnetic coating materials become visible. This study can help adjusting the magnetic properties of textile fabrics to a desired application.

  12. Colour removal from textile waste water using bioculture in continous mode.

    PubMed

    Meenambal, T; Devi, Divya; Begum, Munirunissa

    2006-10-01

    One of the environmental problems being faced by textile industry is the removal of colour from the dye wastewater prior to discharge to local sewage treatment facilities or adjoining water courses. During the past two decades, several physico-chemical methods like adsorption, chemical treatment and ion pair extractions were adopted and have been proved to be costly and less effective. Biological treatment methods are comparatively cheap and considered to be the best alternative with proper analysis and environmental control. With this in mind, an attempt was made to evaluate efficiency with mixed microbial cultures for the decolourisation of the dye wastewater in continuous mode operation. Laboratory scale models of anaerobic reactor, activated sludge process and sand filter were fabricated and operated in series. The activated bioclean was inoculated in the anaerobic reactor. The characteristics and treatability of the textile dye wastewater were analysed. The sample taken for the study was combined effluent collected from the equalization tank in Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Tirupur. The experiments were conducted for different organic loading rates. Parameters such as colour, pH, COD, BOD, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, chlorides and sulphates for both the influent and effluent were evaluated. The removal efficiency of the anaerobic process, activated sludge process and sand filter for the above said parameters were studied.

  13. Electroadsorption of acilan blau dye from textile effluents by using activated carbon-perlite mixtures.

    PubMed

    Koparal, A S; Yavuz, Y; Bakir Ogütveren, U

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the removal of dye stuffs from textile effluents by electroadsorption has been investigated. An activated carbon-perlite mixture with a ratio of 8:1 for bipolarity has been used as the adsorbent. Conventional adsorption experiments have also been conducted for comparison. A bipolar trickle reactor has been used in the electroadsorption experiments. The model wastewater has been prepared by using acilan blau dye. Initial dye concentration, bed height between the electrodes, applied potential, flowrate, and the supporting electrolyte concentration have been examined as the parameters affecting the removal efficiency. A local textile plant effluent has been treated in the optimum values of these parameters obtained from the experimental studies. Adsorption kinetics and the amount of adsorbent required to reach the maximum removal efficiency have also been investigated and mass-transfer coefficients have been calculated for adsorption and electroadsorption. The results showed that a removal efficiency of up to 100% can be achieved with energy consumption values of 1.58 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated. However, energy consumption decreases to 0.09 kWh/m3 if an exit dye concentration of 4.65 mg/L is accepted. It can be concluded from this work that this method combines all of the advantages of the activated-carbon adsorption and electrolytic methods for the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  14. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from ten textile dyeing plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Lin, Mei-Qing; Shen, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Wang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2014-07-01

    As components of synthetic dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present as contaminants in textile dyeing sludge due to the recalcitrance in wastewater treatment process, which may pose a threat to environment in the process of sludge disposal. In order to evaluate PAHs in textile dyeing sludge, comprehensive investigation comprising 10 textile dyeing plants was undertaken. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of 16 EPA-priority PAHs were analyzed in this study. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 1463 ± 177 ng g(-1) to 16,714 ± 1,507 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 6386 ng g(-1). The composition profiles of PAHs were characterized by 3- and 4-ring PAHs, among which phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene were the most dominant components. The mean benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration of ∑16 PAHs in textile dyeing sludge was 423 ng g(-1), which was 2-3 times higher than concentrations reported for urban soil. According to ecological risk assessment, the levels of PAHs in the textile dyeing sludge may cause a significant risk to soil ecosystem after landfill or dumping on soil.

  15. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and...

  16. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and...

  17. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and...

  18. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and...

  19. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and...

  20. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  1. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  2. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  3. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  4. Textile Messages: Dispatches from the World of E-Textiles and Education. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies. Volume 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buechley, Leah, Ed.; Peppler, Kylie, Ed.; Eisenberg, Michael, Ed.; Yasmin, Kafai, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Textile Messages" focuses on the emerging field of electronic textiles, or e-textiles--computers that can be soft, colorful, approachable, and beautiful. E-textiles are articles of clothing, home furnishings, or architectures that include embedded computational and electronic elements. This book introduces a collection of tools that…

  5. Silver nanowire decorated heatable textiles.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Doga; Coskun, Sahin; Genlik, Sevim Polat; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-10-28

    The modification of insulating fabrics with electrically conductive nanomaterials has opened up a novel application field. With the help of Joule heating mechanism, conductive fabrics can be used as mobile heaters. In this work, heatable textiles are fabricated using silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Cotton fabrics are decorated with polyol synthesized Ag NWs via a simple dip-and-dry method. The time-dependent thermal response of the fabrics under different applied voltages is investigated. It is found that the fabrics can be heated to 50 °C under an applied power density of as low as 0.05 W cm(-2). Uniform deposition of Ag NWs resulted in the homogeneous generation of heat. In addition, the stability of the fabrics with time and under different bending and washing conditions is examined. Moreover, a simple control circuit is fabricated and integrated in order to demonstrate the high potential of the fabrics for mobile applications. This work provides a roadmap for researchers who would like to work on heatable textiles with metallic NWs. PMID:27651222

  6. Silver nanowire decorated heatable textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doganay, Doga; Coskun, Sahin; Polat Genlik, Sevim; Emrah Unalan, Husnu

