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Sample records for real time three-dimensional

  1. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  2. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

  3. Real-time motion tracking of three-dimensional objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, Gilbert; Gale, Karey Lynch; Dyer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    The problem in which the three-dimensional motion of an object corresponding to a known polyhedral model is to be computed using only the motion of edge features in a continuous stream of two-dimensional images is considered. Advantage is taken of the spatiotemporal density of the input signal and the limitations of long-range trajectory-prediction methods are avoided. Two parallel algorithms which use feature-based, short-range (spatiotemporally local) motion processes to achieve real-time tracking of modeled objects are presented. Both algorithms have been implemented and tested on a tightly coupled multiprocessor system consisting of an Aspex Pipe for low-level, image-feature computations and a Sequent Symmetry for high-level, model-based computations. An analysis is given of the actual performance limits of each method using the current hardware configuration.

  4. Real-time Three-dimensional Echocardiography: From Diagnosis to Intervention.

    PubMed

    Orvalho, João S

    2017-09-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most important diagnostic tools in veterinary cardiology, and one of the greatest recent developments is real-time three-dimensional imaging. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography is a new ultrasonography modality that provides comprehensive views of the cardiac valves and congenital heart defects. The main advantages of this technique, particularly real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, are the ability to visualize the catheters, and balloons or other devices, and the ability to image the structure that is undergoing intervention with unprecedented quality. This technique may become one of the main choices for the guidance of interventional cardiology procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The application of holography as a real-time three-dimensional motion picture camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A historical introduction to holography is presented, as well as a basic description of sideband holography for stationary objects. A brief theoretical development of both time-dependent and time-independent holography is also provided, along with an analytical and intuitive discussion of a unique holographic arrangement which allows the resolution of front surface detail from an object moving at high speeds. As an application of such a system, a real-time three-dimensional motion picture camera system is discussed and the results of a recent demonstration of the world's first true three-dimensional motion picture are given.

  6. Real-time three dimensional sonographic features of an early third trimester fetus with achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wataganara, Tuangsit; Sutanthavibool, Anuwat; Limwongse, Chanin

    2006-10-01

    Generalized shortening of fetal long bones detected from prenatal sonographic examination usually raise a tentative diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. Information obtained from grey-scale scan is frequently not sufficient to provide a definite diagnosis, and the images are not readily comprehensible for the parents-to-be. Lately, three-dimensional sonography has become increasing available in obstetric practice. The authors report here a rare case of fetal achondrogenesis, which is a lethal form of skeletal dysplasia, in a 30-week-old fetus using real-time three-dimensional ultrasound. The prenatal findings of fetal achondrogenesis from this technique were thoroughly described, along with postnatal radiography and autopsy results. Sonographic features from this imaging technique allow for an accurate diagnosis and better understanding of the parents. This facilitates the genetic counseling process, as well as the parental options for further care.

  7. Real time three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography applied in multiphase flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkinen, L. M.; Kourunen, J.; Savolainen, T.; Vauhkonen, P. J.; Kaipio, J. P.; Vauhkonen, M.

    2006-08-01

    In many industrial applications the aim is to obtain information on three-dimensional (3D) material distribution within the process vessels. With standard two-dimensional (2D) techniques only vague cross-sectional information can be obtained. It could be possible to carry out several 2D reconstructions on different layers and in this way to obtain 3D information. However, in this approach errors are induced since no real 3D information is utilized in the image reconstruction. In this paper we describe an approach to measure, reconstruct and visualize three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography images in real time. The reconstruction is based on a difference imaging scheme. An efficient current injection and voltage measurement protocol is used in order to increase the sensitivity and reduce the data collection time. The proposed approach can produce and visualize up to 15 3D EIT images per second when 80 measurement electrodes are used. Imaging results from a stirred vessel and a flow loop will be shown. The reconstructions show, for example, that 3D air/liquid distribution in the stirred vessel can reliably be visualized in real time and material flow can be monitored in a 3D section of the flow loop. Reconstructions can be visualized and analysed in many different ways in order to produce essential information on the behaviour of the processes.

  8. Real-time, interactive animation of deformable two- and three-dimensional objects

    SciTech Connect

    Desbrun, Mathieu; Schroeder, Peter; Meyer, Mark; Barr, Alan H.

    2003-06-03

    A method of updating in real-time the locations and velocities of mass points of a two- or three-dimensional object represented by a mass-spring system. A modified implicit Euler integration scheme is employed to determine the updated locations and velocities. In an optional post-integration step, the updated locations are corrected to preserve angular momentum. A processor readable medium and a network server each tangibly embodying the method are also provided. A system comprising a processor in combination with the medium, and a system comprising the server in combination with a client for accessing the server over a computer network, are also provided.

  9. Real-time three-dimensional fingerprint acquisition via a new photometric stereo means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wuyuan; Song, Zhan; Chung, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    A real-time means for three-dimensional (3-D) fingerprint acquisition is presented. The system is configured with only one camera and some white light-emitting diode lamps. The reconstruction is performed based on the principle of photometric stereo. In the algorithm, a two-layer Hanrahan-Krueger model is proposed to represent the finger surface reflectance property instead of the traditional Lambert model. By the proposed lighting direction calibration and the nonuniform lighting correction methods, surface normal at each image point can be accurately estimated by solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Finally, a linear normal transformation is implemented for the enhancement of 3-D models. The experiments are implemented with real finger and palm prints, and the results are also compared with traditional means to show its feasibility and improvement in the reconstruction accuracy.

  10. Real-time planar segmentation of depth images: from three-dimensional edges to segmented planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javan Hemmat, Hani; Bondarev, Egor; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-09-01

    Real-time execution of processing algorithms for handling depth images in a three-dimensional (3-D) data framework is a major challenge. More specifically, considering depth images as point clouds and performing planar segmentation requires heavy computation, because available planar segmentation algorithms are mostly based on surface normals and/or curvatures, and, consequently, do not provide real-time performance. Aiming at the reconstruction of indoor environments, the spaces mainly consist of planar surfaces, so that a possible 3-D application would strongly benefit from a real-time algorithm. We introduce a real-time planar segmentation method for depth images avoiding any surface normal calculation. First, we detect 3-D edges in a depth image and generate line segments between the identified edges. Second, we fuse all the points on each pair of intersecting line segments into a plane candidate. Third and finally, we implement a validation phase to select planes from the candidates. Furthermore, various enhancements are applied to improve the segmentation quality. The GPU implementation of the proposed algorithm segments depth images into planes at the rate of 58 fps. Our pipeline-interleaving technique increases this rate up to 100 fps. With this throughput rate improvement, the application benefit of our algorithm may be further exploited in terms of quality and enhancing the localization.

  11. Three-dimensional dose evaluation system using real-time wind field information for nuclear accidents in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jay; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Yung-Muh; Chang, Bor-Jing; Teng, Jen-Hsin

    2006-09-01

    In Taiwan, the three operating nuclear power plants are all built along the coast over complex terrain. Dose estimates after a nuclear accident with releases of radioactive materials, therefore, cannot be accurately calculated using simple dispersion models. We developed a three-dimensional dose evaluation system, which incorporates real-time prognostic wind field information with three-dimensional numerical models to predict dose results. The proposed system consists of three models: a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model (HOTMAC), a three-dimensional transport and diffusion model (RAPTAD), and a dose calculation model (DOSE). The whole-body dose and thyroid dose as well as dose rates can be rapidly estimated and displayed on the three-dimensional terrain model constructed by satellite images. The developed three-dimensional dose evaluation system could accurately forecast the dose results and has been used in the annual nuclear emergency response exercise to provide suggestions for protective measures.

  12. Real-time three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography: technical aspects and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Agricola, Eustachio; Badano, Luigi; Mele, Donato; Galderisi, Maurizio; Slavich, Massimo; Sciomer, Susanna; Nistri, Stefano; Ballo, Piercarlo; D'Andrea, Antonello; Mondillo, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3DTEE) is now commonly used in daily clinical practice. The transesophageal, compared to the transthoracic approach, allows the visualization of the whole spectrum of the mitral valve apparatus and the posterior cardiac structures. Moreover, images obtained by RT 3D TEE provide a unique and complete visualization of the mitral valve prosthetic elements. Indeed, the possibility to visualize guidewires and catheters in cardiac chambers and their relationship with cardiac structures during percutaneous transcatheter procedures reduces the time of radiation exposure and simplifies the approach becoming the reference method for monitoring. This review aims to underline the potential clinical applications and the advantages of RT3DTEE compared to other methods. PMID:21977291

  13. Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound visualization of erection and artificial coitus.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jing; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A; Pellerin, D; Linney, Alfred D; Lees, William R; Rodeck, Charles H; Todd-Pokropek, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of imaging penile erection and coitus in real time and in three dimensions, a 'Live' three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system was used to acquire the volume of interest at 25 Hz from five healthy men. Water baths and gel-made artificial vaginas were devised to facilitate the 3-D scans without the probe being in direct contact with the penis. For the first volunteer scanned with the water bath alone, the penis failed to erect within 30 min. For the other four volunteers, the 'vagina' successfully initiated and maintained the erection and allowed artificial intercourse. Results have shown that the 'Live' 3-D ultrasound and minimally compressive imaging techniques together can offer an objective means for visualizing erection and coitus in spatial totality and temporal reality. They can be further developed to reveal more reliable details about the dynamic morphology, improving scientific understanding of sexual activities and clinical management of related problems.

  14. Laser based method for real-time three-dimensional monitoring of chest wall movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezeršek, Matija; Povšič, Klemen; Topole, Eva; Fležar, Matjaž; Možina, Janez

    2010-05-01

    Novel method for monitoring the entire three-dimensional shape of the chest wall in real time is presented. The system is based on the multiple-line laser triangulation principle. The laser projector generates a light pattern of 33 equally inclined light planes directed toward the measured surface. The camera records the illuminated surface from a different viewpoint, and consequently, the light pattern is distorted by the shape of the surface. The acquired images are transferred in the personal computer, where contour detection, three-dimensional surface reconstruction, shape analysis, and displaying are performed in real time. Surface displacements are calculated by subtraction of the current measured surface from the reference one. Differences are displayed with color palette, where the blue represent the inward (negative) and the red represent the outward (positive) movement. The accuracy of the calibrated apparatus is +/-0.5 mm, which is calculated as a standard deviation between points of the measured and nominal reference surface. The measuring range is approximately 400×600×500 mm in width, height and depth. The intention of this study was to evaluate the system by means of its ability to distinguish between different breathing patterns and to verify the accuracy of measuring chest wall deformation volumes during breathing. The results demonstrate that the presented 3-d measuring system has a great potential as a diagnostic and training tool in case of monitoring the breathing pattern. We believe that exact graphical communication with the patient is much more simple and easy to understand than verbal and/or numerical.

  15. Acoustic Performance of a Real-Time Three-Dimensional Sound-Reproduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, Kenneth J., II; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    The Exterior Effects Room (EER) is a 39-seat auditorium at the NASA Langley Research Center and was built to support psychoacoustic studies of aircraft community noise. The EER has a real-time simulation environment which includes a three-dimensional sound-reproduction system. This system requires real-time application of equalization filters to compensate for spectral coloration of the sound reproduction due to installation and room effects. This paper describes the efforts taken to develop the equalization filters for use in the real-time sound-reproduction system and the subsequent analysis of the system s acoustic performance. The acoustic performance of the compensated and uncompensated sound-reproduction system is assessed for its crossover performance, its performance under stationary and dynamic conditions, the maximum spatialized sound pressure level it can produce from a single virtual source, and for the spatial uniformity of a generated sound field. Additionally, application examples are given to illustrate the compensated sound-reproduction system performance using recorded aircraft flyovers

  16. Real-time three-dimensional digital image correlation for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Wu, Hua; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been successfully applied for evaluating the mechanical behavior of biological tissues. A three-dimensional (3-D) DIC system has been developed and applied to examining the motion of bones in the human foot. To achieve accurate, real-time displacement measurements, an algorithm including matching between sequential images and image pairs has been developed. The system was used to monitor the movement of markers which were attached to a precisely motorized stage. The accuracy of the proposed technique for in-plane and out-of-plane measurements was found to be -0.25% and 1.17%, respectively. Two biomedical applications were presented. In the experiment involving the foot arch, a human cadaver lower leg and foot specimen were subjected to vertical compressive loads up to 700 N at a rate of 10 N/s and the 3-D motions of bones in the foot were monitored in real time. In the experiment involving distal tibio fibular syndesmosis, a human cadaver lower leg and foot specimen were subjected to a monotonic rotational torque up to 5 Nm at a speed of 5 deg per min and the relative displacements of the tibia and fibula were monitored in real time. Results showed that the system could reach a frequency of up to 16 Hz with 6 points measured simultaneously. This technique sheds new lights on measuring 3-D motion of bones in biomechanical studies.

  17. Analytical real-time measurement of a three-dimensional weld pool surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, WeiJie; Wang, XueWu; Zhang, YuMing

    2013-11-01

    The ability to observe and measure weld pool surfaces in real-time is the core of the foundation for next generation intelligent welding that can partially imitate skilled welders who observe the weld pool to acquire information on the welding process. This study aims at the real-time measurement of the specular three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface under a strong arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). An innovative vision system is utilized in this study to project a dot-matrix laser pattern on the specular weld pool surface. Its reflection from the surface is intercepted at a distance from the arc by a diffuse plane. The intercepted laser dots illuminate this plane producing an image showing the reflection pattern. The deformation of this reflection pattern from the projected pattern (e.g. the dot matrix) is used to derive the 3D shape of the reflection surface, i.e., the weld pool surface. Based on careful analysis, the underlying reconstruction problem is formulated mathematically. An analytic solution is proposed to solve this formulated problem resulting in the weld pool surface being reconstructed on average in 3.04 ms during welding experiments. A vision-based monitoring system is thus established to measure the weld pool surface in GTAW in real-time. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, first numerical simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is then tested on a spherical convex mirror with a priori knowledge of its geometry. The detailed analysis of the measurement error validates the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results from the real-time experiments verify the robustness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm.

  18. Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin U.; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Kang; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Cha, Jaepyeong; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Gehlbach, Peter L.

    2012-08-01

    The authors describe the development of an ultrafast three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system that provides real-time intraoperative video images of the surgical site to assist surgeons during microsurgical procedures. This system is based on a full-range complex conjugate free Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT). The system was built in a CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing architecture capable of video OCT image processing. The system displays at a maximum speed of 10 volume/s for an image volume size of 160×80×1024 (X×Y×Z) pixels. We have used this system to visualize and guide two prototypical microsurgical maneuvers: microvascular anastomosis of the rat femoral artery and ultramicrovascular isolation of the retinal arterioles of the bovine retina. Our preliminary experiments using 3D-OCT-guided microvascular anastomosis showed optimal visualization of the rat femoral artery (diameter<0.8 mm), instruments, and suture material. Real-time intraoperative guidance helped facilitate precise suture placement due to optimized views of the vessel wall during anastomosis. Using the bovine retina as a model system, we have performed "ultra microvascular" feasibility studies by guiding handheld surgical micro-instruments to isolate retinal arterioles (diameter˜0.1 mm). Isolation of the microvessels was confirmed by successfully passing a suture beneath the vessel in the 3D imaging environment.

  19. Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Kang; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Cha, Jaepyeong; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Gehlbach, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The authors describe the development of an ultrafast three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system that provides real-time intraoperative video images of the surgical site to assist surgeons during microsurgical procedures. This system is based on a full-range complex conjugate free Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT). The system was built in a CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing architecture capable of video OCT image processing. The system displays at a maximum speed of 10  volume/s for an image volume size of 160×80×1024 (X×Y×Z) pixels. We have used this system to visualize and guide two prototypical microsurgical maneuvers: microvascular anastomosis of the rat femoral artery and ultramicrovascular isolation of the retinal arterioles of the bovine retina. Our preliminary experiments using 3D-OCT-guided microvascular anastomosis showed optimal visualization of the rat femoral artery (diameter<0.8  mm), instruments, and suture material. Real-time intraoperative guidance helped facilitate precise suture placement due to optimized views of the vessel wall during anastomosis. Using the bovine retina as a model system, we have performed “ultra microvascular” feasibility studies by guiding handheld surgical micro-instruments to isolate retinal arterioles (diameter∼0.1  mm). Isolation of the microvessels was confirmed by successfully passing a suture beneath the vessel in the 3D imaging environment. PMID:23224164

  20. Three-dimensional localization of low activity gamma-ray sources in real-time scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish K.; Alajo, Ayodeji B.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-03-01

    Radioactive source localization plays an important role in tracking radiation threats in homeland security tasks. Its real-time application requires computationally efficient and reasonably accurate algorithms even with limited data to support detection with minimum uncertainty. This paper describes a statistic-based grid-refinement method for backtracing the position of a gamma-ray source in a three-dimensional domain in real-time. The developed algorithm used measurements from various known detector positions to localize the source. This algorithm is based on an inverse-square relationship between source intensity at a detector and the distance from the source to the detector. The domain discretization was developed and implemented in MATLAB. The algorithm was tested and verified from simulation results of an ideal case of a point source in non-attenuating medium. Subsequently, an experimental validation of the algorithm was performed to determine the suitability of deploying this scheme in real-time scenarios. Using the measurements from five known detector positions and for a measurement time of 3 min, the source position was estimated with an accuracy of approximately 53 cm. The accuracy improved and stabilized to approximately 25 cm for higher measurement times. It was concluded that the error in source localization was primarily due to detection uncertainties. In verification and experimental validation of the algorithm, the distance between 137Cs source and any detector position was between 0.84 m and 1.77 m. The results were also compared with the least squares method. Since the discretization algorithm was validated with a weak source, it is expected that it can localize the source of higher activity in real-time. It is believed that for the same physical placement of source and detectors, a source of approximate activity 0.61-0.92 mCi can be localized in real-time with 1 s of measurement time and same accuracy. The accuracy and computational efficiency

  1. Real-time catheter localization and visualization using three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Pawel; Bandaru, Raja Sekhar; D'hooge, Jan; Samset, Eigil

    2017-03-01

    Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) is increasingly used during minimally invasive cardiac surgeries (MICS). In many cath labs, RT3D-TEE is already one of the requisite tools for image guidance during MICS. However, the visualization of the catheter is not always satisfactory making 3D- TEE challenging to use as the only modality for guidance. We propose a novel technique for better visualization of the catheter along with the cardiac anatomy using TEE alone - exploiting both beamforming and post processing methods. We extended our earlier method called Delay and Standard Deviation (DASD) beamforming to 3D in order to enhance specular reflections. The beam-formed image was further post-processed by the Frangi filter to segment the catheter. Multi-variate visualization techniques enabled us to render both the standard tissue and the DASD beam-formed image on a clinical ultrasound scanner simultaneously. A frame rate of 15 FPS was achieved.

  2. Toward real-time three-dimensional mapping of surficial aquifers using a hybrid modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Esfahani, Akbar; Iwashita, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    A hybrid modeling approach is proposed for near real-time three-dimensional (3D) mapping of surficial aquifers. First, airborne frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) measurements are numerically inverted to obtain subsurface resistivities. Second, a machine-learning (ML) algorithm is trained using the FDEM measurements and inverted resistivity profiles, and borehole geophysical and hydrogeologic data. Third, the trained ML algorithm is used together with independent FDEM measurements to map the spatial distribution of the aquifer system. Efficacy of the hybrid approach is demonstrated for mapping a heterogeneous surficial aquifer and confining unit in northwestern Nebraska, USA. For this case, independent performance testing reveals that aquifer mapping is unbiased with a strong correlation (0.94) among numerically inverted and ML-estimated binary (clay-silt or sand-gravel) layer resistivities (5-20 ohm-m or 21-5,000 ohm-m), and an intermediate correlation (0.74) for heterogeneous (clay, silt, sand, gravel) layer resistivities (5-5,000 ohm-m). Reduced correlation for the heterogeneous model is attributed to over-estimating the under-sampled high-resistivity gravels (about 0.5 % of the training data), and when removed the correlation increases (0.87). Independent analysis of the numerically inverted and ML-estimated resistivities finds that the hybrid procedure preserves both univariate and spatial statistics for each layer. Following training, the algorithms can map 3D surficial aquifers as fast as leveled FDEM measurements are presented to the ML network.

  3. A framework for predicting three-dimensional prostate deformation in real time.

    PubMed

    Jahya, Alex; Herink, Mark; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-12-01

    Surgical simulation systems can be used to estimate soft tissue deformation during pre- and intra-operative planning. Such systems require a model that can accurately predict the deformation in real time. In this study, we present a back-propagation neural network for predicting three-dimensional (3D) deformation of a phantom that incorporates the anatomy of the male pelvic region, i.e. the prostate and surrounding structures that support it. In the experiments and simulations, a needle guide is used to deform the rectal wall. The neural network predicts the deformation based on the relation between the undeformed and deformed shapes of the phantom. Training data are generated using a validated finite element (FE) model of the prostate and its surrounding structures. The FE model is developed from anatomically accurate magnetic resonance (MR) images. An ultrasound-based acoustic radiation force impulse imaging technique is used to measure in situ the shear wave velocity in soft tissue. The velocity is utilized to calculate the elasticities of the phantom. In the simulation study, the displacement and angle of the needle guide are varied. The neural network then predicts 3D phantom deformation for a given input displacement. The results of the simulation study show that the maximum absolute linear and angular errors of the nodal displacement and orientation between neural network and FE predicted deformation are 0.03 mm and 0.01°, respectively. This study shows that a back-propagation neural network can be used to predict prostate deformation. Further, it is also demonstrated that a combination of ultrasound data, MR images and a neural network can be used as a framework for accurately predicting 3D prostate deformation in real time. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Real-time monitoring of cisplatin cytotoxicity on three-dimensional spheroid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, NamHuk; Seo, Ok Won; Lee, Jaehwa; Hulme, John; An, Seong Soo A

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation is a powerful technique for monitoring and understanding diverse cellular mechanisms in developmental cancer and neuronal biology, tissue engineering, and drug development. 3D systems could relate better to in vivo models than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Several factors, such as cell type, survival rate, proliferation rate, and gene and protein expression patterns, determine whether a particular cell line can be adapted to a 3D system. The 3D system may overcome some of the limitations of 2D cultures in terms of cell–cell communication and cell networks, which are essential for understanding differentiation, structural organization, shape, and extended connections with other cells or organs. Here, the effect of the anticancer drug cisplatin, also known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP, on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation was investigated using 3D spheroid-forming cells and real-time monitoring for 7 days. First, 12 cell lines were screened for their ability to form 3D spheroids: prostate (DU145), testis (F9), embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3), muscle (C2C12), embryonic kidney (293T), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cell (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), HeLa contaminant (HEp2), pituitary epithelial-like cell (GH3), embryonic cell (PA317), and osteosarcoma (U-2OS) cells. Of these, eight cell lines were selected: NIH-3T3, C2C12, 293T, SH-SY5Y, A549, HeLa, PA317, and U-2OS; and five underwent real-time monitoring of CDDP cytotoxicity: HeLa, A549, 293T, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS. ATP generation was blocked 1 day after addition of 50 μM CDDP, but cytotoxicity in HeLa, A549, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS cells could be visualized only 4 days after treatment. In 293T cells, CDDP failed to kill entirely the culture and ATP generation was only partially blocked after 1 day. This suggests potential CDDP resistance of 293T cells or metabolic clearance of the drug. Real-time monitoring and ATP

  5. Three-dimensional liver motion tracking using real-time two-dimensional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, Lau; Ringgaard, Steffen; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and linear accelerators for radiotherapy (MR-Linacs) are currently under development. MRI is noninvasive and nonionizing and can produce images with high soft tissue contrast. However, new tracking methods are required to obtain fast real-time spatial target localization. This study develops and evaluates a method for tracking three-dimensional (3D) respiratory liver motion in two-dimensional (2D) real-time MRI image series with high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods: The proposed method for 3D tracking in 2D real-time MRI series has three steps: (1) Recording of a 3D MRI scan and selection of a blood vessel (or tumor) structure to be tracked in subsequent 2D MRI series. (2) Generation of a library of 2D image templates oriented parallel to the 2D MRI image series by reslicing and resampling the 3D MRI scan. (3) 3D tracking of the selected structure in each real-time 2D image by finding the template and template position that yield the highest normalized cross correlation coefficient with the image. Since the tracked structure has a known 3D position relative to each template, the selection and 2D localization of a specific template translates into quantification of both the through-plane and in-plane position of the structure. As a proof of principle, 3D tracking of liver blood vessel structures was performed in five healthy volunteers in two 5.4 Hz axial, sagittal, and coronal real-time 2D MRI series of 30 s duration. In each 2D MRI series, the 3D localization was carried out twice, using nonoverlapping template libraries, which resulted in a total of 12 estimated 3D trajectories per volunteer. Validation tests carried out to support the tracking algorithm included quantification of the breathing induced 3D liver motion and liver motion directionality for the volunteers, and comparison of 2D MRI estimated positions of a structure in a watermelon with the actual positions. Results: Axial, sagittal

  6. Measurement of the aortic annulus size by real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Jánosi, Rolf Alexander; Kahlert, Philipp; Plicht, Björn; Wendt, Daniel; Eggebrecht, Holger; Erbel, Raimund; Buck, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    We sought to determine the level of agreement and the reproducibility of two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic (2D-TTE), 2D transesophageal (2D-TEE) and real-time three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) for measurement of aortic annulus size in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Accurate preoperative assessment of the dimensions of the aortic annulus is critical for patient selection and successful implantation in those undergoing TAVI for severe aortic stenosis (AS). Annulus size was measured using 2D-TTE, 2D-TEE and RT3D-TEE in 105 patients with severe AS referred for TAVI. Agreement between echocardiographic methods and interobserver variability was assessed using the Bland-Altman method and regression analysis, respectively. The mean aortic annuli were 21,7 ± 3 mm measured with 2D-TTE, 22,6 ± 2,8 mm with 2D-TEE and 22,3 ± 2,9 mm with RT3D-TEE. The results showed a small but significant mean difference and a strong correlation between the three measurement techniques (2D-TTE vs. 2D-TEE mean difference 0,84 ± 1,85 mm, r = 0,8, p < 0,0001; 2D-TEE vs. 3D-TEE 0,27 ± 1,14 mm, r = 0,91, p < 0,02; 2D-TTE vs. 3D-TEE 0,58 ± 2,21 mm, r = 0,72, p = 0,02); however, differences between measurements amounted up to 6,1 mm. Interobserver variability for 2D-TTE and 2D-TEE was substantially higher compared with RT3D-TEE. We found significant differences in the dimensions of the aortic annulus measured by 2D-TTE, 2D-TEE and RT3D-TEE. Thus, in patients referred for TAVI, the echocardiographic method used may have an impact on TAVI strategy.

  7. Multi-camera real-time three-dimensional tracking of multiple flying animals

    PubMed Central

    Straw, Andrew D.; Branson, Kristin; Neumann, Titus R.; Dickinson, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Automated tracking of animal movement allows analyses that would not otherwise be possible by providing great quantities of data. The additional capability of tracking in real time—with minimal latency—opens up the experimental possibility of manipulating sensory feedback, thus allowing detailed explorations of the neural basis for control of behaviour. Here, we describe a system capable of tracking the three-dimensional position and body orientation of animals such as flies and birds. The system operates with less than 40 ms latency and can track multiple animals simultaneously. To achieve these results, a multi-target tracking algorithm was developed based on the extended Kalman filter and the nearest neighbour standard filter data association algorithm. In one implementation, an 11-camera system is capable of tracking three flies simultaneously at 60 frames per second using a gigabit network of nine standard Intel Pentium 4 and Core 2 Duo computers. This manuscript presents the rationale and details of the algorithms employed and shows three implementations of the system. An experiment was performed using the tracking system to measure the effect of visual contrast on the flight speed of Drosophila melanogaster. At low contrasts, speed is more variable and faster on average than at high contrasts. Thus, the system is already a useful tool to study the neurobiology and behaviour of freely flying animals. If combined with other techniques, such as ‘virtual reality’-type computer graphics or genetic manipulation, the tracking system would offer a powerful new way to investigate the biology of flying animals. PMID:20630879

  8. Three-dimensional real-time ultrasonic imaging using ellipsoidal backprojection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Forrest L.

    1991-07-01

    Interest in 3D medical imaging continues to increase. However, in ultrasound, real-time imaging is an indispensable strength; and real-time 3D ultrasonic imaging is not practical when conventional steered, focused beam techniques are used. This is because the speed of sound severely limits the size of the volume that can be imaged in real time. For real-time 3D imaging, approaches like simultaneous multiple beams or holography have been considered but never commercially implemented for, in part, the following reasons: A new 3D ultrasound technology should provide the convenience of a hand-held scan head, should yield real-time 3D images, and should provide 2D images with quality equal to, or greater than, presently available 2D ultrasound images. Convenient size and a reasonable price are also requirements. In this paper, a 3D ultrasonic imaging method with the potential to meet the above criteria is described. It may also provide even higher quality 2D ultrasound images than are presently available. The new method relates more closely to computed tomography than to focused steered beams. It, however, uses projections and back-projections over 3D ellipsoids rather than straight lines; and it does this in a simple straight forward manner. Implementation in software of filtered ellipsoidal back-projection is described, resolution and side lobes are discussed, and examples of the 3D point image (re. point spread function) are given.

  9. Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

  10. Multi-particle three-dimensional coordinate estimation in real-time optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, J. S.; Perch-Nielsen, I.; Palima, D.; Gluckstad, J.

    2009-11-01

    We have previously shown how stereoscopic images can be obtained in our three-dimensional optical micromanipulation system [J. S. Dam et al, Opt. Express 16, 7244 (2008)]. Here, we present an extension and application of this principle to automatically gather the three-dimensional coordinates for all trapped particles with high tracking range and high reliability without requiring user calibration. Through deconvolving of the red, green, and blue colour planes to correct for bleeding between colour planes, we show that we can extend the system to also utilize green illumination, in addition to the blue and red. Applying the green colour as on-axis illumination yields redundant information for enhanced error correction, which is used to verify the gathered data, resulting in reliable coordinates as well as producing visually attractive images.

  11. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  12. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  13. Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Amit; Venkat, Raghu; Srivastava, Vikram; Carlson, David; Povzner, Sergey; Cattell, Herb; Keall, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Tumor tracking using a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) represents a promising approach for intrafraction motion management in thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. In this work, we develop, empirically demonstrate, and characterize a novel 3D tracking algorithm for real-time, conformal, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based radiation delivery to targets moving in three dimensions. The algorithm obtains real-time information of target location from an independent position monitoring system and dynamically calculates MLC leaf positions to account for changes in target position. Initial studies were performed to evaluate the geometric accuracy of DMLC tracking of 3D target motion. In addition, dosimetric studies were performed on a clinical linac to evaluate the impact of real-time DMLC tracking for conformal, step-and-shoot (S-IMRT), dynamic (D-IMRT), and VMAT deliveries to a moving target. The efficiency of conformal and IMRT delivery in the presence of tracking was determined. Results show that submillimeter geometric accuracy in all three dimensions is achievable with DMLC tracking. Significant dosimetric improvements were observed in the presence of tracking for conformal and IMRT deliveries to moving targets. A gamma index evaluation with a 3%-3 mm criterion showed that deliveries without DMLC tracking exhibit between 1.7 (S-IMRT) and 4.8 (D-IMRT) times more dose points that fail the evaluation compared to corresponding deliveries with tracking. The efficiency of IMRT delivery, as measured in the lab, was observed to be significantly lower in case of tracking target motion perpendicular to MLC leaf travel compared to motion parallel to leaf travel. Nevertheless, these early results indicate that accurate, real-time DMLC tracking of 3D tumor motion is feasible and can potentially result in significant geometric and dosimetric advantages leading to more effective management of intrafraction motion.

  14. Real-time optical gating for three-dimensional beating heart imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Love, Gordon D.; Girkin, John M.; Henderson, Deborah J.; Chaudhry, Bill

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate real-time microscope image gating to an arbitrary position in the cycle of the beating heart of a zebrafish embryo. We show how this can be used for high-precision prospective gating of fluorescence image slices of the moving heart. We also present initial results demonstrating the application of this technique to 3-D structural imaging of the beating embryonic heart.

  15. Real-time three-dimensional counting and shape measurement of RBCs using digital holographic cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamizu, Hideki; Sonoda, Kotaro; Goto, Ryoji; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2017-04-01

    Digital holography is a useful technique for recording and reconstruction of the complex amplitude of an optical field. In this technique, an interference pattern of two waves is detected by an image sensor, and digital holograms are acquired in computer. The wavefront is reconstructed by a numerical calculation. In this study, we present the real-time threedimensional counting and shape measurement of RBCs using flow cytometry with digital holographic microscopy.

  16. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Conjusteau, Andre; Su, Richard; Mehta, Ketan; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-03-01

    We present our findings from a real-time laser optoacoustic imaging system (LOIS). The system utilizes a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser; a standard 128-channel ultrasonic linear array probe; custom electronics and custom software to collect, process, and display optoacoustic (OA) images at 10 Hz. We propose that this system be used during preoperative mapping of forearm vessels for hemodialysis treatment. To demonstrate the real-time imaging capabilities of the system, we show OA images of forearm vessels in a volunteer and compare our results to ultrasound images of the same region. Our OA images show blood vessels in high contrast. Manipulations with the probe enable us to locate and track arteries and veins of a forearm in real time. We also demonstrate the ability to combine a series of OA image slices into a volume for spatial representation of the vascular network. Finally, we use frame-by-frame analysis of the recorded OA video to measure dynamic changes of the crossection of the ulnar artery.

  17. Elasticity-based three dimensional ultrasound real-time volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Matinfar, Mohammad; Ahmad, Omar; Rivaz, Hassan; Choti, Michael; Taylor, Russell H.

    2009-02-01

    Volumetric ultrasound imaging has not gained wide recognition, despite the availability of real-time 3D ultrasound scanners and the anticipated potential of 3D ultrasound imaging in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Their use, however, has been hindered by the lack of real-time visualization methods that are capable of producing high quality 3D rendering of the target/surface of interest. Volume rendering is a known visualization method, which can display clear surfaces out of the acquired volumetric data, and has an increasing number of applications utilizing CT and MRI data. The key element of any volume rendering pipeline is the ability to classify the target/surface of interest by setting an appropriate opacity function. Practical and successful real-time 3D ultrasound volume rendering can be achieved in Obstetrics and Angio applications where setting these opacity functions can be done rapidly, and reliably. Unfortunately, 3D ultrasound volume rendering of soft tissues is a challenging task due to the presence of significant amount of noise and speckle. Recently, several research groups have shown the feasibility of producing 3D elasticity volume from two consecutive 3D ultrasound scans. This report describes a novel volume rendering pipeline utilizing elasticity information. The basic idea is to compute B-mode voxel opacity from the rapidly calculated strain values, which can also be mixed with conventional gradient based opacity function. We have implemented the volume renderer using GPU unit, which gives an update rate of 40 volume/sec.

  18. Architecture for the real-time display and manipulation of three-dimensional objects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwasser, S.M.; Reynolds, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A special purpose multiprocessor architecture has been developed which facilitates the high speed display and manipulation of shaded three dimensional objects or object surfaces on a conventional raster scan CRT. The reconstruction algorithms exploit the capability to divide object space into totally disjoint cubical regions permitting multiple display processors to access independent memory banks concurrently without conflict. All of the geometric parameters describing rotation, translation, and scaling are incorporated into one short table facilitating very rapid manipulation of the image display presentation. 12 references.

  19. Real-time three-dimensional imaging of cell division by differential interference contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, M; Isailovic, D; Yeung, E S

    2008-11-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy can provide information about subcellular components and organelles inside living cells. Applicability to date, however, has been limited to 2D imaging. Unfortunately, understanding of cellular dynamics is difficult to extract from these single optical sections. We demonstrate here that 3D differential interference contrast microscopy has sub-diffraction limit resolution both laterally and vertically, and can be used for following Madin Darby canine kidney cell division process in real time. This is made possible by optimization of the microscope optics and by incorporating computer-controlled vertical scanning of the microscope stage.

  20. Assessment of left ventricular function in chronic alcoholics by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanzheng; Shan, Guoxin; Shen, Jiaqi; Zhou, Qiao; Tan, Bijun; Liu, Yue; Luo, Runlan; Zhao, Shifen; Bi, Wenjun; Yao, Fangyi; Li, Guangsen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chronic alcohol consumption may lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) on assessing left ventricular (LV) function in chronic alcoholics. We classified 92 male alcoholics into mild, moderate, and severe groups; 30 age-matched controls were also recruited. LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV mass (LVM), LV mass index (LVMI), and systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) were measured by 3DE and 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). Compared to the control group, LV volume and mass were higher in the moderate and severe alcoholic groups (P < 0.05). The severe alcoholic (symptomatic) group demonstrated decreased LVEF and increased SDI (detected by 3DE) (P < 0.05). Real-time 3DE can detect the increases of LV volumes and mass in asymptomatic alcoholics, and the changes of LVEF and systolic synchrony index in symptomatic alcoholics. PMID:28151910

  1. GPU-assisted real-time three dimensional shape measurement by speckle-embedded fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel two-frame method of fringe projection for real-time, accurate and unambiguous threedimensional shape measurement. One of the used frames is a speckle pattern and the other one is a composite image which is fused by that speckle image and sinusoidal fringes. The sinusoidal component is used to retrieve the wrapped phase map. The frame of the speckle is employed to remove the phase ambiguity for the reconstruction of the absolute depth. Compared with traditional multi-frequency phase-shifting methods, the proposed scheme is of much lower sensitivity to movements as the result of the reduced number of used patterns. Moreover, its measuring precision is very close to that of the phase-shifting method, which indicates the method is of high accuracy. To process data in real time, a CUDA-enabled Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is introduced to accelerate the computations of phase and depth. With our system, measurements can be performed at 21 frames per second with a resolution of 307K points per frame.

  2. Signal losses with real-time three-dimensional power Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Damien; Fenech, Marianne; Qin, Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Cloutier, Guy

    2007-10-01

    Power Doppler imaging (PDI) has been shown to be influenced by the wall filter when assessing arterial stenoses. Real-time 3-D Doppler imaging may likely become a widespread practice in the near future, but how the wall filter could affect PDI during the cardiac cycle has not been investigated. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the wall filter may produce unexpected major signal losses in real-time 3-D PDI. To test our hypothesis, we first validated binary images obtained from analytical simulations with in vitro PDI acquisitions performed in a tube under pulsatile flow conditions. We then simulated PDI images in the presence of a severe stenosis, considering physiological conditions by finite element modeling. Power Doppler imaging simulations revealed important signal losses within the lumen area at different instants of the flow cycle, and there was a very good concordance between measured and predicted PDI binary images in the tube. Our results show that the wall filter may induce severe PDI signal losses that could negatively influence the assessment of vascular stenosis. Clinicians should therefore be aware of this cause of signal loss to properly interpret power Doppler angiographic images.

  3. High-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement on graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinsky, Nikolaus; Hoke, Morgan; Chen, Vincent; Zhang, Song

    2014-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement system that can simultaneously achieve 3-D shape acquisition, reconstruction, and display at 30 frames per second (fps) with 480,000 measurement points per frame is presented. The entire processing pipeline was realized on a graphics processing unit (GPU) without the need of substantial central processing unit (CPU) power, making it achievable on a portable device, namely a laptop computer. Furthermore, the system is extremely inexpensive compared with similar state-of-art systems, making it possible to be accessed by the general public. Specifically, advanced GPU techniques such as multipass rendering and offscreen rendering were used in conjunction with direct memory access to achieve the aforementioned performance. The developed system, implementation details, and experimental results to verify the performance of the proposed technique are presented.

  4. Real-time three dimensional echo-guided closure of atrial septal defect: an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Orihashi, Kazumasa; Sueda, Taijiro; Okada, Kenji; Imai, Katsuhiko; Ban, Koji; Hamamoto, Masaki

    2005-10-01

    Real-time 3D echo may open the way to off-pump closure of an atrial septal defect with a robotic surgery technique without remnant of closure device. We report the preliminary results of 3D echo-guided closure of defect in an experimental model. A sheet with an oval defect immersed in water was visualized with 3D echo as well as surgical instruments. The defect was closed under echo guidance. Visualization of objects and instruments, and feasibility and problems of this technique were examined. The defect was visualized like an endoscopic view. Changing the view point without moving the transducer was a unique advantage. Visualization of instruments was acceptable with the lowest gain level. Acoustic shadow was helpful for comprehending the spatial relationship among the objects. Position of needle entry could be confirmed by the movement of the sheet. As the defect was sutured, fold convergence appeared on the sheet. Difficulties were encountered in passing the needle between instruments because of echo dropout. The string was poorly visualized. 3D echo-guided suturing was feasible with adequate image quality. However, an improvement of the surface of instruments and a wider scanning area is necessary for achieving surgical procedures with more safety and reliability.

  5. Assessment of normal tricuspid valve anatomy in adults by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Ashraf M.; Geleijnse, Marcel L.; Soliman, Osama I. I.; McGhie, Jackie S.; Frowijn, René; Nemes, Attila; van den Bosch, Annemien E.; Galema, Tjebbe W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The tricuspid valve (TV) is a complex structure. Unlike the aortic and mitral valve it is not possible to visualize all TV leaflets simultaneously in one cross-sectional view by standard two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) either transthoracic or transesophageal due to the position of TV in the far field. Aim Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the normal TV using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE). Methods RT3DE was performed for 100 normal adults (mean age 30 ± 9 years, 65% males). RT3DE visualization was evaluated by 4-point score (1: not visualized, 2: inadequate, 3: sufficient, and 4: excellent). Measurements included TV annulus diameters (TAD), TV area (TVA), and commissural width. Results In 90% of patients with good 2DE image quality, it was possible to analyse TV anatomy by RT3DE. A detailed anatomical structure including unique description and measurement of tricuspid annulus shape and size, TV leaflets shape, and mobility, and TV commissural width were obtained in majority of patients. Identification of each TV leaflet as seen in the routine 2DE views was obtained. Conclusion RT3DE of the TV is feasible in a large number of patients. RT3DE may add to functional 2DE data in description of TV anatomy and providing highly reproducible and actual reality (anatomical and functional) measurements. PMID:17318363

  6. Real-time telemedicine using shared three-dimensional workspaces over ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoon, Peter; Forsey, David R.; Hutchison, Susan

    1999-03-01

    During the past five years a high speed ATM network has been developed at UBC that provides a campus testbed, a local testbed to the hospitals, and a National testbed between here and the BADLAB in Ottawa. This testbed has been developed to combine a commercial shared audio/video/whiteboard environment coupled with a shared interactive 3-dimensional solid model. This solid model ranges from a skull reconstructed from a CT scan with muscles and an overlying skin, to a model of the ventricle system of the human brain. Typical interactions among surgeon, radiologist and modeler consist of having image slices of the original scan shared by all and the ability to adjust the surface of the model to conform to each individuals perception of what the final object should look like. The purpose of this interaction can range from forensic reconstruction from partial remains to pre-maxillofacial surgery. A joint project with the forensic unit of the R.C.M.P. in Ottawa using the BADLAB is now in the stages of testing this methodology on a real case beginning with a CT scan of partial remains. A second study underway with the department of Maxiofacial reconstruction at Dalhousie University in Halifax Nova Scotia and concerns a subject who is about to undergo orthognathic surgery, in particular a mandibular advancement. This subject has been MRI scanned, a solid model constructed of the mandible and the virtual surgery constructed on the model. This model and the procedure have been discussed and modified by the modeler and the maxillofacial specialist using these shared workspaces. The procedure will be repeated after the actual surgery to verify the modeled procedure. The advantage of this technique is that none of the specialists need be in the same room, or city. Given the scarcity of time and specialists this methodology shows great promise. In November of this last year a shared live demonstration of this facial modeler was done between Vancouver and Dalhousie University in

  7. Fast interactive real-time volume rendering of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: an implementation for low-end computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saracino, G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Shiota, T.; Corsi, C.; Lamberti, C.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is an innovative cardiac imaging modality. However, partly due to lack of user-friendly software, RT3DE has not been widely accepted as a clinical tool. The object of this study was to develop and implement a fast and interactive volume renderer of RT3DE datasets designed for a clinical environment where speed and simplicity are not secondary to accuracy. Thirty-six patients (20 regurgitation, 8 normal, 8 cardiomyopathy) were imaged using RT3DE. Using our newly developed software, all 3D data sets were rendered in real-time throughout the cardiac cycle and assessment of cardiac function and pathology was performed for each case. The real-time interactive volume visualization system is user friendly and instantly provides consistent and reliable 3D images without expensive workstations or dedicated hardware. We believe that this novel tool can be used clinically for dynamic visualization of cardiac anatomy.

  8. Fast interactive real-time volume rendering of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: an implementation for low-end computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saracino, G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Shiota, T.; Corsi, C.; Lamberti, C.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is an innovative cardiac imaging modality. However, partly due to lack of user-friendly software, RT3DE has not been widely accepted as a clinical tool. The object of this study was to develop and implement a fast and interactive volume renderer of RT3DE datasets designed for a clinical environment where speed and simplicity are not secondary to accuracy. Thirty-six patients (20 regurgitation, 8 normal, 8 cardiomyopathy) were imaged using RT3DE. Using our newly developed software, all 3D data sets were rendered in real-time throughout the cardiac cycle and assessment of cardiac function and pathology was performed for each case. The real-time interactive volume visualization system is user friendly and instantly provides consistent and reliable 3D images without expensive workstations or dedicated hardware. We believe that this novel tool can be used clinically for dynamic visualization of cardiac anatomy.

  9. Shaping volumetric light distribution through turbid media using real-time three-dimensional opto-acoustic feedback.

    PubMed

    Deán-Ben, X Luís; Estrada, Héctor; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    Focusing light through turbid media represents a highly fascinating challenge in modern biophotonics. The unique capability of opto-acoustics for high-resolution imaging of light absorption contrast in deep tissues can provide a natural and efficient feedback to control light delivery in a scattering medium. While the basic feasibility of using opto-acoustic readings as a feedback mechanism for wavefront shaping has been recently reported, the suggested approaches may require long acquisition times, making them challenging to be translated into realistic tissue environments. In an attempt to significantly accelerate dynamic wavefront shaping capabilities, we present here a feedback-based approach using real-time three-dimensional opto-acoustic imaging assisted with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The new technique offers robust performance in the presence of noisy measurements and can simultaneously control the scattered wave field in an entire volumetric region.

  10. Real-Time, Noninvasive Recording And Three-Dimensional Display Of The Functional Movements Of An Arbitrary Mandible Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesqui, F.; Kaeser, F.; Fischer, P.

    1986-07-01

    The monitoring of the motion of an arbitrary mandibular point is essential in dentistry in order to extract from typical motion patterns relevant parameters indicating normal or abnormal masticatory function. After first experiences of nonrestrictive jaw motion quantification with the help of a Selspot I we designed a new real-time optoelectronic system. The recording system includes three cameras. Each camera contains a cylindrical lens and a linear optosensor (CCD). Two extra-oral lightweight target frames (2g) containing each three light emitting diodes are fixed on the patients's teeth. The system fires each LED cyclically and computes their three-dimensional coordinates in a reconstruction unit. From these coordinates another processing unit computes the three-dimensional coordinates of an arbitrary jaw point in a head fixed coordinate system. The computed trajectories are drawn on-line with the help of a dedicated 3D viewing hardware on a CRT where they can be directly rotated and zoomed to follow intricate motion details. The system is easy to handle, low-cost, stand-alone, has an excellent linearity and a resolution better than 0.1 mm.

  11. Three-dimensional volume off-line analysis as compared to real-time ultrasound for assessing adnexal masses.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Juan Luis; Iturra, Alberto; Sedda, Federica; Aubá, María; Ajossa, Silvia; Guerriero, Stefano; Jurado, Matías

    2012-03-01

    To assess the agreement between three-dimensional volume off-line analysis as compared to real-time ultrasound for assessing adnexal masses. Ninety-nine non-consecutive women diagnosed as having an adnexal mass were assessed by transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound. One single examiner performed all ultrasound examinations. Based on the examiner's subjective evaluation using gray scale and Doppler ultrasound findings a presumptive diagnosis (benign or malignant) was provided after real-time ultrasound was performed. Once real-time was done a 3D volume of the adnexal mass was acquired and stored by this examiner. Two examiners, unaware of the real-time ultrasound results, evaluated the 3D volumes using multiplanar display and virtual navigation and also had to provide a presumptive diagnosis (benign or malignant). These two examiners, like the first one, had information about patient's age, menopausal status and complaints. All women underwent surgery or were followed-up until cyst resolution. Histologic diagnosis was used as gold standard. Cysts that resolved spontaneously were considered as benign for analytical purposes. The Kappa index was used to assess the agreement between real time ultrasound and 3D volume analysis. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods were calculated and compared using McNemar test. Forty-one masses were malignant and 58 were benign. Agreement between real-time ultrasound and 3D volume analysis was good for both off-line examiners (Kappa index: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93 and 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.90). Sensitivities for real-time ultrasound and 3D volume analyses were 100%, 93% and 90%, respectively (p>0.05). Specificities for real-time ultrasound and 3D volume analyses were 91%, 84% and 86%, respectively (p>0.05). Off-line 3D volume analysis may be a useful method for assessing adnexal masses, showing a good agreement with real-time ultrasound and having a similar diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  12. Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Kim, Jongsik; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Chaney, Eric J.; Spillman, Darold R.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in optical imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), enable us to observe tissue microstructure at high resolution and in real time. Currently, core-needle biopsies are guided by external imaging modalities such as ultrasound imaging and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for breast and lung masses, respectively. These image-guided procedures are frequently limited by spatial resolution when using ultrasound imaging, or by temporal resolution (rapid real-time feedback capabilities) when using x-ray CT. One feasible approach is to perform OCT within small gauge needles to optically image tissue microstructure. However, to date, no system or core-needle device has been developed that incorporates both three-dimensional OCT imaging and tissue biopsy within the same needle for true OCT-guided core-needle biopsy. We have developed and demonstrate an integrated core-needle biopsy system that utilizes catheter-based 3-D OCT for real-time image-guidance for target tissue localization, imaging of tissue immediately prior to physical biopsy, and subsequent OCT imaging of the biopsied specimen for immediate assessment at the point-of-care. OCT images of biopsied ex vivo tumor specimens acquired during core-needle placement are correlated with corresponding histology, and computational visualization of arbitrary planes within the 3-D OCT volumes enables feedback on specimen tissue type and biopsy quality. These results demonstrate the potential for using real-time 3-D OCT for needle biopsy guidance by imaging within the needle and tissue during biopsy procedures. PMID:22741064

  13. Real-time sensing and three-dimensional display of far outdoor scenes based on asymmetric integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Gwan; Choi, Hee-Min; Hwang, Yong Seok; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2017-07-01

    A new asymmetric integral imaging (AII) system for real-time pickup and three-dimensional (3-D) display of far outdoor scenes based on dynamic-pixel-mapping (DPM) is proposed. DPM is a digital process to transform the elemental images captured with a lens array into the perspective-variant object images (POIs) whose structures are matched with those of display lenses, where the orders of pixels in each POI are reversely mapped, and then capture a set of virtual elemental images (EIs) at the specific depth planes from the back-propagated POIs. This DPM enables an asymmetrical use of pickup and display lens arrays, allowing the long-ranged pickup of far outdoor scenes and their resolution-enhanced 3-D reconstruction. Experiments with a pair of pickup and display lens arrays whose pitches and focal lengths are given by 7.5 mm, 30 mm and 1.2 mm, 8 mm, respectively, show that the effective pickup-range and resolution of the proposed system have been increased up to 6 m and 1600×1600 pixels, respectively, from 0.064 m and 480×480 pixels of the conventional systems employing the same pickup and display lens arrays. In addition, experiments with an implemented test bed confirms that the proposed system can provide real-time 3-D images in 25 frames per second.

  14. Real-time volume rendering of four-dimensional images based on three-dimensional texture mapping.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J; Kim, J S; Kim, J S; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2001-06-01

    A four-dimensional (4-D) image consists of three-dimensional (3-D) volume data that varies with time. It is used to express a deforming or moving object in virtual surgery or 4-D ultrasound. It is difficult to obtain 4-D images by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering process and the pre-processing stage necessary whenever the volume data are changed. Even when 3-D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is time-consuming in 4-D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real-time rendering based on 3-D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one that was already loaded in memory. If the brick passes the test, it is defined as 3-D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Using continuous deforming, 50 volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Realtime volume rendering based on 3-D texture mapping is currently available for personal computers.

  15. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Cell Segmentation in Large-Scale Microscopy Data of Developing Embryos.

