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Sample records for real world haskell

  1. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  2. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  3. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  4. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  5. Real World Software Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-15

    Ada bibliography c. Case tools list Real-World Software Engineering I NTRO-UCn a. Purpose mid 0.61 Based on our experience teaching software...in the second semester. Emphasis is placed on validation techniques for requirements and design. CASE tools are used to document and validate the...with a variety of CASE tools; Continuous Assessment - integrated into all project activities using formal reviews with an emphasis on validation and

  6. Diving into Real World Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  7. Virtual Worlds, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Many children between the ages of four and twelve log in to Web-based virtual play spaces each day, and these virtual worlds are quickly becoming an important aspect of their out-of-school lives. Consequently, educators' challenge is to see how they can leverage virtual spaces, such as the virtual play spaces, for learning and literacy. Over the…

  8. The real-world navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balabanovic, Marko; Becker, Craig; Morse, Sarah K.; Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    1994-01-01

    The success of every mobile robot application hinges on the ability to navigate robustly in the real world. The problem of robust navigation is separable from the challenges faced by any particular robot application. We offer the Real-World Navigator as a solution architecture that includes a path planner, a map-based localizer, and a motion control loop that combines reactive avoidance modules with deliberate goal-based motion. Our architecture achieves a high degree of reliability by maintaining and reasoning about an explicit description of positional uncertainty. We provide two implementations of real-world robot systems that incorporate the Real-World Navigator. The Vagabond Project culminated in a robot that successfully navigated a portion of the Stanford University campus. The Scimmer project developed successful entries for the AIAA 1993 Robotics Competition, placing first in one of the two contests entered.

  9. Alice in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  10. Out in the real world.

    PubMed

    Levine, S

    1998-11-01

    Just weeks into his first foray into the complex world of medical practice, family practitioner Warren L. Conway, MD, offers some advice to this year's crop of senior residents: "Go back to college and get a business degree. You need some business training, and it needs to be from a person who's in the real world."

  11. Alice in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  12. Real-world trials to answer real-world questions.

    PubMed

    Freemantle, Nick; Blonde, Lawrence; Bolinder, Bjorn; Gerber, Robert A; Hobbs, F D Richard; Martinez, Luc; Ross, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is a discrepancy between clinical trials designed to assess the efficacy and safety of a new medication under investigation and the real-life questions that need to be addressed regarding the clinical use of the medication by patients, healthcare professionals and society. The data necessary to obtain regulatory approval may be of limited relevance to policy makers when calculating economic parameters such as value for money or cost effectiveness. 'Real-world' studies examine questions relevant to health policy and reimbursement. There are many different forms of clinical trials, but in designing trials incorporating realistic budget impact estimates the important issue is to ensure we are asking a sensible question and attempting to answer it with an appropriate experimental design. As an example, a real-world trial currently underway that examines scenarios of introducing inhaled insulin into clinical practice is described.

  13. Mathematics in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borenstein, Matt

    1997-01-01

    The abstract nature of algebra causes difficulties for many students. Describes "Real-World Data," an algebra course designed for students with low grades in algebra and provides multidisciplinary experiments (linear functions and variations; quadratic, square-root, and inverse relations; and exponential and periodic variation)…

  14. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  15. Mechanics in the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald

    2006-03-01

    In the fall semester of 2004, I taught six discussion sections of a large calculus-based introductory mechanics class at the University of Michigan. I therefore interacted with approximately 200 students twice a week. One of my priorities as a discussion instructor was to help students make the connection between the formulae they were required to memorize and the real world with which they interact every day. Near the end of the term, I gave the students an assignment intended to assess how strongly the ideas of introductory mechanics had affected their thought processes. I asked them to write a paragraph describing a real-world event or process for which they now realized they had a better understanding.

  16. Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…

  17. Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…

  18. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  19. What Is "Real-World" ID Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The term "real-world ID" is commonly heard at professional conferences, but its meaning is assumed rather than defined. Unless we examine the meanings and implications of rhetoric of the field, we risk error in presenting ourselves, and we risk derailing the progress of our profession. This article examines the term "real world" as applied to…

  20. Mathematics & Science in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus is organized around the theme of mathematics and science in the real world. It intends to provide teachers with practical resources and suggestions for science and mathematics education. Featured articles include: (1) "Real-World Learning: A Necessity for the Success of Current Reform Efforts" (Robert E. Yager); (2)…

  1. Real World: Using Lunar Reactors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Find out how NASA scientists, like explorers of old, plan to use the natural resources of new worlds to provide life-sustaining materials for the astronauts. During tests in Hawaii, scientists prac...

  2. When the Academic World and the Real World Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetlik, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the need for a complimentary relationship between the academic and real outside world. This is not to compare a college degree with outside work experience--the two are complementary. It is the world of business and industry that often cause changes. Students and practitioners of industrial automation are an…

  3. Studying real-world perceptual expertise

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature. PMID:25147533

  4. Studying real-world perceptual expertise.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  5. Capturing the Real World in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; Uylings, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Practical investigation tasks are part of the Dutch examination programme of senior secondary education. In mathematics and science, pupils are expected to develop a broad range of research skills, which includes connecting real world phenomena with the scientific world, understanding the problems at hand and asking the right questions, making a…

  6. Establishing a Real-World Credential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    This article features Community College of the Air Force (CCAF) as the world's largest two-year higher education institution that will be celebrating the awarding of its 300,000th associate degree this fall. Headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama, CCAF was founded in 1972 as a means of establishing a real-world credential for training…

  7. Establishing a Real-World Credential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    This article features Community College of the Air Force (CCAF) as the world's largest two-year higher education institution that will be celebrating the awarding of its 300,000th associate degree this fall. Headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama, CCAF was founded in 1972 as a means of establishing a real-world credential for training…

  8. Physics and the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2006-02-01

    Physics and chemistry underlie the nature of all the world around us, including human brains. Consequently some suggest that in causal terms, physics is all there is. However, we live in an environment dominated by objects embodying the outcomes of intentional design (buildings, computers, teaspoons). The present day subject of physics has nothing to say about the intentionality resulting in existence of such objects, even though this intentionality is clearly causally effective. This paper examines the claim that the underlying physics uniquely causally determines what happens, even though we cannot predict the outcome. It suggests that what occurs is the contextual emergence of complexity: the higher levels in the hierarchy of complexity have autonomous causal powers, functionally independent of lower level processes. This is possible because top-down causation takes place as well as bottom-up action, with higher level contexts determining the outcome of lower level functioning and even modifying the nature of lower level constituents. Stored information plays a key role, resulting in non-linear dynamics that is non-local in space and time. Brain functioning is causally affected by abstractions such as the value of money and the theory of the laser. These are realised as brain states in individuals, but are not equivalent to them. Consequently physics per se cannot causally determine the outcome of human creativity, rather it creates the possibility space allowing human intelligence to function autonomously. The challenge to physics is to develop a realistic description of causality in truly complex hierarchical structures, with top-down causation and memory effects allowing autonomous higher levels of order to emerge with genuine causal powers.

  9. Investigating Functions Using Real-World Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities for using graphic calculators to enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics are great. However, the boundaries explode when these powerful tools for learning are connected to data logging devices: a whole new approach to mathematics learning becomes possible. Using real world data to introduce the main functions (which are…

  10. Connecting Legal Discourse with Real World Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Nigel

    This paper reports on the strategies used by an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher to help law students whose first language is Chinese in an English-for-law course learn and understand how to negotiate legal texts and ordinances and connect them with the concerns of people in the real world. The example of the recently enacted Human Organ…

  11. Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to encourage enhanced richness and relevance of the undergraduate engineering education experience, and thus produce better-prepared and more globally competitive graduates, by providing practical guidance for incorporating real world experience in US engineering programs. The report, a collaborative effort of the…

  12. The Power of Real-World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Linked learning transforms students' high school experience by linking a college preparatory course sequence with demanding technical education, and linking real-world experiences with classroom learning to help students gain an advantage in high school, postsecondary education, and careers. With linked learning, students follow industry-themed…

  13. Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to encourage enhanced richness and relevance of the undergraduate engineering education experience, and thus produce better-prepared and more globally competitive graduates, by providing practical guidance for incorporating real world experience in US engineering programs. The report, a collaborative effort of the…

  14. Cellphones and Real-World Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…

  15. Cellphones and Real-World Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…

  16. Education in and about the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinchy, Evans

    1989-01-01

    Traditional schooling falls short of preparing students for real-world experience in failing to incorporate informal, "in-context" learning situations. Reviews the literature on experience-based education and cites several successful urban programs that involve students in the educative community through learning experience, career…

  17. Developing Real-World Spelling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeletti, Sara; Peterson, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies for incorporation into elementary level spelling programs to help students become real-world spellers. The article explains how to make spelling part of the writing process by expanding the word bank, improving proofreading skills, building dictionary skills, and conducting a roundup spelling test to practice new skills. (SM)

  18. Predicting Complexity Perception of Real World Images

    PubMed Central

    Corchs, Silvia Elena; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Bricolo, Emanuela; Gasparini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to predict the complexity perception of real world images. We propose a new complexity measure where different image features, based on spatial, frequency and color properties are linearly combined. In order to find the optimal set of weighting coefficients we have applied a Particle Swarm Optimization. The optimal linear combination is the one that best fits the subjective data obtained in an experiment where observers evaluate the complexity of real world scenes on a web-based interface. To test the proposed complexity measure we have performed a second experiment on a different database of real world scenes, where the linear combination previously obtained is correlated with the new subjective data. Our complexity measure outperforms not only each single visual feature but also two visual clutter measures frequently used in the literature to predict image complexity. To analyze the usefulness of our proposal, we have also considered two different sets of stimuli composed of real texture images. Tuning the parameters of our measure for this kind of stimuli, we have obtained a linear combination that still outperforms the single measures. In conclusion our measure, properly tuned, can predict complexity perception of different kind of images. PMID:27336469

  19. Predicting Complexity Perception of Real World Images.

    PubMed

    Corchs, Silvia Elena; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Bricolo, Emanuela; Gasparini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to predict the complexity perception of real world images. We propose a new complexity measure where different image features, based on spatial, frequency and color properties are linearly combined. In order to find the optimal set of weighting coefficients we have applied a Particle Swarm Optimization. The optimal linear combination is the one that best fits the subjective data obtained in an experiment where observers evaluate the complexity of real world scenes on a web-based interface. To test the proposed complexity measure we have performed a second experiment on a different database of real world scenes, where the linear combination previously obtained is correlated with the new subjective data. Our complexity measure outperforms not only each single visual feature but also two visual clutter measures frequently used in the literature to predict image complexity. To analyze the usefulness of our proposal, we have also considered two different sets of stimuli composed of real texture images. Tuning the parameters of our measure for this kind of stimuli, we have obtained a linear combination that still outperforms the single measures. In conclusion our measure, properly tuned, can predict complexity perception of different kind of images.

  20. Classification Experiments on Real-World Texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Manduchi, Roberto; Fox, Justin

    2001-01-01

    Many papers have been published concerning the analysis of visual texture and yet, very few application domains use texture for image classification. A possible reason for this low transfer of the technology is the lack of experience and testing in real-world imagery. In this paper, we assess the performance of texture-based classification methods on a number of real-world images relevant to autonomous navigation on cross-country terrain and to autonomous geology. Texture analysis will form part of the closed loop that allows a robotic system to navigate autonomously. We have implemented two different classifiers on features extracted by Gabor filter banks. The first classifier models feature distributions for each texture class using a mixture of Gaussians. Classification is performed using Maximum Likelihood. The second classifier represents local statistics using marginal histograms of the features over a region centered on the pixel to be classified. We measure system performance by comparison to ground truth image labels.

  1. Classification Experiments on Real-World Texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Manduchi, Roberto; Fox, Justin

    2001-01-01

    Many papers have been published concerning the analysis of visual texture and yet, very few application domains use texture for image classification. A possible reason for this low transfer of the technology is the lack of experience and testing in real-world imagery. In this paper, we assess the performance of texture-based classification methods on a number of real-world images relevant to autonomous navigation on cross-country terrain and to autonomous geology. Texture analysis will form part of the closed loop that allows a robotic system to navigate autonomously. We have implemented two different classifiers on features extracted by Gabor filter banks. The first classifier models feature distributions for each texture class using a mixture of Gaussians. Classification is performed using Maximum Likelihood. The second classifier represents local statistics using marginal histograms of the features over a region centered on the pixel to be classified. We measure system performance by comparison to ground truth image labels.

  2. Real world evidence: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Amit; Vallish, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for measuring the safety and efficacy of drugs. However, they are being challenged by payers and health care providers since they are looking for real world evidence (RWE) to validate whether the new intervention provides similar safety and efficacy as reported in RCT data. RWE uses real world data (RWD) to generate insight, foresight, and explorative findings on diseases, products, and patient populations. There are varied sources of RWD such as administrative data, large pragmatic trials, registries, electronic health records, and health surveys. RWE approaches are increasingly becoming the normal practice in developed countries to bring a product to the healthcare market and to ensure its significance in clinical practice. The Indian healthcare sector is growing at a brisk pace and is grasping up with the principles of health economics and outcome research, thereby exhibiting the value of real-world insights in healthcare decision. India has taken a step toward RWE by developing a framework to assist health care providers in harmonizing RWD for economic, clinical, and humanistic outcome. PMID:27843789

  3. Real world evidence: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dang, Amit; Vallish, B N

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for measuring the safety and efficacy of drugs. However, they are being challenged by payers and health care providers since they are looking for real world evidence (RWE) to validate whether the new intervention provides similar safety and efficacy as reported in RCT data. RWE uses real world data (RWD) to generate insight, foresight, and explorative findings on diseases, products, and patient populations. There are varied sources of RWD such as administrative data, large pragmatic trials, registries, electronic health records, and health surveys. RWE approaches are increasingly becoming the normal practice in developed countries to bring a product to the healthcare market and to ensure its significance in clinical practice. The Indian healthcare sector is growing at a brisk pace and is grasping up with the principles of health economics and outcome research, thereby exhibiting the value of real-world insights in healthcare decision. India has taken a step toward RWE by developing a framework to assist health care providers in harmonizing RWD for economic, clinical, and humanistic outcome.

  4. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc.

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (b) LIGHTHOUSE AND KEEPER'S COTTAGE FROM SOUTHWEST - Lighthouse, Cedar Point Scituate Harbor, Scituate, Plymouth County, MA

  6. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (j) Int- (so- called) Slaves' Pew, East Gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (f) Int-General view looking north toward pulpit. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (e) Ext- Detail, main entrance, west front. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer October, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer October, 1934 (a) PROVINCE HOUSE STEPS FROM WEST - Wrought Iron Archway & Steps, Province & Bosworth Streets, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (g) Ext- general view, gateway entrance and fence. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  11. Real change in the real world: an achievable goal.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    This commentary builds on the papers presented at the Vanderbilt Conference by emphasizing the importance of better understanding the process of change-making if real change in the real world is to be achieved. The commentary reviews several frameworks and research findings related to achieving large-scale sustainable change that benefits children and families. It calls for the application of systems thinking as a complement to the more micro-level research that was presented at the Vanderbilt conference. Such an approach would have implications for framing of the issue, for the strategies that are taken to try to achieve change, and for research/evaluation methods for studying complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems.

  12. Asymmetrical singularities in real-world signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Amaral, Luís A.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2003-12-01

    We generalize the wavelet transform modulus maxima approach in order to analyze positive and negative changes separately and show different singularity spectra depending on the direction of changes in (i) human heartbeat interval data during sympathetic blockade, (ii) time series of daytime human physical activity of healthy individuals (but not of patients with debilitating fatigue), and (iii) daily stock price records of the Nikkei 225 in the period 1990 2002—but not of the S&P 500. We conclude that the analysis of asymmetrical singularities provides deeper insights into the underlying complexity of real-world signals that can greatly enhance our understanding of the mechanisms determining the systems’ dynamics.

  13. A Study of Haskell Students: Academic Performance and Cultural Marginality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, behavior of Haskell Indian Junior College freshmen as a whole fit a pattern of cultural marginality, with traditional students exhibiting more pronounced marginal behavior than nontraditional students, reflecting the Haskell social environment. Students' ACT and GPA scores appeared meaningless, supporting the idea of an educational…

  14. A Study of Haskell Students: Academic Performance and Cultural Marginality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, behavior of Haskell Indian Junior College freshmen as a whole fit a pattern of cultural marginality, with traditional students exhibiting more pronounced marginal behavior than nontraditional students, reflecting the Haskell social environment. Students' ACT and GPA scores appeared meaningless, supporting the idea of an educational…

  15. [Atrial fibrillation in the real world].

    PubMed

    Berisso, Massimo Zoni; Caruso, Davide

    2012-10-01

    In the last two decades atrial fibrillation (AF) has become one of the most important public health problems and a significant cause of increasing healthcare costs in developed countries. The prevalence of AF is ever increasing, and at present, in Italy, it is twice higher (1.85%) than that reported in the past decade. In addition, the ratio of AF frequency among males and females in each age subgroup is always >1.2. In the real world, the commonest AF treatment strategy is "rate control" accounting for 51-56% of all AF patients. Anticoagulant therapy is still underused, in particular among several selected AF patient subgroups. The present findings suggest the need for improving AF patient management through ad hoc educational programs.

  16. Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L.; Saur, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.

  17. [Development of real-world haptic technology].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kouhei; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Natori, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    This paper introduces the principle of real-world haptic and its technology applied to high-grade surgery and/or welfare areas. The existing technology has depended on force sensors, which leads to a trade-off issue between stability and performance. The implementation and realization of a better system has been an unsolved problem for a long time. The authors invented a novel technology that works without force sensors. Modal decomposition and acceleration-based bilateral control(ABC method)are its key concepts. This idea has been actualized with three dof robotic forceps. Several experimental results found by the application of haptic forceps mounted on a 6 dof industrial robot are shown.

  18. Field balancing in the real world

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  19. Mental rotation and real-world wayfinding.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, J C

    2001-02-01

    Sex differences in mental rotation skills are a robust finding in small-scale laboratory-based studies of spatial cognition. There is almost no evidence in the literature, however, relating these skills to performance on spatial tasks in large-scale, real-world activities such as navigating in a new city or in the woods. This study investigates the connections between mental rotation skills as measured by the Vandenburg-Kuse Mental Rotations test and the performance of college students (n=211) navigating a 6-km orienteering course. The results indicate that mental rotation skills are significantly correlated with wayfinding performance on an orienteering task. The findings also replicate sex differences in spatial ability as found in laboratory-scale studies. However, the findings complicate the discussion of mental rotation skills and sex because women often performed as well as men despite having lower mean test scores. This suggests that mental rotation ability may not be as necessary for some women's wayfinding as it is for men's navigation.

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY OF VIEW BELONGING RO MR. FAXON, OF QUINCY. (f) Ext- Photo of full size model of old car. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (f) Int- Mantel in southwest room first floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (c) Ext- Detail old seat on entrance porch - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  3. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (h) Int- Mantel in southwest room second floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  4. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (g) Int- Mantel in northeast room first floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (b) Ext- Detail entrance porch from southwest - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  6. 8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, CALIFORNIA. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (c) Int- Mantel detail (sitting) room SE corner, first floor - Fearing-Warr House, 14 Elm Street, Wareham, Plymouth County, MA

  8. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. 28, 1935 (i) INT.- WALL STENCILLING, REAR ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Peter Jayne House, 37 Mugford Street, Marblehead, Essex County, MA

  9. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May 29, 1939 (r) INT.- MANTEL & MIRROR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, 1st. FLOOR - Cook-Oliver House, 142 Federal Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) EXT.-MAPLE MEADOW BROOK AQUEDUCT, WILMINGTON, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middlesex Canal, Maple Meadow Brook Aqueduct, Wilmington, Middlesex County, MA

  11. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. 1, 1939 (l) INT.- STAIRWAY, 4th FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH - M.I.T., Rogers Building, 491 Boylston Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (e) Portion of old quarry wagon at head of incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) General view of incline to Quarry from Northwest. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (c) Detail of track and set pulleys on quarry incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Detail of old railroad part way up incline to quarry. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Dec. 29, 1936 (i) EXT.- 32, 34 JACKSON STREET, looking NORTHWEST - Mill Houses, 32 & 34 Jackson Street, Middleboro, Plymouth County, MA

  17. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer 1935 (N) Int--Fireplace wall, Dining Room, Main House. N. E. Room - Daniel Shute House, Main & South Pleasant Streets, Hingham, Plymouth County, MA

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (b) Int- Looking southwest from womens' side toward fireplace to center partition on first floor - Society of Friends Meetinghouse, Schoosett Street (Routes 139 & 53), North Pembroke, Plymouth County, MA

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (h) Int-Detail Gallery Stairs, S.E. Corner. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  20. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (i) Int-Looking down on pulpit and first floor from west gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey Employee.) (a) Ext- General view from Southeast. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934. (g) Int-- Detail corner cupboard, S.E. Parlor. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Ext- General view house and office from southeast. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (e) Int- Paneled west side of S. E. Bedroom. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) Ext- General view house and office from southwest. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (e) Int-Staircase from Jonathan Watson House, formerly on High St., Medford. - Colonel Isaac Royall Slave Quarters, 15 George Street, Medford, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (d) Portion of old machinery now lying beside track. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer September, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer September, 1934 (a) GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - St. Augustine Chapel, St. Augustine Cemetery, Dorchester Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1938 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1938 (c) Int- Shoe Shop looking toward East End - Henry Wilson Shoe Shop, West Central & Mill Streets, Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  11. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (l) Int-Mantel Detail, Bedroom (S.E. Corner) Second Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  12. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (k) Int-Mantel detail, Dining (S.E. Corner) Room, First Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (b) Ext- Detail doorway, east side of house. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (A) Ext. General view from Southeast. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (b) Ext- General view of main house from southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (c) Ext- General view of House and Ell from Southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  17. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (a) Model of Old Windmill and Vats found in Atwood House, W. Chatham, Mass. - Enoch Harding Salt Works, Buck's Creek, West Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (b) Ext- General view rear, looking from north. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (a) Ext- General front view from southeast. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (c) Ext-Detail entrance on south. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (b) Ext-View of remaining East Portion from Atlantic Ave. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (d) Ext-Detail view S.W. Corner of remaining portion of old building. Corner Storer Street. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (c) Ext-General view remaining corner from S.W. corner Storer Street. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Promising Practices for Connecting High School to the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, W. E., Ed.; Harwell, Sandra, Ed.

    This monograph, containing 24 articles by 11 authors, describes a number of practices that have shown promise for better connecting high school with the broader world beyond school. The monograph begins with "Connecting High School with the Real World" (Sandi Harwell, William Blank), which discusses the concept of "real life" and various ways of…

  5. Real-World Problems: Teachers' Evaluation of Pupils' Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Indira

    2007-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the solutions of real-world problems by pupils and the evaluations of these by their teachers in a semi-rural school in Zimbabwe. Generally, real-world problems are solved as if these are standard problems expecting a solution and a correct answer. In most cases, the solutions of the pupils are considered correct by the…

  6. Curricular Orientations to Real-World Contexts in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cathy; Morgan, Candia

    2016-01-01

    A common claim about mathematics education is that it should equip students to use mathematics in the "real world". In this paper, we examine how relationships between mathematics education and the real world are materialised in the curriculum across a sample of eleven jurisdictions. In particular, we address the orientation of the…

  7. Real-World Contexts in Urban High School Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Andrew Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the uses of real-world contexts in mathematics lessons in the classrooms of four teachers across two school years at an urban high school. Drawing upon a framework of culturally relevant mathematics pedagogy, this dissertation focuses on how real-world contexts are connected to teaching mathematics for understanding, centering…

  8. Real-World Contexts in Urban High School Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Andrew Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the uses of real-world contexts in mathematics lessons in the classrooms of four teachers across two school years at an urban high school. Drawing upon a framework of culturally relevant mathematics pedagogy, this dissertation focuses on how real-world contexts are connected to teaching mathematics for understanding, centering…

  9. Curricular Orientations to Real-World Contexts in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cathy; Morgan, Candia

    2016-01-01

    A common claim about mathematics education is that it should equip students to use mathematics in the "real world". In this paper, we examine how relationships between mathematics education and the real world are materialised in the curriculum across a sample of eleven jurisdictions. In particular, we address the orientation of the…

  10. Here in the Real World: MTV Meets the Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubbs, Jim

    A study investigated how a contemporary, popular media program such as "The Real World" (on MTV) can be used most effectively in the classroom to illustrate the basic concepts of interpersonal, group, and family communication. The 21 individual 22-minute episodes of the second season of "The Real World" (a combination of…

  11. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector.

  12. Teacher to Teacher: The Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Whether they are learning about long division, Longfellow or a long-lost civilization, students often want to know how the subjects they are studying will help them in "real life." One of the primary responsibilities of teachers is to prepare students for "real life" as informed, engaged and inquisitive citizens. A great way to cultivate these…

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At £8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre

  14. A real-world way to manage real options.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions.

  15. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, David; Lopez, Antonio M; Marin, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Geronimo, David

    2013-08-23

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in realworld images?. Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing performance in real world, but it can also suffer the dataset shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection performance than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector.

  16. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  17. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  18. Real-World Research for Freshman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanski, Virginia G.

    Freshman composition teachers who are attuned to real-life writing situations can extend the scope of traditional research paper assignments and at the same time meet the writing needs of other disciplines. For example, history students could record data from old records, or fine arts students could describe their artistic observations. To lead…

  19. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  20. Bridging STEM in a Real World Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Mousoulides, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering-based modeling activities provide a rich source of meaningful situations that capitalize on and extend students' routine learning. By integrating such activities within existing curricula, students better appreciate how their school learning in mathematics and science applies to problems in the outside world. Furthermore, modeling…

  1. The Real Impact of Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that as technology continues to change, the generation of students will change also. The best preparation, then, is to train one's own mind to think digitally so that one can best create policies, programs, and interactions that enable a student to connect the two worlds in ways that are productive, satisfying, and meaningful.…

  2. Bridging STEM in a Real World Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Mousoulides, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering-based modeling activities provide a rich source of meaningful situations that capitalize on and extend students' routine learning. By integrating such activities within existing curricula, students better appreciate how their school learning in mathematics and science applies to problems in the outside world. Furthermore, modeling…

  3. A Virtual World with Real Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Katherine L.; Golann, Joanne Wang

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how students learn invaluable job-readiness and academic skills by setting up and running their own businesses in a virtual world. Virtual Enterprises (VE) International is a high school career and technical education (CTE) program that teaches students about business by having a class create and operate its own virtual…

  4. Problems in the Real World of Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copes, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of the phrase "mathematics is everywhere." Introduces the book "Reconstructing School Mathematics: Problems with Problems and the Real World", written by Stephen Brown, which emphasizes mathematical modeling and the connection between mathematics and students' lives. (KHR)

  5. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  6. Practically relevant research: capturing real world tasks, environments, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph

    2003-03-01

    Development of strategies to optimize the functional performance of older adults requires understanding the behavior of older people doing tasks in real-world settings and capturing these interactions in research protocols. This is a major challenge as there is some degree of tension between capturing the contextual variables and constraints that operate in the real world and the scale of research that can be realistically conducted within controlled experimental settings. This article presents a research approach that can be used to help ensure the ecological validity of research protocols. The intent is to demonstrate how an ecologically valid approach affords greater insight into the performance of older adults in real world settings. The approach involves techniques such as task analysis and simulation. Examples from two research projects examining aging and the performance of real-world computer-based work tasks are used to demonstrate the application of this approach. The article demonstrates how an ecologically valid research approach yields information about human performance that can be translated into solutions for real-world problems. Ecologically valid research protocols offer the potential for providing answers to real-world problems and advancing theory regarding aging and functional performance.

  7. Mobile medical device connectivity: real world solutions.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Mobile medical devices, such as infusion pumps, provide an important therapeutic function. They are also valuable sources of information about treatment patterns at the point of care. However, these mobile devices have been independent islands of valuable information, unable to share the data they gather with other hospital information resources on a real time basis. Although data from these devices can provide significant improvements for medical safety and vital information needed for clinical best practice development, gathering that data poses significant challenges when interfacing with hospital information systems. Mobile medical devices move from place to place as independent actors, raising a series of security and identification issues when they need to be disconnected and reconnected using traditional tethered cable connections. The continuing lack of accepted communications protocol standards, in spite of the concentrated efforts of organizations like the IEEE and the Medical Information Bus (IEEE 1073) to establish them, has made integration into the hospital information system a complex and non-standard task. The rapid spread in availability and adoption of high-speed 802.11 wireless systems in hospitals offers a realistic connectivity solution for mobile medical devices. Inspite of this, the 802.11 standard is still evolving, and current security methods designed for user-based products like PDAs and laptop computers are not ideal for unmanned mobile medical devices because they assume the availability of a human operator to authenticate a wireless session. In the absence of accepted standards, manufacturers have created practical and innovative solutions to support the collection of clinical data from mobile medical devices and the integration of that data with hospital information systems. This paper will explore the potential benefits of integrating mobile medical devices into the hospital information system, and describe the challenges in

  8. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  9. Attention in the real world: toward understanding its neural basis

    PubMed Central

    Peelen, Marius V.; Kastner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The efficient selection of behaviorally relevant objects from cluttered environments supports our everyday goals. Attentional selection has typically been studied in search tasks involving artificial and simplified displays. Although these studies have revealed important basic principles of attention, they do not explain how the brain efficiently selects familiar objects in complex and meaningful real-world scenes. Findings from recent neuroimaging studies indicate that real-world search is mediated by ‘what’ and ‘where’ attentional templates that are implemented in high-level visual cortex. These templates represent target-diagnostic properties and likely target locations, respectively, and are shaped by object familiarity, scene context, and memory. We propose a framework for real-world search that incorporates these recent findings and specifies directions for future study. PMID:24630872

  10. Attention in the real world: toward understanding its neural basis.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Kastner, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The efficient selection of behaviorally relevant objects from cluttered environments supports our everyday goals. Attentional selection has typically been studied in search tasks involving artificial and simplified displays. Although these studies have revealed important basic principles of attention, they do not explain how the brain efficiently selects familiar objects in complex and meaningful real-world scenes. Findings from recent neuroimaging studies indicate that real-world search is mediated by 'what' and 'where' attentional templates that are implemented in high-level visual cortex. These templates represent target-diagnostic properties and likely target locations, respectively, and are shaped by object familiarity, scene context, and memory. We propose a framework for real-world search that incorporates these recent findings and specifies directions for future study.

  11. Student Handbook--Haskell Indian Junior College, Lawrence, Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell Indian Junior Coll., Lawrence, KS.