    2016-10-01

    The modification of insulating fabrics with electrically conductive nanomaterials has opened up a novel application field. With the help of Joule heating mechanism, conductive fabrics can be used as mobile heaters. In this work, heatable textiles are fabricated using silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Cotton fabrics are decorated with polyol synthesized Ag NWs via a simple dip-and-dry method. The time-dependent thermal response of the fabrics under different applied voltages is investigated. It is found that the fabrics can be heated to 50 °C under an applied power density of as low as 0.05 W cm-2. Uniform deposition of Ag NWs resulted in the homogeneous generation of heat. In addition, the stability of the fabrics with time and under different bending and washing conditions is examined. Moreover, a simple control circuit is fabricated and integrated in order to demonstrate the high potential of the fabrics for mobile applications. This work provides a roadmap for researchers who would like to work on heatable textiles with metallic NWs.

  7. Silver nanowire decorated heatable textiles.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Doga; Coskun, Sahin; Genlik, Sevim Polat; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-10-28

    The modification of insulating fabrics with electrically conductive nanomaterials has opened up a novel application field. With the help of Joule heating mechanism, conductive fabrics can be used as mobile heaters. In this work, heatable textiles are fabricated using silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Cotton fabrics are decorated with polyol synthesized Ag NWs via a simple dip-and-dry method. The time-dependent thermal response of the fabrics under different applied voltages is investigated. It is found that the fabrics can be heated to 50 °C under an applied power density of as low as 0.05 W cm(-2). Uniform deposition of Ag NWs resulted in the homogeneous generation of heat. In addition, the stability of the fabrics with time and under different bending and washing conditions is examined. Moreover, a simple control circuit is fabricated and integrated in order to demonstrate the high potential of the fabrics for mobile applications. This work provides a roadmap for researchers who would like to work on heatable textiles with metallic NWs.

  8. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C., Jr. (Editor); Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry.

  11. Handbook of Analytical Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian N.; Flanagan, Gerry

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to introduce models and computer codes for predicting the properties of textile composites. The handbook includes several models for predicting the stress-strain response all the way to ultimate failure; methods for assessing work of fracture and notch sensitivity; and design rules for avoiding certain critical mechanisms of failure, such as delamination, by proper textile design. The following textiles received some treatment: 2D woven, braided, and knitted/stitched laminates and 3D interlock weaves, and braids.

  12. Resin transfer molding of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

    1993-01-01

    The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

  13. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater through chemical coagulation-adsorption process-A case study of Clariant Pakistan limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Shah, Syed Farman; Shah, Abdul Karim; Mehdi, Ahmad; Memon, Aziza Aftab; Harijan, Khanji; Ali, Zeenat M.

    2012-05-01

    Textile dye manufacture processes are known as the most polluting chemical processes of industrial sectors of the world. Colored wastewaters along with many polluting agents are troublesome. They are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. Current study applies a coupled technology for wastewater treatment. Combined coagulation-adsorption process was utilized for treatment of complex nature effluents of dyes, binder emulsion, pigments and textile chemicals plants at Clariant Pakistan. Cost effective coagulant and adsorbent was selected by using waste material from a power generation unit of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan. The treated effluent could be reused. Alum+ Activated Carbon, Ferrous sulfate+ Activated Carbon, Ferric chloride + Activated Carbon. Almost complete decolourization was achieved along with reduction in COD up to 65%. Pre and post treatment, TDS, COD, Turbidity and suspended solids were improved.

  1. Transformation of Four Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater and Post-processing of Sewage Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing use of silver (Ag) nanoparticles [containing either elemental Ag (Ag-NPs) or AgCl (AgCl-NPs)] in commercial products such as textiles will most likely result in these materials reaching wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies indicate that a conversion of Ag-...

  2. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising. PMID:20662390

  3. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.

    PubMed

    Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

  4. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  5. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts were evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy materials are now under development.

  6. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  7. Time for Textiles in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Outlines how a group of primary teachers developed a range of design briefs using textiles, and describes how students were taught explicit skills which enabled them to successfully solve the design tasks. (WRM)

  8. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts have been evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy material is now under development.

  9. Geometrical modelling of textile reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.; Birger, Alexander B.; Clyburn, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of textile composites are dictated by the arrangement of yarns contained within the material. Thus, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the performance of these materials, it is necessary to develop a geometrical model of the fabric structure. This task is quite complex, as the fabric is made from highly flexible yarn systems which experience a certain degree of compressibility. Furthermore there are tremendous forces acting on the fabric during densification typically resulting in yarn displacement and misorientation. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for characterizing the geometry of yarns within a fabric structure including experimental techniques for evaluating these models. Furthermore, some applications of these geometric results to mechanical property predictions models are demonstrated.

  10. Geometrical modelling of textile reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.; Birger, Alexander B.; Clyburn, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of textile composites are dictated by the arrangement of yarns contained with the material. Thus to develop a comprehensive understanding of the performance of these materials, it is necessary to develop a geometrical model of the fabric structure. This task is quite complex, as the fabric is made form highly flexible yarn systems which experience a certain degree of compressability. Furthermore there are tremendous forces acting on the fabric during densification typically resulting in yarn displacement and misorientation. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for characterizing the geometry of yarns within a fabric structure including experimental techniques for evaluating these models. Furthermore, some applications of these geometric results to mechanical prediction models are demonstrated. Although more costly than its predecessors, the present analysis is based on the detailed architecture developed by one of the authors and his colleagues and accounts for many of the geometric complexities that other analyses ignore.