    PubMed

    Stegmaier, Johannes; Amat, Fernando; Lemon, William C; McDole, Katie; Wan, Yinan; Teodoro, George; Mikut, Ralf; Keller, Philipp J

    2016-01-25

    We present the Real-time Accurate Cell-shape Extractor (RACE), a high-throughput image analysis framework for automated three-dimensional cell segmentation in large-scale images. RACE is 55-330 times faster and 2-5 times more accurate than state-of-the-art methods. We demonstrate the generality of RACE by extracting cell-shape information from entire Drosophila, zebrafish, and mouse embryos imaged with confocal and light-sheet microscopes. Using RACE, we automatically reconstructed cellular-resolution tissue anisotropy maps across developing Drosophila embryos and quantified differences in cell-shape dynamics in wild-type and mutant embryos. We furthermore integrated RACE with our framework for automated cell lineaging and performed joint segmentation and cell tracking in entire Drosophila embryos. RACE processed these terabyte-sized datasets on a single computer within 1.4 days. RACE is easy to use, as it requires adjustment of only three parameters, takes full advantage of state-of-the-art multi-core processors and graphics cards, and is available as open-source software for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microvascular anastomosis guidance and evaluation using real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Mao, Qi; Pang, John; Andrew Lee, Wei Ping; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Vascular and microvascular anastomoses are critical components of reconstructive microsurgery, vascular surgery, and transplant surgery. Intraoperative surgical guidance using a surgical imaging modality that provides an in-depth view and three-dimensional (3-D) imaging can potentially improve outcome following both conventional and innovative anastomosis techniques. Objective postoperative imaging of the anastomosed vessel can potentially improve the salvage rate when combined with other clinical assessment tools, such as capillary refill, temperature, blanching, and skin turgor. Compared to other contemporary postoperative monitoring modalities—computed tomography angiograms, magnetic resonance (MR) angiograms, and ultrasound Doppler—optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive high-resolution (micron-level), high-speed, 3-D imaging modality that has been adopted widely in biomedical and clinical applications. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the feasibility of real-time 3-D phase-resolved Doppler OCT (PRDOCT) as an assisted intra- and postoperative imaging modality for microvascular anastomosis of rodent femoral vessels is demonstrated, which will provide new insights and a potential breakthrough to microvascular and supermicrovascular surgery. PMID:23856833

  17. Real-time monitoring in three-dimensional hepatocytes reveals that insulin acts as a synchronizer for liver clock

    PubMed Central

    Yamajuku, Daisuke; Inagaki, Takahiko; Haruma, Tomonori; Okubo, Shingo; Kataoka, Yutaro; Kobayashi, Satoru; Ikegami, Keisuke; Laurent, Thomas; Kojima, Tomoko; Noutomi, Keiji; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Oda, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Resetting the peripheral clock and understanding the integration between the circadian rhythm and metabolic pathways are fundamental questions. To test whether insulin acts as a synchronizer for the hepatic clock by cell-autonomous mechanisms, the phase-resetting capabilities of insulin were investigated in cultured hepatic cells. We provide evidence that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture conditions that preserve the differentiated state of primary hepatocytes sustained the robustness of the molecular clock, while this robustness rapidly dampened under classical monolayer cell culture conditions. Herein, we established a 3D cell culture system coupled with a real-time luciferase reporter, and demonstrated that insulin directly regulates the phase entrainment of hepatocyte circadian oscillators. We found that insulin-deficient diabetic rats had a pronounced phase advance in their hepatic clock. Subsequently, a single administration of insulin induced phase-dependent bi-directional phase shifts in diabetic rat livers. Our results clearly demonstrate that insulin is a liver clock synchronizer. PMID:22666542

  18. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony assessment by real time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jaubert, Marie-Perrine; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-05-01

    Real time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography allows the assessment of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony and may be useful in predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. However, reproducibility of 3D dyssynchrony in past reports varied widely. We evaluated intra- and interobserver reproducibility of parameters of LV mechanical dyssynchrony by 3D echocardiography and explored the impact of image quality as a possible source of variability. LV volumes and ejection fraction (LV EF) were measured by 3D echocardiography in 90 subjects. LV mechanical dyssynchrony was calculated as the standard deviation of the time-to-minimum segmental volume (Tmsv) over 16 (SDI16) and 12 (SDI12) segments and as the maximum time-difference in Tmsv over 16 (Dif16), 12 (Dif12), and 2 (DifS-L) segments. Opposing wall delay in peak myocardial systolic velocity (S-L delay) by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) was also evaluated. Feasibility of 3D measurements was 88.9%. Intra- and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for LV volumes, LV EF, and S-L delay (all ≥ 0.90), very good for SDI16 (0.83 and 0.85), moderate to good for SDI12, Dif16, Dif12, and DifS-L (0.51-0.81). No systematic bias was present between readings for 3D dyssynchrony, but limits of agreement resulted fairly large for most parameters with the exception of SDI16, which showed reproducibility slightly lower than TDI. Suboptimal image quality was a significant source of variability in 3D-dyssynchrony assessment. The 3D assessment of LV volumes and dyssynchrony was feasible in our community-based cohort. SDI16 was the most reproducible among 3D-dyssynchrony parameters and the least affected by image quality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The advantages of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Aylin; Hsiung, Ming C; Meggo Quiroz, Luis D; Oz, Tuğba Kemaloğlu; Haj Asaad, Ayman; Joshi, Deepak; Dönmez, Cevdet; Güvenç, Tolga S; Nanda, Navin C

    2014-11-01

    Currently, tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (TVIE) is encountered in daily clinical practice more frequently due to the increasing prevalence of illicit intravenous drug use and the implantation of intracardiac devices. In this study, we compared findings from intra-operative live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograms (3DTEE) and two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograms (2DTEE) of 10 patients who underwent surgery for native tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis. Unlike 2DTEE, 3DTEE allowed en face visualization of the 3 TV leaflets from both, atrial and ventricular aspects, in 9 of the 10 cases. In the remaining patient, in whom 3DTEE could not identify all 3 leaflets en face, the TV was found essentially destroyed at surgery. Using 3DTEE, the number of vegetations was accurately reported when compared with the surgical record. Furthermore, the orientation of each vegetation was the same as noted in the surgical findings. 2DTEE missed the identification of vegetations in 5 patients. The attachment site of vegetations to the TV were also not characterized by 2DTEE in 5 patients. In all 10 cases, 3DTEE characterized the vegetations more accurately with larger dimensions, including those in the azimuthal axis, and volumes. In addition, a perivalvular abscess that lead to surgical intervention was identified by 3DTEE, however, missed by 2DTEE. In conclusion, 3DTEE allows en face visualization of the TV apparatus permitting accurate description of the number and dimensions of vegetations identified by our surgical standard, which ultimately informs patients' prognosis and dictates the timing and planning for surgical intervention. Its use should be in conjunction with 2DTEE when evaluating TVIE. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography provides novel and useful anatomic insights of perimembranous ventricular septal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Dai, Zen-Kong; Lee, Meng-Hsun

    2007-06-12

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is a new image modality, and it can display a unique image reconstruction in a variety of heart diseases. However, clinical assessment of ventricular septal aneurysm (VSA) by RT3DE has not been reported. This pilot prospective study is to survey what kinds of new insights of VSA can be provided by RT3DE as compared with conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). We investigated the diagnostic value of RT3DE and 2DE in 60 consecutive patients with VSA. From different transthoracic windows, structures of interest can be displayed from any orientation through adjusting cropping and slicing the RT3DE datasets. The results were compared with those in 2DE. RT3DE reconstruction of VSA was feasible in 56 of 60 patients (93%). When compared with 2DE, additional information provided by RT3DE included blood flow through left ventricle to right ventricle, visualization of VSD enface border in 56 patients (93%), morphology of the VSA from apical short axis view in 48 patients (86%), hypertrophied margin of the interventricular septum in 26 patients (43%), dynamic changes of VSA and tricuspid valve in 18 patients (30%), adhesion of chordae tendineae in VSA in 16 patients (26%). Structures of interest can be evaluated from unique RT3DE in any orientation during scanning. RT3DE offers additional novel views and has the advantages of not only displaying better visualization of VSA, but also adequately showing the spatial relationship with its adjacent structures. It can provide novel and useful anatomic insights than 2DE while assessing patients with VSA.

  1. Incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography over the two-dimensional technique in assessing carcinoid heart disease involving the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Bulur, Serkan; Hsiung, Ming C; Nanda, Navin C; Hardas, Shalaka; Mohamed, Ahmed; ElKaryoni, Ahmed; Srialluri, Swetha; Barssoum, Kirolos; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Wei, Jeng; Yin, Wei-Hsian

    2016-11-01

    We present a case of an adult with metastatic carcinoid heart disease, in whom live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography provided incremental value over two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in assessing involvement of the aortic valve. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Accuracy of a Real-Time, Computerized, Binocular, Three-Dimensional Trajectory-Tracking Device for Recording Functional Mandibular Movements

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tian; Yang, Huifang; Sui, Huaxin; Salvi, Satyajeet Sudhir; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Developments in digital technology have permitted researchers to study mandibular movements. Here, the accuracy of a real-time, computerized, binocular, three-dimensional (3D) trajectory-tracking device for recording functional mandibular movements was evaluated. Methods An occlusal splint without the occlusal region was created based on a plaster cast of the lower dentition. The splint was rigidly connected with a target on its labial side and seated on the cast. The cast was then rigidly attached to the stage of a high-precision triaxial electronic translator, which was used to move the target-cast-stage complex. Half-circular movements (5.00-mm radius) in three planes (XOY, XOZ, YOZ) and linear movements along the x-axis were performed at 5.00 mm/s. All trajectory points were recorded with the binocular 3D trajectory-tracking device and fitted to arcs or lines, respectively, with the Imageware software. To analyze the accuracy of the trajectory-tracking device, the mean distances between the trajectory points and the fitted arcs or lines were measured, and the mean differences between the lengths of the fitted arcs’ radii and a set value (5.00 mm) were then calculated. A one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the spatial consistency of the recording accuracy in three different planes. Results The mean distances between the trajectory points and fitted arcs or lines were 0.076 ± 0.033 mm or 0.089 ± 0.014 mm. The mean difference between the lengths of the fitted arcs’ radii and the set value (5.00 mm) was 0.025 ± 0.071 mm. A one-way ANOVA showed that the recording errors in three different planes were not statistically significant. Conclusion These results suggest that the device can record certain movements at 5.00 mm/s, which is similar to the speed of functional mandibular movements. In addition, the recordings had an error of <0.1 mm and good spatial consistency. Thus, the device meets some of the requirements necessary for

  3. A study of the application of singular perturbation theory. [development of a real time algorithm for optimal three dimensional aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, R. K.; Washburn, R. B.; Sajan, S.; Carroll, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    A hierarchical real time algorithm for optimal three dimensional control of aircraft is described. Systematic methods are developed for real time computation of nonlinear feedback controls by means of singular perturbation theory. The results are applied to a six state, three control variable, point mass model of an F-4 aircraft. Nonlinear feedback laws are presented for computing the optimal control of throttle, bank angle, and angle of attack. Real Time capability is assessed on a TI 9900 microcomputer. The breakdown of the singular perturbation approximation near the terminal point is examined Continuation methods are examined to obtain exact optimal trajectories starting from the singular perturbation solutions.

  4. Real-time in situ three-dimensional integral videography and surgical navigation using augmented reality: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Hoang Tran, Huy; Liao, Hongen; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a three-dimensional augmented reality system incorporating integral videography for imaging oral and maxillofacial regions, based on preoperative computed tomography data. Three-dimensional surface models of the jawbones, based on the computed tomography data, were used to create the integral videography images of a subject's maxillofacial area. The three-dimensional augmented reality system (integral videography display, computed tomography, a position tracker and a computer) was used to generate a three-dimensional overlay that was projected on the surgical site via a half-silvered mirror. Thereafter, a feasibility study was performed on a volunteer. The accuracy of this system was verified on a solid model while simulating bone resection. Positional registration was attained by identifying and tracking the patient/surgical instrument's position. Thus, integral videography images of jawbones, teeth and the surgical tool were superimposed in the correct position. Stereoscopic images viewed from various angles were accurately displayed. Change in the viewing angle did not negatively affect the surgeon's ability to simultaneously observe the three-dimensional images and the patient, without special glasses. The difference in three-dimensional position of each measuring point on the solid model and augmented reality navigation was almost negligible (<1 mm); this indicates that the system was highly accurate. This augmented reality system was highly accurate and effective for surgical navigation and for overlaying a three-dimensional computed tomography image on a patient's surgical area, enabling the surgeon to understand the positional relationship between the preoperative image and the actual surgical site, with the naked eye. PMID:23703710

  5. Real-time in situ three-dimensional integral videography and surgical navigation using augmented reality: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Hoang Tran, Huy; Liao, Hongen; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a three-dimensional augmented reality system incorporating integral videography for imaging oral and maxillofacial regions, based on preoperative computed tomography data. Three-dimensional surface models of the jawbones, based on the computed tomography data, were used to create the integral videography images of a subject's maxillofacial area. The three-dimensional augmented reality system (integral videography display, computed tomography, a position tracker and a computer) was used to generate a three-dimensional overlay that was projected on the surgical site via a half-silvered mirror. Thereafter, a feasibility study was performed on a volunteer. The accuracy of this system was verified on a solid model while simulating bone resection. Positional registration was attained by identifying and tracking the patient/surgical instrument's position. Thus, integral videography images of jawbones, teeth and the surgical tool were superimposed in the correct position. Stereoscopic images viewed from various angles were accurately displayed. Change in the viewing angle did not negatively affect the surgeon's ability to simultaneously observe the three-dimensional images and the patient, without special glasses. The difference in three-dimensional position of each measuring point on the solid model and augmented reality navigation was almost negligible (<1 mm); this indicates that the system was highly accurate. This augmented reality system was highly accurate and effective for surgical navigation and for overlaying a three-dimensional computed tomography image on a patient's surgical area, enabling the surgeon to understand the positional relationship between the preoperative image and the actual surgical site, with the naked eye.

  6. Assessment of visual quality and spatial accuracy of fast anisotropic diffusion and scan conversion algorithms for real-time three-dimensional spherical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Laine, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound machines based on matrix phased-array transducers are gaining predominance for real-time dynamic screening in cardiac and obstetric practice. These transducers array acquire three-dimensional data in spherical coordinates along lines tiled in azimuth and elevation angles at incremental depth. This study aims at evaluating fast filtering and scan conversion algorithms applied in the spherical domain prior to visualization into Cartesian coordinates for visual quality and spatial measurement accuracy. Fast 3d scan conversion algorithms were implemented and with different order interpolation kernels. Downsizing and smoothing of sampling artifacts were integrated in the scan conversion process. In addition, a denoising scheme for spherical coordinate data with 3d anisotropic diffusion was implemented and applied prior to scan conversion to improve image quality. Reconstruction results under different parameter settings, such as different interpolation kernels, scaling factor, smoothing options, and denoising, are reported. Image quality was evaluated on several data sets via visual inspections and measurements of cylinder objects dimensions. Error measurements of the cylinder's radius, reported in this paper, show that the proposed fast scan conversion algorithm can correctly reconstruct three-dimensional ultrasound in Cartesian coordinates under tuned parameter settings. Denoising via three-dimensional anisotropic diffusion was able to greatly improve the quality of resampled data without affecting the accuracy of spatial information after the modification of the introduction of a variable gradient threshold parameter.

  7. Assessment of image quality in real time three-dimensional dobutamine stress echocardiography: an integrated 2D/3D approach.

    PubMed

    Johri, Amer M; Chitty, David W; Hua, Lanqi; Marincheva, Gergana; Picard, Michael H

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stress echocardiography is a relatively new technique offering the potential to acquire images of the entire left ventricle from 1 or 2 transducer positions in a time-efficient manner. Relative to two-dimensional (2D) imaging, the ability to quickly acquire full volume images during peak stress with 3D echocardiography can eliminate left ventricular (LV) foreshortening while reducing inter-operator variability. Our objectives were to (1) determine the practicality of a novel integrated 2D/3D stress protocol in incorporating 3D imaging into a standard 2D stress echocardiogram and (2) to determine whether the quality of imaging using the novel 2D/3D protocol was sufficient for interpretation. Twenty-five patients referred for stress echocardiography underwent an integrated 2D/3D image acquisition protocol. LV segments were scored from 0 (absent or no clear endocardial visualization) to 3 (excellent/full visualization of endocardial border) with each modality. 2D segment quality scoring was compared with 3D. An integrated score was compared with either 2D or 3D imaging alone. Two-dimensional and 3D imaging were optimal for differing segments and the integrated protocol was superior to either modality alone. 3D imaging was superior in visualizing the anterior and anterolateral region of the base segments, compared to 2D imaging. 3D imaging was less useful for the base, the mid-inferior, and the inferoseptal segments, thus emphasizing the need to retain 2D imaging in stress echocardiography at this time. The integrated 2D/3D protocol approach to stress echocardiography is technically feasible and maximizes image quality of dobutamine stress echocardiography, improving patient assessment. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Initial clinical experience of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in patients with ischemic and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; White, R. D.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Flamm, S. D.; Wong, J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The geometry of the left ventricle in patients with cardiomyopathy is often sub-optimal for 2-dimensional ultrasound when assessing left ventricular (LV) function and localized abnormalities such as a ventricular aneurysm. The aim of this study was to report the initial experience of real-time 3-D echocardiography for evaluating patients with cardiomyopathy. A total of 34 patients were evaluated with the real-time 3D method in the operating room (n = 15) and in the echocardiographic laboratory (n = 19). Thirteen of 28 patients with cardiomyopathy and 6 other subjects with normal LV function were evaluated by both real-time 3-D echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for obtaining LV volumes and ejection fractions for comparison. There were close relations and agreements for LV volumes (r = 0.98, p <0.0001, mean difference = -15 +/- 81 ml) and ejection fractions (r = 0.97, p <0.0001, mean difference = 0.001 +/- 0.04) between the real-time 3D method and MRI when 3 cardiomyopathy cases with marked LV dilatation (LV end-diastolic volume >450 ml by MRI) were excluded. In these 3 patients, 3D echocardiography significantly underestimated the LV volumes due to difficulties with imaging the entire LV in a 60 degrees x 60 degrees pyramidal volume. The new real-time 3D echocardiography is feasible in patients with cardiomyopathy and may provide a faster and lower cost alternative to MRI for evaluating cardiac function in patients.

  9. Initial clinical experience of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in patients with ischemic and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; White, R. D.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Flamm, S. D.; Wong, J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The geometry of the left ventricle in patients with cardiomyopathy is often sub-optimal for 2-dimensional ultrasound when assessing left ventricular (LV) function and localized abnormalities such as a ventricular aneurysm. The aim of this study was to report the initial experience of real-time 3-D echocardiography for evaluating patients with cardiomyopathy. A total of 34 patients were evaluated with the real-time 3D method in the operating room (n = 15) and in the echocardiographic laboratory (n = 19). Thirteen of 28 patients with cardiomyopathy and 6 other subjects with normal LV function were evaluated by both real-time 3-D echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for obtaining LV volumes and ejection fractions for comparison. There were close relations and agreements for LV volumes (r = 0.98, p <0.0001, mean difference = -15 +/- 81 ml) and ejection fractions (r = 0.97, p <0.0001, mean difference = 0.001 +/- 0.04) between the real-time 3D method and MRI when 3 cardiomyopathy cases with marked LV dilatation (LV end-diastolic volume >450 ml by MRI) were excluded. In these 3 patients, 3D echocardiography significantly underestimated the LV volumes due to difficulties with imaging the entire LV in a 60 degrees x 60 degrees pyramidal volume. The new real-time 3D echocardiography is feasible in patients with cardiomyopathy and may provide a faster and lower cost alternative to MRI for evaluating cardiac function in patients.

  10. Real-time flatness inspection of rolled products based on optical laser triangulation and three-dimensional surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2010-07-01

    Flatness is a major geometrical feature of rolled products specified by both production and quality needs. Real-time inspection of flatness is the basis of automatic flatness control. Industrial facilities where rolled products are manufactured have adverse environments that affect artificial vision systems. We present a low-cost flatness inspection system based on optical triangulation by means of a laser stripe emitter and a CMOS matrix camera, designed to be part of an online flatness control system. An accurate and robust method to extract a laser stripe in adverse conditions over rough surfaces is proposed and designed to be applied in real time. Laser extraction relies on a local and a global search. The global search is based on an adjustment of curve segments based on a split-and-merge technique. A real-time recording method of the input data of the flatness inspection system is proposed. It stores information about manufacturing conditions for an offline tuning of the laser stripe extraction method using real data. Flatness measurements carried out over steel strips are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Moreover, the real-time performance of the proposed system is analyzed.

  11. Real-time three-dimensional imaging sonar for in-situ tracking of zooplankton in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuss, Edward L.; Jaffe, Jules S.

    1992-11-01

    Marine zooplankton form a significant part of the marine ecosystem since they are relatively low on the food chain and they exist in vast quantities. However, little is known of their behavior, how they feed, how they interact or their swimming patterns. To explore some of these issues a three-dimensional imaging sonar was developed to track the movements of these zooplankton in their native environment. The tracking problem requires a high frequency sonar with a fast frame update rate and reasonably high resolutions in three dimensions. It also requires a small array to minimize the proximity effects of the transducer package on the zooplankton behavior, to allow mounting of the transducer array on small remotely operated submersible vehicles and to reduce the cost of the sonar. This led to an array architecture which resolves the target volume of interest into a three-dimensional array of volumetric units that are digitized and stored in computer memory. This digitized array of numbers is then processed by the computer and the results displayed using a three-dimensional graphics imaging package to present a 3-D image depicting the back scatter strength of the target volume along with the location of any objects within that volume.

  12. Real Imagery as a Three Dimensional Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    under two categories--stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays. The difference between these two displays is that autostereoscopic displays do not...require the use of special viewing glasses whereas stereoscopic displays do. In order to place a minimum incumbrance on the viewer, the autostereoscopic ...fooled into believing that the scene is three dimensional. This is accomplished even though the second view that normally comes with an autostereoscopic

  13. [Differential diagnostic value of real-time tissue elastography and three dimensional ultrasound imaging in breast lumps].

    PubMed

    Li, M H; Liu, Y; Liu, L S; Li, P X; Chen, Q

    2016-05-24

    To investigate the real-time tissue elastography and 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) in breast lumps differential diagnostic value. A total of 126 patients (180 lumps) with breast mass were retrospectively analyzed from December 2012 to December 2014 in Tumor Hospital Affiliated To Xinjiang Medical University.All patients were divided into three groups by using stratified random method.Each group was detected by real-time tissue elastography, 3D CEUS and two joint inspection.Each group of 42 cases (60 lumps) was confirmed by the pathological results as gold standard.Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and coincidence rate of different methods were compared. The benign masses of ultrasound contrast showed the punctate, linear and nodular enhancement, and the border of enhancement was smooth.The malignant tumors were mainly dominated by uneven and high enhancement. There was no statistical difference in sensitivity, specificity and coincidence rate between elastography group and 3D CEUS group (64.7% vs 73.5%, 69.2% vs 76.9%, 66.7% vs 75.0%, all P>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and coincidence rate of two joint inspection group were higher than those of elastography group and 3D CEUS group, the differences were statistically significant (97.1%, 92.3% and 98.3% , all P<0.05). 3D CEUS combined with real-time tissue elastography is of high value in the diagnosis of breast masses.

  14. Real-time three-dimensional imaging of epidermal splitting and removal by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Boone, Marc; Draye, Jean Pierre; Verween, Gunther; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Verbeken, Gilbert; De Vos, Daniel; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-10-01

    While real-time 3-D evaluation of human skin constructs is needed, only 2-D non-invasive imaging techniques are available. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) for real-time 3-D assessment of the epidermal splitting and decellularization. Human skin samples were incubated with four different agents: Dispase II, NaCl 1 M, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100. Epidermal splitting, dermo-epidermal junction, acellularity and 3-D architecture of dermal matrices were evaluated by High-definition optical coherence tomography before and after incubation. Real-time 3-D HD-OCT assessment was compared with 2-D en face assessment by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). (Immuno) histopathology was used as control. HD-OCT imaging allowed real-time 3-D visualization of the impact of selected agents on epidermal splitting, dermo-epidermal junction, dermal architecture, vascular spaces and cellularity. RCM has a better resolution (1 μm) than HD-OCT (3 μm), permitting differentiation of different collagen fibres, but HD-OCT imaging has deeper penetration (570 μm) than RCM imaging (200 μm). Dispase II and NaCl treatments were found to be equally efficient in the removal of the epidermis from human split-thickness skin allografts. However, a different epidermal splitting level at the dermo-epidermal junction could be observed and confirmed by immunolabelling of collagen type IV and type VII. Epidermal splitting occurred at the level of the lamina densa with dispase II and above the lamina densa (in the lamina lucida) with NaCl. The 3-D architecture of dermal papillae and dermis was more affected by Dispase II on HD-OCT which corresponded with histopathologic (orcein staining) fragmentation of elastic fibres. With SDS treatment, the epidermal removal was incomplete as remnants of the epidermal basal cell layer remained attached to the basement membrane on the dermis. With Triton X-100 treatment

  15. Usefulness of live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in evaluation of prosthetic valve function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Inamdar, Vatsal; Hage, Fadi G; Kodali, Visali; Karakus, Gultekin; Suwanjutah, Thouantosaporn; Hsiung, Ming C; Nanda, Navin C

    2009-11-01

    We studied 31 patients with prosthetic valves (PVs) using two-dimensional and three-dimensional transthorathic echocardiography (2DTTE and 3DTTE, respectively) in order to determine whether 3DTTE provides an incremental value on top of 2DTTE in the evaluation of these patients. With 3DTTE both leaflets of the St. Jude mechanical PV can be visualized simultaneously, thereby increasing the diagnostic confidence in excluding valvular abnormalities and overcoming the well-known limitations of 2DTTE in the examination of PVs, which heavily relies on Doppler. Three-dimensional transthorathic echocardiography provides a more comprehensive evaluation of PV regurgitation than 2DTTE with its ability to more precisely quantify PV regurgitation, in determining the mechanism causing regurgitation, and in localizing the regurgitant defect. Furthermore, 3DTTE is superior in identifying, quantifying, and localizing PV thrombi and vegetations, in addition to the unique feature of providing a look inside mass lesions by serial sectioning. These preliminary results suggest the superiority of 3DTTE over 2DTTE in the evaluation of PVs and that it provides incremental knowledge to the echocardiographer.

  16. Coexisting bicuspid aortic and pulmonary valves with normally related great vessels diagnosed by live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kemaloğlu Öz, Tuğba; Karadeniz, Fatma Özpamuk; Gundlapalli, Hareesh; Erer, Betul; Sharma, Rohit K; Ahmed, Mustafa; Nanda, Navin C; Yıldırım, Aydın; Orhan, Gökçen; Öz, Ayhan; Eren, Mehmet

    2014-02-01

    Coexistence of bicuspid aortic and pulmonary valves in the same patient is a very rare entity identified mainly during surgery and postmortem. To the best of our knowledge, only one case has been diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiography in a newborn with malposition of the great arteries but no images were presented. Here, we are reporting the first case of bicuspid pulmonary and aortic valves diagnosed by live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in an adult with normally related great arteries. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  18. First results with real-time selenium-based full-field digital mammography three-dimensional imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtimaki, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena; Kalke, Martti

    2004-05-01

    Our goal in this paper is to evaluate the capability of real-time selenium-technology-based full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system in breast tomosynthesis. The objective of this study is to find out the present status of amorphous selenium technology in the sense of advanced applications in clinical use. We were using tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT+) 3-dimensional (3D) technology for reconstruction. Under evaluation were amorphous selenium signal-to-noise-ratio, flat panel image artefacts and acquisition time to perform full-field digital mammography 3D examination. To be able to validate the system we used a special breast phantom. We found out that 3D imaging technology provides diagnostic value and benefits over 2-dimensional (2D) imaging. 3D TACT advantages are to define if mammography finding is caused by a real abnormal lesion or by superposition of normal parenchymal structures, to be able to diagnose and analyze the findings properly, to detect changes in breast tissue which would otherwise be missed, to verify the possible multifocality of the breast cancers, to verify the correct target for biopsies and to reduce number of biopsies performed. Slice visualization and 3D volume model provide greater diagnostic information compared to 2D projection screening and diagnostic imaging.

  19. Three-Station Three-dimensional Bolus-Chase MR Angiography with Real-time Fluoroscopic Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Casey P.; Weavers, Paul T.; Borisch, Eric A.; Grimm, Roger C.; Hulshizer, Thomas C.; LaPlante, Christine C.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Glockner, James F.; Young, Phillip M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility of using real-time fluoroscopic tracking for bolus-chase magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of peripheral vasculature to image three stations from the aortoiliac bifurcation to the pedal arteries. Materials and Methods This prospective study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Eight healthy volunteers (three men; mean age, 48 years; age range, 30–81 years) and 13 patients suspected of having peripheral arterial disease (five men; mean age, 67 years; age range, 47–81 years) were enrolled and provided informed consent. All subjects were imaged with the fluoroscopic tracking MR angiographic protocol. Ten patients also underwent a clinical computed tomographic (CT) angiographic runoff examination. Two readers scored the MR angiographic studies for vessel signal intensity and sharpness and presence of confounding artifacts and venous contamination at 35 arterial segments. Mean aggregate scores were assessed. The paired MR angiographic and CT angiographic studies also were scored for visualization of disease, reader confidence, and overall diagnostic quality and were compared by using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Real-time fluoroscopic tracking performed well technically in all studies. Vessel segments were scored good to excellent in all but the following categories: For vessel signal intensity and sharpness, the abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, distal plantar arteries, and plantar arch were scored as fair to good; and for presence of confounding artifacts, the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries were scored as fair. The MR angiograms and CT angiograms did not differ significantly in any scoring category (reader 1: P = .50, .39, and .39; reader 2: P = .41, .61, and .33, respectively). CT scores were substantially better in 20% (four of 20) and 25% (five of 20) of the pooled evaluations for the visualization of disease and overall image quality categories, respectively, versus 5% (one of 20) for MR

  20. Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Jürgen; Sergeev, Oleg; Chakanga, Kambulakwao; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, modeling of light propagation in silicon thin film solar cells without using any fitting parameter is presented. The aim is to create a realistic view of the light trapping effects and of the resulting optical generation rate in the absorbing semiconductor layers. The focus is on real three dimensional systems. Our software Sentaurus tcad, developed by Synopsys, has the ability to import real topography measurements and to model the light propagation using the finite-difference time-domain method. To verify the simulation, we compared the measured and simulated angular distribution functions of a glass/SnO2:F transparent conducting oxide system for different wavelengths. The optical generation rate of charge carriers in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells including rough interfaces is calculated. The distribution of the optical generation rate is correlated with the shape of the interface, and the external quantum efficiencies are calculated and compared to experimental data.

  1. Three-dimensional reach trajectories as a probe of real-time decision-making between multiple competing targets

    PubMed Central

    Gallivan, Jason P.; Chapman, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Though several features of cognitive processing can be inferred from the discrete measurement [e.g., reaction time (RT), accuracy, etc.] of participants' conscious reports (e.g., verbal or key-press responses), it is becoming increasingly clear that a much richer understanding of these features can be captured from continuous measures of rapid, largely non-conscious behaviors like hand or eye movements. Here, using new experimental data, we describe in detail both the approach and analyses implemented in some of our previous studies that have used rapid reaching movements under cases of target uncertainty in order to probe the features, constraints and dynamics of stimulus-related processing in the brain. This work, as well as that of others, shows that when individuals are simultaneously presented with multiple potential targets—only one of which will be cued after reach onset—they produce initial reach trajectories that are spatially biased in accordance with the probabilistic distribution of targets. Such “spatial averaging” effects are consistent with observations from neurophysiological studies showing that neuronal populations in sensorimotor brain structures represent multiple target choices in parallel and they compete for selection. These effects also confirm and help extend computational models aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms that support action-target selection. We suggest that the use of this simple, yet powerful behavioral paradigm for providing a “real-time” visualization of ongoing cognitive processes occurring at the neural level offers great promise for studying processes related to a wide range of psychological phenomena, such as decision-making and the representation of objects. PMID:25100941

  2. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study of left ventricular function after infarct exclusion surgery for ischemic cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Bauer, F.; Travaglini, A.; Hoercher, K. J.; Buda, T.; Smedira, N. G.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infarct exclusion (IE) surgery, a technique of left ventricular (LV) reconstruction for dyskinetic or akinetic LV segments in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, requires accurate volume quantification to determine the impact of surgery due to complicated geometric changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients who underwent IE (mean age 61+/-8 years, 73% men) had epicardial real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) studies performed before and after IE. RT3DE follow-up was performed transthoracically 42+/-67 days after surgery in 22 patients. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the values before and after IE surgery and at follow-up. Significant decreases in LV end-diastolic (EDVI) and end-systolic (ESVI) volume indices were apparent immediately after IE and in follow-up (EDVI 99+/-40, 67+/-26, and 71+/-31 mL/m(2), respectively; ESVI 72+/-37, 40+/-21, and 42+/-22 mL/m(2), respectively; P:<0.05). LV ejection fraction increased significantly and remained higher (0.29+/-0.11, 0.43+/-0.13, and 0.42+/-0.09, respectively, P:<0.05). Forward stroke volume in 16 patients with preoperative mitral regurgitation significantly improved after IE and in follow-up (22+/-12, 53+/-24, and 58+/-21 mL, respectively, P:<0.005). New York Heart Association functional class at an average 285+/-144 days of clinical follow-up significantly improved from 3.0+/-0.8 to 1.8+/-0.8 (P:<0.0001). Smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes measured with RT3DE immediately after IE were closely related to improvement in New York Heart Association functional class at clinical follow-up (Spearman's rho=0.58 and 0.60, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: RT3DE can be used to quantitatively assess changes in LV volume and function after complicated LV reconstruction. Decreased LV volume and increased ejection fraction imply a reduction in LV wall stress after IE surgery and are predictive of symptomatic improvement.

  3. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study of left ventricular function after infarct exclusion surgery for ischemic cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Bauer, F.; Travaglini, A.; Hoercher, K. J.; Buda, T.; hide

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infarct exclusion (IE) surgery, a technique of left ventricular (LV) reconstruction for dyskinetic or akinetic LV segments in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, requires accurate volume quantification to determine the impact of surgery due to complicated geometric changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients who underwent IE (mean age 61+/-8 years, 73% men) had epicardial real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) studies performed before and after IE. RT3DE follow-up was performed transthoracically 42+/-67 days after surgery in 22 patients. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the values before and after IE surgery and at follow-up. Significant decreases in LV end-diastolic (EDVI) and end-systolic (ESVI) volume indices were apparent immediately after IE and in follow-up (EDVI 99+/-40, 67+/-26, and 71+/-31 mL/m(2), respectively; ESVI 72+/-37, 40+/-21, and 42+/-22 mL/m(2), respectively; P:<0.05). LV ejection fraction increased significantly and remained higher (0.29+/-0.11, 0.43+/-0.13, and 0.42+/-0.09, respectively, P:<0.05). Forward stroke volume in 16 patients with preoperative mitral regurgitation significantly improved after IE and in follow-up (22+/-12, 53+/-24, and 58+/-21 mL, respectively, P:<0.005). New York Heart Association functional class at an average 285+/-144 days of clinical follow-up significantly improved from 3.0+/-0.8 to 1.8+/-0.8 (P:<0.0001). Smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes measured with RT3DE immediately after IE were closely related to improvement in New York Heart Association functional class at clinical follow-up (Spearman's rho=0.58 and 0.60, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: RT3DE can be used to quantitatively assess changes in LV volume and function after complicated LV reconstruction. Decreased LV volume and increased ejection fraction imply a reduction in LV wall stress after IE surgery and are predictive of symptomatic improvement.

  4. Roles of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in peri-operation of transcatheter left atrial appendage closure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Song, Hongning; Zhang, Lan; Deng, Qing; Chen, Jinling; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yijia; Guo, Ruiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is a new treatment option for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Conventional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D TEE) has some limitations in the imaging assessment of LAA closure. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) allows for detailed morphologic assessment of the LAA. In this study, we aim to determine the clinical values of RT-3D TEE in the periprocedure of LAA closure. Thirty-eight persistent or paroxysmal AF patients with indications for LAA closure were enrolled in this study. RT-3D TEE full volume data of the LAA were recorded before operation to evaluate the anatomic feature, the landing zone dimension, and the depth of the LAA. On this basis, selection of LAA closure device was carried out. During the procedure, RT-3D TEE was applied to guide the interatrial septal puncture, device operation, and evaluate the occlusion effects. The patients were follow-up 1 month and 3 months postclosure. Twenty-eight (73.7%) patients with AF received placement of LAA occlusion device under RT-3D TEE. Eleven cases with single-lobe LAAs were identified using RT-3D TEE, among which 4 showed limited depth. Seventeen cases showed bilobed or multilobed LAA. Seven cases received LAA closure using Lefort and 21 using LAmbre based on the 3D TEE and radiography. The landing zone dimension of the LAA measured by RT-3D TEE Flexi Slice mode was better correlated with the device size used for occlusion (r = 0.90) than 2D TEE (r = 0.88). The interatial septal puncture, the exchange of the sheath, as well as the release of the device were executed under the guidance of RT-3D TEE during the procedure. The average number of closure devices utilized for optimal plugging was (1.11 ± 0.31). There were no clinically unacceptable residual shunts, pericardial effusion, or tamponade right after occlusion. All the patients had the device well

  5. New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. J.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Tsujino, H.; Zetts, A. D.; Sun, J. P.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; Flamm, S. D.; White, R. D.; Panza, J. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Apically rotated measurement methods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.

  6. New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. J.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Tsujino, H.; Zetts, A. D.; Sun, J. P.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; hide

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Apically rotated measurement methods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.

  7. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-03-01

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  8. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing Li, Fenfang

    2016-03-15

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  9. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-03-01

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ˜15 cm and range accuracy is ˜4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ˜40 m.

  10. In vitro validation of real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area in mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J; Nosé, Yukihiko; Zoghbi, William A

    2007-05-15

    The 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler (2D-CD) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method assumes a hemispheric flow convergence zone to estimate transvalvular flow. Recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-CD can directly visualize PISA shape and surface area without geometric assumptions. To validate a novel method to directly measure PISA using real-time 3D-CD echocardiography, a circulatory loop with an ultrasound imaging chamber was created to model mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-two different regurgitant flow conditions were tested using symmetric and asymmetric flow orifices. Three-dimensional-PISA was reconstructed from a hand-held real-time 3D-CD data set. Regurgitant volume was derived using both 2D-CD and 3D-CD PISA methods, and each was compared against a flow-meter standard. The circulatory loop achieved regurgitant volume within the clinical range of MR (11 to 84 ml). Three-dimensional-PISA geometry reflected the 2D geometry of the regurgitant orifice. Correlation between the 2D-PISA method regurgitant volume and actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.47, p <0.001). Mean 2D-PISA regurgitant volume underestimate was 19.1 +/- 25 ml (2 SDs). For the 3D-PISA method, correlation with actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.92, p <0.001), with a mean regurgitant volume underestimate of 2.7 +/- 10 ml (2 SDs). The 3D-PISA method showed less regurgitant volume underestimation for all orifice shapes and regurgitant volumes tested. In conclusion, in an in vitro model of MR, 3D-CD was used to directly measure PISA without geometric assumption. Compared with conventional 2D-PISA, regurgitant volume was more accurate when derived from 3D-PISA across symmetric and asymmetric orifices within a broad range of hemodynamic flow conditions.

  11. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function—Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Omar; Beckett, Morgan Q.; James, Aaron W.; Loehr, Megan N.; Lewis, Taylor G.; Hassan, Tahmin; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV) function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV) and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR. PMID:28303211

  12. Three-dimensional intrafractional motion of breast during tangential breast irradiation monitored with high-sampling frequency using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Rumiko; Shimizu, Shinichi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Katoh, Norio; Fujino, Masaharu; Onimaru, Rikiya; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Katoh, Fumi; Omatsu, Tokuhiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the three-dimensional intrafraction motion of the breast during tangential breast irradiation using a real-time tracking radiotherapy (RT) system with a high-sampling frequency. A total of 17 patients with breast cancer who had received breast conservation RT were included in this study. A 2.0-mm gold marker was placed on the skin near the nipple of the breast for RT. A fluoroscopic real-time tumor-tracking RT system was used to monitor the marker. The range of motion of each patient was calculated in three directions. The mean +/- standard deviation of the range of respiratory motion was 1.0 +/- 0.6 mm (median, 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the marker position, 0.4-2.6), 1.3 +/- 0.5 mm (median, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5), and 2.6 +/- 1.4 (median, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-6.9) for the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction, respectively. No correlation was found between the range of motion and the body mass index or respiratory function. The mean +/- standard deviation of the absolute value of the baseline shift in the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction was 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.8 mm), 0.3 +/- 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.7 mm), and 0.8 +/- 0.7 mm (range, 0.1-1.8 mm), respectively. Both the range of motion and the baseline shift were within a few millimeters in each direction. As long as the conventional wedge-pair technique and the proper immobilization are used, the intrafraction three-dimensional change in the breast surface did not much influence the dose distribution.

  13. Real-time reconstruction of the three-dimensional ionosphere using data from a network of GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Sergey V.; Nickisch, L. J.; Aiello, Mark; Hausman, Mark

    2006-10-01

    We present a system that processes phase and group delay time series from a network of dual-frequency GPS receivers and produces a dynamic ionospheric model that is consistent with all the input data. The system is intended for monitoring the ionosphere over a fixed geographical area with dimensions of the order of several thousand kilometers. The inversion technique utilized in this system stems from the inversion technique previously developed by our group within the Coordinate Registration Enhancement by Dynamic Optimization (CREDO) project (a software package for inverting the vertical sounding, backscatter sounding, and satellite total electron content (TEC) data for over-the-horizon radar). The core of this technique is Tikhonov's methodology for solving ill-posed problems. We extended the method to multidimensional nonlinear inverse problems and developed techniques for fast numerical solution. The resulting solution for the ionospheric distribution of electron density is guaranteed to be smooth in space and time and to agree with all input data within errors of measurement. The input data consist of time series of absolute TEC and relative TEC (directly calculated from the raw dual-frequency group delays and phase delays, respectively). The system automatically estimates the measurement noise and receiver-transmitter biases. We test the system using archived data from dual-frequency GPS receivers in the southern California Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) network and data from a vertical sounder.

  14. Visualization and quantitation of fetal movements by real-time three-dimensional ultrasound with live xPlane imaging in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye; Yang, Taizhu; Luo, Hong; Deng, Feng; Cai, Qianyun; Sun, Weiwei; Song, Hao

    2016-10-31

    To prove whether real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound with live xPlane imaging is better in observing fetal movements than standard ultrasound imaging. 50 healthy women with singleton pregnancies (22-43 years old) at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation underwent real-time 3D ultrasound examination with live xPlane imaging from July 2014 to February 2015. The incidence and frequency of 10 fetal movement patterns in 10 minutes were evaluated, including general movements (GMs), isolated arm movements, isolated leg movements, hiccup, stretching, breathing, startle, jaw opening, isolated head retroflexion, and isolated head anteflexion. The correlation between gestational age and frequency of each fetal movement pattern was analyzed. GM had the highest incidence (100%), followed by startle (84%) and isolated arm movements (68%). Their median frequency was 5 (IQR 3-6), 5 (IQR 1.75-11.5), and 1 (IQR 0-2), respectively. GM (Z=5.875, P<0.001) and startle (Z=5.302, P<0.001) had significantly higher frequency than isolated arm movements. The other 7 fetal movement patterns had much lower incidence and frequency. The frequency of GM was positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.360, P=0.010). Real-time 3D ultrasound with live x Plane imaging was shown to be a feasible tool for observing fetal movements.

  15. Visualization and quantitation of fetal movements by real-time three-dimensional ultrasound with live xPlane imaging in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ye; Yang, Taizhu; Luo, Hong; Deng, Feng; Cai, Qianyun; Sun, Weiwei; Song, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Aim To prove whether real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound with live xPlane imaging is better in observing fetal movements than standard ultrasound imaging. Methods 50 healthy women with singleton pregnancies (22-43 years old) at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation underwent real-time 3D ultrasound examination with live xPlane imaging from July 2014 to February 2015. The incidence and frequency of 10 fetal movement patterns in 10 minutes were evaluated, including general movements (GMs), isolated arm movements, isolated leg movements, hiccup, stretching, breathing, startle, jaw opening, isolated head retroflexion, and isolated head anteflexion. The correlation between gestational age and frequency of each fetal movement pattern was analyzed. Results GM had the highest incidence (100%), followed by startle (84%) and isolated arm movements (68%). Their median frequency was 5 (IQR 3-6), 5 (IQR 1.75-11.5), and 1 (IQR 0-2), respectively. GM (Z = 5.875, P < 0.001) and startle (Z = 5.302, P < 0.001) had significantly higher frequency than isolated arm movements. The other 7 fetal movement patterns had much lower incidence and frequency. The frequency of GM was positively correlated with gestational age (r = 0.360, P = 0.010). Conclusion Real-time 3D ultrasound with live x Plane imaging was shown to be a feasible tool for observing fetal movements. PMID:27815938

  16. Impact of left ventricular outflow tract area on systolic outflow velocity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; Lever, Harry M.; Rubin, David N.; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Sitges, Marta; Greenberg, Neil L.; Drinko, Jeanne K.; Martin, Maureen; Agler, Deborah A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) to investigate the quantitative relation between minimal left ventricular (LV) outflow tract area (A(LVOT)) and maximal LV outflow tract (LVOT) velocity in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM). BACKGROUND: In patients with HCM, LVOT velocity should change inversely with minimal A(LVOT) unless LVOT obstruction reduces the pumping capacity of the ventricle. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with HCM with systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve leaflets underwent real-time 3DE. The smallest A(LVOT) during systole was measured using anatomically oriented two-dimensional "C-planes" within the pyramidal 3DE volume. Maximal velocity across LVOT was evaluated by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography (2DE). For comparison with 3DE A(LVOT), the SAM-septal distance was determined by 2DE. RESULTS: Real-time 3DE provided unique information about the dynamic SAM-septal relation during systole, with A(LVOT) ranging from 0.6 to 5.2 cm(2) (mean: 2.2 +/- 1.4 cm(2)). Maximal velocity (v) correlated inversely with A(LVOT) (v = 496 A(LVOT)(-0.80), r = -0.95, p < 0.001), but the exponent (-0.80) was significantly different from -1.0 (95% confidence interval: -0.67 to -0.92), indicating a significant impact of small A(LVOT) on the peak LVOT flow rate. By comparison, the best correlation between velocity and 2DE SAM-septal distance was significantly (p < 0.01) poorer at -0.83, indicating the superiority of 3DE for assessing A(LVOT). CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional echocardiography-measured A(LVOT) provides an assessment of HCM geometry that is superior to 2DE methods. These data indicate that the peak LVOT flow rate appears to be significantly decreased by reduced A(LVOT). Real-time 3DE is a potentially valuable clinical tool for assessing patients with HCM.

  17. Impact of left ventricular outflow tract area on systolic outflow velocity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; Lever, Harry M.; Rubin, David N.; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Sitges, Marta; Greenberg, Neil L.; Drinko, Jeanne K.; Martin, Maureen; hide

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) to investigate the quantitative relation between minimal left ventricular (LV) outflow tract area (A(LVOT)) and maximal LV outflow tract (LVOT) velocity in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM). BACKGROUND: In patients with HCM, LVOT velocity should change inversely with minimal A(LVOT) unless LVOT obstruction reduces the pumping capacity of the ventricle. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with HCM with systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve leaflets underwent real-time 3DE. The smallest A(LVOT) during systole was measured using anatomically oriented two-dimensional "C-planes" within the pyramidal 3DE volume. Maximal velocity across LVOT was evaluated by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography (2DE). For comparison with 3DE A(LVOT), the SAM-septal distance was determined by 2DE. RESULTS: Real-time 3DE provided unique information about the dynamic SAM-septal relation during systole, with A(LVOT) ranging from 0.6 to 5.2 cm(2) (mean: 2.2 +/- 1.4 cm(2)). Maximal velocity (v) correlated inversely with A(LVOT) (v = 496 A(LVOT)(-0.80), r = -0.95, p < 0.001), but the exponent (-0.80) was significantly different from -1.0 (95% confidence interval: -0.67 to -0.92), indicating a significant impact of small A(LVOT) on the peak LVOT flow rate. By comparison, the best correlation between velocity and 2DE SAM-septal distance was significantly (p < 0.01) poorer at -0.83, indicating the superiority of 3DE for assessing A(LVOT). CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional echocardiography-measured A(LVOT) provides an assessment of HCM geometry that is superior to 2DE methods. These data indicate that the peak LVOT flow rate appears to be significantly decreased by reduced A(LVOT). Real-time 3DE is a potentially valuable clinical tool for assessing patients with HCM.

  18. Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsujino, H.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Morehead, A. J.; Zetts, A. D.; Travaglini, A.; Bauer, F.; Panza, J. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.

  19. Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsujino, H.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Morehead, A. J.; Zetts, A. D.; Travaglini, A.; Bauer, F.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.

  20. Object tracking mask-based NLUT on GPUs for real-time generation of holographic videos of three-dimensional scenes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, M-W; Kim, S-C; Yoon, S-E; Ho, Y-S; Kim, E-S

    2015-02-09

    A new object tracking mask-based novel-look-up-table (OTM-NLUT) method is proposed and implemented on graphics-processing-units (GPUs) for real-time generation of holographic videos of three-dimensional (3-D) scenes. Since the proposed method is designed to be matched with software and memory structures of the GPU, the number of compute-unified-device-architecture (CUDA) kernel function calls and the computer-generated hologram (CGH) buffer size of the proposed method have been significantly reduced. It therefore results in a great increase of the computational speed of the proposed method and enables real-time generation of CGH patterns of 3-D scenes. Experimental results show that the proposed method can generate 31.1 frames of Fresnel CGH patterns with 1,920 × 1,080 pixels per second, on average, for three test 3-D video scenarios with 12,666 object points on three GPU boards of NVIDIA GTX TITAN, and confirm the feasibility of the proposed method in the practical application of electro-holographic 3-D displays.

  1. Application of Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography to Evaluate the Pre- and Postoperative Right Ventricular Systolic Function of Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cunying; Liu, Lin; Fan, Taibing; Peng, Bangtian; Cheng, Zhaoyun; Ge, Zhenwei; Li, Yanan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanwei; Ai, Feng; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2015-07-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) can be challenging for clinicians to both diagnose and treat, given the multiple heart defects that are by definition associated with the illness. This study investigates the value of real-time three- dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) in evaluating the pre-and postoperative right ventricular systolic function of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. A total of 41 ToF patients were divided into two groups: the child group (CG) and the adult group (AG) according to age. The right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV), and the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) of ToF patients were measured before surgery, 7 days, and 3 months after the surgery. The correlation between the preoperative Nakata index and RVEF was then analyzed. Compared with the RVEDV and RVESV prior to surgery, those of the postoperative 7-day and 3-month were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, RVEF decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The differences in RVEDV, RVESV, and RVEF between postoperative 3-month and 7-day were not significant (p > 0.05). Compared with the pre-and postoperative RVEDV and RVESV of CG, those of AG increased. However, RVEF decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study indicated that the correlation between preoperative Nakata index and RVEF was good. Ultimately, we did confirm that RT-3DE can quantitatively evaluate the right ventricular volume and systolic function of ToF patients, thereby providing clinical significance in determining postoperative efficacy and prognosis evaluation. Echocardiography; Right; Tetralogy of Fallot; Three-dimensional; Ventricular function.

  2. Nanoelectronic three-dimensional (3D) nanotip sensing array for real-time, sensitive, label-free sequence specific detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Esfandyarpour, Rahim; Yang, Lu; Koochak, Zahra; Harris, James S; Davis, Ronald W

    2016-02-01

    The improvements in our ability to sequence and genotype DNA have opened up numerous avenues in the understanding of human biology and medicine with various applications, especially in medical diagnostics. But the realization of a label free, real time, high-throughput and low cost biosensing platforms to detect molecular interactions with a high level of sensitivity has been yet stunted due to two factors: one, slow binding kinetics caused by the lack of probe molecules on the sensors and two, limited mass transport due to the planar structure (two-dimensional) of the current biosensors. Here we present a novel three-dimensional (3D), highly sensitive, real-time, inexpensive and label-free nanotip array as a rapid and direct platform to sequence-specific DNA screening. Our nanotip sensors are designed to have a nano sized thin film as their sensing area (~ 20 nm), sandwiched between two sensing electrodes. The tip is then conjugated to a DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the sequence of interest, which is electrochemically detected in real-time via impedance changes upon the formation of a double-stranded helix at the sensor interface. This 3D configuration is specifically designed to improve the biomolecular hit rate and the detection speed. We demonstrate that our nanotip array effectively detects oligonucleotides in a sequence-specific and highly sensitive manner, yielding concentration-dependent impedance change measurements with a target concentration as low as 10 pM and discrimination against even a single mismatch. Notably, our nanotip sensors achieve this accurate, sensitive detection without relying on signal indicators or enhancing molecules like fluorophores. It can also easily be scaled for highly multiplxed detection with up to 5000 sensors/square centimeter, and integrated into microfluidic devices. The versatile, rapid, and sensitive performance of the nanotip array makes it an excellent candidate for point-of-care diagnostics, and high

  3. Bootstrapping Critical Ising Model on Three Dimensional Real Projective Space.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-04-08

    Given conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space is less than 1%. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on nontrivial geometries.

  4. Combination of pulsed-wave Doppler and real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for quantifying the stroke volume in the left ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Jones, Michael; Qin, Jian Xin; Sitges, Marta; Cardon, Lisa A; Morehead, Annitta L; Zetts, Arthur D; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Hang, Xi Yi; Greenberg, Neil; Thomas, James D; Shiota, Takahiro

    2004-11-01

    Real-time three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler echocardiography (RT3D) is capable of quantifying flow. However, low temporal resolution limits its application to stroke volume (SV) measurements. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to develop a reliable method to quantify SV. In animal experiments, cross-sectional images of the LV outflow tract were selected from the RT3D data to calculate peak flow rates (Q(p3D)). Conventional pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler was performed to measure the velocity-time integral (VTI) and the peak velocity (V(p)). By assuming that the flow is proportional to the velocity temporal waveform, SV was calculated as alpha x Q(p3D) x VTI/V(p), where alpha is a temporal correction factor. There was an excellent correlation between the reference flow meter and RT3D SV (mean difference = -1. 3 mL, y = 1. 05 x -2. 5, r = 0. 94, p < 0. 01). The new method allowed accurate SV estimations without any geometric assumptions of the spatial velocity distributions.

  5. Real-time synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8Kx4K three-dimensional display with spliced four liquid crystal panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Huilong; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Ning, Jiwei; Yan, Binbin; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A high speed synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8K×4K multi-LCD-spliced three-dimensional (3D) display system based on CUDA is demonstrated. Because the conventional image processing calculation method is no longer applicable to this 3D display system, the CUDA technology is used for 3D image processing to address the problem of low efficiency.The 8K×4K screen is composed of four LCD screens, and accurate segmentation of the scene is carried out to ensure the correct display of 3D contents and a set of controlling and the host software are optimally implemented to make all of the connected processors render 3D videos simultaneously. The system which is based on the master-slave synchronization communication mode and DIBR-CUDA accelerated algorithm is used to realize the high resolution, high frame rate, large size, and wide view angle video rendering for the real-time 3D display. Experimental result shows a stable frame-rate at 30 frame-per-second and the friendly interactive interface can be achieved.

  6. Noninvasive Real-Time Monitoring by AlamarBlue® During In Vitro Culture of Three-Dimensional Tissue-Engineered Bone Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohua; Holsbeeks, Inge; Impens, Saartje; Sonnaert, Maarten; Bloemen, Veerle; Luyten, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering (TE) aims to develop reproducible and predictive three-dimensional (3D) TE constructs, defined as cell-seeded scaffolds produced by a controlled in vitro process, to heal or replace damaged and nonfunctional bone. To control and assure the quality of the bone TE constructs, a prerequisite for regulatory authorization, there is a need to develop noninvasive analysis techniques to evaluate TE constructs and to monitor their behavior in real time during in vitro culturing. Most analysis techniques, however, are limited to destructive end-point analyses. This study investigates the use of the nontoxic alamarBlue® (AB) reagent, which is an indicator for metabolic cell activity, for monitoring the cellularity of 3D TE constructs in vitro as part of a bioreactor culturing processes. Within the field of TE, bioreactors have a huge potential in the translation of TE concepts to the clinic. Hence, the use of the AB reagent was evaluated not only in static cultures, but also in dynamic cultures in a perfusion bioreactor setup. Hereto, the AB assay was successfully integrated in the bioreactor-driven TE construct culture process in a noninvasive way. The obtained results indicate a linear correlation between the overall metabolic activity and the total DNA content of a scaffold upon seeding as well as during the initial stages of cell proliferation. This makes the AB reagent a powerful tool to follow-up bone TE constructs in real-time during static as well as dynamic 3D cultures. Hence, the AB reagent can be successfully used to monitor and predict cell confluence in a growing 3D TE construct. PMID:23327780

  7. Application of Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography to Evaluate the Pre- and Postoperative Right Ventricular Systolic Function of Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cunying; Liu, Lin; Fan, Taibing; Peng, Bangtian; Cheng, Zhaoyun; Ge, Zhenwei; Li, Yanan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanwei; Ai, Feng; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) can be challenging for clinicians to both diagnose and treat, given the multiple heart defects that are by definition associated with the illness. This study investigates the value of real-time three- dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) in evaluating the pre-and postoperative right ventricular systolic function of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. A total of 41 ToF patients were divided into two groups: the child group (CG) and the adult group (AG) according to age. The right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV), and the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) of ToF patients were measured before surgery, 7 days, and 3 months after the surgery. The correlation between the preoperative Nakata index and RVEF was then analyzed. Compared with the RVEDV and RVESV prior to surgery, those of the postoperative 7-day and 3-month were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, RVEF decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The differences in RVEDV, RVESV, and RVEF between postoperative 3-month and 7-day were not significant (p > 0.05). Compared with the pre-and postoperative RVEDV and RVESV of CG, those of AG increased. However, RVEF decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study indicated that the correlation between preoperative Nakata index and RVEF was good. Ultimately, we did confirm that RT-3DE can quantitatively evaluate the right ventricular volume and systolic function of ToF patients, thereby providing clinical significance in determining postoperative efficacy and prognosis evaluation. PMID:27122891

  8. Analysis of real-time three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of left atrial appendage function in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lin; Yu, Lan; Xie, Manying; Feng, Wei; Yin, Jiabao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine changes in left atrial appendage volume (LAA-V) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) and evaluate the prediction value on the high risk of thrombosis of LAA. Using RT3D-TEE we measured: i) LAA peak empty velocity (LAA-PEV), ii) LAA-V including LAA end-diastolic volume (LAA-EDV) and end-systolic volume (LAA-ESV). We also calculated LAA ejection fraction (LAA-EF). RT3D-TEE was applied in 20 control cases and 74 patients with non-valvular AF. According to the presence of thrombosis, 74 patients were divided into the no thrombosis group (NTH group, n=52) and thrombosis group (TH group, n=22). Our results showed that there were significant differences in LAA-V and LAA-EF values in different groups (P<0.05). LAA-EDV moderately correlated with LAA-PEV (r=−0.531, P<0.001) while LAA-ESV demonstrated a strong correlation with LAA-PEV (r=−0.741, P<0.001). LAA-EF also showed a strong correlation with LAA-PEV (r=0.693, P<0.001). Through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the cut-off values of LAA-EDV and LAA-ESV in thrombosis of LAA were 18.45 and 9.69 ml, respectively. RT3D-TEE effectively evaluated the LAA-V, LAA-PEV and LAA-EF parameters, and proved to be valuable in the process of evaluation of thrombosis of LAA. PMID:27882157

  9. Validation of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography for quantifying left ventricular volumes in the presence of a left ventricular aneurysm: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Gupta, P. C.; Zetts, A. D.; Xu, Y.; Ping Sun, J.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; Flamm, S. D.; White, R. D.; Panza, J. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate the accuracy of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) for quantifying aneurysmal left ventricular (LV) volumes. BACKGROUND: Conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) has limitations when applied for quantification of LV volumes in patients with LV aneurysms. METHODS: Seven aneurysmal balloons, 15 sheep (5 with chronic LV aneurysms and 10 without LV aneurysms) during 60 different hemodynamic conditions and 29 patients (13 with chronic LV aneurysms and 16 with normal LV) underwent RT3DE and 2DE. Electromagnetic flow meters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) served as reference standards in the animals and in the patients, respectively. Rotated apical six-plane method with multiplanar Simpson's rule and apical biplane Simpson's rule were used to determine LV volumes by RT3DE and 2DE, respectively. RESULTS: Both RT3DE and 2DE correlated well with actual volumes for aneurysmal balloons. However, a significantly smaller mean difference (MD) was found between RT3DE and actual volumes (-7 ml for RT3DE vs. 22 ml for 2DE, p = 0.0002). Excellent correlation and agreement between RT3DE and electromagnetic flow meters for LV stroke volumes for animals with aneurysms were observed, while 2DE showed lesser correlation and agreement (r = 0.97, MD = -1.0 ml vs. r = 0.76, MD = 4.4 ml). In patients with LV aneurysms, better correlation and agreement between RT3DE and MRI for LV volumes were obtained (r = 0.99, MD = -28 ml) than between 2DE and MRI (r = 0.91, MD = -49 ml). CONCLUSIONS: For geometrically asymmetric LVs associated with ventricular aneurysms, RT3DE can accurately quantify LV volumes.