    Designed for prospective and in-coming American Indian students, this handbook on Haskell Indian Junior College presents information relative to the following: (1) School Calender; (2) Office Directory; (3) History and Traditions (school hymn and song, historical development, and statement of school philosophy), (4) Academic Life (degree programs,…

  12. The Haskell Indian Nations University Model for Elementary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Karen Gayton

    1995-01-01

    A four-year teacher education program at Haskell Indian Nations University (Kansas) prepares American Indians and Alaska Natives to teach Native American children. In addition to the knowledge needed by all teachers, the program focuses on knowledge relevant to American Indians, such as foundations of Indian education, learning styles of Indian…

  13. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world.

    PubMed

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance.

  14. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    PubMed Central

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

  15. On Predictability of System Anomalies in Real World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    distributed system SETI @home [44]. Different from the above work, this work focuses on quantifying the predictability of real-world system anomalies. V...J.-M. Vincent, and D. Anderson, “Mining for statistical models of availability in large-scale distributed systems: An empirical study of seti @home,” in Proc. of MASCOTS, sept. 2009.

  16. Real-World Literacy Activity in Pre-School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we share real-world literacy activities that we designed and implemented in two early literacy classes for preschoolers from two inner-city neighbourhoods that were part of an intergenerational family literacy program, Literacy for Life (LFL). The program was informed by research that shows that young children in high literate…

  17. Bringing the Real World into the Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…

  18. Student Internships Bridge Research to Real World Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynie, Michaela; Jensen, Krista; Johnny, Michael; Wedlock, Jane; Phipps, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on student perceptions of 24 graduate student internships funded in 2007-2008 by York University's Knowledge Mobilization (KMb) Unit. These internships provided opportunities for students to engage in research with community agencies around real world problems. Design/methodology/approach: The principal…

  19. Using Real-World Scenarios in Accounting Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    High school accounting courses focus on terms and procedures without providing scenarios or examples where accounting skills are applied in business. Business educators should integrate real-world situations into classroom activities so students can better realize how accounting procedures are used and their importance. (JOW)

  20. Real-World Connections Can Boost Journalism Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrier, Kathy; Bott, Don; McGuire, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Describes various ways scholastic journalism advisers have attempted to make real-world connections to boost their journalism programs: critiques of student publications by invited guest speakers (professional journalists); regional workshops where professionals offer short presentations; local media offering programming or special sections aimed…

  1. Using Real World Experience to Teach Science and Environmental Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    The use of interpretive reporting techniques and programs offering real world training to writers may provide solutions to the problems encountered in writing about science for the mass media. Both science and environmental writers have suggested that the problems they face would be decreased by the use of more interpretive and investigative…

  2. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Industrial Chemistry Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmor, Solomon

    1985-01-01

    Presented is a bibliography of articles published in the "Journal of Chemical Education" (1968-1983) which focused on industrial chemistry. Items are listed under these headings: real world of industrial chemistry; industrial notes; subject matter articles; industrial chemistry experiments/demonstrations; academic-industrial interface;…

  3. Real-World Problem Solving in Freshman-Sophomore Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavelich, Michael J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In an integrated four-course sequence, Colorado School of Mines engineering and science students work on open-ended, real-world problems prepared by government agencies and private companies that interact as clients with student teams. The program fosters intellectual development, teamwork, and communication skills. (Author/MSE)

  4. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  5. Investigating Comprehension in Real World Tasks: Understanding Jury Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert

    This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…

  6. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  7. Clinical data quality problems and countermeasure for real world study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runshun; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Baoyan; Song, Guangli; Zhou, Xuezhong; Fan, Shizhen; Pan, Xishui

    2014-09-01

    Real world study (RWS) has become a hotspot for clinical research. Data quality plays a vital role in research achievement and other clinical research fields. In this paper, the common quality problems in the RWS of traditional Chinese medicine are discussed, and a countermeasure is proposed.

  8. Bringing the Real World into the Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…

  9. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  10. Student Internships Bridge Research to Real World Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynie, Michaela; Jensen, Krista; Johnny, Michael; Wedlock, Jane; Phipps, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on student perceptions of 24 graduate student internships funded in 2007-2008 by York University's Knowledge Mobilization (KMb) Unit. These internships provided opportunities for students to engage in research with community agencies around real world problems. Design/methodology/approach: The principal…

  11. Teaching Children Real-World Knowledge and Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wendy M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue topic by asserting that empirically powerful and theoretically guided educational research needs to be designed with the teacher in mind. Provides rationale for research focus on real-world knowledge and reasoning, and reasons for selecting research projects on inductive reasoning, mathematical reasoning, map skills,…

  12. Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2011-01-01

    Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

  13. Making Connections to the "Real World": A Model Building Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horibe, Shusaku; Underwood, Bret

    2009-01-01

    Classroom activities that include the process of model building, in which students build simplified physical representations of a system, have the potential to help students make meaningful connections between physics and the real world. We describe a lesson designed with this intent for an introductory college classroom that engages students in…

  14. Real-World Literacy Activity in Pre-School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we share real-world literacy activities that we designed and implemented in two early literacy classes for preschoolers from two inner-city neighbourhoods that were part of an intergenerational family literacy program, Literacy for Life (LFL). The program was informed by research that shows that young children in high literate…

  15. Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2011-01-01

    Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

  16. Integrating Real World Entities into an Academic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Terrance; Schlesinger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This research will demonstrate how an experiential learning practicum can be successfully implemented into an academic curriculum, using Drexel University's (Philadelphia, PA) award-winning student-run record label, MAD Dragon Records, as a case study. It will describe the components necessary to implement and operate a real-world entity within…

  17. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  18. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  19. Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects

    PubMed Central

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required observers to access existing object knowledge, we observed that real-world objects have a consistent visual size at which they are drawn, imagined, and preferentially viewed. Importantly, this visual size is proportional to the logarithm of the assumed size of the object in the world, and is best characterized not as a fixed visual angle, but by the ratio of the object and the frame of space around it. Akin to the previous literature on canonical perspective, we term this consistent visual size information the canonical visual size. PMID:20822298

  20. GetReal: from efficacy in clinical trials to relative effectiveness in the real world.

    PubMed

    Egger, Matthias; Moons, Karel G M; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-09-01

    The GetReal consortium ("incorporating real-life data into drug development") addresses the efficacy-effectiveness gap that opens between the data from well-controlled randomized trials in selected patient groups submitted to regulators and the real-world evidence on effectiveness and safety of drugs required by decision makers. Workpackage 4 of GetReal develops evidence synthesis and modelling approaches to generate the real-world evidence. In this commentary, we discuss how questions change when moving from the well-controlled randomized trial setting to real-life medical practice, the evidence required to answer these questions, the populations to which estimates will be applicable to and the methods and data sources used to produce these estimates. We then introduce the methodological reviews written by GetReal authors and published in Research Synthesis Methods on network meta-analysis, individual patient data meta-analysis and mathematical modelling to predict drug effectiveness. The critical reviews of key methods are a good starting point for the ambitious programme of work GetReal has embarked on. The different strands of work under way in GetReal have great potential to contribute to making clinical trials research as relevant as it can be to patients, caregivers and policy makers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Translational science: a catalyst for real world applications?

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Adrien K

    2014-01-01

    Science is the systemic search for new knowledge and innovative ideas. Scientific knowledge is empirically based and successful replication of the results is a crucial component of it. Translational science connects this knowledge with real world applications in order to address societal challenges and problems, under the condition that the science-policy interface is taken into account. The aim of this communication is to examine if translational science can be applied to research settings other than health care.

  2. Real world issues in classroom acoustics for hearing impaired students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschmidt, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    Experience is being gained from evaluating and modifying the acoustical properties and background noise levels of existing classrooms for use by hearing impaired students. Projects include more than 25 schools in public school systems that are mainstreaming handicapped children. Various practical and economic restrictions have led to recommendations for modifications that do not necessarily comply with ANSI S12.60 2002. Examples of real world conditions and practical solutions will be described.

  3. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, John; Leontiadis, Ilias; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study containment schemes for mobile phone malware which can spread via short range radio, similar to biological viruses; finally, we study how the temporal network structure of human interactions can be exploited to effectively immunise human populations. Through these applications we demonstrate that temporal metrics provide a more accurate and effective analysis of real-world networks compared to their static counterparts.

  4. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  5. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  6. A Tutorial on Parallel and Concurrent Programming in Haskell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyton Jones, Simon; Singh, Satnam

    This practical tutorial introduces the features available in Haskell for writing parallel and concurrent programs. We first describe how to write semi-explicit parallel programs by using annotations to express opportunities for parallelism and to help control the granularity of parallelism for effective execution on modern operating systems and processors. We then describe the mechanisms provided by Haskell for writing explicitly parallel programs with a focus on the use of software transactional memory to help share information between threads. Finally, we show how nested data parallelism can be used to write deterministically parallel programs which allows programmers to use rich data types in data parallel programs which are automatically transformed into flat data parallel versions for efficient execution on multi-core processors.

  7. Helping Students Connect Science Coursework to the ``Real World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Jeffrey; Knouse, William

    2006-02-01

    It is fundamentally important to help students connect the material they learn in their science courses to the world they encounter outside the classroom. In this preliminary report, we describe how we facilitated such connections in our undergraduate students by creating materials for a First-year Seminar course, The Earth (a non-science-majors course). The materials included specific in-class, small-group discussion questions; talking points in lecture; and a journal where students recorded their observations of the natural world. Our analysis indicated that we improved our students' attitudes and beliefs about how their coursework relates to the real world, and these improvements were better than those of students with similar experiences but who were not exposed to the additional, tailored course materials.

  8. Undergraduate Teaching of Ideal and Real Fluid Flows: The Value of Real-World Experimental Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Tom E.; Chanson, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical impact of real-world experimental projects undertaken as part of an advanced undergraduate fluid mechanics subject at an Australian university. The projects have been organized to complement traditional lectures and introduce students to the challenges of professional design, physical modelling, data collection…

  9. Undergraduate Teaching of Ideal and Real Fluid Flows: The Value of Real-World Experimental Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Tom E.; Chanson, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical impact of real-world experimental projects undertaken as part of an advanced undergraduate fluid mechanics subject at an Australian university. The projects have been organized to complement traditional lectures and introduce students to the challenges of professional design, physical modelling, data collection…

  10. Myeloma in the Real World: What Is Really Happening?

    PubMed

    Bergin, Krystal; McQuilten, Zoe; Moore, Elizabeth; Wood, Erica; Spencer, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy and is predominantly a disease of the elderly. In the past 2 decades, a range of new therapeutic options have become available, leading to improvements in patient outcomes, including both attainment of remission and overall survival. These improved outcomes have heralded a paradigm shift from a palliative approach toward more active management, including the use of sequential therapies, with the goal of prolonging progression-free and overall survival and preserving organ function to enable delivery of further therapy at relapse. Until now, most outcome data for MM have come from clinical trials, with few reports available on patients treated outside the clinical trial setting-in the "real world." Clinical trials are routinely undertaken in specialist centers, and extrapolation of these trial data to broader clinical practice might not accurately reflect "real-world" patient outcomes. Optimal management of MM is of key importance for positive patient outcomes, and further scrutiny of the efficacy and safety of the various reported therapies and how clinical trial findings are being translated or applied in the real-world management of MM is required. In the present review, we have described the minimal published evidence available through a comprehensive published data search of MEDLINE using the OvidSP interface on the management and outcomes of MM outside the setting of clinical trials, including evidence on the uptake of new therapies and their efficacy and tolerability in standard practice. Clinical registries might be able to help provide these data in the future.

  11. Apremilast in psoriasis - a prospective real-world study.

    PubMed

    Vujic, I; Herman, R; Sanlorenzo, M; Posch, C; Monshi, B; Rappersberger, K; Richter, L

    2017-09-19

    Apremilast is a novel oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor approved for psoriasis treatment. Randomized trials have documented its efficacy and safety, but data on real-world patients are scarce. We aim to characterize psoriasis patients treated with apremilast in a real-world setting and calculate drug survival as an important measure of efficacy and compliance. All psoriasis patients that received apremilast between April 1(st) 2015 and January 19(th) 2017 were evaluated every 4 weeks and we documented: age, weight, height, smoking status, family history of psoriasis, joint involvement, previous treatments, psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scores, and the onset and duration of adverse events (AE). Efficacy was analyzed by PASI50, PASI75, and PASI90, reflecting the improvement of skin lesions compared to the PASI-baseline. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used for drug survival estimates. Forty-eight patients were included. The median apremilast drug survival was 12.5 weeks (range 1-87). Three patients (6.3%) reached PASI90, nine (18.8%) PAIS75 and eight patients (16.7%) PASI50. Patient weight inversely correlated with a PASI50 response (p<0.05, n=37), and none of the obese patients (BMI>30.0, n=6) reached PASI75, compared to 32% of the non-obese patients (BMI<30.0, n=31). Thirty-one patients (64.6%) reported at least one AE, most frequently diarrhea (n=21, 43.8%), headache (n=7, 14.6%) and joint pain (n=5, 10.4%). Despite differences between real-world and trial patients, apremilast is safe and effective for the treatment of skin psoriasis in the daily practice. Up to 40% of patients will reach PASI50 or higher, but only few patients will reach PASI90. Body-weight might affect drug efficacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  13. Real-world natural language interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cullingford, R.E.; Selfridge, M.

    1983-01-01

    ACE (academic counseling experiment) is a natural-language text processing system currently under development at the University of Connecticut as a testbed for work in real-world conversational interaction with rule-based expert systems. ACE is designed to perform the tasks of a faculty advisor of undergraduate engineering students who intend to be computer science majors at the university. The key problem for a conversational system of this sort is robust understanding, the ability to cope with ungrammatical, ellipsed, and otherwise variant, but responsive, input. The paper outlines ACE's current status and the progress toward testing it with real users. The authors believe it represents a technology which can be applied to a wide variety of rule-based expert systems. 22 references.

  14. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  15. Modelling the world in real time: how robots engineer information.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J

    2003-12-15

    Programming robots and other autonomous systems to interact with the world in real time is bringing into sharp focus general questions about representation, inference and understanding. These artificial agents use digital computation to interpret the data gleaned from sensors and produce decisions and actions to guide their future behaviour. In a physical system, however, finite computational resources unavoidably impose the need to approximate and make selective use of the information available to reach prompt deductions. Recent research has led to widespread adoption of the methodology of Bayesian inference, which provides the absolute framework to understand this process fully via modelling as informed, fully acknowledged approximation. The performance of modern systems has improved greatly on the heuristic methods of the early days of artificial intelligence. We discuss the general problem of real-time inference and computation, and draw on examples from recent research in computer vision and robotics: specifically visual tracking and simultaneous localization and mapping.

  16. NASA World Wind Near Real Time Data for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Innovation requires open standards for data exchange, not to mention ^access to data^ so that value-added, the information intelligence, can be continually created and advanced by the larger community. Likewise, innovation by academia and entrepreneurial enterprise alike, are greatly benefited by an open platform that provides the basic technology for access and visualization of that data. NASA World Wind Java, and now NASA World Wind iOS for the iPhone and iPad, provides that technology. Whether the interest is weather science or climate science, emergency response or supply chain, seeing spatial data in its native context of Earth accelerates understanding and improves decision-making. NASA World Wind open source technology provides the basic elements for 4D visualization, using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) protocols, while allowing for customized access to any data, big or small, including support for NetCDF. NASA World Wind includes access to a suite of US Government WMS servers with near real time data. The larger community can readily capitalize on this technology, building their own value-added applications, either open or proprietary. Night lights heat map Glacier National Park

  17. Ask-Elle: An Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, Johan; van Binsbergen, L. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a task description for the exercise, one or more…

  18. Ask-Elle: An Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, Johan; van Binsbergen, L. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a task description for the exercise, one or more…

  19. The Big Crunch--Models in Physics Meet the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Examines quantitative models in school physics, looking particularly at the degree to which they match the real world. Explores the positive aspects of a mismatch between models and real world conditions. (DDR)

  20. The real-world safety potential of connected vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Doecke, Sam; Grant, Alex; Anderson, Robert W G

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the safety potential of a current commercially available connected vehicle technology in real-world crashes. Data from the Centre for Automotive Safety Research's at-scene in-depth crash investigations in South Australia were used to simulate the circumstances of real-world crashes. A total of 89 crashes were selected for inclusion in the study. The crashes were selected as representative of the most prevalent crash types for injury or fatal crashes and had potential to be mitigated by connected vehicle technology. The trajectory, speeds, braking, and impact configuration of the selected in-depth cases were replicated in a software package and converted to a file format allowing "replay" of the scenario in real time as input to 2 Cohda Wireless MK2 onboard units. The Cohda Wireless onboard units are a mature connected vehicle technology that has been used in both the German simTD field trial and the U.S. Department of Transport's Safety Pilot project and have been tuned for low false alarm rates when used in the real world. The crash replay was achieved by replacing each of the onboard unit Global Positioning System (GPS) inputs with the simulated data of each of the involved vehicles. The time at which the Cohda Wireless threat detection software issued an elevated warning was used to calculate a new impact speed using 3 different reaction scenarios and 2 levels of braking. It was found that between 37 and 86% of the simulated crashes could be avoided, with highest percentage due a fully autonomous system braking at 0.7 g. The same system also reduced the impact speed relative to the actual crash in all cases. Even when a human reaction time of 1.2 s and moderate braking of 0.4 g was assumed, the impact speed was reduced in 78% of the crashes. Crash types that proved difficult for the threat detection engine were head-on crashes where the approach angle was low and right turn-opposite crashes. These results indicate that connected vehicle

  1. Learning Physics from the Real World by Direct Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2012-03-01

    It is axiomatic that hands-on experience provides many learning opportunities, which lectures and textbooks cannot match. Moreover, experiments involving the real world are beneficial in helping students to gain a level of understanding that they might not otherwise achieve. One practical limitation with the real world is that simplifications and approximations are sometimes necessary to make the material accessible; however, these types of adjustments can be viewed with misgiving when they appear arbitrary and/or convenience-based. The present work describes a very familiar feature of everyday life, whose underlying physics is examined without modifications to mitigate difficulties from the lack of control in a non-laboratory environment. In the absence of any immediate formula to process results, students are encouraged to reach ab initio answers with guidance provided by a structured series of worksheets. Many of the latter can be completed as homework assignments prior to activity in the field. This approach promotes thinking and inquiry as valuable attributes instead of unquestioningly following a prescribed path.

  2. Empirical extraction of mechanisms underlying real world network generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzhack, Royi; Muchnik, Lev; Erez, Tom; Tsaban, Lea; Goldenberg, Jacob; Solomon, Sorin; Louzoun, Yoram

    2010-11-01

    The generation mechanisms of real world networks have been described using multiple models. The mathematical features of these models are usually extrapolated from statistical properties of a snapshot of these networks. We here propose an alternative method based on direct measurement of a sequence of consecutive snapshots to uncover the dynamics underlying real world generation. We assume that the probability of adding a node or an edge depends only on local features surrounding the newly added node/edge, and directly measure the contribution of these features to the node/edge addition probability. These measurements are performed using newly defined N-node local structures. Each N-node local structure represents the configuration of edges surrounding a newly added edge. The N-node local structure measurements reproduce for some networks the now classical addition of edges between high degree node mechanisms. It also provides quantitative estimates of more complex mechanisms driving other networks’ evolution, such as the effect of common first and second neighbors. This new methodology reveals the relative importance of different generation mechanisms. We show, for example, that the main mechanism driving hyperlink addition between two websites is the existence of a third website linking to both the source and the target of the new hyperlink.

  3. Automatic guidance of attention during real-world visual search.

    PubMed

    Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Looking for objects in cluttered natural environments is a frequent task in everyday life. This process can be difficult, because the features, locations, and times of appearance of relevant objects often are not known in advance. Thus, a mechanism by which attention is automatically biased toward information that is potentially relevant may be helpful. We tested for such a mechanism across five experiments by engaging participants in real-world visual search and then assessing attentional capture for information that was related to the search set but was otherwise irrelevant. Isolated objects captured attention while preparing to search for objects from the same category embedded in a scene, as revealed by lower detection performance (Experiment 1A). This capture effect was driven by a central processing bottleneck rather than the withdrawal of spatial attention (Experiment 1B), occurred automatically even in a secondary task (Experiment 2A), and reflected enhancement of matching information rather than suppression of nonmatching information (Experiment 2B). Finally, attentional capture extended to objects that were semantically associated with the target category (Experiment 3). We conclude that attention is efficiently drawn towards a wide range of information that may be relevant for an upcoming real-world visual search. This mechanism may be adaptive, allowing us to find information useful for our behavioral goals in the face of uncertainty.

  4. Automatic guidance of attention during real-world visual search

    PubMed Central

    Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Looking for objects in cluttered natural environments is a frequent task in everyday life. This process can be difficult, as the features, locations, and times of appearance of relevant objects are often not known in advance. A mechanism by which attention is automatically biased toward information that is potentially relevant may thus be helpful. Here we tested for such a mechanism across five experiments by engaging participants in real-world visual search and then assessing attentional capture for information that was related to the search set but was otherwise irrelevant. Isolated objects captured attention while preparing to search for objects from the same category embedded in a scene, as revealed by lower detection performance (Experiment 1A). This capture effect was driven by a central processing bottleneck rather than the withdrawal of spatial attention (Experiment 1B), occurred automatically even in a secondary task (Experiment 2A), and reflected enhancement of matching information rather than suppression of non-matching information (Experiment 2B). Finally, attentional capture extended to objects that were semantically associated with the target category (Experiment 3). We conclude that attention is efficiently drawn towards a wide range of information that may be relevant for an upcoming real-world visual search. This mechanism may be adaptive, allowing us to find information useful for our behavioral goals in the face of uncertainty. PMID:25898897

  5. Motif structure and cooperation in real-world complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R.; Jalili, Mahdi

    2010-12-01

    Networks of dynamical nodes serve as generic models for real-world systems in many branches of science ranging from mathematics to physics, technology, sociology and biology. Collective behavior of agents interacting over complex networks is important in many applications. The cooperation between selfish individuals is one of the most interesting collective phenomena. In this paper we address the interplay between the motifs’ cooperation properties and their abundance in a number of real-world networks including yeast protein-protein interaction, human brain, protein structure, email communication, dolphins’ social interaction, Zachary karate club and Net-science coauthorship networks. First, the amount of cooperativity for all possible undirected subgraphs with three to six nodes is calculated. To this end, the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game is considered and the cooperativity of each subgraph is calculated as the percentage of cooperating agents at the end of the simulation time. Then, the three- to six-node motifs are extracted for each network. The significance of the abundance of a motif, represented by a Z-value, is obtained by comparing them with some properly randomized versions of the original network. We found that there is always a group of motifs showing a significant inverse correlation between their cooperativity amount and Z-value, i.e. the more the Z-value the less the amount of cooperativity. This suggests that networks composed of well-structured units do not have good cooperativity properties.

  6. In the Real-World, Kids Use Medications and Devices.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Tamar

    2017-06-01

    In the real world, we lack evidence guiding the use of medications and devices in children. This lack of evidence arose out of the challenges of conducting clinical trials in children and other vulnerable populations and the historical decision (reversed in recent decades) to exclude children from clinical trials. The recent focus on the potential of real-world evidence (RWE) to guide approval and use of new treatments may provide a much-needed solution. A broad definition of RWE includes prospective observational data and data from electronic health records and claims, as well as other sources. For the most part, it is reasonable to expect that considerations around the use of RWE in adult populations will apply to its use in children. However, a number of issues around the use of RWE are unique to studying children. These fall into at least four categories: (1) identification of databases with adequate numbers of children in the age sub-groups of interest, (2) access to critical variables such as birth date, birth weight, and gestational age, (3) linkage to parental records for information about pre-natal exposures, family history, and socio-economic status, and (4) linkage to school records for information about outcomes such as missed school days, academic progress, and behavioral issues. Addressing the needs of children in developing methodologies for use of RWE ensures that ongoing efforts will benefit children as well as other sectors of the population.

  7. Using "Real World" Examples in the Teaching of Chemistry--A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Defines "real world" examples providing rationale for incorporating them into chemistry teaching. Topic areas of papers include: chemistry in a watershed, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), consumer chemistry, culinary chemistry, using real world examples in a laboratory program, projects relating real world chemistry to high school…

  8. Using "Real World" Examples in the Teaching of Chemistry--A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Defines "real world" examples providing rationale for incorporating them into chemistry teaching. Topic areas of papers include: chemistry in a watershed, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), consumer chemistry, culinary chemistry, using real world examples in a laboratory program, projects relating real world chemistry to high school…

  9. Fitness networks for real world systems via modified preferential attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks are virtually ubiquitous, and the Barabási and Albert model (BA model) has became an acknowledged standard for the modelling of these systems. The so-called BA model is a kind of preferential attachment growth model based on the intuitive premise that popularity is attractive. However, preferential attachment alone is insufficient to describe the diversity of complex networks observed in the real world. In this paper we first use the accuracy of a link prediction method, as a metric for network fitness. The link prediction method predicts the occurrence of links consistent with preferential attachment, the performance of this link prediction scheme is then a natural measure of the ;preferential-attachment-likeness; of a given network. We then propose several modification methods and modified BA models to construct networks which more accurately describe the fitness properties of real networks. We find that all features assortativity, degree distribution and rich-club formation can play significant roles for the network construction and eventual structure. Moreover, link sparsity and the size of a network are key factors for network reconstruction. In addition, we find that the structure of the network which is limited by geographic location (nodes are embedded in a Euclidean space and connectivity is correlated with distances) differs from other typical networks. In social networks, we observe that the high school contact network has similar structure as the friends network and so we speculate that the contact behaviours can reflect real friendships.

  10. Implementation science in the real world: a streamlined model.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Anaya, Henry D

    2012-01-01

    The process of quality improvement may involve enhancing or revising existing practices or the introduction of a novel element. Principles of Implementation Science provide key theories to guide these processes, however, such theories tend to be highly technical in nature and do not provide pragmatic nor streamlined approaches to real-world implementation. This paper presents a concisely comprehensive six step theory-based Implementation Science model that we have successfully used to launch more than two-dozen self-sustaining implementations. In addition, we provide an abbreviated case study in which we used our streamlined theoretical model to successfully guide the development and implementation of an HIV testing/linkage to care campaign in homeless shelter settings in Los Angeles County.

  11. Construction of Motion Database Based on Real-World Haptics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    This paper proposes a motion database based on real-world haptics. In order to treat advanced types of haptic information, the motion database contains not only the name of motion and position trajectory of a human operator but also force information. Moreover, the motion database is constructed and managed by a motion database management system, which performs the tasks of inserting, updating, retrieving, and deleting information pertaining to human motion. The motion database management system consists of a motion-copying system, which stores and reproduces the simple motions of the human operator. In this research, the validity and feasibility of the proposed method are verified. By using the proposed method, the motions of human operators in the industrial and medical fields can be stored, dynamically reproduced, and referred.

  12. Real-world predictions from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Barbara; di Dio, Philipp J; Hutter, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    In this review we present the techniques of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation improved to its current stage where the analysis of existing processes and the prediction of further chemical features and real-world processes are feasible. For this reason we describe the relevant developments in ab initio molecular dynamics leading to this stage. Among them, parallel implementations, different basis set functions, density functionals, and van der Waals corrections are reported. The chemical features accessible through AIMD are discussed. These are IR, NMR, as well as EXAFS spectra, sampling methods like metadynamics and others, Wannier functions, dipole moments of molecules in condensed phase, and many other properties. Electrochemical reactions investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics methods in solution, on surfaces as well as complex interfaces, are also presented.

  13. Mobile Urban Drama: interactive storytelling in real world environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Johanne Kortbek, Karen; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-03-01

    This article presents methods and tools for producing location-based Mobile Urban Dramas. In a Mobile Urban Drama, the user becomes the main character in a play that is presented as a multimedia production (through audio, images, animations and videos) on the user's mobile phone and in the physical surroundings. The media files are linked via tags (2D barcodes/RFID) or GPS to the real world set as the stage of the drama. The dramaturgical concept is described, and a narrative architecture is introduced. It supports a rich variety of plot graphs implemented in a software framework that supports producing Mobile Urban Dramas. Dramas produced with the framework may span from pure art pieces to structured learning experiences, for example, biology learning framed in a thriller. Experiences from six dramas produced with the framework by a Danish theatre group are discussed. The results are general findings on the concept, the narrative structure, scenographic effects and tools for technical production.

  14. Real-world Data on Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Mehra, Sagar; Meyer, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking at least one of the following atypical antipsychotic medications: aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone. Approximately 54 percent of the 353 respondents reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an atypical antipsychotic medication. Most common side effects mentioned included the following: weight gain/hunger, tiredness/lethargy, and lack of coordination/muscle problems, such as tenderness, twitches, and tremors. Of those experiencing a side effect, less than 25 percent reported this side effect to their physician.

  15. Monocular Obstacle Detection for Real-World Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einhorn, Erik; Schroeter, Christof; Gross, Horst-Michael

    In this paper, we present a feature based approach for monocular scene reconstruction based on extended Kaiman filters (EKF). Our method processes a sequence of images taken by a single camera mounted in front of a mobile robot. Using various techniques we are able to produce a precise reconstruction that is almost free from outliers and therefore can be used for reliable obstacle detection and avoidance. In real-world field tests we show that the presented approach is able to detect obstacles that can not be seen by other sensors, such as laser range finders. Furthermore, we show that visual obstacle detection combined with a laser range finder can increase the detection rate of obstacles considerably, allowing the autonomous use of mobile robots in complex public and home environments.

  16. REAL-WORLD SORTING OF RHIC SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; PEGGS,S.; THOMPSON,P.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; WANDERER,P.

    1999-03-29

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have been put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-{beta}* interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process.

  17. Real-world experience with neuromuscular blockade reversal.

    PubMed

    Groudine, Scott B; Minkowitz, Harold S; Valentine, Danny L

    2017-11-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are used in many surgical procedures and have enabled new surgical advances. The expanded landscape of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal drugs allows for fast and complete NMB reversal and the reduction of postoperative complications from residual block. In the United States, neostigmine/glycopyrrolate and sugammadex are the primary agents for pharmacologic antagonism of neuromuscular blocking agents. Whereas neostigmine and an anticholinergic have been available for decades, sugammadex has only recently become available. We present real-world cases in a variety of surgical procedures and clinical settings in which the use of NMB reversal agents played a significant role in the patients’ clinical outcome. Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/nmb/711.