  11. Research and development in the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

  12. Measurement of noise and impedance of dry and wet textile electrodes, and textile electrodes with hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, Merja M; Komulainen, Satu M; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Malmivuo, Jaakko A V; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2006-01-01

    Textile sensors, when embedded into clothing, can provide new ways of monitoring physiological signals, and improve the usability and comfort of such monitoring systems in the areas of medical, occupational health and sports. However, good electrical and mechanical contact between the electrode and the skin is very important, as it often determines the quality of the signal. This paper introduces a study where the properties of dry textile electrodes, textile electrodes moistened with water, and textile electrodes covered with hydrogel were studied with five different electrode sizes. The aim was to study how the electrode size and preparation of the electrode (dry electrode/wet electrode/electrode covered with hydrogel membrane) affect the measurement noise, and the skin-electrode impedance. The measurement noise and skin-electrode impedance were determined from surface biopotential measurements. These preliminary results indicate that noise level increases as the electrode size decreases. The noise level is high in dry textile electrodes, as expected. Yet, the noise level of wet textile electrodes is quite low and similar to that of textile electrodes covered with hydrogel. Hydrogel does not seem to improve noise properties, however it may have effects on movement artifacts. Thus, it is feasible to use textile embedded sensors in physiological monitoring applications when moistening or hydrogel is applied.

  13. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  14. Decolorization potential of mixed microbial consortia for reactive and disperse textile dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, H N; Shah, S A H; Asad, M Javaid; Legge, R L

    2007-06-01

    Four different aerobic mixed consortia collected from basins of wastewater streams coming out of dying plants of Crescent Textile (CT), Sitara Textile (ST), Chenab Fabrics (CF) and Noor Fatima Textile (NF), Faisalabad, Pakistan were applied for decolorization of Drimarene Orange K-GL, Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL, Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN for 10 days using the shake flask technique. CT culture showed the best decolorization potential on all dyestuffs followed by ST, NF and CF, respectively. CT could completely decolorize all dyes within 3-5 days. ST cultures showed effective decolorization potential on Foron Yellow SE4G and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL but complete color removal was achieved after 4 and 7 days, respectively. NF culture showed 100% decolorization efficiencies on Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN but it took comparatively longer time periods (5-7 days). Where as, the NF culture had decolorized only 40% and 50% of Drimarene orange and red, respectively, after 10 days. CF caused complete decolorization of Foron Blue RDGLN and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL after 4 and 8 days, respectively but it showed poor performance on other two dyes.

  15. Aromatic amine contents, component distributions and risk assessment in sludge from 10 textile-dyeing plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Liang, Jie-Ying; Li, Rui-Jing; Hong, Zhen; Wang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Ken-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yang, Zuo-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs), which are components of synthetic dyes, are recalcitrant to the wastewater treatment process and can accumulate in sludge produced by textile-dyeing, which may pose a threat to the environment. A comprehensive investigation of 10 textile-dyeing plants was undertaken in Guangdong Province in China. The contents and component distributions of AAs were evaluated in this study, and a risk assessment was performed. The total concentrations of 14 AAs (Σ14 AAs) varied from 11 μg g(-1)dw to 82.5 μg g(-1)dw, with a mean value of 25 μg g(-1)dw. The component distributions of AAs were characterized by monocyclic anilines, of which 2-methoxy-5-methylaniline and 5-nitro-o-toluidine were the most dominant components. The risk quotient (RQ) value was used to numerically evaluate the ecological risk of 14 AAs in the environment. The result showed that the 14 AAs contents in textile-dyeing sludge may pose a high risk to the soil ecosystem after being discarded on soil or in a landfill.

  16. Long-term natural remediation process in textile dye-polluted river sediment driven by bacterial community changes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsukasa; Adachi, Yusuke; Yamanashi, Yu; Shimada, Yosuke

    2016-09-01

    The textile and dyeing industries are major sources of environmental water pollution all over the world. The textile wastewater effluents discharged into rivers often appear dark red-purple in color due to azo dyes, which can be transformed into carcinogenic aromatic amines. The chemicals used in dyeing are not readily degraded in nature and thus precipitate in river sediment. However, little is known about how dyeing chemicals affect river sediment and river water or how long they persist because they are difficult to monitor. To assess undetectable dyes and byproducts in river sediments, we evaluated the potential of river sediment bacteria to degrade dyes and aromatic amines. We describe the natural remediation of river sediment long-contaminated by textile dyeing effluent. After cessation of wastewater discharge, the dye-degradation potential decreased, and the aromatic amine-degradation potential increased initially and then declined over time. The changes in degradation potential were consistent with changes in the sediment bacterial community. The transition occurred on the order of years. Our data strongly suggest that dyes remained in the river sediment and that aromatic amines were produced even in transparent- and no longer colored-river water, but these chemicals were degraded by the changing sediment bacteria. Time-course monitoring of the degradation activities of key bacteria thus enables assessment of the fate of dye pollutants in river sediments.