  10. Validation of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography for quantifying left ventricular volumes in the presence of a left ventricular aneurysm: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Gupta, P. C.; Zetts, A. D.; Xu, Y.; Ping Sun, J.; hide

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate the accuracy of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) for quantifying aneurysmal left ventricular (LV) volumes. BACKGROUND: Conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) has limitations when applied for quantification of LV volumes in patients with LV aneurysms. METHODS: Seven aneurysmal balloons, 15 sheep (5 with chronic LV aneurysms and 10 without LV aneurysms) during 60 different hemodynamic conditions and 29 patients (13 with chronic LV aneurysms and 16 with normal LV) underwent RT3DE and 2DE. Electromagnetic flow meters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) served as reference standards in the animals and in the patients, respectively. Rotated apical six-plane method with multiplanar Simpson's rule and apical biplane Simpson's rule were used to determine LV volumes by RT3DE and 2DE, respectively. RESULTS: Both RT3DE and 2DE correlated well with actual volumes for aneurysmal balloons. However, a significantly smaller mean difference (MD) was found between RT3DE and actual volumes (-7 ml for RT3DE vs. 22 ml for 2DE, p = 0.0002). Excellent correlation and agreement between RT3DE and electromagnetic flow meters for LV stroke volumes for animals with aneurysms were observed, while 2DE showed lesser correlation and agreement (r = 0.97, MD = -1.0 ml vs. r = 0.76, MD = 4.4 ml). In patients with LV aneurysms, better correlation and agreement between RT3DE and MRI for LV volumes were obtained (r = 0.99, MD = -28 ml) than between 2DE and MRI (r = 0.91, MD = -49 ml). CONCLUSIONS: For geometrically asymmetric LVs associated with ventricular aneurysms, RT3DE can accurately quantify LV volumes.

  11. A novel way of visualizing the ductal and aortic arches by real-time three-dimensional ultrasound with live xPlane imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Chen, M; Chan, L W; Ting, Y H; Fung, T Y; Leung, T Y; Lau, T K

    2012-03-01

    To describe a novel method of visualizing the ductal and aortic arches by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography with live xPlane imaging. Live xPlane imaging was used to display the ductal- and aortic-arch views in 107 women with singleton pregnancies, including seven cases with suspected congenital heart defects (CHDs). The three vessels and trachea (3VT) view was obtained in such an orientation that either the pulmonary artery or the aorta was parallel to the direction of the ultrasound beam. The xPlane reference line was then placed across the targeted vessel, which in a normal case would provide an image of the corresponding arch view as a dual-image display. Once the 3VT view had been obtained, live xPlane imaging showed the aortic and ductal arches in all 100 normal cases. In seven cases with suspected CHD, the 3VT view was abnormal in five cases and normal in the other two. However, the ductal-arch view demonstrated by live xPlane imaging was abnormal in five cases of conotruncal anomalies and normal in two cases in which conotruncal anomalies were excluded. CHDs were confirmed at autopsy following termination of pregnancy in five cases and on postnatal echocardiography in one case. The heart was found postnatally to be normal in one case of suspected CHD; in this case live xPlane imaging showed that the observed abnormal 3VT view was caused by a tortuous course of the thoracic aorta associated with an abnormal diaphragm. Live xPlane imaging is a novel and relatively simple method of visualizing the ductal- and aortic-arch views, and may potentially be a useful tool in the screening of fetal conotruncal and aortic-arch anomalies. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Level of agreement between three-dimensional volumetric ultrasound and real-time conventional ultrasound in the assessment of synovitis, tenosynovitis and erosions in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Acebes, Carlos; McKay, Neil; Ciechomska, Anna; Alcorn, Nicola; Harvie, John P; Robson, Barbara; Groenendijk, Nico; McDonald, Moira; Wilson, Alison; Garrido, Jesus

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess agreement between three-dimensional volumetric ultrasound (3D US) performed by inexperienced staff and real-time conventional ultrasound (2D US) performed by experienced rheumatologists in detecting and scoring rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lesions. Thirty-one RA patients underwent examination of seven joints by 2D and 3D US for synovitis and tenosynovitis in B and PD modes and erosions in B mode. A global score for synovitis and global counts for synovitis, tenosynovitis and erosions were also calculated for every patient. Agreement between 2D and 3D US was analysed for counts and scores at the patient level with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and for counts at the joint level with Cohen's kappa coefficient. B-mode synovitis was detected at a median of five joints in each patient, frequently in wrists and hand joints but less frequently in foot joints. PD-mode synovitis, tenosynovitis and erosions were detected less frequently. All ICCs for agreement between 2D and 3D US findings were significant. All kappa coefficients were significant for B- and PD-mode synovitis and for erosions (except PIP3), while those for tenosynovitis were only significant for MCP2 (B and PD modes) and PIP2 (B mode). Although the 3D US volumes were acquired by inexperienced operators, agreement between 2D and 3D US was acceptable in detecting and scoring synovitis. A higher level of agreement was attained for patient-level global scores and counts than for individual joints.

  13. Viscous real gas flowfields about three dimensional configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Davy, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Laminar, real gas hypersonic flowfields over a three dimensional configuration are computed using an unsteady, factored implicit scheme. Local chemical and thermodynamic properties are evaluated by an equilibrium composition method. Transport properties are obtained from individual species properties and application of a mixture rule. Numerical solutions are presented for an ideal gas and equilibrium air for free-stream Mach numbers of 13 and 15 and at various angles of attack. The effect of real gas is to decrease the shock-layer thickness resulting from decreased shock-layer temperatures and corresponding increased density. The combined effects of viscosity and real gas are to increase the subsonic layer near the wall.

  14. Evaluation of left ventricular rotation by two-dimensional speckle tracking method and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with MRI tagging method.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hidetaka; Izumi, Chisato; Takahashi, Shuichi; Uchikoshi, Masato; Yamazaki, Ryou; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Nakatani, Satoshi

    2011-09-01

    Recently, it has become possible to evaluate left ventricular (LV) torsion by two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking images. However, LV torsion is a three-dimensional (3D) performance, which per se cannot be assessed by the 2D speckle tracking method. The present study investigated the accuracy of the 2D speckle tracking method and real-time 3D echocardiography in measuring LV rotation, comparing with the MRI tagging method. We assessed LV apical rotation using the 2D speckle tracking method, real-time 3D echocardiography, and MRI tagging method in 26 normal subjects, and compared the results of these three methods. LV apical rotation was measured just before the level in which the posterior papillary muscle was absorbed into the free wall. The degree of LV apical rotation evaluated by the 2D speckle tracking method (Δθ 2D) was significantly smaller than that evaluated by 3D echocardiography (Δθ 3D) and the MRI tagging method (Δθ MRI) (Δθ 2D 7.3 ± 2.8°; Δθ 3D 8.8 ± 3.4°; Δθ MRI 9.0 ± 3.4°; Δθ 2D vs. Δθ 3D, p = 0.0001; Δθ 2D vs. Δθ MRI, p < 0.0001). There were good correlations among Δθ 2D, Δθ 3D, and Δθ MRI, but agreement between Δθ 3D and Δθ MRI (mean difference 0.14 ± 1.43°) was better than that between Δθ 2D and Δθ MRI (mean difference 1.68 ± 1.89°). The degree of LV apical rotation was underestimated with the 2D speckle tracking method compared with the MRI tagging method, whereas it could be precisely measured by 3D echocardiography.

  15. Dynamic characteristic mechanism of atrial septal defect using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and evaluation of right ventricular functions.

    PubMed

    Sharen, Gao-Wa; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Chuan; Lv, Qing

    2017-02-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the area of the atrial septal defect (ASD) were evaluated using the technique of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT 3DE), the potential factors responsible for the dynamic characteristics of the area of ASD were observed, and the overall and local volume and functions of the patients with ASD were measured. RT 3DE was performed on the 27 normal controls and 28 patients with ASD. Based on the three-dimensional data workstations, the area of ASD was measured at P wave vertex, R wave vertex, T wave starting point, and T wave terminal point and in the T-P section. The right atrial volume in the same time phase of the cardiac cycle and the motion displacement distance of the tricuspid annulus in the corresponding period were measured. The measured value of the area of ASD was analyzed. The changes in the right atrial volume and the motion displacement distance of the tricuspid annulus in the normal control group and the ASD group were compared. The right ventricular ejection fractions in the normal control group and the ASD group were compared using the RT 3DE long-axis eight-plane (LA 8-plane) method. Real-time three-dimensional volume imaging was performed in the normal control group and ASD group (n=30). The right ventricular inflow tract, outflow tract, cardiac apex muscular trabecula dilatation, end-systolic volume, overall dilatation, end-systolic volume, and appropriate local and overall ejection fractions in both two groups were measured with the four-dimensional right ventricular quantitative analysis method (4D RVQ) and compared. The overall right ventricular volume and the ejection fraction measured by the LA 8-plane method and 4D RVQ were subjected to a related analysis. Dynamic changes occurred to the area of ASD in the cardiac cycle. The rules for dynamic changes in the area of ASD and the rules for changes in the right atrial volume in the cardiac cycle were consistent. The maximum value of the changes in the

  16. Real gas flow fields about three dimensional configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Lombard, C. K.; Davy, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Real gas, inviscid supersonic flow fields over a three-dimensional configuration are determined using a factored implicit algorithm. Air in chemical equilibrium is considered and its local thermodynamic properties are computed by an equilibrium composition method. Numerical solutions are presented for both real and ideal gases at three different Mach numbers and at two different altitudes. Selected results are illustrated by contour plots and are also tabulated for future reference. Results obtained compare well with existing tabulated numerical solutions and hence validate the solution technique.

  17. Real gas flow fields about three dimensional configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Lombard, C. K.; Davy, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Real gas, inviscid supersonic flow fields over a three-dimensional configuration are determined using a factored implicit algorithm. Air in chemical equilibrium is considered and its local thermodynamic properties are computed by an equilibrium composition method. Numerical solutions are presented for both real and ideal gases at three different Mach numbers and at two different altitudes. Selected results are illustrated by contour plots and are also tabulated for future reference. Results obtained compare well with existing tabulated numerical solutions and hence validate the solution technique.

  18. MULTISHOCKED,THREE-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC FLOWFIELDS WITH REAL GAS EFFECTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.

    1994-01-01

    This program determines the supersonic flowfield surrounding three-dimensional wing-body configurations of a delta wing. It was designed to provide the numerical computation of three dimensional inviscid, flowfields of either perfect or real gases about supersonic or hypersonic airplanes. The governing equations in conservation law form are solved by a finite difference method using a second order noncentered algorithm between the body and the outermost shock wave, which is treated as a sharp discontinuity. Secondary shocks which form between these boundaries are captured automatically. The flowfield between the body and outermost shock is treated in a shock capturing fashion and therefore allows for the correct formation of secondary internal shocks . The program operates in batch mode, is in CDC update format, has been implemented on the CDC 7600, and requires more than 140K (octal) word locations.

  19. Real Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Evaluations of Fetal Left Ventricular Stroke Volume, Mass, and Myocardial Strain: In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meihua; Ashraf, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhijun; Streiff, Cole; Shimada, Eriko; Kimura, Sumito; Schaller, Traci; Song, Xubo; Sahn, David J

    2015-11-01

    Left ventricular stroke volume, mass, and myocardial strain are valuable indicators of fetal heart function. This study investigated the feasibility of nongated real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) to determine fetal stroke volume (SV), left ventricular mass (LVM), and myocardial strain under different conditions. To evaluate fetal hearts, fetal-sized rabbit hearts were used in this study. The in vitro portion of this study was carried out using a balloon inserted into the LV of eight fresh rabbit hearts and driven by a calibrated pulsatile pump. RT3DE volumes were obtained at various pump-set SVs. The in vivo experiments in this study were performed on open-chest rabbits. RT3DE volumes were acquired at the following conditions: baseline, simulated hypervolemia, inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation, and ascending aorta (AAO) ligation. Displacement values and sonomicrometry data were used as references for RT3DE-derived SV, LVM, longitudinal strain (LS), and circumferential strain (CS). Excellent correlations between RT3DE-derived values and reference values were demonstrated and accompanied by high coefficients of determination (R(2) ) for both in vitro and in vivo studies for SV, LVM, LS, and CS (in vitro: SV: R(2)  = 0.98; LVM: R(2)  = 0.97; LS: R(2)  = 0.87, CS: R(2)  = 0.80; in vivo: SV: R(2)  = 0.92; LVM: R(2)  = 0.98; LS: in vivo: R(2)  = 0.84; CS: in vivo: R(2)  = 0.76; all P < 0.05). RT3DE is capable of quantifying the SV, LVM, and myocardial strain of fetal-sized hearts under different conditions. This nongated RT3DE may aid the evaluation of fetal cardiac function, providing a superior understanding of the progress of fetal heart disorders. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of left atrial volume and function in systemic sclerosis patients using speckle tracking and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Halil; Kepez, Alper; Tigen, Kürşat; Samadov, Fuad; Özen, Gülsen; Cincin, Altuğ; Sünbül, Murat; Bozbay, Mehmet; Direşkeneli, Haner; Başaran, Yelda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate left atrial (LA) volume and functions using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and speckle tracking in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. The study was designed as a cross-sectional observational study. We studied 41 consecutive SSc patients (38 females, mean age: 49.5±11.6 years) and 38 healthy controls (35 females, mean age: 48.5±10.8 years). Patients with evidence or history of cardiovascular disease and patients with risk factors as hypertension, diabetes and chronic renal failure were excluded from the study. All study subjects underwent standard echocardiography; LA speckle tracking and RT3DE was performed to assess LA volume and phasic functions. Differences between numeric variables were tested using the independent sample Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. There were no significant differences between SSC patients and controls regarding left ventricular (LV) systolic functions and two-dimensional (2-D) atrial diameters. Presence of LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was evaluated and graded according to recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography. Accordingly, LVDD was observed to be significantly more frequent in SSc patients; 16 SSc patients (39%) and 5 controls (12.8%) were observed to have LVDD (p=0.007). With regard to results obtained from RT3DE, LA maximum, minimum, and before atrial contraction volumes were significantly higher (40.5±14.6 vs. 32.6±8.9, 15.5±8.4 vs. 9.9±3.5 and 28.7±11.7 vs. 21.4±7.0 mL respectively, p<0.05 for all), whereas LA active emptying fraction, LA total emptying fraction, LA expansion index, and passive emptying fraction values were significantly (47.1±12.0 vs. 52.9±10.1%, 62.8±10.5 vs. 69.5±6.7%, 187.5±76.0 vs. 246.6±96.0, 29.6±9.3 vs. 34.4±11.0% respectively, p<0.05 for all) in SSc patients than in controls. In addition, regarding results obtained from speckle tracking echocardiography, atrial peak

  1. Real-time three-dimensional color doppler evaluation of the flow convergence zone for quantification of mitral regurgitation: Validation experimental animal study and initial clinical experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, Marta; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Agler, Deborah A.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; hide

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pitfalls of the flow convergence (FC) method, including 2-dimensional imaging of the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the FC surface, can lead to erroneous quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR). This limitation may be mitigated by the use of real-time 3D color Doppler echocardiography (CE). Our objective was to validate a real-time 3D navigation method for MR quantification. METHODS: In 12 sheep with surgically induced chronic MR, 37 different hemodynamic conditions were studied with real-time 3DCE. Using real-time 3D navigation, the radius of the largest hemispherical FC zone was located and measured. MR volume was quantified according to the FC method after observing the shape of FC in 3D space. Aortic and mitral electromagnetic flow probes and meters were balanced against each other to determine reference MR volume. As an initial clinical application study, 22 patients with chronic MR were also studied with this real-time 3DCE-FC method. Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract automated cardiac flow measurement (Toshiba Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and real-time 3D LV stroke volume were used to quantify the reference MR volume (MR volume = 3DLV stroke volume - automated cardiac flow measurement). RESULTS: In the sheep model, a good correlation and agreement was seen between MR volume by real-time 3DCE and electromagnetic (y = 0.77x + 1.48, r = 0.87, P <.001, delta = -0.91 +/- 2.65 mL). In patients, real-time 3DCE-derived MR volume also showed a good correlation and agreement with the reference method (y = 0.89x - 0.38, r = 0.93, P <.001, delta = -4.8 +/- 7.6 mL). CONCLUSIONS: real-time 3DCE can capture the entire FC image, permitting geometrical recognition of the FC zone geometry and reliable MR quantification.

  2. Three dimensional time reversal optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Alrubaiee, M.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Time reversal optical tomography (TROT) approach is used to detect and locate absorptive targets embedded in a highly scattering turbid medium to assess its potential in breast cancer detection. TROT experimental arrangement uses multi-source probing and multi-detector signal acquisition and Multiple-Signal-Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for target location retrieval. Light transport from multiple sources through the intervening medium with embedded targets to the detectors is represented by a response matrix constructed using experimental data. A TR matrix is formed by multiplying the response matrix by its transpose. The eigenvectors with leading non-zero eigenvalues of the TR matrix correspond to embedded objects. The approach was used to: (a) obtain the location and spatial resolution of an absorptive target as a function of its axial position between the source and detector planes; and (b) study variation in spatial resolution of two targets at the same axial position but different lateral positions. The target(s) were glass sphere(s) of diameter ~9 mm filled with ink (absorber) embedded in a 60 mm-thick slab of Intralipid-20% suspension in water with an absorption coefficient μa ~ 0.003 mm-1 and a transport mean free path lt ~ 1 mm at 790 nm, which emulate the average values of those parameters for human breast tissue. The spatial resolution and accuracy of target location depended on axial position, and target contrast relative to the background. Both the targets could be resolved and located even when they were only 4-mm apart. The TROT approach is fast, accurate, and has the potential to be useful in breast cancer detection and localization.

  3. Time of Closest Approach in Three-Dimensional Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    In air traffic management, the aircraft separation requirement is defined by a minimum horizontal distance and a minimum vertical distance that the aircraft have to maintain. Since this requirement defines a cylinder around each aircraft rather than a sphere, the three-dimensional Euclidean distance does not provide an appropriate basis for the definition of time of closest approach. For instance, conflicting aircraft are not necessarily in loss of separation at the time of closest three-dimensional Euclidean distance. This paper proposes a definition of time of closest approach that characterizes conflicts in a three-dimensional airspace. The proposed time is defined as the time that minimizes a distance metric called cylindrical norm. An algorithm that computes the time of closest approach between two aircraft is provided and the formal verification of its main properties is reported.

  4. Back-to-back optical coherence tomography-ultrasound probe for co-registered three-dimensional intravascular imaging with real-time display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Patel, Pranav M.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a novel integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) probe, with a 1.5 mm-long rigid-part and 0.9 mm outer diameter, for real-time intracoronary imaging of atherosclerotic plaques and guiding interventional procedures. By placing the OCT ball lens and IVUS 45MHz single element transducer back-to-back at the same axial position, this probe can provide automatically co-registered, co-axial OCT-IVUS imaging. To demonstrate its capability, 3D OCT-IVUS imaging of a pig's coronary artery in real-time displayed in polar coordinates, as well as images of two major types of advanced plaques in human cadaver coronary segments, was obtained using this probe and our upgraded system. Histology validation is also presented.

  5. Real-time bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation using multiple sensor-driven alignment of CT images and electromagnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-09-01

    Bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation plays a key role in developing bronchoscopic navigation systems. Currently external tracking devices, particularly electromagnetic trackers with electromagnetic sensors, are increasingly introduced to navigate surgical tools in pre-clinical images. An unavoidable problem, which is to align the electromagnetic tracker to pre-clinical images, must be solved before navigation. This paper proposes a multiple sensor-driven registration method to establish this alignment without using any anatomical fiducials. Although current fiducially free registration methods work well, they limit to the initialization of optimization and manipulating the bronchoscope along the bronchial centerlines, which could be failed easily during clinical interventions. To address these limitations, we utilize measurements of multiple electromagnetic sensors to calculate bronchoscope geometric center positions that are usually closer to the bronchial centerlines than the sensor itself measured positions. We validated our method on a bronchial phantom. The experimental results demonstrate that our idea of using multiple sensors to determine bronchoscope geometric center positions for fiducial-free registration was very effective. Compared to currently available methods in bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation, our method reduced fiducial alignment error from at least 6.79 to 4.68-5.26 mm and significantly improved motion estimation or tracking accuracy from at least 5.42 to 3.78-4.53 mm. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Importance of mitral valve repair associated with left ventricular reconstruction for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Asher, Craig R.; Hail, Melanie; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Starling, Randall C.; Young, James B.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) reconstruction surgery leads to early improvement in LV function in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair associated with LV reconstruction on LV function 1-year after surgery in ICM patients assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty ICM patients who underwent the combination surgery (LV reconstruction in 60, MV repair in 30, and revascularization in 52 patients) were studied. Real-time 3DE was performed and LV volumes were obtained at baseline, discharge, 6-month and >or=12-month follow-up. Reduction in end-diastolic volumes (EDV) by 29% and in end-systolic volumes by 38% were demonstrated immediately after surgery and remained at subsequent follow-up (P<0.0001). The LV ejection fraction significantly increased by about 10% at discharge and was maintained >or=12-month (P<0.0001). Although the LV volumes were significantly larger in patients with MV repair before surgery (EDV, 235+/-87 mL versus 193+/-67 mL, P<0.05), they were similar to LV volumes of the patients without MV repair at subsequent follow-ups. However, the EDV increased from 139+/-24 mL to 227+/-79 mL (P<0.01) in 7 patients with recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Improvement in New York Heart Association functional class occurred in 81% patients during late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time 3DE demonstrates that LV reconstruction provides significant reduction in LV volumes and improvement in LV function which is sustained throughout the 1-year follow-up with 84% cardiac event free survival. If successful, MV repair may prevent LV redilation, while recurrent MR is associated with increased LV volumes.

  7. Importance of mitral valve repair associated with left ventricular reconstruction for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Asher, Craig R.; Hail, Melanie; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Starling, Randall C.; hide

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) reconstruction surgery leads to early improvement in LV function in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair associated with LV reconstruction on LV function 1-year after surgery in ICM patients assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty ICM patients who underwent the combination surgery (LV reconstruction in 60, MV repair in 30, and revascularization in 52 patients) were studied. Real-time 3DE was performed and LV volumes were obtained at baseline, discharge, 6-month and >or=12-month follow-up. Reduction in end-diastolic volumes (EDV) by 29% and in end-systolic volumes by 38% were demonstrated immediately after surgery and remained at subsequent follow-up (P<0.0001). The LV ejection fraction significantly increased by about 10% at discharge and was maintained >or=12-month (P<0.0001). Although the LV volumes were significantly larger in patients with MV repair before surgery (EDV, 235+/-87 mL versus 193+/-67 mL, P<0.05), they were similar to LV volumes of the patients without MV repair at subsequent follow-ups. However, the EDV increased from 139+/-24 mL to 227+/-79 mL (P<0.01) in 7 patients with recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Improvement in New York Heart Association functional class occurred in 81% patients during late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time 3DE demonstrates that LV reconstruction provides significant reduction in LV volumes and improvement in LV function which is sustained throughout the 1-year follow-up with 84% cardiac event free survival. If successful, MV repair may prevent LV redilation, while recurrent MR is associated with increased LV volumes.

  8. Camera-based three-dimensional real-time particle tracking at kHz rates and Ångström accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Daldrop, Peter; Joo, Sihwa; Otto, Oliver; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Seidel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Optical and magnetic tweezers are widely employed to probe the mechanics and activity of individual biomolecular complexes. They rely on micrometer-sized particles to detect molecular conformational changes from the particle position. Real-time particle tracking with Ångström accuracy has so far been only achieved using laser detection through photodiodes. Here we demonstrate that camera-based imaging can provide a similar performance for all three dimensions. Particle imaging at kHz rates is combined with real-time data processing being accelerated by a graphics processing unit. For particles that are fixed in the sample cell we can detect 3 Å sized steps that are introduced by cell translations at rates of 10 Hz, while for DNA-tethered particles 5 Å steps at 1 Hz can be resolved. Moreover, 20 particles can be tracked in parallel with comparable accuracy. Our approach provides a simple and robust way for high-resolution tweezers experiments using multiple particles at a time. PMID:25565216

  9. Universal Hand-held Three-dimensional Optoacoustic Imaging Probe for Deep Tissue Human Angiography and Functional Preclinical Studies in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Deán-Ben, Xosé; Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The exclusive combination of high optical contrast and excellent spatial resolution makes optoacoustics (photoacoustics) ideal for simultaneously attaining anatomical, functional and molecular contrast in deep optically opaque tissues. While enormous potential has been recently demonstrated in the application of optoacoustics for small animal research, vast efforts have also been undertaken in translating this imaging technology into clinical practice. We present here a newly developed optoacoustic tomography approach capable of delivering high resolution and spectrally enriched volumetric images of tissue morphology and function in real time. A detailed description of the experimental protocol for operating with the imaging system in both hand-held and stationary modes is provided and showcased for different potential scenarios involving functional and molecular studies in murine models and humans. The possibility for real time visualization in three dimensions along with the versatile handheld design of the imaging probe make the newly developed approach unique among the pantheon of imaging modalities used in today’s preclinical research and clinical practice. PMID:25408083

  10. Comparison of echocardiographic single-plane versus biplane method in the assessment of left atrial volume and validation by real time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Hahn, Rebecca T; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2010-09-01

    The American Society of Echocardiography recommends calculating left atrial (LA) biplane volume because of its greater accuracy and prognostic value over LA diameter. However, biplane methods are not always feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the echocardiographic LA biplane and single-plane volumes and their agreement in the classification of LA size when American Society of Echocardiography cutoffs are applied. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed on the participants of the population-based Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study. LA volume was calculated by the biplane area-length and single-plane modified Simpson's methods and validated against three-dimensional echocardiography. The study sample consisted of 527 participants (mean age 69.6 +/- 9.7 years; 61.9% women). Both single-plane and biplane LA volumes correlated well with three-dimensional echocardiography (r = 0.93, P < .001). The correlation between the single-plane and biplane methods was excellent (r = 0.95, P < .001; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.96). Categorical agreement between the single-plane and biplane methods was modest (kappa = 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.57; disagreement rate, 26.0%), mainly because of overestimation by the single-plane method. The correction of the single-plane volume by a regression equation improved the agreement (kappa = 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.76), but misclassifications remained in 14.0% of cases. Single-plane and biplane LA volume measurements have strong correlations, but their agreement for categorical classification is suboptimal. Specific cutoff points should be developed for the single-plane method. 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Personal-computer-based system for real-time reconstruction of the three-dimensional ionosphere using data from diverse sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Sergey V.; Nickisch, L. J.; Hausman, Mark

    2009-06-01

    We present new capabilities of our system for monitoring the ionosphere over a fixed geographical area with dimensions of the order of several thousand kilometers. The system employs a nonlinear representation for electron density that ensures a nonnegative solution. The multidimensional nonlinear inverse problem is efficiently solved using a combination of the Newton-Kontorovich method and Tikhonov's regularization technique for ill-posed problems. The system is able to utilize a variety of types of ionospheric data, which are as follows: networks of ground- and space-based (satellite mounted) dual-frequency GPS receivers provide time series of oblique absolute total electron content (TEC) and/or relative TEC data (directly calculated from the raw dual-frequency group delays and phase delays, respectively), TEC data from ground- or space-based receivers operating with dual-frequency beacons mounted on low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, vertical TEC data from orbiting radio altimeters (such as Jason satellite), in situ electron density data from plasma probes on LEO satellites (such as Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application), and electron density profiles from sounders. The resulting solution for the distribution of electron density is guaranteed to be smooth in space and time and to agree with all input data within errors of measurement. Real time performance is attained on a single personal computer with 5 min data refreshment period. Operation of the system is tested on real data with various data types simultaneously present. A new form of the stabilizing functional is developed to ensure reasonable assimilation of the in situ electron density data.

  12. Direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area by real-time three-dimensional color Doppler for quantitation of aortic regurgitant volume: an in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; McCulloch, Marti; Nosé, Yukihiko; Hartley, Craig J; Zoghbi, William A

    2009-03-01

    The proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method is useful in the quantitation of aortic regurgitation (AR). We hypothesized that actual measurement of PISA provided with real-time 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler yields more accurate regurgitant volumes than those estimated by 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler PISA. We developed a pulsatile flow model for AR with an imaging chamber in which interchangeable regurgitant orifices with defined shapes and areas were incorporated. An ultrasonic flow meter was used to calculate the reference regurgitant volumes. A total of 29 different flow conditions for 5 orifices with different shapes were tested at a rate of 72 beats/min. 2D PISA was calculated as 2pi r(2), and 3D PISA was measured from 8 equidistant radial planes of the 3D PISA. Regurgitant volume was derived as PISA x aliasing velocity x time velocity integral of AR/peak AR velocity. Regurgitant volumes by flow meter ranged between 12.6 and 30.6 mL/beat (mean 21.4 +/- 5.5 mL/beat). Regurgitant volumes estimated by 2D PISA correlated well with volumes measured by flow meter (r = 0.69); however, a significant underestimation was observed (y = 0.5x + 0.6). Correlation with flow meter volumes was stronger for 3D PISA-derived regurgitant volumes (r = 0.83); significantly less underestimation of regurgitant volumes was seen, with a regression line close to identity (y = 0.9x + 3.9). Direct measurement of PISA is feasible, without geometric assumptions, using real-time 3D color Doppler. Calculation of aortic regurgitant volumes with 3D color Doppler using this methodology is more accurate than conventional 2D method with hemispheric PISA assumption.

  13. Single-beat real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic automated contour detection for quantification of left ventricular volumes and systolic function.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ben; Vletter, Wim B; McGhie, Jackie; Soliman, Osama I I; Geleijnse, Marcel L

    2014-02-01

    To assess the feasibility and accuracy in measuring left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) with Siemens single-beat real-time 3D transthoracic echocardiography. The LV volumes and EF were measured in 3D datasets acquired by six imaging modes (time-1-harmonic (T1H), time-1-fundamental, time-2-harmonic, time-2-fundamental, space-1-harmonic (S1H), and space-1-fundamental) in 41 patients using the automated contouring algorithm and compared with manually corrected 3DE QLAB measurements. The main determinates of the temporal and spatial resolutions of 3D datasets acquired were the fundamental and harmonic modes. Consequently, the S1H mode had the lowest volume rate and highest spatial resolution. Compared with the 3DE QLAB analysis, the S1H mode resulted in the best LV volumes and EF estimates in all patients (0 ± 10 % for EF, -7 ± 44 ml for EDV, -7 ± 39 ml for ESV) and in the 10 patients with correct LV contour tracking according to a visual assessment from the multiplanar reconstruction views in all six modes (0 ± 9 % for EF, -3 ± 23 ml for EDV, -2 ± 14 ml for ESV). The T1H mode was the best alternative. Overall 28 patients (68 %) could be analysed automatically and satisfyingly with the S1H and T1H modes: 0 ± 8 % (EF), 0 ± 27 ml (EDV) and -1 ± 16 ml (ESV). The accuracy of the Siemens automated RT-3D algorithm in measuring LV volumes and EF is significantly influenced by the different imaging modes. The S1H mode may be the preferred 3D acquisition mode, supplemented by the T1H mode in enlarged LVs that do not fit in the S1H acquisition sector.

  14. Respiratory function monitoring using a real-time three-dimensional fiber-optic shaping sensing scheme based upon fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allsop, Thomas; Bhamber, Ranjeet; Lloyd, Glynn; Miller, Martin R.; Dixon, Andrew; Webb, David; Ania Castañón, Juan Diego; Bennion, Ian

    2012-11-01

    An array of in-line curvature sensors on a garment is used to monitor the thoracic and abdominal movements of a human during respiration. The results are used to obtain volumetric changes of the human torso in agreement with a spirometer used simultaneously at the mouth. The array of 40 in-line fiber Bragg gratings is used to produce 20 curvature sensors at different locations, each sensor consisting of two fiber Bragg gratings. The 20 curvature sensors and adjoining fiber are encapsulated into a low-temperature-cured synthetic silicone. The sensors are wavelength interrogated by a commercially available system from Moog Insensys, and the wavelength changes are calibrated to recover curvature. A three-dimensional algorithm is used to generate shape changes during respiration that allow the measurement of absolute volume changes at various sections of the torso. It is shown that the sensing scheme yields a volumetric error of 6%. Comparing the volume data obtained from the spirometer with the volume estimated with the synchronous data from the shape-sensing array yielded a correlation value 0.86 with a Pearson's correlation coefficient p<0.01.

  15. Using digital image correlation and three dimensional point tracking in conjunction with real time operating data expansion techniques to predict full-field dynamic strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Peter; Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Large structures pose unique difficulties in the acquisition of measured dynamic data with conventional techniques that are further complicated when the structure also has rotating members such as wind turbine blades and helicopter blades. Optical techniques (digital image correlation and dynamic point tracking) are used to measure line of sight data without the need to contact the structure, eliminating cumbersome cabling issues. The data acquired from these optical approaches are used in conjunction with a unique real time operating data expansion process to obtain full-field dynamic displacement and dynamic strain. The measurement approaches are described in this paper along with the expansion procedures. The data is collected for a single blade from a wind turbine and also for a three bladed assembled wind turbine configuration. Measured strains are compared to results from a limited set of optical measurements used to perform the expansion to obtain full-field strain results including locations that are not available from the line of sight measurements acquired. The success of the approach clearly shows that there are some very extraordinary possibilities that exist to provide very desperately needed full field displacement and strain information that can be used to help identify the structural health of structures.

  16. Direct assessment of size and shape of noncircular vena contracta area in functional versus organic mitral regurgitation using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Philipp; Plicht, Björn; Schenk, Ingmar M; Janosi, Rolf-Alexander; Erbel, Raimund; Buck, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Vena contracta width (VCW) as an estimate of effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) is an accepted parameter of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. However, uncertainty exists in cases in which VCW at the same time appears narrow in 4-chamber (4CH) view and broad in 2-chamber (2CH) view as common in functional MR with noncircular or slit-like regurgitant orifices. We therefore hypothesized that new real-time 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography (RT3DE) can be used for direct assessment of the size and shape of vena contracta area (VCA) in an en face view and to determine the potential error of conventional VCW measurement on estimation of EROA. RT3DE was performed in 57 patients with relevant MR of different etiologies. Manual tracing of VCA in a cross-sectional plane through the vena contracta was compared with VCW in 4CH and 2CH views. As a comparative approach to VCA-3D, EROA was calculated using the hemispheric and hemielliptic proximal isovelocity surface (PISA) area method. Direct measurement of VCA-3D was feasible in all patients within 2.6 +/- 0.7 minutes. RT3DE revealed significant asymmetry of VCA in functional compared with organic MR (P < .001). Among all patients, VCW-4CH and VCW-2CH correlated only moderately to VCA-3D (r =.77; r =.80). Mean VCW correlated and agreed best with VCA-3D (r =.90). VCA-3D correlated and agreed well with EROA by hemielliptic PISA (r = .96, mean error: -0.09 +/- 0.14 cm(2)) compared with significant underestimation of hemispheric PISA in noncircular lesions. Direct assessment of VCA using RT3DE revealed significant asymmetry of VCA in functional MR compared with organic MR, resulting in poor estimation of EROA by single VCW measurements.

  17. Comparison of Echocardiographic Single- vs. Biplane Method in the Assessment of Left Atrial Volume and Validation by Real Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Hahn, Rebecca T.; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) recommends to calculate LA biplane volume because of its greater accuracy and prognostic value over LA diameter. However, biplane methods are not always feasible. We sought to assess the correlation between the echocardiographic LA biplane and single-plane volume and their agreement in the classification of LA size when ASE cut-offs are applied. Methods We performed 2D-echocardiography in the participants of the population-based CABL (Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions) study. LA volume was calculated by biplane area-length and single-plane modified Simpson’s methods, and validated against three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. Results The study sample consisted of 527 participants (69.6±9.7 years, 61.9% women). Both single- and biplane LA volume correlated well with 3D-echocardiography (r=0.93; p<0.001). Correlation between the single-plane and biplane methods was excellent (r=0.95, p<0.001; intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.92, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.80-0.96). Categorical agreement between single- and biplane was modest (k=0.51, 95% CI 0.45-0.57, disagreement rate 26.0%), mainly because of overestimation by the single-plane method. The correction of the single-plane volume by a regression equation improved the agreement (k=0.70, 95% CI 0.64-0.76), but a misclassification remained in 14.0% of cases. Conclusions Single- and biplane LA volume measurements have strong correlations, but their agreement for categorical classification is suboptimal. Specific cut-off points should be developed for the single-plane method. PMID:20650605

  18. Quantitation of the mitral tetrahedron in patients with ischemic heart disease using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography to evaluate the geometric determinants of ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Lin, Lung-Chun; Hsu, Kwan-Lih; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2013-05-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is common in ischemic heart disease and results in poor prognosis. However, the exact mechanism of IMR has not been fully elucidated. Quantitation of the mitral tetrahedron using three-dimentianl (3D) echocardiography is capable of evaluating the geometric determinants and mechanisms of IMR. Forty patients with a history of ST-elevation myocardial infarction at least 6 months earlier were studied. Parameters of mitral deformation and global left ventricular (LV) function and shape were evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography. The effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) of IMR was obtained by the quantitative continuous-wave Doppler technique. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography was applied to assess the mitral tetrahedron. Mitral valvular tenting area (P < 0.001), mitral annular area (P = 0.032), dilation of the LV in diastole, impairment of the LV ejection fraction, and volume of the spherically shaped LV in systole were greater in patients with an ERO ≥20 mm(2) than in those with an ERO <20 mm(2). In the mitral tetrahedron, only the interpapillary muscle roots distance showed a significant difference (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis with the logistic regression model showed the systolic mitral tenting area (odds ratio [OR]: 280.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.59-1.72 × 10(4), P = 0.007) and interpapillary muscle distance (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.03-2.19, P = 0.036) to be independent factors in predicting significant IMR (ERO ≥20 mm(2)). 3D echocardiography can be effectively applied in measuring the mitral tetrahedron and evaluating the mechanism of IMR. Mitral valvular tenting and interpapillary muscle distance are 2 independent factors of significant IMR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Time-Domain Simulation of Three Dimensional Quantum Wires

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Sean; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of quantum wires. This is a true three-dimensional method based on a direct implementation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It makes no approximations to the Schrödinger equation other than the finite-difference approximation of the space and time derivatives. The accuracy of our method is tested by comparing it to analytical results in a cylindrical wire. PMID:27124603

  20. Direct quantification of mitral regurgitant flow volume by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography using dealiasing of color Doppler flow at the vena contracta.

    PubMed

    Plicht, Björn; Kahlert, Philipp; Goldwasser, Ranny; Janosi, Rolf-Alexander; Hunold, Peter; Erbel, Raimund; Buck, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Real-time 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic (RT3DE) imaging has recently been demonstrated to provide accurate direct measurement of vena contracta area (VCA). The quantification of mitral regurgitant (MR) flow directly at the lesion using color Doppler echocardiography, however, has been prevented because of multiple aliasing from high flow velocities. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that flow at the vena contracta is laminar, with a narrow velocity spectrum that should allow the dealiasing of color Doppler flow velocities for the accurate measurement of MR flow. This hypothesis was tested in an in vitro flow model and initial patient application, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used as a reference. In an in vitro flow model, MR jets of flow rates from 5 to 60 mL/s were produced through asymmetric orifices of 0.2 to 0.6 cm(2). From RT3DE data sets, MR flow was calculated by the automated integration of the nonaliased color Doppler velocities over the VCA, with aliasing avoided by maximum baseline shift. Aliased flow was calculated as VCA times the Nyquist velocity times the number of aliasing transitions derived from the maximum continuous-wave Doppler velocity. Total MR flow was calculated as the sum of nonaliased and aliased flow. This approach was also clinically evaluated in 23 patients for the measurement of MR stroke volume against MRI and the hemispheric and hemielliptic proximal isovelocity surface area methods. In vitro RT3DE imaging of VCA was feasible in all flow stages without color Doppler aliasing. Flow rates calculated from RT3DE data sets showed excellent correlation with actual flow rates (r = 0.99), with a mean difference of -0.05 +/- 0.5 mL/s (not significant by t test). In vivo, good correlation and agreement were found between MR stroke volume by dealiasing and MRI (r = 0.91, -1.8 +/- 7.1 mL; not significant by t test), with better correlation and agreement compared with hemispheric proximal isovelocity surface

  1. Real-time two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of the thoracic spinal cord: a possible new window into the central neuraxis.

    PubMed

    Feinglass, Neil G; Clendenen, Steven R; Shine, Timothy S J; Martin, Archer K; Greengrass, Roy A

    2015-02-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography of the spine has been difficult to perform, and high-quality images have been difficult to obtain with earlier available technology. New capabilities in hardware and software reconstruction may allow more reliable clinical data to be obtained. We describe an initial successful attempt to image the adult spinal canal, its contents, and in situ instrumentation. This report is a retrospective review of two patients in whom transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used to image the thoracic spine. The thoracic spine was identified and imaged with real-time 2-D and 3-D technology with location of the thoracic aorta and slight insertion and withdrawal of the TEE probe until the intervertebral discs alignment was optimized. Images of the spinal cord anatomy and its vascular supply, as well as indwelling epidural catheters were easily identified. 2-D and 3-D imaging was performed and images were recorded in digital imaging and communications in medicine format. 3-D reconstruction of images was possible with instantaneous 3-D imaging from multiple 2-D electrocardiogram-gated image acquisitions using the Phillips TEE IE-33 imaging platform. The central neuraxial cavity, including the spinal cord and the spinal nerve roots, was easily visualized, and motion of the cord was seen in a phasic pattern (with respiratory variation); cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord was documented. The epidural space and local anesthetic drug administration through the epidural catheter were visualized, with the epidural catheter seen lying adjacent to the epidural tissue as a bright hyperechoic line. Pulsed-wave Doppler determined a biphasic pattern of blood flow in the anterior spinal artery through pulse mapping of the anatomic area. New, advanced imaging hardware and software generate clinically useful imaging of the thoracic spine in 2-D and 3-D using TEE. We believe this technology holds promise for future diagnostic and therapeutic

  2. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  3. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  4. Three-Dimensional Rotation, Twist and Torsion Analyses Using Real-Time 3D Speckle Tracking Imaging: Feasibility, Reproducibility, and Normal Ranges in Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Gao, Jun; He, Lin; Yang, Yali; Yin, Ping; Xie, Mingxing; Ge, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility and maturational changes of LV rotation, twist and torsion variables by real-time 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography (RT3DSTE) in children. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 347 consecutive healthy subjects (181 males/156 females, mean age 7.12 ± 5.3 years, and range from birth to 18-years) using RT 3D echocardiography (3DE). The LV rotation, twist and torsion measurements were made off-line using TomTec software. Manual landmark selection and endocardial border editing were performed in 3 planes (apical “2”-, “4”-, and “3”- chamber views) and semi-automated tracking yielded LV rotation, twist and torsion measurements. LV rotation, twist and torsion analysis by RT 3DSTE were feasible in 307 out of 347 subjects (88.5%). Results There was no correlation between rotation or twist and age, height, weight, BSA or heart rate, respectively. However, there was statistically significant, but very modest correlation between LV torsion and age (R2 = 0.036, P< 0.001). The normal ranges were defined for rotation and twist in this cohort, and for torsion for each age group. The intra-observer and inter-observer variabilities for apical and basal rotation, twist and torsion ranged from 7.3% ± 3.8% to 12.3% ± 8.8% and from 8.8% ± 4.6% to 15.7% ± 10.1%, respectively. Conclusions We conclude that analysis of LV rotation, twist and torsion by this new RT3D STE is feasible and reproducible in pediatric population. There is no maturational change in rotation and twist, but torsion decreases with age in this cohort. Further refinement is warranted to validate the utility of this new methodology in more sensitive and quantitative evaluation of congenital and acquired heart diseases in children. PMID:27427968

  5. Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Jie; Edgar, Matthew P.; Gibson, Graham M.; Sun, Baoqing; Radwell, Neal; Lamb, Robert; Padgett, Miles J.

    2016-07-01

    Time-of-flight three-dimensional imaging is an important tool for applications such as object recognition and remote sensing. Conventional time-of-flight three-dimensional imaging systems frequently use a raster scanned laser to measure the range of each pixel in the scene sequentially. Here we show a modified time-of-flight three-dimensional imaging system, which can use compressed sensing techniques to reduce acquisition times, whilst distributing the optical illumination over the full field of view. Our system is based on a single-pixel camera using short-pulsed structured illumination and a high-speed photodiode, and is capable of reconstructing 128 × 128-pixel resolution three-dimensional scenes to an accuracy of ~3 mm at a range of ~5 m. Furthermore, by using a compressive sampling strategy, we demonstrate continuous real-time three-dimensional video with a frame-rate up to 12 Hz. The simplicity of the system hardware could enable low-cost three-dimensional imaging devices for precision ranging at wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum.

  6. Design, Fabrication and Implementation of a Novel Multi Parameter Control Microfluidic Platform for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture and Real-Time Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Vernella; Blundo, Jennifer; Chung, Seok; Kamm, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    New and more biologically relevant in vitro models are needed for use in drug development, regenerative medicine, and fundamental scientific investigation. While the importance of the extracellular microenvironment is clear, the ability to investigate the effects of physiologically relevant biophysical and biochemical factors is restricted in traditional cell culture platforms. Moreover, the versatility for multi-parameter manipulation, on a single platform, with the optical resolution to monitor the dynamics of individual cells or small population is lacking. Here we introduce a microfluidic platform for 3D cell culture in biologically derived or synthetic hydrogels with the capability to monitor cellular dynamics in response to changes in their microenvironment. Direct scaffold microinjection, was employed to incorporate 3D matrices into microfluidic devices. Our system geometry permits a unique window for studying directional migration, e.g. sprouting angiogenesis, since sprouts grow predominantly in the microscopic viewing plane. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to generate gradients (non-reactive solute), surface shear, interstitial flow, and image cells in situ. Three different capillary morphogenesis assays are demonstrated. Human adult dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-ad) were maintained in culture for up to 7 days during which they formed open lumen-like structures which was confirmed with confocal microscopy and by perfusion with fluorescent microspheres. In the sprouting assay, time-lapse movies revealed cellular mechanisms and dynamics (filopodial projection/retraction, directional migration, cell division and lumen formation) during tip-cell invasion of underlying 3D matrix and subsequent lumen formation. PMID:18818801

  7. Real-time two- and three-dimensional imaging of monocyte motility and navigation on planar surfaces and in collagen matrices: roles of Rho

    PubMed Central

    Bzymek, Robert; Horsthemke, Markus; Isfort, Katrin; Mohr, Simon; Tjaden, Kerstin; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Thomann, Marlies; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Bähler, Martin; Schwab, Albrecht; Hanley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently found that macrophages from RhoA/RhoB double knockout mice had increased motility of the cell body, but severely impaired retraction of the tail and membrane extensions, whereas RhoA- or RhoB-deficient cells exhibited mild phenotypes. Here we extended this work and investigated the roles of Rho signaling in primary human blood monocytes migrating in chemotactic gradients and in various settings. Monocyte velocity, but not chemotactic navigation, was modestly dependent on Rho-ROCK-myosin II signaling on a 2D substrate or in a loose collagen type I matrix. Viewed by time-lapse epi-fluorescence microscopy, monocytes appeared to flutter rather than crawl, such that the 3D surface topology of individual cells was difficult to predict. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction revealed that cells move on planar surfaces and in a loose collagen matrix using prominent, curved planar protrusions, which are rapidly remodeled and reoriented, as well as resorbed. In a dense collagen type I matrix, there is insufficient space for this mode and cells adopt a highly Rho-dependent, lobular mode of motility. Thus, in addition to its role in tail retraction on 2D surfaces, Rho is critical for movement in confined spaces, but is largely redundant for motility and chemotaxis in loose matrices. PMID:27122054

  8. Three-dimensional time dependent computation of turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The three-dimensional, primitive equations of motion are solved numerically for the case of isotropic box turbulence and the distortion of homogeneous turbulence by irrotational plane strain at large Reynolds numbers. A Gaussian filter is applied to governing equations to define the large scale field. This gives rise to additional second order computed scale stresses (Leonard stresses). The residual stresses are simulated through an eddy viscosity. Uniform grids are used, with a fourth order differencing scheme in space and a second order Adams-Bashforth predictor for explicit time stepping. The results are compared to the experiments and statistical information extracted from the computer generated data.

  9. Deployment of a three-dimensional array of Micro-Pocket Fission Detector triads (MPFD3) for real-time, in-core neutron flux measurements in the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmes, Martin Francis

    A Micro-Pocket Fission Detector (MPFD) is a miniaturized type of fission chamber developed for use inside a nuclear reactor. Their unique design allows them to be located between or even inside fuel pins while being built from materials which give them an operational lifetime comparable to or exceeding the life of the fuel. While other types of neutron detectors have been made for use inside a nuclear reactor, the MPFD is the first neutron detector which can survive sustained use inside a nuclear reactor while providing a real-time measurement of the neutron flux. This dissertation covers the deployment of MPFDs as a large three-dimensional array inside the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor for real-time neutron flux measurements. This entails advancements in the design, construction, and packaging of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Triads with incorporated Thermocouple, or MPFD3-T. Specialized electronics and software also had to be designed and built in order to make a functional system capable of collecting real-time data from up to 60 MPFD3-Ts, or 180 individual MPFDs and 60 thermocouples. Design of the electronics required the development of detailed simulations and analysis for determining the theoretical response of the detectors and determination of their size. The results of this research shows that MPFDs can operate for extended times inside a nuclear reactor and can be utilized toward the use as distributed neutron detector arrays for advanced reactor control systems and power mapping. These functions are critical for continued gains in efficiency of nuclear power reactors while also improving safety through relatively inexpensive redundancy.

  10. [Outlier Detection of Time Series Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shao-hui; Zhang, Yu-jun; Zhao, Nan-jing

    2015-06-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis are often interfered by the outliers in time series three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. In this work, an efficient outlier detection method is proposed by taking advantage of the characteristics in time dimension and the spectral dimension. Firstly, the wavelength points that are mostly the outliers are extracted by the variance in time dimension. Secondly, by the analysis of the existence styles of outliers and similarity score of any two samples, the cumulative similarity is introduced in spectral dimension. At last, fluorescence intensity at each wavelength of all samples is modified by the correction matrix in time dimension and the outlier detection is completed according the to cumulative similarity scores. The application of the correction matrix in time dimension not only improves the validity of the method but also reduces the computation by the choice of characteristics region in correction matrix. Numerical experiments show that the outliers can still be detected by the 50 percent of all points in spectral dimension.

  11. A pilot study of systolic dyssynchrony index by real time three-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler tissue imaging parameters predicting the hemodynamic response to biventricular pacing in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Straka, Frantisek; Pirk, Jan; Pindak, Marian; Marek, Tomas; Schornik, David; Cihak, Robert; Skibova, Jelena

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) measured by real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) dyssynchrony parameters in predicting the hemodynamic response to biventricular (BIV) pacing in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery. To compare right ventricular (RV) and BIV pacing using invasively measured hemodynamic values. A prospective randomized clinical study enrolling 11 patients with ischemic heart disease, concomitant valvular heart disease, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% comparing preoperative SDI by RT3DE and DTI LV dyssynchrony parameters to hemodynamic values obtained during RV or BIV sequential (DDD) epicardial pacing in the first 72 hours after cardiac surgery. BIV pacing produced a statistically significant higher cardiac output (CO) (6.27 ± 1.55 L/min) and cardiac index (CI) (3.44 ± 0.93 L/min per m(2) ) than RV pacing (CO 5.44 ± 0.97 L/min, CI 3.03 ± 0.83 L/min per m(2) , P < 0.05). We found a statistically moderate correlation between preoperative SDI by RT3DE and CO (r = 0.596, P < 0.05) and a nonsignificant correlation to CI (r = 0.535, P < 0.10) during BIV pacing. No correlation was observed between DTI dyssynchrony parameters and measured hemodynamic values. BIV pacing reduced the ICU stay and inotropic support requirements of patients after heart surgery. SDI measured preoperatively using RT3DE can predict CO during BIV pacing in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery. BIV pacing is more hemodynamically effective than RV pacing in patients with LV dysfunction after coronary artery bypass grafting with or without a valve procedure. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. New techniques in television to provide research in three-dimensional real-time or near real-time imagery and reduced cost systems for teleconferencing and educational uses, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, Y. H.; Claspy, P.; Allen, J. E.; Merat, F.

    1979-01-01

    The results are presented of a continuing research and development program the objective of which is to develop a reduced bandwidth television system and a technique for television transmission of holograms. The result of the former is a variable frame rate television system, the operation of which was demonstrated for both black-and-white and color signals. This system employs a novel combination of the inexpensive mass storage capacity of a magnetic disc with the reliability of a digital system for time expansion and compression. Also reported are the results of a theoretical analysis and preliminary feasibility experiment of an innovative system for television transmission of holograms using relatively conventional TV equipment along with a phase modulated reference wave for production of the original interference pattern.