  18. Obtaining real-world evidence: the Salford Lung Study

    PubMed Central

    New, John P; Bakerly, Nawar Diar; Leather, David; Woodcock, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    We need to assess clinical treatments in real-life settings outside of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Pragmatic RCT (pRCT) data can supplement RCTs by providing effectiveness information to support healthcare decisions. Electronic health records can facilitate concurrent safety monitoring and data collection without direct patient contact for large randomised study populations in pRCTs. The Salford Lung Study is the world's first phase III pRCT in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which aims to randomise over 7000 patients. This paper describes the hurdles overcome and the enormous effort and resource required to establish this comparative effectiveness study of a prelicence intervention. GlaxoSmithKline protocol HZC115151 Asthma study clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01706198 COPD study clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01551758 PMID:24603195

  19. Using Real-World Case Studies to Advance Hydrology Education in a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Thorsten; Reed, Patrick; Zappe, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Hydrology originated as an engineering discipline mainly concerned with the estimation of floods and droughts. Since then, hydrology has evolved into one of the earth sciences and deals with water related issues in complex environmental systems at scales ranging from local to global. Current and future water issues, however, require new inter-disciplinary scientific approaches to provide solutions to engineering problems, often including significant social components. Climate and land use change introduce non-stationarities into the environment that many of the current engineering tools cannot consider, while a growing population continuously increase the stress on available water resources, particularly in less developed countries. Hydrology therefore remains an important part of the general civil and environmental engineering curriculum. However, the changes in the science of hydrology have not yet fully propagated into a changed approach to teaching this important subject in many engineering departments. We present the results of a three-semester long study in which we introduced real world case studies into a large (70-90 students) civil engineering undergraduate class to achieve this change. Over the past several semesters, students have expressed overwhelmingly positive thoughts on the course adjustments made, including the cases and other active learning elements utilized. We show and discuss evidence of the positive impact on student learning due to the closer link between the course material and real-world examples of a changing world.

  20. Cancer Models and Real-world Data: Better Together.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane J; Tosteson, Anna Na; Zauber, Ann G; Sprague, Brian L; Stout, Natasha K; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Armstrong, Katrina; Pruitt, Sandi L; Rutter, Carolyn M

    2016-02-01

    Decision-analytic models are increasingly used to inform health policy decisions. These models synthesize available data on disease burden and intervention effectiveness to project estimates of the long-term consequences of care, which are often absent when clinical or policy decisions must be made. While models have been influential in informing US cancer screening guidelines under ideal conditions, incorporating detailed data on real-world screening practice has been limited given the complexity of screening processes and behaviors throughout diverse health delivery systems in the United States. We describe the synergies that exist between decision-analytic models and health care utilization data that are increasingly accessible through research networks that assemble data from the growing number of electronic medical record systems. In particular, we present opportunities to enrich cancer screening models by grounding analyses in real-world data with the goals of projecting the harms and benefits of current screening practices, evaluating the value of existing and new technologies, and identifying the weakest links in the cancer screening process where efforts for improvement may be most productively focused. We highlight the example of the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR), a collaboration to harmonize and analyze screening process and outcomes data on breast, colorectal, and cervical cancers across seven research centers. The pairing of models with such data can create more robust models to not only better inform policy but also inform health care systems about best approaches to improve the provision of cancer screening in the United States.

  1. Discovery through maps: Exploring real-world applications of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background/Question/Methods U.S. EPA’s EnviroAtlas provides a collection of interactive tools and resources for exploring ecosystem goods and services. The purpose of EnviroAtlas is to provide better access to consistently derived ecosystems and socio-economic data to facilitate decision-making while also providing data for research and education. EnviroAtlas tools and resources are well-suited for educational use, as they encourage systems thinking, cover a broad range of topics, are freely available, and do not require specialized software to use. To use EnviroAtlas only requires a computer and an internet connection, making it a useful tool for community planning, education, and decision-making at multiple scales. To help users understand how EnviroAtlas resources may be used in different contexts, we provide example use cases. These use cases highlight a real-world issue which EnviroAtlas data, in conjunction with other available data or resources, may be used to address. Here we present three use cases that approach incorporating ecosystem services in decision-making in different decision contexts: 1) to minimize the negative impacts of excessive summer heat due to urbanization in Portland, Oregon 2) to explore selecting a pilot route for a community greenway, and 3) to reduce nutrient loading through a regional manure transport program. Results/Conclusions EnviroAtlas use cases provide step-by-step approaches for using maps and data to address real-wo

  2. Performance of the "CCS Algorithm" in real world patients.

    PubMed

    LaHaye, Stephen A; Olesen, Jonas B; Lacombe, Shawn P

    2015-06-01

    With the publication of the 2014 Focused Update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines Committee has introduced a new triage and management algorithm; the so-called "CCS Algorithm". The CCS Algorithm is based upon expert opinion of the best available evidence; however, the CCS Algorithm has not yet been validated. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the CCS Algorithm in a cohort of real world patients. We compared the CCS Algorithm with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Algorithm in 172 hospital inpatients who are at risk of stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation in whom anticoagulant therapy was being considered. The CCS Algorithm and the ESC Algorithm were concordant in 170/172 patients (99% of the time). There were two patients (1%) with vascular disease, but no other thromboembolic risk factors, which were classified as requiring oral anticoagulant therapy using the ESC Algorithm, but for whom ASA was recommended by the CCS Algorithm. The CCS Algorithm appears to be unnecessarily complicated in so far as it does not appear to provide any additional discriminatory value above and beyond the use of the ESC Algorithm, and its use could result in under treatment of patients, specifically female patients with vascular disease, whose real risk of stroke has been understated by the Guidelines.

  3. The real world and lunar base activation scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    A lunar base or a network of lunar bases may have highly desirable support functions in a national or international program to explore and settle Mars. In addition, He-3 exported from the Moon could be the basis for providing much of the energy needs of humankind in the twenty-first century. Both technical and managerial issues must be addressed when considering the establishment of a lunar base that can serve the needs of human civilization in space. Many of the technical issues become evident in the consideration of hypothetical scenarios for the activation of a network of lunar bases. Specific and realistic assumptions must be made about the conduct of various types of activities in addition to the general assumptions given above. These activities include landings, crew consumables, power production, crew selection, risk management, habitation, science station placement, base planning, science, agriculture, resource evaluation, readaptation, plant activation and test, storage module landings, resource transport module landings, integrated operations, maintenance, Base 2 activation, and management. The development of scenarios for the activation of a lunar base or network of bases will require close attention to the 'real world' of space operations. That world is defined by the natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense.

  4. Flat world versus real world : where is weathering the most important ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godderis, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mountain ranges are a key driver of the Earth climates. Acting on a large range of timescales, they modulate the atmospheric and oceanic circulations but also plays a crucial role in regulating the geological carbon cycle through their impacts on erosion and continental weathering. Since the 90's, there is an ongoing debate about the role of the mountain uplift on the long term global cooling of the Earth climate. Mountain ranges are thought to enhance silicate weathering and the associated CO2 consumption. But this has been repeatedly questioned in the recent years. Here we present a new method for modeling the spatial distribution of both physical erosion and coupled chemical weathering. The IPSL ocean-atmosphere model calculates the continental climate, which is used to force the erosion/weathering model. We first compare the global silicate weathering for two geographical configurations: the present-day world with mountain ranges, and a world where all mountains have been removed. Depending on the chosen formalism for silicate weathering and on the climate changes linked to the removal of mountains, it can be higher in the flat world than in the real world, or up to 5 times weaker. In the second part of the talk, we will explore the role of the Hercynian mountain range on the onset and demise of the late Paleozoic ice age, within the context of the Pangea assembly.

  5. Establishing Real-World Connections for a Better Understanding of Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David

    2009-01-01

    Many physics teachers would agree that students making real-world connections is a critical aspect of learning physics, but what does this really mean? Merely seeing a real-world application of a physical concept does not necessarily allow students to incorporate the concept into the way they perceive their world. It is not just seeing the…

  6. Establishing Real-World Connections for a Better Understanding of Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David

    2009-01-01

    Many physics teachers would agree that students making real-world connections is a critical aspect of learning physics, but what does this really mean? Merely seeing a real-world application of a physical concept does not necessarily allow students to incorporate the concept into the way they perceive their world. It is not just seeing the…

  7. Multi-bubble sonoluminescence: laboratory curiosity, or real world application?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, P.; Lawton, L.; Robertson, P.; Campbell, P. A.

    2008-08-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL) involves the conversion of mechanical [ultra]sound energy into light. Whilst the phenomenon is invariably inefficient, typically converting just 10-4 of the incident acoustic energy into photons, it is nonetheless extraordinary, as the resultant energy density of the emergent photons exceeds that of the ultrasonic driving field by a factor of some 1012. Sonoluminescence has specific [as yet untapped] advantages in that it can be effected at remote locations in an essentially wireless format. The only [usual] requirement is energy transduction via the violent oscillation of microscopic bubbles within the propagating medium. The dependence of sonoluminescent output on the generating sound field's parameters, such as pulse duration, duty cycle, and position within the field, have been observed and measured previously, and several relevant aspects are discussed presently. We also extrapolate the logic from a recently published analysis relating to the ensuing dynamics of bubble 'clouds' that have been stimulated by ultrasound. Here, the intention was to develop a relevant [yet computationally simplistic] model that captured the essential physical qualities expected from real sonoluminescent microbubble clouds. We focused on the inferred temporal characteristics of SL light output from a population of such bubbles, subjected to intermediate [0.5-2MPa] ultrasonic pressures. Finally, whilst direct applications for sonoluminescent light output are thought unlikely in the main, we proceed to frame the state-of-the- art against several presently existing technologies that could form adjunct approaches with distinct potential for enhancing present sonoluminescent light output that may prove useful in real world [biomedical] applications.

  8. Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano: the First Volcanological Observatory in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avvisati, Gala; de Vita, Sandro; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; Tulino, Sabrina; Uzzo, Tullia; Ghilardi, Massimo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV), historic home of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is the oldest volcanological observatory in the world. It was founded in 1841 by the Bourbon king of Naples. The building is located on the western slope of Mount Vesuvius, one of the most famous and dangerous volcanoes in the world. Since its foundation, the ROV has always attracted researchers, visitors and students from many countries. The ROV site is an elegant neo-classical building which at present hosts permanent exhibitions of part of its inheritance of valuable mineral, scientific instrument and art collections. A radical change is now under way, starting with the structural reinforcement of the building, renewal and upgrading of services, and the redefinition of exhibition itineraries so as to make visits still more enjoyable and informative. This will include the integration of outdoor footpaths and theme-based routes designed for users of differing levels of expertise. This major transformation also involves a study and a number of operations aimed at the possibility of developing self-financed activities. To this end an analysis of tourist movements in Campania was conducted, in part so as to attract to the ROV a larger and more varied group of visitors. In an area that - despite its unique characteristics - is currently significantly degraded and underused, the creation of such a powerful tourist and cultural attraction would serve as a focus for the development of additional activities and services that would greatly enhance it and stimulate growth. These activities would, of course, be compatible with a territory that has a high risk of volcanic hazards - indeed, such growth would constitute an important component in mitigating this risk in the area. The example given illustrates how the restoration and enhancement of a piece of our historic, scientific and cultural heritage could be the driving force behind the economic revival of an

  9. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks

    PubMed Central

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S.; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others’ popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets’ sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity–social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity–valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members’ popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior. PMID:26598684

  10. Measuring continuous real-world upper-limb activity.

    PubMed

    Vega-Gonzalez, A; Bain, B J; Granat, M H

    2005-01-01

    The Strathclyde Upper-Limb Activity Monitor (SULAM) was used to assess real-world upper-limb activity. The SULAM consists of an electro-hydraulic activity-sensor which measures the vertical displacement of the wrist in relation to the shoulder. The aims of this study were to obtain a profile of upper-limb activity in two different populations (able-bodied participants and stroke patients) Ten able-bodied volunteers and ten stroke patients-wore the SULAM while performing their everyday activities. The outcome measures were movement time, its distribution in five vertical ranges, bimanual and unimanual movement time. There was a difference in the use of both upper-limbs for both groups, favouring the dominant/unaffected arm. This difference was only in two of the five ranges (chest to shoulder and shoulder to head for able-bodied participants; waist to chest and chest to shoulder for stroke patients). Bimanual movement was greater than unimanual movement for able-bodied participants whereas unimanual movement was greater than bimanual movement for stroke patients.

  11. From holography towards real-world nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Schmitt, Andreas; Wang, Qun

    2015-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is notoriously difficult to solve at nonzero baryon density, and most models or effective theories of dense quark or nuclear matter are restricted to a particular density regime and/or a particular form of matter. Here we study dense (and mostly cold) matter within the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model, aiming at a strong-coupling framework in the wide density range between nuclear saturation density and ultrahigh quark matter densities. The model contains only three parameters, and we ask whether it fulfills two basic requirements of real-world cold and dense matter, a first-order onset of nuclear matter and a chiral phase transition at high density to quark matter. Such a model would be extremely useful for astrophysical applications because it would provide a single equation of state for all densities relevant in a compact star. Our calculations are based on two approximations for baryonic matter—first, an instanton gas and, second, a homogeneous ansatz for the non-Abelian gauge fields on the flavor branes of the model. While the instanton gas shows chiral restoration at high densities but an unrealistic second-order baryon onset, the homogeneous ansatz behaves exactly the other way around. Our study, thus, provides all ingredients that are necessary for a more realistic model and allows for systematic improvements of the applied approximations.

  12. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    PubMed

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-world scenarios help improve selection of radiology employees.

    PubMed

    Kline, C L; Groff, K; Phillips, M

    1998-01-01

    Choosing the right candidate through the interview process is critical, particularly in light of rapidly changing skills in various technologies. The authors have changed the interviewing process at Jeanes Hospital in Philadelphia in order to examine and evaluate multiple objectives simultaneously. To do this, they created an instrument that elicits impromptu responses to real-world radiology situations. Such responses help assess a potential candidate's training, emotional strength, technical experience and growth potential. They also determine how much additional training the potential candidate will need to be effective in the department. Using the instrument helps sharpen the assessment of candidate traits such as face-to-face communication skills and response time. The impact on hiring is positive. Quality staff, improved patient care and improved patient safety are only some of the results. Many of the questions included on the instrument come from past problem situations and help the interviewers to determine whether a candidate understands underlying issues and the seriousness of situations. The goal is to ensure that patient care and productivity are not hampered by unusual situations. When a concrete difference is detected between a candidate's response and the department's needs, it is possible to assess the cost-effectiveness of training for the discrepancy. For entry-level candidates, the question is whether the person is trainable. Consistently using this interview document forces hiring managers to identify specific abilities, traits and experience desirable in the workplace.

  14. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  15. Review of SMS design methods and real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dross, Oliver; Mohedano, Ruben; Benitez, Pablo; Minano, Juan Carlos; Chaves, Julio; Blen, Jose; Hernandez, Maikel; Munoz, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Simultaneous Multiple Surfaces design method (SMS), proprietary technology of Light Prescription Innovators (LPI), was developed in the early 1990's as a two dimensional method. The first embodiments had either linear or rotational symmetry and found applications in photovoltaic concentrators, illumination optics and optical communications. SMS designed devices perform close to the thermodynamic limit and are compact and simple; features that are especially beneficial in applications with today's high brightness LEDs. The method was extended to 3D "free form" geometries in 1999 that perfectly couple two incoming with two outgoing wavefronts. SMS 3D controls the light emitted by an extended light source much better than single free form surface designs, while reaching very high efficiencies. This has enabled the SMS method to be applied to automotive head lamps, one of the toughest lighting tasks in any application, where high efficiency and small size are required. This article will briefly review the characteristics of both the 2D and 3D methods and will present novel optical solutions that have been developed and manufactured to meet real world problems. These include various ultra compact LED collimators, solar concentrators and highly efficient LED low and high beam headlamp designs.

  16. The classification of vigilance tasks in the real world.

    PubMed

    Donald, Fiona M

    2008-11-01

    The ability to generalise vigilance research to operational environments has been questioned, largely due to differences between laboratory research and real-world settings. The taxonomy of vigilance tasks proposed by Parasuraman and Davies (1977) represents an attempt to classify vigilance tasks so that tasks with similar information-processing demands can be compared and the ability to generalise results enhanced. Although the taxonomy originally included complexity, the term specifically referred to multiple sources of information. Complexity has been overlooked in much of the traditional vigilance literature, although it is included in more recent studies of jobs such as air traffic control. In this paper, the taxonomy is evaluated in relation to two vigilance intensive jobs - closed circuit television surveillance operators and air traffic controllers. In its present form, the existing taxonomy of experimental settings has limited applicability to these operational settings. Therefore, recommendations for expanding the taxonomy to include more aspects of complexity are made. It is argued that the revised taxonomy be used in conjunction with situation awareness, which makes provision for the cognitive processes involved in these jobs.

  17. Multiple myeloma: patient outcomes in real-world practice.

    PubMed

    Yong, Kwee; Delforge, Michel; Driessen, Christoph; Fink, Leah; Flinois, Alain; Gonzalez-McQuire, Sebastian; Safaei, Reza; Karlin, Lionel; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Raab, Marc S; Schoen, Paul; Cavo, Michele

    2016-10-01

    With increasing number of therapies available for the treatment of multiple myeloma, it is timely to examine the course of patients' journeys. We investigated patient characteristics, treatment durations and outcomes, and symptom burden across the treatment pathway in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and the UK. In total, 435 physicians retrospectively reviewed 4997 patient charts. Profiles of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma during the last 12 months were similar across countries; bone pain was the most common presentation. Median duration of first-line therapy was 6 months, followed by a median treatment-free interval of 10 months; both these decreased with increasing lines of therapy, as did time to progression. Depth of response, as assessed by the treating physician, also decreased with each additional line of therapy: 74% of patients achieved at least a very good partial response at first line, compared with only 11% at fifth line. Deeper responses were associated with longer time to progression, although these were physician-judged. Toxicities and co-morbidities increased with later treatment lines, and were more likely to have led to discontinuation of treatment. These real-world data provide an insight into patient outcomes and treatment decisions being made in clinical practice. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Optical metrology: from the laboratory to the real world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, W.; Garbusi, E.; Fleischle, D.; Lyda, W.; Pruss, C.; Reichle, R.; Falldorf, C.

    2010-09-01

    Optical metrology has shown to be a versatile tool for the solution of many inspection problems. The main advantages of optical methods are the noncontact nature, the non-destructive and fieldwise working principle, the fast response, high sensitivity, resolution and accuracy. Consequently, optical principles are increasingly being considered in all steps of the evolution of modern products. However, the step out of the laboratory into the harsh environment of the factory floor was and is a big challenge for optical metrology. The advantages mentioned above must be paid often with strict requirements concerning the measurement conditions and the object under test. For instance, the request for interferometric precision in general needs an environment where high stability is guaranteed. If this cannot be satisfied to a great extent special measures have to be taken or compromises have to be accepted. But the rapid technological development of the components that are used for creating modern optical measurement systems, the unrestrained growth of the computing power and the implementation of new measurement and inspection strategies give cause for optimism and show that the high potential of optical metrology is far from being fully utilized. In this article current challenges to optical metrology are discussed and new technical improvements that help to overcome existing restrictions are treated. On example of selected applications the progress in bringing optical metrology to the real world is shown.

  19. London air quality: a real world experiment in progress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Kelly, Julia

    2009-07-01

    London currently has the highest nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration recorded for any European city and for particulate matter (PM) it has some of the worst hot spots. Therefore overall, for these two pollutants, London is the worst in the UK and amongst the worst in Europe. Exposure to elevated concentrations of air pollutants such as PM and NO2 has well-established heath effects and most countries now have strict guidelines for air quality. London's air quality problems are driven largely by traffic. This, along with the high density of people in an urban area results in air quality guidelines being exceeded on a regular basis and large numbers of people being affected. In an attempt to combat London's air quality problems the Mayor of London introduced a series of measures to decrease traffic emissions. These included both a restriction on the number of vehicles entering central London each day--the Congestions Charging Scheme (CCS), and the discouragement of the most polluting heavy goods vehicles from entering--the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Together, it is hoped that these measures will lead to an improvement in air quality and provide a direct health benefit to Londoners. Research underway is charting the progress of this real world experiment.

  20. Developing mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance for the "real world".

    PubMed

    Dean, Dennis A; Fletcher, Adam; Hursh, Steven R; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2007-06-01

    Work-related operations requiring extended wake durations, night, or rotating shifts negatively affect worker neurobehavioral performance and health. These types of work schedules are required in many industries, including the military, transportation, and health care. These industries are increasingly using or considering the use of mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance as a means to predict the neurobehavioral deficits due to these operational demands, to develop interventions that decrease these deficits, and to provide additional information to augment existing decision-making processes. Recent advances in mathematical modeling have allowed its application to real-world problems. Developing application-specific expertise is necessary to successfully apply mathematical models, in part because development of new algorithms and methods linking the models to the applications may be required. During a symposium, "Modeling Human Neurobehavioral Performance II: Towards Operational Readiness," at the 2006 SIAM-SMB Conference on the Life Sciences, examples of the process of applying mathematical models, including model construction, model validation, or developing model-based interventions, were presented. The specific applications considered included refining a mathematical model of sleep/wake patterns of airline flight crew, validating a mathematical model using railroad operations data, and adapting a mathematical model to develop appropriate countermeasure recommendations based on known constraints. As mathematical models and their associated analytical methods continue to transition into operational settings, such additional development will be required. However, major progress has been made in using mathematical model outputs to inform those individuals making schedule decisions for their workers.

  1. Field Balancing in the Real World: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, R.K.; Surrett, C.L.

    1999-10-06

    This paper is a follow-up to an earlier paper, Field Balancing in the Real World, which was presented at CSI Reliability Week 1997 in Nashville. Case studies of excessive vibrations on fans at ORNL will be discussed. Except for a few small sections from the earlier paper, this paper is entirely new. The case studies are new. As in the first paper, all fans are rigid-rotor type fans. Normal operation, therefore, is at less than the shaft's first critical speed. The presentation of case studies with root cause problems other than unbalance is a major departure from the first paper. We believe they belong here, since unbalance is suspected most of the time when a fan is vibrating excessively, even when it is not the root cause. In reality, unbalance is the underlying cause of the excess vibration on fans we have fixed at ORNL only about half the time. Furthermore, the analyst's credibility could be called into question upon an unsuccessful attempt at field balancing when underlying causes are later discovered and fixed. A demonstration will follow the case study presentation. The additional tests described in this paper to confirm centrifugal force (probable unbalance) will be performed.

  2. Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Neil C.

    2008-10-01

    A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

  3. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks.

    PubMed

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-12-08

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others' popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets' sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity-social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity-valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members' popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior.

  4. Load Disaggregation Technologies: Real World and Laboratory Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Butner, Ryan S.; Johnson, Erica M.

    2016-09-28

    Low cost interval metering and communication technology improvements over the past ten years have enabled the maturity of load disaggregation (or non-intrusive load monitoring) technologies to better estimate and report energy consumption of individual end-use loads. With the appropriate performance characteristics, these technologies have the potential to enable many utility and customer facing applications such as billing transparency, itemized demand and energy consumption, appliance diagnostics, commissioning, energy efficiency savings verification, load shape research, and demand response measurement. However, there has been much skepticism concerning the ability of load disaggregation products to accurately identify and estimate energy consumption of end-uses; which has hindered wide-spread market adoption. A contributing factor is that common test methods and metrics are not available to evaluate performance without having to perform large scale field demonstrations and pilots, which can be costly when developing such products. Without common and cost-effective methods of evaluation, more developed disaggregation technologies will continue to be slow to market and potential users will remain uncertain about their capabilities. This paper reviews recent field studies and laboratory tests of disaggregation technologies. Several factors are identified that are important to consider in test protocols, so that the results reflect real world performance. Potential metrics are examined to highlight their effectiveness in quantifying disaggregation performance. This analysis is then used to suggest performance metrics that are meaningful and of value to potential users and that will enable researchers/developers to identify beneficial ways to improve their technologies.

  5. Monte Carlo modelling of positron transport in real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanović, S.; Banković, A.; Šuvakov, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unstable nature of positrons and their short lifetime, it is difficult to obtain high positron particle densities. This is why the Monte Carlo simulation technique, as a swarm method, is very suitable for modelling most of the current positron applications involving gaseous and liquid media. The ongoing work on the measurements of cross-sections for positron interactions with atoms and molecules and swarm calculations for positrons in gasses led to the establishment of good cross-section sets for positron interaction with gasses commonly used in real-world applications. Using the standard Monte Carlo technique and codes that can follow both low- (down to thermal energy) and high- (up to keV) energy particles, we are able to model different systems directly applicable to existing experimental setups and techniques. This paper reviews the results on modelling Surko-type positron buffer gas traps, application of the rotating wall technique and simulation of positron tracks in water vapor as a substitute for human tissue, and pinpoints the challenges in and advantages of applying Monte Carlo simulations to these systems.

  6. The FARSEEING real-world fall repository: a large-scale collaborative database to collect and share sensor signals from real-world falls.

    PubMed

    Klenk, Jochen; Schwickert, Lars; Palmerini, Luca; Mellone, Sabato; Bourke, Alan; Ihlen, Espen A F; Kerse, Ngaire; Hauer, Klaus; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Synofzik, Matthis; Srulijes, Karin; Maetzler, Walter; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Aminian, Kamiar; Todd, Christopher; Chiari, Lorenzo; Becker, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Real-world fall events objectively measured by body-worn sensors can improve the understanding of fall events in older people. However, these events are rare and hence challenging to capture. Therefore, the FARSEEING (FAll Repository for the design of Smart and sElf-adaptive Environments prolonging Independent livinG) consortium and associated partners started to build up a meta-database of real-world falls. Between January 2012 and December 2015 more than 300 real-world fall events have been recorded. This is currently the largest collection of real-world fall data recorded with inertial sensors. A signal processing and fall verification procedure has been developed and applied to the data. Since the end of 2015, 208 verified real-world fall events are available for analyses. The fall events have been recorded within several studies, with different methods, and in different populations. All sensor signals include at least accelerometer measurements and 58 % additionally include gyroscope and magnetometer measurements. The collection of data is ongoing and open to further partners contributing with fall signals. The FARSEEING consortium also aims to share the collected real-world falls data with other researchers on request. The FARSEEING meta-database will help to improve the understanding of falls and enable new approaches in fall risk assessment, fall prevention, and fall detection in both aging and disease.

  7. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  8. Assessing heart rate variability from real-world Holter reports.

    PubMed

    Stein, Phyllis K

    2002-09-01

    Real world clinical Holter reports are often difficult to interpret from a heart rate variability (HRV) perspective. In many cases HRV software is absent. Step-by-step HRV assessment from clinical Holter reports includes: making sure that there is enough usable data, assessing maximum and minimum heart rates, assessing circadian HRV from hourly average heart rates, and assessing HRV from the histogram of R-R intervals and from the plot of R-R intervals or heart rate vs. time. If HRV data are available, time domain HRV is easiest to understand and less sensitive to scanning errors. SDNN (the standard deviation of all N-N intervals in ms) and SDANN (the standard deviation of the 5-min average of N-N intervals in ms) are easily interpreted. SDNN < 70 ms post-MI is a cut point for increased mortality risk. Two times ln SDANN is a good surrogate for ln ultra low frequency power and can be compared with published cut points. SDNNIDX (the average of the standard deviations of N-N intervals for each 5-min in ms) < 30 ms is associated with increased risk in patients with congestive heart failure. RMSSD (the root mean square of successive N-N interval difference in ms) < 17.5 ms has also been associated with increased risk post-myocardial infarction. Frequency domain HRV values are often not comparable to published data. However, graphical power spectral plots can provide additional information about whether the HRV pattern is normal and can also identify some patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  9. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  10. Neurocognitive Systems Related to Real-World Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Eriksson, Johan; Sjölie, Daniel; Molin, Jonas; Nyberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective memory (PM) denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. Methodology/Principal Findings We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD), TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital) system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal) system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY) model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks. PMID:20949046

  11. Practical Implications of Using Real-World Evidence (RWE) in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Learnings from IMI-GetReal.

    PubMed

    Makady, Amr; Stegenga, Heather; Ciaglia, Antonio; Debray, Thomas Pa; Lees, Michael; Happich, Michael; Ryll, Bettina; Abrams, Keith; Thwaites, Rob; Garner, Sarah; Jonsson, Páll; Goettsch, Wim

    2017-08-31

    In light of increasing attention towards the use of real-world evidence (RWE) in decision making in recent years, this commentary aims to reflect on the experiences gained in accessing and using RWE for comparative effectiveness research as a part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative GetReal Consortium and discuss their implications for RWE use in decision-making.

  12. Learning through Real-World Problem Solving: The Power of Integrative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Nancy G.

    This book is based on the idea that curriculum development projects focused on integrated or interdisciplinary teaching within the context of real-world problem solving creates dynamics and meaningful learning experiences for students. The real-world, problem-solving units presented in this book were created by four intern teachers, their mentor…

  13. Social competence versus negative symptoms as predictors of real world social functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Belinda R; Prestia, Davide; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Patterson, Thomas L; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-12-01

    Deficits in real world social functioning are common in people with schizophrenia and the treatment of social skills deficits has been a long-time treatment strategy. However, negative (i.e., deficit) symptoms also appear to contribute to real-world social dysfunction. In this study, we combined data from three separate studies of people with schizophrenia (total n=561) who were assessed with identical methods. We examined the prediction of real-world social functioning, rated by high contact clinicians, and compared the influence of negative symptoms and social skills measured with performance-based methods on these outcomes. Negative symptom severity accounted for 20% of the variance in real-world social functioning, with social skills adding an incremental 2%. This 2% variance contribution was the same when social skills were forced into a regression model prior to negative symptom severity. When we examined individual negative symptoms, prediction of real-world social functioning increased to 28%, with active and passive social avoidance entering the equation. Adding depression into the predictor model improved the prediction of real-world social functioning significantly, but minimally (4% variance). Social skills contribute to real-world social outcomes, but treating negative symptoms appears to be a possible path for improving real-world social functioning in this population.

  14. Connecting Students to the Real World: Developing Gifted Behaviors through Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Davis, Micah N.; Chancey, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning in today's classrooms can be disconnected from students' real world experiences. Providing students the opportunity to address real-world problems may provide avenues for students to engage in their communities while developing academic skills and knowledge. Additionally, for students whose interests are piqued by the nature of their…

  15. Learning through Real-World Problem Solving: The Power of Integrative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Nancy G.

    This book is based on the idea that curriculum development projects focused on integrated or interdisciplinary teaching within the context of real-world problem solving creates dynamics and meaningful learning experiences for students. The real-world, problem-solving units presented in this book were created by four intern teachers, their mentor…

  16. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  17. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  18. Evaluating Credit Applications: A Validation of Multiattribute Utility Techniques Against a Real World Criterion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    science research institute RESEARCH REPORT EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A Z’ VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD...8217_, ", ’- .’.- .. .- ... . .. ,-*,. . .. EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD CRITERION...validation of multiattribute utility elicitation techniques. The techniques tested were the Holistic Orthogonal Parameter Estimation (HOPE) technique

  19. Exploring Non-Traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-World Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukman, Rebeka; Krajnc, Majda

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies the commonalities and differences within non-traditional learning methods regarding virtual and real-world environments. The non-traditional learning methods in real-world have been introduced within the following courses: Process Balances, Process Calculation, and Process Synthesis, and within the virtual environment through…

  20. Establishing Real-World Connections for a Better Understanding of Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, David

    2009-11-01

    Many physics teachers would agree that students making real-world connections is a critical aspect of learning physics, but what does this really mean? Merely seeing a real-world application of a physical concept does not necessarily allow students to incorporate the concept into the way they perceive their world. It is not just seeing the application that makes the real-world connection, but establishing personal relevance to that student's life that is a key to learning physics. This paper describes a constructivist activity in which students design and assemble a common and personally relevant electrical device—the power strip.