  17. Long-term natural remediation process in textile dye-polluted river sediment driven by bacterial community changes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsukasa; Adachi, Yusuke; Yamanashi, Yu; Shimada, Yosuke

    2016-09-01

    The textile and dyeing industries are major sources of environmental water pollution all over the world. The textile wastewater effluents discharged into rivers often appear dark red-purple in color due to azo dyes, which can be transformed into carcinogenic aromatic amines. The chemicals used in dyeing are not readily degraded in nature and thus precipitate in river sediment. However, little is known about how dyeing chemicals affect river sediment and river water or how long they persist because they are difficult to monitor. To assess undetectable dyes and byproducts in river sediments, we evaluated the potential of river sediment bacteria to degrade dyes and aromatic amines. We describe the natural remediation of river sediment long-contaminated by textile dyeing effluent. After cessation of wastewater discharge, the dye-degradation potential decreased, and the aromatic amine-degradation potential increased initially and then declined over time. The changes in degradation potential were consistent with changes in the sediment bacterial community. The transition occurred on the order of years. Our data strongly suggest that dyes remained in the river sediment and that aromatic amines were produced even in transparent- and no longer colored-river water, but these chemicals were degraded by the changing sediment bacteria. Time-course monitoring of the degradation activities of key bacteria thus enables assessment of the fate of dye pollutants in river sediments. PMID:27232990

  18. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in crop plants grown near Almeda Textile Factory, Adwa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gitet, Hintsa; Hilawie, Masho; Muuz, Mehari; Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Gebremichael, Dawit; Gebremedhin, Desta

    2016-09-01

    The contents of heavy metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) present in water (wastewater and wetland), soils, and food crops collected from the vicinity of Almeda Textile Factory were quantified using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS) in order to assess the environmental impact of the textile factory. The contents of heavy metals determined in the wastewater were found below the recommended limit set by WHO and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) except for Cr, which was found slightly higher than WHO permissible limit. Besides, the contents of the heavy metals determined in soils were below the permissible level of FAO/WHO and Canada maximum allowable limits. Moreover, only the concentrations of Cd and Pb were found above the permissible level set by FAO/WHO in the crop plants studied. Generally, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the plants were in the decreasing order of: Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Cr > Cd. Nevertheless, higher bioconcentration factor (BCF) was found for Cd (0.108-1.156) followed by Zn (0.081-0.499). In conclusion, comparison of heavy metal concentrations with the permissible limits in all collected sample types i.e. water, soil, and crop plants did not show significant pollution from the factory. PMID:27485616

  19. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  20. Visible-light photoactive Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 nanostructures prepared in a water-soluble ionic liquid for degradation of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padervand, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 photocatalysts, prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted precipitation method, were used as an efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic system for removal of wastewater and pathogenic bacteria from the aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction powder, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET) analysis methods were used to characterize the nanostructures. Photodegradation mechanism was investigated and the results showed that the prepared samples were too efficient for the degradation of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) azo dye, and E. coli cells under visible light. The photogenerated electron-hole pairs reacted with the species in the solution and produced super active radicals such as {{O}}{{{H}}^ \\cdot } , {{H}}{{{O}}^ \\cdot }_{{2}} , and {{{O}}^{ \\cdot - }}_{{2}} which are responsible for the degradation of the environmental pollutions. TEM images were used to clarify the antibacterial activity of the products. Finally, as a practical application of the prepared photocatalysts, their ability evaluated for degradation of a real wastewater sample which was provided from the textile industries.

  1. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  2. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  3. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37 ± 4.48, 1.15 ± 0.13 and 565 ± 4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94 ± 0.05 to 166 ± 3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166 ± 3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field.

  4. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Abdul Aziz, A. R.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising. PMID:23881131

  5. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons.

  6. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons. PMID:27372249

  7. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  8. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing. PMID:26429136

  9. Coping with arsenic-based pesticides on Dine (Navajo) textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jae R.

    Arsenic-based pesticide residues have been detected on Arizona State Museum's (ASM) Dine (Navajo) textile collection using a handheld portable X-ray (pXRF) spectrometer. The removal of this toxic pesticide from historic textiles in museums collections is necessary to reduce potential health risks to Native American communities, museum professionals, and visitors. The research objective was divided into three interconnected stages: (1) empirically calibrate the pXRF instrument for arsenic contaminated cotton and wool textiles; (2) engineer an aqueous washing treatment exploring the effects of time, temperature, agitation, and pH conditions to efficiently remove arsenic from wool textiles while minimizing damage to the structure and properties of the textile; (3) demonstrate the devised aqueous washing treatment method on three historic Navajo textiles known to have arsenic-based pesticide residues. The preliminary results removed 96% of arsenic from a high arsenic concentration (~1000 ppm) textile opposed to minimal change for low arsenic concentration textiles (<100 ppm).

  10. Determination of Diameter and Index of Refraction of Textile Fibers by Laser Backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    H. Okuda; B. Stratton; L. Meixler; P. Efthimion; D.Mansfield

    2003-07-24

    A new method was developed to determine both diameters and indices of refraction and hence the birefringence of cylindrical textile and industrial fibers and bundles by measuring intensity patterns of the scattered light over an interval of scattering angles. The measured intensity patterns are compared with theoretical predictions (Mie theory) to determine fiber diameter and index of refraction. It is shown that the method is simple and accurate and may be useful as an on-line, noncontact diagnostic tool in real time.