  13. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain is an independent predictor of right ventricular function: a multimodality study of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, real time three-dimensional echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ken J; Chen, Janet X C; Profitis, Konstantinos; Kearney, Leighton G; DeSilva, Dimuth; Smith, Gerard; Ord, Michelle; Harberts, Susan; Calafiore, Paul; Jones, Elizabeth; Srivastava, Piyush M

    2015-06-01

    Accurate assessment of right ventricular (RV) systolic function is important, as it is an established predictor of mortality in cardiac and respiratory diseases. We aimed to compare speckle tracking-derived longitudinal deformation measurements with traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic parameters, as well as real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)-derived RV volumes and ejection fraction (EF). Subjects referred for CMR also underwent echocardiography. On both RT3DE and CMR, we measured RV volumes and EF. On 2D echocardiography, we analyzed RV fractional area change, RV internal diastolic diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular tissue Doppler-derived velocity, myocardial performance index, and RV global longitudinal strain (RV GLS). Sixty subjects were recruited (mean age = 45 ± 10 years; 60% male). RV GLS (R = -0.69, P < 0.001) and RT3DE RVEF (R = 0.56, P < 0.001) correlated well with CMR RVEF. RT3DE RV end-diastolic (RVEDV) and end-systolic (RVESV) volumes also correlated with CMR RV volumes: RVEDV, R = 0.74, P < 0.001 and RVESV, R = 0.84, P < 0.001. In addition, RV GLS best predicted the presence of RV dysfunction, defined as RVEF <48% on CMR (hazard ratio = 7.0 [1.5-31.7], P < 0.01). On receiver operator characteristic analysis, a RV GLS of -20% was the most sensitive and specific predictor of RV dysfunction (AUC 0.8 [0.57-1.0], P < 0.02). RVEF and volumes estimated on RT3DE were closely correlated with CMR measurements. When compared to more traditional markers of RV systolic function and RT3DE, RVGLS produced the highest correlation with CMR RVEF and was a good predictor of RV dysfunction. RV GLS should be considered a complementary modality to RT3DE and CMR in the assessment of RV systolic function. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Three-dimensional time reversal communications in elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ten Cate, James A.

    2016-02-23

    Our letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Also, the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated here in order to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location.

  15. Three-dimensional time reversal communications in elastic media

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; ...

    2016-02-23

    Our letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Also, the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated here in order to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location.

  16. Method for producing three-dimensional real image using radiographic perspective views of an object

    DOEpatents

    Ellingson, William A.; Read, Alvin A.

    1976-02-24

    A sequence of separate radiographs are made by indexing a radiation source along a known path relative to the object under study. Thus, each radiograph contains information from a different perspective. A holographically-recorded image is then made from each radiographic perspective by exact re-tracing of the rays through each radiographic perspective such that the re-tracing duplicates the geometry under which it was originally prepared. The holographically-stored images are simultaneously illuminated with the conjugate of the reference beam used in the original recordings. The result is the generation of a three-dimensional real image of the object such that a light-sensitive device can be moved to view the real image along any desired surface with the optical information in all other surfaces greatly suppressed.

  17. Model calculations for three-dimensional heat conduction in a real tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foth, Hans-Jochen; Luke, Manfred

    2003-06-01

    To generate the three-dimensional grid net for a real tooth, an extracted tooth was grinded in steps of some millimetres from the top to the root. After each grinding step the displayed cross section was documented by photography showing clearly all transition lines between enamel, dentin and the pulp. The photographic reprints were used to determine the x-y-z-coordinates of selected points to represent the transition lines. In a fairly large-scale procedure these points were combined to a three dimensional net. FEM calculations were carried out to solve the heat equation numerically for the boundary condition that an IR laser pulse hits the surface for laser ablation. Since all the information of the various types of tissue is included in this model, the results give a huge variety of information. For example: the outer shell of enamel could be displayed exclusively to show its inner surface and which temperature distribution as well as mechanical stress got build up there.

  18. Communication patterns and satisfaction levels in three-dimensional versus real-life intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Richard L; Murphy, Nora A; Ávalos, M Clementina

    2011-10-01

    The present study compared communication patterns and satisfaction levels between three-dimensional (3D) and real-life intimate relationships using a sample of 71 participants who were concurrently involved in an intimate relationship within Second Life and a separate real-life romantic relationship. Participants indicated that the quality of their communication was significantly better in their Second-Life relationship and that they experienced higher levels of satisfaction with their virtual partners. The more positive or idealized view of the 3D relationships may have been due to higher levels of focused interaction and reduced stressors in the virtual world and the greater length, and associated problems, in participant's real-life relationships. In addition, the presence of a concurrent relationship within Second Life could have negatively affected participant's judgments of their real-life relationships. These data offer the first detailed assessment of communication patterns and satisfaction levels in intimate relationships across the real and 3D virtual realms as the number of users and romantic partners in immersive virtual environments continue to grow.

  19. Numerical computation of multishocked, three-dimensional supersonic flow fields with real gas effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Reinhardt, W. A.; Warming, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented which is capable of determining the supersonic flow field surrounding three-dimensional wing-body configurations such as a delta-wing space shuttle. The governing equations in conservation-law form are solved by a finite difference method using a second-order noncentered algorithm between the body and the outermost shock wave, which is treated as a sharp discontinuity. Secondary shocks which form between these boundaries are captured automatically, and the intersection of these shocks with the bow shock posed no difficulty. Resulting flow fields about typical blunt nose shuttle-like configurations at angle of attack are presented. The differences between perfect and real gas effects for high Mach number flows are shown.

  20. Three-dimensional time-marching inviscid and viscous solutions for unsteady flows around vibrating blades

    SciTech Connect

    He, L.; Denton, J.D. . Whittle Lab.)

    1994-07-01

    A three-dimensional nonlinear time-marching method of solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a simplified form has been developed for blade flutter calculations. The discretization of the equations is made using the cell-vertex finite volume scheme in space and the four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme in time. Calculations are carried out in a single-blade-passage domain and the phase-shifted periodic condition is implemented by using the shape correction method. The three-dimensional unsteady Euler solution is obtained at conditions of zero viscosity, and is validated against a well-established three-dimensional semi-analytical method. For viscous solutions, the time-step limitation on the explicit temporal discretization scheme is effectively relaxed by using a time-consistent two-grid time-marching technique. A transonic rotor blade passage flow (with tip-leakage) is calculated using the present three-dimensional unsteady viscous solution method. Calculated steady flow results agree well with the corresponding experiment and with other calculations. Calculated unsteady loadings due to oscillations of the rotor blades reveal some notable three-dimensional viscous flow features. The feasibility of solving the simplified thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver for oscillating blade flows at practical conditions is demonstrated.

  1. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography as a Novel Approach to Quantify Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony: A Comparison Study with Phase Analysis of Gated Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Henneman, Maureen M.; Chen, Ji; Ypenburg, Claudia; Dibbets, Petra; Ghio, Stefano; Bleeker, Gabe B.; Stokkel, Marcel P.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Garcia, Ernest V.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Different imaging modalities have been explored for assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (GMPS) with phase analysis is a reliable technique to quantify LV dyssynchrony and predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Objective Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is a novel imaging technique that provides a LV systolic dyssynchrony index, based on regional volumetric changes as a function of time and calculated as the SD of time to minimum systolic volume of 16 standard myocardial segments expressed in percentage of cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to compare LV dyssynchrony evaluated with GMPS with LV dyssynchrony assessed with RT3DE. Methods The study population consisted of 40 patients with heart failure who underwent both GMPS and RT3DE. Results Good correlations between LV dyssynchrony assessed with RT3DE and GMPS were demonstrated (r = 0.76 for histogram bandwidth, r = 0.80 for phase SD, P < .0001). Patients with substantial LV dyssynchrony on GMPS (defined as ≥135 degrees for histogram bandwidth and ≥43 degrees for phase SD) had significantly higher LV systolic dyssynchrony index than patients without substantial LV dyssynchrony. Conclusions The good correlations between LV dyssynchrony assessed with GMPS and with RT3DE provide further support for the use of RT3DE for reliable assessment of LV dyssynchrony. PMID:18222645

  2. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  3. Comparisons between real and complex Gauss wavelet transform methods of three-dimensional shape reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luopeng; Dan, Youquan; Wang, Qingyuan

    2015-10-01

    The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) introduces an expandable spatial and frequency window which can overcome the inferiority of localization characteristic in Fourier transform and windowed Fourier transform. The CWT method is widely applied in the non-stationary signal analysis field including optical 3D shape reconstruction with remarkable performance. In optical 3D surface measurement, the performance of CWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction usually depends on the choice of wavelet function. A large kind of wavelet functions of CWT, such as Mexican Hat wavelet, Morlet wavelet, DOG wavelet, Gabor wavelet and so on, can be generated from Gauss wavelet function. However, so far, application of the Gauss wavelet transform (GWT) method (i.e. CWT with Gauss wavelet function) in optical profilometry is few reported. In this paper, the method using GWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction is presented first and the comparisons between real and complex GWT methods are discussed in detail. The examples of numerical simulations are also given and analyzed. The results show that both the real GWT method along with a Hilbert transform and the complex GWT method can realize three-dimensional surface reconstruction; and the performance of reconstruction generally depends on the frequency domain appearance of Gauss wavelet functions. For the case of optical fringe pattern of large phase variation with position, the performance of real GWT is better than that of complex one due to complex Gauss series wavelets existing frequency sidelobes. Finally, the experiments are carried out and the experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  4. Energy management of three-dimensional minimum-time intercept. [for aircraft flight optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Visser, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time computer algorithm to control and optimize aircraft flight profiles is described and applied to a three-dimensional minimum-time intercept mission. The proposed scheme has roots in two well known techniques: singular perturbations and neighboring-optimal guidance. Use of singular-perturbation ideas is made in terms of the assumed trajectory-family structure. A heading/energy family of prestored point-mass-model state-Euler solutions is used as the baseline in this scheme. The next step is to generate a near-optimal guidance law that will transfer the aircraft to the vicinity of this reference family. The control commands fed to the autopilot (bank angle and load factor) consist of the reference controls plus correction terms which are linear combinations of the altitude and path-angle deviations from reference values, weighted by a set of precalculated gains. In this respect the proposed scheme resembles neighboring-optimal guidance. However, in contrast to the neighboring-optimal guidance scheme, the reference control and state variables as well as the feedback gains are stored as functions of energy and heading in the present approach. Some numerical results comparing open-loop optimal and approximate feedback solutions are presented.

  5. Energy management of three-dimensional minimum-time intercept. [for aircraft flight optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Visser, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time computer algorithm to control and optimize aircraft flight profiles is described and applied to a three-dimensional minimum-time intercept mission. The proposed scheme has roots in two well known techniques: singular perturbations and neighboring-optimal guidance. Use of singular-perturbation ideas is made in terms of the assumed trajectory-family structure. A heading/energy family of prestored point-mass-model state-Euler solutions is used as the baseline in this scheme. The next step is to generate a near-optimal guidance law that will transfer the aircraft to the vicinity of this reference family. The control commands fed to the autopilot (bank angle and load factor) consist of the reference controls plus correction terms which are linear combinations of the altitude and path-angle deviations from reference values, weighted by a set of precalculated gains. In this respect the proposed scheme resembles neighboring-optimal guidance. However, in contrast to the neighboring-optimal guidance scheme, the reference control and state variables as well as the feedback gains are stored as functions of energy and heading in the present approach. Some numerical results comparing open-loop optimal and approximate feedback solutions are presented.

  6. Real Stereopsis Test Using a Three-Dimensional Display with Tridef Software

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jinu; Han, So Young; Lee, Seung Koo; Lee, Jong Bok

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate horizontal image disparity in three-dimensional (3-D) perception using 3-D animations in normal control patients and patients with intermittent exotropia, anisometropic amblyopia, and partially accommodative esotropia. Materials and Methods A total of 133 subjects were included. Stereopsis was measured using the Titmus Stereo test (Stereo Optical Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and a 3-D stereopsis test with a 15 inch 3-D display laptop, adjusting 3-D parameters of 0 mm horizontal disparity to 15 mm horizontal disparity. Results When compared with normal controls, the average threshold of the 3-D stereopsis test was significantly reduced for esotropia patients (p<0.001) and for anisometric amblyopia patients (p<0.001), compared to normal controls. No significant difference was observed between normal controls and intermittent exotropia patients (p=0.082). The 3-D stereopsis test was correlated with the Titmus Stereo test (Spearman's rho=0.690, p<0.001). Mean difference in stereoacuity was 1.323 log seconds of arc (95% limits of agreement: 0.486 to 2.112), and 125 (92.5%) patients were within the limits of agreement. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a 3-D stereopsis test with animation is highly correlated with the Titmus Stereo test; nevertheless, 3-D stereopsis with animations generates more image disparities than the conventional Titmus Stereo test. The 3-D stereopsis test is highly predictive for estimating real stereopsis in a 3-D movie theater. PMID:25323907

  7. Development of a three-dimensional time-dependent flow field model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Waldrop, W. R.; Pitts, F. H.; Shah, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent mathematical model to represent Mobile Bay was developed. Computer programs were developed which numerically solve the appropriate conservation equations for predicting bay and estuary flow fields. The model is useful for analyzing the dispersion of sea water into fresh water and the transport of sediment, and for relating field and physical model data.

  8. Parallel Computation and Visualization of Three-dimensional, Time-dependent, Thermal Convective Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.; Li, P.

    1998-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical study on parallel systems is reported on three-dimensional, time-dependent, thermal convective flows. A parallel implentation on the finite volume method with a multigrid scheme is discussed, and a parallel visualization systemm is developed on distributed systems for visualizing the flow.

  9. Parallel Computation and Visualization of Three-dimensional, Time-dependent, Thermal Convective Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.; Li, P.

    1998-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical study on parallel systems is reported on three-dimensional, time-dependent, thermal convective flows. A parallel implentation on the finite volume method with a multigrid scheme is discussed, and a parallel visualization systemm is developed on distributed systems for visualizing the flow.

  10. Time-marching methods for three-dimensional steady and unsteady viscous imcompressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An implicit algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, viscous, incompressible flows is presented. The algorithm is based on an upwind-relaxation finite-difference method. Steady-state solutions are carried out using a time-marching solution technique in combination with a local time-stepping strategy. To obtain time-accurate solutions, a subiterative procedure is employed at each physical time step using a global time step to ensure the divergence-free condition. Steady-state flows in several straight ducts and in a square duct with a 90-degree bend are computed and compared with analytical and experimental results. The classical problem of starting flow in a circular pipe is chosen to verify the time accuracy of the present scheme. Finally, the three-dimensional bubble-type vortex breakdown of a slender cylindrical vortex in an unbounded flow is investigated.

  11. Short- and Long- Time Transport Structures in a Three Dimensional Time Dependent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabreyrie, Rodolphe; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this talk, we use a set of classical (i.e. Poincaré section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small lateral oscillations and a weak Ekman pumping. The difference is mainly the existence of regular or extremely slowly developing chaotic regions that are only present at short time. This research was funded by the ONR MURI Dynamical Systems Theory and Lagrangian Data Assimilation in 3D+1 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics.

  12. The importance of three dimensional dune morphology on the time dependent flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Richard; Parsons, Dan; Reesink, Arnold; Best, Jim

    2017-04-01

    The flow field over dunes has been extensively studied and there is general understanding of the nature of the flow over dunes formed over two dimensional dunes under equilibrium flow conditions. This model is typically used to explain flow fields over all dunes fields. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly reorganizing to form complex three-dimensional morphologies (ripples, dunes and bar forms). Here we investigate how flow over natural three dimensional dunes differs from the accepted model of flow of two dimensional dunes. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume where fine sand was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. On four occasions, the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models (DEM). Here to demonstrate the approach we choose the DEM with the greatest topographic variation and apply a new Large Eddy Simulation model with an wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) turbulence model and a non-linear higher-order numerical differencing scheme. This provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of the flow field over the static three-dimensional dune morphology at millimeter and hertz scale resolution. The numerically predicted flows were analyzed by standard Reynolds decomposition approaches and Eulerian and Lagrangian coherent flow structure identification methods. The results show that the superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow regions, in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the points of flow reattachment. Coalescence of vortices generated downstream and can be seen to move to the free surface and form kolk signatures. These structures also correlate in space and time showing a clear flow morphology feedback. The modified flow field

  13. Acetazolamide challenge for three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mandai, Kenji; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Fukunaga, Ryuzo; Nukada, Masaru; Ohtani, Fumio; Araki, Yutaka; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Abe, Hiroshi )

    1994-04-01

    We compared three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiograms obtained before and after acetazolamide administration to evaluate whether use of this drug could improve visualization of small peripheral intracranial arteries and atherosclerotic stenosis. For evaluation of small peripheral arteries, 10 patients with clinical diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and 10 healthy volunteers were investigated, and for evaluation of stenosis, another 6 patients were investigated. Vascular images were obtained by three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography. After a baseline scan, 17 mg/kg acetazolamide was injected intravenously and the second scan was performed 20 minutes later. Several small peripheral arteries that had not been seen on the baseline images were visible on the acetazolamide images without any augmentation of the background signals. Stenotic lesions in the main trunks of the major cerebral arteries were detected more clearly on acetazolamide images. Acetazolamide improves visualization of small peripheral intracranial arteries and sensitivity in detecting atherosclerotic stenosis in the main trunk of major cerebral artery by three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography without changing MR apparatus and software. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Time-reversal invariant SU(2 ) Hofstadter problem in three-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi

    2015-05-01

    We formulate the three-dimensional SU(2 ) Landau level problem in cubic lattices with time-reversal invariance. By taking a Landau-type SU(2 ) gauge, the system can be reduced into one dimension, as characterized by the SU(2 ) generalization of the usual Harper equations with a periodic spin-dependent gauge potential. The surface spectra indicate the spatial separation of helical states with opposite eigenvalues of a lattice helicity operator. The band topology is investigated from both the analysis of the boundary helical Fermi surfaces and the calculation of the Z2 index based on the bulk wave functions. The transition between a three-dimensional weak topological insulator to a strong one is studied as varying the anisotropy of hopping parameters.

  15. Three-dimensional time-dependent wave-packet calculations of OBrO absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Sun, Zhigang; Cong, Shu-Lin; Lou, Nanquan

    2005-08-01

    The absorption spectra of the C(A22)←X(B12) transition of the OBrO molecule are calculated using three-dimensional time-dependent wave-packet method in Radau coordinates for a total angular momentum J =0. The wave packet is propagated using the split operator technique associated with fast Fourier transform. Employing the basis functions obtained by one-dimensional Fourier grid Hamiltonian method, the initial wave packet is calculated directly on the three-dimensional Fourier grid. The numerical model is characterized by simplicity and efficiency. The ab initio potential surfaces for the C(A22) and X(B12) states are used in the calculation. The calculated absorption spectra of the C(A22)←X(B12) transition of OBrO molecule agree well with the experimental results.

  16. A Three Dimensional Parallel Time Accurate Turbopump Simulation Procedure Using Overset Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the current effort is to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine, including high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis. This capability is needed to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicles that are likely to involve liquid propulsion systems. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flows are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. An unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available for real-world engineering applications. The present effort provides developers with information such as transient flow phenomena at start up, and non-uniform inflows, and will eventually impact on system vibration and structures. In the proposed paper, the progress toward the capability of complete simulation of the turbo-pump for a liquid rocket engine is reported. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. CAD to solution auto-scripting capability is being developed for turbopump applications. The relative motion of the grid systems for the rotor-stator interaction was obtained using overset grid techniques. Unsteady computations for the SSME turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.5 million grid points, are carried out on Origin 3000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability will be presented along with the performance of parallel versions of the code.

  17. A Three-Dimensional Parallel Time-Accurate Turbopump Simulation Procedure Using Overset Grid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the current effort is to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine, including high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis. This capability is needed to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicles that are likely to involve liquid propulsion systems. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flows are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. An unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available for real-world engineering applications. The present effort provides developers with information such as transient flow phenomena at start up, and nonuniform inflows, and will eventually impact on system vibration and structures. In the proposed paper, the progress toward the capability of complete simulation of the turbo-pump for a liquid rocket engine is reported. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. CAD to solution auto-scripting capability is being developed for turbopump applications. The relative motion of the grid systems for the rotor-stator interaction was obtained using overset grid techniques. Unsteady computations for the SSME turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.5 million grid points, are carried out on Origin 3000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability are presented along with the performance of parallel versions of the code.

  18. Enhancement of three-dimensional perception of numerical hologram reconstructions of real-world objects by motion and stereo.

    PubMed

    Näsänen, Risto; Colomb, Tristan; Emery, Yves; Naughton, Thomas J

    2011-08-15

    We investigated the question of how the perception of three-dimensional information reconstructed numerically from digital holograms of real-world objects, and presented on conventional displays, depends on motion and stereoscopic presentation. Perceived depth in an adjustable random pattern stereogram was matched to the depth in hologram reconstructions. The objects in holograms were a microscopic biological cell and a macroscopic metal coil. For control, we used real physical objects in additional to hologram reconstructions of real objects. Stereoscopic presentation increased perceived depth substantially in comparison to non-stereoscopic presentation. When stereoscopic cues were weak or absent e.g. because of blur, motion increased perceived depth considerably. However, when stereoscopic cues were strong, the effect of motion was small. In conclusion, for the maximization of perceived three-dimensional information of holograms on conventional displays, it seems highly beneficial to use the combination of motion and stereoscopic presentation. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Enhancement of three-dimensional perception of numerical hologram reconstructions of real-world objects by motion and stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsänen, Risto; Colomb, Tristan; Emery, Yves; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the question of how the perception of three-dimensional information reconstructed numerically from digital holograms of real-world objects, and presented on conventional displays, depends on motion and stereoscopic presentation. Perceived depth in an adjustable random pattern stereogram was matched to the depth in hologram reconstructions. The objects in holograms were a microscopic biological cell and a macroscopic metal coil. For control, we used real physical objects in additional to hologram reconstructions of real objects. Stereoscopic presentation increased perceived depth substantially in comparison to non-stereoscopic presentation. When stereoscopic cues were weak or absent e.g. because of blur, motion increased perceived depth considerably. However, when stereoscopic cues were strong, the effect of motion was small. In conclusion, for the maximization of perceived three-dimensional information of holograms on conventional displays, it seems highly beneficial to use the combination of motion and stereoscopic presentation.

  20. Time-resolved three-dimensional pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging with ultrashort repetition time.

    PubMed

    Carr, James C; Laub, Gerhard; Zheng, Jie; Pereles, F Scott; Finn, J Paul

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement ultrafast, multiphase three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and perfusion imaging after bolus injection of contrast medium to generate preliminary validation of parameters in a pig model and to illustrate potential applications in patients with lung abnormalities. Five healthy volunteers, five patients, and three pigs underwent rapid, time-resolved pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging on a 1.5-T MR imager. All patients had undergone correlative computed tomographic or conventional angiography. The pulse sequence was a 3D spin-warp, gradient-echo acquisition with a repetition time of 1.6 msec and an echo time of 0.6 msec. Each 3D acquisition lasted 2-3 seconds, and 8-16 sequential measurements were made in each study. Artificial pulmonary emboli were generated in pigs with gelatin sponge. All patients had diseases of the pulmonary circulation (as confirmed with other studies). Multiphasic, time-resolved pulmonary parenchymal enhancement was demonstrated in all healthy subjects and animals. All segmental (n = 100) and subsegmental (n = 200) branches were identified in the healthy subjects. Perfusion deficits were clearly demonstrated in all pigs after gelatin embolization. Perfusion defects were identified in two patients with lung disease. Abnormalities of the pulmonary vasculature were clearly identified in the patient group. Dynamic time-resolved 3D pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging is feasible in humans as well as in animals. Induced perfusion deficits are identifiable after artificial embolization in pigs. Combined pulmonary MR angiography and parenchymal (perfusion) imaging may improve evaluation of the pulmonary circulation in a variety of conditions.

  1. Three-dimensional vision for real-time produce grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Donald G.; Mercer, Ken; Plaw, Colin; Ball, Ralph; Barraclough, Harvey

    2002-02-01

    Produce is often sold by weight, so one of the roles of the grading system is to allocate each item to a particular chute for packing into fixed weight bundles. Accurate, high- speed weight measurement is difficult and expensive, so machine vision is used to estimate the weight of each item. Previous estimations relied on a single diameter measurement, which resulted in large errors. To ensure that the minimum weight was provided, each bundle was on average 30% overweight. By improving the accuracy of the estimation, and combining this with an improved chute allocation strategy, significant savings can be made. The weight estimation in the system under development is based on the projected area of each item. The error in weight estimation was further improved by measuring the projected area from two perpendicular views. With the produce being sorted at a rate of 12 to 15 items per second, there are significant challenges in obtaining and processing the simultaneous perpendicular views of each item. The two views are captured of the item through the use of mirrors, and a third direct view is also obtained for quality grading purposes.

  2. Three-dimensional localization of fluorescent targets in turbid media using time reversal optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Gayen, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    An optical tomography approach for locating fluorescent targets embedded inside a turbid medium is introduced. It uses multi-source probing and multi-detector signal acquisition to collect diffuse fluorescence signal, and time reversal matrix formalism with subspace based signal processing for image reconstruction. It could provide three-dimensional position co-ordinates of two small fluorescent targets embedded in Intralipid-20% suspension of thickness ˜60 times the transport mean free path with an accuracy of ˜1 mm. Fast reconstruction and high spatial resolution make the approach potentially suited for detecting and locating contrast-enhanced breast tumor at early stages of growth.

  3. Nonlinear teleseismic tomography at Long Valley caldera, using three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, C.M.; Steck, L.K.; Dawson, P.B.

    1995-10-10

    The authors explore the impact of three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing on nonlinear teleseismic inversion. This problem has particular significance when trying to image strongly contrasting low-velocity bodies, such as magma chambers, because strongly refracted/and/or diffracted rays may precede the direct P wave arrival traditionally used in straight-ray seismic tomography. They use a simplex-based ray tracer to compute the three-dimensional, minimum travel time ray paths and employ an interative technique to cope with nonlinearity. Results from synthetic data show that their algorithm results in better model reconstructions compared with traditional straight-ray inversions. The authors reexamine the teleseismic data collected at Long Valley caldera by the U.S. Geological Survey. The most prominent feature of their result is a 25-30% low-velocity zone centered at 11.5 km depth beneath the northwestern quandrant of the caldera. Beneath this at a depth of 24.5 km is a more diffuse 15% low-velocity zone. In general, the low velocities tend to deepen to the south and east. The authors interpret the shallow feature to be the residual Long Valley caldera magma chamber, while the deeper feature may represent basaltic magmas ponded in the midcrust. The deeper position of the prominent low-velocity region in comparison to earlier tomographic images is a result of using three-dimensional rays rather than straight rays in the ray tracing. The magnitude of the low-velocity anomaly is a factor of {approximately}3 times larger than earlier models from linear arrival time inversions and is consistent with models based on observations of ray bending at sites within the caldera. These results imply the presence of anywhere from 7 to 100% partial melt beneath the caldera. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. [Simulation study of scan timing in three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography].

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Masaki; Ohgoshi, Yukio; Inoue, Tomoko; Naito, Kenichi; Yagishita, Yuhko; Tsai, Du-Yih

    2002-05-01

    In our study of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography, we performed a computer simulation to quantitatively investigate vessel visibility according to scan timing. To construct the simulated MR images, we varied the position (scan timing) and range (enhancement-duration) of k-space data assumed to be acquired during contrast enhancement. In the present study, either the sequential or centric phase-encoding order in k(y) and k(z) on k-space was assumed to be used. When scan timing was shifted from the optimal timing, the visibility of thick vessels decreased, and the signal intensity in thin vessels was higher than that in thick vessels. We found that the appropriate setting of scan timing was an important factor in the visibility of thick vessels. Meanwhile, we also noted that extending the enhancement-duration (or shortening the scan time) could increase the visibility of thin vessels. Our results and the simple technique used for simulation are considered to be useful for the study of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

  5. Time-of-flight compressed-sensing ultrafast photography for encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-02-01

    We applied compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, to acquire three-dimensional (3D) images. The approach unites image encryption, compression, and acquisition in a single measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data transmission. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light reflected by the object, we can reconstruct a volumetric image (150 mm×150 mm×1050 mm, x × y × z) from a single camera snapshot. Furthermore, we demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of a moving object at 75 frames per second using the ToF-CUP camera.

  6. Mode-resolved travel-time statistics for elastic rays in three-dimensional billiards.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A; Stringlo, K; Gorin, T

    2012-03-01

    We consider the ray limit of propagating ultrasound waves in three-dimensional bodies made from a homogeneous, isotropic, elastic material. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we simulate the propagation and proliferation of elastic rays using realistic angle-dependent reflection coefficients, taking into account mode conversion and ray splitting. For a few simple geometries, we analyze the long-time equilibrium distribution, focusing on the energy ratio between compressional and shear waves. Finally, we study the travel time statistics, i.e., the distribution of the amount of time a given trajectory spends as a compressional wave, as compared to the total travel time. These results are intimately related to recent elastodynamics experiments on Coda-wave interferometry by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. E 78, 066212 (2008)].

  7. Mass-transport deposits and the advantages of a real three-dimensional perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Wood, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    Mass-transport deposits (MTDs) form a significant component of the stratigraphic record in ancient and modern deepwater basins worldwide. However, the difficulties encountered when performing direct observations of these submarine units, the limited area covered by geophysical surveys acquired by research institutions, and the often surficial nature of seafloor data collected by federal agencies represent major hurdles in understanding submarine mass-movement dynamics. Three-dimensional seismic reflectivity imaging, drawn mainly from energy exploration in deepwater regions of the world, has allowed researchers to describe the architecture of MTDs at unprecedented spatial and temporal scales. In this talk, we present observations made using thousands of square kilometers of three-dimensional seismic data acquired by the oil and gas industry in offshore Trinidad, Morocco, and the Gulf of Mexico, where MTDs are a common occurrence in the stratigraphic record. Detailed mapping of MTD architecture has allowed us to better understand the role that MTDs have in continental-margin evolution. Morphometric data obtained from the mapping of MTDs is used to model tsunamigenic waves and their potential affect of coastal areas. The effect of low permeability MTDs on reservoir and aquifer fluid behavior has important implications, enhancing the economic importance of understanding the occurrence and distribution of these deposits. The recognition of MTD processes and morphology leads to new understanding of the processes possibly active in shaping other planets. Such analogs speak to a possible deepwater origin for features on Mars previously attributed to subaerial events. As industry-quality 3D seismic data become increasingly available to academic institutions, current studies become important bell weathers for future analysis of MTDs and processes in oceans of this planet and beyond.

  8. Time evolution of three-dimensional cellular systems: Computer modeling based on vertex-type models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazuhiro Fuchizaki; Kyozi Kawasaki

    1995-02-01

    An effective computer modeling of time evolution of three-dimensional cellular systems like soap froths and crystalline grain aggregates has been devised, which captures the essence of difficult correlation effects of neighboring cells. This can be achieved by eliminating the continuous degrees of freedom besides the immediate vicinity of the center of a singular region of space, that is, an intersection of interfaces from the original full-curvature drien equation of motion of interfaces, thus leaving a set of equations of motion for such intersections, i.e. vertices. To actually carry out this projection operation each interface is divided intoa set of two-dimensional simplexes. A derivation of the model equations is given in the most general possible form. Various results including topological characteristics of three-dimensional cellular patterns were obtained using the simpler version of these vertex equations, among which the result for the average growth rate of f-sided cells is presented. An application to some specific cellular systems is also discussed.

  9. Differential time domain method improves performance of pulsed laser ranging and three-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Hao, Qun; Cheng, Yang; Peng, Yuxin; Zhang, Kaiyu; Mu, Jiaxing; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-10

    A ranging method based on the differential time domain method (DTDM) is proposed in order to improve ranging accuracy and the range of active measurement based on peak discriminator (PD). We develop mathematical models and deduce that zero-crossing sensitivity is an important factor, which affects the ranging error of DTDM. Additionally, zero-crossing sensitivity is determined by delayed time. We carried out relative experiments and obtained the smallest ranging error when delayed time is receiving pulse width. We also compare ranging, three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and depth images based on two methods under same testing conditions. The results show that DTDM is beneficial in improving performance of pulse laser ranging and 3D imaging.

  10. Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Current Status and Real-Life Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Victor Chien-Chia; Takeuchi, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The use of cardiac ultrasound is fundamental to the understanding of normal heart function and crucial to pathophysiological diagnosis. The growing availability of 3D echocardiography (3DE) over the last decade has allowed its applications to expand from establishing reference values for chamber size and elucidating ventricular mechanics, to assessing valvular disease severity and playing pivotal roles in interventional procedures. Several important advantages of 3DE include eliminating geometric assumptions, quantifying complex geometric shape volumes, viewing structures from any perspective, assessing lesion in simultaneous multiplanes or multislice mode, all of which are not possible with traditional 2D echocardiography (2DE). Real-time 3DE has been shown to be simple, accurate, reproducible, and versatile, and generally has superior outcome prognosis compared to the 2DE. PMID:28344414

  11. Quasi-three-dimensional integration scheme using time-domain interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Koji

    2017-07-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional integration scheme involving time-domain interconnection (Q3D-TD) is proposed. By utilizing the time space as the third integration dimension, circuit functions can be integrated densely with a quasi-3D interconnect system, resulting in the decrease in critical path delay and the high operation speed of the circuit. As an example of the application of this concept in digital signal processing, multiple-layered 2D image averaging filters (8×8 pixels, 8 bit depth, and 3×3 core) are designed and evaluated. An average speedup of 10.2% is achieved by Q3D-TD for two-layer to eight-layer 2D image filters.

  12. Time domain computation of nonlinear diffraction loads upon three dimensional floating bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrant, P.

    1995-12-31

    The diffraction of nonlinear regular waves of permanent form by three dimensional bodies is simulated numerically. The computation is based on a boundary integral equation method, with a mixed Euler-Lagrange approach for the time-stepping. The method is an extension of a previously developed linear time domain computational model for free surface flows (Ferrant 1993b). The behavior of the nonlinear model has first been tested on radiation and diffraction problems for submerged bodies, with satisfactory results (Ferrant 1994). In the present paper, the author reports on the extension of this model to the diffraction of nonlinear waves upon surface piercing bodies. Some numerical results obtained in the case of a bottom-mounted vertical cylinder in water of finite depth are presented and discussed.

  13. The distribution of “time of flight” in three dimensional stationary chaotic advection

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Florence; Carrière, Philippe

    2015-04-15

    The distributions of “time of flight” (time spent by a single fluid particle between two crossings of the Poincaré section) are investigated for five different three dimensional stationary chaotic mixers. Above all, we study the large tails of those distributions and show that mainly two types of behaviors are encountered. In the case of slipping walls, as expected, we obtain an exponential decay, which, however, does not scale with the Lyapunov exponent. Using a simple model, we suggest that this decay is related to the negative eigenvalues of the fixed points of the flow. When no-slip walls are considered, as predicted by the model, the behavior is radically different, with a very large tail following a power law with an exponent close to −3.

  14. Interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs constructed from real- and ideal-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Leslie A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method of constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, th sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.

  15. Interferograms, Schlieren, and Shadowgraphs Constructed from Real- and Ideal-Gas, Two- and Three-Dimensional Computed Flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Leslie A.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method for constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, the sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.

  16. A three-dimensional, time-dependent model of Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. H.; Farmer, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-variant mathematical model for momentum and mass transport in estuaries was developed and its solution implemented on a digital computer. The mathematical model is based on state and conservation equations applied to turbulent flow of a two-component, incompressible fluid having a free surface. Thus, bouyancy effects caused by density differences between the fresh and salt water, inertia from thare river and tidal currents, and differences in hydrostatic head are taken into account. The conservation equations, which are partial differential equations, are solved numerically by an explicit, one-step finite difference scheme and the solutions displayed numerically and graphically. To test the validity of the model, a specific estuary for which scaled model and experimental field data are available, Mobile Bay, was simulated. Comparisons of velocity, salinity and water level data show that the model is valid and a viable means of simulating the hydrodynamics and mass transport in non-idealized estuaries.

  17. Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging.

    PubMed

    Velten, Andreas; Willwacher, Thomas; Gupta, Otkrist; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Bawendi, Moungi G; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-03-20

    The recovery of objects obscured by scattering is an important goal in imaging and has been approached by exploiting, for example, coherence properties, ballistic photons or penetrating wavelengths. Common methods use scattered light transmitted through an occluding material, although these fail if the occluder is opaque. Light is scattered not only by transmission through objects, but also by multiple reflection from diffuse surfaces in a scene. This reflected light contains information about the scene that becomes mixed by the diffuse reflections before reaching the image sensor. This mixing is difficult to decode using traditional cameras. Here we report the combination of a time-of-flight technique and computational reconstruction algorithms to untangle image information mixed by diffuse reflection. We demonstrate a three-dimensional range camera able to look around a corner using diffusely reflected light that achieves sub-millimetre depth precision and centimetre lateral precision over 40 cm×40 cm×40 cm of hidden space.

  18. Three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography of the uncompressed breast

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, Louise C.; Gibson, Adam P.; Everdell, Nicholas L.; Delpy, David T.; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon R.; Richardson, Caroline; Keshtgar, Mohammad; Douek, Michael; Hebden, Jeremy C

    2007-06-10

    Optical tomography is being developed as a means of detecting and specifying disease in the adult female breast. We present a series of clinical three-dimensional optical images obtained with a 32-channel time-resolvedsystem and a liquid-coupled interface. Patients place their breasts in a hemispherical cup to whichsources and detectors are coupled, and the remaining space is filled with a highly scattering fluid. Acohort of 38 patients has been scanned, with a variety of benign and malignant lesions. Images show that hypervascularization associated with tumors provides very high contrast due to increased absorption by hemoglobin. Only half of the fibroadenomas scanned could be observed, but of those that could bedetected, all but one revealed an apparent increase in blood volume and a decrease in scatter and oxygen saturation.

  19. Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Calculations Using the Modified Space-Time CESE Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-lyan

    2007-01-01

    The space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is modified to address the robustness issues of high-aspect-ratio, viscous, near-wall meshes. In this new approach, the dependent variable gradients are evaluated using element edges and the corresponding neighboring solution elements while keeping the original flux integration procedure intact. As such, the excellent flux conservation property is retained and the new edge-based gradients evaluation significantly improves the robustness for high-aspect ratio meshes frequently encountered in three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes calculations. The order of accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated for oblique acoustic wave propagation, shock-wave interaction, and hypersonic flows over a blunt body. The confirmed second-order convergence along with the enhanced robustness in handling hypersonic blunt body flow calculations makes the proposed approach a very competitive CFD framework for 3D Navier-Stokes simulations.

  20. Investigation and evaluation of a computer program to minimize three-dimensional flight time tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, F. I.

    1981-01-01

    The program for the DC 8-D3 flight planning was slightly modified for the three dimensional flight planning for DC 10 aircrafts. Several test runs of the modified program over the North Atlantic and North America were made for verifying the program. While geopotential height and temperature were used in a previous program as meteorological data, the modified program uses wind direction and speed and temperature received from the National Weather Service. A scanning program was written to collect required weather information from the raw data received in a packed decimal format. Two sets of weather data, the 12-hour forecast and 24-hour forecast based on 0000 GMT, are used for dynamic processes in testruns. In order to save computing time only the weather data of the North Atlantic and North America is previously stored in a PCF file and then scanned one by one.

  1. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-10-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium.

  2. Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Andreas; Willwacher, Thomas; Gupta, Otkrist; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-03-01

    The recovery of objects obscured by scattering is an important goal in imaging and has been approached by exploiting, for example, coherence properties, ballistic photons or penetrating wavelengths. Common methods use scattered light transmitted through an occluding material, although these fail if the occluder is opaque. Light is scattered not only by transmission through objects, but also by multiple reflection from diffuse surfaces in a scene. This reflected light contains information about the scene that becomes mixed by the diffuse reflections before reaching the image sensor. This mixing is difficult to decode using traditional cameras. Here we report the combination of a time-of-flight technique and computational reconstruction algorithms to untangle image information mixed by diffuse reflection. We demonstrate a three-dimensional range camera able to look around a corner using diffusely reflected light that achieves sub-millimetre depth precision and centimetre lateral precision over 40 cm×40 cm×40 cm of hidden space.

  3. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-10-27

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium.

  4. Wavelet compression of three-dimensional time-lapse biological image data.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, H Narfi; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Thomas, Charles F; Ron, Amos; DeVore, Ron; Sharpley, Robert; White, John G

    2005-02-01

    The use of multifocal-plane, time-lapse recordings of living specimens has allowed investigators to visualize dynamic events both within ensembles of cells and individual cells. Recordings of such four-dimensional (4D) data from digital optical sectioning microscopy produce very large data sets. We describe a wavelet-based data compression algorithm that capitalizes on the inherent redunancies within multidimensional data to achieve higher compression levels than can be obtained from single images. The algorithm will permit remote users to roam through large 4D data sets using communication channels of modest bandwidth at high speed. This will allow animation to be used as a powerful aid to visualizing dynamic changes in three-dimensional structures.

  5. Encrypted Three-dimensional Dynamic Imaging using Snapshot Time-of-flight Compressed Ultrafast Photography

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium. PMID:26503834

  6. Shape complexity of whole-field three-dimensional space-time fluid interfaces in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catrakis, Haris J.; Aguirre, Roberto C.; Ruiz-Plancarte, Jesus; Thayne, Robert D.

    2002-11-01

    A shape-complexity measure, Omega]d)([lambda, is proposed to quantify the behavior of turbulence-generated fluid interfaces in d dimensions as a function of scale lambda in terms of a generalized area-volume ratio. This shape complexity provides a dimensionless measure of the interfacial contributions at scales larger than or equal to lambda. This is useful, for example, to quantify the interfacial area in three dimensions or the contour length in two dimensions, facilitating a comparison of three-dimensional interfaces to two-dimensional interfacial transects. Application to mixed-fluid interfaces derived from three-dimensional approx10003 space-time measurements above the mixing transition in turbulent jets, at Reynolds number Reapprox20 000 and Schmidt number Scapprox2000, shows that both Omega]3)([lambda and Omega]2)([lambda increase continuously with decreasing scale and have scaling exponents alpha(sub Omega3) and alpha(sub Omega2) which depend on scale. It is argued that this scale dependence corresponds to the cumulative interfacial dynamics and structure. At intermediate scales, the shape-complexity exponent of the space-time interfaces is found to be larger in three dimensions compared to two dimensions, i.e., alpha(sub Omega]3))([lambda]>[alpha(sub Omega]2))([lambda, consistent with previous comparisons between two-dimensional and one-dimensional interfacial transects. This behavior is attributable to the relative contributions of large-scale folding and small-scale wrinkling to the interfacial shape complexity, and may be expected to be Reynolds-number and Schmidt-number dependent. The shape complexity Omega]d)([lambda provides a way to compare quantitatively the behavior of interfaces across the range of scales and in different dimensions, in a given flow or in different flows.

  7. Computer-generated holograms of a real three-dimensional object based on stereoscopic video images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Hwang, Dong-Choon; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2006-08-01

    A novel method of using stereoscopic video images to synthesize the computer-generated hologram (CGH) patterns of a real 3D object is proposed. Stereoscopic video images of a real 3D object are captured by a 3D camera system. Disparity maps between the captured stereo image pairs are estimated and from these estimated maps the depth data for each pixel of the object can be extracted on a frame basis. By using these depth data and original color images, hologram patterns of a real object can be computationally generated. In experiments, stereoscopic video images of a real 3D object, a wooden rhinoceros doll, are captured by using the Wasol 3D adapter system and its depth data are extracted from them. Then, CGH patterns of 1280 pixels x 1024 pixels are generated with these depth-annotated images of the wooden rhinoceros doll, and the CGH patterns are experimentally displayed via a holographic display system.

  8. Analysis and numerical simulation of a real cell merger using a three-dimensional cloud resolving model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacostas, T.; Spiridonov, V.; Bampzelis, D.; Pytharoulis, I.; Tegoulias, I.; Tymbanidis, K.

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional cloud resolving model is used to study a real cell merger case that occurred on 10 August, 2008 over north-central Greece, causing heavy rainfall, hailfall and high-frequency lightning. Firstly, the storm is observed, analyzed and recorded using a C-band weather radar. Secondly, three distinct simulations are performed using a cloud resolving model. An unseeded simulation, in order to test the ability of the model to reproduce the structural and evolutionary properties of the storm and two seeded simulations in which seeding occurred before and after cell merging. Reflectivity fields are analyzed, horizontally and vertically, at different simulation times. The 3-D numerical simulations suggest that the merger process occurred by two or three isolated single-cells and formed during their SW-NE motion. The merging process apparently alters dynamical and microphysical properties through low and middle level forcing; increases cloud diameters and cloud depths, producing more graupel and ice particles and increases radar reflectivity values. Processed radar images depict a similar view of the storm structure, evolution and interactions of such merging processes. The model calculated maximum radar reflectivity values coincide with the recorded ones. Results indicate that seeding the cloud before its merging produces more positive effects on hail suppression than seeding after merging. These findings are quite important, in order to document the value of the cloud resolving model and its capability to simulate and reproduce the realistic storm processes and to provide a better understanding of the cloud dynamical and microphysical features related to different seeding approaches.

  9. Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Mueller, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism's phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environment. Critical windows have typically been defined as comprising discrete periods in development with a distinct starting time and end time, as identified by experiments following an on and an off protocol. Yet in reality, periods of responsiveness during development are likely more ambiguous that depicted. Our goal is to extend the concept of the developmental critical window by introducing a three-dimensional construct in which time during development, dose of the stressor applied, and the resultant phenotypic modification can be utilized to more realistically define a critical window. Using the example of survival of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) during exposure to different salinity levels during development, we illustrate that it is not just stressor dose or exposure time but the interaction of these two factors that results in the measured phenotypic change, which itself may vary within a critical window. We additionally discuss a systems approach to critical windows, in which the components of a developing system--whether they be molecular, physiological, or morphological--may show differing responses with respect to time and dose. Thus, the plasticity of each component may contribute to a broader overall system response.

  10. Gender Differences in Object Location Memory in a Real Three-Dimensional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Tina; Sergi, Ida; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Gnisci, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate gender differences in object location memory. Our purpose is to extend the results about object location memory obtained in laboratory settings to a real 3-D environment and to further distinguish the specific components involved in this kind of memory by considering the strategies adopted to perform the…

  11. Gender Differences in Object Location Memory in a Real Three-Dimensional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Tina; Sergi, Ida; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Gnisci, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate gender differences in object location memory. Our purpose is to extend the results about object location memory obtained in laboratory settings to a real 3-D environment and to further distinguish the specific components involved in this kind of memory by considering the strategies adopted to perform the…

  12. Convergence of Time Averages of Weak Solutions of the Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foias, Ciprian; Rosa, Ricardo M. S.; Temam, Roger M.

    2015-08-01

    Using the concept of stationary statistical solution, which generalizes the notion of invariant measure, it is proved that, in a suitable sense, time averages of almost every Leray-Hopf weak solution of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations converge as the averaging time goes to infinity. This system of equations is not known to be globally well-posed, and the above result answers a long-standing problem, extending to this system a classical result from ergodic theory. It is also shown that, from a measure-theoretic point of view, the stationary statistical solution obtained from a generalized limit of time averages is independent of the choice of the generalized limit. Finally, any Borel subset of the phase space with positive measure with respect to a stationary statistical solution is such that for almost all initial conditions in that Borel set and for at least one Leray-Hopf weak solution starting with that initial condition, the corresponding orbit is recurrent to that Borel subset and its mean sojourn time within that Borel subset is strictly positive.

  13. A three-dimensional robust nonlinear terminal guidance law with ISS finite-time convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guilin; Ji, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional nonlinear terminal guidance law with finite-time convergence for intercepting manoeuvring targets. Different from the usual method of decoupling the missile-target relative motion into two-dimensional planes, this law is designed via using the coupled dynamics. The guidance law is derived based on the theory of finite-time input-to-state stability (ISS), which needs no assumption of the linearisation and the estimation of target accelerations. Under this law, the line-of-sight angular rates can be stabilised to a small domain of convergence around zero in finite time. The convergence rate and convergence domain can be adjusted by changing the guidance parameters. First, a sufficient condition on finite-time ISS of the guidance system is given, and is subsequently used to design the guidance law. Finally, simulation results are provided to show that the proposed guidance law possesses fast convergence rate and strong robustness to target manoeuvres.

  14. Holocinematographic velocimeter for measuring time-dependent, three-dimensional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, George B.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1987-06-01

    Two simulatneous, orthogonal-axis holographic movies are made of tracer particles in a low-speed water tunnel to determine the time-dependent, three-dimensional velocity field. This instrument is called a Holocinematographic Velocimeter (HCV). The holographic movies are reduced to the velocity field with an automatic data reduction system. This permits the reduction of large numbers of holograms (time steps) in a reasonable amount of time. The current version of the HCV, built for proof-of-concept tests, uses low-frame rate holographic cameras and a prototype of a new type of water tunnel. This water tunnel is a unique low-disturbance facility which has minimal wall effects on the flow. This paper presents the first flow field examined by the HCV, the two-dimensional von Karman vortex street downstream of an unswept circular cylinder. Key factors in the HCV are flow speed, spatial and temporal resolution required, measurement volume, film transport speed, and laser pulse length. The interactions between these factors are discussed.

  15. Holocinematographic velocimeter for measuring time-dependent, three-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, George B.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1987-01-01

    Two simulatneous, orthogonal-axis holographic movies are made of tracer particles in a low-speed water tunnel to determine the time-dependent, three-dimensional velocity field. This instrument is called a Holocinematographic Velocimeter (HCV). The holographic movies are reduced to the velocity field with an automatic data reduction system. This permits the reduction of large numbers of holograms (time steps) in a reasonable amount of time. The current version of the HCV, built for proof-of-concept tests, uses low-frame rate holographic cameras and a prototype of a new type of water tunnel. This water tunnel is a unique low-disturbance facility which has minimal wall effects on the flow. This paper presents the first flow field examined by the HCV, the two-dimensional von Karman vortex street downstream of an unswept circular cylinder. Key factors in the HCV are flow speed, spatial and temporal resolution required, measurement volume, film transport speed, and laser pulse length. The interactions between these factors are discussed.

  16. A multi-block infrastructure for three-dimensional time-dependent numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Ernst Nils; Tiglio, Manuel

    2006-08-01

    We describe a generic infrastructure for time evolution simulations in numerical relativity using multiple grid patches. After a motivation of this approach, we discuss the relative advantages of global and patch-local tensor bases. We describe both our multi-patch infrastructure and our time evolution scheme, and comment on adaptive time integrators and parallelization. We also describe various patch system topologies that provide spherical outer and/or multiple inner boundaries. We employ penalty inter-patch boundary conditions, and we demonstrate the stability and accuracy of our three-dimensional implementation. We solve both a scalar wave equation on a stationary rotating black hole background and the full Einstein equations. For the scalar wave equation, we compare the effects of global and patch-local tensor bases, different finite differencing operators and the effect of artificial dissipation onto stability and accuracy. We show that multi-patch systems can directly compete with the so-called fixed mesh refinement approach; however, one can also combine both. For the Einstein equations, we show that using multiple grid patches with penalty boundary conditions leads to a robustly stable system. We also show long-term stable and accurate evolutions of a one-dimensional nonlinear gauge wave. Finally, we evolve weak gravitational waves in three dimensions and extract accurate waveforms, taking advantage of the spherical shape of our grid lines.

  17. Finite-time vortex singularity and Kolmogorov spectrum in a symmetric three-dimensional spiral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Ng, C. S.; Wang, Xiaogang

    1995-11-01

    A recent analytical model of three-dimensional Euler flows [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2196 (1992)] which exhibits a finite-time vortex singularity is developed further. The initial state is symmetric and contains a velocity null (stagnation point) which is collinear with two vorticity nulls. Under some assumptions, it is shown by asymptotic analysis of the Euler equation that the vorticity blows up at the stagnation point as inverse time in a locally self-similar manner. The spatial structure of the inviscid flow in the vicinity of the singularity involves disparate small scales. The effect of a small but finite viscosity is shown to arrest the formation of the singularity. The presence of spiral structure in the initial conditions leads naturally to the model developed by Lundgren [Phys. Fluids 25, 2193 (1982)] in which the gradual tightening of spirals by differential rotation provides a mechanism for transfer of energy to small spatial scales. It is shown by asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equation, that a time-average over the lifetime of the spiral vortex in the present model yields the Kolmogorov spectrum.

  18. Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Neutron Diffraction in Transmission Mode for Mapping Crystal Grain Structures.

    PubMed

    Cereser, Alberto; Strobl, Markus; Hall, Stephen A; Steuwer, Axel; Kiyanagi, Ryoji; Tremsin, Anton S; Knudsen, Erik B; Shinohara, Takenao; Willendrup, Peter K; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Iyengar, Srinivasan; Larsen, Peter M; Hanashima, Takayasu; Moyoshi, Taketo; Kadletz, Peter M; Krooß, Philipp; Niendorf, Thomas; Sales, Morten; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Schmidt, Søren

    2017-08-25

    The physical properties of polycrystalline materials depend on their microstructure, which is the nano- to centimeter scale arrangement of phases and defects in their interior. Such microstructure depends on the shape, crystallographic phase and orientation, and interfacing of the grains constituting the material. This article presents a new non-destructive 3D technique to study centimeter-sized bulk samples with a spatial resolution of hundred micrometers: time-of-flight three-dimensional neutron diffraction (ToF 3DND). Compared to existing analogous X-ray diffraction techniques, ToF 3DND enables studies of samples that can be both larger in size and made of heavier elements. Moreover, ToF 3DND facilitates the use of complicated sample environments. The basic ToF 3DND setup, utilizing an imaging detector with high spatial and temporal resolution, can easily be implemented at a time-of-flight neutron beamline. The technique was developed and tested with data collected at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) for an iron sample. We successfully reconstructed the shape of 108 grains and developed an indexing procedure. The reconstruction algorithms have been validated by reconstructing two stacked Co-Ni-Ga single crystals, and by comparison with a grain map obtained by post-mortem electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

  19. A time accurate finite volume high resolution scheme for three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1989-01-01

    A time accurate, three-dimensional, finite volume, high resolution scheme for solving the compressible full Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The present derivation is based on the upwind split formulas, specifically with the application of Roe's (1981) flux difference splitting. A high-order accurate (up to the third order) upwind interpolation formula for the inviscid terms is derived to account for nonuniform meshes. For the viscous terms, discretizations consistent with the finite volume concept are described. A variant of second-order time accurate method is proposed that utilizes identical procedures in both the predictor and corrector steps. Avoiding the definition of midpoint gives a consistent and easy procedure, in the framework of finite volume discretization, for treating viscous transport terms in the curvilinear coordinates. For the boundary cells, a new treatment is introduced that not only avoids the use of 'ghost cells' and the associated problems, but also satisfies the tangency conditions exactly and allows easy definition of viscous transport terms at the first interface next to the boundary cells. Numerical tests of steady and unsteady high speed flows show that the present scheme gives accurate solutions.

  20. A time accurate finite volume high resolution scheme for three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1989-01-01

    A time accurate, three-dimensional, finite volume, high resolution scheme for solving the compressible full Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The present derivation is based on the upwind split formulas, specifically with the application of Roe's (1981) flux difference splitting. A high-order accurate (up to the third order) upwind interpolation formula for the inviscid terms is derived to account for nonuniform meshes. For the viscous terms, discretizations consistent with the finite volume concept are described. A variant of second-order time accurate method is proposed that utilizes identical procedures in both the predictor and corrector steps. Avoiding the definition of midpoint gives a consistent and easy procedure, in the framework of finite volume discretization, for treating viscous transport terms in the curvilinear coordinates. For the boundary cells, a new treatment is introduced that not only avoids the use of 'ghost cells' and the associated problems, but also satisfies the tangency conditions exactly and allows easy definition of viscous transport terms at the first interface next to the boundary cells. Numerical tests of steady and unsteady high speed flows show that the present scheme gives accurate solutions.