  1. Teaching Math and Science in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Marianne, Ed.; Blaser, Stephanie, Ed.; Raack, Lenaya, Ed.; Kinder, Ann, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue offers a collection of timely topics focused on mathematics and science education. It uncovers the past, present, and future of the national standards movement in mathematics and science education with two articles entitled "Setting Standards for Excellence" and "On the Road to REAL Progress." A close-up look at students doing real-life…

  2. Real-World Units in the Conceptual Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo, Blanca; Pierson, Bo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    During an eight-week series of investigations, a class of third-grade students learned how interactions between forces are used to advance technology in their world. This five-part forces and interaction unit was led by a guiding question: How does engineering and design work in the world, and how does it affect our lives? As they explored this…

  3. Real-World Units in the Conceptual Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo, Blanca; Pierson, Bo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    During an eight-week series of investigations, a class of third-grade students learned how interactions between forces are used to advance technology in their world. This five-part forces and interaction unit was led by a guiding question: How does engineering and design work in the world, and how does it affect our lives? As they explored this…

  4. Interreality in practice: bridging virtual and real worlds in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Algeri, Davide; Pallavicini, Federica; Gorini, Alessandra; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    The use of new technologies, particularly virtual reality, is not new in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD): VR is used to facilitate the activation of the traumatic event during exposure therapy. However, during the therapy, VR is a new and distinct realm, separate from the emotions and behaviors experienced by the patient in the real world: the behavior of the patient in VR has no direct effects on the real-life experience; the emotions and problems experienced by the patient in the real world are not directly addressed in the VR exposure. In this article, we suggest that the use of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, may improve the clinical outcome of PTSD. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and real worlds: (a) behavior in the physical world influences the experience in the virtual one; (b) behavior in the virtual world influences the experience in the real one. This is achieved through 3D shared virtual worlds; biosensors and activity sensors (from the real to the virtual world); and personal digital assistants and/or mobile phones (from the virtual world to the real one). We describe different technologies that are involved in the Interreality vision and its clinical rationale. To illustrate the concept of Interreality in practice, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Rosa, a 55-year-old nurse, involved in a major car accident.

  5. The value of surrogate endpoints for predicting real-world survival across five cancer types.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Jason; Brookmeyer, Ron; Peneva, Desi; Park, Jinhee; Zhang, Jie; Figlin, Robert A; Lakdawalla, Darius N

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how well different outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) perform in predicting real-world cancer survival. We assess the ability of RCT overall survival (OS) and surrogate endpoints - progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) - to predict real-world OS across five cancers. We identified 20 treatments and 31 indications for breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer that had a phase III RCT reporting median OS and median PFS or TTP. Median real-world OS was determined using a Kaplan-Meier estimator applied to patients in the Surveillance and Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-Medicare database (1991-2010). Performance of RCT OS and PFS/TTP in predicting real-world OS was measured using t-tests, median absolute prediction error, and R(2) from linear regressions. Among 72,600 SEER-Medicare patients similar to RCT participants, median survival was 5.9 months for trial surrogates, 14.1 months for trial OS, and 13.4 months for real-world OS. For this sample, regression models using clinical trial OS and trial surrogates as independent variables predicted real-world OS significantly better than models using surrogates alone (P = 0.026). Among all real-world patients using sample treatments (N = 309,182), however, adding trial OS did not improve predictive power over predictions based on surrogates alone (P = 0.194). Results were qualitatively similar using median absolute prediction error and R(2) metrics. Among the five tumor types investigated, trial OS and surrogates were each independently valuable in predicting real-world OS outcomes for patients similar to trial participants. In broader real-world populations, however, trial OS added little incremental value over surrogates alone.

  6. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    PubMed

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  7. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-03-28

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Here, model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  8. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  9. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Kar, Rahul; Foley, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  10. Service-Learning Delivers Real-World Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, James B.

    This presentation by North Carolina Governor James B. Hunt discusses the need to get students engaged in their communities via service learning. Service learning reverses student disengagement by giving them responsibility for their own learning. This provides real-life contexts for learning, prepares students for citizenship through involvement…

  11. Strategic Control in the Real World: A Multidisciplinary Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Robert L.; Regel, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This research paper was developed after completing and publishing articles using the Balanced Scorecard as a means of achieving strategic objectives of over twenty destination ski resorts. We believe the balanced scorecard idea is essentially a new model of the way the world works and should be conceptualized. Our research has helped answer a…

  12. Taking Reflection into the Real World of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Joan

    2006-01-01

    A new type of teacher is needed in the contemporary classroom--one who is not just a mere technician, but who can keep an open and critical mind. Today's teacher must adjust to a fast-changing reality and the demands of the surrounding world, and internalize the ever-growing flow of information while reflecting on both personal and professional…

  13. Broadening the Horizons: Organizational Communication in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Georgia

    Working in the microcosm of an individual class, organizational communication instructors can broaden the student's horizon by starting with what are local types of diversity and then expanding the classroom understanding to include the larger world where that student is going to live and work. Speech communication teachers/scholars have seen…

  14. Bringing the "Real World" into the Advertising Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Bob

    The world of mass communications has been hard hit by the decline in advertising revenues in print and electronic media, resulting in very few internships for undergraduates and making these students much less attractive as candidates for entry level jobs in advertising. Consequently, advertising faculty should reassess their programs to better…

  15. The James Webb Space Telescope RealWorld-InWorld Design Challenge: Involving Professionals in a Virtual Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Margaret; Bowers, S.

    2011-01-01

    Students around the country are becoming experts on the James Webb Space Telescope by designing solutions to two of the design challenges presented by this complex mission. RealWorld-InWorld has two parts; the first (the Real World portion) has high-school students working face to face in their classroom as engineers and scientists. The InWorld phase starts December 15, 2010 as interested teachers and their teams of high school students register to move their work into a 3D multi-user virtual world environment. At the start of this phase, college students from all over the country choose a registered team to lead InWorld. Each InWorld team is also assigned an engineer or scientist mentor. In this virtual world setting, each team refines their design solutions and creates a 3D model of the Webb telescope. InWorld teams will use 21st century tools to collaborate and build in the virtual world environment. Each team will learn, not only from their own team members, but will have the opportunity to interact with James Webb Space Telescope researchers through the virtual world setting, which allows for synchronous interactions. Halfway through the challenge, design solutions will be critiqued and a mystery problem will be introduced for each team. The top five teams will be invited to present their work during a synchronous Education Forum April 14, 2011. The top team will earn scholarships and technology. This is an excellent opportunity for professionals in both astronomy and associated engineering disciplines to become involved with a unique educational program. Besides the chance to mentor a group of interested students, there are many opportunities to interact with the students as a guest, via chats and presentations.

  16. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Tangible display systems: bringing virtual surfaces into the real world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferwerda, James A.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing tangible display systems that enable natural interaction with virtual surfaces. Tangible display systems are based on modern mobile devices that incorporate electronic image displays, graphics hardware, tracking systems, and digital cameras. Custom software allows the orientation of a device and the position of the observer to be tracked in real-time. Using this information, realistic images of surfaces with complex textures and material properties illuminated by environment-mapped lighting, can be rendered to the screen at interactive rates. Tilting or moving in front of the device produces realistic changes in surface lighting and material appearance. In this way, tangible displays allow virtual surfaces to be observed and manipulated as naturally as real ones, with the added benefit that surface geometry and material properties can be modified in real-time. We demonstrate the utility of tangible display systems in four application areas: material appearance research; computer-aided appearance design; enhanced access to digital library and museum collections; and new tools for digital artists.

  18. From market games to real-world markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M. L.; Hui, P. M.; Johnson, N. F.

    2001-04-01

    This paper uses the development of multi-agent market models to present a unified approach to the joint questions of how financial market movements may be simulated, predicted, and hedged against. We first present the results of agent-based market simulations in which traders equipped with simple buy/sell strategies and limited information compete in speculatory trading. We examine the effect of different market clearing mechanisms and show that implementation of a simple Walrasian auction leads to unstable market dynamics. We then show that a more realistic out-of-equilibrium clearing process leads to dynamics that closely resemble real financial movements, with fat-tailed price increments, clustered volatility and high volume autocorrelation. We then show that replacing the `synthetic' price history used by these simulations with data taken from real financial time-series leads to the remarkable result that the agents can collectively learn to identify moments in the market where profit is attainable. Hence on real financial data, the system as a whole can perform better than random. We then employ the formalism of Bouchaud in conjunction with agent based models to show that in general risk cannot be eliminated from trading with these models. We also show that, in the presence of transaction costs, the risk of option writing is greatly increased. This risk, and the costs, can however be reduced through the use of a delta-hedging strategy with modified, time-dependent volatility structure.

  19. Food for Thought: Cross-Classification and Category Organization in a Complex Real-World Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    1999-01-01

    Seven studies involving 256 undergraduates examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about the real-world category domain, foods. Results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain. (SLD)

  20. Modeling and verifying the polarizing reflectance of real-world metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kai; Weidlich, Andrea; Wilkie, Alexander; Magnor, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Using measurements of real-world samples of metals, the proposed approach verifies predictions of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models. It employs ellipsometry to verify both the actual polarizing effect and the overall reflectance behavior of the metallic surfaces.

  1. A real-world size organization of object responses in occipito-temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While there are selective regions of occipito-temporal cortex that respond to faces, letters, and bodies, the large-scale neural organization of most object categories remains unknown. Here we find that object representations can be differentiated along the ventral temporal cortex by their real-world size. In a functional neuroimaging experiment, observers were shown pictures of big and small real-world objects (e.g. table, bathtub; paperclip, cup), presented at the same retinal size. We observed a consistent medial-to-lateral organization of big and small object preferences in the ventral temporal cortex, mirrored along the lateral surface. Regions in the lateral-occipital, infero-temporal, and parahippocampal cortices showed strong peaks of differential real-world size selectivity, and maintained these preferences over changes in retinal size and in mental imagery. These data demonstrate that the real-world size of objects can provide insight into the spatial topography of object representation. PMID:22726840

  2. Beauty and the beholder: highly individual taste for abstract, but not real-world images.

    PubMed

    Vessel, Edward A; Rubin, Nava

    2010-02-22

    How individual are visual preferences? For real-world scenes, there is high agreement in observer's preference ratings. This could be driven by visual attributes of the images but also by non-visual associations, since those are common to most individuals. To investigate this, we developed a set of novel abstract, visually diverse images. At the individual observer level both abstract and real-world images yielded robust and consistent visual preferences, and yet abstract images yielded much lower across observer agreement in preferences than did real-world images. This suggests that visual preferences are typically driven by the semantic content of stimuli, and that shared semantic interpretations then lead to shared preferences. Further experiments showed that highly individual preferences can nevertheless emerge also for real-world scenes, in contexts which de-emphasize their semantic associations.

  3. Water from Space: Real World Opportunities and Far Away Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, N.; Garcia, L. E.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.

    2015-12-01

    A Global Initiative on Remote Sensing for Water Resources Management (Water RS) was launched in October 2013, financed by the World Bank's Water Partnership Program (WPP[1]) of the Global Water Program. It aims, among other things, to put together and disseminate, in collaboration with the Bank's operational staff as well as external partners, a clear picture of the potential role of Earth Observations (EO) in solution approaches to address particular water-related issues.The initiative focuses on the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the EO products to be used by decision makers in water related management and planning contexts. To make informed decisions, the client needs to know about the potential and the limitations of practical application of remote sensing technology and products, through informed recommendations and the development of practical, result-oriented tools. Thus, the objective of the Water RS initiative is to address this issue by taking a two-phase approach focusing respectively on: (i) identifying demand and priorities of the users while raising awareness on the potential and limitation of RS tools and (ii) bridging the gap between science and development of operational projects.While the first phase has come to completion, the second phase is being designed to tackle some of the reasons why there have been rather limited applications in the developing world (World Bank clients), such as: incentive issues, implementation capacity, costs and financing, and the overall issue of "How to do it?. An overview of the initiative and the lessons learned to date will be presented, setting the stage for muti-partner discussions. [1] The Water Partnership Program (WPP) is a longstanding alliance between the World Bank and the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Austria.

  4. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module IV, Entrepreneurship and the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students understand the marketplace; manage resources; apply…

  5. Validation Of The Airspace Concept Evaluation System Using Real World Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of performing a validation of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) using real world historical flight operational data. ACES inputs are generated from select real world data and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day of operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). ACES outputs are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. Preliminary results indicate that ACES produces delays and airport operational metrics similar to the real world with minor variations of delay by phase of flight. ACES is a nation-wide fast-time simulation tool developed at NASA Ames Research Center. ACES models and simulates the NAS using interacting agents representing center control, terminal flow management, airports, individual flights, and other NAS elements. These agents pass messages between one another similar to real world communications. This distributed agent based system is designed to emulate the highly unpredictable nature of the NAS, making it a suitable tool to evaluate current and envisioned airspace concepts. To ensure that ACES produces the most realistic results, the system must be validated. There is no way to validate future concepts scenarios using real world historical data, but current day scenario validations increase confidence in the validity of future scenario results. Each operational day has unique weather and traffic demand schedules. The more a simulation utilizes the unique characteristic of a specific day, the more realistic the results should be. ACES is able to simulate the full scale demand traffic necessary to perform a validation using real world data. Through direct comparison with the real world, models may continuee to be improved and unusual trends and biases may be filtered out of the system or used to normalize the results of future concept simulations.

  6. Comparison of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in real-world populations versus clinical trial populations.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels; Pedersen, Niels T; Nielsen, Torsten T; Johnsen, Søren P

    2010-06-15

    The efficacy of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has been documented in several randomized-controlled trials. We sought to examine the clinical outcome after PPCI of real-world patients eligible and ineligible for inclusion in a randomized trial (DANAMI-2) and to compare it to the outcome of the DANAMI-2 population. We did a population-based follow-up study comparing 1,320 consecutive real-world patients treated with PPCI from 2004 to 2006 to 686 patients treated with PPCI in the DANAMI-2 trial. By reviewing medical records we determined whether the real-world patients were eligible in the DANAMI-2 trial. The real-world population had a more adverse baseline risk profile. Cumulative incidences of the composite end point of all-cause mortality, reinfarction, and stroke after 1 year and 2 years were 17.8% and 22.0%, respectively, in the real-world population compared to 13.6% and 17.3% in the DANAMI-2 population. After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics and treatment, differences persisted after 1 year (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.6) and 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.3). Results for the real-world patients eligible according to DANAMI-2 criteria were comparable to the results from the DANAMI-2 trial. In conclusion, real-world patients had a more adverse baseline prognostic profile and a poorer clinical outcome compared to the DANAMI-2 patients. However, clinical outcome in the real-world patients eligible in the DANAMI-2 trial was comparable to that for the DANAMI-2 patients after invasive and medical treatment.

  7. Challenges when using real-world bio-data to calibrate simulation systems.

    PubMed

    Blount, Elaine M; Ringleb, Stacie I; Tolk, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Computer simulations allow us to gain insight into biological systems that would not be possible without destroying or changing the system in significant ways. To ensure that results are relevant, real-world bio-data should be used to calibrate simulations. Real-world data contain uncertainty due to the nature of how it is obtained. This chapter provides various sources on uncertainty and methods to cope with this challenge.

  8. Application of computational aero-acoustics to real world problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.

    1996-01-01

    The application of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) to real problems is discussed in relation to the analysis performed with the aim of assessing the application of the various techniques. It is considered that the applications are limited by the inability of the computational resources to resolve the large range of scales involved in high Reynolds number flows. Possible simplifications are discussed. It is considered that problems remain to be solved in relation to the efficient use of the power of parallel computers and in the development of turbulent modeling schemes. The goal of CAA is stated as being the implementation of acoustic design studies on a computer terminal with reasonable run times.

  9. Application of computational aero-acoustics to real world problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.

    1996-01-01

    The application of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) to real problems is discussed in relation to the analysis performed with the aim of assessing the application of the various techniques. It is considered that the applications are limited by the inability of the computational resources to resolve the large range of scales involved in high Reynolds number flows. Possible simplifications are discussed. It is considered that problems remain to be solved in relation to the efficient use of the power of parallel computers and in the development of turbulent modeling schemes. The goal of CAA is stated as being the implementation of acoustic design studies on a computer terminal with reasonable run times.

  10. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  11. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  12. Theory and Practice: How Filming "Learning in the Real World" Helps Students Make the Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commander, Nannette Evans; Ward, Teresa E.; Zabrucky, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an assignment, titled "Learning in the Real World," designed for graduate students in a learning theory course. Students work in small groups to create high quality audio-visual films that present "real learning" through interviews and/or observations of learners. Students select topics relevant to theories we are discussing…

  13. Virtual School, Real Experience: Simulations Replicate the World of Practice for Aspiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol

    2013-01-01

    A web-enabled computer simulation program presents real-world opportunities, problems, and challenges for aspiring principals. The simulation challenges areas that are not always covered in lectures, textbooks, or workshops. For example, using the simulation requires dealing--on-screen and in real time--with demanding parents, observing…

  14. Virtual School, Real Experience: Simulations Replicate the World of Practice for Aspiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol

    2013-01-01

    A web-enabled computer simulation program presents real-world opportunities, problems, and challenges for aspiring principals. The simulation challenges areas that are not always covered in lectures, textbooks, or workshops. For example, using the simulation requires dealing--on-screen and in real time--with demanding parents, observing…

  15. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  16. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  17. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  18. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  19. Real World Use of an Internet Intervention for Pediatric Encopresis

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Kaveh; Thorndike, Frances P; Magee, Joshua C; Saylor, Drew K; Cox, Daniel J; Sutphen, James L; Borowitz, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    Background The Internet is a significant source of medical information and is now being shown to be an important conduit for delivering various health-related interventions. Objective This paper aimed to examine the utility and impact of an Internet intervention for childhood encopresis as part of standard medical care in a “real world” setting. Methods Patients diagnosed with encopresis were given a Web-based information prescription to use an Internet intervention for pediatric encopresis. A total of 22 families utilized the intervention between July 2004 and June 2006. A chart review and phone interview were undertaken to collect user characteristics; defecation-related information, including frequency of soiling, bowel movements (BMs) in the toilet, and amount of pain associated with defecation; and information on computer/Internet usage. Three questionnaires were used to examine the utility of, impact of, and adherence to the Internet intervention. Program utilization was obtained from a data tracking system that monitored usage in real time. Results Overall, parents rated the Internet intervention as enjoyable, understandable, and easy to use. They indicated that the Internet intervention positively affected their children, decreasing overall accidents and increasing child comfort on the toilet at home. Of the 20 children who initially reported fecal accidents, 19 (95%) experienced at least a 50% improvement, with a reduction of accident frequency from one fecal accident per day to one accident per week. Although it is not clear whether this improvement is directly related to the use of the Internet intervention, patient feedback suggests that the program was an important element, further establishing Internet interventions as a viable and desirable addition to standard medical care for pediatric encopresis. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first time a pediatric Internet intervention has been examined as part of a “real world” setting. This

  20. A Real-World Perspective on Molecular Design.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Bernd; Guba, Wolfgang; Hert, Jérôme; Banner, David; Bissantz, Caterina; Ceccarelli, Simona; Haap, Wolfgang; Körner, Matthias; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Lerner, Christian; Mattei, Patrizio; Neidhart, Werner; Pinard, Emmanuel; Rudolph, Markus G; Schulz-Gasch, Tanja; Woltering, Thomas; Stahl, Martin

    2016-05-12

    We present a series of small molecule drug discovery case studies where computational methods were prospectively employed to impact Roche research projects, with the aim of highlighting those methods that provide real added value. Our brief accounts encompass a broad range of methods and techniques applied to a variety of enzymes and receptors. Most of these are based on judicious application of knowledge about molecular conformations and interactions: filling of lipophilic pockets to gain affinity or selectivity, addition of polar substituents, scaffold hopping, transfer of SAR, conformation analysis, and molecular overlays. A case study of sequence-driven focused screening is presented to illustrate how appropriate preprocessing of information enables effective exploitation of prior knowledge. We conclude that qualitative statements enabling chemists to focus on promising regions of chemical space are often more impactful than quantitative prediction.

  1. A turbidity current model for real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; Morales, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    Traditional turbidity current models suffer from several drawbacks. Among them not preserving freshwater mass, a missing pressure term, or not including terms related to deposition, erosion and entrainment in the momentum equation. In Morales et al.(2009) a new turbidity current model was proposed trying to overcome all these drawbacks. This model takes into account the interaction between the turbidity current and the bottom, considering deposition and erosion effects as well as solid bedload transport of particles at the bed due to the current. Moreover, this model includes the effects of the deposition, erosion and water entrainment into the momentum equation,commonly neglected in this type of models and, finally, in the absence of water entrainment, freshwater mass in the turbidity current is preserved. Despite these improvements, the numerical results obtained by this model when applied to real river systems were not satisfactory due to the simple form of the friction term that was considered. In the present work we propose a different parameterization of this term, where bottom and interface fluid frictions are separately parameterized with more complex expressions. Moreover, the discretization of the deposition/erosion terms is now performed semi-implicitly which guarantees the positivity of the volumetric concentration of sediments in suspension and in the erodible sediment layer at the bed. The numerical simulations obtained with this new turbidity current model (component of HySEA numerical computing platform) greatly improve previous numerical results for simplified geometries as well as for real river systems. Acknowledgements: This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069) and the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Andalucía TECH. References: T. Morales, M. Castro, C. Parés, and E. Fernández-Nieto (2009). On

  2. Correlates of real world executive dysfunction in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Peters, Amy T; Peckham, Andrew D; Stange, Jonathan P; Sylvia, Louisa G; Hansen, Natasha S; Salcedo, Stephanie; Rauch, Scott L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Dougherty, Darin D; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2014-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by impairments in cognitive functioning, both during acute mood episodes and periods of euthymia, which interfere with functioning. Cognitive functioning is typically assessed using laboratory-based tests, which may not capture how cognitive dysfunction is experienced in real-life settings. Little is known about the specific illness characteristics of bipolar disorder that contribute to cognitive dysfunction in everyday life. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder (n = 68) in a depressed or euthymic state. Everyday executive functioning was evaluated using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Rating Scale (FrSBe). Participants completed clinician rated measures of mood state (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale), prior illness course and co-morbidities (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), as well as self-report measures of psychotropic medication use and medical co-morbidity. Individuals in this study reported significant impairment in every domain of executive functioning. These deficits were associated with a multitude of illness factors, some directly impacted by mood symptoms and others shaped by illness chronicity, psychiatric comorbidity, medical co-morbidity, and medication use. Executive functioning problems observed in everyday functioning in bipolar disorder are not entirely mood-state dependent. Cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction should be considered an important adjunctive treatment for many individuals with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Diane E.; Briceño, Emily M.; Sindone, Joseph A.; Alexander, Neil B.; Moffat, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate path integration (PI) requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in PI abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in PI in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 years) and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 years) adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks (TCTs) performed in a virtual environment (VE) and two “real world” conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For TCTs, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition, and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks (DRTs), in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in PI vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway. PMID:23055969

  4. Map Matching and Real World Integrated Sensor Data Warehousing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.

    2014-02-01

    The inclusion of interlinked temporal and spatial elements within integrated sensor data enables a tremendous degree of flexibility when analyzing multi-component datasets. The presentation illustrates how to warehouse, process, and analyze high-resolution integrated sensor datasets to support complex system analysis at the entity and system levels. The example cases presented utilizes in-vehicle sensor system data to assess vehicle performance, while integrating a map matching algorithm to link vehicle data to roads to demonstrate the enhanced analysis possible via interlinking data elements. Furthermore, in addition to the flexibility provided, the examples presented illustrate concepts of maintaining proprietary operational information (Fleet DNA) and privacy of study participants (Transportation Secure Data Center) while producing widely distributed data products. Should real-time operational data be logged at high resolution across multiple infrastructure types, map matched to their associated infrastructure, and distributed employing a similar approach; dependencies between urban environment infrastructures components could be better understood. This understanding is especially crucial for the cities of the future where transportation will rely more on grid infrastructure to support its energy demands.

  5. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  6. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  7. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion.

  8. Real-world outcomes of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Park, Haesuk; Gordon, Staurt C; Ferguson, John R; Ahmed, Aijaz; Dieterich, Douglas; Saab, Sammy

    2016-05-01

    Studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens have documented substantially reduced effectiveness in sustained virologic response (SVR) in the context of real-world clinical practice compared with clinical trials. Real-world and clinical trial SVR and cost-per-SVR data have not been reported for the all-oral, peginterferon-free and ribavirin (RBV)-free ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) regimen. Our objective was to compare the rates of SVR achievement and cost per SVR between pooled data from clinical studies of LDV/SOF and from real-world clinical practice. Data were derived from the Hepatitis C Therapeutic Registry and Research Network (HCV-TARGET), a real-world, multicenter, prospective, observational study; and from the TRIO Network, a retrospective database of HCV-treated patients. The 1-year cost per SVR was calculated as the total cost of an SVR ([cost of treatment regimen, adverse events, and monitoring costs] per SVR) during the first year of treatment. After 12 weeks, the SVR rates obtained in real-world studies ranged from 94% to 98%, comparing favorably with the SVRs achieved in the ION-1 and ION-3 trials (94% and 95%-99% with 8 and 12 weeks of RBV-free therapy, respectively). A single SVR, on average, cost $84,989 among patients enrolled in the ION-3 trial, with higher costs ($101,204) among patients with compensated cirrhosis compared with noncirrhotic patients ($81,668). In the pooled TARGET/TRIO population, the average cost of an SVR was $84,770, with costs of $101,380 and $81,368 in patients with compensated cirrhosis and patients without cirrhosis, respectively. Unlike the results obtained with prior HCV regimens, this study suggests that similar SVR rates are achieved with LDV/SOF in clinical trial-based studies and real-world studies. Further, achieving an SVR in real-world clinical practice was not associated with excess costs.

  9. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Andrew S.; Wing, Erik K.; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M.; Vack, Nathan J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. PMID:26203145

  10. Abstract spatial concept priming dynamically influences real-world actions.

    PubMed

    Tower-Richardi, Sarah M; Brunyé, Tad T; Gagnon, Stephanie A; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2012-01-01

    Experienced regularities in our perceptions and actions play important roles in grounding abstract concepts such as social status, time, and emotion. Might we similarly ground abstract spatial concepts in more experienced-based domains? The present experiment explores this possibility by implicitly priming abstract spatial terms (north, south, east, west) and then measuring participants' hand movement trajectories while they respond to a body-referenced spatial target (up, down, left, right) in a verbal (Exp. 1) or spatial (Exp. 2) format. Results from two experiments demonstrate temporally dynamic and prime biased movement trajectories when the primes are incongruent with the targets (e.g., north - left, west - up). That is, priming abstract coordinate directions influences subsequent actions in response to concrete target directions. These findings provide the first evidence that abstract concepts of world-centered coordinate axes are implicitly understood in the context of concrete body-referenced axes; critically, this abstract-concrete relationship manifests in motor movements, and may have implications for spatial memory organization.

  11. Abstract Spatial Concept Priming Dynamically Influences Real-World Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tower-Richardi, Sarah M.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Experienced regularities in our perceptions and actions play important roles in grounding abstract concepts such as social status, time, and emotion. Might we similarly ground abstract spatial concepts in more experienced-based domains? The present experiment explores this possibility by implicitly priming abstract spatial terms (north, south, east, west) and then measuring participants’ hand movement trajectories while they respond to a body-referenced spatial target (up, down, left, right) in a verbal (Exp. 1) or spatial (Exp. 2) format. Results from two experiments demonstrate temporally dynamic and prime biased movement trajectories when the primes are incongruent with the targets (e.g., north – left, west – up). That is, priming abstract coordinate directions influences subsequent actions in response to concrete target directions. These findings provide the first evidence that abstract concepts of world-centered coordinate axes are implicitly understood in the context of concrete body-referenced axes; critically, this abstract-concrete relationship manifests in motor movements, and may have implications for spatial memory organization. PMID:23060831

  12. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  13. How prevention curricula are taught under real-world conditions

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L.; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John; Krieger, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As interventions are disseminated widely, issues of fidelity and adaptation become increasingly critical to understand. This study aims to describe the types of adaptations made by teachers delivering a school-based substance use prevention curriculum and their reasons for adapting program content. Design/methodology/approach To determine the degree to which implementers adhere to a prevention curriculum, naturally adapt the curriculum, and the reasons implementers give for making adaptations, the study examined lesson adaptations made by the 31 teachers who implemented the keepin' it REAL drug prevention curriculum in 7th grade classrooms (n = 25 schools). Data were collected from teacher self-reports after each lesson and observer coding of videotaped lessons. From the total sample, 276 lesson videos were randomly selected for observational analysis. Findings Teachers self-reported adapting more than 68 percent of prevention lessons, while independent observers reported more than 97 percent of the observed lessons were adapted in some way. Types of adaptations included: altering the delivery of the lesson by revising the delivery timetable or delivery context; changing content of the lesson by removing, partially covering, revising, or adding content; and altering the designated format of the lesson (such as assigning small group activities to students as individual work). Reasons for adaptation included responding to constraints (time, institutional, personal, and technical), and responding to student needs (students' abilities to process curriculum content, to enhance student engagement with material). Research limitations/implications The study sample was limited to rural schools in the US mid-Atlantic; however, the results suggest that if programs are to be effectively implemented, program developers need a better understanding of the types of adaptations and reasons implementers provide for adapting curricula. Practical implications These descriptive

  14. Haemophilia in a real-world setting: the value of clinical experience in data collection.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Gerry; Iorio, Alfonso; Jokela, Vuokko; Juusola, Kristian; Lassila, Riitta

    2016-02-01

    At the 8th Annual Congress of the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders (EAHAD) held in Helsinki, Finland, in February 2015, Pfizer sponsored a satellite symposium entitled: 'Haemophilia in a real-world setting: The value of clinical experience in data collection' Co-chaired by Riitta Lassila (Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland) and Gerry Dolan (Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK); the symposium provided an opportunity to explore the practical value of real-world data in informing clinical decision-making. Gerry Dolan provided an introduction to the symposium by describing what is meant by real-world data (RWD), stressing the role RWD can play in optimising patient outcomes in haemophilia and highlighting the responsibility of all stakeholders to collaborate in continuous data collection. Kristian Juusola (Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland) then provided personal experience as a haemophilia nurse around patient views on adherence to treatment regimes, and how collecting insights into real-world use of treatment can shape approaches to improving adherence. The importance of elucidating pharmacokinetic parameters in a real-world setting was then explored by Vuokko Jokela (Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland). Finally, Alfonso Iorio (McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) highlighted the importance of quality data collection in translating clinical reality into scientific advances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Direct Comparison of Real-World and Virtual Navigation Performance in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Michiel H G; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; de Rooij, Nicolien K; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J M

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of studies have presented evidence that various patient groups with acquired brain injury suffer from navigation problems in daily life. This skill is, however, scarcely addressed in current clinical neuropsychological practice and suitable diagnostic instruments are lacking. Real-world navigation tests are limited by geographical location and associated with practical constraints. It was, therefore, investigated whether virtual navigation might serve as a useful alternative. To investigate the convergent validity of virtual navigation testing, performance on the Virtual Tubingen test was compared to that on an analogous real-world navigation test in 68 chronic stroke patients. The same eight subtasks, addressing route and survey knowledge aspects, were assessed in both tests. In addition, navigation performance of stroke patients was compared to that of 44 healthy controls. A correlation analysis showed moderate overlap (r = .535) between composite scores of overall real-world and virtual navigation performance in stroke patients. Route knowledge composite scores correlated somewhat stronger (r = .523) than survey knowledge composite scores (r = .442). When comparing group performances, patients obtained lower scores than controls on seven subtasks. Whereas the real-world test was found to be easier than its virtual counterpart, no significant interaction-effects were found between group and environment. Given moderate overlap of the total scores between the two navigation tests, we conclude that virtual testing of navigation ability is a valid alternative to navigation tests that rely on real-world route exposure.