  11. Color management in textile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Vannucci, Massimiliano; Buonopane, Massimo; Fabroni, Cosimo; Fabrini, Francesco

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this research was to study a system of acquisition and processing of images capable of confronting colored wool with a reference specimen, in order to define the conformity using objective parameters. The first step of the research was to comprise and to analyze in depth the problem: there has been numerous implications of technical, physical, cultural, biological and also psychological character, that come down from the attempt of giving a quantitative appraisal to the color. In the scene of the national and international scientific and technological research, little has been made as regards measurement of color through digital processing of the images through linear CCD. The reason is fundamentally of technological nature: only during the last years we found the presence on the market of low cost equipment capable of acquiring and processing images with adequate performances and qualities. The job described has permitted to create a first prototype of system for the color measuring with use of CCD linear devices. -Hardware identification to carry out a series of tests and experiments in laboratory. -Verification of such device in a textile facility. -Statistics analysis of the collected data and of the employed models.

  12. Color prediction in textile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Buonopane, Massimo

    2004-09-01

    Nowadays production systems of fancy yarns for knits allow the creation of extremely complex products in which many effects are obtained by means of color alteration. Current production technique consists in defining type and quantity of fibers by making preliminary samples. This samples are then compared with a reference one. This comparison is based on operator experience. Many samples are required in order to achieve a sample similar to the reference one. This work requires time and then additional costs for a textile manufacturer. In addition, the methodology is subjective. Nowadays, spectrophotometers are the only devices that seem to be able to provide objective indications. They are based on a spectral analysis of the light reflected by the knit material. In this paper the study of a new method for color evaluation of a mix of wool fibers with different colors is presented. First of all fiber characterization were carried out through scattering and absorption coefficients using the Kubelka-Munk theory. Then the estimated color was compared with a reference item, in order to define conformity by means of objective parameters. Finally, theoretical characterization was compared with the measured quantity. This allowed estimation of prediction quality.

  13. A dynamic tester to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and moisture behaviour of the microclimate of textiles is crucial in determining the physiological comfort of apparel, but it has not been investigated sufficiently due to the lack of particular evaluation techniques. Based on sensing, temperature controlling and wireless communicating technology, a specially designed tester has been developed in this study to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles in moving status. A temperature acquisition system and a temperature controllable hotplate have been established to test temperature and simulate the heat of human body, respectively. Relative humidity of the surface of fabric in the dynamic process has been successfully tested through sensing. Meanwhile, wireless communication technology was applied to transport the acquired data of temperature and humidity to computer for further processing. Continuous power supply was achieved by intensive contact between an elastic copper plate and copper ring on the rotating shaft. This tester provides the platform to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of textiles. It enables users to conduct a dynamic analysis on the temperature and humidity together with the thermal and moisture transport behaviour of the surface of fabric in moving condition. Development of this tester opens the door of investigation on the micro-climate of textiles in real time service, and eventually benefits the understanding of the sensation comfort and wellbeing of apparel wearers. PMID:26724193

  14. A dynamic tester to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and moisture behaviour of the microclimate of textiles is crucial in determining the physiological comfort of apparel, but it has not been investigated sufficiently due to the lack of particular evaluation techniques. Based on sensing, temperature controlling and wireless communicating technology, a specially designed tester has been developed in this study to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles in moving status. A temperature acquisition system and a temperature controllable hotplate have been established to test temperature and simulate the heat of human body, respectively. Relative humidity of the surface of fabric in the dynamic process has been successfully tested through sensing. Meanwhile, wireless communication technology was applied to transport the acquired data of temperature and humidity to computer for further processing. Continuous power supply was achieved by intensive contact between an elastic copper plate and copper ring on the rotating shaft. This tester provides the platform to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of textiles. It enables users to conduct a dynamic analysis on the temperature and humidity together with the thermal and moisture transport behaviour of the surface of fabric in moving condition. Development of this tester opens the door of investigation on the micro-climate of textiles in real time service, and eventually benefits the understanding of the sensation comfort and wellbeing of apparel wearers.

  15. Smart hydrogel-functionalized textile system with moisture management property for skin application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Yang, Zongyue; He, Liang; Kong, Yeeyee; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a functional textile-based material for topical skin application was fabricated by coating a thermoresponsive hydrogel onto one side of absorbent nonwoven fabric. The thermoresponsive hydrogel was synthesized easily through coupling of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a chemical linker. The chemical structure of the as-prepared triblock copolymer hydrogel was unraveled by FTIR and 1H NMR analysis. The hydrogel showed a temperature-triggered sol-gel transition behavior and high potential for use as drug controlled release. When the surrounding temperature was close to the skin temperature of around 34 °C, it became a moisture management system where the liquids including sweat, blood, and other body fluids can be transported unidirectionally from one fabric side with the hydrophobic hydrogel coating to the untreated opposite side. This thereby showed that the thermoresponsive hydrogel-coated textile materials had a function to keep topical skin area clean, breathable, and comfortable, thus suggesting a great potential and significance for long-term skin treatment application. The structure and surface morphology of the thermoresponsive hydrogel, in vitro drug release behavior, and the mechanism of unidirectional water transport were investigated in detail. Our success in preparation of the functional textile composites will pave the way for development of various polymer- or textile-based functional materials that are applicable in the real world.