  1. Three-dimensional crustal structure for the Mendocino Triple Junction region from local earthquake travel times

    SciTech Connect

    Verdonck, D.; Zandt, G.

    1994-12-10

    The large-scale, three-dimensional geometry of the Mendocino Triple Junction at Cape Mendocino, California, was investigated by inverting nearly 19,000 P wave arrival times from over 1400 local earthquakes to estimate the three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocentral parameters. A velocity grid 175 km (N-S) by 125 km (E-W) centered near Garberville, California, was constructed with 25 km horizontal and 5 km vertical node spacing. The model was well resolved near Cape Mendocino, where the earthquakes and stations are concentrated. At about 40.6{degrees}N latitude a high-velocity gradient between 6.5 and 7.5 km/s dips gently to the south and east from about 15 km depth near the coast. Relocated hypocenters concentrate below this high gradient which the authors interpret as the oceanic crust of the subducted Gorda Plate. Therefore the depth to the top of the Gorda Plate near Cape Mendocino is interpreted to be {approximately} 15 km. The Gorda Plate appears intact and dipping {approximately}8{degrees} eastward due to subduction and flexing downward 6{degrees}-12{degrees} to the south. Both hypocenters and velocity structure suggest that the southern edge of the plate intersects the coastline at 40.3{degrees}N latitude and maintains a linear trend 15{degrees} south of east to at least 123{degrees}W longitude. The top of a large low-velocity region at 20-30 km depth extends about 50 km N-S and 75 km E-W (roughly between Garberville and Covelo) and is located above and south of the southern edge of the Gorda Plate. The authors interpret this low velocity area to be locally thickened crust (8-10 km) due to either local compressional forces associated with north-south compression caused by the northward impingement of the rigid Pacific Plate or by underthrusting of the base of the accretionary subduction complex at the southern terminous of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. 66 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Simulations of time-dependent three-dimensional vortices with application to Neptune's Great Dark Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeau, Raymond Paul, Jr.

    We use the EPIC atmospheric: model, a primitive-equation, isentropic-coordinate GCM, to simulate time-dependent vortices under conditions similar to those found on Neptune. The vortices have roughly elliptical cross- sections and exhibit motions that resemble the behavior of Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS), including equatorward drift, nutating oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation angle, and quasi-periodic tail formation. The simulated vortices also exhibit complex, three- dimensional motions that may explain the occasional appearance of the GDS as two overlapping ellipses. We find that the meridional drift of the vortices is strongly correlated with the meridional gradient of the environmental potential vorticity, β*. This result complements related studies of hurricane motions. The correlation suggests that the drift rate of GDS-type vortices on Neptune, which can be monitored over the long term by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is diagnostic of the vorticity gradient on the planet. The best fit to the Voyager GDS drift rate in our simulations corresponds to β*/approx2×10-12/ m-1s- 1. This is about 1/3 of the value given by the zonal- wind profile of Sromovsky et al. (1993), determined by fitting a polynomial in latitude to the cloud-tracking data. We calculate new fit to the same data using Legendre polynomials (spherical harmonics), which yields a significantly lower value for β*, more in line with our vortex-drift results. We show that vortex shape oscillations occur both in cases of zero background potential-vorticity gradient, corresponding to the conditions in analytical Kida-type models of oscillating vortices, and in cases of non-zero background gradient, corresponding to conditions that have not yet been investigated analytically. While the shape oscillations are qualitatively Kida-like, in detail they are distinctly different, suggesting that existing theory may not be sufficient to describe non-uniform, three- dimensional vortices. We

  3. Metamorphosis revealed: time-lapse three-dimensional imaging inside a living chrysalis

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tristan; Garwood, Russell J.; Simonsen, Thomas J.; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding of animal development. Yet, they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such as histology and dissection, which can preclude quantitative analysis and do not allow the development of a single individual to be followed. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) to overcome these issues, and three-dimensionally image numerous lepidopteran pupae throughout their development. The resulting models are presented in the electronic supplementary material, as are figures and videos, documenting a single individual throughout development. They provide new insight and details of lepidopteran metamorphosis, and allow the measurement of tracheal and gut volume. Furthermore, this study demonstrates early and rapid development of the tracheae, which become visible in scans just 12 h after pupation. This suggests that there is less remodelling of the tracheal system than previously expected, and is methodologically important because the tracheal system is an often-understudied character system in development. In the future, this form of time-lapse CT-scanning could allow faster and more detailed developmental studies on a wider range of taxa than is presently possible. PMID:23676900

  4. Comprehensive Three-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nathanial E; Bahaghighat, H Daniel; Cui, Ke; Synovec, Robert E

    2017-02-07

    Development of comprehensive, three-dimensional (3D) gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC(3)/TOFMS) is described. This instrument provides four dimensions (4D) of chemical selectivity and includes significant improvements to total selectivity (mass spectrometric and chromatographic), peak identification, and operational temperature range relative to previous models of the GC(3) reported. The new instrumental design and data output are evaluated and illustrated via two samples, a 115-component test mixture and a diesel fuel spiked with several compounds, for the purpose of illustrating the chemical selectivity benefits of this instrumental platform. Useful approaches to visualize the 4D data are presented. The GC(3)/TOFMS instrument experimentally achieved total peak capacity, nc,3D, ranging from 5000 to 9600 (x̅ = 7000, s = 1700) for 10 representative analytes for 50 min separations with component dimensional peak capacities averaging 406, 3.6, and 4.9 for (1)D, (2)D, and (3)D, respectively. Particularly, GC(3)/TOFMS achieved a combined (2)D × (3)D peak capacity ranging from 10 to 26 (x̅ = 17.6, s = 5.0), which is similar to what is achieved by (2)D alone in a GC × GC operating at equivalent modulation period conditions. The analytical benefits of employing three varied chemical selectivities in the 3D separation coupled with TOFMS are illustrated through the separation and detection of 1,6-dichlorohexane and cyclohexyl isothiocyanate as part of the diesel fuel analysis.

  5. Three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a regenerative amplifier free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, H. P.; Nguyen, D. C.; Sprangle, P. A.; van der Slot, P. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Free-electron lasers have been designed to operate over virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum from microwaves through x rays and in a variety of configurations including amplifiers and oscillators. Oscillators typically operate in the low-gain regime where the full spectral width is (Δω/ω)≈1/Nw and the efficiency η≈1/(2.4Nw). Further, since a low-gain oscillator saturates when the gain compensates for losses in the resonator G=L/(1-L), this implies that the losses must be relatively small and the cavity Q must be relatively large. This imposes problems for high power oscillators because the high Q can result in mirror loading above the damage threshold, and in short-wavelength oscillators because sufficiently low loss resonators may not be possible at x-ray wavelengths. In contrast, regenerative amplifier FELs (RAFELs) employ high-gain wigglers that reach exponential gain and can operate with high loss (i.e., low Q) resonators. As such, RAFELs may be able to function at either high power levels or short wavelengths. In this paper, we describe a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a RAFEL operating at a 2.2-μm wavelength, and show that its behavior differs substantially from that of low-gain oscillators, and is closer to that of self-amplified spontaneous radiation FELs in regard to spectral linewidth and extraction efficiency.

  6. Short T2 contrast with three-dimensional ultrashort echo time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Bydder, Mark; Takahashi, Atsushi M.; Carl, Michael; Chung, Christine B.; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in imaging short T2 species which show little or no signal with conventional magnetic resonance (MR) pulse sequences. In this paper, we describe the use of three-dimensional ultrashort echo time (3D UTE) sequences with TEs down to 8 μs for imaging of these species. Image contrast was generated with acquisitions using dual echo 3D UTE with echo subtraction, dual echo 3D UTE with rescaled subtraction, long T2 saturation 3D UTE, long T2 saturation dual echo 3D UTE with echo subtraction, single adiabatic inversion recovery 3D UTE, single adiabatic inversion recovery dual echo 3D UTE with echo subtraction and dual adiabatic inversion recovery 3D UTE. The feasibility of using these approaches was demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo imaging of calcified cartilage, aponeuroses, menisci, tendons, ligaments and cortical bone with a 3-T clinical MR scanner. Signal-to-noise ratios and contrast-to-noise ratios were used to compare the techniques. PMID:21440400

  7. Intracranial aneurysms: Diagnostics accuracy of three-dimensional, fourier transform, time-of-flight MR angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Korogi, Yukunori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Miki, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Nakagawa, Toshio; O`Uchi, Toshihiro; Watabe, Tsuneya; Shiga, Hayao

    1994-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of three-dimensional, Fourier transform, time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the identification of intracranial aneurysms. MR angiograms of 126 patients (59 male and 67 female patients, aged 12-77 years) with various intracranial vascular lesions were evaluated. Seventy-eight aneurysms, including 60 less than 5 mm in diameter, in 61 patients were depicted at conventional angiography. Eight projection images, as well as one axial collapsed MR angiogram obtained with a maximum-intensity projection algorithm, were used for evaluation. Sensitivity for the five observers ranged from 58% to 68% (mean, 63%). Higher sensitivity was achieved for anterior communicating and middle cerebral artery aneurysms, while that for internal carotid artery aneurysms was poor. Sensitivities for small and medium aneurysms ranged from 50% to 60% (mean, 56%) and from 77% to 94% (mean, 85%), respectively. MR angiography can depict intracranial aneurysms 5 mm or larger with good accuracy but is less useful for the identification of smaller aneurysms. 12 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Extracting Surface Activation Time from the Optically Recorded Action Potential in Three-Dimensional Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Richard D.; Smith, Rebecca M.; Mitrea, Bogdan G.; White, Edward; Bernus, Olivier; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical mapping has become an indispensible tool for studying cardiac electrical activity. However, due to the three-dimensional nature of the optical signal, the optical upstroke is significantly longer than the electrical upstroke. This raises the issue of how to accurately determine the activation time on the epicardial surface. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between the optical upstroke and exact surface activation time using computer simulations, with subsequent validation by a combination of microelectrode recordings and optical mapping experiments. To simulate wave propagation and associated optical signals, we used a hybrid electro-optical model. We found that the time of the surface electrical activation (tE) within the accuracy of our simulations coincided with the maximal slope of the optical upstroke (tF∗) for a broad range of optical attenuation lengths. This was not the case when the activation time was determined at 50% amplitude (tF50) of the optical upstroke. The validation experiments were conducted in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and coronary-perfused pig left ventricles stained with either di-4-ANEPPS or the near-infrared dye di-4-ANBDQBS. We found that tF∗ was a more accurate measure of tE than was tF50 in all experimental settings tested (P = 0.0002). Using tF∗ instead of tF50 produced the most significant improvement in measurements of the conduction anisotropy and the transmural conduction time in pig ventricles. PMID:22225795

  9. Field Line Resonances in Quiet and Disturbed Time Three-dimensional Magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng; S. Zaharia

    2002-05-30

    Numerical solutions for field line resonances (FLR) in the magnetosphere are presented for three-dimensional equilibrium magnetic fields represented by two Euler potentials as B = -j Y -a, where j is the poloidal flux and a is a toroidal angle-like variable. The linearized ideal-MHD equations for FLR harmonics of shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are solved for plasmas with the pressure assumed to be isotropic and constant along a field line. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the slow magnetosonic waves is via the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations are obtained for a quiet time magnetosphere as well as a disturbed time magnetosphere with a thin current sheet in the near-Earth region. The FLR frequency spectra in the equatorial plane as well as in the auroral latitude are presented. The field line length, magnetic field intensity, plasma beta, geodesic curvature and pressure gradient in the poloidal flux surface are important in determining the FLR frequencies. In general, the computed shear Alfvin FLR frequency based on the full MHD model is larger than that based on the commonly adopted cold plasma model in the beq > 1 region. For the quiet time magnetosphere, the shear Alfvin resonance frequency decreases monotonically with the equatorial field line distance, which reasonably explains the harmonically structured continuous spectrum of the azimuthal magnetic field oscillations as a function of L shell in the L is less than or equal to 9RE region. However, the FLR frequency spectrum for the disturbed time magnetosphere with a near-Earth thin current sheet is substantially different from that for the quiet time magnetosphere for R > 6RE, mainly due to shorter field line length due to magnetic field compression by solar wind, reduced magnetic field intensity in the high-beta current sheet region, azimuthal pressure gradient, and geodesic magnetic field

  10. [Optimization of Three-dimensional Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging at a Low Field].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuli; Du, Yiping

    2015-12-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) pulse sequences typically have an echo time (TE) of 1 ms or longer, providing an excellent contrast between different soft tissues. However, some short T2 tissues appear dark in conventional MR images because the signal from these tissues has decayed to nearly zero before the center of k-space is acquired. Because of the ability of directly imaging short T2 tissues, ultrashort echo time technique has been widely studied in recent years. An overwhelming majority of the studies were carried out at high fields, while many low- field scanner systems are still used in developing countries. To investigate the effects of the delay between analog-to-digital converter sampling and the readout gradient, the TE of the second echo used to calculate the R2 * map, and the undersampling ratio on the results of three-dimensional (3D) ultrashort echo time imaging at a low field, we implemented a 3D ultrashort echo time sequence on a 0. 35T scanner. Different parameters were used and the reconstructed images and R2 * maps were compared. Images reconstructed with slightly varying delays appeared quite different. Different contrast between short and long T2 tissues were found in R2 * maps calculated with different echoes. The result of undersampling study indicated that excessive undersampling could cause unwanted blurring, making it difficult to better visualize the short T2 tissues in the R2 * map. The results suggested that cautions should be taken in the choice of these parameters in 3D ultrashort echo time imaging. Short T2 tissues can be visualized with appropriate imaging parameters at this low field.

  11. Three-dimensional discrete-time Lotka-Volterra models with an application to industrial clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischi, G. I.; Tramontana, F.

    2010-10-01

    We consider a three-dimensional discrete dynamical system that describes an application to economics of a generalization of the Lotka-Volterra prey-predator model. The dynamic model proposed is used to describe the interactions among industrial clusters (or districts), following a suggestion given by [23]. After studying some local and global properties and bifurcations in bidimensional Lotka-Volterra maps, by numerical explorations we show how some of them can be extended to their three-dimensional counterparts, even if their analytic and geometric characterization becomes much more difficult and challenging. We also show a global bifurcation of the three-dimensional system that has no two-dimensional analogue. Besides the particular economic application considered, the study of the discrete version of Lotka-Volterra dynamical systems turns out to be a quite rich and interesting topic by itself, i.e. from a purely mathematical point of view.

  12. A California statewide three-dimensional seismic velocity model from both absolute and differential times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, G.; Thurber, C.H.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.M.; Waldhauser, F.; Brocher, T.M.; Hardebeck, J.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain a seismic velocity model of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin by using absolute arrival-time picks to solve for a coarse three-dimensional (3D) P velocity (VP) model with a uniform 30 km horizontal node spacing, which we then use as the starting model for a finer-scale inversion using double-difference tomography applied to absolute and differential pick times. For computational reasons, we split the state into 5 subregions with a grid spacing of 10 to 20 km and assemble our final statewide VP model by stitching together these local models. We also solve for a statewide S-wave model using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model based on the VP results and a VP=VS ratio of 1.732. Our new model has improved areal coverage compared with previous models, extending 570 km in the SW-NE directionand 1320 km in the NW-SE direction. It also extends to greater depth due to the inclusion of substantial data at large epicentral distances. Our VP model generally agrees with previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, but we also observe some new features, such as high-velocity anomalies at shallow depths in the Klamath Mountains and Mount Shasta area, somewhat slow velocities in the northern Coast Ranges, and slow anomalies beneath the Sierra Nevada at midcrustal and greater depths. This model can be applied to a variety of regional-scale studies in California, such as developing a unified statewide earthquake location catalog and performing regional waveform modeling.

  13. Simulations of Time-Dependent Three-Dimensional Vortices with Application to Neptune's Great Dark SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeau, R. P.; Dowling, T. E.

    1997-07-01

    We use the EPIC atmospheric model, a primitive-equation, isentropic-coordinate GCM, to simulate time-dependent vortices under conditions similar to those found on Neptune. The vortices have roughly elliptical cross-sections and exhibit motions that resemble the behavior of Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS), including equatorward drift, nutating oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation angle, and quasi-periodic tail formation. The simulated vortices also exhibit complex, three-dimensional motions that may explain the occasional appearance of the GDS as two overlapping ellipses. We find that the meridional drift of the vortices is strongly correlated with the meridional gradient of the environmental potential vorticity, beta (*) . The correlation suggests that the drift rate of GDS-type vortices on Neptune, which can be monitored over the long term by the Hubble Space Telescope, is diagnostic of the vorticity gradient on the planet. The best fit to the Voyager GDS drift rate in our simulations corresponds to beta (*) ~ 2 x 10(-12) m(-1) s(-1) . This is about 1/3 of the value given by the zonal-wind profile of Sromovsky et\\ al. (1993), determined by fitting a polynomial in latitude to the cloud-tracking data. We calculate a new fit to the same data using Legendre polynomials (spherical harmonics), which yields a significantly lower value for beta (*) in the mid-latitudes. We show that vortex shape oscillations occur both in cases of zero background potential-vorticity gradient, corresponding to the conditions in analytical Kida-type models of oscillating vortices, and in cases of non-zero background gradient, corresponding to conditions that have not yet been investigated analytically. While the shape oscillations are qualitatively Kida-like, in detail they are distinctly different. We also use the EPIC model to examine the demise of GDS-type vortices that drift too close to the equator.

  14. Three dimensional spatial memory and learning in real and virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Oman, Charles M; Shebilske, Wayne L; Richards, Jason T; Tubre, Travis C; Beall, Andrew C; Natapoff, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Human orientation and spatial cognition partly depends on our ability to remember sets of visual landmarks and imagine their relationship to us from a different viewpoint. We normally make large body rotations only about a single axis which is aligned with gravity. However, astronauts who try to recognize environments rotated in 3 dimensions report that their terrestrial ability to imagine the relative orientation of remembered landmarks does not easily generalize. The ability of human subjects to learn to mentally rotate a simple array of six objects around them was studied in 1-G laboratory experiments. Subjects were tested in a cubic chamber (n = 73) and a equivalent virtual environment (n = 24), analogous to the interior of a space station node module. A picture of an object was presented at the center of each wall. Subjects had to memorize the spatial relationships among the six objects and learn to predict the direction to a specific object if their body were in a specified 3D orientation. Percent correct learning curves and response times were measured. Most subjects achieved high accuracy from a given viewpoint within 20 trials, regardless of roll orientation, and learned a second view direction with equal or greater ease. Performance of the subject group that used a head mounted display/head tracker was qualitatively similar to that of the second group tested in a physical node simulator. Body position with respect to gravity had a significant but minor effect on performance of each group, suggesting that results may also apply to weightless situations. A correlation was found between task performance measures and conventional paper-and-pencil tests of field independence and 2&3 dimensional figure rotation ability.

  15. Analysis of contact stiffness in ultrasound atomic force microscopy: three-dimensional time-dependent ultrasound modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Daniele; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound atomic force microscopy (US-AFM) has been used for subsurface imaging of nanostructures. The contact stiffness variations have been suggested as the origin of the image contrast. Therefore, to analyze the image contrast, the local changes in the contact stiffness due to the presence of subsurface features should be calculated. So far, only static simulations have been conducted to analyze the local changes in the contact stiffness and, consequently, the contrast in US-AFM. Such a static approach does not fully represent the real US-AFM experiment, where an ultrasound wave is launched either into the sample or at the tip, which modulates the contact stiffness. This is a time-dependent nonlinear dynamic problem rather than a static and stationary one. This paper presents dynamic 3D ultrasound analysis of contact stiffness in US-AFM (in contrast to static analysis) to realistically predict the changes in contact stiffness and thus the changes in the subsurface image contrast. The modulation frequency also influences the contact stiffness variations and, thus, the image contrast. The three-dimensional time-dependent ultrasound analysis will greatly aid in the contrast optimization of subsurface nano imaging with US-AFM.

  16. Investigation of storm time magnetotail and ion injection using three-dimensional global hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, X. Y.; Lu, S.; Perez, J. D.; Lu, Q.

    2014-09-01

    Dynamics of the near-Earth magnetotail associated with substorms during a period of extended southward interplanetary magnetic field is studied using a three-dimensional (3-D) global hybrid simulation model that includes both the dayside and nightside magnetosphere, for the first time, with physics from the ion kinetic to the global Alfvénic convection scales. It is found that the dayside reconnection leads to the penetration of the dawn-dusk electric field through the magnetopause and thus a thinning of the plasma sheet, followed by the magnetotail reconnection with 3-D, multiple flux ropes. Ion kinetic physics is found to play important roles in the magnetotail dynamics, which leads to the following results: (1) Hall electric fields in the thin current layer cause a systematic dawnward ion drift motion and thus a dawn-dusk asymmetry of the plasma sheet with a higher (lower) density on the dawnside (duskside). Correspondingly, more reconnection occurs on the duskside. Bidirectional fast ions are generated due to acceleration in reconnection, and more high-speed earthward flow injections are found on the duskside than the dawnside. Such finding of the dawn-dusk asymmetry is consistent with recent satellite observations. (2) The injected ions undergo the magnetic gradient and curvature drift in the dipole-like field, forming a ring current. (3) Ion particle distributions reveal multiple populations/beams at various distances in the tail. (4) Dipolarization of the tail magnetic field takes place due to the pileup of the injected magnetic fluxes and thermal pressure of injected ions, where the fast earthward flow is stopped. Oscillation of the dipolarization front is developed at the fast-flow braking, predominantly on the dawnside. (5) Kinetic compressional wave turbulence is present around the dipolarization front. The cross-tail currents break into small-scale structures with k⟂ρi˜1, where k⟂ is the perpendicular wave number. A sharp dip of magnetic field

  17. Time-accurate anisotropic mesh adaptation for three-dimensional time-dependent problems with body-fitted moving geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, N.; Olivier, G.; Alauzet, F.

    2017-02-01

    Anisotropic metric-based mesh adaptation has proved its efficiency to reduce the CPU time of steady and unsteady simulations while improving their accuracy. However, its extension to time-dependent problems with body-fitted moving geometries is far from straightforward. This paper establishes a well-founded framework for multiscale mesh adaptation of unsteady problems with moving boundaries. This framework is based on a novel space-time analysis of the interpolation error, within the continuous mesh theory. An optimal metric field, called ALE metric field, is derived, which takes into account the movement of the mesh during the adaptation. Based on this analysis, the global fixed-point adaptation algorithm for time-dependent simulations is extended to moving boundary problems, within the range of body-fitted moving meshes and ALE simulations. Finally, three dimensional adaptive simulations with moving boundaries are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  18. Pulmonary Embolism Detection with Three-dimensional Ultrashort Echo Time MR Imaging: Experimental Study in Canines

    PubMed Central

    Bannas, Peter; Bell, Laura C.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Schiebler, Mark L.; François, Christopher J.; Motosugi, Utaroh; Consigny, Daniel; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) radial ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the simultaneous detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) and high-quality evaluation of lung parenchyma. Materials and Methods The institutional animal care committee approved this study. A total of 12 beagles underwent MR imaging and computed tomography (CT) before and after induction of PE with autologous clots. Breath-hold 3D MR angiography and free-breathing 3D radial UTE (1.0-mm isotropic spatial resolution; echo time, 0.08 msec) were performed at 3 T. Two blinded radiologists independently marked and graded all PEs on a four-point scale (1 = low confidence, 4 = absolutely certain) on MR angiographic and UTE images. Image quality of pulmonary arteries and lung parenchyma was scored on a four-point-scale (1 = poor, 4 = excellent). Locations and ratings of emboli were compared with reference standard CT images by using an alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curve (AFROC) method. Areas under the curve and image quality ratings were compared by using the F test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results A total of 48 emboli were detected with CT. Both readers showed higher sensitivity for PE detection with UTE (83% and 79%) than with MR angiography (75% and 71%). The AFROC area under the curve was higher for UTE than for MR angiography (0.95 vs 0.89), with a significant difference in area under the curve of 0.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.01, 0.11; P = .018). UTE image quality exceeded that of MR angiography for subsegmental arteries (3.5 ± 0.7 vs 2.9 ± 0.5, P = .002) and lung parenchyma (3.8 ± 0.5 vs 2.2 ± 0.2, P < .001). The apparent signal-to-noise ratio in pulmonary arteries and lung parenchyma was significantly higher for UTE than for MR angiography (41.0 ± 5.2 vs 24.5 ± 6.2 [P < .001] and 10.2 ± 1.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.8 [P < .001], respectively). The apparent contrast-to-noise ratio between

  19. Time-of-arrival mapping at three-dimensional time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Stephen J; Haider, Clifton R; Borisch, Eric A

    2009-11-01

    This study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved, and informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. The authors describe a method for generating a time-of-arrival (TOA) map of intravenously administered contrast material, as observed in a time series of three-dimensional (3D) contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiograms. The method may enable visualization and interpretation, on one 3D image, of the temporal enhancement patterns that occur in the vasculature. Colorization of TOA values may further aid interpretation. The quality of the results depends not only on the adequacy of the frame rate, spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio of the MR image acquisition method but also on the accuracy and clarity with which the leading edge of the contrast material bolus is depicted. The criteria for optimizing these parameters are described. The TOA mapping technique is demonstrated by using vascular studies of the hands, brain, and lower leg regions.

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of time varying tuft behavior by its successive geometric shape modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Junta; Miyake, Tetsuo

    A tuft in the air flow was observed by three CCD video cameras which were installed in the directions nearly perpendicular to each other. In this procedure, a tufted woolen yarn of the diameter of about 1 mm and of the length of 35 mm was attached on the top of a thin post pin. The principle of this shape modeling is based on the intersection of multiple viewing cones. This intersected zone results in a polyhedron when the digital image is used. It becomes a good approximation of the original shape when it is convex. This polyhedron is described with spatially fixed coordinates, so that not only its spatial shape, but also the position, direction, deformation, or fluttering at the every moment can be estimated. From this modeling, the effect of rigidity due to adhesives near the fixed end and a few millimeters of three-dimensional displacement at the free end are observed. This method is capable to serve for measurement and analysis of a single tuft characteristics, depending on its material, kind of fluid, or flow range, and has the possibility of quantitative analysis of three-dimensional unsteady flow visualization.

  1. Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Shin-Yee

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.

  2. Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Lu, S.Y.

    1998-12-22

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.

  3. On the onset of three-dimensionality and time-dependence in the Goertler vortex problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Mackerrell, Sharon

    1987-01-01

    The instability of large amplitude Goertler vortices in a growing boundary layer is discussed in the fully nonlinear regime. It is shown that a three-dimensional breakdown to a flow with wavy vortex boundaries similar to that which occurs in the Taylor vortex problem takes place. However, the instability is confined to the thin shear layers which have been shown to trap the region of vortex activity. The disturbance eigenfunctions decay exponentially away from the center of these layers so that the upper and lower shear layers can support independent modes of instability. The structure of the instability, in particular its location and speed of downstream propagation, is found to be entirely consistent with recent experimental results. Furthermore, it is shown that the upper and lower layers support wavy vortex instabilities with quite different frequencies. This result is again consistent with the available experimental observations.

  4. A note concerning the onset of three dimensionality and time dependence in Goertler vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassom, Andrew P.; Seddougui, Sharon O.

    1989-01-01

    Recently Hall and Seddougui (1989) considered the secondary instability of large amplitude Goertler vortices in a growing boundary layer evolving into a three-dimensional flow with wavy vortex boundaries. They obtained a pair of coupled, linear ordinary differential equations for this instability which constituted an eigenproblem for the wavelength and frequency of this wavy mode. Investigations into the nonlinear version of this problem by Seddougui and Bassom have revealed several omissions in the numerical work of Hall and Seddougui. These issues are addressed in this note. In particular, it is found that many neutrally stable modes are possible. The properties of such modes are derived in a high wavenumber limit and it is shown that the combination of the results of Hall and Seddougui and the modifications made here lead to conclusions which are consistent with the available experimental observations.

  5. Three dimensional time lapse imaging of live cell mitochondria with photothermal optical lock-in optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sison, Miguel; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Extermann, Jerome; Nahas, Amir; Pache, Christophe; Weil, Tanja; Lasser, Theo

    2016-03-01

    The photothermal optical lock-in optical coherence microscope (poli-OCM) introduced molecular specificity to OCM imaging, which is conventionally, a label-free technique. Here we achieve three-dimensional live cell and mitochondria specific imaging using ~4nm protein-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These nanoparticles do not photobleach and we demonstrate they're suitability for long-term time lapse imaging. We compare the accuracy of labelling with these AuNPs using classical fluorescence confocal imaging with a standard mitochondria specific marker. Furthermore, time lapse poli-OCM imaging every 5 minutes over 1.5 hours period was achieved, revealing the ability for three-dimensional monitoring of mitochondria dynamics.

  6. Three-Dimensional, Finite-Difference, Time-Domain Modeling of Local Volcano Infrasound Radiation Using GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Lees, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Since volcano infrasound is a direct measure of atmospheric pressure fluctuation near open-vent activity, it can provide important constraints on eruption source parameters including the volume of gas released and eruption velocity. Local infrasound data (<15 Km) have been used to quantify and characterize acoustic sources of volcanic eruptions since they are relatively less affected by atmospheric velocity structures in the near field. The interaction of volcano infrasound sources and complex topography near the volcanic edifice, however, has not been fully explored. Infrasound observations from world-wide volcanoes and two-dimensional numerical modeling of infrasound radiation in the vicinity of the crater suggest a strong distortion of the wavefield by local topography [Kim and Lees, GRL, 2011]. To get a complete picture of these effects, however, full three-dimensional modeling is required. We have developed a new, accelerated, 3D finite-difference time-domain program using GPU (Grpahic Processing Units) to simulate local infrasound propagation near volcanoes, while taking into account complex topography, local wind distortion, and atmospheric sound velocity structures. While CPU-based 3D FDTD method requires a prohibitive amount of computational resources, GPU-based algorithms significantly reduce the computational time of infrasound modeling, making parallel processing practical even on a desktop computer. In these simulations we provide a comprehensive solution of volcano infrasound radiation assuming different acoustic sources and real volcano topography. We illustrate the interaction of local vent topography and difference acoustic sources and how they combine to affect the infrasound wavefield. By removing topographic effects from local infrasound observation we can begin to quantitatively model acoustic sources and finally establish the partitioning of energy, at the vent, between the acoustic and seismic wavefields.

  7. Three-dimensional, time-dependent, MHD model of a solar flare-generated interplanetary shock wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, M.; Wu, S. T.; Han, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    A three-dimensional time-dependent MHD model of the propagation of an interplanetary shock wave into an ambient three-dimensional heliospheric solar wind is initialized with a peak velocity of 1000 km/s at the center of a right circular cone of 18 deg included angle at 18 solar radii. Differences from a previous 2-1/2 simulation (Wu et al., 1983; Gislason et al., 1984; Dryer et al., 1984) include diminuation of the solar peak velocity and concentration of the peak density at each radius. The IMF magnitude starts with high-latitude peaks, and helical-like IMF rotation is noted due to a large-amplitude nonlinear Alfven wave in the shocked plasma.

  8. Three-dimensional time-dependent computer modeling of the electrothermal atomizers for analytical spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsivilskiy, I. V.; Nagulin, K. Yu.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2016-02-01

    A full three-dimensional nonstationary numerical model of graphite electrothermal atomizers of various types is developed. The model is based on solution of a heat equation within solid walls of the atomizer with a radiative heat transfer and numerical solution of a full set of Navier-Stokes equations with an energy equation for a gas. Governing equations for the behavior of a discrete phase, i.e., atomic particles suspended in a gas (including gas-phase processes of evaporation and condensation), are derived from the formal equations molecular kinetics by numerical solution of the Hertz-Langmuir equation. The following atomizers test the model: a Varian standard heated electrothermal vaporizer (ETV), a Perkin Elmer standard THGA transversely heated graphite tube with integrated platform (THGA), and the original double-stage tube-helix atomizer (DSTHA). The experimental verification of computer calculations is carried out by a method of shadow spectral visualization of the spatial distributions of atomic and molecular vapors in an analytical space of an atomizer.

  9. [Study of three-dimensional speech chart by time-frequency analysis in Chinese Mandarin Monosyllabic word phonemes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Qian, Yu-hong; Zhou, Xiao-qin; Guo, Meng-he

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the physical characteristic of Chinese Mandarin Monosyllabic word phonemes by the time-frequency analysis. Manufactured and study the three-dimensional speech chart which was on the basic of information of the time-frequency analysis in 40 monosyllabic words with the SigmaPlot 9.0 and Matlab 7.0 software. The mean value of basic frequency in 40 monosyllabic words was between 220 to 320 Hz area, and the mean value of four groups has significant difference by t-test. It is indicated by time-frequency analysis that the characteristics vary according to the tone of monosyllabic words. With the change of time, the various frequencies and its intensity of tone first remain basically unchanged, the curve is horizontal type; the different frequencies of tone second gradually tend to high-frequency direction, the graph is upward-type, additionally, the intensity of some tone drops little; the divers frequencies of tone third firstly deflect to low-frequency areas, then increasingly deviate to high-frequency direction of bias after maintaining a period of time, the figure is v-type, intensity changes are concave-shaped; The various frequencies of tone fourth deviate from high-frequency to low-frequency areas, and its intensity drops sharply, the graph is decreased type. Through time-frequency analysis and three-dimensional speech chart observation, we consider that the physical characteristic of Chinese Mandarin Monosyllabic word phonemes mainly reflects the frequencies and intensity change with time.

  10. Facial three-dimensional morphometry.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of landmarks' x, y, z coordinates. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements, and four linear distance ratios were computed and averaged for sex. For all angular values, both samples showed a narrow variability and no significant gender differences were demonstrated. Conversely, all the linear measurements were significantly higher in men than in women. The highest intersample variability was observed for the measurements of facial height (prevalent vertical dimension), and the lowest for the measurements of facial depth (prevalent horizontal dimension). The proportions of upper and lower face height relative to the anterior face height showed a significant sex difference. Mean values were in good agreement with literature data collected with traditional methods. The described method allowed the direct and noninvasive calculation of three-dimensional linear and angular measurements that would be usefully applied in clinics as a supplement to the classic x-ray cephalometric analyses.

  11. Alternating-direction implicit numerical solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional, single fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, C.H. III

    1980-12-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid syncronization errors.

  12. Electromagnetic description of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant ponderable topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Ruiz, A.; Cambiaso, M.; Urrutia, L. F.

    2016-10-01

    A general technique to analyze the classical interaction between ideal topological insulators, and electromagnetic sources and fields, has been previously elaborated. Nevertheless it is not immediately applicable in the laboratory as it fails to describe real ponderable media. In this work we provide a description of real topologically insulating materials taking into account their dielectric and magnetic properties. For inhomogeneous permittivity and permeability, the problem of finding the Green's function must be solved in an ad hoc manner. Nevertheless, the physically feasible cases of piecewise constant ɛ , μ and θ make the problem tractable, where θ encodes the topological magnetoelectric polarizability properties of the medium. To this end we employ the Green's function method to find the fields resulting from the interaction between these materials and electromagnetic sources. Furthermore we exploit the fact that in the cases here studied, the full Green's function can be successfully found if the Green's function of the corresponding ponderable media with θ =0 is known. Our results satisfactorily reproduce previously existing ones and also generalize some others. The method here elaborated can be exploited to determine the electromagnetic fields for more general configurations aiming to measure the interaction between real 3D topological insulators and electromagnetic fields.

  13. Long-Time Numerical Integration of the Three-Dimensional Wave Equation in the Vicinity of a Moving Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryabenkii, V. S.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Tsynkov, S. V.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a family of algorithms for solving numerically a Cauchy problem for the three-dimensional wave equation. The sources that drive the equation (i.e., the right-hand side) are compactly supported in space for any given time; they, however, may actually move in space with a subsonic speed. The solution is calculated inside a finite domain (e.g., sphere) that also moves with a subsonic speed and always contains the support of the right-hand side. The algorithms employ a standard consistent and stable explicit finite-difference scheme for the wave equation. They allow one to calculate tile solution for arbitrarily long time intervals without error accumulation and with the fixed non-growing amount of tile CPU time and memory required for advancing one time step. The algorithms are inherently three-dimensional; they rely on the presence of lacunae in the solutions of the wave equation in oddly dimensional spaces. The methodology presented in the paper is, in fact, a building block for constructing the nonlocal highly accurate unsteady artificial boundary conditions to be used for the numerical simulation of waves propagating with finite speed over unbounded domains.

  14. Three-dimensional NMR Spectroscopy of organic molecules by random sampling of evolution time space and multidimensional Fourier transformation.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Maria; Koźmiński, Wiktor

    2007-02-01

    In this communication we present the application of a new method, which enables one to acquire 3D NMR spectra in a reasonable time and preserves high resolution in indirectly detected domains. The new method is based on random distribution of time domain data points followed by Quaternion FT with respect to two time variables in one step. The experimental examples include three-dimensional spectra of strychnine in CDCl3, TOCSY-HSQC, COSY-HMBC, and the new technique proposed here: heteronuclear single quantum multiple bond correlation (HSQMBC). The obtained spectra are compared to those recorded at the same time employing the conventional acquisition scheme. We show that high-quality 3D spectra of organic compounds can be obtained in reasonable experimental time and that they are of great interest in cases when direct analysis of 2D spectra is difficult. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Asymptotic Relation for the Transition Density of the Three-Dimensional Markov Random Flight on Small Time Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, Alexander D.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the Markov random flight \\varvec{X}(t), t>0, in the three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 with constant finite speed c>0 and the uniform choice of the initial and each new direction at random time instants that form a homogeneous Poisson flow of rate λ >0. Series representations for the conditional characteristic functions of \\varvec{X}(t) corresponding to two and three changes of direction, are obtained. Based on these results, an asymptotic formula, as t→ 0, for the unconditional characteristic function of \\varvec{X}(t) is derived. By inverting it, we obtain an asymptotic relation for the transition density of the process. We show that the error in this formula has the order o(t^3) and, therefore, it gives a good approximation on small time intervals whose lengths depend on λ . An asymptotic formula, as t→ 0, for the probability of being in a three-dimensional ball of radius r

  16. Three-Dimensionality as an Effective Mode of Representation for Expressing Sequential Time Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Sigal; Passig, David

    2007-01-01

    The process of developing concepts of time continues from age 5 to 11 years (Zakay, 1998). This study sought the representation mode in which children could best express time concepts, especially the proper arrangement of events in a logical and temporal order. Usually, temporal order is examined and taught by 2D (2-dimensional) pictorial scripts.…

  17. An Investigation of Time Lag Maps Using Three-dimensional Simulations of Highly Stratified Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Mikić, Zoran; Linker, Jon; Mok, Yung

    2016-11-01

    The location and frequency of coronal energy release provide a significant constraint on the coronal heating mechanism. The evolution of the intensity observed in coronal structures found from time lag analysis of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data has been used to argue that heating must occur sporadically. Recently, we have demonstrated that quasi-steady, highly stratified (footpoint) heating can produce results qualitatively consistent with the evolution of observed coronal structures. The goals of this paper are to demonstrate that time lag analysis of 3D simulations of footpoint heating are qualitatively consistent with time lag analysis of observations and to use the 3D simulations to further understand whether time lag analysis is a useful tool in defining the evolution of coronal structures. We find the time lag maps generated from simulated data are consistent with the observed time lag maps. We next investigate several example points. In some cases, the calculated time lag reflects the evolution of a unique loop along the line of sight, though there may be additional evolving structures along the line of sight. We confirm that using the multi-peak AIA channels can produce time lags that are difficult to interpret. We suggest using a different high temperature channel, such as an X-ray channel. Finally, we find that multiple evolving structures along the line of sight can produce time lags that do not represent the physical properties of any structure along the line of sight, although the cross-correlation coefficient of the lightcurves is high. Considering the projected geometry of the loops may reduce some of the line-of-sight confusion.

  18. Three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann front-tracking method for two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Qiong, Xie; Zhong, Zeng; Liang-Qi, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow by coupling with a front-tracking technique. The flow field was simulated by using an Eulerian grid, an adaptive unstructured triangular Lagrangian grid was applied to track explicitly the motion of the two-fluid interface, and an indicator function was introduced to update accurately the fluid properties. The surface tension was computed directly on a triangular Lagrangian grid, and then the surface tension was distributed to the background Eulerian grid. Three benchmarks of two-phase flow, including the Laplace law for a stationary drop, the oscillation of a three-dimensional ellipsoidal drop, and the drop deformation in a shear flow, were simulated to validate the present model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11572062), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. CDJZR13248801), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT13043), and Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Chaotic Advections in a Time-Dependent, Three-Dimensional, Ekman-Driven Eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, L. J.; Rypina, I.; Ozgokmen, T. M.; Wang, P.; Mezic, I.

    2016-02-01

    Our work focuses on the existence and arrangement of isolate regions of Lagrangian chaos in models of time-dependent, 3D flows with horizontal swirl and vertical overturning. Possible applications include mesoscale and sub-mesoscale ocean eddies, hurricanes, and convection cells, and the results demonstrate that chaotic stirring in such features can be highly nonhomogeneous. As a simple model we consider the flow in a rotating cylinder, driven by a time-dependent stress at the surface. Using numerical solutions and a multiple-scale analytical approach, we locate regions of Lagrangian chaos and compute the material barriers that contain them. These barriers are usually topological tori that evolve in time and can be quite exotic. If all the forcing is strong enough, all of these barriers can be destroyed, the entire flow becomes chaotic, and tracers are rapidly mixed throughout. We speculate on a way in which the stirring and mixing might be parameterized using ideas from critical layer theory.

  20. Three dimensional time-gated tracking of non-blinking quantum dots in live cells

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Matthew S.; Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Keller, Aaron M.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Cleyrat, Cedric; Lidke, Diane S.; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Stewart, Michael H.; Stich, Dominik G.; Phipps, Mary E.

    2015-03-12

    Single particle tracking has provided a wealth of information about biophysical processes such as motor protein transport and diffusion in cell membranes. However, motion out of the plane of the microscope or blinking of the fluorescent probe used as a label generally limits observation times to several seconds. Here, we overcome these limitations by using novel non-blinking quantum dots as probes and employing a custom 3D tracking microscope to actively follow motion in three dimensions (3D) in live cells. As a result, signal-to-noise is improved in the cellular milieu through the use of pulsed excitation and time-gated detection.

  1. Three-dimensional time domain model of lightning including corona effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, Andrew S.

    1991-01-01

    A new 3-D lightning model that incorporates the effect of corona is described for the first time. The new model is based on a Thin Wire Time Domain Lightning (TWTDL) Code developed previously. The TWTDL Code was verified during the 1985 and 1986 lightning seasons by the measurements conducted at the 553 m CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario. The inclusion of corona in the TWTDL code allowed study of the corona effects on the lightning current parameters and the associated electric field parameters.

  2. Realization of quantum gates based on three-dimensional harmonic oscillator in a time-varying electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Kumar; Chauhan, Garv; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Parthasarathy, Harish; Sharma, Navneet

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the design of a given quantum unitary gate by perturbing a three-dimensional (3-D) quantum harmonic oscillator with a time-varying but spatially constant electromagnetic field. The idea is based on expressing the radiation- perturbed Hamiltonian as the sum of the unperturbed Hamiltonian and O( e) and perturbations and then solving the Schrödinger equation to obtain the evolution operator at time T up to , and this is a linear-quadratic function of the perturbing electromagnetic field values over the time interval [0, T]. Setting the variational derivative of the error energy with respect to the electromagnetic field values with an average electromagnetic field energy constraint leads to the optimal electromagnetic field solution, a linear integral equation. The reliability of such a gate design procedure in the presence of heat bath coupling is analysed, and finally, an example illustrating how atoms and molecules can be approximated using oscillators is presented.

  3. Topological gravity in a three-dimensional metric-affine space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    1992-12-01

    The topological gauge model of gravity in three dimensions is extended to a metric-affine space-time with nonvanishing torsion and nonmetricity and signature (-++). We find an exact vacuum solution the connection of which includes a Weyl 1-form field.

  4. Time-Resolved and Spectroscopic Three-Dimensional Optical Breast Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other...aspect of this collection of information , including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services

  5. Exact solutions to three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Fakir; Mishra, S. C.

    2007-06-01

    With a view to obtain exact analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a few potentials of physical interest in three dimensions, transformation-group method is used. Interestingly, the integrals of motion in the new coordinates turn out to be the desired invariants of the systems.

  6. Three-dimensional Euler time accurate simulations of fan rotor-stator interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boretti, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical method useful to describe unsteady 3-D flow fields within turbomachinery stages is presented. The method solves the compressible, time dependent, Euler conservation equations with a finite volume, flux splitting, total variation diminishing, approximately factored, implicit scheme. Multiblock composite gridding is used to partition the flow field into a specified arrangement of blocks with static and dynamic interfaces. The code is optimized to take full advantage of the processing power and speed of the Cray Y/MP supercomputer. The method is applied to the computation of the flow field within a single stage, axial flow fan, thus reproducing the unsteady 3-D rotor-stator interaction.

  7. Embryonic lineage analysis using three-dimensional, time-lapse in-vivo fluorescent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minden, Jonathan; Kam, Zvi; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.; Alberts, Bruce

    1990-08-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become one of the most extensively studied organisms because of its amenability to genetic analysis. Unfortunately, the biochemistry and cell biology ofDrosophila has lagged behind. To this end we have been microinjecting fluorescently labelled proteins into the living embryo and observing the behavior of these proteins to determine their role in the cell cycle and development. Imaging of these fluorescent probes is an extremely important element to this form of analysis. We have taken advantage of the sensitivity and well behaved characteristics of the charge coupled device (CCD) camera in conjunction with digital image enhancement schemes to produce highly accurate images of these fluorescent probes in vivo. One of our major goals is to produce a detailed map of cell fate so that we can understand how fate is determined and maintained. In order produce such a detailed map, protocols for following the movements and mitotic behavior of a large number of cells in three dimensions over relatively long periods of time were developed. We will present our results using fluorescently labelled histone proteins as a marker for nuclear location1. In addition, we will also present our initial results using a photoactivatable analog of fluorescein to mark single cells so that their long range fate can be unambiguously determined.

  8. Three Dimensional Structure and Time Evolution of a Transition Region Explosive Event Observed in He II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. L.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Thomas, R. J.; Longcope, D.

    2007-12-01

    Transition Region Explosive Events (TREEs) have been observed with slit spectrographs since at least 1975, most commonly in lines of C IV (1548A,1550A) and Si IV (1393A, 1402A). We report what we believe to be the first observation of a TREE in He II 304A. With the MOSES sounding rocket, a novel type of imaging spectrograph, we are able to see the spatial and spectral structure of the event. It consists of a bright core expelling two jets, oppositely directed but not collinear, which curve away from the axis of the core. The jets have both line-of-sight and sky-plane motion. The core is a region of high non-thermal doppler broadening, characteristic of TREEs. It is possible to resolve the core broadening into red and blue line-of-sight components. MOSES captured approximately 150 sec of time evolution before the rocket flight ended. We see the beginning (core activation) and middle (jet ejection), but not the end. It is clear from our data-set that TREEs in He II 304A are much less common than observed in other wavelengths.

  9. Three-dimensional, paper-based microfluidic devices containing internal timers for running time-based diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Scott T; Thom, Nicole K

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for fabricating three-dimensional (3D), paper-based microfluidic devices that contain internal timers for running quantitative, time-based assays. The method involves patterning microfluidic channels into paper, and cutting double-sided adhesive tape into defined patterns. Patterned paper and tape are assembled layer by layer to create 3D microfluidic devices that are capable of distributing microliter volumes of a sample into multiple regions on a device for conducting multiple assays simultaneously. Paraffin wax is incorporated into defined regions within the device to provide control over the distribution rate of a sample, and food coloring is included in defined regions within the device to provide an unambiguous readout when the sample has reached the bottom of the device (this latter feature is the endpoint of the timer).

  10. Three-dimensional echocardiography in various types of heart disease: a comparison study of magnetic resonance imaging and 64-slice computed tomography in a real-world population.

    PubMed

    Squeri, Angelo; Censi, Stefano; Reverberi, Claudio; Gaibazzi, Nicola; Baldelli, Marco; Binno, Simone Maurizio; Properzi, Enrico; Bosi, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Accurate quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes [end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV)] and ejection fraction (EF) is of critical importance. The development of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) has shown better correlation than two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. The aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of RT3DE and 64-slice computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of LV volumes and function using MRI as the reference standard in a real-world population with various types of heart disease with different chamber geometry. The study population consisted of 66 patients referred for cardiac MRI for various pathologies. All patients underwent cardiac MRI, and RT3DE and 64 slices CT were then performed on a subsequent day. The study population was then divided into 5 clinical groups depending on the underlying heart disease. RT3DE volumes correlated well with MRI values (R (2) values: 0.90 for EDV and 0.94 for ESV). RT3DE measurements of EF correlated well with MRI values (R (2) = 0.86). RT3DE measurements resulted in slightly underestimated values of both EDV and ESV, as reflected by biases of -9.18 and -4.50 mL, respectively. Comparison of RT3DE and MRI in various types of cardiomyopathies showed no statistical difference between different LV geometrical patterns. These results confirm that RT3DE has good accuracy in everyday clinical practice and can be of clinical utility in all types of cardiomyopathy independently of LV geometric pattern, LV diameter or wall thickness, taking into account a slight underestimation of LV volumes and EF compared to MRI.

  11. Three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of free-electron lasers with planar, helical, and elliptical undulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, H. P.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Grimminck, D. L. A. G.; Setija, I. D.; Falgari, P.

    2017-02-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) have been built ranging in wavelength from long-wavelength oscillators using partial wave guiding through ultraviolet through hard x-ray that are either seeded or start from noise. In addition, FELs that produce different polarizations of the output radiation ranging from linear through elliptic to circular polarization are currently under study. In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional, time-dependent formulation that is capable of modeling this large variety of FEL configurations including different polarizations. We employ a modal expansion for the optical field, i.e., a Gaussian expansion with variable polarization for free-space propagation. This formulation uses the full Newton-Lorentz force equations to track the particles through the optical and magnetostatic fields. As a result, arbitrary three-dimensional representations for different undulator configurations are implemented, including planar, helical, and elliptical undulators. In particular, we present an analytic model of an APPLE-II undulator to treat arbitrary elliptical polarizations, which is used to treat general elliptical polarizations. To model oscillator configurations, and allow propagation of the optical field outside the undulator and interact with optical elements, we link the FEL simulation with the optical propagation code OPC. We present simulations using the APPLE-II undulator model to produce elliptically polarized output radiation, and present a detailed comparison with recent experiments using a tapered undulator configuration at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Validation of the nonlinear formation is also shown by comparison with experimental results obtained in the Sorgente Pulsata Auto-amplificata di Radiazione Coerente SASE FEL experiment at ENEA Frascati, a seeded tapered amplifier experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the 10 kW upgrade oscillator experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  12. Cost- and time-effective three-dimensional bone-shape reconstruction from X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Murat; Shim, Mun-Bo; Shimada, Kenji

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bone shapes need to be created for visualization and pre-operative surgery planning. Conventionally such shape data is extracted from volumetric data sets, obtained by three-dimensional sensors, such as computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This conventional method is highly labor intensive and time consuming. This paper presents a cost- and time-effective computational method for generating a 3D bone shape from multiple X-ray images. Starting with a predefined 3D template bone shape that is clinically normal and scaled to an average size, our method scales and deforms the template shape until the deformed shape gives an image similar to an input X-ray image when projected onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The hierarchical freeform deformation method is used to scale and deform the template bone. The problem of finding the 3D shape of the bond is reduced to a sequence of optimization problems. The objective of this optimization is to minimize the error between the input X-ray image and the projected image of the deformed template shape. The sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is used to solve this multi-dimentional optimization problem. The proposed X-ray image-based shape reconstruction is more computationally efficient, cost-effective and portable compared to the conventional CT- or MRI-based methods. Within a couple of minutes with a standard personal computer, the proposed method generates a 3D bone shape that is sufficiently accurate for many applications, such as (a) making a 3D physical mock-up for training and (b) importing into, and using in, a computer-aided planning system for orthopedic surgery, including bone distraction and open/closed wedge osteotomy. Because the proposed method requires only a small number of X-ray images and a minimum input from the user, the method can serve as a cost- and time-effective 3D bone shape reconstruction method for various medical applications. (c) 2008 John Wiley

  13. Ebstein's anomaly assessed by real-time 3-D echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Acar, Philippe; Abadir, Sylvia; Roux, Daniel; Taktak, Assaad; Dulac, Yves; Glock, Yves; Fournial, Gerard

    2006-08-01

    The outcome of patients with Ebstein's malformation depends mainly on the severity of the tricuspid valve malformation. Accurate description of the tricuspid anatomy by two-dimensional echocardiography remains difficult. We applied real-time three-dimensional echocardiography to 3 patients with Ebstein's anomaly. Preoperative and postoperative descriptions of the tricuspid valve were obtained from views taken inside the right ventricle. Surface of the leaflets as well as the commissures were obtained by three-dimensional echocardiography. Real time three-dimensional echocardiography is a promising tool, providing new views that will help to evaluate the ability and efficiency of surgical valve repair in patient with Ebstein's malformation.

  14. Super multi-view three-dimensional display through spatial-spectrum time-multiplexing of planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2014-12-15

    Existing super multi-view (SMV) technologies depend on ultra-high resolution two-dimensional (2D) display panel or large number of 2D display panels to obtain dense sub-viewing-zones for constructing more natural three-dimensional (3D) display by pure spatial-multiplexing. Through gating the spatial-spectrum of each OLED microdisplay, the present work proposes a new SMV technology combining time- and spatial-multiplexing based on planar-aligned OLED microdisplays. The inherent light emission characteristics of OLED, i.e. large divergence angle, guarantees a homogeneous light intensity distribution on the spectrum plane, which is a necessary condition for successful time multiplexing. The developed system bears with low requirements on the number of 2D display panels. The factors influencing the lateral display resolution limit are discussed and the optimum value is deduced. Experimentally, a prototype system with 60 sub-viewing-zones is demonstrated by 12 OLED microdisplays. The horizontal interval between adjacent sub-viewing-zones is 1.6mm.

  15. Two- and three-dimensional accuracy of dental impression materials: effects of storage time and moisture contamination.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Deepa T; Jagger, Daryll C; Jagger, Robert G; Barbour, Michele E

    2010-01-01

    Dental impression materials are used to create an inverse replica of the dental hard and soft tissues, and are used in processes such as the fabrication of crowns and bridges. The accuracy and dimensional stability of impression materials are of paramount importance to the accuracy of fit of the resultant prosthesis. Conventional methods for assessing the dimensional stability of impression materials are two-dimensional (2D), and assess shrinkage or expansion between selected fixed points on the impression. In this study, dimensional changes in four impression materials were assessed using an established 2D and an experimental three-dimensional (3D) technique. The former involved measurement of the distance between reference points on the impression; the latter a contact scanning method for producing a computer map of the impression surface showing localised expansion, contraction and warpage. Dimensional changes were assessed as a function of storage times and moisture contamination comparable to that found in clinical situations. It was evident that dimensional changes observed using the 3D technique were not always apparent using the 2D technique, and that the former offers certain advantages in terms of assessing dimensional accuracy and predictability of impression methods. There are, however, drawbacks associated with 3D techniques such as the more time-consuming nature of the data acquisition and difficulty in statistically analysing the data.