  16. Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults.

    PubMed

    Kretch, Kari S; Adolph, Karen E

    2015-09-01

    Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real-world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real-world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real-world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Demands for visual guidance of action were minimal in mothers and absent for infants, so both engaged in free viewing while moving through the environment. Similar to screen-based studies, during free viewing in the real world low-level saliency was related to gaze direction. In contrast to screen-based studies, only infants - not adults - were biased to look at people, participants of both ages did not show a classic center bias, and mothers and infants did not display high levels of inter-observer consistency. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world.

  17. Active Vision in Passive Locomotion: Real-World Free Viewing in Infants and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Demands for visual guidance of action were minimal in mothers and absent for infants, so both engaged in free viewing while moving through the environment. Similar to screen-based studies, during free viewing in the real world low-level saliency was related to gaze direction. In contrast to screen-based studies, only infants—not adults—were biased to look at people, participants of both ages did not show a classic center bias, and mothers and infants did not display high levels of inter-observer consistency. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world. PMID:25438618

  18. Real world research: a complementary method to establish the effectiveness of acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan

    2015-05-22

    Acupuncture has been widely used in the management of a variety of diseases for thousands of years, and many relevant randomized controlled trials have been published. In recent years, many randomized controlled trials have provided controversial or less-than-convincing evidence that supports the efficacy of acupuncture. The clinical effectiveness of acupuncture in Western countries remains controversial. Acupuncture is a complex intervention involving needling components, specific non-needling components, and generic components. Common problems that have contributed to the equivocal findings in acupuncture randomized controlled trials were imperfections regarding acupuncture treatment and inappropriate placebo/sham controls. In addition, some inherent limitations were also present in the design and implementation of current acupuncture randomized controlled trials such as weak external validity. The current designs of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture need to be further developed. In contrast to examining efficacy and adverse reaction in a "sterilized" environment in a narrowly defined population, real world research assesses the effectiveness and safety of an intervention in a much wider population in real world practice. For this reason, real world research might be a feasible and meaningful method for acupuncture assessment. Randomized controlled trials are important in verifying the efficacy of acupuncture treatment, but the authors believe that real world research, if designed and conducted appropriately, can complement randomized controlled trials to establish the effectiveness of acupuncture. Furthermore, the integrative model that can incorporate randomized controlled trial and real world research which can complement each other and potentially provide more objective and persuasive evidence.

  19. [Capgras syndrome and possible worlds or places where the real person and its imposter coexist].

    PubMed

    Niiyama, Yoshitsugu

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper, the author has argued that what actually changes in the person whom the Capgras patient has chosen as his/her target of delusion is non-attribute such as having only "haecceity." At the same time, the author has pointed out that such ever-identical is also the target of the indication for the rigid designator as proposed by S. Kripke. Such problems with indication and identity, however, are closely associated with ontology presented by possible worlds semantics, an analytic philosophy that was much debated during the latter half of the 20th century. The purpose of this paper is to try to define the essence of Capgras syndrome from the viewpoint of possible worlds semantics. If Capgras syndrome is taken as suggested by the patient's statement that "a real person has been replaced by an imposter," it is though that this statement refers to metaphysics with regard to the number of individuals who exist in the world. This is because the appearance of the imposter means the generation of a new individual who had not been in existence until that time. The creation of the new individual not only demands the existence of plural worlds as addressed by possible worlds semantics, but also provides a clue to solving problems with places where the real person and its imposter exist. If the number of individuals existing in the world is taken into account, it is difficult to spatio-temporally comprehend the places in which the real person and its imposter exist. Inevitably, the real person and its imposter have to be in mutually different possible worlds as defined by possible worlds semantics. This leads into the conclusion that after the onset of Capgras syndrome, the patient and the imposter are in a possible world that is different from the possible world to which the real person belongs. In the case presented herein, the patient repeatedly talked about how difficult it was to get access to the real person. If the patient was separated by space

  20. [Atrial fibrillation and adherence to guidelines in the real world: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meiltz, A; Zimmermann, M

    2009-03-04

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia with a prevalence increasing with the aging of the population. AF has become a public health problem in general clinical practice. Despite the conclusive evidence of numerous randomized trials and publication of unified guidelines, their application in the real-world is often sub-optimal, in particular concerning the anticoagulation prescription. Most of these reports have focused on hospitalized patients or were performed by generalists, whereas in the real-world AF is managed in an out-of-hospital setting with growing implication of cardiologists. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate that a strict adherence to international guidelines can be obtained in the real-world of AF management. However, some improvements are needed to get an optimal use of anticoagulation.

  1. Direct Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Profiling of Real-World Samples via a Solid Sampling Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-10-01

    This study presents a novel direct analysis strategy for rapid mass spectrometric profiling of biochemicals in real-world samples via a direct sampling probe (DSP) without sample pretreatments. Chemical modification is applied to a disposable stainless steel acupuncture needle to enhance its surface area and hydrophilicity. After insertion into real-world samples, biofluid can be attached on the DSP surface. With the presence of a high DC voltage and solvent vapor condensing on the tip of the DSP, analyte can be dissolved and electrosprayed. The simplicity in design, versatility in application aspects, and other advantages such as low cost and disposability make this new method a competitive tool for direct analysis of real-world samples.

  2. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  3. Infants transfer nonobvious properties from pictures to real-world objects.

    PubMed

    Keates, Jeany; Graham, Susan A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2014-09-01

    The current research examined infants' ability to generalize information about the nonobvious properties of objects depicted in picture books to their real-world referents. Infants aged 13, 15, and 18 months (N=135) were shown a series of pictures depicting an adult acting on a novel object to elicit a nonobvious property of that object. Infants were subsequently tested on their extension of the nonobvious property to the real-world object depicted in the book and their generalization of this property to a different color exemplar of the depicted object. Results indicated that, regardless of age, infants expected the real-world objects to have the nonobvious property, as indicated by their attempts to elicit this property with these objects. These findings indicate that early in their second year of life, infants are beginning to make inductive inferences about nonobvious object properties based on information provided in pictures.

  4. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Jacqueline C; Skiba, Rafal M; Coleman, Taylor L; Berryhill, Marian E

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent). We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects vs. color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition.

  5. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Jacqueline C.; Skiba, Rafal M.; Coleman, Taylor L.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent). We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects vs. color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition. PMID:25368568

  6. Comparison between Euro NCAP test results and real-world crash data.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to compare Euro NCAP safety ratings of cars with those published by the Folksam real-world injury ratings; and second, to compare injury risk measures between Euro NCAP 2 and 5 Star cars with real-world injury and disability outcomes using police and insurance injury data. Car models were grouped according to the Euro NCAP star rating scores. Folksam risk of injury ratings come from statistical analysis of real-world crashes using police and insurance databases. The paired comparison method using 2-car crashes was used to control for crash speed and the mass differences between cars of different weights were normalized. For all comparisons, 5-star rated Euro NCAP cars were found to have a lower risk of injury compared to 2-star rated cars (5-star cars were 10% ± 2.5% lower risk than 2-star cars). For fatal and serious injuries, the difference was 23 ± 8 percent, and for fatal injuries alone the difference was 68 ± 32 percent. By comparison, the Folksam 5-star rated cars had a relative risk of 0.020 ± 0.0024, whereas 2-star rated car risk was 0.028 ± 0.0016, corresponding to a 27 percent difference in risk between 5- and 2-star cars. Good correlation was found between Euro NCAP test results and real-world injury outcomes. The largest difference in injury risk between 2- and 5-star rated cars in Euro NCAP was found for risk of fatality, confirming that car manufacturers have focused their safety performance on serious crash outcomes. In addition, Euro NCAP crash tests were shown to be highly correlated with serious crash performance, confirming their relevance for evaluating real-world crash performance. Good concordance was found between Euro NCAP and Folksam real-world crash and injury ratings.

  7. Rivaroxaban real-world evidence: Validating safety and effectiveness in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Tamayo, Sally

    2016-09-28

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard of clinical research as they use rigorous methodologies, detailed protocols, pre-specified statistical analyses and well-defined patient cohorts. However, RCTs do not take into account the complexity of real-world clinical decision-making. To tackle this, real-world data are being increasingly used to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of a given therapy in routine clinical practice and in patients who may not be represented in RCTs, addressing key clinical questions that may remain. Real-world evidence plays a substantial role in supporting the use of non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in clinical practice. By providing data on patient profiles and the use of anticoagulation therapies in routine clinical practice, real-world evidence expands the current awareness of NOACs, helping to ensure that clinicians are well-informed on their use to implement patient-tailored clinical decisions. There are various issues with current anticoagulation strategies, including under- or overtreatment and frequent monitoring with VKAs. Real-world studies have demonstrated that NOAC use is increasing (Dresden NOAC registry and Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-AF [GARFIELD-AF]), as well as reaffirming the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban previously observed in RCTs (XArelto on preveNtion of sTroke and non-central nervoUS system systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation [XANTUS] and IMS Disease Analyzer). This article will describe the latest updates in real-world evidence across a variety of methodologies, such as non-interventional studies (NIS), registries and database analyses studies. It is anticipated that these studies will provide valuable clinical insights into the management of thromboembolism, and enhance the current knowledge on anticoagulant use and outcomes for patients.

  8. Sunitinib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review of UK Real World Data.

    PubMed

    Argyropulo-Palmer, Miriam; Jenkins, Aaron; Theti, Davinder Singh; Larkin, James; Montgomery, David

    2015-01-01

    Real world data (RWD) are increasingly used to inform drug reimbursement decisions, but it is unclear how well outcomes from real world studies compare to those of clinical trials. This systematic review seeks to compare outcomes for sunitinib in routine UK clinical practice with the sunitinib registrational and expanded-access program clinical trials. Systematic review of the real world published literature was undertaken. UK observational studies recording first- or second-line sunitinib efficacy were included. A qualitative summary of the results and comparison to the controlled clinical trials was conducted. Fifteen real world studies were included, 14 of which were only available as posters/presentations. Real world study reporting quality was generally low, making comparisons with the clinical trials difficult. Practice relating to starting dose, dose modification, timing of therapy initiation, and other factors varied between centers. Median progression-free survival and adverse events were generally comparable to the clinical trial outcomes, but overall survival was not. There are few published data on sunitinib use in UK clinical practice. Studies are characterized by lack of peer reviewed publication and heterogeneity in design, reporting, and analysis. For use of RWD in the reimbursement setting, data collection and reporting will need to improve. There are few published data on sunitinib use in UK clinical practice. Studies are characterized by lack of peer reviewed publication and heterogeneity in design, reporting, and analysis. Practice varies considerably between different UK centers. Median progression-free survival and adverse events are generally comparable to the clinical trial outcomes, but overall survival is not. For use of real world data in the reimbursement setting, data collection and reporting will need to improve.

  9. Neural basis of thinking: laboratory problems versus real-world problems.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive psychologists have long argued about the reality and significance of the distinction between well-structured and ill-structured problems. Laboratory problems are usually well-structured, whereas real-world problems have both well-structured and ill-structured components. This article shows how the neuropsychological data reinforce this distinction and suggests how this distinction may help to explain a puzzle about discontinuous performance of some neurological patients in laboratory and real-world problem situations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An Index For Rating the Total Secondary Safety of Vehicles from Real World Crash Data

    PubMed Central

    Newstead, S.; Watson, L.; Cameron, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a total secondary safety index for light passenger vehicles that rates the relative performance of vehicles in protecting both their own occupants and other road users in the full range of real world crash circumstances. The index estimates the risk of death or serious injury to key road users in crashes involving light passenger vehicles across the full range of crash types. The proposed index has been estimated from real world crash data from Australasia and was able to identify vehicles that have superior or inferior total secondary safety characteristics compared with the average vehicle. PMID:18184497

  11. Minimizing the Institutional Change Required to Augment Calculus with Real-World Engineering Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Jeremiah; Khavanin, Mohammad; Worley, Deborah; Kaabouch, Naima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allowing calculus taught by mathematics faculty to be augmented with real-world engineering problems. The method relies on modules to deliver the problems and required background information. Students complete the modules outside of class and discuss them in mentor-led sessions. To encourage participation, students…

  12. Are Real World Projects Worth the Risk? Evidence from Service Learning Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Janis; Glissmeyer, Michael; Gu, Qiannong

    2012-01-01

    Although service learning provides unparalleled real world experiential student learning opportunities and benefits to four major constituencies--student, faculty, community and institution, it takes place in an uncontrolled environment introducing uncertainty into the instructional process. Faculty might avoid this valuable approach to…

  13. Learning in the "Real" World: Encounters with Radical Architectures (1960s-1970s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s architectural education saw to the emergence of radical attempts to reconnect pedagogy with "the real world" and to forge greater social responsibility in architecture. From this epoch of important political, social, and environmental action, this article discusses three "encounters" between…

  14. The Jasper Experiment: Using Video to Furnish Real-World Problem-Solving Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arithmetic Teacher, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a series of four problem-solving videodisc adventure stories designed for research purposes that provide students with open-ended problems based on real-world situations. Presents design principles, research results, the teacher's role, and technology issues related to the utilization of the…

  15. Moving from Theory to Real-World Experiences in an e-Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Ana-Paula

    2008-01-01

    Ana-Paula Correia offers a case study of an experiential e-learning pedagogy used in one of this program's distance courses. This graduate course in instructional design brought experiential learning into an e-learning community by asking students to apply knowledge and skills to real-world instructional design projects. Correia explores how the…

  16. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  17. Polyhedral Sculpture: The Path from Computational Artifact to Real-World Mathematical Object.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael; Nishioka, Ann

    Mathematics educators often despair at math's austere, "abstract" reputation. This paper describes recent work in developing an application named "HyperGami," which is designed to integrate both the abstract and"real-world" aspects of mathematics by allowing children to design and construct polyhedral models and…

  18. Getting Ready for the Real World: Student Perspectives on Bringing Industry Collaboration into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learning through industry collaborations is critical in decreasing the gap between the real world and the academic environment. Working on challenges drawn from industry can increase students' knowledge and future employability, thus enhancing labor force preparation. This study explored students' perceptions (n = 110) of the benefits…

  19. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  20. Alternative Assessment--Can Real-World Skills Be Tested? Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Karen; Gregg, Soleil

    Many educators are shifting their teaching strategies and approaches to include more emphasis on critical thinking skills, the communication of ideas, a variety of approaches to content emphasizing varied student learning styles, and the need to draw explicit connections among topics for retention of learning. Real-world assessment measures, then,…

  1. Oral Proficiency Testing in the Real World: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swender, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    The ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) is used to assess the ability of individuals to use language for real-world purposes. Today, OPIs are used by academic institutions, government agencies, and private corporations for many purposes: academic placement, student assessment, program evaluation, professional certification, hiring, and…

  2. Minimizing the Institutional Change Required to Augment Calculus with Real-World Engineering Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Jeremiah; Khavanin, Mohammad; Worley, Deborah; Kaabouch, Naima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allowing calculus taught by mathematics faculty to be augmented with real-world engineering problems. The method relies on modules to deliver the problems and required background information. Students complete the modules outside of class and discuss them in mentor-led sessions. To encourage participation, students…

  3. On the Implementation of Iterative Detection in Real-World MIMO Wireless Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    multiple - input multiple - output ( MIMO ) wireless systems can achieve...addresses the use of iterative detection in real-world multiple - input multiple - output ( MIMO ) wireless systems, which are theoretically capable of achieving...search LLR log-likelihood ratio MAP maximum a posteriori MIMO multiple - input multiple - output ML maximum likelihood MLM-ITS multilevel mapping ITS

  4. Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion chromatography (IC) as a means to teach important analytical concepts while giving the students a valuable opportunity to identify and investigate a real-world system of interest to them is described. A single IC apparatus can be tailored for different classes of analyses by the selection of different column-eluent combinations.

  5. Working with Missing Data in Higher Education Research: A Primer and Real-World Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Bradley E.; McIntosh, Kadian; Reason, Robert D.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all quantitative analyses in higher education draw from incomplete datasets-a common problem with no universal solution. In the first part of this paper, we explain why missing data matter and outline the advantages and disadvantages of six common methods for handling missing data. Next, we analyze real-world data from 5,905 students across…

  6. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  7. Teaching Molecular Phylogenetics through Investigating a Real-World Phylogenetic Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the "Introduction to biocomputing" course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify…

  8. Educating Students in Real-World Sustainability Research: Vision and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundiers, Katja; Wiek, Arnim

    2011-01-01

    Readers are invited to imagine students helping to solve real-world sustainability problems brought to them by societal stakeholders and simultaneously learning about and contributing to sustainable changes in society. Effective sustainability research education engages students in just that. Higher education institutions are implementing this…

  9. Reality Imagined: The Choice to Use a Real-World Case in a Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfield, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The use of a real-world case in a classroom simulation--in contrast to invented or disguised cases--is not widely recognized as a "combination" of two common active-learning strategies in political science: teaching with a case study and conducting a simulation. I argue that using such a simulation therefore can provide the benefits of…

  10. Transfer between Picture Books and the Real World by Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Pickard, Megan Bloom; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2008-01-01

    Picture book reading is a very common form of interaction between parents and very young children. Here we explore to what extent young children transfer novel information between picture books and the real world. We report that 15- and 18-month-olds can extend newly learned labels both from pictures to objects and from objects to pictures.…

  11. Teaching Molecular Phylogenetics through Investigating a Real-World Phylogenetic Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the "Introduction to biocomputing" course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify…

  12. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Proficiencies in Solving Real-World Problems: Approaches, Strategies and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Yilmaz; Bayazit, Ibrahim; Dönmez, S. Merve Kirnap

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates approaches, strategies and models used by prospective primary school teachers in responding to real-world problems. The research was carried out with 82 participants. Data were collected through written-exam and semi-structured interviews; and they were analysed using content and discourse analysis methods. Most of the…

  13. A real-world size organization of object responses in occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-06-21

    While there are selective regions of occipitotemporal cortex that respond to faces, letters, and bodies, the large-scale neural organization of most object categories remains unknown. Here, we find that object representations can be differentiated along the ventral temporal cortex by their real-world size. In a functional neuroimaging experiment, observers were shown pictures of big and small real-world objects (e.g., table, bathtub; paperclip, cup), presented at the same retinal size. We observed a consistent medial-to-lateral organization of big and small object preferences in the ventral temporal cortex, mirrored along the lateral surface. Regions in the lateral-occipital, inferotemporal, and parahippocampal cortices showed strong peaks of differential real-world size selectivity and maintained these preferences over changes in retinal size and in mental imagery. These data demonstrate that the real-world size of objects can provide insight into the spatial topography of object representation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Teaching for Statistical Literacy: Utilising Affordances in Real-World Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L.; Pierce, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that context is important in teaching mathematics and statistics. Consideration of context is central to statistical thinking, and any teaching of statistics must incorporate this aspect. Indeed, it has been advocated that real-world data sets can motivate the learning of statistical principles. It is not, however, a…

  15. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British…

  16. Interventions to improve real-world walking after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Caroline M; Mudge, Suzie; Kayes, Nicola M; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of current interventions to improve real-world walking for people with stroke and specifically whether benefits are sustained. EBSCO Megafile, AMED, Cochrane, Scopus, PEDRO, OTSeeker and Psychbite databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Proximity searching with keywords such as ambulat*, walk*, gait, mobility*, activit* was used. Randomized controlled trials that used measures of real-world walking were included. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and extracted the data. Nine studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified, most of high quality. A positive effect overall was found indicating a small effect of interventions on real-world walking (SMD 0.29 (0.17, 0.41)). Five studies provided follow-up data at >3-6 months, which demonstrated sustained benefits (SMD 0.32 (0.16, 0.48)). Subgroup analysis revealed studies using exercise alone were not effective (SMD 0.19 (-0.11, 0.49)), but those incorporating behavioural change techniques (SMD 0.27 (0.12, 0.41)) were. A small but significant effect was found for current interventions and benefits can be sustained. Interventions that include behaviour change techniques appear more effective at improving real-world walking habits than exercise alone.

  17. Reality Imagined: The Choice to Use a Real-World Case in a Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfield, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The use of a real-world case in a classroom simulation--in contrast to invented or disguised cases--is not widely recognized as a "combination" of two common active-learning strategies in political science: teaching with a case study and conducting a simulation. I argue that using such a simulation therefore can provide the benefits of…

  18. Transfer between Picture Books and the Real World by Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Pickard, Megan Bloom; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2008-01-01

    Picture book reading is a very common form of interaction between parents and very young children. Here we explore to what extent young children transfer novel information between picture books and the real world. We report that 15- and 18-month-olds can extend newly learned labels both from pictures to objects and from objects to pictures.…

  19. Virtual Worlds: Relationship between Real Life and Experience in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstadt, Scott P.; Bradley, Shannon; Burnette, Ashley; Medley, Lesley L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the unique applications of virtual reality in many modern contexts, Second Life (SL) offers inimitable opportunities for research and exploration and experiential learning as part of a distance learning curriculum assignment. A review of current research regarding SL examined real world social influences in online interactions and what the…

  20. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  1. Real-world spatial regularities affect visual working memory for objects.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Daniel; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-12-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on measuring and modeling the capacity of visual working memory for simple stimuli such as geometric shapes or colored disks. Although these studies have provided important insights, it is unclear how their findings apply to memory for more naturalistic stimuli. An important aspect of real-world scenes is that they contain a high degree of regularity: For instance, lamps appear above tables, not below them. In the present study, we tested whether such real-world spatial regularities affect working memory capacity for individual objects. Using a delayed change-detection task with concurrent verbal suppression, we found enhanced visual working memory performance for objects positioned according to real-world regularities, as compared to irregularly positioned objects. This effect was specific to upright stimuli, indicating that it did not reflect low-level grouping, because low-level grouping would be expected to equally affect memory for upright and inverted displays. These results suggest that objects can be held in visual working memory more efficiently when they are positioned according to frequently experienced real-world regularities. We interpret this effect as the grouping of single objects into larger representational units.

  2. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British…

  3. Use Service Learning to Add Real-World Writing Experience to Your Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennen, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Service learning is both a pedagogy and a philosophy; the central idea is to provide students with a setting for meaningful learning through a specific, curriculum-based community service activity. It is a "win-win" situation for everyone because students get to apply their knowledge and skills in "the real world," a nonprofit…

  4. Moving from Theory to Real-World Experiences in an e-Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Ana-Paula

    2008-01-01

    Ana-Paula Correia offers a case study of an experiential e-learning pedagogy used in one of this program's distance courses. This graduate course in instructional design brought experiential learning into an e-learning community by asking students to apply knowledge and skills to real-world instructional design projects. Correia explores how the…

  5. A Case-Based Learning Environment Design for Real-World Classroom Management Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ikseon; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2008-01-01

    No one would disagree that one of the major goals of higher education is to help college students develop as professionals who are able to deal with real-world problems in complex and dynamic situations, and who can make reasoned and reflective decisions with ethical and moral responsibility. In spite of the importance of promoting students'…

  6. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  7. Learning in the "Real" World: Encounters with Radical Architectures (1960s-1970s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s architectural education saw to the emergence of radical attempts to reconnect pedagogy with "the real world" and to forge greater social responsibility in architecture. From this epoch of important political, social, and environmental action, this article discusses three "encounters" between…

  8. Real World Contexts in PISA Science: Implications for Context-Based Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The PISA assessment instruments for students' scientific literacy in 2000, 2003, and 2006 have each consisted of units made up of a real world context involving Science and Technology, about which students are asked a number of cognitive and affective questions. This article discusses a number of issues from this use of S&T contexts in PISA…

  9. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  10. School Choice in the Real World: Lessons from Arizona Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maranto, Robert, Ed.; Milliman, Scott, Ed.; Hess, Frederick, Ed.; Gresham, April, Ed.

    Arizona has nearly 25 percent of the charter schools in the nation. These Arizona schools present something new: the first system approaching comprehensive school choice in the real world. This edited volume assembles the perspectives of social scientists and education practitioners and gives the first published account of the Arizona charter…

  11. Mining and Modeling Real-World Networks: Patterns, Anomalies, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, Leman

    2012-01-01

    Large real-world graph (a.k.a network, relational) data are omnipresent, in online media, businesses, science, and the government. Analysis of these massive graphs is crucial, in order to extract descriptive and predictive knowledge with many commercial, medical, and environmental applications. In addition to its general structure, knowing what…

  12. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  13. Image-based aircraft pose estimation: a comparison of simulations and real-world data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuers, Marcel G. J.; de Reus, Nico

    2001-10-01

    The problem of estimating aircraft pose information from mono-ocular image data is considered using a Fourier descriptor based algorithm. The dependence of pose estimation accuracy on image resolution and aspect angle is investigated through simulations using sets of synthetic aircraft images. Further evaluation shows that god pose estimation accuracy can be obtained in real world image sequences.

  14. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  15. Teaching for Statistical Literacy: Utilising Affordances in Real-World Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L.; Pierce, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that context is important in teaching mathematics and statistics. Consideration of context is central to statistical thinking, and any teaching of statistics must incorporate this aspect. Indeed, it has been advocated that real-world data sets can motivate the learning of statistical principles. It is not, however, a…

  16. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  17. Blended Learning: Beyond Initial Uses to Helping to Solve Real-World Academic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning strategies can be employed in innovative ways to solve real-world academic problems across all academic disciplines. This article can provide administrators and faculty with specific examples to guide them when making decisions about academic planning or institutional strategies for any discipline at all levels of higher…

  18. Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Falling Bodies in Idealized and Real-World Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahyadi, M. Veronica; Butler, Philip H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the understanding of 18 first-year undergraduate students when simultaneously presented with two contrasting dynamical situations: the idealized (without air resistance) and real-world cases of balls being dropped or thrown. Previous work has shown that getting students to recognize flaws in their mental models helps them…

  19. Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Falling Bodies in Idealized and Real-World Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahyadi, M. Veronica; Butler, Philip H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the understanding of 18 first-year undergraduate students when simultaneously presented with two contrasting dynamical situations: the idealized (without air resistance) and real-world cases of balls being dropped or thrown. Previous work has shown that getting students to recognize flaws in their mental models helps them…

  20. Planning in the Real World of Colleges and Universities. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, George A.

    The importance of human and political factors in college planning is emphasized by a veteran faculty member and administrator. Three examples are cited, based on experiences at California State University-Northridge; West Virginia University, and the community surrounding the College of the Virgin Islands. One "real world" factor that…

  1. A Test of the Tau-Dot Hypothesis of Braking Control in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Paul B.; Harris, Mike G.; Yates, Tim

    2006-01-01

    A controlled experiment used instrumented vehicles in a real-world driving task to compare D. N. Lee's (1976) tau-dot hypothesis of braking control with an alternative based on the direct estimation and control of ideal deceleration (T. Yates, M. Harris, & P. Rock, 2004). Drivers braked to stop as closely as possible to a visual target from…

  2. Working with Missing Data in Higher Education Research: A Primer and Real-World Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Bradley E.; McIntosh, Kadian; Reason, Robert D.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all quantitative analyses in higher education draw from incomplete datasets-a common problem with no universal solution. In the first part of this paper, we explain why missing data matter and outline the advantages and disadvantages of six common methods for handling missing data. Next, we analyze real-world data from 5,905 students across…

  3. Educating Students in Real-World Sustainability Research: Vision and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundiers, Katja; Wiek, Arnim

    2011-01-01

    Readers are invited to imagine students helping to solve real-world sustainability problems brought to them by societal stakeholders and simultaneously learning about and contributing to sustainable changes in society. Effective sustainability research education engages students in just that. Higher education institutions are implementing this…

  4. Adapting to Change in a Master Level Real-World-Projects Capstone Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappert, Charles C.; Stix, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Our mission of capstone computing courses for the past ten years has been to offer students experience with the development of real-world information technology projects. This experience has included both the hard and soft skills required for the work they could expect as industrial practitioners. Hard skills entail extending one's knowledge…

  5. The Jasper Experiment: Using Video to Furnish Real-World Problem-Solving Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arithmetic Teacher, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a series of four problem-solving videodisc adventure stories designed for research purposes that provide students with open-ended problems based on real-world situations. Presents design principles, research results, the teacher's role, and technology issues related to the utilization of the…

  6. Bringing the Real World in: Reflection on Building a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundkur, Anuradha; Ellickson, Cara

    2012-01-01

    We reflect on translating participatory and experiential learning methodologies into an online teaching environment through a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that simulates the "real-world" contexts of international development in order to develop an applied critical understanding of gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. Rather than being…

  7. Mining and Modeling Real-World Networks: Patterns, Anomalies, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, Leman

    2012-01-01

    Large real-world graph (a.k.a network, relational) data are omnipresent, in online media, businesses, science, and the government. Analysis of these massive graphs is crucial, in order to extract descriptive and predictive knowledge with many commercial, medical, and environmental applications. In addition to its general structure, knowing what…

  8. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  9. Bringing the Real World in: Reflection on Building a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundkur, Anuradha; Ellickson, Cara

    2012-01-01

    We reflect on translating participatory and experiential learning methodologies into an online teaching environment through a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that simulates the "real-world" contexts of international development in order to develop an applied critical understanding of gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. Rather than being…

  10. Developing Management Student Cultural Fluency for the Real World: A Situated Cultural Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yunxia; Okimoto, Tyler G.; Roan, Amanda; Xu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To connect students with the real world of management practice, the purpose of this paper is to extend and operationalize the situated cultural learning approach (SiCuLA) through five learning processes occurring within communities of practice. These include integration of cultural contexts, authentic activities, reflections,…

  11. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  12. Executive Function in the Real World: BRIEF lessons from Mark Ylvisaker.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Gerard A; Kenworthy, Lauren; Isquith, Peter K

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that brain injuries adversely affect the executive functions and their development. Mark Ylvisaker had a substantial impact on how we assess and treat children and adolescents with disrupted executive functions secondary to traumatic brain injury. He articulated core principles for effective assessment and intervention that emphasized the importance of real-world meaning and application. He taught us that assessment that captures a child's everyday functioning in the context of real-world demands is often more informative than traditional neuropsychological measures alone and that interventions that improve functioning in the real-world environment are most useful. His pragmatic model influenced our own efforts to measure executive function and to develop intervention systems for children with executive function deficits. This article reviews the development of the Behavior Rating Inventory for Executive Function as an approach to ecological assessment of children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury. As we take what we learned from Mark Ylvisaker, it becomes increasingly apparent that our assessment and intervention methods, especially as related to the executive functions, demand an everyday, real-world context.