  16. Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, L-C; Strässle, V; Lenz, A; Spencer, N D; Derler, S

    2008-11-01

    Friction and shear forces, as well as moisture between the human skin and textiles are critical factors in the formation of skin injuries such as blisters, abrasions and decubitus. This study investigated how epidermal hydration affects the friction between skin and textiles.The friction between the inner forearm and a hospital fabric was measured in the natural skin condition and in different hydration states using a force plate. Eleven males and eleven females rubbed their forearm against the textile on the force plate using defined normal loads and friction movements. Skin hydration and viscoelasticity were assessed by corneometry and the suction chamber method, respectively.In each individual, a highly positive linear correlation was found between skin moisture and friction coefficient (COF). No correlation was observed between moisture and elasticity, as well as between elasticity and friction. Skin viscoelasticity was comparable for women and men. The friction of female skin showed significantly higher moisture sensitivity. COFs increased typically by 43% (women) and 26% (men) when skin hydration varied between very dry and normally moist skin. The COFs between skin and completely wet fabric were more than twofold higher than the values for natural skin rubbed on a dry textile surface.Increasing skin hydration seems to cause gender-specific changes in the mechanical properties and/or surface topography of human skin, leading to skin softening and increased real contact area and adhesion.

  17. Microflora involved in textile dye waste removal.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahim, Wafaa M; Moawad, Hassan; Khalafallah, M

    2003-01-01

    Textile dyes are heavily used in factories for coloring different cloth materials. This work was designed to identify microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes, either by biodegradation or by biosorption. We expected to isolate microorganisms adapted to high dye concentrations from sites near textile industry complex. An experiment was conducted to study the efficiency of the isolates in removing textile dyes. The tested dyes were used as carbon and nitrogen sources for isolation of soil and/or water microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes wastes from factories effluent. The results indicated the low efficiency of both bacteria and actinomycetes in clean-up the effluent from the waste dyes in 10-21 days. On the other hand six fungal isolates were obtained by plating factory effluent on Martin's medium and media containing dyes as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth. These isolates fell in two genera, Aspergillus and Trichoderma. Results of these studies revealed the potential capacity of these fungi to decolorize the tested dyes in comparatively short time (2-24 hours) indicating strong efficiency of dye bioremediation by the fungal isolates. Since the process involved is mostly fast interaction between the fungal mycelium and the dye in the media, the possible mechanism could be based on a biosorption of such chemicals on the intact fungal biomass, rather than direct biodegradation of the compounds. PMID:12761767

  18. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric.

  19. Necessity of toxicity assessment in Turkish industrial discharges (examples from metal and textile industry effluents).

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Toxicity of some organic and inorganic chemicals to microorganisms is an important consideration in assessing their environmental impact against their economic benefits. Microorganisms play an important role in several environmental processes, both natural and engineered. Some organic and inorganics at toxic levels have been detected in industrial discharges resulting in plant upsets and discharge permit violations. In addition to this, even though in some cases the effluent wastewater does not exceed the discharge limits, the results of toxicity tests show potential toxicity. Toxicity knowledge of effluents can benefit treatment plant operators in optimising plant operation, setting pre-treatment standards, and protecting receiving water quality and in establishing sewer discharge permits to safeguard the plant. In the Turkish regulations only toxicity dilution factor (TDF) with fish is part of the toxicity monitoring program of permissible wastewater discharge. In various countries, laboratory studies involving the use of different organisms and protocol for toxicity assessment was conducted involving a number of discharges. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of textile and metal industry wastewaters by traditional and enrichment toxicity tests and emphasize the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations. The enrichment toxicity tests are novel applications and give an idea whether there is potential toxicity or growth limiting and stimulation conditions. Different organisms were used such as bacteria (Floc and Coliform bacteria) algae (Chlorella sp.). fish (Lepistes sp.) and protozoan (Vorticella sp.) to represent four tropic levels. The textile industry results showed acute toxicity for at least one organism in 8 out of 23 effluent samples. Acute toxicity for at least two organisms in 7 out of 23 effluent sampling was observed for the metal industry. The toxicity test results were assessed with chemical analyses

  20. 19 CFR 10.811 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.811 Section 10.811... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.811 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  1. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.771 Section 10.771... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good under the...

  2. 19 CFR 10.874 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.874 Section 10.874... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.874 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  3. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.771 Section 10.771... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good under the...

  4. 19 CFR 10.811 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.811 Section 10.811... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.811 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  5. 19 CFR 10.874 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.874 Section 10.874... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.874 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  6. 19 CFR 10.874 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.874 Section 10.874... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.874 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. (1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  7. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.771 Section 10.771... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good under the...

  8. 19 CFR 10.811 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.811 Section 10.811... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.811 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  9. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  10. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.771 Section 10.771... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good under the...

  11. 19 CFR 10.811 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.811 Section 10.811... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.811 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  12. 19 CFR 10.811 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.811 Section 10.811... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.811 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  13. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.771 Section 10.771... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good under the...

  14. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  15. 19 CFR 10.874 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.874 Section 10.874... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.874 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. (1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  16. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  17. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  18. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  19. Textile-based sampling for potentiometric determination of ions.

    PubMed

    Lisak, Grzegorz; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Bobacka, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Potentiometric sensing utilizing textile-based micro-volume sampling was applied and evaluated for the determination of clinically (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) and environmentally (Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and pH) relevant analytes. In this technological design, calibration solutions and samples were absorbed into textiles while the potentiometric cells (ion-selective electrodes and reference electrode) were pressed against the textile. Once the liquid, by wicking action, reached the place where the potentiometric cell was pressed onto the textile, hence closing the electric circuit, the potentiometric response was obtained. Cotton, polyamide, polyester and their blends with elastane were applied for micro-volume sampling. The textiles were found to influence the determination of pH in environmental samples with pH close to neutral and Pb(2+) at low analyte concentrations. On the other hand, textile-based micro-volume sampling was successfully applied in measurements of Na(+) using solid-contact sodium-selective electrodes utilizing all the investigated textiles for sampling. It was found that in order to extend the application of textile-based sampling toward environmental analysis of ions it will be necessary to tailor the physio-chemical properties of the textile materials. In general, textile-based sampling opens new possibilities for direct chemical analysis of small-volume samples and provide a simple and low-cost method to screen various textiles for their effects on samples to identify which textiles are the most suitable for on-body sensing.