  16. Rapid volumetric T1 mapping of the abdomen using three-dimensional through-time spiral GRAPPA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Lee, Gregory R; Aandal, Gunhild; Badve, Chaitra; Wright, Katherine L; Griswold, Mark A; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop an ultrafast T1 mapping method for high-resolution, volumetric T1 measurements in the abdomen. The Look-Locker method was combined with a stack-of-spirals acquisition accelerated using three-dimensional (3D) through-time spiral GRAPPA reconstruction for fast data acquisition. A segmented k-space acquisition scheme was proposed and the time delay between segments for the recovery of longitudinal magnetization was optimized using Bloch equation simulations. The accuracy of this method was validated in a phantom experiment and in vivo T1 measurements were performed with 35 asymptomatic subjects on both 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3T MRI systems. Phantom experiments yielded close agreement between the proposed method and gold standard measurements for a large range of T1 values (200 to 1600 ms). The in vivo results further demonstrate that high-resolution T1 maps (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) for 32 slices can be achieved in a single clinically feasible breath-hold of approximately 20 s. The T1 values for multiple organs and tissues in the abdomen are in agreement with the published literature. A high-resolution 3D abdominal T1 mapping technique was developed, which allows fast and accurate T1 mapping of multiple abdominal organs and tissues in a single breath-hold. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Three-dimensional laser microvision.

    PubMed

    Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y

    2001-04-10

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum.

  18. Three-Dimensional Laser Microvision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimotahira, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Keigo; Chu, Sun-Chun; Wah, Christopher; Costen, Furnie; Yoshikuni, Yuzo

    2001-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 m; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 m.

  19. Effect of short-term exposure to stereoscopic three-dimensional flight displays on real-world depth perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    High-fidelity color pictorial displays that incorporate depth cues in the display elements are currently available. Depth cuing applied to advanced head-down flight display concepts potentially enhances the pilot's situational awareness and improves task performance. Depth cues provided by stereopsis exhibit constraints that must be fully understood so depth cuing enhancements can be adequately realized and exploited. A fundamental issue (the goal of this investigation) is whether the use of head-down stereoscopic displays in flight applications degrade the real-world depth perception of pilots using such displays. Stereoacuity tests are used in this study as the measure of interest. Eight pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both nonstereo and stereo 3-D head-down pathway-in-the-sky displays. At this decision height of each approach (where the pilot changes to an out-the-window view to obtain real-world visual references) the pilots changed to a stereoacuity test that used real objects. Statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures (data for a control condition of no exposure to any electronic flight display compared with data for changes from nonstereo and from stereo displays) reveals no significant differences for any of the conditions. Therefore, changing from short-term exposure to a head-down stereo display has no more effect on real-world relative depth perception than does changing from a nonstereo display. However, depth perception effects based on sized and distance judgements and on long-term exposure remain issues to be investigated.

  20. PORTHOS - A computer code for solving general three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, R.K.C.; Masiello, P.J.; Srikantiah, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    PORTHOS is a computer code for calculating three-dimensional steady-state or time dependent two-phase flow in porous or non-porous media. It was developed with the initial goal of simulating two-phase flows in steam generators of PWR nuclear power plants. However, the modular code design and the generality of approach allow application to a wide variety of problems in single phase or two-phase flow. The present method employs a finite difference technique to solve the complete set of two-fluid equations, i.e., the ''six-equation'' model which includes tow mass conservation equations, two momentum equations, two energy equations, as well as constitutive equations to effect closure of the system. The use of volume porosity and surface permeability allows the treatment of complex geometry. This paper describes the mathematical basis, the numerical solution procedure employed, and the results of comparisons with two sources of experimental data: the 8MW FRIGG loop experiment and the Electricite de France (EdF) Bugey 4 steam generator test. Calculations of the FRIGG experiment by PORTHOS, in terms of void fraction distribution, are in good agreement with measurements. Verification against the EdF data is also quite satisfactory.

  1. Three-Dimensional Elemental Imaging of Nantan Meteorite via Femtosecond Laser Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Miaohong; Meng, Yifan; Yan, Shanshan; Hang, Wei; Zhou, Wenge; Huang, Benli

    2017-01-03

    Femtosecond laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (fs-LI-TOFMS) is introduced for the three-dimensional elemental analysis of a Nantan meteorite. Spatially resolved multielemental imaging of major and minor compositions in a meteorite are presented with a lateral resolution of 50 μm and a depth resolution of 7 μm. Distinct 3D distributions of siderophile, lithophile, and chalcophile elements are revealed. Co and Ni are highly siderophile (Iron-loving), mainly enriched in the metal phase. Cr, Cu, V, and Mn are enriched in the sulfide for their chalcophile (S-loving) tendency. S, P, and C aggregate together in the analytical volume. Silicate inclusion, containing lithophile elements of Al, Ca, Mg, K, and so on, is embedded within the metal phase for the immiscibility between silicate inclusion and the melted metal phase. These 3D distributions of elements aid the exploration of the formation and evolution of the meteorite. They also reveal the feasibility of fs-LI-TOFMS as a versatile tool for 3D imaging.

  2. High-Fidelity Real Gas Model for RF Excited Plasma Flow Control - A Three Dimensional Analysis With Air Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-31

    code for mitigating inert gas flow separation using rf-driven dielectric barrier discharge. In this effort we: (l) develop multi-dimensional first...such detailed plasma kinetics based effort has not been reported before. During the development of this project we have worked in close collaboration... develop multi-dimensional first principles based N2/GŖair chemistry models for the non-equilibrium real gas discharge, and (2) implement it in a finite

  3. Regional Travel-Time Uncertainty and Seismic Location Improvement Using a Three- Dimensional a priori Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, M. P.; Myers, S. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate our ability to improve regional travel-time prediction and seismic event location accuracy using ana priori, three-dimensional velocity model of Western Eurasia and North Africa (WENA1.0). Travel- time residuals are assessed relative to the iasp91 model for approximately 6,000 Pg, Pn, and P arrivals, from seismic events having 2sigma epicenter accuracy between 1 km and 25 km (GT1 and GT25, respectively), recorded at 39 stations throughout the model region. Ray paths range in length between 0 and 40 degrees epicentral distance (local, regional, and near teleseismic) providing depth sounding that spans the crust and upper mantle. The dataset also provides representative geographic sampling across Eurasia and North Africa including aseismic areas. The WENA1.0 model markedly improves travel-time predictions for most stations with an average variance reduction of 29% for all ray paths from the GT25 events; when we consider GT5 and better events alone the variance reduction is 49%. For location tests we use 196 geographically distributed GT5 and better events. In 134 cases (68% of the events), locations are improved, and average mislocation is reduced from 24.9 km to 17.7 km. We develop a travel time uncertainty model that is used to calculate location coverage ellipses. The coverage ellipses for WENA1.0 are validated to be representative of epicenter error and are smaller than those for iasp91 by 37%. We conclude that a priori, models are directly applicable where data coverage limits tomographic and empirical approaches, and the development of the uncertainty model enables merging of a priori, and data-driven approaches using Bayesian techniques. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, Contribution UCRL- JRNL-220179.

  4. Issues in measure-preserving three dimensional flow integrators: Self-adjointness, reversibility, and non-uniform time stepping

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a 'special divergence-free' property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Ref. [11], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Ref. [35], appears to work very well.

  5. Fast carotid artery MR angiography with compressed sensing based three-dimensional time-of-flight sequence.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Li, Hao; Dong, Li; Huang, Guofu

    2017-07-20

    In this study, we sought to investigate the feasibility of fast carotid artery MR angiography (MRA) by combining three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) with compressed sensing method (CS-3D TOF). A pseudo-sequential phase encoding order was developed for CS-3D TOF to generate hyper-intense vessel and suppress background tissues in under-sampled 3D k-space. Seven healthy volunteers and one patient with carotid artery stenosis were recruited for this study. Five sequential CS-3D TOF scans were implemented at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5-fold acceleration factors for carotid artery MRA. Blood signal-to-tissue ratio (BTR) values for fully-sampled and under-sampled acquisitions were calculated and compared in seven subjects. Blood area (BA) was measured and compared between fully sampled acquisition and each under-sampled one. There were no significant differences between the fully-sampled dataset and each under-sampled in BTR comparisons (P>0.05 for all comparisons). The carotid vessel BAs measured from the images of CS-3D TOF sequences with 2, 3, 4 and 5-fold acceleration scans were all highly correlated with that of the fully-sampled acquisition. The contrast between blood vessels and background tissues of the images at 2 to 5-fold acceleration is comparable to that of fully sampled images. The images at 2× to 5× exhibit the comparable lumen definition to the corresponding images at 1×. By combining the pseudo-sequential phase encoding order, CS reconstruction, and 3D TOF sequence, this technique provides excellent visualizations for carotid vessel and calcifications in a short scan time. It has the potential to be integrated into current multiple blood contrast imaging protocol. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  7. Three Dimensional Fusion CT Decreases Radiation Exposure, Procedure Time and Contrast Use during Fenestrated Endovascular Aortic Repair

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Michael M.; Scali, Salvatore T.; Feezor, Robert J.; Neal, Daniel; Huber, Thomas S.; Beck, Adam W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Endovascular surgery has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms; however these improvements have come at the cost of increased radiation and contrast exposure, particularly for more complex procedures. Three dimensional (3D) fusion computed tomographic (CT) imaging is a new technology that may facilitate these repairs. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact of utilizing intraoperative 3D fusion CT on performance of fenestrated endovascular aortic repair. Methods A review of our institutional database was performed to identify patients undergoing fenestrated/branched endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR). Subjects treated using 3D fusion CT were compared to patients treated in the immediate 12-month period prior to implementation of this technology when procedures were performed in a standard hybrid operating room without CT fusion capabilities. Primary endpoints included patient radiation exposure (air kerma area product: milliGray; mGy*cm2), fluoroscopy time (minutes; min), contrast usage (mL) and procedure time (min). Patients were grouped by number of aortic graft fenestrations revascularized with a stentgraft and operative outcomes were compared. Results A total of 72 patients (N = 41 before vs. N = 31 after 3D fusion CT implementation) underwent FEVAR from September 2012 through March 2014. For 2-vessel fenestrated endografts, there was a significant decrease in radiation exposure (3400±1900 vs. 1380±520 mGy*cm2; P=.001), fluoroscopy time (63±29 vs. 41±11min; P=.02), and contrast usage (69±16 vs. 26±8 mL; P=.0002) with intraoperative 3D fusion CT. Similarly, for combined 3 and 4-vessel FEVAR, significantly decreased radiation exposure (5400±2225 vs. 2700±1400 mGy*cm2; P<.0001), fluoroscopy time (89±36 vs 6±21min; P=.02), contrast usage (90±25 vs. 39±17mL; P<.0001), as well as procedure time (330±100 vs. 230±50min; P=.002) was noted. Estimated blood loss was significantly less (P<.0001) and length of stay had a

  8. Transport and residence times of tropospheric aerosols inferred from a global three-dimensional simulation of Pb-210

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gardner, Geraldine M.; Graustein, William C.; Turekian, Karl K.

    1993-01-01

    A global three-dimensional model is used to investigate the transport and tropospheric residence time of Pb-210, an aerosol tracer produced in the atmosphere by radioactive decay of Rn-222 emitted from soils. The model uses meteorological input with 4 deg x 5 deg horizontal resolution and 4-hour temporal resolution from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GCM). It computes aerosol scavenging by convective precipitation as part of the wet convective mass transport operator in order to capture the coupling between vertical transport and rainout. Scavenging in convective precipitation accounts for 74% of the global Pb-210 sink in the model; scavenging in large-scale precipitation accounts for 12%, and scavenging in dry deposition accounts for 14%. The model captures 63% of the variance of yearly mean Pb-210 concentrations measured at 85 sites around the world with negligible mean bias, lending support to the computation of aerosol scavenging. There are, however, a number of regional and seasonal discrepancies that reflect in part anomalies in GCM precipitation. Computed residence times with respect to deposition for Pb-210 aerosol in the tropospheric column are about 5 days at southern midlatitudes and 10-15 days in the tropics; values at northern midlatitudes vary from about 5 days in winter to 10 days in summer. The residence time of Pb-210 produced in the lowest 0.5 km of atmosphere is on average four times shorter than that of Pb-210 produced in the upper atmosphere. Both model and observations indicate a weaker decrease of Pb-210 concentrations between the continental mixed layer and the free troposphere than is observed for total aerosol concentrations; an explanation is that Rn-222 is transported to high altitudes in wet convective updrafts, while aerosols and soluble precursors of aerosols are scavenged by precipitation in the updrafts. Thus Pb-210 is not simply a tracer of aerosols produced in the continental boundary layer, but

  9. Transport and residence times of tropospheric aerosols inferred from a global three-dimensional simulation of Pb-210

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gardner, Geraldine M.; Graustein, William C.; Turekian, Karl K.

    1993-01-01

    A global three-dimensional model is used to investigate the transport and tropospheric residence time of Pb-210, an aerosol tracer produced in the atmosphere by radioactive decay of Rn-222 emitted from soils. The model uses meteorological input with 4 deg x 5 deg horizontal resolution and 4-hour temporal resolution from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GCM). It computes aerosol scavenging by convective precipitation as part of the wet convective mass transport operator in order to capture the coupling between vertical transport and rainout. Scavenging in convective precipitation accounts for 74% of the global Pb-210 sink in the model; scavenging in large-scale precipitation accounts for 12%, and scavenging in dry deposition accounts for 14%. The model captures 63% of the variance of yearly mean Pb-210 concentrations measured at 85 sites around the world with negligible mean bias, lending support to the computation of aerosol scavenging. There are, however, a number of regional and seasonal discrepancies that reflect in part anomalies in GCM precipitation. Computed residence times with respect to deposition for Pb-210 aerosol in the tropospheric column are about 5 days at southern midlatitudes and 10-15 days in the tropics; values at northern midlatitudes vary from about 5 days in winter to 10 days in summer. The residence time of Pb-210 produced in the lowest 0.5 km of atmosphere is on average four times shorter than that of Pb-210 produced in the upper atmosphere. Both model and observations indicate a weaker decrease of Pb-210 concentrations between the continental mixed layer and the free troposphere than is observed for total aerosol concentrations; an explanation is that Rn-222 is transported to high altitudes in wet convective updrafts, while aerosols and soluble precursors of aerosols are scavenged by precipitation in the updrafts. Thus Pb-210 is not simply a tracer of aerosols produced in the continental boundary layer, but

  10. Issues in measure-preserving three dimensional flow integrators: Self-adjointness, reversibility, and non-uniform time stepping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a "special divergence-free" (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012

  11. Issues in measure-preserving three dimensional flow integrators: Self-adjointness, reversibility, and non-uniform time stepping

    DOE PAGES

    Finn, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a 'special divergence-free' property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. Wemore » also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Ref. [11], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Ref. [35], appears to work very well.« less

  12. Issues in measure-preserving three dimensional flow integrators: Self-adjointness, reversibility, and non-uniform time stepping

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, John M.

    2015-03-15

    Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012

  13. Computational solutions of three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation using fourth order time efficient alternating direction implicit scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saqib, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahid; Mashat, Daoud Suleiman

    2017-08-01

    To develop an efficient numerical scheme for three-dimensional advection diffusion equation, higher order ADI method was proposed. 2nd and fourth order ADI schemes were used to handle such problem. Von Neumann stability analysis shows that Alternating Direction Implicit scheme is unconditionally stable. The accuracy and efficiency of such schemes was depicted by two test problems. Numerical results for two test problems were carried out to establish the performance of the given method and to compare it with the others Typical methods. Fourth order ADI method were found to be very efficient and stable for solving three dimensional Advection Diffusion Equation. The proposed methods can be implemented for solving non-linear problems arising in engineering and physics.

  14. Three-dimensional accurate detection of lung emphysema in rats using ultra-short and zero echo time MRI.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Andrea; Tibiletti, Marta; Kjørstad, Åsmund; Birk, Gerald; Schad, Lothar R; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Rasche, Volker; Stiller, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Emphysema is a life-threatening pathology that causes irreversible destruction of alveolar walls. In vivo imaging techniques play a fundamental role in the early non-invasive pre-clinical and clinical detection and longitudinal follow-up of this pathology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using high resolution radial three-dimensional (3D) zero echo time (ZTE) and 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI to accurately detect lung pathomorphological changes in a rodent model of emphysema.Porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) was intratracheally administered to the rats to produce the emphysematous changes. 3D ZTE MRI, low and high definition 3D UTE MRI and micro-computed tomography images were acquired 4 weeks after the PPE challenge. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in PPE-treated and control rats. T2* values were computed from low definition 3D UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements were made after euthanizing the animals. Both ZTE and UTE MR images showed a significant decrease in the SNR measured in PPE-treated lungs compared with controls, due to the pathomorphological changes taking place in the challenged lungs. A significant decrease in T2* values in PPE-challenged animals compared with controls was measured using UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements showed a significant increase in the mean linear intercept in PPE-treated lungs. UTE yielded significantly higher SNR compared with ZTE (14% and 30% higher in PPE-treated and non-PPE-treated lungs, respectively).This study showed that optimized 3D radial UTE and ZTE MRI can provide lung images of excellent quality, with high isotropic spatial resolution (400 µm) and SNR in parenchymal tissue (>25) and negligible motion artifacts in freely breathing animals. These techniques were shown to be useful non-invasive instruments to accurately and reliably detect the pathomorphological alterations taking place in emphysematous lungs, without incurring the risks of cumulative radiation

  15. Quantifying cortical bone water in vivo by three-dimensional ultra-short echo-time MRI

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Hamidreza Saligheh; Lam, Shing Chun Benny; Magland, Jeremy F.; Ong, Henry; Li, Cheng; Song, Hee Kwon; Love, James; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2013-01-01

    Bone contains a significant fraction of water that is not detectable with ordinary Cartesian imaging sequences. The advent of ultra-short echo-time (UTE) methods has allowed the recovery of this submillisecond T2*water. In this work, we have developed a new three-dimensional hybrid-radial ultra-short echo-time (3D HRUTE) imaging technique based on slab selection by means of half-sinc pulses, variable-TE slice encoding and algorithms for quantification. The protocol consists of collecting two datasets differing in TR, from which T1 is extracted, which is needed for quantification. Unlike T2*, which has been found to vary within a narrow range and does not require individual correction, T1 is critically subject dependent (range, 100–350 ms). No soft-tissue suppression was used to preserve the signal-to-noise ratio of the short-T2 bone water protons or to minimize the loss of relatively mobile water in large pores. Critical for quantification is correction for spatial variations in reception field and selection of the endosteal boundary for inclusion of pixels in the bone water calculation, because of the ruffled boundary stemming from trabecularization of the endosteal surface. The reproducibility, evaluated in 10 subjects covering the age range 30–80 years, yielded an average coefficient of variation of 4.2% and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95, suggesting that a treatment effect on the order of 5% could be detected in as few as 10 subjects. Lastly, experiments in specimens by means of graded deuterium exchange showed that approximately 90% of the detected signal arises from water protons, whose relaxation rates (1/T1 and 1/T2*) scale linearly with the isotopic volume fraction of light water after stepwise exchange with heavy water. The data thus show conclusively that the method quantifies water even though, in vivo, no distinction can be made between various fractions, such as collagen-bound vs pore-resident water. PMID:21274960

  16. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging overlay to assist with percutaneous transhepatic access at the time of cardiac catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Wendy; Christensen, Jason; Zampi, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Multimodality image overlay is increasingly used for complex interventional procedures in the cardiac catheterization lab. We report a case in which three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) overlay onto live fluoroscopic imaging was utilized to safely obtain transhepatic access in a 12-year-old patient with prune belly syndrome, complex and distorted abdominal anatomy, and a vascular mass within the liver. PMID:26085770

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  19. Time-lapse three-dimensional inversion of complex conductivity data using an active time constrained (ATC) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Werkema, D.D.; Minsley, B.J.; Woodruff, W.F.; Kemna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Induced polarization (more precisely the magnitude and phase of impedance of the subsurface) is measured using a network of electrodes located at the ground surface or in boreholes. This method yields important information related to the distribution of permeability and contaminants in the shallow subsurface. We propose a new time-lapse 3-D modelling and inversion algorithm to image the evolution of complex conductivity over time. We discretize the subsurface using hexahedron cells. Each cell is assigned a complex resistivity or conductivity value. Using the finite-element approach, we model the in-phase and out-of-phase (quadrature) electrical potentials on the 3-D grid, which are then transformed into apparent complex resistivity. Inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions are used at the boundary of the domain. The calculation of the Jacobian matrix is based on the principles of reciprocity. The goal of time-lapse inversion is to determine the change in the complex resistivity of each cell of the spatial grid as a function of time. Each model along the time axis is called a 'reference space model'. This approach can be simplified into an inverse problem looking for the optimum of several reference space models using the approximation that the material properties vary linearly in time between two subsequent reference models. Regularizations in both space domain and time domain reduce inversion artefacts and improve the stability of the inversion problem. In addition, the use of the time-lapse equations allows the simultaneous inversion of data obtained at different times in just one inversion step (4-D inversion). The advantages of this new inversion algorithm are demonstrated on synthetic time-lapse data resulting from the simulation of a salt tracer test in a heterogeneous random material described by an anisotropic semi-variogram. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  20. Three-dimensional viscoelastic time-domain finite-difference seismic modelling using the staggered Adams-Bashforth time integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Thomas; Wittkamp, Florian

    2016-03-01

    We analyse the performance of a higher order accurate staggered viscoelastic time-domain finite-difference method, in which the staggered Adams-Bashforth (ABS) third-order and fourth-order accurate time integrators are used for temporal discretization. ABS is a multistep method that uses previously calculated wavefields to increase the order of accuracy in time. The analysis shows that the numerical dispersion is much lower than that of the widely used second-order leapfrog method. Numerical dissipation is introduced by the ABS method which is significantly smaller for fourth-order than third-order accuracy. In 1-D and 3-D simulation experiments, we verify the convincing improvements of simulation accuracy of the fourth-order ABS method. In a realistic elastic 3-D scenario, the computing time reduces by a factor of approximately 2.4, whereas the memory requirements increase by approximately a factor of 2.2. The ABS method thus provides an alternative strategy to increase the simulation accuracy in time by investing computer memory instead of computing time.

  1. Three-dimensional ultrashort echo time cones T1ρ (3D UTE-cones-T1ρ ) imaging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ya-Jun; Carl, Michael; Shao, Hongda; Tadros, Anthony S; Chang, Eric Y; Du, Jiang

    2017-03-20

    We report a novel three-dimensional (3D) ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence employing Cones trajectory and T1ρ preparation (UTE-Cones-T1ρ ) for quantitative T1ρ assessment of short T2 tissues in the musculoskeletal system. A basic 3D UTE-Cones sequence was combined with a spin-locking preparation pulse for T1ρ contrast. A relatively short TR was used to decrease the scan time, which required T1 measurement and compensation using 3D UTE-Cones data acquisitions with variable TRs. Another strategy to reduce the total scan time was to acquire multiple Cones spokes (Nsp ) after each T1ρ preparation and fat saturation. Four spin-locking times (TSL = 0-20 ms) were acquired over 12 min, plus another 7 min for T1 measurement. The 3D UTE-Cones-T1ρ sequence was compared with a two-dimensional (2D) spiral-T1ρ sequence for the imaging of a spherical CuSO4 phantom and ex vivo meniscus and tendon specimens, as well as the knee and ankle joints of healthy volunteers, using a clinical 3-T scanner. The CuSO4 phantom showed a T1ρ value of 76.5 ± 1.6 ms with the 2D spiral-T1ρ sequence, as well as 85.7 ± 3.6 and 89.2 ± 1.4 ms for the 3D UTE-Cones-T1ρ sequences with Nsp of 1 and 5, respectively. The 3D UTE-Cones-T1ρ sequence provided shorter T1ρ values for the bovine meniscus sample relative to the 2D spiral-T1ρ sequence (10-12 ms versus 16 ms, respectively). The cadaveric human Achilles tendon sample could only be imaged with the 3D UTE-Cones-T1ρ sequence (T1ρ  = 4.0 ± 0.9 ms), with the 2D spiral-T1ρ sequence demonstrating near-zero signal intensity. Human studies yielded T1ρ values of 36.1 ± 2.9, 18.3 ± 3.9 and 3.1 ± 0.4 ms for articular cartilage, meniscus and the Achilles tendon, respectively. The 3D UTE-Cones-T1ρ sequence allows volumetric T1ρ measurement of short T2 tissues in vivo.

  2. Monitoring groundwater-surface water interaction using time-series and time-frequency analysis of transient three-dimensional electrical resistivity changes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Elwaseif, Mehrez

    2012-08-22

    Time-lapse resistivity imaging is increasingly used to monitor hydrologic processes. Compared to conventional hydrologic measurements, surface time-lapse resistivity provides (1) superior spatial coverage in two or three dimensions, (2) potentially high-resolution information in time, and (3) information in the absence of wells. However, interpretation of time-lapse electrical tomograms is complicated by the ever increasing size and complexity of long-term, three-dimensional time-series conductivity datasets. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) surface time-lapse electrical imaging to monitor subsurface electrical conductivity variations associated with stage-driven groundwater/surface-water interaction along a stretch of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area, Hanford WA, USA. We reduce the resulting 3D conductivity time series using both correlation and time-frequency analysis to isolate a paleochannel causing enhanced groundwater/river-water interaction. Correlation analysis on the time-lapse imaging results concisely represents enhanced ground water/surface-water interaction within the paleochannel, and provides information concerning groundwater flow velocities. Time-frequency analysis using the Stockwell (S) Transform provides additional information by 1) identifying the stage periodicities driving ground water/river-water interaction due to upstream dam operations, 2) identifying segments in time-frequency space when these interactions are most active. These results provide new insight into the distribution and timing of river water intrusion into the Hanford 300 area, which has a governing influence on the behavior of a uranium plume left over from historical nuclear fuel processing operations.

  3. The time-dependent inverse source problem for the acoustic and electromagnetic equations in the one- and three-dimensional cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Harry E.

    1984-06-01

    The object of the time-dependent inverse source problem of electromagnetic theory and acoustics is to find time-dependent sources and currents, which are turned on at a given time and then off to give rise to prescribed radiation fields. In an early paper for the three-dimensional electromagnetic case, the present writer showed that the sources and currents are not unique and gave conditions which make them so. The ideas of that paper are reformulated for the three-dimensional electromagnetic case and extended to the acoustical three-dimensional case and the one-dimensional electromagnetic and acoustic cases. The one-dimensional cases show very explicitly the nature of the ambiguity of the choice of sources and currents. This ambiguity is closely related to one which occurs in inverse scattering theory. The ambiguity in inverse scattering theory arises when one wishes to obtain the off-shell elements of the T matrix from some of the on-shell elements (i.e., from the corresponding elements of the scattering operator). In inverse scattering theory prescribing of the representation in which the potential is to be diagonal removes the ambiguity. For the inverse source problem a partial prescription of the time dependence of the sources and currents removes the ambiguity. The inverse source problem is then solved explicitly for this prescribed time dependence. The direct source problems for the one- and three-dimensional acoustic and electromagnetic cases are also given to provide a contrast with the inverse source problem and for use in later papers. Moreover, the present author's earlier work on the eigenfunctions of the curl operator is reviewed and used to simplify drastically the three-dimensional direct and inverse source problems for electromagnetic theory by splitting off the radiation field and its currents from the longitudinal field and its sources and currents. Finally, for a prescribed time dependence, the inverse source problem is solved explicitly in

  4. An Inexpensive Real-Time Interactive Three-Dimensional Flight Simulation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-03

    200.0 * (-41.01); ’item=genobjo; makeobj(*item); /* draw right side of tank CCW/ parnAyIOIIOJ = -10.0; parray [O1tlI = 6.0; parray [0j21 = -5.0; parray ...11I01 = -15.0; parraylll[1I = 4.0; paaray[11121 = -5.0; parray21oI = -15.0; parray12I111 = 2.0; parrayI2II2I = -5.0; parraylIlol0 = -10.0; parray [311lI...0.0; parray1SJ 121 = -5.0; parray4IOI = 10.0; parray14111J = 0.0; parray14Il2I = -5.0; parray [SIIOI = 15.0; pazray[SI1lI = 2.0; parray [5J 121 = -5.0

  5. An Inexpensive Real-Time Interactive Three Dimensional Flight Simulation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    item; long points = 4, bigpoint3 8; float parray [8jl3l; float tx,ly,lz, long cmin =MIN TGTCOLOR, cmax =MAXTGT COLOR, ci; Ix = 400.0 41.01...parrayl011ll = 6. 0; parray [0lI21 = -5.0; parray [1110j = -15.0; parrayJ11111 = 4.0; parray 111I21 = -5.0; parrayl2l101 = -15.0; parrayI2IJlj = 2.0; parray [2...21 -5.0; Parray1SJ[0J = -10.0; parray [3111 = 0.0; parray [31121 = -5.0; ParraY [41[01 = 10.0; parrayI4I1lI = 0.0; parrayI4II2I = -5.0; p array f51 101

  6. High speed three-dimensional laser scanner with real time processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph P. (Inventor); Schuet, Stefan R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A laser scanner computes a range from a laser line to an imaging sensor. The laser line illuminates a detail within an area covered by the imaging sensor, the area having a first dimension and a second dimension. The detail has a dimension perpendicular to the area. A traverse moves a laser emitter coupled to the imaging sensor, at a height above the area. The laser emitter is positioned at an offset along the scan direction with respect to the imaging sensor, and is oriented at a depression angle with respect to the area. The laser emitter projects the laser line along the second dimension of the area at a position where a image frame is acquired. The imaging sensor is sensitive to laser reflections from the detail produced by the laser line. The imaging sensor images the laser reflections from the detail to generate the image frame. A computer having a pipeline structure is connected to the imaging sensor for reception of the image frame, and for computing the range to the detail using height, depression angle and/or offset. The computer displays the range to the area and detail thereon covered by the image frame.

  7. Quantification of Right and Left Ventricular Function With Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    But it is very delicate to increase the maximum number of iterations in every case since the septum wall that separates the two cavities very often...as the medial axis as developed by Pizer and Stetten [12]. V. CONCLUSION Quantification of RV and LV volumes with 2D ultrasound transducers is...the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 14, pp. 275-284, 2001. [12] G. D. Stetten and S. M. Pizer, “ Medial -node models to identify and

  8. Measurement of bound and pore water T1 relaxation times in cortical bone using three-dimensional ultrashort echo time cones sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Chang, Eric Y; Carl, Michael; Ma, Yajun; Shao, Hongda; Chen, Bimin; Wu, Zhihong; Du, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    We present three-dimensional ultrashort echo time Cones (3D UTE Cones) techniques for quantification of total water T1 ( T1TW), bound water T1 ( T1BW), and pore water T1 ( T1PW) in vitro and in vivo using a 3 Tesla (T) scanner. T1TW, T1BW, and T1PW were measured with three-dimensional (3D) Cones and adiabatic inversion recovery Cone (IR-Cone) sequences. Two-dimensional (2D) nonselective ultrashort echo time (UTE) techniques, including saturation recovery, variable repetition times (TRs), and inversion recovery (IR) preparation approaches were compared with 3D-Cones techniques on bovine cortical bone samples (n = 8). The 3D Cones sequences were used to measure T1TW, T1BW, and T1PW in the tibial midshaft of healthy volunteers (n = 8). Comparable T1 images were achieved for cortical bone between 3D Cones and 2D UTE techniques as well as those published in the literature. The 3D Cones sequences showed a mean T1TW of 208 ± 22 ms, a mean T1PW of 545 ± 28 ms, and a mean T1BW of 131 ± 12 ms for bovine cortical bone; and a mean T1TW of 246 ± 32 ms, a mean T1PW of 524 ± 46 ms, and a mean T1BW of 134 ± 11 ms for the tibial midshaft of healthy volunteers. The 3D Cones sequences can be used for fast volumetric assessment of bound and pore water T1 images in vitro and in vivo. Magn Reson Med 77:2136-2145, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Improvement of depth resolution and detection efficiency by control of secondary-electrons in single-event three-dimensional time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, Satoshi; Hamada, Yasuhisa; Seidl, Albert; Wakaya, Fujio; Takai, Mikio

    2015-04-01

    An improvement of a depth resolution and a detection efficiency in single-event three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is discussed on both simulation and experiment by control of secondary electron trajectories using sample bias voltage. The secondary electron, used for a start signal in single-event TOF-RBS, flies more directly to a secondary electron detector with the positive sample bias voltage of several tens of volt than that without sample bias voltage in the simulation. The simulated collection efficiency of the secondary electrons also increases with the positive sample bias voltage of several tens of volt. These simulation results indicate the possibility of a smaller depth resolution and a shorter measurement time in single-event TOF-RBS with positive sample bias voltage. The measurement time for the Pt-stripe sample using single-event three-dimensional TOF-RBS with the sample bias voltage of +100 V is 65% shorter than that without sample bias voltage, resulting in a less sample damage by a probe beam. The depth resolution for the Pt stripes under the 50-nm-thick SiO2 cover-layer with the sample bias voltage of +100 V is 4 nm smaller than that without sample bias voltage. Positive sample bias voltage improves the depth resolution and the detection efficiency in single-event three-dimensional TOF-RBS without an influence on the beam focusing.

  10. Real-time analysis keratometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  11. Real Time Network Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    Demonstrate a simple system Conduct a feasibility assessment of data storage, maintenance, and integration requirements Test a web-based data feed...Real Time Network Assessment Prototype We demonstrated the feasibility of linking near real time network analytics to mashups and web- based...combining similar concepts into single node) Stemmers Thesauri application Network position Statistical common patterns Pronoun identification

  12. Time-lapsed investigation of three-dimensional failure and damage accumulation in trabecular bone using synchrotron light.

    PubMed

    Thurner, P J; Wyss, P; Voide, R; Stauber, M; Stampanoni, M; Sennhauser, U; Müller, R

    2006-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRmicroCT) is a very useful technique when it comes to three-dimensional (3D) imaging of complex internal and external geometries. Being a fully non-destructive technique, SRmicroCT can be combined with other experiments in situ for functional imaging. We are especially interested in the combination of SRmicroCT with mechanical testing in order to gain new insights in the failure mechanism of trabecular bone. This interest is motivated by the immense costs in health care due to patients suffering from osteoporosis, a systemic skeletal disease resulting in decreased bone stability and increased fracture risk. To better investigate the different failure mechanisms on the microlevel, we have developed a novel in situ mechanical compression device, capable of exerting both static and dynamic displacements on experimental samples. The device was calibrated for mechanical testing using solid aluminum and bovine trabecular bone samples. To study different failure mechanisms in trabecular bone, we compared a fatigued and a non-fatigued bovine bone sample with respect to failure initiation and propagation. The fatigued sample failed in a burst-like fashion in contrast to the non-fatigued sample, which exhibited a distinct localized failure band. Moreover, microscopic cracks - microcracks and microfractures - were uncovered in a 3D fashion illustrating the failure process in great detail. The majority of these cracks were connected to a bone surface. The data also showed that the classification of microcracks and -fractures from 2D section can sometimes be ambiguous, which is also true for the distinction of diffuse and distinct microdamage. Detailed investigation of the failure mechanism in these samples illustrated that trabecular bone often fails in delamination, providing a mechanism for energy dissipation while conserving trabecular bone architecture. In the future, this will allow an even better understanding of bone

  13. Monitoring the response to primary medical therapy for breast cancer using three- dimensional time-resolved optical mammography.

    PubMed

    Enfield, L C; Cantanhede, G; Westbroek, D; Douek, M; Purushotham, A D; Hebden, J C; Gibson, A P

    2011-12-01

    Primary medical therapy is used to reduce tumour size prior to surgery in women with locally advanced breast cancer. Optical tomography is a functional imaging technique using near- infrared light to produce three-dimensional breast images of tissue oxygen saturation and haemoglobin concentration. Its advantages include the ability to display quantitative physiological information, and to allow repeated scans without the hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation. There is a need for a non-invasive functional imaging tool to evaluate response to treatment, so that non-responders can be given the opportunity to change their treatment regimen. Here, we evaluate the use of optical tomography for this purpose. Four women with newly diagnosed breast cancer who were about to undergo primary medical therapy gave informed and voluntary consent to take part in the study. Changes in physiological and optical properties within the tumour were evaluated during the course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Optical imaging was performed prior to treatment, after the first cycle of chemotherapy, halfway through, and on completion of chemotherapy. Images of light absorption and scatter at two wavelengths were produced, from which images of total haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation were derived. All patients that showed a good or complete response to treatment on MRI showed a corresponding recovery in the haemoglobin concentration images. Changes in mean tumour total haemoglobin concentration could be seen four weeks into treatment. The tumour oxygen saturation was low compared to background in three out of four patients, and also showed a return to baseline over treatment. Optical imaging of the breast is feasible during primary medical therapy and can be used to assess response to treatment over six months.

  14. Monitoring groundwater-surface water interaction using time-series and time-frequency analysis of transient three-dimensional electrical resistivity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Elwaseif, M.

    2012-07-01

    Time-lapse resistivity imaging is increasingly used to monitor hydrologic processes. Compared to conventional hydrologic measurements, surface time-lapse resistivity provides superior spatial coverage in two or three dimensions, potentially high-resolution information in time, and information in the absence of wells. However, interpretation of time-lapse electrical tomograms is complicated by the ever-increasing size and complexity of long-term, three-dimensional (3-D) time series conductivity data sets. Here we use 3-D surface time-lapse electrical imaging to monitor subsurface electrical conductivity variations associated with stage-driven groundwater-surface water interactions along a stretch of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 near Richland, Washington, USA. We reduce the resulting 3-D conductivity time series using both time-series and time-frequency analyses to isolate a paleochannel causing enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions. Correlation analysis on the time-lapse imaging results concisely represents enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions within the paleochannel, and provides information concerning groundwater flow velocities. Time-frequency analysis using the Stockwell (S) transform provides additional information by identifying the stage periodicities driving groundwater-surface water interactions due to upstream dam operations, and identifying segments in time-frequency space when these interactions are most active. These results provide new insight into the distribution and timing of river water intrusion into the Hanford 300 Area, which has a governing influence on the behavior of a uranium plume left over from historical nuclear fuel processing operations.

  15. Monitoring groundwater-surface water interaction using time-series and time-frequency analysis of transient three-dimensional electrical resistivity changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Elwaseif, Mehrez

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse resistivity imaging is increasingly used to monitor hydrologic processes. Compared to conventional hydrologic measurements, surface time-lapse resistivity provides superior spatial coverage in two or three dimensions, potentially high-resolution information in time, and information in the absence of wells. However, interpretation of time-lapse electrical tomograms is complicated by the ever-increasing size and complexity of long-term, three-dimensional (3-D) time series conductivity data sets. Here we use 3-D surface time-lapse electrical imaging to monitor subsurface electrical conductivity variations associated with stage-driven groundwater-surface water interactions along a stretch of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 near Richland, Washington, USA. We reduce the resulting 3-D conductivity time series using both time-series and time-frequency analyses to isolate a paleochannel causing enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions. Correlation analysis on the time-lapse imaging results concisely represents enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions within the paleochannel, and provides information concerning groundwater flow velocities. Time-frequency analysis using the Stockwell (S) transform provides additional information by identifying the stage periodicities driving groundwater-surface water interactions due to upstream dam operations, and identifying segments in time-frequency space when these interactions are most active. These results provide new insight into the distribution and timing of river water intrusion into the Hanford 300 Area, which has a governing influence on the behavior of a uranium plume left over from historical nuclear fuel processing operations.

  16. A new time-domain approach for the electromagnetic induction problem in a three-dimensional heterogeneous earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, Yozo

    2002-09-01

    peaks, where the first peak (observed at 0.001-0.01 hr after the application of the external field) corresponds to the surface-layer induced phase and the second peak (1-50 hr after the onset) reflects the deeper structure. The difference of the response functions between the models with the conductivity jump at 400 km and 700 km depths becomes apparent after about 1000 s elapsed. The differences can be used to estimate the electrical conductivity structure around the transition layer. Considering that all the induced components except g10 are generated by the surface heterogeneous layer, the surface layer should be included even for calculating the long period response functions for periods much longer than the characteristic time of the surface layer. For the model in which the transition layer is heterogeneous, the signal starts at about 1000 s after the onset and lasts more than about 100 hr. Fourier transform of the time-domain response functions gives the response function in the frequency domain, which can be compared with the previous solutions. Real and imaginary parts of the spatial distribution of the induced magnetic field in frequency domain were calculated from the present results, and compared with those calculated by the staggered-grid finite difference method. This comparison indicates that the surface induced phases are equally detected in the both approaches even for periods as long as 10 days.

  17. EPIC Simulations of Time-Dependent, Three-Dimensional Vortices with Application to Neptune's Great Dark SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBeau, R. P.; Dowling, T. E.

    1998-04-01

    We use the EPIC general circulation model, described in the companion paper by Dowlinget al.(1998.Icarus132, 221-238), to simulate large vortices under conditions similar to those found on Neptune. The vortices are anticyclones with roughly elliptical cross sections and exhibit motions that resemble the behavior of Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS), including equatorward drift, oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation angle, and tail formation. The vortices also exhibit three-dimensional motions that may explain the occasional appearance of the GDS as two overlapping ellipses. We find that the meridional drift of the vortices is correlated with the meridional gradient of the background absolute vorticity, β*. This result complements studies of hurricane drift. The correlation suggests that the drift rate of GDS-type vortices on Neptune, which can be monitored over the long term by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is diagnostic of the vorticity gradient on the planet. The best fit to the Voyager GDS drift rate in our simulations corresponds to β* ≈ 2 × 10-12m-1s-1. This is about{1}/{3}of the value given by the zonal-wind profile determined by fitting an even polynomial in latitude to the cloud-tracking data (Sromovskyet al.1993). Refitting the data with spherical harmonics (Legendre polynomials) yields a value for β* that is about{1}/{2}of the Sromovskyet al.value, and more in line with our vortex-drift results. We show that vortex shape oscillations occur both in the case β* = 0, corresponding to the analytical model of Kida (1981), and for β* > 0. Interpreting the shape oscillations is more complicated than interpreting meridional drift because shape oscillations are sensitive to the distribution of vorticity in the vortex as well as in the environment. Rossby-wave dispersion strongly affects the model vortices that drift too close to the equator. The vortices disrupt before reaching the equator, dispersing into waves that propagate in both the southern

  18. Three-dimensional nanomagnetism

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandez-Pacheco, Amalio; Streubel, Robert; Fruchart, Olivier; ...

    2017-06-09

    Magnetic nanostructures are being developed for use in many aspects of our daily life, spanning areas such as data storage, sensing and biomedicine. Whereas patterned nanomagnets are traditionally two-dimensional planar structures, recent work is expanding nanomagnetism into three dimensions; a move triggered by the advance of unconventional synthesis methods and the discovery of new magnetic effects. In three-dimensional nanomagnets more complex magnetic configurations become possible, many with unprecedented properties. Here we review the creation of these structures and their implications for the emergence of new physics, the development of instrumentation and computational methods, and exploitation in numerous applications.

  19. Three dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, G.; Rajeev, S. G.; Yang, Z.

    1992-02-01

    The subject of this talk is the study of the low energy behavior of three (2+1) dimensional Quantum Chromodynamics. We show the existence of a phase where parity is unbroken and the flavor group U(2n) is broken into a subgroup U(n)×U(n). We derive the low energy effective action for the theory and show that it has solitonic excitations with Fermi statistic, to be identified with the three dimensional ``baryon''. Finally, we study the current algebra for this effective action and we find a co-homologically nontrivial generalization of Kac-Moody algebras to three dimension.

  20. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, David Bruce

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  1. Three-dimensional nanomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pacheco, Amalio; Streubel, Robert; Fruchart, Olivier; Hertel, Riccardo; Fischer, Peter; Cowburn, Russell P.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic nanostructures are being developed for use in many aspects of our daily life, spanning areas such as data storage, sensing and biomedicine. Whereas patterned nanomagnets are traditionally two-dimensional planar structures, recent work is expanding nanomagnetism into three dimensions; a move triggered by the advance of unconventional synthesis methods and the discovery of new magnetic effects. In three-dimensional nanomagnets more complex magnetic configurations become possible, many with unprecedented properties. Here we review the creation of these structures and their implications for the emergence of new physics, the development of instrumentation and computational methods, and exploitation in numerous applications.

  2. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  3. Three Dimensional (3D) Printing: A Straightforward, User-Friendly Protocol to Convert Virtual Chemical Models to Real-Life Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Sergio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Brenna, Davide; Porta, Riccardo; Orlandi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A simple procedure to convert protein data bank files (.pdb) into a stereolithography file (.stl) using VMD software (Virtual Molecular Dynamic) is reported. This tutorial allows generating, with a very simple protocol, three-dimensional customized structures that can be printed by a low-cost 3D-printer, and used for teaching chemical education…

  4. Three Dimensional (3D) Printing: A Straightforward, User-Friendly Protocol to Convert Virtual Chemical Models to Real-Life Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Sergio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Brenna, Davide; Porta, Riccardo; Orlandi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A simple procedure to convert protein data bank files (.pdb) into a stereolithography file (.stl) using VMD software (Virtual Molecular Dynamic) is reported. This tutorial allows generating, with a very simple protocol, three-dimensional customized structures that can be printed by a low-cost 3D-printer, and used for teaching chemical education…

  5. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xin; Marshall, Matthew J; Xiong, Yijia; Ma, Xiang; Zhou, Yufan; Tucker, Abigail E; Zhu, Zihua; Liu, Songqin; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface), was employed for in situ chemical imaging of live biofilms using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Depth profiling by sputtering materials in sequential layers resulted in live biofilm spatial chemical mapping. Two-dimensional (2D) images were reconstructed to report the first three-dimensional images of hydrated biofilm elucidating spatial and chemical heterogeneity. 2D image principal component analysis was conducted among biofilms at different locations in the microchannel. Our approach directly visualized spatial and chemical heterogeneity within the living biofilm by dynamic liquid ToF-SIMS.

  6. Data Visualization in Physics II: VRML and Java for three-dimensional imaging and fully three-dimensional movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Flavio H.; Evans, Steven J.; Hastings, Harold M.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.

    2006-03-01

    Presentation and analysis of large three-dimensional data sets is in general hard to do using only two-dimensional figures and plots. In this talk, we will demonstrate techniques for illustrating static and dynamic three-dimensional objects and data using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as well as Java. The advantage of these two languages is that they are platform-independent, which allows for easy sharing of data and visualizations. In addition, manipulation of data is relatively easy as rotation, translation and zooming can be done in real- time for static objects as well as for data and objects that vary and deform in time. Examples of fully three-dimensional movies will be shown, including dendritic growth and propagation of electrical waves in cardiac tissue. In addition, we will show how to include VRML and Java viewers in PowerPoint for easy presentation of results in classes and seminars.

  7. Microlaser-based three-dimensional display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Bergstedt, Robert; Hargis, David E.; Higley, Paul D.

    1999-08-01

    Three dimensional (3D) displays are critical for viewing complex multi-dimensional information and for viewing representations of the three dimensional real world. A teaming arrangement between Laser Power Corporation (LPC) and Specialty Devices, Inc. (SDI) has led to the feasibility demonstration of a directly-viewed three dimensional volumetric display. LPC has developed red, green, and blue (RGB) diode pumped solid state microlaser display technology for use as a high resolution, high brightness display engine for the three dimensional display. Concurrently, SDI has developed a unique technology for viewing high resolution three dimensional volumetric images without external viewing aids (eye wear). When coupled to LPC's display engine, the resultant all solid state three dimensional display presets a true, physical three dimensionality which is directly viewable from all angles by multiple viewers without additional viewing equipment (eye wear). The resultant volumetric display will further enable applications such as the 'virtual sandbox,' visualization of radar and sonar data, air traffic control, remote surgery and diagnostics, and CAD workstations.

  8. Three dimensional interactive display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

  9. Three-dimensional, two-species magnetohydrodynamic studies of the early time behaviors of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2 barium release

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Lianghai Li, Lei; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Yiteng

    2014-04-15

    We present a three-dimensional, two-species (Ba{sup +} and H{sup +}) MHD model to study the early time behaviors of a barium release at about 1 R{sub E} like Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2, with emphasis placed on the three-dimensional evolution of the barium cloud and its effects on the ambient plasma environment. We find that the perturbations caused by the cloud are the combined results of the initial injection, the radial expansion, and the diamagnetic effect and propagate as fast MHD waves in the magnetosphere. In return, the transverse expansion and the cross-B motion of barium ions are constrained by the magnetic force, which lead to a field-aligned striation of ions and the decoupling of these ions from the neutrals. Our simulation shows the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity in the barium cloud. The estimated time scale for the cavity evolution might be much shorter if photoionization time scale and field aligned expansion of barium ions are considered. In addition, our two species MHD simulation also finds the snowplow effect resulting from the momentum coupling between barium ions and background H{sup +}, which creates density hole and bumps in the background H{sup +} when barium ions expanding along the magnetic field lines.

  10. Dark and bright solitons for a three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with distributed time-dependent coefficients in the Bose-Einstein condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Shan, Wen-Rui

    2017-02-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the distributed time-dependent coefficients, which describes the phenomena associated with the three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation. Under the constraint α(t) = 2 β(t) , we obtain the bilinear forms, dark and bright N-soliton solutions via the Hirota method and symbolic computation, where t is the scaled time, α(t) and β(t) are the coefficients for the strength of the quadratic potential and diffraction, respectively. Specially, compared with the bright soliton solutions previously reported, we eliminate one constraint and obtain more soliton parameters. We give the existence constraints of the dark and bright N solitons, respectively. Choosing the diffraction and gain/loss coefficients, we observe the growth, decay, periodic oscillation, periodic collapse and revival of the dark and bright solitons. Relationships between the BEC time-dependent coefficients and soliton properties are studied. With the help of the asymptotic and graphic analysis, elastic interactions of the dark and bright two solitons are exhibited.

  11. Three-dimensional inversion of regional P and S arrival times in the East Aleutians and sources of subduction zone gravity highs

    SciTech Connect

    Abers, G.A.

    1994-03-10

    Free-air gravity highs over forearcs represent a large fraction of the power in the Earth`s anomalous field, yet their origin remains uncertain. Seismic velocities, as indicators of density, are estimated here as a means to compare the relative importance of upper plate sources for the gravity high with sources in the downgoing plate. P and S arrival times for local earthquakes, recorded by a seismic network in the eastern Aleutians, are inverted for three-dimensional velocity structure between the volcanic arc and the downgoing plate. A three-dimensional ray tracing scheme is used to invert the 7974 P and 6764 S arrivals for seismic velocities and hypocenters of 635 events. One-dimensional inversions show that station P residuals are systematically 0.25 - 0.5 s positive at stations 0-30 km north of the Aleutian volcanic arc, indicating slow material, while residuals at stations 10-30 km south of the arc are 0.1-0.25 s negative. Both features are explained in three-dimensional inversions by velocity variations at depths less than 25-35 km. Tests using a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional slab starting model show that below 100 km depth, velocities are poorly determined and trade off almost completely with hypocenters for earthquakes at these depths. The locations of forearc velocity highs, in the crust of the upper plate, correspond to the location of the gravity high between the trench and volcanic arc. Free-air anomalies, calculated from the three-dimensional velocity inversion result, match observed gravity for a linear density-velocity relationship between 0.1 and 0.3 (Mg m{sup {minus}3})/(km s{sup {minus}1}), when a 50-km-thick slab is included with a density of 0.055{+-}0.005 Mg m{sup {minus}3}. Values outside these ranges do not match the observed gravity. The slab alone contributes one third to one half of the total 75-150 mGal amplitude of the gravity high but predicts a high that is much broader than is observed.

  12. Deriving Sensitivity Kernels of Coda-Wave Travel Times to Velocity Changes Based on the Three-Dimensional Single Isotropic Scattering Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Hisashi; Emoto, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Recently, coda-wave interferometry has been used to monitor temporal changes in subsurface structures. Seismic velocity changes have been detected by coda-wave interferometry in association with large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. To constrain the spatial extent of the velocity changes, spatial homogeneity is often assumed. However, it is important to locate the region of the velocity changes correctly to understand physical mechanisms causing them. In this paper, we are concerned with the sensitivity kernels relating travel times of coda waves to velocity changes. In previous studies, sensitivity kernels have been formulated for two-dimensional single scattering and multiple scattering, three-dimensional multiple scattering, and diffusion. In this paper, we formulate and derive analytical expressions of the sensitivity kernels for three-dimensional single-scattering case. These sensitivity kernels show two peaks at both source and receiver locations, which is similar to the previous studies using different scattering models. The two peaks are more pronounced for later lapse time. We validate our formulation by comparing it with finite-difference simulations of acoustic wave propagation. Our formulation enables us to evaluate the sensitivity kernels analytically, which is particularly useful for the analysis of body waves from deeper earthquakes.

  13. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  14. Three-Dimensional Complex Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1988-01-01

    Report presents new theory of analytic functions of three-dimensional complex variables. While three-dimensional system subject to more limitations and more difficult to use than the two-dimensional system, useful in analysis of three-dimensional fluid flows, electrostatic potentials, and other phenomena involving harmonic functions.

  15. Real time obscuration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agricola, Koos

    2016-09-01

    Recently a real time particle deposition monitoring system is developed. After discussions with optical system engineers a new feature has been added. This enables the real time monitoring of obscuration of exposed optical components by counting the deposited particles and sizing the obscuration area of each particle. This way the Particle Obscuration Rate (POR) can be determined. The POR can be used to determine the risk of product contamination during exposure. The particle size distribution gives information on the type of potential particle sources. The deposition moments will indicate when these sources were present.

  16. Three-dimensional ultrashort echo time imaging of solid polymers on a 3-Tesla whole-body MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Springer, Fabian; Martirosian, Petros; Schwenzer, Nina F; Szimtenings, Michael; Kreisler, Peter; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2008-11-01

    With the introduction of ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences solid polymeric materials might become visible on clinical whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The aim of this study was to characterize solid polymeric materials typically used for instruments in magnetic resonance guided interventions and implants. Relaxation behavior and signal yield were evaluated on a 3-Tesla whole-body MR unit. Nine different commonly used solid polymeric materials were investigated by means of a 3-dimensional (3D) UTE sequence with radial k-space sampling. The investigated polymeric samples with cylindrical shape (length, 150 mm; diameter, 30 mm) were placed in a commercial 8-channel knee coil. For assessment of transverse signal decay (T2*) images with variable echo times (TE) ranging from 0.07 milliseconds to 4.87 milliseconds were recorded. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) was calculated for all MR visible polymers with transverse relaxation times higher than T2* = 300 mus using an adapted method applying variable flip angles. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated at the shortest achievable echo time (TE = 0.07 milliseconds) for standardized sequence parameters. All relaxation times and SNR data are given as arithmetic mean values with standard deviations derived from 5 axially oriented slices placed around the isocenter of the coil and magnet. Six of the 9 investigated solid polymers were visible at TE = 0.07 milliseconds. Visible solid polymers showed markedly different SNR values, ie, polyethylene SNR = 1146 +/- 41, polypropylene SNR = 60 +/- 6. Nearly mono-exponential echo time dependent signal decay was observed: Transverse relaxation times differed from T2*=36 +/- 5 mus for polycarbonate to T2*=792 +/- 7 mus for polyvinylchloride (PVC). Two of the investigated solid polymers were applicable to T1 relaxation time calculation. Polyurethane had a spin-lattice relaxation time of T1 = 172 +/- 1 milliseconds, whereas PVC had T1 = 262 +/- 7 milliseconds

  17. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  18. Improving three-dimensional target reconstruction in the multiple scattering regime using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Chaumet, Patrick C.; Sentenac, Anne; Belkebir, Kamal

    2016-12-01

    The singular vectors of the time reversal operator (décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel, time reversal operator decomposition (DORT) processing) are often used for localizing small echogeneous targets in a cluttered environment. In this work, we show that they can also improve the imaging of relatively large and contrasted targets in a homogeneous environment. It is observed that non-linear inversion schemes, minimizing iteratively the discrepancy between experimental data and simulated field scattered by target estimates, are more efficient when the illuminations correspond to the DORT singular vectors. In addition, DORT preprocessing permits a drastic diminution of the data load and computer burden. This study is conducted with experimental microwave data of targets with size comparable or greater than the wavelength.