  13. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Proficiencies in Solving Real-World Problems: Approaches, Strategies and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Yilmaz; Bayazit, Ibrahim; Dönmez, S. Merve Kirnap

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates approaches, strategies and models used by prospective primary school teachers in responding to real-world problems. The research was carried out with 82 participants. Data were collected through written-exam and semi-structured interviews; and they were analysed using content and discourse analysis methods. Most of the…

  14. Syllabus Revision Through Cooperative Education: Adapting Courses to the "Real World."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, W. Keats

    1981-01-01

    The author presents three illustrations that show how co-op employers can help in adapting a course to the real world. The examples are (1) conventions of business letter writing, (2) justification reports, and (3) on-the-job terminology. (CT)

  15. Getting Ready for the Real World: Student Perspectives on Bringing Industry Collaboration into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learning through industry collaborations is critical in decreasing the gap between the real world and the academic environment. Working on challenges drawn from industry can increase students' knowledge and future employability, thus enhancing labor force preparation. This study explored students' perceptions (n = 110) of the benefits…

  16. Managing in the Virtual World: How Second Life is Rewriting the Rules of "Real Life" Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyld, David C.

    In this paper, we will explore the growth of virtual worlds - one of the most exciting and fast-growing concepts in the Web 2.0 era. We will see that while there has been significant growth across all demographic groups, online gaming in MMOGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) are finding particular appeal in today's youth - the so-called "digital native" generation. We then overview the today's virtual world marketplace, both in the youth and adult-oriented markets. Second Life is emerging as the most important virtual world today, due to the intense interest amongst both large organizations and individual entrepreneurs to conduct real business in the virtual environment. Due to its prominence today and its forecasted growth over the next decade, we take a look at the unscripted world of Second Life, examining the corporate presence in-world, as well as the economic, technical, legal, ethical and security issues involved for companies doing business in the virtual world. In conclusion, we present an analysis of where we stand in terms of virtual world development today and a projection of where we will be heading in the near future. Finally, we present advice to management practitioners and academicians on how to learn about virtual worlds and explore the world of opportunities in them.

  17. Auditory Cortical Processing in Real-World Listening: The Auditory System Going Real

    PubMed Central

    Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well. PMID:25392481

  18. Auditory cortical processing in real-world listening: the auditory system going real.

    PubMed

    Nelken, Israel; Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-12

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well.

  19. Multi-wavelength excitation Raman spectrometers and microscopes for measurements of real-world samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, William; Wu, Huawen; Qian, Jack; Chandler, Lin; Lieber, Chad A.; Dentinger, Claire

    2012-10-01

    We report on a variety of BaySpec's newly developed Raman spectrometers and microscopes combining multiple excitation wavelengths and detection ranges. Among those there are the world's first dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared miniature Raman spectral engines built with Volume Phase Gratings (VPGTM), and the world's first three-wavelength (532, 785, and 1064-nm) excitation Raman microscope. Having multiple wavelength excitations in one unit offers extreme flexibility and convenience to identify the best laser wavelength and investigate a great variety of real-world samples. In real-world Raman measurements, fluorescence is the biggest obstacle which significantly reduces the quality of the Raman spectra. We demonstrate many examples spanning from explosives to street drugs to conclude that for those samples, 1064-nm Raman is fluorescence-free and best suited for identification. Other types of miniaturized Raman spectrometers have been realized, enabling handheld, portable, or at-line/ on-line applications for real-world sample measurements, such as threat determination of explosives, chemical and biological materials, quality assurance and contamination control for food safety, and forensics such as evidence gathering, narcotics identification, and anti-counterfeiting.

  20. Low-frequency theta oscillations in the human hippocampus during real-world and virtual navigation

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Véronique D.; Copara, Milagros S.; Gotman, Jean; Ekstrom, Arne D.

    2017-01-01

    Low-Frequency Oscillations (LFO) in the range of 7–9 Hz, or theta rhythm, has been recorded in rodents ambulating in the real world. However, intra-hippocampus EEG recordings during virtual navigation in humans have consistently reported LFO that appear to predominate around 3–4 Hz. Here we report clear evidence of 7–9 Hz rhythmicity in raw intra-hippocampus EEG traces during real as well as virtual movement. Oscillations typically occur at a lower frequency in virtual than real world navigation. This study highlights the possibility that human and rodent hippocampal EEG activity are not as different as previously reported and this difference may arise, in part, due to the lack of actual movement in previous human navigation studies, which were virtual. PMID:28195129

  1. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols.

  2. Low-frequency theta oscillations in the human hippocampus during real-world and virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Bohbot, Véronique D; Copara, Milagros S; Gotman, Jean; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2017-02-14

    Low-Frequency Oscillations (LFO) in the range of 7-9 Hz, or theta rhythm, has been recorded in rodents ambulating in the real world. However, intra-hippocampus EEG recordings during virtual navigation in humans have consistently reported LFO that appear to predominate around 3-4 Hz. Here we report clear evidence of 7-9 Hz rhythmicity in raw intra-hippocampus EEG traces during real as well as virtual movement. Oscillations typically occur at a lower frequency in virtual than real world navigation. This study highlights the possibility that human and rodent hippocampal EEG activity are not as different as previously reported and this difference may arise, in part, due to the lack of actual movement in previous human navigation studies, which were virtual.

  3. First-perspective spatial alignment effects from real-world exploration.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Paul N; Wilson, Duncan A; Griffiths, Laura; Fox, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    When spatial knowledge is acquired from secondary-learning media, such as text, people sometimes remember a route in alignment with the first perspective or first direction of travel. However, this first-perspective alignment (FPA) effect has been found only under special circumstances from primary real-world exploration. In Experiment 1, recall of an enclosed small-scale, U-shaped route was compared following learning from a verbal description, a video recording, or real-world exploration; an FPA effect was found in all cases. In Experiments 2 and 3, exploration of physically larger real routes led to statistically significant evidence of an FPA effect when the route was enclosed, but not when cues external to the route were available. The data are discussed in relation to current theories of spatial reference frames.

  4. Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold in Real World Practice – A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Huai-Wen; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lin, Yen-Hung; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Lin, Mao-Shin; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Lee, Chii-Ming; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wu, Cho-Kai; Lin, Lian-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Chen, Ying-Hsien

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents are widely used in coronary artery intervention. However, vessel caging and very late thrombotic events are of persistent and substantial concern. Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) were developed to deliver vascular reparative therapy, by eliminating permanent mechanical restraint. However, data regarding its clinical performance is lacking. Methods After the BVS implantation procedure received national approval in May 2014, patients receiving BVS implantation until November 2014 in National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) were enrolled. Clinical variables, angiographic data, procedural details, and follow-up information were collected and compared with those receiving BVS at NTUH as part of the global ABSORB EXTEND trial. Results A total of 35 patients (38 target vessels) with 48 BVS implanted after approval were enrolled, as the "real-world practice" group. Data of the 34 patients (34 target vessels) with 37 BVS implanted in the ABSORB EXTEND trial were also obtained. Differences in lesion complexity (0% type B2/C lesion in ABSORB EXTEND, versus 23.7% in real-world, p = 0.007) and lesion length (20.9 ± 6.1 mm in ABSORB EXTEND, versus 29.5 ± 15.9 mm in real-world, p = 0.008) were noted. The ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization after an average of 732 days follow-up was 11.8% in the ABSORB EXTEND trial. However, there was no ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (TLR), no scaffold thrombosis, no myocardial infarction (MI), and no patients passed during the follow-up period. In real-world patients, there is 5.3% of MI, 2.6% ischemia-driven TLR, and 2.6% of non-fatal probable scaffold thrombosis. Conclusions The use of BVS in real-world practice is feasible, with clinical outcomes comparable to those in the ABSORB EXTEND trial. PMID:28559655

  5. Hostility in the real world and online: the effect of internet addiction, depression, and online activity.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yi; Huang, Chun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2011-11-01

    Hostility online has not been evaluated by an empirical investigation. This study aims to evaluate (a) the difference between hostility in the real world and that online and (b) whether the difference is associated with Internet addiction, depression, or online activities. A total of 2,348 college students (1,124 males and 1,224 females) were recruited and completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and the questionnaire for online activity. Further, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Chinese version-short form was utilized to evaluate hostility in both real and virtual worlds. The results demonstrated that the levels of all four dimensions of hostility were lower when getting online than those in the real world. Subjects with Internet addiction had higher hostility both in the real world and online as do subjects with depression. Further, college students with Internet addiction had increased expressive hostility behavior and those with depression had decreased hostility cognition, hostility affection, and suppressive hostility behavior when getting online. Lastly, the buffering effect of the Internet on hostility was attenuated among subjects paying the most online time in chatting, and those using the Internet mainly for online gaming had higher expressive hostility behavior not only in the real world but also online. These results suggest that attention should be paid to interventions concerning aggressive behavior among subjects with Internet addiction or online gaming and chatting. On the other hand, depressed college students would be less hostile after entering the Internet. It is suggested that the Internet would be one possible interactive media to provide intervention for depression.

  6. Are fixations in static natural scenes a useful predictor of attention in the real world?

    PubMed

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-06-01

    Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli. We recorded the gaze of participants walking on a university campus with a mobile eye tracker, and then showed static frames from this walk to new participants, in either a random or sequential order. The aim was to compare the gaze of participants walking in the real environment with fixations on pictures of the same scene. The data show that picture order affects interobserver fixation consistency and changes looking patterns. Critically, while fixations on the static images overlapped significantly with the actual real-world eye movements, they did so no more than a model that assumed a general bias to the centre. Remarkably, a model that simply takes into account where the eyes are normally positioned in the head-independent of what is actually in the scene-does far better than any other model. These data reveal that viewing patterns to static scenes are a relatively poor proxy for predicting real world eye movement behaviour, while raising intriguing possibilities for how to best measure attention in everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. HPDB-Haskell library for processing atomic biomolecular structures in Protein Data Bank format.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Michał Jan

    2013-11-23

    Protein DataBank file format is used for the majority of biomolecular data available today. Haskell is a lazy functional language that enjoys a high-level class-based type system, a growing collection of useful libraries and a reputation for efficiency. I present a fast library for processing biomolecular data in the Protein Data Bank format. I present benchmarks indicating that this library is faster than other frequently used Protein Data Bank parsing programs. The proposed library also features a convenient iterator mechanism, and a simple API modeled after BioPython. I set a new standard for convenience and efficiency of Protein Data Bank processing in a Haskell library, and release it to open source.

  8. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  9. Real-world resource use and costs of adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer.

    PubMed

    van Gils, C W M; de Groot, S; Tan, S S; Redekop, W K; Koopman, M; Punt, C J A; Uyl-de Groot, C A

    2015-05-01

    Since the generalisability of trial-based economic evaluations may be limited, there is an increasing focus on real-world cost-effectiveness. Real-world studies involve evaluating the effects and costs of treatments in daily clinical practice. This study reports on the real-world resource use and costs of adjuvant treatments of stage III colon cancer in a population-based observational study. Analyses were based on a detailed retrospective medical chart review which was conducted for 206 patients with colon cancer treated in 2005 and 2006 in the Netherlands. Mean total costs per patient were €9681 for 5-FU/LV, €9736 for capecitabine, €32,793 for FOLFOX and €18,361 for CAPOX. Drug costs and the costs related to hospitalisations for chemotherapy administration were the main cost drivers. We identified a potential for substantial cost-savings when the 48 h administration of 5FU/LV in the FOLFOX regimen were to take place in an outpatient setting or be replaced by oral capecitabine as in the CAPOX regimen. This analysis based on detailed real-life data clearly indicates that clinical choices made in oncology based on efficacy of therapy have economic consequences. Considering today's reality of finite healthcare resources, these economic consequences deserve a formal role in clinical decision making, for instance in guideline development. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. GetReal in mathematical modelling: a review of studies predicting drug effectiveness in the real world.

    PubMed

    Panayidou, Klea; Gsteiger, Sandro; Egger, Matthias; Kilcher, Gablu; Carreras, Máximo; Efthimiou, Orestis; Debray, Thomas P A; Trelle, Sven; Hummel, Noemi

    2016-09-01

    The performance of a drug in a clinical trial setting often does not reflect its effect in daily clinical practice. In this third of three reviews, we examine the applications that have been used in the literature to predict real-world effectiveness from randomized controlled trial efficacy data. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE from inception to March 2014, the Cochrane Methodology Register, and websites of key journals and organisations and reference lists. We extracted data on the type of model and predictions, data sources, validation and sensitivity analyses, disease area and software. We identified 12 articles in which four approaches were used: multi-state models, discrete event simulation models, physiology-based models and survival and generalized linear models. Studies predicted outcomes over longer time periods in different patient populations, including patients with lower levels of adherence or persistence to treatment or examined doses not tested in trials. Eight studies included individual patient data. Seven examined cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and three neurological conditions. Most studies included sensitivity analyses, but external validation was performed in only three studies. We conclude that mathematical modelling to predict real-world effectiveness of drug interventions is not widely used at present and not well validated. © 2016 The Authors Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.

    PubMed

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std) 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and

  12. Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls

    PubMed Central

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean±std) 83.0%±30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0%±27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design

  13. Platoon Interactions and Real-World Traffic Simulation and Validation Based on the LWR-IM

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Platoon based traffic flow models form the underlying theoretical framework in traffic simulation tools. They are essentially important in facilitating efficient performance calculation and evaluation in urban traffic networks. For this purpose, a new platoon-based macroscopic model called the LWR-IM has been developed in [1]. Preliminary analytical validation conducted previously has proven the feasibility of the model. In this paper, the LWR-IM is further enhanced with algorithms that describe platoon interactions in urban arterials. The LWR-IM and the proposed platoon interaction algorithms are implemented in the real-world class I and class II urban arterials. Another purpose of the work is to perform quantitative validation to investigate the validity and ability of the LWR-IM and its underlying algorithms to describe platoon interactions and simulate performance indices that closely resemble the real traffic situations. The quantitative validation of the LWR-IM is achieved by performing a two-sampled t-test on queues simulated by the LWR-IM and real queues observed at these real-world locations. The results reveal insignificant differences of simulated queues with real queues where the p-values produced concluded that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Thus, the quantitative validation further proved the validity of the LWR-IM and the embedded platoon interactions algorithm for the intended purpose. PMID:26731745

  14. Platoon Interactions and Real-World Traffic Simulation and Validation Based on the LWR-IM.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Platoon based traffic flow models form the underlying theoretical framework in traffic simulation tools. They are essentially important in facilitating efficient performance calculation and evaluation in urban traffic networks. For this purpose, a new platoon-based macroscopic model called the LWR-IM has been developed in [1]. Preliminary analytical validation conducted previously has proven the feasibility of the model. In this paper, the LWR-IM is further enhanced with algorithms that describe platoon interactions in urban arterials. The LWR-IM and the proposed platoon interaction algorithms are implemented in the real-world class I and class II urban arterials. Another purpose of the work is to perform quantitative validation to investigate the validity and ability of the LWR-IM and its underlying algorithms to describe platoon interactions and simulate performance indices that closely resemble the real traffic situations. The quantitative validation of the LWR-IM is achieved by performing a two-sampled t-test on queues simulated by the LWR-IM and real queues observed at these real-world locations. The results reveal insignificant differences of simulated queues with real queues where the p-values produced concluded that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Thus, the quantitative validation further proved the validity of the LWR-IM and the embedded platoon interactions algorithm for the intended purpose.

  15. Improving Realism in Clinical Trial Simulations via Real-World Data.

    PubMed

    Kimko, Holly; Lee, Kwan

    2017-09-19

    Simulation validity depends on how well sampling distributions used reflect real-patient characteristics, such as drug adherence, disease progression, and pharmacologic handling in the body. We challenge the current use of growth charts from nondisease-specific pediatrics in simulations for drug development. Complementary use of data from clinical trials and the real-world is expected to achieve a more realistic representation of clinical outcomes for decisions in drug development, regulatory approval, and health technology assessment. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. The Use of Simulation and Cases to Teach Real World Decision Making: Applied Example for Health Care Management Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Alyson; Ninassi, Susanne Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Many pedagogy experts suggest the use of real world scenarios and simulations as a means of teaching students to apply decision analysis concepts to their field of study. These methods allow students an opportunity to synthesize knowledge, skills, and abilities by presenting a field-based dilemma. The use of real world scenarios and simulations…

  17. Effects of an Online Rational Emotive Curriculum on Primary School Students' Tendencies for Online and Real-World Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Ho, H. C.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between online and real-world aggressive behavior among primary school students as well as the effects of an online rational emotive curriculum on reducing the tendency of students to display aggression online and in the real-world. We developed an online information literacy course integrated with rational…

  18. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Burte, Heather; Houck, Lindsay A; Taylor, Holly A

    2015-01-01

    Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  19. Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-World Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadorn, Maik; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    Embryogenic evolution emulates in silico cell-like entities to get more powerful methods for complex evolutionary tasks. As simulations have to abstract from the biological model, implicit information hidden in its physics is lost. Here, we propose to use cell-like entities as a real-world in vitro testbed. In analogy to evolutionary robotics, where solutions evolved in simulations may be tested in real-world on macroscale, the proposed vesicular testbed would do the same for the embryogenic evolutionary tasks on mesoscale. As a first step towards a vesicular testbed emulating growth, cell division, and cell differentiation, we present a modified vesicle production method, providing custom-tailored chemical cargo, and present a novel self-assembly procedure to provide vesicle aggregates of programmable composition.

  20. Acoustic Classification and Optimization for Multi-Modal Rendering of Real-World Scenes.

    PubMed

    Schissler, Carl; Loftin, Christian; Manocha, Dinesh

    2017-02-09

    We present a novel algorithm to generate virtual acoustic effects in captured 3D models of real-world scenes for multimodal augmented reality. We leverage recent advances in 3D scene reconstruction in order to automatically compute acoustic material properties. Our technique consists of a two-step procedure that first applies a convolutional neural network (CNN) to estimate the acoustic material properties, including frequency-dependent absorption coefficients, that are used for interactive sound propagation. In the second step, an iterative optimization algorithm is used to adjust the materials determined by the CNN until a virtual acoustic simulation converges to measured acoustic impulse responses. We have applied our algorithm to many reconstructed real-world indoor scenes and evaluated its fidelity for augmented reality applications.

  1. Know thyself: real-world behavioral correlates of self-appraisal accuracy.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Casey E; Rosen, Howard J; Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly A; Schatz, Jeffrey; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Kramer, Joel H

    2011-07-01

    Accurate appraisal of one's own abilities is one metacognitive skill considered to be an important factor affecting learning and behavior in childhood. The present study measured self-appraisal accuracy in children using tasks of executive function, and investigated relations between self-appraisal and informant ratings of real-world behaviors measured by the BRIEF. We examined self-appraisal accuracy on fluency tasks in 91 children ages 10-17. More accurate self-appraisal was correlated with fewer informant ratings of real-world behavior problems in inhibition and shifting, independent of actual performance. Findings suggest that self-appraisal represents cognitive processes that are at least partially independent of other functions putatively dependent on the frontal lobes, and these self-appraisal-specific processes have unique implications for optimal daily function.

  2. Motion artifact removal in FNIR spectroscopy for real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Ajit; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Bunce, Scott C.; Li, Connie Y.; Onaral, Banu

    2004-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy as a neuroimaging modality is a recent development. Near infrared neuroimagers are typically safe, portable, relatively affordable and non-invasive. The ease of sensor setup and non-intrusiveness make functional near infrared (fNIR) imaging an ideal candidate for monitoring human cortical function in a wide range of real world situations. However optical signals are susceptible to motion-artifacts, hindering the application of fNIR in studies where subject mobility cannot be controlled. In this paper, we present a filtering framework for motion-artifact cancellation to facilitate the deployment of fNIR imaging in real-world scenarios. We simulate a generic field environment by having subjects walk on a treadmill while performing a cognitive task and demonstrate that measurements can be effectively cleaned of motion-artifacts.

  3. Successful life outcome and management of real-world memory demands despite profound anterograde amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Wszalek, Tracey; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the case of Angie, a 50 year-old woman with profound amnesia (General Memory Index = 49, Full Scale IQ = 126) following a closed head injury in 1985. This case is unique in comparison to other cases reported in the literature in that, despite the severity of her amnesia, she has developed remarkable real-world life abilities, shows impressive self awareness and insight into the impairment and sparing of various functional memory abilities, and exhibits ongoing maturation of her identity and sense of self following amnesia. The case provides insights into the interaction of different memory and cognitive systems in handling real-world memory demands, and has implications for rehabilitation and for successful life outcome after amnesia. PMID:18608659

  4. [Exploration and demonstration study on drug combination from clinical real world].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yong-yan

    2014-09-01

    Drug combination is extensive in the clinical real world,which is an important part and the inherent requirements of the post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The key issues and technology include multi-domain and multi-disciplinary such as the rationality, efficacy and safety evaluation of combination drug starting from clinical real world, study on component in vivo and mechanism of combination drug, the risk/benefit assessment and cost-benefit evaluation of combination drug and so on. The topic has been studied as clinical demonstration on combination therapy of variety of diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, insomnia, depression, hepatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis and ectopic pregnancy. Meanwhile, multi-disciplinary dynamic innovation alliance of clinical drug combination has been presented, which can promote the academic development and improving service ability and level of TCM.

  5. A real world dissemination and implementation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F; Szafranski, Derek D; Shead, Sarah D

    2017-03-01

    Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies is challenging in real world clinical settings. Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for affective disorders was developed with dissemination and implementation in clinical settings in mind. The present study investigated a voluntary local dissemination and implementation effort, involving 28 providers participating in a four-hour training on TBT. Providers completed immediate (n=22) and six-month follow-up (n=12) training assessments and were encouraged to collect data on their TBT patients (delivery fidelity was not investigated). Findings demonstrated that providers endorsed learning of and interest in using TBT after the training. At six-months, 50% of providers reported using TBT with their patients and their perceived effectiveness of TBT to be very good to excellent. Submitted patient outcome data evidenced medium to large effect sizes. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of a real world dissemination and implementation of TBT.

  6. From image pair to a computer generated hologram for a real-world scene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Sihao; Cao, Siyang; Zheng, Yuan F; Ewing, Robert L

    2016-09-20

    We propose an approach to produce computer generated holograms (CGHs) from image pairs of a real-world scene. The ratio of the three-dimensional (3D) physical size of the object is computed from the image pair to provide the correct depth cue. A multilayer wavefront recording plane method completed with a two-stage occlusion culling process is carried out for wave propagation. Multiple holograms can be generated by propagating the wave toward the desired angles, to cover the circular views that are wider than the viewing angle restricted by the wavelength and pitch size of a single hologram. The impact of the imperfect depth information extracted from the image pair on CGH is examined. The approach is evaluated extensively on image pairs of real-world 3D scenes, and the results demonstrate that the circular-view CGH can be produced from a pair of stereo images using the proposed approach.

  7. KNOW THYSELF: REAL WORLD BEHAVIORAL CORRELATES OF SELF-APPRAISAL ACCURACY

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Casey E.; Rosen, Howard J.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly A.; Schatz, Jeffrey; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Kramer, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate appraisal of one’s own abilities is one metacognitive skill considered to be an important factor affecting learning and behavior in childhood. The present study measured self-appraisal accuracy in children using tasks of executive function, and investigated relations between self-appraisal and informant ratings of real world behaviors measured by the BRIEF. We examined self-appraisal accuracy on fluency tasks in 91 children ages 10-17. More accurate self-appraisal was correlated with fewer informant ratings of real world behavior problems in inhibition and shifting, independent of actual performance. Findings suggest that self-appraisal represents cognitive processes that are at least partially independent of other functions putatively dependent on the frontal lobes, and these self-appraisal-specific processes have unique implications for optimal daily function. PMID:21547852

  8. Scientific computation of big data in real-world clinical research.

    PubMed

    Li, Guozheng; Zuo, Xuewen; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-09-01

    The advent of the big data era creates both opportunities and challenges for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study describes the origin, concept, connotation, and value of studies regarding the scientific computation of TCM. It also discusses the integration of science, technology, and medicine under the guidance of the paradigm of real-world, clinical scientific research. TCM clinical diagnosis, treatment, and knowledge were traditionally limited to literature and sensation levels; however, primary methods are used to convert them into statistics, such as the methods of feature subset optimizing, multi-label learning, and complex networks based on complexity, intelligence, data, and computing sciences. Furthermore, these methods are applied in the modeling and analysis of the various complex relationships in individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as in decision-making related to such diagnosis and treatment. Thus, these methods strongly support the real-world clinical research paradigm of TCM.

  9. Extracting Depth From Motion Parallax in Real-World and Synthetic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Kaiser, Mary K.; Aiken, William; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In psychophysical studies on human sensitivity to visual motion parallax (MP), the use of computer displays is pervasive. However, a number of potential problems are associated with such displays: cue conflicts arise when observers accommodate to the screen surface, and observer head and body movements are often not reflected in the displays. We investigated observers' sensitivity to depth information in MP (slant, depth order, relative depth) using various real-world displays and their computer-generated analogs. Angle judgments of real-world stimuli were consistently superior to judgments that were based on computer-generated stimuli. Similar results were found for perceived depth order and relative depth. Perceptual competence of observers tends to be underestimated in research that is based on computer generated displays. Such findings cannot be generalized to more realistic viewing situations.

  10. Practical methods of tracking of nonstationary time series applied to real-world data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabney, Ian T.; McLachlan, Alan; Lowe, David

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss some practical implications for implementing adaptable network algorithms applied to non-stationary time series problems. Two real world data sets, containing electricity load demands and foreign exchange market prices, are used to test several different methods, ranging from linear models with fixed parameters, to non-linear models which adapt both parameters and model order on-line. Training with the extended Kalman filter, we demonstrate that the dynamic model-order increment procedure of the resource allocating RBF network (RAN) is highly sensitive to the parameters of the novelty criterion. We investigate the use of system noise for increasing the plasticity of the Kalman filter training algorithm, and discuss the consequences for on-line model order selection. The results of our experiments show that there are advantages to be gained in tracking real world non-stationary data through the use of more complex adaptive models.

  11. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.

  12. Value-based assessment of pharmacodiagnostic testing from early stage development to real-world use.

    PubMed

    Burns, Leah C; Orsini, Lucinda; L'italien, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Disease etiology may be regarded as a consequence of both genotypic and biochemical phenomena, which impact individual patients in different ways. Disease prognosis, beneficial treatment response, and susceptibility to adverse drug effects are often intimately tied to individual biology. Clinical and genetic biomarkers applied individually or in concert are increasingly used to stratify patient populations in terms of prognosis, therapeutic benefit, or safety. As a result, clinical trialists are challenged to design studies that reflect these determinants of outcome, to optimize the patient's eventual clinical course both in the trial and in actual practice. These designs are informed both by preclinical studies and by real-world research that can establish proof of concept for a novel biomarker and provide a basic understanding of the relationship between biomarker and clinical outcome. As clinical and real-world studies unfold, a deeper understanding of the nature of the biomarker and its potential uses in drug development is gained. Specifically, one can eventually define the biomarker as prognostic (i.e., predicts disease progression), predictive (predicts treatment response or adverse outcome(s)), or exhibiting both prognostic and predictive properties. One must further validate the performance of these emerging biomarkers, again in both the trial and real-world environments. The eventual adoption of the biomarker as a useful pharmacodiagnostic test is premised upon this early translational research. In this article, the development and validation of predictive and prognostic biomarkers is discussed by using selected examples that highlight factors contributing to the valuation of biomarkers and their application to personalized medicine in the real world.

  13. Ranibizumab for the treatment of wet AMD: a summary of real-world studies.

    PubMed

    Chong, V

    2016-02-01

    Data from real-world studies of ranibizumab in neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration suggest that outcomes in clinical practice fail to match those seen in clinical trials. These real-world studies follow treatment regimens that differ from the fixed dosing used in the pivotal clinical trial programme. To better understand the effectiveness of ranibizumab in clinical practice, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of 12-month outcomes reported in peer-reviewed 'real-world' publications. Key measures included in our analysis were mean change in visual acuity (VA) and the proportion of patients gaining ≥15 letters or losing ≤15 letters. Twenty studies were eligible for inclusion in our study, with 18 358 eyes having sufficient data for analysis of 12-month outcomes. Mean baseline VA ranged from 48.8 to 61.6 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters. Mean change in VA was between -2.0 and +5.5 letters, with a grand mean of +2.9±3.2, and a weighted mean (adjusted for the number of eyes in the study) of +1.95. Eleven studies reported that 19±7.5 (mean value) of patients gained ≥15 letters, while in 12 studies the mean percentage of patient losing ≤15 letters was 89±6.5%. Our comprehensive analysis of real-world ranibizumab study data confirm that patient outcomes are considerably poorer than those reported in randomised control trials of both fixed and pro re nata regimens.

  14. NASA's S'COOL Project: Bridging the Divide Between the 'Real' World and the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Roberto; Chambers, Lin H.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to bridge the gap between scientific research, teacher instruction and student learning, the CERES Students Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project offers a unique perspective on how to narrow the divide between the real world and the classroom. Reality-based learning has become a staple in the education of our youth and the S'COOL Project has taken this concept one step further.