  20. Cutaneous Recording and Stimulation of Muscles Using Organic Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Papaiordanidou, Maria; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Rezaei-Mazinani, Shahab; Lonjaret, Thomas; Martin, Alain; Ismailova, Esma

    2016-08-01

    Electronic textiles are an emerging field providing novel and non-intrusive solutions for healthcare. Conducting polymer-coated textiles enable a new generation of fully organic surface electrodes for electrophysiological evaluations. Textile electrodes are able to assess high quality muscular monitoring and to perform transcutaneous electrical stimulation. PMID:27242014

  1. Success Skills for Textile Workers. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Susan

    The Success Skills for Textile Workers project was established in November 1994 by Alabama educational institutions and textile manufacturers to provide workplace literacy training for textile workers. This report details project objectives and outcomes through October 31, 1997. Introductory materials describe project components and list…

  2. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.

  3. Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kyu Kim, Jin; Kim, Yuri; Seung Choi, Jang; Young Jeong, Kwang

    2012-09-01

    Textile dyeing processes consume large amount of water, steam and discharge filthy and colored wastewater. A pilot scale e-beam plant with an electron accelerator of 1 MeV, 40 kW had constructed at Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) in 1997 for treating 1,000 m3 per day. Continuous operation of this plant showed the preliminary e-beam treatment reduced bio-treatment time and resulted in more significant decreasing TOC, CODCr, and BOD5. Convinced of the economics and efficiency of the process, a commercial plant with 1 MeV, 400 kW electron accelerator has constructed in 2005. This plant improves the removal efficiency of wastewater with decreasing the retention time in bio-treatment at around 1 kGy. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility in DDIC and the treatment capacity is 10,000 m3 of wastewater per day. The total construction cost for this plant was USD 4 M and the operation cost has been obtained was not more than USD 1 M per year and about USD 0.3 per each m3 of wastewater.

  4. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    SciTech Connect

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  6. Death certificate case-control study of cancers of the prostate and colon and employment in the textile industry.

    PubMed

    Hoar, S K; Blair, A

    1984-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate possible relationships between employment in the textile industry and cancers of the prostate and colon. Death certificate information on occupation and industry was obtained for 1037 male prostatic cancer cases, 820 male and female colon cases, and matched controls who died during 1970-1978 in South Carolina. Black males were the only race-sex group to show an excess risk of prostate or colon cancer among employees of the textile industry. Nonstatistically significant excesses of prostate cancer were seen in dyeing and finishing businesses and broad woven fabric mills. Overall, there was no strong evidence indicating a relationship between the textile industry and either prostate or colon cancer. It is unlikely that limitations of the data masked real risks since previously reported associations with nontextile industries were confirmed.

  7. Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pudnos, Eric

    1992-01-01

    The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C.

  8. Flexible textile light diffuser for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selm, Barbel; Camenzind, Martin

    2005-03-01

    In this article a new medical application is introduced using textile production techniques to deliver a defined radiation dose. The advantage for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is that a flat luminous textile structure can homogeneously illuminate unequal body surfaces. The optical properties of this two-dimensional luminous pad are characterized with a set of bench-scale tests. In vitro investigations on petri dishes with cultivated cells and first clinical tests on animal patients are promising. In addition first measurement results are presented together with an outlook to future developments.

  9. Antioxidant cosmeto-textiles: skin assessment.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Martínez, Vanessa; Rubio, Laia; Parra, José L; Coderch, Luisa

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol, a natural product, has been reported to have antioxidant activities such as the scavenging of free radicals. This compound could be used in the dermocosmetic field to protect the skin from oxidative stress. In this work, the percutaneous profile of resveratrol in ethanol solutions through pig skin was determinated by an in vitro methodology. The percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was measured and compared with trolox, an analogous of Vitamin E. Both antioxidants were found in all skin sections (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Besides, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol and trolox has been evaluated using DPPH method. The effective dose (ED₅₀) of compounds and DPPH radical inhibition in each skin layer were evaluated. Under the conditions used for these experiments, it can be deduced that resveratrol is more efficient than trolox as an antioxidant, also in the inner skin layers. The cosmeto-textiles with an active substance incorporated into their structure are increasingly used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The action of several cosmeto-textiles on the skin was assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Samples of these cosmeto-textiles were prepared with resveratrol incorporated into cotton and polyamide fabrics. An in vitro percutaneous absorption was used to demonstrate the delivery of the resveratrol from the textile to the different skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Additionally, these cosmeto-textiles containing the antioxidant were applied onto the forearms of volunteers to evaluate the textiles' efficacy in skin penetration. The antioxidant's antiradical capacity was evaluated using the DPPH method. Results showed that resveratrol could be detected in the dermis, epidermis, and stratum corneum (SC) by an in vitro percutaneous absorption method and was also detected in the outermost layers of the SC by an in vivo method (stripping). A smaller amount of resveratrol was

  10. Synchronous wearable wireless body sensor network composed of autonomous textile nodes.

    PubMed

    Vanveerdeghem, Peter; Van Torre, Patrick; Stevens, Christiaan; Knockaert, Jos; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-10-09

    A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system.