  19. Three-dimensional time and frequency-domain theory of femtosecond x-ray pulse generation through Thomson Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V

    2004-01-27

    The generation of high intensity, ultra-short x-ray pulses enables exciting new experimental capabilities, such as femtosecond pump-probe experiments used to temporally resolve material structural dynamics on atomic time scales. Thomson backscattering of a high intensity laser pulse with a bright relativistic electron bunch is a promising method for producing such high brightness x-ray pulses in the 10-100 keV range within a compact facility. While a variety of methods for producing sub-picosecond x-ray bursts by Thomson scattering exist, including compression of the electron bunch to sub-picosecond bunch lengths and/or colliding a sub-picosecond laser pulse in a side-on geometry to minimize the interaction time, a promising alternative approach to achieving this goal while maintaining ultra-high brightness is the production of a time correlated (or chirped) x-ray pulse in conjunction with pulse slicing or compression. We present the results of a complete analysis of this process using a recently developed 3-D time and frequency-domain code for analyzing the spatial, temporal, and spectral properties an x-ray beam produced by relativistic Thomson scattering. Based on the relativistic differential cross section, this code has the capability to calculate time and space dependent spectra of the x-ray photons produced from linear Thomson scattering for both bandwidth-limited and chirped incident laser pulses. Spectral broadening of the scattered x-ray pulse resulting from the incident laser bandwidth, laser focus, and the transverse and longitudinal phase space of the electron beam were examined. Simulations of chirped x-ray pulse production using both a chirped electron beam and a chirped laser pulse are presented. Required electron beam and laser parameters are summarized by investigating the effects of beam emittance, energy spread, and laser bandwidth on the scattered x-ray spectrum. It is shown that sufficient temporal correlation in the scattered x-ray spectrum

  20. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  1. Three-dimensional kinematics of the scapula and trunk, and associated scapular muscle timing in individuals with stroke.

    PubMed

    De Baets, Liesbet; Van Deun, Sara; Monari, Davide; Jaspers, Ellen

    2016-08-01

    Poor scapulothoracic control is a risk for developing shoulder pathology, but has received little attention so far in individuals with stroke (IwS). Trunk and scapular kinematics and surface muscle activity were measured in 15 healthy controls and 18 IwS during a low and high forward flexion (FF). Group-differences in trunk and scapular kinematics were assessed during low and high FF using a t-test (independent samples). Differences in muscle onset and offset time relative to movement start (both FF tasks) were determined using a mixed model taking into account the different groups and muscles. Recruitment patterns per group and task were described based on significant differences between muscles. In IwS, earlier lower trapezius and late infraspinatus offset were found during low FF, as well as a later onset and earlier offset of serratus anterior. For low FF, significantly more trunk axial rotation was found in IwS during both elevation and lowering. During high FF, IwS showed significantly less scapular posterior tilt during elevation and more scapular lateral rotation during lowering. IwS demonstrated adaptive muscle timing with earlier initiation and late inactivation of lower trapezius and infraspinatus, possibly to compensate for a late activation and early deactivation of the serratus anterior and to establish as such the correct pattern of scapulothoracic movement.

  2. Real-time cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quercellini, Claudia; Amendola, Luca; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, improved astrometric and spectroscopic techniques have opened the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky over relatively short time intervals. This has made at least conceivable to establish a novel research domain, which we dub “real-time cosmology”. We review for the first time most of the work already done in this field, analysing the theoretical framework as well as some foreseeable observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We first focus on real-time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant sources, which allows the observer to trace the background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper accelerations in clustered systems, and therefore their gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the future change of the cosmic microwave background on “short” time scales, as well as to the temporal shift of the temperature anisotropy power spectrum and maps. We conclude revisiting in this context the usefulness of upcoming experiments (like CODEX and Gaia) for real-time observations.

  3. Three-dimensional, Time-Resolved, Intrafraction Motion Monitoring Throughout Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy on a Conventional Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Worm, Esben S.; Høyer, Morten; Fledelius, Walter; Poulsen, Per R.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time-resolved 3-dimensional (3D) internal motion throughout stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of tumors in the liver using standard x-ray imagers of a conventional linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with implanted gold markers received 11 treatment courses of 3-fraction SBRT in a stereotactic body-frame on a conventional linear accelerator. Two pretreatment and 1 posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired during each fraction. The CBCT projection images were used to estimate the internal 3D marker motion during CBCT acquisition with 11-Hz resolution by a monoscopic probability-based method. Throughout the treatment delivery by conformal or volumetric modulated arc fields, simultaneous MV portal imaging (8 Hz) and orthogonal kV imaging (5 Hz) were applied to determine the 3D marker motion using either MV/kV triangulation or the monoscopic method when marker segmentation was unachievable in either MV or kV images. The accuracy of monoscopic motion estimation was quantified by also applying monoscopic estimation as a test for all treatments during which MV/kV triangulation was possible. Results: Root-mean-square deviations between monoscopic estimations and triangulations were less than 1.0 mm. The mean 3D intrafraction and intrafield motion ranges during liver SBRT were 17.6 mm (range, 5.6-39.5 mm) and 11.3 mm (2.1-35.5mm), respectively. The risk of large intrafraction baseline shifts correlated with intrafield respiratory motion range. The mean 3D intrafractional marker displacement relative to the first CBCT was 3.4 mm (range, 0.7-14.5 mm). The 3D displacements exceeded 8.8 mm 10% of the time. Conclusions: Highly detailed time-resolved internal 3D motion was determined throughout liver SBRT using standard imaging equipment. Considerable intrafraction motion was observed. The demonstrated methods provide a widely available approach for motion monitoring that, combined with motion

  4. On numerical model of time-dependent processes in three-dimensional porous heat-releasing objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, Nickolay A.

    2016-10-01

    The gas flows in the gravity field through porous objects with heat-releasing sources are investigated when the self-regulation of the flow rate of the gas passing through the porous object takes place. Such objects can appear after various natural or man-made disasters (like the exploded unit of the Chernobyl NPP). The mathematical model and the original numerical method, based on a combination of explicit and implicit finite difference schemes, are developed for investigating the time-dependent processes in 3D porous energy-releasing objects. The advantage of the numerical model is its ability to describe unsteady processes under both natural convection and forced filtration. The gas cooling of 3D porous objects with different distribution of heat sources is studied using computational experiment.

  5. Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ko-Wei; Shieh, Han-Ping D

    2006-05-01

    An autostereoscopic display using a directional backlight with a fast-switching liquid-crystal (LC) display was designed and fabricated to obtain a better perception of 3D images by enhanced resolution and brightness. A grooved light guide in combination with an asymmetric focusing foil was utilized to redirect the emitting cones of light to the left and right eyes, respectively. By designing the groove structures of the focusing foil with rotation from -1.5 degrees to 1.5 degrees in the gradient and having the pitch ratio of the grooved light guide to the focusing foil of less than 3, the boundary angle then shifts from normal viewing and the moiré phenomenon can be suppressed. Cross talk of less than 6% and a LC response time of faster than 7.1 ms further improve the stereoscopic image perception. Additionally, 2D-3D compatibility is provided.

  6. A three-dimensional simulation of transition and early turbulence in a time-developing mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, A. B.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The physics of the transition and early turbulence regimes in the time developing mixing layer was investigated. The sensitivity of the mixing layer to the disturbance field of the initial condition is considered. The growth of the momentum thickness, the mean velocity profile, the turbulence kinetic energy, the Reynolds stresses, the anisotropy tensor, and particle track pictures of computations are all examined in an effort to better understand the physics of these regimes. The amplitude, spectrum shape, and random phases of the initial disturbance field were varied. A scheme of generating discrete orthogonal function expansions on some nonuniform grids was developed. All cases address the early or near field of the mixing layer. The most significant result shows that the secondary instability of the mixing layer is produced by spanwise variations in the straining field of the primary vortex structures.

  7. Time-dependent three-dimensional (latitude, longitude, altitude) response of the ionosphere to the 2009 SSW event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem, S. I.; Crowley, G.; Reynolds, A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown variations in the low and mid latitude ionosphere that are linked to Sudden Stratospheric Warming events. These studies suggest that during SSW events the equatorial electric fields vary in a quasi-deterministic way, producing vertical plasma drifts that deviate from climatological values more than expected. Although previous studies have provided important information on the ionospheric response to SSW events, they have been fairly localized. Therefore, broader observational capabilities and data are required that can unambiguously reveal the instantaneous global response of the ionosphere to SSW events. In this paper, we present four-dimensional (latitude, longitude, height and time) results of the Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) algorithm to describe a global view of the ionospheric response to the 2009 SSW event. We use the IDA4D to assimilate ionosondes, ground-based GPS TEC, DORIS, CHAMP and GRACE occultation measurements for several days in January 2009 during the SSW event. IDA4D results show that at the peak of the 2009 SSW event, TEC values in the low latitudes were elevated in the morning hours while they were suppressed in the evening sector. The effects of enhanced dynamo forcing during the January 2009 SSW were also captured by the IDA4D showing an increased separation of the Appleton Anomaly peaks. The IDA4D results will be discussed in the context of horizontal, vertical and temporal evolution of ionospheric disturbances associated with the 2009 SSW event. The evolution of longitudinal, local time, and height (where applicable) variations of various plasma parameters (such as Ne, TEC, NmF2, hmF2, foF2) through the full 2009 SSW cycle (including genesis, onset, and recovery) will be presented.

  8. Parallel Monte Carlo transport modeling in the context of a time-dependent, three-dimensional multi-physics code

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    The fine-scale, multi-space resolution that is envisioned for accurate simulations of complex weapons systems in three spatial dimensions implies flop-rate and memory-storage requirements that will only be obtained in the near future through the use of parallel computational techniques. Since the Monte Carlo transport models in these simulations usually stress both of these computational resources, they are prime candidates for parallelization. The MONACO Monte Carlo transport package, which is currently under development at LLNL, will utilize two types of parallelism within the context of a multi-physics design code: decomposition of the spatial domain across processors (spatial parallelism) and distribution of particles in a given spatial subdomain across additional processors (particle parallelism). This implementation of the package will utilize explicit data communication between domains (message passing). Such a parallel implementation of a Monte Carlo transport model will result in non-deterministic communication patterns. The communication of particles between subdomains during a Monte Carlo time step may require a significant level of effort to achieve a high parallel efficiency.

  9. A multiphase three-dimensional multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model with surface tension adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Sami; Pernaudat, Guillaume; Trépanier, Jean-Yves

    2017-08-01

    The interdependence of surface tension and density ratio is a weakness of pseudo-potential based lattice Boltzmann models (LB). In this paper, we propose a 3D multi-relaxation time (MRT) model for multiphase flows at large density ratios. The proposed model is capable of adjusting the surface tension independently of the density ratio. We also present the 3D macroscopic equations recovered by the proposed forcing scheme. A high order of isotropy for the interaction force is used to reduce the amplitude of spurious currents. The proposed 3D-MRT model is validated by verifying Laplace's law and by analyzing its thermodynamic consistency and the oscillation period of a deformed droplet. The model is then applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a dry surface. Impact dynamics are determined and the maximum spread factor calculated for different Reynolds and Weber numbers. The numerical results are in agreement with data published in the literature. The influence of surface wettability on the spread factor is also investigated. Finally, our 3D-MRT model is applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a wet surface. The propagation of transverse waves is observed on the liquid surface.

  10. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Of Ultrasound Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalouche, Robert C.; Bickmore, Dan; Tessler, Franklin N.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Huang, H. K.; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    1989-05-01

    We have established a three-dimensional (3-D) imaging facility for reconstruction of serial two-dimensional (2-D) ultrasound images. In the facility, contiguous 2-D images are captured directly at the clinical site from the real-time video signals of a Labsonics serial ultrasound imager. The images are digitized and stored on an IBM PC. They are then transferred over an Ethernet communication network to the Image Processing Laboratory. Finally, the serial images are reformatted and the 3-D images are reconstructed on a Pixar image computer. The reconstruction method involves grey level remapping, slice interpolation, tissue classification, surface enhancement, illumination, projection, and display. We have demonstrated that 3-D ultra-sound images can be created which bring out features difficult to discern in 2-D ultrasound images.

  11. AAOGlimpse: Three-dimensional Data Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortridge, Keith

    2011-10-01

    AAOGlimpse is an experimental display program that uses OpenGL to display FITS data (and even JPEG images) as 3D surfaces that can be rotated and viewed from different angles, all in real-time. It is WCS-compliant and designed to handle three-dimensional data. Each plane in a data cube is surfaced in the same way, and the program allows the user to travel through a cube by 'peeling off' successive planes, or to look into a cube by suppressing the display of data below a given cutoff value. It can blink images and can superimpose images and contour maps from different sources using their world coordinate data. A limited socket interface allows communication with other programs.

  12. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (µFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (µFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The µFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by “chemical noise” and other interfering peaks.

  13. A staggered space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured tetrahedral meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavelli, Maurizio; Dumbser, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we propose a novel arbitrary high order accurate semi-implicit space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured curved tetrahedral meshes. As is typical for space-time DG schemes, the discrete solution is represented in terms of space-time basis functions. This allows to achieve very high order of accuracy also in time, which is not easy to obtain for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Similarly to staggered finite difference schemes, in our approach the discrete pressure is defined on the primary tetrahedral grid, while the discrete velocity is defined on a face-based staggered dual grid. While staggered meshes are state of the art in classical finite difference schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, their use in high order DG schemes is still quite rare. A very simple and efficient Picard iteration is used in order to derive a space-time pressure correction algorithm that achieves also high order of accuracy in time and that avoids the direct solution of global nonlinear systems. Formal substitution of the discrete momentum equation on the dual grid into the discrete continuity equation on the primary grid yields a very sparse five-point block system for the scalar pressure, which is conveniently solved with a matrix-free GMRES algorithm. From numerical experiments we find that the linear system seems to be reasonably well conditioned, since all simulations shown in this paper could be run without the use of any preconditioner, even up to very high polynomial degrees. For a piecewise constant polynomial approximation in time and if pressure boundary conditions are specified at least in one point, the resulting system is, in addition, symmetric and positive definite. This allows us to use even faster iterative solvers, like the conjugate gradient method. The flexibility and accuracy of high order space-time DG methods on curved

  14. Three dimensional Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent

  15. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  16. Three-dimensional vortex methods

    SciTech Connect

    Greengard, C.A.

    1984-08-01

    Three-dimensional vortex methods for the computation of incompressible fluid flow are presented from a unified point of view. Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms; in both of them, the vorticity is evaluated by a discretization of the spatial derivative of the flow map. The fact that the filament method, the one which is most often used in practice, can be formulated as a version of the Beale and Majda algorithm in a curved coordinate system is used to give a convergence theorem for the filament method. The method of Anderson is also discussed, in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. This remains true even when time discretization is taken into account. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed. 36 references, 4 figures.

  17. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas presenting as ground-glass opacities on multidetector CT: three-dimensional computer-assisted analysis of growth pattern and doubling time

    PubMed Central

    Borghesi, Andrea; Farina, Davide; Michelini, Silvia; Ferrari, Matteo; Benetti, Diego; Fisogni, Simona; Tironi, Andrea; Maroldi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the growth pattern and doubling time (DT) of pulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibiting ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on multidetector computed tomography (CT). METHODS The growth pattern and DT of 22 pulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibiting GGOs were retrospectively analyzed using three-dimensional semiautomatic software. Analysis of each lesion was based on calculations of volume and mass changes and their respective DTs throughout CT follow-up. Three-dimensional segmentation was performed by a single radiologist on each CT scan. The same observer and another radiologist independently repeated the segmentation at the baseline and the last CT scan to determine the variability of the measurements. The relationships among DTs, histopathology, and initial CT features of the lesions were also analyzed. RESULTS Pulmonary adenocarcinomas presenting as GGOs exhibited different growth patterns: some lesions grew rapidly and some grew slowly, whereas others alternated between periods of growth, stability, or shrinkage. A significant increase in volume and mass that exceeded the coefficient of repeatability of interobserver variability was observed in 72.7% and 84.2% of GGOs, respectively. The volume-DTs and mass-DTs were heterogeneous throughout the follow-up CT scan (range, −4293 to 21928 and −3113 to 17020 days, respectively), and their intra- and interobserver variabilities were moderately high. The volume-DTs and mass-DTs were not correlated with the initial CT features of GGOs; however, they were significantly shorter in invasive adenocarcinomas (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION Pulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibiting GGOs show heterogeneous growth patterns with a trend toward a progressive increase in size. DTs may be useful for predicting tumor aggressiveness. PMID:27682741

  18. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)

  19. A Three Dimensional Helmet Mounted Primary Flight Reference for Paratroopers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-21

    effectiveness of the graphical, predictive HUD in helping paratroopers navigate. The first objective involves integrating data from a GPS (real-time...equal to zero; the lower the number, the better the measurement. 2.2.1. Related Research in GPS Navigation GPS receivers are being integrated into...of a three dimensional primary flight reference for paratroopers, displayed on a HMD, and integrated with NVGs. Although the project did not

  20. Three-dimensional inversion of regional P and S arrival times in the East Aleutians and sources of subduction zone gravity highs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.

    1994-03-01

    Free-air gravity highs over forearcs represent a large fraction of the power in the Earth's anomalous field, yet their origin remains uncertain. Seismic velocities, as indicators of density, are estimated here as a means to compare the relative importance of upper plate sources for the gravity high with sources in the downgoing plate. P and S arrival times for local earthquakes, recorded by a seismic network in the eastern Aleutians, are inverted for three-dimensional velocity structure between the volcanic arc and the downgoing plate. A three-dimensional ray tracing scheme is used to invert the 7974 P and 6764 S arrivals for seismic velocities and hypocenters of 635 events. One-dimensional inversions show that station P residuals are systematically 0.25-0.5 s positive at stations 0-30 km north of the Aleutian volcanic arc, indicating slow material, while residuals at stations 10-30 km south of the arc are 0.1-0.25 s negative. Both features are explained in three-dimensional inversions by velocity variations at depths less than 25-35 km. Tests using a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional slab starting model show that below 100 km depth, velocities are poorly determined and trade off almost completely with hypocenters for earthquakes at these depths. The locations of forearc velocity highs, in the crust of the upper plate, correspond to the location of the gravity high between the trench and volcanic arc. Free-air anomalies, calculated from the three-dimensional velocity inversion result, match observed gravity for a linear density-velocity relationship between 0.1 and 0.3 (Mg m-3)/(km s-1), when a 50-km-thick slab is included with a density of 0.055±0.005 Mg m-3. Values outside these ranges do not match the observed gravity. The slab alone contributes one third to one half of the total 75-150 mGal amplitude of the gravity high but predicts a high that is much broader than is observed. The inclusion of upper-plate velocity anomalies predicts the correct width of

  1. On a class of unsteady three-dimensional Navier Stokes solutions relevant to rotating disc flows: Threshold amplitudes and finite time singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Balakumar, P.

    1990-01-01

    A class of exact steady and unsteady solutions of the Navier Stokes equations in cylindrical polar coordinates is given. The flows correspond to the motion induced by an infinite disc rotating with constant angular velocity about the z-axis in a fluid occupying a semi-infinite region which, at large distances from the disc, has velocity field proportional to (x,-y,O) with respect to a Cartesian coordinate system. It is shown that when the rate of rotation is large, Karman's exact solution for a disc rotating in an otherwise motionless fluid is recovered. In the limit of zero rotation rate a particular form of Howarth's exact solution for three-dimensional stagnation point flow is obtained. The unsteady form of the partial differential system describing this class of flow may be generalized to time-periodic equilibrium flows. In addition the unsteady equations are shown to describe a strongly nonlinear instability of Karman's rotating disc flow. It is shown that sufficiently large perturbations lead to a finite time breakdown of that flow whilst smaller disturbances decay to zero. If the stagnation point flow at infinity is sufficiently strong, the steady basic states become linearly unstable. In fact there is then a continuous spectrum of unstable eigenvalues of the stability equations but, if the initial value problem is considered, it is found that, at large values of time, the continuous spectrum leads to a velocity field growing exponentially in time with an amplitude decaying algebraically in time.

  2. Self-intermediate scattering function of strongly interacting three-dimensional lattice gases: time- and wave-vector-dependent tracer diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Skarpalezos, Loukas; Argyrakis, Panos; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the self-intermediate scattering function (SISF) in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice fluid (interacting lattice gas) with attractive nearest-neighbor interparticle interactions at a temperature slightly above the critical one by means of Monte Carlo simulations. A special representation of SISF as an exponent of the mean tracer diffusion coefficient multiplied by the geometrical factor and time is considered to highlight memory effects that are included in time and wave-vector dependence of the diffusion coefficient. An analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is suggested to reproduce the simulation data. It is shown that the particles' mean-square displacement is equal to the time integral of the diffusion coefficient. We make a comparison with the previously considered 2D system on a square lattice. The main difference with the two-dimensional case is that the time dependence of particular characteristics of the tracer diffusion coefficient in the 3D case cannot be described by exponentially decreasing functions, but requires using stretched exponentials with rather small values of exponents, of the order of 0.2. The hydrodynamic values of the tracer diffusion coefficient (in the limit of large times and small wave vectors) defined through SIFS simulation results agree well with the results of its direct determination by the mean-square displacement of the particles in the entire range of concentrations and temperatures.

  3. Three-Dimensional Solar Wind Structures Obtained with MHD Simulation Model Using Observation-Based Time-Varying Inner Boundary Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Kojima, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report our recent efforts to reproduce numerically three-dimensional time-dependent structures of the solar wind in the heliosphere responding to the time-varying boundary data on the inner boundary sphere at the heliocentric distance of 50 radii. The computation region is extended up to 10050 solar radii (approximately 47AU). A boundary model we recently developed is used to include the time-varying observation-based data map in the inner heliosphere including the radial component of the magnetic field. One merit of using the time-varying boundary conditions in the MHD simulation is that we will be able to determine better the MHD variables of the solar wind at the time and position of interest, especially in the distant regions from the Sun. The boundary data used here were derived from the IPS (interplanetary scintillation) at Nagoya University of Japan that can yield the solar wind speed at both high and low heliographic latitudes, and the solar-surface magnetic field data, such as those by SOHO/MDI and WSO. In this article, we will show the comparisons of our simulation results with the in-situ measurements made by space probes, such as the nearby-Earth measurement dataset (OMNIweb data), Ulysses, and Voyager 1 and 2 (COHOweb database), in 1991.

  4. Real-Time Revolution?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-03-01

    Austin Regional Clinic (ARC) physicians and officials know patient feedback is important, but getting patients to provide it can be a challenge. A pilot program of a new, real-time feedback system provided ARC patients a high-tech convenience previous attempts lacked and produced participation numbers dwarfing those past efforts. ARC's initial results with the system, in which patients answer five to seven questions on a computer tablet and can leave free-text comments, were so successful the clinic is already planning to expand it to all of its locations by the end of June.

  5. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace; Bax, Jeff

    2011-08-06

    The past two decades have witnessed developments of new imaging techniques that provide three-dimensional images about the interior of the human body in a manner never before available. Ultrasound (US) imaging is an important cost-effective technique used routinely in the management of a number of diseases. However, two-dimensional viewing of three-dimensional anatomy, using conventional two-dimensional US, limits our ability to quantify and visualize the anatomy and guide therapy, because multiple two-dimensional images must be integrated mentally. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to variability and incorrect diagnoses. Investigators and companies have addressed these limitations by developing three-dimensional US techniques. Thus, in this paper, we review the various techniques that are in current use in three-dimensional US imaging systems, with a particular emphasis placed on the geometric accuracy of the generation of three-dimensional images. The principles involved in three-dimensional US imaging are then illustrated with a diagnostic and an interventional application: (i) three-dimensional carotid US imaging for quantification and monitoring of carotid atherosclerosis and (ii) three-dimensional US-guided prostate biopsy.

  7. Three-dimensional echocardiographic technology.

    PubMed

    Salgo, Ivan S

    2007-05-01

    This article addresses the current state of the art of technology in three-dimensional echocardiography as it applies to transducer design, beam forming, display, and quantification. Because three-dimensional echocardiography encompasses many technical and clinical areas, this article reviews its strengths and limitations and concludes with an analysis of what to use when.

  8. Three-Dimensional Photo Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Ken

    2006-01-01

    People influence lives in many ways. Through the author's desire to encourage high school students to reflect on the influential people in their lives, he developed this three-dimensional project in which they create a celebratory three-dimensional structure that shares their impressions of themselves and those who have influenced them. This…

  9. Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning

    PubMed Central

    Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace; Bax, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed developments of new imaging techniques that provide three-dimensional images about the interior of the human body in a manner never before available. Ultrasound (US) imaging is an important cost-effective technique used routinely in the management of a number of diseases. However, two-dimensional viewing of three-dimensional anatomy, using conventional two-dimensional US, limits our ability to quantify and visualize the anatomy and guide therapy, because multiple two-dimensional images must be integrated mentally. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to variability and incorrect diagnoses. Investigators and companies have addressed these limitations by developing three-dimensional US techniques. Thus, in this paper, we review the various techniques that are in current use in three-dimensional US imaging systems, with a particular emphasis placed on the geometric accuracy of the generation of three-dimensional images. The principles involved in three-dimensional US imaging are then illustrated with a diagnostic and an interventional application: (i) three-dimensional carotid US imaging for quantification and monitoring of carotid atherosclerosis and (ii) three-dimensional US-guided prostate biopsy. PMID:22866228

  10. A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Q; Dehghani, H; Tichauer, K M; Holt, R W; Vishwanath, K; Leblond, F; Pogue, B W

    2011-12-07

    In this work, development and evaluation of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) based on the diffusion approximation of time-domain (TD) near-infrared fluorescence light transport in biological tissue is presented. This model allows both excitation and fluorescence temporal point-spread function (TPSF) data to be generated for heterogeneous scattering and absorbing media of arbitrary geometry. The TD FEM is evaluated via comparisons with analytical and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and is shown to provide a quantitative accuracy which has less than 0.72% error in intensity and less than 37 ps error for mean time. The use of the Born-Ratio normalized data is demonstrated to reduce data mismatch between MC and FEM to less than 0.22% for intensity and less than 22 ps in mean time. An image reconstruction framework, based on a 3D FEM formulation, is outlined and simulation results based on a heterogeneous mouse model with a source of fluorescence in the pancreas is presented. It is shown that using early photons (i.e. the photons detected within the first 200 ps of the TPSF) improves the spatial resolution compared to using continuous-wave signals. It is also demonstrated, as expected, that the utilization of two time gates (early and latest photons) can improve the accuracy both in terms of spatial resolution and recovered contrast.

  11. Arterial-phase three-dimensional gadolinium magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries. Strategies for timing and contrast media injection: original investigation.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, S O; Knopp, M V; Prince, M R; Londy, F; Knopp, M A

    1998-09-01

    The authors review different imaging and contrast-media infusion strategies for arterial-phase three-dimensional (3D) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA). The influence of physicochemical factors on the infusion of contrast media, including viscosity, flow rate, inline pressure, and cannula size, is assessed. The combination of manual or automated contrast-media administration with timing-dependent or -independent 3D Gd-MRA techniques is reviewed regarding the aspects of effectiveness, robustness, image quality, and costs. For effective bolus delivery with high flow rates, the type and temperature of the contrast media, the size of the cannula, and an immediate saline flush must be considered. Timing-dependent techniques based on a test bolus and using automated contrast-media infusion as well as timing independent techniques such as MR SmartPrep or multiphase 3D Gd-MRA by using a manual injection with a SmartSet tubing set, are all effective procedures for arterial phase 3D Gd-MRA. Manual contrast-media injection with a tubing set can be used for timing-independent MRA techniques. The multiphase 3D Gd-MRA approach seems to be favorable for different MR systems, robustness, and speed.

  12. Three-dimensional dynamic time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA using parallel imaging and a variable rate k-space sampling strategy in intracranial arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Mina; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Trystram, Denis; Nataf, François; Godon-Hardy, Sylvie; Munier, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Meder, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (TR-CE-MRA) using a combination of a parallel imaging technique (ASSET: array spatial sensitivity encoding technique) and a time-resolved method (TRICKS: time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics) and to compare it with 3D dynamic TR-CE-MRA using ASSET alone in the assessment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Twenty consecutive patients with angiographically confirmed AVMs were investigated using both 3D dynamic TR-CE-MRA techniques. Examinations were compared with respect to image quality, spatial resolution, number and type of feeders and drainers, nidus size, presence of early venous filling and temporal resolution. Digital subtraction angiography was used as standard of reference. The higher temporal and spatial resolution of 3D dynamic TR-CE-MRA TRICKS ASSET allowed a better assessment of intracranial vascular malformations, namely better depiction of feeders, drainers and better detection of early venous drainage. There was no significant difference between them in terms of nidus size. 3D dynamic TR-CE-MRA combining parallel imaging and a time-resolved method with subsecond and submillimeter resolution could become the first-line investigation technique in both diagnosis and follow-up of intracranial AVMs.

  13. Detection of fatigue-induced micro-cracks in a pipe by using time-reversed nonlinear guided waves: a three-dimensional model study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Localization of fatigue-related micro-cracks in pipelines is of increasing importance in industrial applications. A three-dimensional (3D) fatigue-crack imaging technique combining nonlinear guided waves with time reversal is proposed in this paper for potential applications in pipeline inspections. By using this method, the non-classical nonlinear guided waves generated from micro-cracks with hysteretic behavior are recorded, and the third harmonic waves are used to reconstruct the fatigue-crack images in a pipe by using a time reversal (TR) process. The feasibility of this method is examined by the imaging simulations for a steel pipe with varied defect areas. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is programmed to solve the wave equations under cylindrical coordinates, and simulate the experimental process of wave propagation. The results show that: (1) the proposed technique has excellent spatial retrofocusing capability; (2) the accuracy of defect localization and sizing depends on the crack orientation and the adopted guided wave mode; and (3) different displacement/stress components have varied sensitivities to the crack orientation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition framework to compute the three dimensional Empirical Orthogonal Functions of stratospheric planetary waves from time correlation matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Joran; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.

    2016-04-01

    Many geophysical waves in the atmosphere or in the ocean have a three dimensional structure and contain a range of scales. This is for instance the case of planetary waves in the stratosphere connected to baroclinic eddies in the troposphere [1]. In the study of such waves from reanalysis data or output of numerical simulations, Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) obtained as a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of the data sets have been of great help. However, most of these computations rely on the diagonalisation of space correlation matrices: this means that the considered data set can only have a limited number of gridpoints. The main consequence is that such analyses are often only performed in planes (as function of height and latitude, or longitude and latitude for instance), which makes the educing of the three dimensional structure of the wave quite difficult. In the case of the afore mentionned waves, the matter of the longitudinal dependence or the proper correlation between modes through the tropopause is an open question. An elegant manner to circumvent this problem is to consider the output of the Orthogonal Decomposition as a whole. Indeed, it has been shown that the normalised time series of the amplitude of each EOF, far from just being decorrelated from one another, are actually another set of orthogonal functions. These can actually be computed through the diagonlisation of the time correlation matrix of the data set, just like the EOF were the result of the diagonalisation of the space correlation matrix. The signal is then fully decomposed in the framework of the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition as the sum of the nth explained variance, time the nth eigenmode of the time correlation times the nth eigenmode of the spacial correlations [2,3]. A practical consequence of this result is that the EOF can be reconstructed from the projection of the dataset onto the eigenmodes of the time correlation matrix in the so-called snapshot method [4]. This is very

  15. Characterization of a detector chain using a FPGA-based time-to-digital converter to reconstruct the three-dimensional coordinates of single particles at high flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogrette, F.; Heurteau, D.; Chang, R.; Bouton, Q.; Westbrook, C. I.; Sellem, R.; Clément, D.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development of a novel FPGA-based time-to-digital converter and its implementation in a detection chain that records the coordinates of single particles along three dimensions. The detector is composed of micro-channel plates mounted on top of a cross delay line and connected to fast electronics. We demonstrate continuous recording of the timing signals from the cross delay line at rates up to 4.1 × 106 s-1 and three-dimensional reconstruction of the coordinates up to 3.2 × 106 particles per second. From the imaging of a calibrated structure we measure the in-plane resolution of the detector to be 140(20) μm at a flux of 3 × 105 particles per second. In addition, we analyze a method to estimate the resolution without placing any structure under vacuum, a significant practical improvement. While we use UV photons here, the results of this work apply to the detection of other kinds of particles.

  16. Characterization of a detector chain using a FPGA-based time-to-digital converter to reconstruct the three-dimensional coordinates of single particles at high flux.

    PubMed

    Nogrette, F; Heurteau, D; Chang, R; Bouton, Q; Westbrook, C I; Sellem, R; Clément, D

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development of a novel FPGA-based time-to-digital converter and its implementation in a detection chain that records the coordinates of single particles along three dimensions. The detector is composed of micro-channel plates mounted on top of a cross delay line and connected to fast electronics. We demonstrate continuous recording of the timing signals from the cross delay line at rates up to 4.1 × 10(6) s(-1) and three-dimensional reconstruction of the coordinates up to 3.2 × 10(6) particles per second. From the imaging of a calibrated structure we measure the in-plane resolution of the detector to be 140(20) μm at a flux of 3 × 10(5) particles per second. In addition, we analyze a method to estimate the resolution without placing any structure under vacuum, a significant practical improvement. While we use UV photons here, the results of this work apply to the detection of other kinds of particles.

  17. Characterization of a detector chain using a FPGA-based time-to-digital converter to reconstruct the three-dimensional coordinates of single particles at high flux

    SciTech Connect

    Nogrette, F.; Chang, R.; Bouton, Q.; Westbrook, C. I.; Clément, D.; Heurteau, D.; Sellem, R.

    2015-11-15

    We report on the development of a novel FPGA-based time-to-digital converter and its implementation in a detection chain that records the coordinates of single particles along three dimensions. The detector is composed of micro-channel plates mounted on top of a cross delay line and connected to fast electronics. We demonstrate continuous recording of the timing signals from the cross delay line at rates up to 4.1 × 10{sup 6} s{sup −1} and three-dimensional reconstruction of the coordinates up to 3.2 × 10{sup 6} particles per second. From the imaging of a calibrated structure we measure the in-plane resolution of the detector to be 140(20) μm at a flux of 3 × 10{sup 5} particles per second. In addition, we analyze a method to estimate the resolution without placing any structure under vacuum, a significant practical improvement. While we use UV photons here, the results of this work apply to the detection of other kinds of particles.

  18. Comparison of wave propagation studies in plasmas using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhury, Bhaskar; Chaturvedi, Shashank

    2006-12-15

    Power-flow trajectories of electromagnetic waves through a spatially nonuniform plasma have been computed using direct solutions of Maxwell's equations using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This method yields accurate information on refraction as well as absorption effects. The method can be used to compute power-flow trajectories for plasmas with arbitrarily varying density profiles, including effects due to arbitrarily shaped conducting or dielectric surfaces bounding the plasma. Furthermore, since FDTD is computationally expensive, especially for parametric studies, it is desirable to use ray tracing to estimate refraction effects. A quantitative comparison is performed between two different methods of obtaining exact and approximate solutions of Maxwell's equations in order to assess their relative utility in different situations. In the present work, we limit ourselves to a cold, collisional, unmagnetized plasma, where the response to electromagnetic waves is fully specified by a dispersion relation based on magnetoionic theory. It is shown that ray tracing in such plasmas yields accurate results only when two conditions are satisfied. Firstly, the density scale length should be long as compared to the free-space wavelength of the incident wave. Secondly, the conduction current should be small as compared to the displacement current in the medium. The second condition is one which has been identified for the first time.

  19. Large aperture at low cost three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor using scanning micromirrors and synchronous detector switching.

    PubMed

    Bogatscher, Siegwart; Streck, Andreas; Fox, Maik; Meinzer, Sebastian; Heussner, Nico; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-03-10

    In this article the problem of achieving fast scanning of a time-of-flight range sensor with a large optical receiver aperture at low system cost is targeted. The presented approach to solve this problem consists of a micromirror-based transmitter unit and a receiver unit consisting of a large aperture lens system with a small field of view and a detector array. A concept, which is called synchronous detector switching, is applied to the detector array. Thereby electronic steering of the small receiver field of view is possible. The overall approach is compared to alternative approaches, and the underlying concept of synchronous detector switching is demonstrated experimentally in an implementation of a three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor. It is theoretically shown that the presented concept is potentially cheaper than the alternative approaches for applications with a field of view of less than 60×60°. After a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the approach, its effect on broader scientific issues is outlined.

  20. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography using time resolved interleaved projection sampling with three-dimensional Cartesian phase and slice encoding (TRIPPS).

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang

    2009-04-01

    Undersampled projection reconstruction (PR) techniques provide contrast enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) with high temporal resolution, but sensitivity to eddy current, gradient error and off-resonance effects. It is desirable to combine the time efficiency of undersampled PR acquisition with the robustness of Cartesian imaging. In this work we present a technique designed to do this termed time resolved projection sampling with three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian phase and slice encoding (TRIPPS), where 3D Cartesian k-space is partitioned into multiple half projections in the ky-kz plane. The phase and slice encoding are performed along predefined center-out radial trajectories. The whole set of half projections is interleaved into multiple groups of half projections, with each group sparsely but uniformly covering the ky-kz space. A view sharing sliding window reconstruction algorithm is adapted to reconstruct the dynamic images. The feasibility of the TRIPPS technique for CE-MRA was demonstrated on the renal, pulmonary, and intracranial vasculatures of healthy volunteers with a high temporal resolution of 2 s/frame.

  1. Three-dimensional display technologies

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  2. Space weather and the safety of ground infrastructures. Numerical simulation and prediction of electromagnetic effects induced by real magnetospheric substorms in the Earth's models with real three-dimensional distribution of electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, Alexey; Filippov, Sergey; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Sidorova, Larisa; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Pankratov, Oleg; Alexeev, Dmitry

    Strong eruptions at Sun’s surface produce large release of matter (plasma), which, with a speed of 800-1000 km/s (the solar wind), flows into interplanetary space. If the Earth appears to be on the way of the solar wind the interaction of the wind with the Earth's magnetosphere and the ionosphere leads to abnormal disturbance of fluctuating geomagnetic field. In the middle latitudes, the disturbances (geomagnetic storms) last a few days and have amplitudes up to 400 nT. At high latitudes, these perturbations (magnetospheric substorms) last a few hours and have amplitudes up to 3000 nT. According to Faraday’s law of induction, the fluctuating magnetic field in turn generates a electric field. The electric field for intense substorms can reach hundreds of volts/km in the polar region and generate very high, the so-called geomagnetic induced currents in the ground-based systems, such as power grids and pipelines. These currents are one of the most dangerous factors affecting the operation of the above systems. Thus extremely topical task in the field of "space weather" is the quantification and prediction of spatio-temporal distribution of the electric field during substorm activity. Despite the abundance of works carried out in this direction, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution. In the field of modeling, researchers are still working with highly simplified models of both the source and the conducting Earth. As for prediction the situation is even worse. In this presentation we discuss a general formalism which allows for simulating the electric fields induced by real magnetospheric substorms in the spherical model of the Earth with real three-dimensional distribution of conductivity. We show the first results of such simulations. We also discuss a concept to predict substorm spatio-temporal pattern of the electric field.

  3. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  4. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  5. Off-equilibrium scaling behaviors driven by time-dependent external fields in three-dimensional O(N) vector models.

    PubMed

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    We consider the dynamical off-equilibrium behavior of the three-dimensional O(N) vector model in the presence of a slowly varying time-dependent spatially uniform magnetic field H(t)=h(t)e, where e is an N-dimensional constant unit vector, h(t)=t/t(s), and t(s) is a time scale, at fixed temperature T≤T(c), where T(c) corresponds to the continuous order-disorder transition. The dynamic evolutions start from equilibrium configurations at h(i)<0, correspondingly t(i)<0, and end at time t(f)>0 with h(t(f))>0, or vice versa. We show that the magnetization displays an off-equilibrium scaling behavior close to the transition line H(t)=0. It arises from the interplay among the time t, the time scale t(s), and the finite size L. The scaling behavior can be parametrized in terms of the scaling variables t(s)(κ)/L and t/t(s)(κ(t)), where κ>0 and κ(t)>0 are appropriate universal exponents, which differ at the critical point and for Ttime dependence of the external field. We define a scaling function for the hysteresis loop area of the magnetization that can be used to quantify how far the system is from equilibrium.

  6. Higher-Order Modes of Modulation Instability in Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Time-Dependent Three-Dimensional Parabolic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Feng-De; Yan, Yu-Sheng; Shen, Sen-Ting

    2014-10-01

    By the similarity reduction and Darboux transformation, we derive higher-order modes of three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate modulation instability in the nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii equation and manipulate them by regulating the time-dependent potential and gain. Firstly, by the similarity reduction, the (3+1)-dimensional nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii equation reduces to a (1+1)-dimensional standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation with constant coefficients. Then, considering the Akhmediev breather solution as the first-order modulation instability solution of the higher-order modes of Bose-Einstein condensate modulation instability, we achieve the Nth-order (N = 2, 3, 4, and 5) modulation instability solutions by the Darboux transformation. Finally, we verify the stable higher-order modes of Bose-Einstein condensate modulation instability and manipulate them by direct numerical simulation. The obtained results may raise the possibility of related experiments and potential applications in Bose-Einstein condensates and other related fields.

  7. Time-lapse ultrashort pulse microscopy of infection in three-dimensional versus two-dimensional culture environments reveals enhanced extra-chromosomal virus replication compartment formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly C.; Sing, Garwin; Armas, Juan Carlos González; Campbell, Colin J.; Ghazal, Peter; Yeh, Alvin T.

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms that enable viruses to harness cellular machinery for their own survival are primarily studied in cell lines cultured in two-dimensional (2-D) environments. However, there are increasing reports of biological differences between cells cultured in 2-D versus three-dimensional (3-D) environments. Here we report differences in host-virus interactions based on differences in culture environment. Using ultrashort pulse microscopy (UPM), a form of two-photon microscopy that utilizes sub-10-fs pulses to efficiently excite fluorophores, we have shown that de novo development of extra-chromosomal virus replication compartments (VRCs) upon murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection is markedly enhanced when host cells are cultured in 3-D collagen gels versus 2-D monolayers. In addition, time-lapse imaging revealed that mCMV-induced VRCs have the capacity to grow by coalescence. This work supports the future potential of 3-D culture as a useful bridge between traditional monolayer cultures and animal models to study host-virus interactions in a more physiologically relevant environment for the development of effective anti-viral therapeutics. These advances will require broader adoption of modalities, such as UPM, to image deep within scattering tissues.

  8. Monitoring the response to neoadjuvant hormone therapy for locally advanced breast cancer using three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enfield, Louise; Cantanhede, Gabriel; Douek, Michael; Ramalingam, Vernie; Purushotham, Arnie; Hebden, Jem; Gibson, Adam

    2013-05-01

    Optical mammography is a functional imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to produce three-dimensional breast images of tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. It has been used to monitor the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. We present the first results on monitoring tumor response to hormone therapy using optical mammography. We present three case studies from postmenopausal women treated with neoadjuvant hormone therapy for locally advanced breast cancer. The women were scanned before starting treatment, once during treatment, and then before surgery. Changes in physiological and optical properties within the tumor and in the rest of the breast were evaluated. At the time of surgery, two patients partially responded to treatment and one did not respond. The patients that partially responded on ultrasound revealed a corresponding recovery to normal in the hemoglobin concentration images, whereas the nonresponder indicated an increase in hemoglobin concentration in the tumor compared to her pretreatment images. These case studies suggest that optical imaging of the breast during neoadjuvant hormone treatment can provide potentially valuable information, and that physiological changes within the tumor can be seen in response to treatment.

  9. Three-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography Detection of Duplication of the Vertebral Artery in a Large Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuhua; Li, Yunyun; Bai, Min; Zhang, Chuanchen

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate duplication of the vertebral artery (VA) using three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in a large study population to further our understanding of vascular variations. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of 3D TOF-MRA data in 12 826 cases was performed. The occurrence rate of VA duplication was calculated and accompanied vascular anomalies were recoded. Results Twenty-one VA duplication patients were found, with an occurrence rate of 0.164%; 12 of them had left VA duplication with 2 branches initially arising from the aortic arch and left subclavian artery; 9 of them were right VA duplication with the branches originating from the right subclavian artery. In the 21 cases, 11 had other vascular abnormalities. Conclusions VA duplication is very rare and often associated with other vascular abnormalities. 3D TOF-MRA can accurately display the duplication variation. Better understanding of the variation is instrumental for disease diagnosis, interventional therapy, and surgical operation. PMID:27749814

  10. Three-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography Detection of Duplication of the Vertebral Artery in a Large Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuhua; Li, Yunyun; Bai, Min; Zhang, Chuanchen

    2016-10-17

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate duplication of the vertebral artery (VA) using three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in a large study population to further our understanding of vascular variations. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 3D TOF-MRA data in 12 826 cases was performed. The occurrence rate of VA duplication was calculated and accompanied vascular anomalies were recoded. RESULTS Twenty-one VA duplication patients were found, with an occurrence rate of 0.164%; 12 of them had left VA duplication with 2 branches initially arising from the aortic arch and left subclavian artery; 9 of them were right VA duplication with the branches originating from the right subclavian artery. In the 21 cases, 11 had other vascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS VA duplication is very rare and often associated with other vascular abnormalities. 3D TOF-MRA can accurately display the duplication variation. Better understanding of the variation is instrumental for disease diagnosis, interventional therapy, and surgical operation.

  11. Three-dimensional stereotactic neurosurgical planner/simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, John W.; Jackson, Ted R.; Katz, William T.; Hinckley, Ken; Goble, John C.; Kassell, Neal F.

    1995-04-01

    We have designed and implemented a computer-based system for three-dimensional stereotactic planning of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. The system integrates rapid acquisition of digital medical images, segmentation, multi-modality registration, and three-dimensional planning capabilities. Emphasis on real-time planning is central to our system: imaging, pre-processing and planning are performed on the morning of surgery in clinically useful times. We have tested the system on procedures such as needle biopsies, depth electrode placements, pallidotomies, thalamotomies and craniectomies for arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms and tumors. We describe in this paper the core algorithms of our system, and discuss issues related to implementation, validation and user acceptance.

  12. Real time markerless motion tracking using linked kinematic chains

    DOEpatents

    Luck, Jason P.; Small, Daniel E.

    2007-08-14

    A markerless method is described for tracking the motion of subjects in a three dimensional environment using a model based on linked kinematic chains. The invention is suitable for tracking robotic, animal or human subjects in real-time using a single computer with inexpensive video equipment, and does not require the use of markers or specialized clothing. A simple model of rigid linked segments is constructed of the subject and tracked using three dimensional volumetric data collected by a multiple camera video imaging system. A physics based method is then used to compute forces to align the model with subsequent volumetric data sets in real-time. The method is able to handle occlusion of segments and accommodates joint limits, velocity constraints, and collision constraints and provides for error recovery. The method further provides for elimination of singularities in Jacobian based calculations, which has been problematic in alternative methods.

  13. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects.

  14. A comparison of inner ear imaging features at different time points of sudden sensorineural hearing loss with three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Honglei; Ou, Yongkang; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Ya; Xiong, Hao; Xu, Yaodong

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that about half of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) show high signals in the affected inner ear on three-dimensional, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D-FLAIR MRI). These signals may reflect minor hemorrhage or an increased concentration of protein in the inner ear, which has passed through blood vessels with increased permeability. Our objective was to compare the positive ratio of the high signal in affected inner ears at different time points to determine the suitable imaging time point for 3D-FLAIR MRI in SSNHL. 3D-FLAIR MRI images were taken at three times, precontrast and approximately 10 min and 4 h after intravenous injection of a single dose of gadodiamide (Gd) (0.1 mmol/kg), in 46 patients with SNHL. We compared the positive findings of the high signals in the inner ear of patients with SNHL as well as the signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the affected cochleae and unaffected cochleae at three time points. The positive ratios of the high signals in the affected inner ear at the time points of precontrast and 10 min and 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection were 26.1, 32.6, and 41.3%, respectively. The high signal intensity ratios of affected inner ears at the three time points were 1.28, 1.31, and 1.48, respectively. The difference between the positive ratios precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection was statistically significant (P = 0.006); the differences between the positive ratios at 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection and precontrast and between the ratios at 4 h and 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection were not statistically significant. The time effects of the median value of SIR were not significant (P = 0.064). We do not recommend 4 h after intravenous Gd injection as a time point to image the inner ear in SNHL. We believe that imaging precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection are suitable time points.

  15. Simultaneous, Joint Inversion of Seismic Body Wave Travel Times and Satellite Gravity Data for Three-Dimensional Tomographic Imaging of Western Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionicio, V.; Rowe, C. A.; Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.; Londoño, J.

    2009-12-01

    We report on the three-dimensional seismic structure of western Colombia determined through the use of a new, simultaneous, joint inversion tomography algorithm. Using data recorded by the national Seismological Network of Colombia (RSNC), we have selected 3,609 earthquakes recorded at 33 sensors distributed throughout the country, with additional data from stations in neighboring countries. 20,338 P-wave arrivals and 17,041 S-wave arrivals are used to invert for structure within a region extending approximately 72.5 to 77.5 degrees West and 2 to 7.5 degrees North. Our algorithm is a modification of the Maceira and Ammon joint inversion code, in combination with the Zhang and Thurber TomoDD (double-difference tomography) program, with a fast LSQR solver operating on the gridded values jointly. The inversion uses gravity anomalies obtained during the GRACE2 satellite mission, and solves using these values with the seismic travel-times through application of an empirical relationship first proposed by Harkrider, mapping densities to Vp and Vs within earth materials. In previous work, Maceira and Ammon demonstrated that incorporation of gravity data predicts shear wave velocities more accurately than the inversion of surface waves alone, particularly in regions where the crust exhibits abrupt and significant lateral variations in lithology, such as the Tarim Basin. The significant complexity of crustal structure in Colombia, due to its active tectonic environment, makes it a good candidate for the application with gravity and body waves. We present the results of this joint inversion and compare it to results obtained using travel times alone

  16. Late Gastrointestinal Morbidity After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Fades With Time in Contrast to Genitourinary Morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsdottir, Asa Muren, Ludvig Paul; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dahl, Olav

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, time course, and relation to irradiated volumes of late morbidity after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 to December 2001, a total of 247 patients with prostate cancer received a target dose of 70 Gy using conformal RT. Forty-eight patients (20%) received irradiation to the prostate only (Group P), 154 patients (62%) received irradiation to the prostate and seminal vesicles (Group PSV), and 45 patients (18%) received modified pelvic fields (Group MPF). Androgen deprivation was given to 86% of patients. Median follow-up was 62 months. Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity were recorded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system. Results: We observed 9%, 7%, and 25% Grade 2 or higher GI morbidity and 36%, 30%, and 21% Grade 2 or higher GU morbidity in Groups P, PSV, and MPF, respectively. In multivariate analyses, age and treatment group were independent predictors for the incidence of late Grade 2 or higher GI morbidity, whereas age and urinary symptoms before treatment were independent predictors for late Grade 2 or higher GU morbidity. Acute side effects predicted for late effects. The rectum dose-volume histogram parameters correlated with the incidence of late Grade 2 or higher GI morbidity, especially the fractional volume receiving more than 40-43 Gy. At 5 years of follow-up, the rate of Grade 2 late GI morbidity was only 1.4%, and Grade 2 or higher GU morbidity was 10.6%. Conclusions: The data presented here show that late GI morbidity after prostate RT is low and subsides with time.

  17. Evaluating the effect of three-dimensional visualization on force application and performance time during robotics-assisted mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Currie, Maria E; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Rayman, Reiza; Chu, Michael W A; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry; Kiaii, Bob B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three-dimensional (3D) binocular, stereoscopic, and two-dimensional (2D) monocular visualization on robotics-assisted mitral valve annuloplasty versus conventional techniques in an ex vivo animal model. In addition, we sought to determine whether these effects were consistent between novices and experts in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery. A cardiac surgery test-bed was constructed to measure forces applied during mitral valve annuloplasty. Sutures were passed through the porcine mitral valve annulus by the participants with different levels of experience in robotics-assisted surgery and tied in place using both robotics-assisted and conventional surgery techniques. The mean time for both the experts and the novices using 3D visualization was significantly less than that required using 2D vision (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the maximum force applied by the novices to the mitral valve during suturing (P = 0.7) and suture tying (P = 0.6) using either 2D or 3D visualization. The mean time required and forces applied by both the experts and the novices were significantly less using the conventional surgical technique than when using the robotic system with either 2D or 3D vision (P < 0.001). Despite high-quality binocular images, both the experts and the novices applied significantly more force to the cardiac tissue during 3D robotics-assisted mitral valve annuloplasty than during conventional open mitral valve annuloplasty. This finding suggests that 3D visualization does not fully compensate for the absence of haptic feedback in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery.

  18. Beating the wavelength limit: three-dimensional imaging of buried subwavelength fractures in sculpture and construction materials by terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, M; Castro-Camus, E; Krügener, K; Viöl, W; Koch, M

    2013-01-20

    We use reflection terahertz spectroscopy to locate and produce three-dimensional images of air gaps between stones that resemble fractures, even of subwavelength thicknesses. This technique is found to be promising tool for sculpture and building damage evaluation as well as structural quality control in other dielectric materials.

  19. Real-time motion correction in two-dimensional multislice imaging with through-plane navigator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Nielsen, Tim; Qin, Qin; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Wei, Juan; Huang, Feng; Duensing, George R

    2014-06-01

    To develop a new real-time strategy to detect and correct for full three-dimensional rigid-body motion in two-dimensional multislice magnetic resonance imaging scans. Two through-plane navigator echoes collected on each imaging slice are used to reconstruct two orthogonal through-plane navigator projection images both perpendicular to the imaged slices, within each repetition time. Rotation/translation within each through-plane navigator image plane is detected using a regional image correlation measure that is robust against unaccounted orthogonal rotation and noise. An additional orbital navigator is used to detect rotation within the imaging plane and to reject intrarepetition time motion in real time. The efficacy of the proposed method was demonstrated with in vivo brain studies. The proposed real-time three-dimensional motion correction method does not introduce any additional three-dimensional radiofrequency excitation and does not require any additional hardware. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Experimental investigation into the impact of a liquid droplet onto a granular bed using three-dimensional, time-resolved, particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Long, Edward J; Hargrave, Graham K; Cooper, James R; Kitchener, Ben G B; Parsons, Anthony J; Hewett, Caspar J M; Wainwright, John

    2014-03-01

    An experimental investigation into the interaction that occurs between an impacting water droplet and a granular bed of loose graded sand has been carried out. High-speed imaging, three-dimensional time-resolved particle tracking, and photogrammetric surface profiling have been used to examine individual impact events. The focus of the study is the quantification and trajectory analysis of the particles ejected from the sand bed, along with measurement of the change in bed morphology. The results from the experiments have detailed two distinct mechanisms of particle ejection: the ejection of water-encapsulated particles from the edge of the wetted region and the ejection of dry sand from the periphery of the impact crater. That the process occurs by these two distinct mechanisms has hitherto been unobserved. Presented in the paper are distributions of the particle ejection velocities, angles, and transport distances for both mechanisms. The ejected water-encapsulated particles, which are few in number, are characterized by low ejection angles and high ejection velocities, leading to large transport distances; the ejected dry particles, which are much greater in number, are characterized by high ejection angles and low velocities, leading to lower transport distances. From the particle ejection data, the momentum of the individual ballistic sand particles has been calculated; it was found that only 2% of the water-droplet momentum at impact is transferred to the ballistic sand particles. In addition to the particle tracking, surface profiling of the granular bed postimpact has provided detailed information on its morphology; these data have demonstrated the consistent nature of the craters produced by the impact and suggest that particle agglomerations released from their edges make up about twice the number of particles involved in ballistic ejection. It is estimated that, overall, about 4% of the water-droplet momentum is taken up in particle movement.