  15. Implications of Real-World Data and Pharmacoeconomics for Managed Care

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovsky, Lilly

    2016-01-01

    The following summaries represent a sample of the many real-world, evidence-based studies presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP), April 19–22, 2016, in San Francisco, CA. These studies highlight some of the main trends in the current US healthcare with important implications for payers, employers, drug manufacturers, providers, patients, and other healthcare stakeholders. PMID:27625740

  16. Quantifying real-world upper limb activity in nondisabled adults and adults with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor capability is commonly assessed inside the clinic, but motor performance in real-world settings (i.e. outside of the clinic) is seldom assessed because measurement tools are lacking. Objective To quantify real-world bilateral upper limb (UL) activity in nondisabled adults and adults with stroke using a recently-developed accelerometry-based methodology. Methods Nondisabled adults (n=74) and adults with chronic stroke (n=48) wore accelerometers on both wrists for 25-26 hours. Motor capability was assessed using the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Accelerometry-derived variables were calculated to quantify intensity of bilateral UL activity (i.e. Bilateral Magnitude) and the contribution of both ULs to activity (Magnitude Ratio) for each second of activity. Density plots were used to examine each second of bilateral UL activity throughout the day. Results Nondisabled adults demonstrated equivalent use of dominant and nondominant ULs, indicated by symmetrical density plots and a median Magnitude Ratio of -0.1 (Interquartile Range: 0.3) where a value of 0 indicates equal activity between ULs. Bilateral UL activity intensity was lower (p<0.001) and more lateralized in adults with stroke as indicated by asymmetrical density plots and a lower median Magnitude Ratio (-2.2, Interquartile Range: 6.2, p<0.001). Density plots were similar between many stroke participants who had different ARAT scores, indicating that real-world bilateral UL activity was similar despite different motor capabilities. Conclusions Quantification and visualization of real-world bilateral UL activity can be accomplished using this novel accelerometry-based methodology, and complements results obtained from clinical tests of function when assessing recovery of UL activity following neurologic injury. PMID:25896988

  17. Implementing Peer Learning in Clinical Education: A Framework to Address Challenges In the "Real World".

    PubMed

    Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum.

  18. Hybrid Modeling and Diagnosis in the Real World: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-04

    mapped to system components case study of an aircraft fuel system, and discuss and parameters. The relations in the model are employed to methodologies for...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012687 TITLE: Hybrid Modeling and Diagnosis in the Real World : A Case...Study DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Thirteenth International

  19. Infections and Psoriasis Treatment: More "Real-World" Data Needed with Critical Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Naldi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    Data from the Spanish registry BIOBADADERM suggest that the risks of any infectious episode in patients treated with biologics are limited, not exceeding the risks observed with a conventional treatment such as cyclosporine. The registry lacked enough statistical power to analyze risks for severe infections. These should be the focus of further research, although the difficulties of "real-world" data analysis should not be trivialized.

  20. Security Games Applied to Real-World: Research Contributions and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    stead, IRIS uses the much faster ASPEN algorithm [23] to generate the schedule for Security Games Applied to Real-World: Research Contributions and...for the leader is to maximize total revenue (total ticket sales plus penalties). Urban transit systems, however, present unique computational...security domains. In particular, we describe the following algorithms: (i) ASPEN , an algorithm to compute strong Stackelberg equi- libria (SSE) in

  1. Towards Real-World Searching with Fixed-Wing Mini-UAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Towards Real-World Searching with Fixed-Wing Mini-UAVs Morgan Quigley Computer Science Department 3361 Talmage Building Brigham Young University...Provo, UT 84602, USA mquigley@byu.edu Blake Barber, Steve Griffiths Mechanical Engineering Department 435 Crabtree Building Brigham Young University Provo...UT 84602, USA dbb35@email.byu.edu stepheng@email.byu.edu Michael A. Goodrich Computer Science Department 3361 Talmage Building Brigham Young

  2. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network Translational Pharmacogenetics Program: Overcoming Challenges of Real-World Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Shuldiner, AR; Relling, MV; Peterson, JF; Hicks, JK; Freimuth, RR; Sadee, W; Pereira, NL; Roden, DM; Johnson, JA; Klein, TE

    2013-01-01

    The pace of discovery of potentially actionable pharmacogenetic variants has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the implementation of this new knowledge for individualized patient care has been slow. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) Translational Pharmacogenetics Program seeks to identify barriers and develop real-world solutions to implementation of evidence-based pharmacogenetic tests in diverse health-care settings. Dissemination of the resulting toolbox of “implementation best practices” will prove useful to a broad audience. PMID:23588301

  3. Predictive factors of functional capacity and real-world functioning in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Miranda, I; Garcia-Portilla, M P; Garcia-Alvarez, L; Arrojo, M; Sanchez, P; Sarramea, F; Gomar, J; Bobes-Bascaran, M T; Sierra, P; Saiz, P A; Bobes, J

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to identify the predictive factors of functional capacity assessed by the Spanish University of California Performance Skills Assessment (Sp-UPSA) and real-world functioning assessed by the Spanish Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) in outpatients with schizophrenia. Naturalistic, 6-month follow-up, multicentre, validation study. Here, we report data on 139 patients with schizophrenia at their baseline visit. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sp-UPSA and PSP. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationships between variables, and multivariable stepwise linear regression analyses to identify predictive variables of Sp-UPSA and PSP total scores. Functional capacity: scores on the PSP and PANSS-GP entered first and second at P<0.0001 and accounted for 21% of variance (R(2)=0.208, model df=2, F=15.724, P<0.0001). Real-world functioning: scores on the CGI-S (B=-5.406), PANSS-N (B=-0.657) and Sp-UPSA (B=0.230) entered first, second and third, and accounted for 51% of variance (model df=3, F=37.741, P<0.0001). In patients with schizophrenia, functional capacity and real-world functioning are two related but different constructs. Each one predicts the other along with other factors; general psychopathology for functional capacity, and severity of the illness and negative symptoms for real-world functioning. These findings have important clinical implications: (1) both types of functioning should be assessed in patients with schizophrenia and (2) strategies for improving them should be different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection and classification of postural transitions in real-world conditions.

    PubMed

    Ganea, Raluca; Paraschiv-lonescu, Anisoara; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-09-01

    This study proposes a new robust classifier for sit-to-stand (SiSt) and stand-to-sit (StSt) detection in daily activity. The monitoring system consists of a single inertial sensor placed on the trunk. By using dynamic time warping, the trunk acceleration patterns of SiSt and StSi are classified based on their similarity with specific templates. The classification algorithm is validated with actual data obtained in a real-world environment (five healthy subjects and five chronic pain patients); the best accuracy is obtained through using a custom template defined for each subject ( > 95% for healthy subjects and 89% for chronic pain). Real-world examinations are found to be preferable because after validating results collected in both real-world and laboratory conditions, the controlled conditions' predictions are too optimistic. Finally, the potential of the new method in clinical evaluation is studied in both healthy and frail elderly subjects. Frail elderly participants show a significantly lower rate of postural transitions, longer SiSt duration, and lower SiSt trunk tilt and acceleration compared to healthy elderly subjects. We conclude that the proposed wearable system provides a simple method to detect and characterize postural transitions in healthy, chronic pain, and frail elderly subjects.

  5. Undergraduate students' understanding of falling bodies in idealized and real-world situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyadi, M. Veronica; Butler, Philip H.

    2004-08-01

    This study investigates the understanding of 18 first-year undergraduate students when simultaneously presented with two contrasting dynamical situations: the idealized (without air resistance) and real-world cases of balls being dropped or thrown. Previous work has shown that getting students to recognize flaws in their mental models helps them develop their understanding. Our students were better able to answer correctly the problems in idealized cases than the problems in real-world cases. For the real-world cases, the students understood the impact of air resistance on the object's size better than the impact of air resistance on objects of the same size but different mass. In follow-up interviews, the students reported that using the two different situations in the same test did indeed encourage them to think more carefully. By recognizing the need to include air resistance, they activated their appropriate mental resources to deal with the situations. We conclude that using contrasting situations (i.e., with and without an idealization) is a useful teaching tool.

  6. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, Simon; Crawford, Laura; Munro, Neil

    2015-11-04

    New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Real-World Evidence (RWE) is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined. This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1) includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2) defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3) applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies. However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy.

  7. Real-world data in the United Kingdom: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Laura; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Wasiak, Radek; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2016-06-24

    Real-world data is that collected outside the constraints of controlled clinical trials and is increasingly informing decision-making in healthcare. The landscape of real-world data in the United Kingdom is set to evolve over the coming months as the government plans to build on databases currently in place by collecting patient data from all family practices and linking this information with hospital records. This initiative, called care.data, has the potential to be an invaluable resource. However, the programme has been criticized on grounds of data privacy, which has led to an extended delay in its implementation and the expectation that a large number of people will opt out. Opt-outs may introduce substantial biases to the dataset, and understanding how to account for these presents a significant challenge for researchers. For the scope and quality of real-world evidence in the United Kingdom to be realised, and for this information to be used effectively, it is essential to address this challenge.

  8. Assessing biomarkers in a real-world severe asthma study (ARIETTA).

    PubMed

    Buhl, Roland; Korn, Stephanie; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Aubier, Michel; Chapman, Kenneth R; Canonica, Giorgio W; Picado, César; Martin, Nicolas; Escobar, Ramon Aguiar; Korom, Stephan; Hanania, Nicola A

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic value of asthma biomarkers in routine clinical practice is not fully understood. ARIETTA (NCT02537691) is an ongoing, prospective, longitudinal, international, multicentre real-world study designed to assess the relationship between asthma biomarkers and disease-related health outcomes. The trial aims to enrol and follow for 52 weeks approximately 1200 severe asthma patients from approximately 160 sites in more than 20 countries. Severe asthmatics, treated with daily inhaled corticosteroid (≥500 μg of fluticasone propionate or equivalent) and at least 1 second controller medication are to be included. In this real-world study, patients will be treated according to the investigator's routine clinical practices and no treatment regimen will be implemented as part of the trial. At baseline and again at 26 and 52 weeks, FEV1, FeNO, serum periostin, blood eosinophil count and serum IgE will be measured. Asthma-related symptom and quality of life questionnaires will be administered at the visits and during telephone interviews at Weeks 13 and 39. Data about medication use, asthma exacerbation data, asthma-related healthcare utilization and events raising safety concerns will also be collected. This study design, unique in both its scope and scale, will address fundamental unanswered questions regarding asthma biomarkers and their interrelationship, as well as predict deviations in the course of asthma in a real-world setting. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual- and real-world operation of mobile robotic manipulators: integrated simulation, visualization, and control environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, ChuXin; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    1992-03-01

    This research is focused on enhancing the overall productivity of an integrated human-robot system. A simulation, animation, visualization, and interactive control (SAVIC) environment has been developed for the design and operation of an integrated robotic manipulator system. This unique system possesses the abilities for multisensor simulation, kinematics and locomotion animation, dynamic motion and manipulation animation, transformation between real and virtual modes within the same graphics system, ease in exchanging software modules and hardware devices between real and virtual world operations, and interfacing with a real robotic system. This paper describes a working system and illustrates the concepts by presenting the simulation, animation, and control methodologies for a unique mobile robot with articulated tracks, a manipulator, and sensory modules.

  10. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT: REAL-WORLD EVIDENCE FOR PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SUSTAINABILITY.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Pires de Lemos, Lívia Lovato; Godman, Brian; Bennie, Marion; Osorio-de-Castro, Cláudia Garcia Serpa; Alvares, Juliana; Heaney, Aine; Vassallo, Carlos Alberto; Wettermark, Björn; Benguria-Arrate, Gaizka; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Santos, Vania Cristina Canuto; Petramale, Clarice Alegre; Acurcio, Fransciso de Assis

    2017-01-01

    Health technology financing is often based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are often the same ones used for licensing. Because they are designed to show the best possible results, typically Phase III studies are conducted under ideal and highly controlled conditions. Consequently, it is not surprising that technologies do not always perform in real life in the same way as controlled conditions. Because financing (and price paid) decisions can be made with overestimated results, health authorities need to ask whether health systems achieve the results they expect when they choose to pay for a technology. The optimal way to answer this question is to assess the performance of financed technologies in real-world settings. Health technology performance assessment (HTpA) refers to the systematic evaluation of the properties, effects, and/or impact of a health intervention or health technology in the real world to provide information for investment/disinvestment decisions and clinical guideline updates. The objective is to describe the development and principal aspects of the Guideline for HTpA commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Our methods used include extensive literature review, refinement with experts across countries, and public consultation. A comprehensive guideline was developed, which has been adopted by the Brazilian government. We believe the guideline, with its particular focus on disinvestment, along with the creation of a specific program for HTpA, will allow the institutionalization and continuous improvement of the scientific methods to use real-world evidence to optimize available resources not only in Brazil but across countries.

  11. Learning sensor-based navigation of a real mobile robot in unknown worlds.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R; de Almeida, A T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of navigating an autonomous mobile robot in an unknown indoor environment. The parti-game multiresolution learning approach is applied for simultaneous and cooperative construction of a world model, and learning to navigate through an obstacle-free path from a starting position to a known goal region. The paper introduces a new approach, based on the application of the fuzzy ART neural architecture, for on-line map building from actual sensor data. This method is then integrated, as a complement, on the parti-game world model, allowing the system to make a more efficient use of collected sensor information. Then, a predictive on-line trajectory filtering method, is introduced in the learning approach. Instead of having a mechanical device moving to search the world, the idea is to have the system analyzing trajectories in a predictive mode, by taking advantage of the improved world model. The real robot will only move to try trajectories that have been predicted to be successful, allowing lower exploration costs. This results in an overall improved new method for goal-oriented navigation. It is assumed that the robot knows its own current world location-a simple dead-reckoning method is used for localization in our experiments. It is also assumed that the robot is able to perform sensor-based obstacle detection (not avoidance) and straight-line motions. Results of experiments with a real Nomad 200 mobile robot are presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of the discussed methods.

  12. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Christopher E.; Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Hayden, Sandra Claire; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the main propulsion system of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The application was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real-time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, these PITEX algorithms were subject to numerous real-world effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. The current research has demonstrated the potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined the performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  13. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100–150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life. PMID:27764167

  14. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment.

    PubMed

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100-150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life.

  15. Electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention in real-world driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haufe, Stefan; Kim, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Il-Hwa; Sonnleitner, Andreas; Schrauf, Michael; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The fact that all human action is preceded by brain processes partially observable through neuroimaging devices such as electroencephalography (EEG) is currently being explored in a number of applications. A recent study by Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001) demonstrates the possibility of performing fast detection of forced emergency brakings during driving based on EEG and electromyography, and discusses the use of such neurotechnology for braking assistance systems. Since the study was conducted in a driving simulator, its significance regarding real-world applicability needs to be assessed. Approach. Here, we replicate that experimental paradigm in a real car on a non-public test track. Main results. Our results resemble those of the simulator study, both qualitatively (in terms of the neurophysiological phenomena observed and utilized) and quantitatively (in terms of the predictive improvement achievable using electrophysiology in addition to behavioral measures). Moreover, our findings are robust with respect to a temporary secondary auditory task mimicking verbal input from a fellow passenger. Significance. Our study serves as a real-world verification of the feasibility of electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention as proposed in Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001).

  16. Efficiency of attack strategies on complex model and real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide; Vincenzi, Simone

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the efficiency of attack strategies to network nodes when targeting several complex model and real-world networks. We tested 5 attack strategies, 3 of which were introduced in this work for the first time, to attack 3 model networks (Erdos and Renyi, Barabasi and Albert preferential attachment network, and scale-free network configuration models) and 3 real networks (Gnutella peer-to-peer network, email network of the University of Rovira i Virgili, and immunoglobulin interaction network). Nodes were removed sequentially according to the importance criterion defined by the attack strategy, and we used the size of the largest connected component (LCC) as a measure of network damage. We found that the efficiency of attack strategies (fraction of nodes to be deleted for a given reduction of LCC size) depends on the topology of the network, although attacks based on either the number of connections of a node or betweenness centrality were often the most efficient strategies. Sequential deletion of nodes in decreasing order of betweenness centrality was the most efficient attack strategy when targeting real-world networks. The relative efficiency of attack strategies often changed during the sequential removal of nodes, especially for networks with power-law degree distribution.

  17. Deformed lattice detection in real-world images using mean-shift belief propagation.

    PubMed

    Park, Minwoo; Brocklehurst, Kyle; Collins, Robert T; Liu, Yanxi

    2009-10-01

    We propose a novel and robust computational framework for automatic detection of deformed 2D wallpaper patterns in real-world images. The theory of 2D crystallographic groups provides a sound and natural correspondence between the underlying lattice of a deformed wallpaper pattern and a degree-4 graphical model. We start the discovery process with unsupervised clustering of interest points and voting for consistent lattice unit proposals. The proposed lattice basis vectors and pattern element contribute to the pairwise compatibility and joint compatibility (observation model) functions in a Markov Random Field (MRF). Thus, we formulate the 2D lattice detection as a spatial, multitarget tracking problem, solved within an MRF framework using a novel and efficient Mean-Shift Belief Propagation (MSBP) method. Iterative detection and growth of the deformed lattice are interleaved with regularized thin-plate spline (TPS) warping, which rectifies the current deformed lattice into a regular one to ensure stability of the MRF model in the next round of lattice recovery. We provide quantitative comparisons of our proposed method with existing algorithms on a diverse set of 261 real-world photos to demonstrate significant advances in accuracy and speed over the state of the art in automatic discovery of regularity in real images.

  18. Effect on real-world depth perception from exposure to heads-down stereoscopic flight displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-09-01

    The application of stereopsis (true depth) cuing to advanced heads-down flight display concepts offers potential gains in pilot situation awareness and improved task performance, but little attention has been focused on a fundamental issue involving their use. The goal of this research was to determine whether or not the short-term use of heads-down stereoscopic displays in flight applications would degrade the real-world depth perception of pilots using such displays. Stereoacuity tests are traditionally used to measure the real-world depth perception of a subject. This study used such a test as part of the experimental protocol. Eight transport pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both non-stereo and stereo 3-D heads-down pathway-in-the-sky displays. At the decision height of each approach, the pilots transitioned to a stereoacuity test using real objects rather than a two-dimensional target test apparatus. Statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures (averaged over pilots and replicates), comparing a control condition of no-exposure to any electronic flight display with the transition data from non-stereo and stereopsis displays, revealed no significant differences for any of the conditions. Clearly, transitioning from short-term exposure to a heads-down stereopsis display has no more effect on realworld depth perception (based on stereoacuity) than transitioning from a non-stereo display. However, depth perception effects based on size and distance judgements, and long-term exposure remain issues to be investigated.

  19. Understanding Minds in Real-World Environments: Toward a Mobile Cognition Approach.

    PubMed

    Ladouce, Simon; Donaldson, David I; Dudchenko, Paul A; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that important aspects of human cognition have been marginalized, or overlooked, by traditional cognitive science. In particular, the use of laboratory-based experiments in which stimuli are artificial, and response options are fixed, inevitably results in findings that are less ecologically valid in relation to real-world behavior. In the present review we highlight the opportunities provided by a range of new mobile technologies that allow traditionally lab-bound measurements to now be collected during natural interactions with the world. We begin by outlining the theoretical support that mobile approaches receive from the development of embodied accounts of cognition, and we review the widening evidence that illustrates the importance of examining cognitive processes in their context. As we acknowledge, in practice, the development of mobile approaches brings with it fresh challenges, and will undoubtedly require innovation in paradigm design and analysis. If successful, however, the mobile cognition approach will offer novel insights in a range of areas, including understanding the cognitive processes underlying navigation through space and the role of attention during natural behavior. We argue that the development of real-world mobile cognition offers both increased ecological validity, and the opportunity to examine the interactions between perception, cognition and action-rather than examining each in isolation.

  20. Understanding Minds in Real-World Environments: Toward a Mobile Cognition Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ladouce, Simon; Donaldson, David I.; Dudchenko, Paul A.; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that important aspects of human cognition have been marginalized, or overlooked, by traditional cognitive science. In particular, the use of laboratory-based experiments in which stimuli are artificial, and response options are fixed, inevitably results in findings that are less ecologically valid in relation to real-world behavior. In the present review we highlight the opportunities provided by a range of new mobile technologies that allow traditionally lab-bound measurements to now be collected during natural interactions with the world. We begin by outlining the theoretical support that mobile approaches receive from the development of embodied accounts of cognition, and we review the widening evidence that illustrates the importance of examining cognitive processes in their context. As we acknowledge, in practice, the development of mobile approaches brings with it fresh challenges, and will undoubtedly require innovation in paradigm design and analysis. If successful, however, the mobile cognition approach will offer novel insights in a range of areas, including understanding the cognitive processes underlying navigation through space and the role of attention during natural behavior. We argue that the development of real-world mobile cognition offers both increased ecological validity, and the opportunity to examine the interactions between perception, cognition and action—rather than examining each in isolation. PMID:28127283

  1. Analysis of finite element models for head injury investigation: reconstruction of four real-world impacts.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Fildes, Brian; Zhang, Liying; Yang, King; Sparke, Laurie

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both excessive linear and rotational accelerations are the cause of head injuries. Although the head injury criterion has been beneficial as an indicator of head injury risk, it only considers linear acceleration, so there is a need to consider both types of motion in future safety standards. Advanced models of the head/brain complex have recently been developed to gain a better understanding of head injury biomechanics. While these models have been verified against laboratory experimental data, there is a lack of suitable real-world data available for validation. Hence, using two computer models of the head/brain, the objective of the current study was to reconstruct four real-world crashes with known head injury outcomes in a full-vehicle crash laboratory, simulate head/brain responses using kinematics obtained during these reconstructions, and to compare the results predicted by the models against the actual injuries sustained by the occupant. Cases where the occupant sustained no head injuries (AIS 0) and head injuries of severity AIS 4, AIS 5, and multiple head injuries were selected. Data collected from a 9-accelerometer skull were input into the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM) and the NHTSA Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon). The results demonstrated that both models were able to predict varying injury severities consistent with the difference in AIS injury levels in the real-world cases. The WSUHIM predicted a slightly higher injury threshold than the SIMon, probably due to the finer mesh and different software used for the simulations, and could also determine regions of the brain which had been injured. With further validation, finite element models can be used to establish an injury criterion for each type of brain injury in the future.

  2. Limited uptake of ulcerative colitis 'treat to target' recommendations in real-world practice.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Robert V; Costello, Samuel P; Schoeman, Scott; Sathananthan, Dharshan; Knight, Emma; Lau, Su-Yin; Schoeman, Mark N; Mountifield, Reme; Tee, Derrick; Travis, Simon P L; Andrews, Jane M

    2017-08-14

    A 'Treat to Target' (T2T) approach has been proposed for ulcerative colitis (UC), with a target of combined clinical and endoscopic remission. The aim of the study was evaluate the extent to which proposed targets are achieved in real-world care, along with clinician perceptions and potential challenges. A multicentre, retrospective, cross-sectional review of patients with UC attending outpatient services in South Australia was conducted. Clinical and objective assessment of disease activity (endoscopy, histology, and/or biomarkers) was recorded. A survey evaluated Gastroenterologists' perceptions of T2T in UC. Statistical analysis included logistic regression and Fisher's exact tests. Of 246 patients with UC, 61% were in clinical remission (normal bowel habit and no rectal bleeding), 35% in clinical and endoscopic remission (Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≤1), and 16% in concordant clinical, endoscopic and histological (Truelove and Richards' Index) remission. Rather than disease-related factors (extent/activity), clinician-related factors dominated outcome. Hospital location and the choice of therapy predicted combined clinical and endoscopic remission (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-8.7, p<0.001; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-12.5, p=0.04, respectively). Clinicians used C-reactive protein (CRP) more often than endoscopy as a biomarker for disease activity (75% vs. 47%, p<0.001). In the survey, 45/61 Gastroenterologists responded, with significant disparity between clinician estimates of targets achieved in practice and real-world data (p<0.001 for clinical and endoscopic remission). Most patients with UC do not achieve composite clinical and endoscopic remission in 'real-world' practice. Clinician uptake of proposed 'Treat to Target' guidelines is a challenge to their implementation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-11-17

    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  4. Projector placement planning for high quality visualizations on real-world colored objects.

    PubMed

    Law, Alvin J; Aliaga, Daniel G; Majumder, Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Many visualization applications benefit from displaying content on real-world objects rather than on a traditional display (e.g., a monitor). This type of visualization display is achieved by projecting precisely controlled illumination from multiple projectors onto the real-world colored objects. For such a task, the placement of the projectors is critical in assuring that the desired visualization is possible. Using ad hoc projector placement may cause some appearances to suffer from color shifting due to insufficient projector light radiance being exposed onto the physical surface. This leads to an incorrect appearance and ultimately to a false and potentially misleading visualization. In this paper, we present a framework to discover the optimal position and orientation of the projectors for such projection-based visualization displays. An optimal projector placement should be able to achieve the desired visualization with minimal projector light radiance. When determining optimal projector placement, object visibility, surface reflectance properties, and projector-surface distance and orientation need to be considered. We first formalize a theory for appearance editing image formation and construct a constrained linear system of equations that express when a desired novel appearance or visualization is possible given a geometric and surface reflectance model of the physical surface. Then, we show how to apply this constrained system in an adaptive search to efficiently discover the optimal projector placement which achieves the desired appearance. Constraints can be imposed on the maximum radiance allowed by the projectors and the projectors' placement to support specific goals of various visualization applications. We perform several real-world and simulated appearance edits and visualizations to demonstrate the improvement obtained by our discovered projector placement over ad hoc projector placement.

  5. Predicting Schizophrenia Patients’ Real World Behavior with Specific Neuropsychological and Functional Capacity Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Christopher R.; Leung, Winnie W.; Reichenberg, Abraham; McClure, Margaret M.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Harvey, Philip D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Significant neuropsychological (NP) and functional deficits are found in most schizophrenia patients. Previous studies have left question as to whether global NP impairment or discrete domains affect functional outcomes, and none have addressed distinctions within and between ability and performance domains. This study examined the different predictive relationships between NP domains, functional competence, social competence, symptoms, and real world behavior in domains of work skills, interpersonal relationships, and community activities. Methods 222 schizophrenic outpatients were tested with an NP battery and performance-based measures of functional and social competence and rated for positive, negative, and depressive symptoms. Case managers generated ratings of three functional disability domains. Results Four cognitive factors were derived from factor analysis. Path analyses revealed both direct and mediated effects of NP on real world outcomes. All NP domains predicted functional competence, but only processing speed and attention/working memory predicted social competence. Both competence measures mediated the effects of NP on community activities and work skills, but only social competence predicted interpersonal behaviors. The attention/working memory domain was directly related to work skills, executive functions had a direct effect on interpersonal behaviors and processing speed had direct effects on all three real world behaviors. Symptoms were directly related to outcomes, with fewer relationships with competence. Conclusions Differential predictors of functional competence and performance were found from discrete NP domains. Separating competence and performance provides a more precise perspective on correlates of disability. Changes in specific NP or functional skills might improve specific outcomes, rather than promoting global functional improvement. PMID:17662256

  6. The factorial survey: an experimental method to replicate real world problems.

    PubMed

    Ludwick, R; Zeller, R A

    2001-01-01

    Vignettes are used by nurse researchers use to determine how clinical judgments about patient care situations are made. However, when vignettes are designed there is often a restriction on the number of characteristics studied, which oversimplifies the richness and complexity of real world healthcare situations. The purpose of this article is to describe a factorial survey. Its multilevel design of independent variables allows for real world complexity in a way not tested by a sample set of four to six identical vignettes. Nurses' judgments about patients' confusion and the application of restraints are used to illustrate the method. The factorial survey is an experimental design that can be developed in three steps: (a) identifying and using the variables, (b) writing a coherent vignette, and (c) randomly generating the vignettes. The unit of analysis is the vignette and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression is used for analyses. In the example provided on confusion recognition and restraint use, patient characteristics accounted for the majority of explained variance in confusion recognition of (40%, R2 = 0.40) and restraint intervention for (43%, R2 = 0.43). The results for both models were strikingly similar as the same patient characteristics all were significant predictors for confusion recognition and restraint use. The versatility of the factorial survey lies in the researcher's ability to use it to test judgments in a variety of complex clinical simulations, to aid in concept development, and to identify consensus and disagreement among nurses. The multilevel design of the independent variables allows for real world complexity in a way not tested by a sample set of four to six identical vignettes.

  7. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Adèle; Bhoopathy, Raja Meenakshi; Read, Jenny C A; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V

    2015-01-01

    Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance) and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems. In this study, we test the performance of young people (18-25 years) and older people (60+-year-olds) on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW) memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any WWW combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task. These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies.

  8. Validation of the unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment score: comparison with real-world cerebrovascular practice.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; de Havenon, Adam; Gooldy, Timothy C; Scoville, Jonathan; Guan, Jian; Couldwell, William T; Taussky, Philipp; MacDonald, Joel D; Schmidt, Richard H; Park, Min S

    2017-10-06

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment score (UIATS) recommendations with the real-world experience in a quaternary academic medical center with a high volume of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). METHODS All patients with UIAs evaluated during a 3-year period were included. All factors included in the UIATS were abstracted, and patients were scored using the UIATS. Patients were categorized in a contingency table assessing UIATS recommendation versus real-world treatment decision. The authors calculated the percentage of misclassification, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS A total of 221 consecutive patients with UIAs met the inclusion criteria: 69 (31%) patients underwent treatment and 152 (69%) did not. Fifty-nine (27%) patients had a UIATS between -2 and 2, which does not offer a treatment recommendation, leaving 162 (73%) patients with a UIATS treatment recommendation. The UIATS was significantly associated with treatment (p < 0.001); however, the sensitivity, specificity, and percentage of misclassification were 49%, 80%, and 28%, respectively. Notably, 51% of patients for whom treatment would be recommended by the UIATS did not undergo treatment in the real-world cohort and 20% of patients for whom conservative management would be recommended by UIATS had intervention. The area under the ROC curve was 0.646. CONCLUSIONS Compared with the authors' experience, the UIATS recommended overtreatment of UIAs. Although the UIATS could be used as a screening tool, individualized treatment recommendations based on consultation with a cerebrovascular specialist are necessary. Further validation with longitudinal data on rupture rates of UIAs is needed before widespread use.

  9. Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world?