  11. Synchronous Wearable Wireless Body Sensor Network Composed of Autonomous Textile Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Vanveerdeghem, Peter; Van Torre, Patrick; Stevens, Christiaan; Knockaert, Jos; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system. PMID:25302808

  12. Research in textile composites at KU, Leuven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verpoest, Ignaas; Ivens, Jan; Willemvanvuure, Aart; Efstratiou, Vassilios

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the research on textile composites at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Three dimensionally woven sandwich fabric preforms are investigated for delamination resistant sandwich structures, velvet woven 2.5 dimensional fabrics for delamination resistant laminates, and knitted fabrics with good drapability for laminates of complex shape.

  13. Database of Mechanical Properties of Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delbrey, Jerry

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the approach followed to develop a database for mechanical properties of textile composites. The data in this database is assembled from NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) programs and from data in the public domain. This database meets the data documentation requirements of MIL-HDBK-17, Section 8.1.2, which describes in detail the type and amount of information needed to completely document composite material properties. The database focuses on mechanical properties of textile composite. Properties are available for a range of parameters such as direction, fiber architecture, materials, environmental condition, and failure mode. The composite materials in the database contain innovative textile architectures such as the braided, woven, and knitted materials evaluated under the NASA ACT programs. In summary, the database contains results for approximately 3500 coupon level tests, for ten different fiber/resin combinations, and seven different textile architectures. It also includes a limited amount of prepreg tape composites data from ACT programs where side-by-side comparisons were made.

  14. 3-D textile reinforcements in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miravete, A.

    1999-11-01

    Laminated composite materials have been used in structural applications since the 1960s. However, their high cost and inability to accommodate fibers in the laminate`s thickness direction greatly reduce their damage tolerance and impact resistance. The second generation of materials--3-D textile reinforced composites--offers significant cost reduction, and by incorporating reinforcement in the thickness direction, dramatically increases damage tolerance and impact resistance. However, methods for predicting mechanical properties of 3-D textile reinforced composite materials tend to be more complex. These materials also have disadvantages--particularly in regard to crimps in the yarns--that require more research. Textile preforms, micro- and macromechanical modeling, manufacturing processes, and characterization all need further development. As researchers overcome these problems, this new generation of composites will emerge as a highly competitive family of materials. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of this promising technology. In it, top experts describe the manufacturing processes, highlight the advantages, identify the main applications, analyze methods for predicting mechanical properties, and detail various reinforcement strategies, including grid structure, knitted fabric composites, and the braiding technique. Armed with the information in this book, readers will be prepared to better exploit the advantages of 3-D textile reinforced composites, overcome its disadvantages, and contribute to the further development of the technology.

  15. 4-H Textile Science Beginner Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H projects for students beginning the sewing sequence of the textile sciences area. The projects cover basics of sewing using sewing machines, more difficult sewing machine techniques, and hand sewing. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects…

  16. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  17. Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction in Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan

    Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…

  18. Smart technical textiles with integrated POF sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebber, Katerina; Lenke, Philipp; Liehr, Sascha; Witt, Jens; Schukar, Marcus

    2008-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors based on polymer optical fibers (POF) take advantage of the high elasticity and high break-down strain of POF. Because of their outstanding elastic properties, POF are well suited for integration into technical textiles like geotextiles and medical textiles. Smart textiles with incorporated POF sensors, able to sense various mechanical and physical quantities, can be realized. The integration of POF as a sensor into geotextiles for monitoring of displacement of soil is very attractive since POF can be used for distributed strain measurement of strain values of more than 40 %. An online monitoring of critical mechanical deformations of geotechnical structures like dikes, dams, slopes, embankments as well as of masonry structures can be ensured. Medical textiles that incorporate POF sensors can control vital physiological parameters like respiratory movement and can be used for wearable health monitoring of patients requiring a continuous medical assistance and treatment. The biocompatibility of POF is an important criterion for selecting POF as a medical sensor. The paper shows selected examples of using POF sensors for the mentioned monitoring purposes.

  19. Clothing and Textiles II. Semester Course. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Harriet; And Others

    The clothing and textiles guide for a second level semester course for grades 10-12 identifies objectives and learning experiences with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of students. It was developed for use with students who exhibited skill and a high degree of satisfaction from…

  20. NASA CPAS Drogue Textile Riser Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennings, Elsa J.; Petersen, Michael L.; Anderson, Brian; Johnson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Steel cable was chosen for the lower end of the drogue and main parachute risers on NASA's Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) to protect the risers from extreme temperatures and abrasion should they contact the crew module during deployment, as was done for Apollo. Due to the weight and deployment complexity inherent in steel, there was significant interest in the possibility of substituting textile for steel for the drogue and main parachute risers. However, textile risers could be damaged when subjected to high temperature and abrasion. Investigations were consequently performed by a subset of the authors to determine whether sacrificial, non-load-bearing textile riser covers could be developed to mitigate the thermal and abrasion concerns. Multiple material combinations were tested, resulting in a cover design capable of protecting the riser against severe riser/crew module contact interactions. A feasibility study was then conducted to evaluate the performance of the textile drogue riser cover in relevant abrasive environments. This paper describes the testing performed and documents the results of this feasibility study.