  1. Improved lesion detection in MR mammography: three-dimensional segmentation, moving voxel sampling, and normalized maximum intensity-time ratio entropy.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Gökhan; Gülçür, H Ozcan; Tunaci, Mehtap

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a quantitative method for improving lesion detection in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography (DCEMRM). For this purpose, we segmented and analyzed suspicious regions according to their contrast enhancement dynamics, generated a normalized maximum intensity-time ratio (nMITR) projection, and explored it to extract important features, to improve accuracy and reproducibility of detection. A novel automated method is introduced to segment and analyze lesions in three dimensions. It consists of four consecutive stages: volume of interest selection, nMITR projection generation using a voxel sampling method based on a moving 3 x 3 mask, three-dimensional lesion segmentation, and feature extraction. The nMITR projection of the detected lesion is used to extract six features: mean, maximum, standard deviation, kurtosis, skewness, and entropy, and their diagnostic significance is studied in detail. High-resolution MR images of 52 breast masses from 46 women are analyzed using the technique developed. Entropy, standard deviation, and the maximum and mean value features were found to have high significance (P < 0.001) and diagnostic accuracy (0.86-0.97). The kurtosis and skewness were not significant. Automated analysis of DCEMRM using nMITR was shown to be feasible. The lesion detection method described is efficient and leads to improved, accurate, reproducible diagnoses. It is reliable in terms of observer variability and may allow for a better standardization of clinical evaluations. The findings demonstrate the usefulness of nMITR based features; nMITR-entropy shows the best performance for quantitative diagnosis.

  2. Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, Andrea; Randellini, Enrico; Sisti, Jacopo

    2017-05-01

    Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.

  3. Steerable real-time sonographically guided needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, E; Skipper, G J

    1981-02-01

    A method for dynamic real-time ultrasonic guidance for percutaneous needle biopsy has been successful in obtaining cytologic and histologic specimens from abdominal masses. The system depends on a real-time ultrasonic transducer that has been rigidly attached to a laterally placed steerable needle holder. Using simple trigonometric functions, a chart has been derived that gives the exact angulation and needle length to produce quick, reliable, guided needle placements. Examples of successful renal, hepatobiliary, and retroperitoneal biopsies are presented. Advantages of this technique include speed, accuracy, low cost, three-dimensional format, and the omission of contrast media and radiation.

  4. Application of a real-space three-dimensional image reconstruction method in the structural analysis of noncrystalline biological macromolecules enveloped by water in coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Wataru; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2011-08-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a novel technique in the structural analyses of particles that are difficult to crystallize, such as the biological particles composing living cells. As water is indispensable for maintaining particles in functional structures, sufficient hydration of targeted particles is required during sample preparation for diffraction microscopy experiments. However, the water enveloping particles also contributes significantly to the diffraction patterns and reduces the electron-density contrast of the sample particles. In this study, we propose a protocol for the structural analyses of particles in water by applying a three-dimensional reconstruction method in real space for the projection images phase-retrieved from diffraction patterns, together with a developed density modification technique. We examined the feasibility of the protocol through three simulations involving a protein molecule in a vacuum, and enveloped in either a droplet or a cube-shaped water. The simulations were carried out for the diffraction patterns in the reciprocal planes normal to the incident x-ray beam. This assumption and the simulation conditions corresponded to experiments using x-ray wavelengths of shorter than 0.03 Å. The analyses demonstrated that our protocol provided an interpretable electron-density map. Based on the results, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed protocol and its practical application for experimental data. In particular, we examined the influence of Poisson noise in diffraction patterns on the reconstructed three-dimensional electron density in the proposed protocol.

  5. Three-dimensional RF structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. K.; Browman, M. J.; Weiland, T.

    1989-04-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described.

  6. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  8. Image denoising for real-time MRI.

    PubMed

    Klosowski, Jakob; Frahm, Jens

    2017-03-01

    To develop an image noise filter suitable for MRI in real time (acquisition and display), which preserves small isolated details and efficiently removes background noise without introducing blur, smearing, or patch artifacts. The proposed method extends the nonlocal means algorithm to adapt the influence of the original pixel value according to a simple measure for patch regularity. Detail preservation is improved by a compactly supported weighting kernel that closely approximates the commonly used exponential weight, while an oracle step ensures efficient background noise removal. Denoising experiments were conducted on real-time images of healthy subjects reconstructed by regularized nonlinear inversion from radial acquisitions with pronounced undersampling. The filter leads to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of at least 60% without noticeable artifacts or loss of detail. The method visually compares to more complex state-of-the-art filters as the block-matching three-dimensional filter and in certain cases better matches the underlying noise model. Acceleration of the computation to more than 100 complex frames per second using graphics processing units is straightforward. The sensitivity of nonlocal means to small details can be significantly increased by the simple strategies presented here, which allows partial restoration of SNR in iteratively reconstructed images without introducing a noticeable time delay or image artifacts. Magn Reson Med 77:1340-1352, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Time dependent three-dimensional body frame quantal wave packet treatment of the H + H2 exchange reaction on the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Michael; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    The first successful application of the three-dimensional quantum body frame wave packet approach to reactive scattering is reported for the H + H2 exchange reaction on the LSTH potential surface. The method used is based on a procedure for calculating total reaction probabilities from wave packets. It is found that converged, vibrationally resolved reactive probabilities can be calculated with a grid that is not much larger than required for the pure inelastic calculation. Tabular results are presented for several energies.

  10. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1995-12-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations.

  11. Three-dimensional landing zone ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Goodrich, Shawn; Burns, H. N.

    2016-05-01

    Three-Dimensional Landing Zone (3D-LZ) refers to a series of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) programs to develop high-resolution, imaging ladar to address helicopter approach and landing in degraded visual environments with emphasis on brownout; cable warning and obstacle avoidance; and controlled flight into terrain. Initial efforts adapted ladar systems built for munition seekers, and success led to a the 3D-LZ Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) , a 27-month program to develop and demonstrate a ladar subsystem that could be housed with the AN/AAQ-29 FLIR turret flown on US Air Force Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Following the JCTD flight demonstration, further development focused on reducing size, weight, and power while continuing to refine the real-time geo-referencing, dust rejection, obstacle and cable avoidance, and Helicopter Terrain Awareness and Warning (HTAWS) capability demonstrated under the JCTD. This paper summarizes significant ladar technology development milestones to date, individual LADAR technologies within 3D-LZ, and results of the flight testing.

  12. Three-dimensional visualization for large models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Michael W.

    2001-09-01

    High-resolution (0.3-1 m) digital-elevation data is widely available from commercial sources. Whereas the production of two-dimensional (2D) mapping products from such data is standard practice, the visualization of such three-dimensional (3D) data has been problematic. The basis for this problem is the same as that for the large-model problem in computer graphics-- large amounts of geometry are difficult for current rendering algorithms and hardware. This paper describes a cost-effective solution to this problem that has two parts. First is the employment of the latest in cost-effective 3D chips and video boards that have recently emerged. The second part is the employment of quad-tree data structures for efficient data storage and retrieval during rendering. The result is the capability for real-time display of large (over tens of millions of samples) digital elevation models on modest PC-based systems. This paper shows several demonstrations of this approach using airborne lidar data. The implication of this work is a paradigm shift for geo-spatial information systems--3D data can now be as easy to use as 2D data.

  13. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1996-04-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate.

  14. FRET Imaging in Three-dimensional Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Taboas, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for examining cell biology in real-time. Studies utilizing FRET commonly employ two-dimensional (2D) culture, which does not mimic the three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment. A method to perform quenched emission FRET imaging using conventional widefield epifluorescence microscopy of cells within a 3D hydrogel environment is presented. Here an analysis method for ratiometric FRET probes that yields linear ratios over the probe activation range is described. Measurement of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels is demonstrated in chondrocytes under forskolin stimulation using a probe for EPAC1 activation (ICUE1) and the ability to detect differences in cAMP signaling dependent on hydrogel material type, herein a photocrosslinking hydrogel (PC-gel, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and a thermoresponsive hydrogel (TR-gel). Compared with 2D FRET methods, this method requires little additional work. Laboratories already utilizing FRET imaging in 2D can easily adopt this method to perform cellular studies in a 3D microenvironment. It can further be applied to high throughput drug screening in engineered 3D microtissues. Additionally, it is compatible with other forms of FRET imaging, such as anisotropy measurement and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), and with advanced microscopy platforms using confocal, pulsed, or modulated illumination. PMID:27500354

  15. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Data for Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Structure Around SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Maceira, M.; Roux, P.

    2013-12-01

    The crust around the San Andreas Fault Observatory at depth (SAFOD) has been the subject of many geophysical studies aimed at characterizing in detail the fault zone structure and elucidating the lithologies and physical properties of the surrounding rocks. Seismic methods in particular have revealed the complex two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the crustal volume around SAFOD and the strong velocity reduction in the fault damage zone. In this study we conduct a joint inversion using body-wave arrival times and surface-wave dispersion data to image the P-and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust surrounding SAFOD. The two data types have complementary strengths - the body-wave data have good resolution at depth, albeit only where there are crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution and are not dependent on the earthquake source distribution because they are derived from ambient noise. The body-wave data are from local earthquakes and explosions, comprising the dataset analyzed by Zhang et al. (2009). The surface-wave data are for Love waves from ambient noise correlations, and are from Roux et al. (2011). The joint inversion code is based on the regional-scale version of the double-difference (DD) tomography algorithm tomoDD. The surface-wave inversion code that is integrated into the joint inversion algorithm is from Maceira and Ammon (2009). The propagator matrix solver in the algorithm DISPER80 (Saito, 1988) is used for the forward calculation of dispersion curves from layered velocity models. We examined how the structural models vary as we vary the relative weighting of the fit to the two data sets and in comparison to the previous separate inversion results. The joint inversion with the 'optimal' weighting shows more clearly the U-shaped local structure from the Buzzard Canyon Fault on the west side of SAF to the Gold Hill Fault on the east side.

  16. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides

  17. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  18. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  19. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  20. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  1. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  2. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  3. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  4. Real-Time Engineering Simulation of Lunar Excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Damer, George Tompkins, Sheldon Freid, Dave Rasmussen, Peter Newman, Brad Blair

    2007-06-12

    DigitalSpace Corporation has been building an open source real-time three-dimensional (3-D) collaborative design engineering and training platform called Digital Spaces (DSS) in support of the Exploration Vision of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Real-time 3-D simulation has reached a level of maturity where it is capable of supporting engineering design and operations using off-the-shelf game chipsets and open source physics and rendering technologies. This paper will illustrate a state-of-the-art real-time engineering simulation utilizing DSS in support of NASA lunar excavation studies. During the project DigitalSpace building driveable 3-D models of lunar excavators and South Polar terrain, and added a soil mechanics physics model as well as a random failure generator to the repertoire of standard mobility platform physics in prior use for real-time engineering and operational analysis at NASA.

  5. Random access three-dimensional two-photon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Balázs; Katona, Gergely; Vizi, E Sylvester; Várallyay, Zoltán; Sághy, Attila; Valenta, Lásló; Maák, Pál; Fekete, Júlia; Bányász, Akos; Szipocs, Róbert

    2007-04-01

    We propose a two-photon microscope scheme capable of real-time, three-dimensional investigation of the electric activity pattern of neural networks or signal summation rules of individual neurons in a 0.6 mm x 0.6 mm x 0.2 mm volume of the sample. The points of measurement are chosen according to a conventional scanning two-photon image, and they are addressed by separately adjustable optical fibers. This allows scanning at kilohertz repetition rates of as many as 100 data points. Submicrometer spatial resolution is maintained during the measurement similarly to conventional two-photon microscopy.

  6. Usefulness of two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of proximal left coronary system compression by a paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Amier; McElwee, Samuel K; Jiang, Amy Z; Barssoum, Kirolos N; Elkaryoni, Ahmed E; Arisha, Mohammed J; Srialluri, Swetha; Seghatol, Frank; Nanda, Navin C

    2017-02-01

    Paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess represents a rare, but lethal complication of infective endocarditis. We report a case of proximal left coronary system compression by a paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess whose detection was augmented using live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. Our case illustrates the usefulness of combined two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in detecting this finding.

  7. Real-time tracking of objects for space applications using a laser range scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, F.; Couvillon, R. A.; Rioux, M.; Maclean, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    Real-time tracking of multiple targets and three dimensional object features was demonstrated using a laser range scanner. The prototype was immune to ambient illumination and sun interference. Tracking error feedback was simultaneously obtained from individual targets, global predicted target position, and the human operator. A more complete study of calibration parameters and temperature variations on the scanner is needed to determine the exact performance of the sensor. Lissajous patterns used in three-dimensional real-time tracking prove helpful given their high resolution. The photogrammetry-based Advanced Space Vision System (ASVS) is discussed in combination with the laser range scanner.

  8. Acoustic streaming in an ultrasonic air pump with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain analysis and comparison to the measurement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2014-12-01

    The direct finite-difference fluid simulation of acoustic streaming on a fine-meshed three-dimensional model using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based calculation array is discussed. Airflows are induced by an acoustic traveling wave when an intense sound field is generated in a gap between a bending transducer and a reflector. The calculation results showed good agreement with measurements in a pressure distribution. Several flow vortices were observed near the boundary layer of the reflector and the transducer, which have often been observed near the boundary of acoustic tubes, but have not been observed in previous calculations for this type of ultrasonic air pump.

  9. Optical coherence tomography of cell dynamics in three-dimensional tissue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wei; Oldenburg, Amy L.; Norman, James J.; Desai, Tejal A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2006-08-01

    Three-dimensional cell-based tissue models have been increasingly useful in the fields of tissue engineering, drug discovery, and cell biology. While techniques for building these tissue models have been advanced, there have been increasing demands for imaging techniques that are capable of assessing complex dynamic three-dimensional cell behavior in real-time and at larger depths in highly-scattering scaffolds. Understanding these cell behaviors requires advanced imaging tools to progress from characterizing two-dimensional cell cultures to complex, highly-scattering, thick three-dimensional tissue constructs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging biomedical imaging technique that can perform cellular-resolution imaging in situ and in real-time. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to use OCT to evaluate dynamic cell behavior and function in a quantitative fashion in four dimensions (three-dimensional space plus time). We investigated and characterized in thick tissue models a variety of cell processes, such as chemotaxis migration, proliferation, de-adhesion, and cell-material interactions. This optical imaging technique was developed and utilized in order to gain new insights into how chemical and/or mechanical microenvironments influence cellular dynamics in multiple dimensions. With deep imaging penetration and increased spatial and temporal resolution in three-dimensional space, OCT will be a useful tool for improving our understanding of complex biological interactions at the cellular level.

  10. Three-dimensional perspective visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    It was demonstrated that image processing computer graphic techniques can provide an effective means of physiographic analysis of remotely sensed regions through the use of three-dimensional perspective rendering. THe methods used to simulate and animate three-dimensional surfaces from two-dimensional imagery and digital elevation models are explained. A brief historic look at JPL's efforts in this field and several examples of animations, illustrating the evolution of these techniques from 1985, are shown. JPL's current research in this area is discussed along with examples of technology transfer and potential commercial application. The software is part of the VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) image processing system which was developed at the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of JPL.

  11. Real-time multi-parameter spectroscopy and localization in three-dimensional single-particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Hellriegel, Christian; Gratton, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Tracking of single particles in optical microscopy has been employed in studies ranging from material sciences to biophysics down to the level of single molecules. The technique intrinsically circumvents ensemble averaging and may therefore reveal directly mechanistic details of the involved dynamic processes. Such processes range from translational and rotational motion to spectral dynamics. We distinguish between conventional a posteriori tracking of objects (e.g. from the sequences of images) and the experimentally more refined ‘on-the-fly’ tracking technique. In this technique, the observation volume of the microscope is kept centred with respect to the moving object via a feedback algorithm. This approach brings a series of advantages in comparison with the tracking from images, ranging from a superior spatio-temporal resolution (2–50 nm and 1–32 ms) to the capability of inferring additional data (e.g. fluorescence lifetime, emission spectrum, polarization, intensity dynamics) from an object as it moves over several microns in three dimensions. In this contribution, we describe the principle of the tracking technique as implemented on a two-photon laser scanning microscope and illustrate its capabilities with experimental data, from particles labelled with different dyes moving in a liquid to the characterization of small fluorescently labelled protein assemblies in living cells. PMID:18753123

  12. Real-time multi-parameter spectroscopy and localization in three-dimensional single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Hellriegel, Christian; Gratton, Enrico

    2009-02-06

    Tracking of single particles in optical microscopy has been employed in studies ranging from material sciences to biophysics down to the level of single molecules. The technique intrinsically circumvents ensemble averaging and may therefore reveal directly mechanistic details of the involved dynamic processes. Such processes range from translational and rotational motion to spectral dynamics. We distinguish between conventional a posteriori tracking of objects (e.g. from the sequences of images) and the experimentally more refined 'on-the-fly' tracking technique. In this technique, the observation volume of the microscope is kept centred with respect to the moving object via a feedback algorithm. This approach brings a series of advantages in comparison with the tracking from images, ranging from a superior spatio-temporal resolution (2-50nm and 1-32ms) to the capability of inferring additional data (e.g. fluorescence lifetime, emission spectrum, polarization, intensity dynamics) from an object as it moves over several microns in three dimensions. In this contribution, we describe the principle of the tracking technique as implemented on a two-photon laser scanning microscope and illustrate its capabilities with experimental data, from particles labelled with different dyes moving in a liquid to the characterization of small fluorescently labelled protein assemblies in living cells.

  13. Guiding Exploration through Three-Dimensional Virtual Environments: A Cognitive Load Reduction Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Fauzy Wan Ismail, Wan Mohd

    2008-01-01

    The real-time interactive nature of three-dimensional virtual environments (VEs) makes this technology very appropriate for exploratory learning purposes. However, many studies have shown that the exploration process may cause cognitive overload that affects the learning of domain knowledge. This article reports a quasi-experimental study that…

  14. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  15. Real-time flutter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R.; Walker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques and a FORTRAN 77 MOdal Parameter IDentification (MOPID) computer program developed for identification of the frequencies and damping ratios of multiple flutter modes in real time are documented. Physically meaningful model parameterization was combined with state of the art recursive identification techniques and applied to the problem of real time flutter mode monitoring. The performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence speed and parameter estimation error is demonstrated for several simulated data cases, and the results of actual flight data analysis from two different vehicles are presented. It is indicated that the algorithm is capable of real time monitoring of aircraft flutter characteristics with a high degree of reliability.

  16. Three-dimensional vision sensors for autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Takashi; Okabayashi, Keizyu; Wakitani, Jun

    1993-09-01

    A three dimensional measurement system, which is important for developing autonomous robots is described. Industrial robots used in today's plants are of the preprogrammed teaching playback type. It is necessary to develop autonomous robots which can work based on sensor information for intelligent manufacturing systems. Moreover, practical use of robots which work in unstructured environments such as outdoors and in space is expected. To realize this, a function to measure objects and the environment three-dimensionally is a key technology. Additional important requirements for robotic sensors are real-time processing and compactness. We have developed smart 3-D vision sensors for the purpose of realizing autonomous robots. These are two kinds of sensors with different functions corresponding to the application. One is a slitted light range finder ( SLRF ) to measure stationary objects. The other is a real-time tracking vision ( RTTV ) which can measure moving objects at high speed. SLRF uses multiple slitted lights which are generated by a semiconductor laser through an interference filter and a cylindrical lens. Furthermore, we developed a liquid crystal shutter with multiple electrodes. We devised a technique to make coded slitted light by putting this shutter in front of the light source. As a result, using the principle of triangulation, objects can be measured in three dimensions. In addition, high-speed image input was enabled by projecting multiple slitted light at the same time. We have confirmed the effectiveness of the SLRF applied to a hand-eye system using a robot.

  17. Three-dimensional positional changes of teeth adjacent to posterior edentulous spaces in relation to age at time of tooth loss and elapsed time.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Haralampos P; Tsiggos, Nikolaos; Michail, Achilleas; Kafantaris, Sotirios N; Hatzikyriakos, Andreas; Kafantaris, Nikolaos M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the stability of teeth adjacent to posterior edentulous spaces and correlate it with patient age and time lapse since tooth loss. Dental casts, panoramic radiographs, and questionnaires of patients treated in a University setting were employed. Teeth adjacent and opposing posterior edentulous spaces were examined for the following parameters: Supraeruption, rotation, space closure, and axial inclination. One hundred twenty three patients with 229 edentulous spaces were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that the effects of "jaw", "gender", and "age group at the time of tooth loss" were not significant for any of the variables tested. The effect of time lapse since tooth loss was significant regarding the "amount of distal tooth inclination" (P<0.001), the "amount of distal tooth rotation" (P=0.004), and "space closure" (P=0.038). Post-hoc analysis of the "amount of distal tooth inclination" revealed a marked increase in inclination 5 years after tooth loss. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that in the group of patients studied, minor positional changes in teeth opposing or adjacent to posterior edentulous spaces had occurred. The greatest changes in position were recorded for mandibular teeth distal to edentulous spaces.

  18. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  19. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  20. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  1. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  2. Real Time Conference 2014 Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomachi, Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    This article presents an overview of the 19th Real Time Conference held last May 26-30, 2014, at the Nara Prefectural New Public Hall, Nara, Japan, organized by the Research Center for Nuclear Physics of the Osaka University. The program included many invited talks and oral sessions offering an extensive overview on the following topics: real-time system architectures, intelligent signal processing, fast data transfer links and networks, trigger systems, data acquisition, processing-farms, control, monitoring and test systems, emerging real-time technologies, new standards, real-time safety and security, and some feedback on experiences. In parallel to the oral and poster presentations, industrial exhibits by companies, workshops and short courses also ran through the week.

  3. Real Time Data System (RTDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned from operational real time expert systems are examined. The basic system architecture is discussed. An expert system is any software that performs tasks to a standard that would normally require a human expert. An expert system implies knowledge contained in data rather than code. And an expert system implies the use of heuristics as well as algorithms. The 15 top lessons learned by the operation of a real time data system are presented.

  4. Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeade, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.

  5. Quasicrystalline three-dimensional foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Graner, F.; Mosseri, R.; Sadoc, J.-F.

    2017-03-01

    We present a numerical study of quasiperiodic foams, in which the bubbles are generated as duals of quasiperiodic Frank–Kasper phases. These foams are investigated as potential candidates to the celebrated Kelvin problem for the partition of three-dimensional space with equal volume bubbles and minimal surface area. Interestingly, one of the computed structures falls close to (but still slightly above) the best known Weaire–Phelan periodic candidate. In addition we find a correlation between the normalized bubble surface area and the root mean squared deviation of the number of faces, giving an additional clue to understanding the main geometrical ingredients driving the Kelvin problem.

  6. Three-dimensional light bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardi, S.; Eilenberger, F.; Kartashov, Y. V.; Szameit, A.; Röpke, U.; Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Bartelt, H.; Nolte, S.; Torner, L.; Lederer, F.; Tünnermann, A.; Pertsch, T.

    2012-02-01

    Three dimensional Light Bullets (3D-LBs) are the most symmetric solitary waves, being nonlinear optical wavepackets propagating without diffraction nor dispersion. Since their theoretical prediction, 3D-LB's have constituted a challenge in nonlinear science, due to the impossibility to avoid catastrophic collapse in conventional homogeneous nonlinear media. We have recently observed stable 3D-LBs in media with periodically modulated transverse refractive index profile. We found that higher order linear and nonlinear effects force the 3D-LBs to evolve along their propagation path and eventually decay. The evolution and decay mechanism entails spatiotemporal effects, which under certain conditions, leads to superluminally propagating wavepackets.

  7. A three-dimensional model of vasculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valarmathi, Mani T; Davis, Jeffrey M; Yost, Michael J; Goodwin, Richard L; Potts, Jay D

    2009-02-01

    Postnatal bone marrow contains various subpopulations of resident and circulating stem cells (HSCs, BMSCs/MSCs) and progenitor cells (MAPCs, EPCs) that are capable of differentiating into one or more of the cellular components of the vascular bed in vitro as well as contribute to postnatal neo-vascularization in vivo. When rat BMSCs were seeded onto a three-dimensional (3-D) tubular scaffold engineered from topographically aligned type I collagen fibers and cultured either in vasculogenic or non-vasculogenic media for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days, the maturation and co-differentiation into endothelial and/or smooth muscle cell lineages were observed. Phenotypic induction of these substrate-grown cells was assayed at transcript level by real-time PCR and at protein level by confocal microscopy. In the present study, the observed upregulation of transcripts coding for vascular phenotypic markers is reminiscent of an in vivo expression pattern. Immunolocalization of vasculogenic lineage-associated markers revealed typical expression patterns of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. These endothelial cells exhibited high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition to the induced monolayers of endothelial cells, the presence of numerous microvascular capillary-like structures was observed throughout the construct. At the level of scanning electron microscopy, smooth-walled cylindrical tube-like structures with smooth muscle cells and/or pericytes attached to its surface were elucidated. Our 3-D culture system not only induces the maturation and differentiation of BMSCs into vascular cell lineages but also supports microvessel morphogenesis. Thus, this unique in vitro model provides an excellent platform to study the temporal and spatial regulation of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis, as well as attack the lingering limit in developing engineered tissues, that is perfusion.

  8. Using three-dimensional spacetime diagrams in special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian

    2013-08-01

    We provide three examples of the use of geometric reasoning with three-dimensional spacetime diagrams, rather than algebraic manipulations using three-dimensional Lorentz transformations, to analyze problems in special relativity. The examples are the "rising manhole" paradox, the "moving spotlight" problem, and Einstein's light-clock derivation of time dilation.

  9. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of endolymphatic hydrops after intratympanic injection of Gd-DTPA: optimization of a 3D-real inversion-recovery turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence and application of a 32-channel head coil at 3T.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishihara, Shunichi; Iwano, Shingo; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    To enable volume visualization of endolymphatic hydrops of Ménière's disease via a volume rendering (VR) technique, a three-dimensional (3D) inversion-recovery (IR) sequence with real reconstruction (3D-real IR) sequence after intratympanic injection of Gd-DTPA was optimized for higher spatial resolution using a 32-channel head coil at 3T. Pulse sequence parameters were optimized using a diluted Gd-DTPA phantom. Then, 11 patients who had been clinically diagnosed with Ménière's disease and a patient with sudden hearing loss were scanned. Images were processed using commercially available 3D-VR software. 3D-real IR data was processed to produce endolymph and perilymph fluid volume images in different colors. 3D-CISS data was processed to generate total fluid volume images. While maintaining a comparable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and scan time, the voxel volume could be reduced from 0.4 x 0.4 x 2 mm(3) with a 12-channel coil to 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.8 mm(3) with a 32-channel coil. A newly-optimized protocol allowed the smooth, three-dimensional visualization of endolymphatic hydrops in all patients with Ménière's disease. Volumetrically separate visualization of endo-/perilymphatic space is now feasible in patients with Ménière's disease using an optimized 3D-real IR sequence, a 32-channel head coil, at 3T, after intratympanic administration of Gd-DTPA. This will aid the understanding of the pathophysiology of Ménière's disease. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Three-dimensional map construction.

    PubMed

    Jenks, G F; Brown, D A

    1966-11-18

    Three-dimensional maps are useful tools which have been neglected for some time. They shouldbe more commonly used, and familiarity with the techniques discussed in this article should dispel any qualms anyone might ve about needing artistic talent to nstruct them. The saving in time esulting from the use of an anamorphoser provides a further incentive. The anamorphoser transformations discussed above were all prepared by using straight slits, oriented at right angles to each other and placed so that all planes of the elements were parallel to each other. It is possible to vary these conditions in an infinite number of ways and thereby produce nonparallel tranceformations. Some of these variations are illustrated in Fig. 10. All the illustrations in Fig. 10 are transformations of the planimetric weather map shown in Fig. 8A. The variations used for the maps of Fig. 10 are as follows. (A) All planes parallel, with a curved rear slit; (B) all planes parallel, with curved slits front and rear; ( C) all planes parallel, with S-shaped rear slit; (D) all planes parallel, with an undulating rear slit; (E) all planes parallel, with curved front and undulating rear slit; (F) plane of the original rotated on the horizontal axis-both slits curved; (G) plane of the original rotated on thevertical axis- both slits curved; (H) plane of the original rotated on the horizontal axis -both slits straight. These are only a few of the many transformations which can be made with an anamorphoser, butthey do point toward some interesting possibilities. For example, it appears that maps based onone projection might be altered to satisfy the coordinates of a completely different projection. Note, for example, the change of parallels from concave to convex curves (Figs. 8A and 10A) and the change from converging meridians to diverging meridians (Figs. 8A and l0G). Similarly, the grids of maps B, F, and H of Fig. 10 approximate projections which are quite different from the original. Other

  11. Lossless compression for three-dimensional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Pearlman, William A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate and compare the performance of several three-dimensional (3D) embedded wavelet algorithms on lossless 3D image compression. The algorithms are Asymmetric Tree Three-Dimensional Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (AT-3DSPIHT), Three-Dimensional Set Partitioned Embedded bloCK (3D-SPECK), Three-Dimensional Context-Based Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet coefficients (3D-CB-EZW), and JPEG2000 Part II for multi-component images. Two kinds of images are investigated in our study -- 8-bit CT and MR medical images and 16-bit AVIRIS hyperspectral images. First, the performances by using different size of coding units are compared. It shows that increasing the size of coding unit improves the performance somewhat. Second, the performances by using different integer wavelet transforms are compared for AT-3DSPIHT, 3D-SPECK and 3D-CB-EZW. None of the considered filters always performs the best for all data sets and algorithms. At last, we compare the different lossless compression algorithms by applying integer wavelet transform on the entire image volumes. For 8-bit medical image volumes, AT-3DSPIHT performs the best almost all the time, achieving average of 12% decreases in file size compared with JPEG2000 multi-component, the second performer. For 16-bit hyperspectral images, AT-3DSPIHT always performs the best, yielding average 5.8% and 8.9% decreases in file size compared with 3D-SPECK and JPEG2000 multi-component, respectively. Two 2D compression algorithms, JPEG2000 and UNIX zip, are also included for reference, and all 3D algorithms perform much better than 2D algorithms.

  12. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-30

    and F. Wang, "On thle Competitiveness of On-Line Real-Time Task Sc~eduling," to appear. Proc. Icai - Time Systemns Symposium, Dec 1991. 6. Biyabaiii, S...Stankovic, and K. Ramrnamritham, "System Support for lRal-’Vi111C Al: A Spring Project Perspective," Workshop on Real-Time .A1, ICAI ., August 198!). 29...Informatics, Computer S,,iety ,f India , t,, aptpear. 41 . Shilh, C. and J. A. Stankovic, "Distributed Deadlock Detection in Ada IRuntinv En vi- ronments," TRI

  13. Real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M. ); Baskett, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation, which computes a three-dimensional numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 yr within the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. Faster workstations and real-time instruments allow utilization of more complex three-dimensional models, which provides a foundation for building a real-time monitoring and emergency response workstation for a tritium facility. The stack monitors are two ion chambers per stack.

  14. On Using Taylor's Hypothesis for Three-Dimensional Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBoeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, errors in using Taylor's hypothesis to transform measurements obtained in a temporal (or phase) frame onto a spatial one were evaluated. For the first time, phase-averaged ('real') spanwise and streamwise vorticity data measured on a three-dimensional grid were compared directly to those obtained using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that even the qualitative features of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions given by the two techniques can be very different. This is particularly true in the region of the spanwise roller pairing. The phase-averaged spanwise and streamwise peak vorticity levels given by Taylor's hypothesis are typically lower (by up to 40%) compared to the real measurements.

  15. On using Taylor's hypothesis for three-dimensional mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBoeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1995-06-01

    In the present study, errors in using Taylor's hypothesis to transform measurements obtained in a temporal (or phase) frame onto a spatial one were evaluated. For the first time, phase-averaged (``real'') spanwise and streamwise vorticity data measured on a three-dimensional grid were compared directly to those obtained using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that even the qualitative features of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions given by the two techniques can be very different. This is particularly true in the region of the spanwise roller pairing. The phase-averaged spanwise and streamwise peak vorticity levels given by Taylor's hypothesis are typically lower (by up to 40%) compared to the real measurements.

  16. High-Order Weno Simulations of Three-Dimensional Reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability to Late Times: Dynamics, Dependence on Initial Conditions, and Comparisons to Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2010-01-12

    The dynamics of the reshocked multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated using 513 x 257{sup 2} three-dimensional ninth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory shock-capturing simulations. A two-mode initial perturbation with superposed random noise is used to model the Mach 1.5 air/SF{sub 6} Vetter-Sturtevant shock tube experiment. The mass fraction and enstrophy isosurfaces, and density cross-sections are utilized to show the detailed flow structure before, during, and after reshock. It is shown that the mixing layer growth agrees well with the experimentally measured growth rate before and after reshock. The post-reshock growth rate is also in good agreement with the prediction of the Mikaelian model. A parametric study of the sensitivity of the layer growth to the choice of amplitudes of the short and long wavelength initial interfacial perturbation is also presented. Finally, the amplification effects of reshock are quantified using the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent enstrophy spectra, as well as the evolution of the baroclinic enstrophy production, buoyancy production, and shear production terms in the enstrophy and turbulent kinetic transport equations.

  17. A preconditioned dual–primal finite element tearing and interconnecting method for solving three-dimensional time-harmonic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Ming-Feng; Jin, Jian-Ming

    2014-10-01

    A new preconditioned dual–primal nonoverlapping domain decomposition method is proposed for the finite element solution of three-dimensional large-scale electromagnetic problems. With the aid of two Lagrange multipliers, the new method converts the original volumetric problem to a surface problem by using a higher-order transmission condition at the subdomain interfaces to significantly improve the convergence of the iterative solution of the global interface equation. Similar to the previous version, a global coarse problem related to the degrees of freedom at the subdomain corner edges is formulated to propagate the residual error to the whole computational domain at each iteration, which further increases the rate of convergence. In addition, a fully algebraic preconditioner based on matrix splitting is constructed to make the proposed domain decomposition method even more robust and scalable. Perfectly matched layers (PMLs) are considered for the boundary truncation when solving open-region problems. The influence of the PML truncation on the convergence performance is investigated by examining the convergence of the transmission condition for an interface inside the PML. Numerical examples including wave propagation and antenna radiation problems truncated with PMLs are presented to demonstrate the validity and the capability of this method.

  18. HEVC real-time decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Benjamin; Alvarez-Mesa, Mauricio; George, Valeri; Chi, Chi Ching; Mayer, Tobias; Juurlink, Ben; Schierl, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The new High Efficiency Video Coding Standard (HEVC) was finalized in January 2013. Compared to its predecessor H.264 / MPEG4-AVC, this new international standard is able to reduce the bitrate by 50% for the same subjective video quality. This paper investigates decoder optimizations that are needed to achieve HEVC real-time software decoding on a mobile processor. It is shown that HEVC real-time decoding up to high definition video is feasible using instruction extensions of the processor while decoding 4K ultra high definition video in real-time requires additional parallel processing. For parallel processing, a picture-level parallel approach has been chosen because it is generic and does not require bitstreams with special indication.

  19. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  20. Three-dimensional coil inductor

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.

  1. Three-dimensional vortex methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greengard, C. A.

    1984-08-01

    Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms. The method of Anderson in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field is discussed. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed.

  2. Amplitude interpretation and visualization of three-dimensional reflection data

    SciTech Connect

    Enachescu, M.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Digital recording and processing of modern three-dimensional surveys allow for relative good preservation and correct spatial positioning of seismic reflection amplitude. A four-dimensional seismic reflection field matrix R (x,y,t,A), which can be computer visualized (i.e., real-time interactively rendered, edited, and animated), is now available to the interpreter. The amplitude contains encoded geological information indirectly related to lithologies and reservoir properties. The magnitude of the amplitude depends not only on the acoustic impedance contrast across a boundary, but is also strongly affected by the shape of the reflective boundary. This allows the interpreter to image subtle tectonic and structural elements not obvious on time-structure maps. The use of modern workstations allows for appropriate color coding of the total available amplitude range, routine on-screen time/amplitude extraction, and late display of horizon amplitude maps (horizon slices) or complex amplitude-structure spatial visualization. Stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, fluid distribution, and paleogeographic information are commonly obtained by displaying the amplitude variation A = A(x,y,t) associated with a particular reflective surface or seismic interval. As illustrated with several case histories, traditional structural and stratigraphic interpretation combined with a detailed amplitude study generally greatly enhance extraction of subsurface geological information from a reflection data volume. In the context of three-dimensional seismic surveys, the horizon amplitude map (horizon slice), amplitude attachment to structure and [open quotes]bright clouds[close quotes] displays are very powerful tools available to the interpreter.

  3. A fusion algorithm for building three-dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Kober, V.; Sochenkov, I.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-09-01

    Recently various algorithms for building of three-dimensional maps of indoor environments have been proposed. In this work we use a Kinect camera that captures RGB images along with depth information for building three-dimensional dense maps of indoor environments. Commonly mapping systems consist of three components; that is, first, spatial alignment of consecutive data frames; second, detection of loop-closures, and finally, globally consistent alignment of the data sequence. It is known that three-dimensional point clouds are well suited for frame-to-frame alignment and for three-dimensional dense reconstruction without the use of valuable visual RGB information. A new fusion algorithm combining visual features and depth information for loop-closure detection followed by pose optimization to build global consistent maps is proposed. The performance of the proposed system in real indoor environments is presented and discussed.

  4. Three dimensional force balance of asymmetric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Cho, Kun; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    An equilibrium contact angle of a droplet is determined by a horizontal force balance among vapor, liquid, and solid, which is known as Young's law. Conventional wetting law is valid only for axis-symmetric droplets, whereas real droplets are often asymmetric. Here we show that three-dimensional geometry must be considered for a force balance for asymmetric droplets. By visualizing asymmetric droplets placed on a free-standing membrane in air with X-ray microscopy, we are able to identify that force balances in one side and in other side control pinning behaviors during evaporation of droplets. We find that X-ray microscopy is powerful for realizing the three-dimensional force balance, which would be essential in interpretation and manipulation of wetting, spreading, and drying dynamics for asymmetric droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  5. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  6. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  7. POSIX real-time extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    POSIX is an evolving set of operating system interface standards, whose parts are in varying stages of production in a number of standards working groups. This presentation separates the real-time POSIX standards work in process from the rest and provides an overview of the purpose, status, dependencies, content, and project schedule of each.

  8. Three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons.

    PubMed

    Esirkepov, Timur; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2002-12-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons were observed in 3D particle-in-cell simulations of an intense short-laser-pulse propagation in an underdense plasma. Their structure resembles that of an oscillating electric dipole with a poloidal electric field and a toroidal magnetic field that oscillate in phase with the electron density with frequency below the Langmuir frequency. On the ion time scale, the soliton undergoes a Coulomb explosion of its core, resulting in ion acceleration, and then evolves into a slowly expanding quasineutral cavity.

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan

    2010-11-01

    Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.

  10. Real Time Data Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberberg, George G.

    1983-03-01

    By the early 1970s, classical photo-optical range instrumentation technology (as a means of gathering weapons' system performance data) had become a costly and inefficient process. Film costs were increasing due to soaring silver prices. Time required to process, read, and produce optical data was becoming unacceptable as a means of supporting weapon system development programs. NWC investigated the feasibility of utilizing Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) technology as an alternative solution for providing optical data. In 1978 a program entitled Metric Video (measurements from video images) was formulated at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. The purpose of this program was to provide timely data, to reduce the number of operating personnel, and to lower data acquisition costs. Some of the task elements for this program included a near real-time vector miss-distance system, a weapons scoring system, a velocity measuring system, a time-space position system, and a system to replace film cameras for gathering real-time engineering sequential data. These task elements and the development of special hardware and techniques to achieve real-time data will be discussed briefly in this paper.

  11. Three-dimensional colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hironori; Poteet, Austen; Zhang, Xu A; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2017-03-24

    Light interactions with colloidal particles can generate a variety of complex three-dimensional (3D) intensity patterns, which can be utilized for nanolithography. The study of particle-light interactions can add more types of intensity patterns by manipulating key factors. Here we investigate a novel 3D nanolithography technique using colloidal particles under two-beam coherent illuminations. The fabricated 3D nanostructures are hollow, nested within periodic structures, and possess multiple chamber geometry. The effects of incident angles and particle size on the fabricated nanostructures were examined. The relative phase shift between particle position and interference pattern is identified as another significant parameter influencing the resultant nanostructures. A numerical model has been developed to show the evolution of nanostructure geometry with phase shifts, and experimental studies confirm the simulation results. Through the introduction of single colloidal particles, the fabrication capability of Lloyd's mirror interference can now be extended to fabrication of 3D nanostructure with complex shell geometry. The fabricated hollow nanostructures with grating background could find potential applications in the area of photonics, drug delivery, and nanofluidics.

  12. Three-dimensional colloidal lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hironori; Poteet, Austen; Zhang, Xu A.; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2017-03-01

    Light interactions with colloidal particles can generate a variety of complex three-dimensional (3D) intensity patterns, which can be utilized for nanolithography. The study of particle-light interactions can add more types of intensity patterns by manipulating key factors. Here we investigate a novel 3D nanolithography technique using colloidal particles under two-beam coherent illuminations. The fabricated 3D nanostructures are hollow, nested within periodic structures, and possess multiple chamber geometry. The effects of incident angles and particle size on the fabricated nanostructures were examined. The relative phase shift between particle position and interference pattern is identified as another significant parameter influencing the resultant nanostructures. A numerical model has been developed to show the evolution of nanostructure geometry with phase shifts, and experimental studies confirm the simulation results. Through the introduction of single colloidal particles, the fabrication capability of Lloyd’s mirror interference can now be extended to fabrication of 3D nanostructure with complex shell geometry. The fabricated hollow nanostructures with grating background could find potential applications in the area of photonics, drug delivery, and nanofluidics.

  13. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered ‘quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338

  14. Real-time stereo generation for surgical vision during minimal invasive robotic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laddi, Amit; Bhardwaj, Vijay; Mahapatra, Prasant; Pankaj, Dinesh; Kumar, Amod

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a framework for 3D surgical vision for minimal invasive robotic surgery. It presents an approach for generating the three dimensional view of the in-vivo live surgical procedures from two images captured by very small sized, full resolution camera sensor rig. A pre-processing scheme is employed to enhance the image quality and equalizing the color profile of two images. Polarized Projection using interlacing two images give a smooth and strain free three dimensional view. The algorithm runs in real time with good speed at full HD resolution.

  15. The current status of three-dimensional ultrasonography in gynaecology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the most recent cross-sectional imaging modality to acquire three-dimensional (3D) capabilities. The reconstruction of volumetric US data for multiplanar display took a significantly longer time to develop in comparison with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The current equipment for 3D-US is capable of producing high-resolution images in three different planes, including real-time surface-rendered images. The use of 3D-US in gynaecology was accelerated through the development of the endovaginal volume transducer, which allows the automated acquisition of volumetric US data. Although initially considered an adjunct to two-dimensional US, 3D-US is now the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of Müllerian duct anomalies and the location of intrauterine devices. PMID:26537304

  16. The current status of three-dimensional ultrasonography in gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chiou Li

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the most recent cross-sectional imaging modality to acquire three-dimensional (3D) capabilities. The reconstruction of volumetric US data for multiplanar display took a significantly longer time to develop in comparison with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The current equipment for 3D-US is capable of producing high-resolution images in three different planes, including real-time surface-rendered images. The use of 3D-US in gynaecology was accelerated through the development of the endovaginal volume transducer, which allows the automated acquisition of volumetric US data. Although initially considered an adjunct to two-dimensional US, 3D-US is now the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of Müllerian duct anomalies and the location of intrauterine devices.

  17. Real-time structured light profilometry: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The acquisition of high-resolution, real-time three-dimensional surface data of dynamically moving objects has large applicability in many fields. When additional restrictions such as non-invasiveness and non-contact measurement are imposed on the employed profilometry technique, the list of possible candidates is reduced mainly to the broad range of structured light profilometry methods. In this manuscript, the current state-of-the-art in structured light profilometry systems is described, as well as the main advancements in hardware technology and coding strategy that have led to their successful development. A chronological overview of optical profilometry systems that have been reported to perform real-time acquisition, digital signal processing and display of full-field 3D surface maps is presented. The respective operating principles, strengths and weaknesses of these setups are reviewed and the main limitations and future challenges in high-speed optical profilometry are discussed.

  18. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-04-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging.

  19. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging. PMID:27032979

  20. Design considerations of a real-time clinical confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1991-06-01

    A real-time clinical confocal light microscope provides the ophthalmologist with a new tool for the observation of the cornea and the ocular lens. In addition, the ciliary body, the iris, and the sclera can be observed. The real-time light microscopic images have high contrast and resolution. The transverse resolution is about one half micron and the range resolution is one micron. The following observations were made with visible light: corneal epithelial cells, wing cells, basal cells, Bowman's membrane, nerve fibers, basal lamina, fibroblast nuclei, Descemet's membrane, endothelial cells. Observation of the in situ ocular lens showed lens capsule, lens epithelium, lens fibrils, the interior of lens fibrils. The applications of the confocal microscope include: eye banking, laser refractive surgery, observation of wound healing, observation of the iris, the sciera, the ciliary body, the ocular lens, and the intraocular lens. Digital image processing can produce three-dimensional reconstructions of the cornea and the ocular lens.

  1. Construction of Three Dimensional Solutions for the Maxwell Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yefet, A.; Turkel, E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider numerical solutions for the three dimensional time dependent Maxwell equations. We construct a fourth order accurate compact implicit scheme and compare it to the Yee scheme for free space in a box.

  2. In vivo images of the epidural space with two- and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2017-01-01

    Background No reports exist concerning in vivo optical coherence tomography visualization of the epidural space and the blood patch process in the epidural space. In this study, we produced real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional images of the epidural space by using optical coherence tomography in a porcine model. We also aimed to produce three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images of the dura puncture and blood patch process. Methods Two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were obtained using a swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. Four laboratory pigs were intubated and ventilated after the induction of general anesthesia. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was used as a tunnel for the optical coherence tomography probe to the epidural space. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction optical coherence tomography images of the epidural space were acquired in four stages. Results In stage 1, real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the lumbar and thoracic epidural space were successfully acquired. In stage 2, the epidural catheter in the epidural space was successfully traced in the 3D optical coherence tomography images. In stage 3, water injection and lumbar puncture were successfully monitored in all study animals. In stage 4, 10 mL of fresh blood was injected into the epidural space and two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were successfully acquired. Conclusions These animal experiments suggest the potential capability of using an optical coherence tomography-based imaging needle in the directed two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization of the epidural space. More investigations involving humans are required before optical coherence tomography can be recommended for routine use. However, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography may provide a novel, minimally invasive

  3. In vivo images of the epidural space with two- and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Kao, Meng-Chun; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2017-01-01

    No reports exist concerning in vivo optical coherence tomography visualization of the epidural space and the blood patch process in the epidural space. In this study, we produced real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional images of the epidural space by using optical coherence tomography in a porcine model. We also aimed to produce three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images of the dura puncture and blood patch process. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were obtained using a swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. Four laboratory pigs were intubated and ventilated after the induction of general anesthesia. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was used as a tunnel for the optical coherence tomography probe to the epidural space. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction optical coherence tomography images of the epidural space were acquired in four stages. In stage 1, real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the lumbar and thoracic epidural space were successfully acquired. In stage 2, the epidural catheter in the epidural space was successfully traced in the 3D optical coherence tomography images. In stage 3, water injection and lumbar puncture were successfully monitored in all study animals. In stage 4, 10 mL of fresh blood was injected into the epidural space and two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were successfully acquired. These animal experiments suggest the potential capability of using an optical coherence tomography-based imaging needle in the directed two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization of the epidural space. More investigations involving humans are required before optical coherence tomography can be recommended for routine use. However, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography may provide a novel, minimally invasive, and safe way to observe the spinal

  4. Interactive real time flow simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive real time flow simulation technique is developed for an unsteady channel flow. A finite-volume algorithm in conjunction with a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme was developed for two-dimensional Euler equations. A global time step was used to accelerate convergence of steady-state calculations. A raster image generation routine was developed for high speed image transmission which allows the user to have direct interaction with the solution development. In addition to theory and results, the hardware and software requirements are discussed.

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of degradation products after treatment of methylene blue aqueous solution with three-dimensionally integrated microsolution plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Nomura, Ayano; Hayashi, Yui; Tanaka, Kenji; Goto, Motonobu

    2016-01-01

    Methylene blue can be degraded in three-dimensionally integrated microsolution plasma. The degradation products have been analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectrometry to understand the degradation mechanisms. The results of MALDI TOF mass spectrometry have shown that sulfoxide is formed at the first stage of the oxidation. Then, partial oxidation proceeds on the methyl groups left on the sulfoxide. The sulfoxide is subsequently separated to two benzene derivatives. Finally, weak functional groups are removed from the benzene derivatives.

  6. Three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization using discrete sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgreen, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization procedure based on discrete sensitivity analysis is extended to treat three-dimensional geometries. The function of sensitivity analysis is to directly couple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with numerical optimization techniques, which facilitates the construction of efficient direct-design methods. The development of a practical three-dimensional design procedures entails many challenges, such as: (1) the demand for significant efficiency improvements over current design methods; (2) a general and flexible three-dimensional surface representation; and (3) the efficient solution of very large systems of linear algebraic equations. It is demonstrated that each of these challenges is overcome by: (1) employing fully implicit (Newton) methods for the CFD analyses; (2) adopting a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of two- and three-dimensional surfaces; and (3) using preconditioned conjugate gradient-like linear system solvers. Whereas each of these extensions independently yields an improvement in computational efficiency, the combined effect of implementing all the extensions simultaneously results in a significant factor of 50 decrease in computational time and a factor of eight reduction in memory over the most efficient design strategies in current use. The new aerodynamic shape optimization procedure is demonstrated in the design of both two- and three-dimensional inviscid aerodynamic problems including a two-dimensional supersonic internal/external nozzle, two-dimensional transonic airfoils (resulting in supercritical shapes), three-dimensional transport wings, and three-dimensional supersonic delta wings. Each design application results in realistic and useful optimized shapes.

  7. Three-dimensional terahertz wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-C

    2004-02-15

    Pulsed terahertz (THz) wave sensing and imaging is a coherent measurement technology. Like radar, based on the phase and amplitude of the THz pulse at each frequency, THz waves provide temporal and spectroscopic information that allows us to develop various three-dimensional (3D) terahertz tomographic imaging modalities. The 3D THz tomographic imaging methods we investigated include THz time-of-flight tomography, THz computed tomography (CT) and THz binary lens tomography. THz time-of-flight uses the THz pulses as a probe beam to temporally mark the target, and then constructs a 3D image of the target using the THz waves scattered by the target. THz CT is based on geometrical optics and inspired from X-ray CT. THz binary lens tomography uses the frequency-dependent focal-length property of binary lenses to obtain tomographic images of an object. Three-dimensional THz imaging has potential in such applications as non-destructive inspection. The interaction between a coherent THz pulse and an object provides rich information about the object under study; therefore, 3D THz imaging can be used to inspect or characterize dielectric and semiconductor objects. For example, 3D THz imaging has been used to detect and identify the defects inside a Space Shuttle insulation tile.

  8. Assessment of left ventricular function by three-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Krenning, Boudewijn J; Voormolen, Marco M; Roelandt, Jos RTC

    2003-01-01

    Accurate determination of LV volume, ejection fraction and segmental wall motion abnormalities is important for clinical decision-making and follow-up assessment. Currently, echocardiography is the most common used method to obtain this information. Three-dimensional echocardiography has shown to be an accurate and reproducible method for LV quantitation, mainly by avoiding the use of geometric assumptions. In this review, we describe various methods to acquire a 3D-dataset for LV volume and wall motion analysis, including their advantages and limitations. We provide an overview of studies comparing LV volume and function measurement by various gated and real-time methods of acquisition compared to magnetic resonance imaging. New technical improvements, such as automated endocardial border detection and contrast enhancement, will make accurate on-line assessment with little operator interaction possible in the near future. PMID:14514356

  9. Three-dimensional laser-assisted processing of bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; del Val, J.; Malot, T.; Riveiro, A.; Quintero, F.; Boutinguiza, M.; Aubry, P.; Pou, J.

    The study of calcium phosphate bioceramics processing by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding was tackled in this work. This technique shows a great potential to provide a three-dimensional tailored implant adapted to the specific problem of each patient. Working window to produce stable geometrical features and repeatable microstructures was established by real time process monitoring and characterization of the processed material. The relationships between the processing parameters and the obtained properties are discussed, in addition to the biological behaviour of the produced parts. The obtained calcium phosphate phases (oxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, tetracalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate) are found to favorably influence the degradability of the precursor hydroxyapatite in Tris-HCl buffer which is a good sign of the favorable behavior of this type of materials when implanted 'in vivo'.

  10. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  11. Real-time flutter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  12. Ammonium nitrogen removal from wastewater with a three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Zhao, Qing-Liang; Wei, Liang-Liang; Chen, Yang; Shu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium-containing wastewater could cause the promotion of eutrophication and a hindrance to the disinfection of water supplies. In this study, the feasibility of removing low-concentration ammonium nitrogen from synthetic and real wastewater by electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Using laboratory-scale electrochemical systems, the effects of chloride concentration, current density, anode materials, cathode materials, electrode gap, initial ammonium concentration and three-dimensional particles on the removal of ammonium nitrogen and current efficiency (CE) were evaluated. Ammonium nitrogen removal was mainly dependent upon anode materials and current density. The performance of two- and three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation systems was comparatively discussed. Both particle electrodes could enhance ammonium nitrogen removal and increase CE. However, the mechanism of the process seemed to be different. Moreover, the interaction of zeolites adsorption and electrochemical oxidation on the anode in a three-dimensional system could favor the regeneration of zeolites. Surface morphology of the used Ru-Ir-Sn/Ti anode revealed its longer working life of electrocatalysis. The result of ammonium degradation for a real wastewater treatment plant effluent showed the degradation rates in a three-dimensional system increased by 1.4 times those in a two-dimensional system.

  13. Cosmic Atlas: A Real-Time Universe Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Jenkins, N. E.

    2004-05-01

    Cosmic Atlas is a software program produced at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science to generate real-time digital content for the Museum's Gates Planetarium. Created by in-house staff, Cosmic Atlas is designed to be scientifically accurate, flexible, easily updated to stay current with new discoveries, and portable to multiple platforms. It is currently developed using desktop computers running a Linux OS, and is also installed on a multi-graphics pipe SGI visualization computer running the IRIX OS in the Gates Planetarium. The software can be used in real-time presentations via traditional ``star talks'' and classes, but can also be used to devise flightpaths, perform timeline-based editing, play back flightpaths in real-time, and save out image renders for creating video files to be shown on additional playback systems. The first version of the program is meant to replicate the functionality of a traditional optical-mechanical star ball, and hence creates a replica of the night time sky, with constellations, deep sky objects, and didactic information and grids. The Solar System is a realistic, three-dimensional, navigable simulation, updated with the latest moon and minor planet discoveries, and with motions over time determined by a customized orrery. Additional modules can show traditional astronomical imagery, including an application for loading in FITS files to create three-color composites. A three-dimensional model of the Milky Way is in development, populated with HIPPARCOS stars for the local galactic neighborhood, and with molecular clouds constructed from large-scale CO survey data; more distant regions are filled with statistically generated stellar and interstellar medium distributions.