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Lebrecht, Sophie; Tanaka, James W.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or “ALPS” and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words—similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes. PMID:24046756

  10. An Accelerometry-Based Methodology for Assessment of Real-World Bilateral Upper Extremity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of both upper extremities (UE) is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry. Methods Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing) while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated. Results The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02), and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01) across tasks. Conclusions These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments. PMID:25068258

  11. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Adèle; Bhoopathy, Raja Meenakshi; Read, Jenny C. A.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance) and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems. In this study, we test the performance of young people (18–25 years) and older people (60+-year-olds) on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW) memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any WWW combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task. These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies. PMID:26042030

  12. Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon Morales, Ruben Dario; Hirata, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF) input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE) and motor command error (ME); however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world. Here, we conducted a comparison of different types of CF teaching signals in real-world engineering applications by using a realistic neuronal network model of the cerebellum. We employed a direct current motor (simple task) and a two-wheeled balancing robot (difficult task). We demonstrate that SE, ME or a linear combination of the two is sufficient to yield comparable performance in a simple task. When the task is more difficult, although SE slightly outperformed ME, these types of error information are all able to adequately control the robot. We categorize granular cells according to their inputs and the error signal revealing that different granule cells are preferably engaged for SE, ME or their combination. Thus, unlike previous theoretical and simulation studies that support either SE or ME, it is demonstrated for the first time in a real-world engineering application that both SE and ME are adequate as the CF teaching signal in a realistic computational cerebellar model, even when the control task is as difficult as stabilizing a two-wheeled balancing robot. PMID:27999381

  13. Two Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Semantic Integration during the Comprehension of Visual Real-world Events

    PubMed Central

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kiyonaga, Kristi A.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2009-01-01

    How do comprehenders build up overall meaning representations of visual real-world events? This question was examined by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants viewed short, silent movie clips depicting everyday events. In two experiments, it was demonstrated that presentation of the contextually inappropriate information in the movie endings evoked an anterior negativity. This effect was similar to the N400 component whose amplitude has been previously reported to inversely correlate with the strength of semantic relationship between the context and the eliciting stimulus in word and static picture paradigms. However, a second, somewhat later, ERP component—a posterior late positivity—was evoked specifically when target objects presented in the movie endings violated goal-related requirements of the action constrained by the scenario context (e.g., an electric iron that does not have a sharp-enough edge was used in place of a knife in a cutting bread scenario context). These findings suggest that comprehension of the visual real world might be mediated by two neurophysiologically distinct semantic integration mechanisms. The first mechanism, reflected by the anterior N400-like negativity, maps the incoming information onto the connections of various strengths between concepts in semantic memory. The second mechanism, reflected by the posterior late positivity, evaluates the incoming information against the discrete requirements of real-world actions. We suggest that there may be a tradeoff between these mechanisms in their utility for integrating across people, objects, and actions during event comprehension, in which the first mechanism is better suited for familiar situations, and the second mechanism is better suited for novel situations. PMID:18416681

  14. Toward an Experimental Timing Standards Lab: benchmarking precision in the real world.

    PubMed

    Plant, Richard R; Hammond, Nick; Whitehouse, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Much discussion has taken place over the relative merits of various platforms and operating systems for real-time data collection. Most would agree that, provided great care is taken, many are capable of millisecond timing precision. However, to date, much of this work has focused on the theoretical aspects of raw performance. It is our belief that researchers would be better informed if they could place confidence limits on their own specific paradigms in situ and without modification. To this end, we have developed a millisecond precision test rig that can control and time experiments on a second presentation machine. In this paper, we report on the specialist hardware and software used. We elucidate the importance of the approach in relation to real-world experimentation.

  15. All You Can Eat or Breaking a Real-World Contactless Payment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Timo; Silbermann, Michael; Paar, Christof

    We investigated a real-world contactless payment application based on mifare Classic cards. In order to analyze the security of the payment system, we combined previous cryptanalytical results and implemented an improved card-only attack with customized low-cost tools, that is to our knowledge the most efficient practical attack to date. We found several flaws implying severe security vulnerabilities on the system level that allow for devastating attacks including identity theft and recharging the amount of money on the cards. We practically verify and demonstrate the attacks on the commercial system.

  16. Real-world use of drug-eluting stents: the importance of registries.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Expedito E; Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decades the efficacy and safety of bare metal (BMS) and drug eluting stents (DES) have been demonstrated in many different clinical scenarios, leading to their use in more than 75% of the procedures worldwide. Compared to BMS, DES have shown lower rates of angiographic restenosis and target-vessel revascularization. This benefit was initially demonstrated in trials that excluded patients with more complex lesions, such as those with larger or smaller vessels, chronic total occlusions, bifurcation lesions, stent restenosis, long lesions and left main coronary artery disease. This real-world population has been recently evaluated in many registries and meta-analyses that are reviewed herein.

  17. Accessing numeric data via flags and tags: A final report on a real world experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Freeman, J. E.; Staskin, E. R.; Hargrave, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment is reported which: extended the concepts of data flagging and tagging to the aerospace scientific and technical literature; generated experience with the assignment of data summaries and data terms by documentation specialists; and obtained real world assessments of data summaries and data terms in information products and services. Inclusion of data summaries and data terms improved users' understanding of referenced documents from a subject perspective as well as from a data perspective; furthermore, a radical shift in document ordering behavior occurred during the experiment toward proportionately more requests for data-summarized items.

  18. Programming and Tuning a Quantum Annealing Device to Solve Real World Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Solving real-world applications with quantum algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language to tuning parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on the performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. Although we will focus on applications of interest to NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the methods and concepts presented here apply to a broader family of hard discrete optimization problems, including those that occur in many machine-learning algorithms.

  19. Vehicle-based studies of driving in the real world: the hard truth?

    PubMed

    Carsten, Oliver; Kircher, Katja; Jamson, Samantha

    2013-09-01

    Real-world studies of driving behaviour and safety have face validity and have the distinct advantage of focussing on driving in its natural habitat. But their very naturalism can lead to problems with confounds and with noise in the data. This paper reviews the three major categories of on-road studies - controlled observation, field operational tests and naturalistic driving studies - and discusses the major applications of each study type. It also assesses some of the methodological issues that arise in one or more category of study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction of a shared system-based real-world clinical research system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huikun; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Fan; Xie, Dan; Li, Hui; Huang, Jingjing; Guo, Mingxing

    2014-09-01

    Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine established research outpatient clinics to contribute to the major disease-entity research conducted by the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Research Base and to the construction of the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment and Clinical Research Information Sharing System. With a view of developing a "real-world traditional Chinese medicine clinical research paradigm," these clinics explored the mode of constructing research outpatient clinics from the aspects of clinical research, health management, and characteristics diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Trajectories of Combined Laboratory- and Real World-Based Speed of Processing in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To characterize the trajectories of laboratory- and real world-based speed of processing (SOP) over 5 years using finite latent growth mixture modeling, and to explore associated baseline individual-level predictors and functional outcomes in 2,802 community-dwelling older adults from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly cohort. Method. Laboratory- and real world-based SOP and functional outcomes were assessed over 5 years, and candidate individual-level predictors were collected at baseline. Results. After controlling for intervention assignment and demographic information, 4 distinct trajectories were identified: 4.6% of older adults had poor laboratory-based SOP and very poor real world-based SOP that both declined substantially over time; 17.9% had poor laboratory- and real world-based SOP that declined moderately; 38.7% had neutral laboratory- and real world-based SOP that maintained stable; and 37.9% had good laboratory- and real world-based SOP that declined slightly. Non-White, depression, subjective memory complaints, and vascular factors predicted the trajectories. The trajectories significantly differed in the rate of decline in basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and grip strength over time. Discussion. Heterogeneous trajectories of SOP exist in old age. Future interventions addressing SOP should target the vulnerable group with poor SOP over time. PMID:22967505

  2. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials.

  3. Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Treatment for Real-World HCV Genotype 1-Infected Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. All-oral combination of direct-acting antivirals could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the dual oral treatment with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) plus HCV NS3/4A inhibitor asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks in real-world HCV genotype 1-infected Japanese individuals. Methods. After screening for HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) by PCR invader assay, a total of 54 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with DCV plus ASV were retrospectively analyzed. SVR12 was used for evaluation of the virologic response. Results. Of the total 54 patients, 46 patients (85.2%) were treated with DCV plus ASV for 24 weeks and achieved SVR12. The other 8 patients (14.8%) discontinued this treatment before 24 weeks due to adverse events. Of these 8 patients, 5 and 3 patients did and did not achieve SVR12, respectively. Finally, 51 of 54 (94.4%) patients achieved SVR12. Conclusion. Treatment with DCV and ASV after screening for HCV NS5A RAVs by PCR invader assay is effective and safe in the treatment of real-world HCV genotype 1-infected patients in Japan. PMID:27279790

  4. Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Treatment for Real-World HCV Genotype 1-Infected Patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. All-oral combination of direct-acting antivirals could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the dual oral treatment with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) plus HCV NS3/4A inhibitor asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks in real-world HCV genotype 1-infected Japanese individuals. Methods. After screening for HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) by PCR invader assay, a total of 54 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with DCV plus ASV were retrospectively analyzed. SVR12 was used for evaluation of the virologic response. Results. Of the total 54 patients, 46 patients (85.2%) were treated with DCV plus ASV for 24 weeks and achieved SVR12. The other 8 patients (14.8%) discontinued this treatment before 24 weeks due to adverse events. Of these 8 patients, 5 and 3 patients did and did not achieve SVR12, respectively. Finally, 51 of 54 (94.4%) patients achieved SVR12. Conclusion. Treatment with DCV and ASV after screening for HCV NS5A RAVs by PCR invader assay is effective and safe in the treatment of real-world HCV genotype 1-infected patients in Japan.

  5. Allergic rhinitis: the eligible candidate to mite immunotherapy in the real world.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Natoli, Valentina; Puccinelli, Paola; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2017-01-01

    As standard drug treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) is not completely satisfactory, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) represents the only current treatment with the potential to modify the natural history. House dust mite (HDM) allergy is very common. The aim of the current experience was to describe the clinical profile of HDM-allergic patients with AR who received AIT in a real world model, such as allergy clinics. Globally, 239 patients (126 adults and 113 children; 107 females and 132 males; mean age 21 years, age range 6-56 years) were evaluated. AIT was prescribed in 59 patients (24.7%), 44 adults (35%) and 15 children (13.3%). The current findings deriving from this real world multicentre study are consistent with previous investigations on HDM-AIT and define some clinical characteristics of the eligible candidate to this treatment. In fact, severity of ocular-nasal symptoms and over-use of symptomatic medications may typify the ideal candidate to HDM-AIT and SLIT was the preferred choice.

  6. Optimizing the leveraging of real-world data to improve the development and use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Berger, Marc L; Lipset, Craig; Gutteridge, Alex; Axelsen, Kirsten; Subedi, Prasun; Madigan, David

    2015-01-01

    Health research, including health outcomes and comparative effectiveness research, is on the cusp of a golden era of access to digitized real-world data, catalyzed by the adoption of electronic health records and the integration of clinical and biological information with other data. This era promises more robust insights into what works in health care. Several barriers, however, will need to be addressed if the full potential of these new data are fully realized; these will involve both policy solutions and stakeholder cooperation. Although a number of these issues have been widely discussed, we focus on the one we believe is the most important-the facilitation of greater openness among public and private stakeholders to collaboration, connecting information and data sharing, with the goal of making robust and complete data accessible to all researchers. In this way, we can better understand the consequences of health care delivery, improve the effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems, and develop advancements in health technologies. Early real-world data initiatives illustrate both potential and the need for future progress, as well as the essential role of collaboration and data sharing. Health policies critical to progress will include those that promote open source data standards, expand access to the data, increase data capture and connectivity, and facilitate communication of findings. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  8. Haptograph Representation of Real-World Haptic Information by Wideband Force Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Irie, Kouhei; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Artificial acquisition and reproduction of human sensations are basic technologies of communication engineering. For example, auditory information is obtained by a microphone, and a speaker reproduces it by artificial means. Furthermore, a video camera and a television make it possible to transmit visual sensation by broadcasting. On the contrary, since tactile or haptic information is subject to the Newton's “law of action and reaction” in the real world, a device which acquires, transmits, and reproduces the information has not been established. From the point of view, real-world haptics is the key technology for future haptic communication engineering. This paper proposes a novel acquisition method of haptic information named “haptograph”. The haptograph visualizes the haptic information like photograph. The proposed haptograph is applied to haptic recognition of the contact environment. A linear motor contacts to the surface of the environment and its reaction force is used to make a haptograph. A robust contact motion and sensor-less sensing of the reaction force are attained by using a disturbance observer. As a result, an encyclopedia of contact environment is attained. Since temporal and spatial analyses are conducted to represent haptic information as the haptograph, it is possible to be recognized and to be evaluated intuitively.

  9. The attraction of visual attention to texts in real-world scenes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2012-06-19

    When we look at real-world scenes, attention seems disproportionately attracted by texts that are embedded in these scenes, for instance, on signs or billboards. The present study was aimed at verifying the existence of this bias and investigating its underlying factors. For this purpose, data from a previous experiment were reanalyzed and four new experiments measuring eye movements during the viewing of real-world scenes were conducted. By pairing text objects with matching control objects and regions, the following main results were obtained: (a) Greater fixation probability and shorter minimum fixation distance of texts confirmed the higher attractiveness of texts; (b) the locations where texts are typically placed contribute partially to this effect; (c) specific visual features of texts, rather than typically salient features (e.g., color, orientation, and contrast), are the main attractors of attention; (d) the meaningfulness of texts does not add to their attentional capture; and (e) the attraction of attention depends to some extent on the observer's familiarity with the writing system and language of a given text.

  10. Providing Geospatial Education and Real World Applications of Data across the Climate Initiative Themes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.

    2015-12-01

    Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.

  11. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  12. Using Facial Symmetry to Handle Pose Variations in Real-World 3D Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Passalis, Georgios; Perakis, Panagiotis; Theoharis, Theoharis; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2011-10-01

    The uncontrolled conditions of real-world biometric applications pose a great challenge to any face recognition approach. The unconstrained acquisition of data from uncooperative subjects may result in facial scans with significant pose variations along the yaw axis. Such pose variations can cause extensive occlusions, resulting in missing data. In this paper, a novel 3D face recognition method is proposed that uses facial symmetry to handle pose variations. It employs an automatic landmark detector that estimates pose and detects occluded areas for each facial scan. Subsequently, an Annotated Face Model is registered and fitted to the scan. During fitting, facial symmetry is used to overcome the challenges of missing data. The result is a pose invariant geometry image. Unlike existing methods that require frontal scans, the proposed method performs comparisons among interpose scans using a wavelet-based biometric signature. It is suitable for real-world applications as it only requires half of the face to be visible to the sensor. The proposed method was evaluated using databases from the University of Notre Dame and the University of Houston that, to the best of our knowledge, include the most challenging pose variations publicly available. The average rank-one recognition rate of the proposed method in these databases was 83.7 percent.

  13. Familiar Real-World Spatial Cues Provide Memory Benefits in Older and Younger Adults.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-02-23

    Episodic memory, future thinking, and memory for scenes have all been proposed to rely on the hippocampus, and evidence suggests that these all decline in healthy aging. Despite this age-related memory decline, studies examining the effects of context reinstatement on episodic memory have demonstrated that reinstating elements of the encoding context of an event leads to better memory retrieval in both younger and older adults. The current study was designed to test whether more familiar, real-world contexts, such as locations that participants visited often, would improve the detail richness and vividness of memory for scenes, autobiographical events, and imagination of future events in young and older adults. The predicted age-related decline in internal details across all 3 conditions was accompanied by persistent effects of contextual familiarity, in which a more familiar spatial context led to increased detail and vividness of remembered scenes, autobiographical events, and, to some extent, imagined future events. This study demonstrates that autobiographical memory, imagination of the future, and scene memory are similarly affected by aging, and all benefit from being associated with more familiar (real-world) contexts, illustrating the stability of contextual reinstatement effects on memory throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Comparison of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive Drive-Cycles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to understand as quickly as possible how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty cycles. These tests may include factors such as duty cycles, climate, battery power profiles, and battery stress statistics. Such tests are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys. Vehicles examined included PHEV10 and PHEV40 EDVs under fixed (28 degrees C), limited cooling (forced ambient temperature), and aggressive cooling (20 degrees C chilled liquid) scenarios using either nightly charging or opportunity charging. The results show that battery life expectancy is 7.8 - 13.2 years for the PHEV10 using a nightly charge in Phoenix, AZ (hot climate), and that the 'aggressive' cooling scenario can extend battery life by 1-3 years, while the 'limited' cooling scenario shortens battery life by 1-2 years. Frequent (opportunity) charging can reduce battery life by 1 year for the PHEV10, while frequent charging can extend battery life by one-half year.

  15. Modes of Interaction between Individuals Dominate the Topologies of Real World Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Insuk; Kim, Eiru; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We find that the topologies of real world networks, such as those formed within human societies, by the Internet, or among cellular proteins, are dominated by the mode of the interactions considered among the individuals. Specifically, a major dichotomy in previously studied networks arises from modeling networks in terms of pairwise versus group tasks. The former often intrinsically give rise to scale-free, disassortative, hierarchical networks, whereas the latter often give rise to single- or broad-scale, assortative, nonhierarchical networks. These dependencies explain contrasting observations among previous topological analyses of real world complex systems. We also observe this trend in systems with natural hierarchies, in which alternate representations of the same networks, but which capture different levels of the hierarchy, manifest these signature topological differences. For example, in both the Internet and cellular proteomes, networks of lower-level system components (routers within domains or proteins within biological processes) are assortative and nonhierarchical, whereas networks of upper-level system components (internet domains or biological processes) are disassortative and hierarchical. Our results demonstrate that network topologies of complex systems must be interpreted in light of their hierarchical natures and interaction types. PMID:25793969

  16. Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Pinti, Paola; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Lind, Frida; Power, Sarah; Swingler, Elizabeth; Merla, Arcangelo; Hamilton, Antonia; Gilbert, Sam; Burgess, Paul; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light to monitor brain activity. Based on neurovascular coupling, fNIRS is able to measure the haemoglobin concentration changes secondary to neuronal activity. Compared to other neuroimaging techniques, fNIRS represents a good compromise in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, it is portable, lightweight, less sensitive to motion artifacts and does not impose significant physical restraints. It is therefore appropriate to monitor a wide range of cognitive tasks (e.g., auditory, gait analysis, social interaction) and different age populations (e.g., new-borns, adults, elderly people). The recent development of fiberless fNIRS devices has opened the way to new applications in neuroscience research. This represents a unique opportunity to study functional activity during real-world tests, which can be more sensitive and accurate in assessing cognitive function and dysfunction than lab-based tests. This study explored the use of fiberless fNIRS to monitor brain activity during a real-world prospective memory task. This protocol is performed outside the lab and brain haemoglobin concentration changes are continuously measured over the prefrontal cortex while the subject walks around in order to accomplish several different tasks. PMID:26651025

  17. The Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Contributes to Forming Effective Solutions to Real-world Problems.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sarah L; Fellows, Lesley K; Sheldon, Signy

    2017-06-01

    Although the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) has been implicated in several complex cognitive tasks such as decision-making and problem solving, the processes for which this region is critical remain unclear. Laboratory studies have largely focused on how the VMF contributes to decision-making when outcomes or options are provided, but in the real world generating appropriate options is likely a crucial and rate-limiting initial step. Here, we determined how VMF damage affected the option generation phase of naturalistic problem solving. A group of patients with VMF damage and two controls groups-age-matched healthy participants and patients with frontal damage sparing VMF-were asked to generate as many options as possible to five scenarios depicting open-ended, real-world problems (e.g., having lunch at a restaurant and forgetting your wallet at home). Both the number of options and the effectiveness of each option generated were examined. Damage to VMF led to a significant reduction in both the number of options produced across all problem-solving scenarios and the ability to generate effective options, most notably for scenarios that were social in nature. We discuss these findings in terms of the mechanisms by which the VMF may contribute to option generation, focusing on proposals suggesting this region is important for integrating subjective value and retrieving schematic representations.

  18. Mismatch negativity impairment is associated with deficits in identifying real-world environmental sounds in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Yash B; Breitenstein, Barbara; Tarasenko, Melissa; Thomas, Michael L; Chang, Wei-Li; Sprock, Joyce; Sharp, Richard F; Light, Gregory A

    2017-09-15

    Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have impairments in processing auditory information that have been linked to deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Dysfunction in auditory sensory processing in SZ has been indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential evoked by a rare, deviant stimulus embedded within a sequence of identical standard stimuli. Although MMN deficits in SZ have been studied extensively, relatively little is known about how these deficits relate to accurately identifying real-world, ecologically-salient sounds. MMN was assessed in SZ patients (n=21) and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (NCS; n=16). Participants were also assessed in their ability to identify common environmental sounds using a subset of 80 sound clips from the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Ed collection. SZ patients made significantly more errors in environmental sound identification (p<0.001, d=0.86) and showed significantly reduced MMN amplitude deficits in MMN compared to NCS (p<0.01, d=0.97). In SZ patients, MMN deficits were associated with significantly greater environmental sound identification errors (r=0.61, p<0.01). Impairments in early auditory information processing in schizophrenia account for significant proportions of variance in the ability to identify real-world, functionally relevant environmental sounds. This study supports the view that interventions targeting deficits in low-level auditory sensory processing may also impact more complex cognitive brain processes relevant to psychosocial disability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Resource Heterogeneity Moderates the Biodiversity-Function Relationship in Real World Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Kahmen, Ansgar; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Buchmann, Nina; Perner, Jörg; Tscharntke, Teja

    2008-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have tested the effects of plant, pollinator, and predator diversity on primary productivity, pollination, and consumption, respectively. Many have shown a positive relationship, particularly in controlled experiments, but variability in results has emphasized the context-dependency of these relationships. Complementary resource use may lead to a positive relationship between diversity and these processes, but only when a diverse array of niches is available to be partitioned among species. Therefore, the slope of the diversity-function relationship may change across differing levels of heterogeneity, but empirical evaluations of this pattern are lacking. Here we examine three important functions/properties in different real world (i.e., nonexperimental) ecosystems: plant biomass in German grasslands, parasitism rates across five habitat types in coastal Ecuador, and coffee pollination in agroforestry systems in Indonesia. We use general linear and structural equation modeling to demonstrate that the effect of diversity on these processes is context dependent, such that the slope of this relationship increases in environments where limiting resources (soil nutrients, host insects, and coffee flowers, respectively) are spatially heterogeneous. These real world patterns, combined with previous experiments, suggest that biodiversity may have its greatest impact on the functioning of diverse, naturally heterogeneous ecosystems.

  20. Multistep greedy algorithm identifies community structure in real-world and computer-generated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2008-08-01

    We have recently introduced a multistep extension of the greedy algorithm for modularity optimization. The extension is based on the idea that merging l pairs of communities (l>1) at each iteration prevents premature condensation into few large communities. Here, an empirical formula is presented for the choice of the step width l that generates partitions with (close to) optimal modularity for 17 real-world and 1100 computer-generated networks. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the communities of two real-world networks (the metabolic network of the bacterium E. coli and the graph of coappearing words in the titles of papers coauthored by Martin Karplus) provides evidence that the partition obtained by the multistep greedy algorithm is superior to the one generated by the original greedy algorithm not only with respect to modularity, but also according to objective criteria. In other words, the multistep extension of the greedy algorithm reduces the danger of getting trapped in local optima of modularity and generates more reasonable partitions.

  1. Combining bosentan and sildenafil in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients failing monotherapy: real-world insights.

    PubMed

    Dardi, Fabio; Manes, Alessandra; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Bachetti, Cristina; Mazzanti, Gaia; Rinaldi, Andrea; Albini, Alessandra; Gotti, Enrico; Monti, Enrico; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe disease with a complex pathogenesis, for which combination therapy is an attractive option.This study aimed to assess the impact of sequential combination therapy on both short-term responses and long-term outcomes in a real-world setting.Patients with idiopathic/heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, or pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease or connective tissue disease and who were not meeting treatment goals on either first-line bosentan or sildenafil monotherapy, were given additional sildenafil or bosentan and assessed after 3-4 months. Double combination therapy significantly improved clinical and haemodynamic parameters, independent of aetiology or the order of drug administration. Significant improvements in functional class were observed in patients with idiopathic/heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival estimates were 91%, 69% and 59%, respectively. Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease had significantly poorer survival rates compared to other aetiologies (p<0.003).The favourable short-term haemodynamic results and good survival rates, observed in patients receiving both bosentan and sildenafil, supports the use of sequential combination therapy in patients failing on monotherapy in a real-world setting.

  2. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars' Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo's statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts.

  3. Getting patients to the right healthcare sources: from real-world questions to strategy hubs.

    PubMed

    Bhavnani, Suresh K; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Schwartz, Jennifer L; Strecher, Victor J; Dunn, Rodney L; Johnson, Timothy M; Lu, Xiabo

    2002-01-01

    To address the growing problem of novices accessing incomplete and unreliable information on the Web, this paper begins by probing the nature of strategic knowledge known by expert healthcare searchers. The analysis reveals the existence of a strategy that is focused to a specific type of healthcare question. To investigate whether there exist other similar strategies, we conduct two pilot studies. The first leads to the development of a taxonomy for skin cancer questions based on real-world questions. This taxonomy has high inter-rater agreement when tested with new real-world questions. The second pilot helps to identify 6 strategies that are specific to question types in the taxonomy. We demonstrate how these strategies can be made available to a wide range of users through a prototypical system referred to as a Strategy Portal. In conclusion, we briefly describe our current and future research to test if such a system can make patients more effective and efficient in the retrieval of reliable and relevant healthcare information on the Web.

  4. Impaired behavior on real-world tasks following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Hathaway-Nepple, Julie; Anderson, Steven W

    2007-04-01

    Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortices (VMPC) commonly manifest blatant behavioral navigation defects in the real world, but it has been difficult to measure these impairments in the clinic or laboratory. Using a set of "strategy application" tasks, which were designed by Shallice and Burgess (1991) to be ecologically valid for detecting executive dysfunction, we investigated the hypothesis that VMPC damage would be associated with defective performance on such tasks, whereas damage outside the VMPC region would not. A group of 9 patients with bilateral VMPC damage was contrasted with comparison groups of participants with (a) prefrontal brain damage outside the VMPC region (n = 8); (b) nonprefrontal brain damage (n = 17); and (c) no brain damage (n = 20). We found support for the hypothesis: VMPC patients had more impaired performances on the strategy application tasks, especially on a Multiple Errands Test that required patients to execute a series of unstructured tasks in a real-world setting (shopping mall). The results are consistent with the notion that efficacious behavioral navigation is dependent on the VMPC region. However, the strategy application tasks were relatively time consuming and effortful, and their diagnostic yield over and above conventional executive functioning tests may not be sufficient to warrant their inclusion in standard clinical assessment.

  5. Modes of interaction between individuals dominate the topologies of real world networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Insuk; Kim, Eiru; Marcotte, Edward M

    2015-01-01

    We find that the topologies of real world networks, such as those formed within human societies, by the Internet, or among cellular proteins, are dominated by the mode of the interactions considered among the individuals. Specifically, a major dichotomy in previously studied networks arises from modeling networks in terms of pairwise versus group tasks. The former often intrinsically give rise to scale-free, disassortative, hierarchical networks, whereas the latter often give rise to single- or broad-scale, assortative, nonhierarchical networks. These dependencies explain contrasting observations among previous topological analyses of real world complex systems. We also observe this trend in systems with natural hierarchies, in which alternate representations of the same networks, but which capture different levels of the hierarchy, manifest these signature topological differences. For example, in both the Internet and cellular proteomes, networks of lower-level system components (routers within domains or proteins within biological processes) are assortative and nonhierarchical, whereas networks of upper-level system components (internet domains or biological processes) are disassortative and hierarchical. Our results demonstrate that network topologies of complex systems must be interpreted in light of their hierarchical natures and interaction types.

  6. Respiratory drugs and macrolides prevent asthma exacerbations: A real-world investigation.

    PubMed

    Arfè, Andrea; Blasi, Francesco; Merlino, Luca; Corrao, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the real-world effectiveness of several drugs (including short- and long-acting beta-agonists [SABAs and LABAs], inhaled corticosteroids [ICS], and antibiotics) in preventing severe asthma exacerbations by carrying-out a large observational study based on the healthcare utilization databases of the Italian Lombardy Region. We identified all patients aged 6-40 years who performed an Emergency Department visit for asthma during 2010-2012 as cases. To address bias due to unmeasured confounders, we implemented a case-crossover (CC) design. Addressing other specific sources of systematic errors (e.g. protopathic bias) was of particular concern in this study. A total of 7300 cases were included in the study. The CC odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for current vs. past use were 0.81 (0.71, 0.92) for SABAs, 0.83 (0.72, 0.96) for ICS, 0.78 (0.66, 0.91) for LABA/ICS fixed combinations, 0.79 (0.65, 0.97) for other respiratory drugs, and 0.79 (0.69, 0.92) for macrolides antibiotics. Sensitivity analyses showed that our results were robust with respect to several sources of bias. Our study provides evidence from the real-world clinical practice on the effectiveness of several respiratory drugs and macrolides in reducing the risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Design and Early Experience With a Real-World Surgical Registry.

    PubMed

    Weber LeBrun, Emily E; Lynch, Lauren D; Peterson, Hanna V; Pena, Savannah Rose; Ruder, Kara; Vasilopoulos, Terrie

    2017-07-10

    We describe the rationale, design, and methods and 6-year experience with a real-world surgical registry for female pelvic reconstructive and incontinence procedures and postoperative outcomes. The primary goal of creating this registry was to establish the feasibility of prospective data capture for all urogynecologic procedures. Data captured included baseline demographics, surgical procedures, perioperative complications, and subjective and objective findings up to 36 months after surgery. The Pelvic Reconstruction and Incontinence Surgery ± Mesh Registry was developed over 3 years to include 194 unique variables for prospective data capture. The registry was implemented in December 2010, and data from 924 separate case events from a single surgeon were recorded, comprising 100% surgical case capture. Cases included a variety of procedures representing a comprehensive urogynecology practice on 804 unique patients. Patients who were asked to participate in long-term follow-up (n = 299) returned with attendance of 96% at 6 weeks, 64% at 6 months, 51% at 12 months, 39% at 24 months, and 22% at 36 months. The Pelvic Reconstruction and Incontinence Surgery ± Mesh Registry effectively captured all urogynecologic procedures for the purpose of quality improvement. This real-world tool demonstrates that 100% case capture is feasible and provides valuable information for the highly motivated surgeon, although adequate long-term follow-up is limited. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of surgical registries for quality improvement and development of patient-centered strategies to increase long-term follow-up.

  8. [Registration of 30 026 cases of Shenqi Fuzheng injection combined with other drugs in real world].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Ai, Qing-Hua; Feng, Qian

    2016-12-01

    Prospective, multi-center, large-sample and registered design was used to analyze the drug combination features of Shenqi Fuzheng injection in the real world clinical application, and comprehend the drug combination in the real world. A total of 30 026 patients with the use of Shenqi Fuzheng injection were registered, where the chemical drugs were used for 57 436 times (accounting for 82.76%), and the Chinese patent medicines were used for 11 962 times (accounting for 17.24%), mainly including anti-acid drugs and anti-ulcer drugs, nutritional agent, immune enhancement agent, etc. According to the association rules, drug combinations of 2 drugs were closely related to inhibiting gastric acid secretion and anti-tumor; drug combinations of 3 drugs were closely related to inhibiting gastric acid secretion, antiemetic and anti tumor; drug combinations of 4 drugs were closely related to inhibiting gastric acid secretion, antiemetic, anti-tumor, and immune enhancement. The above results were consistent with the Instruction, providing clues for accurate treatment, and laying the foundation for clinical rational drug use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  10. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  11. Real-World Emission of Particles from Vehicles: Volatility and the Effects of Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Zimmerman, Naomi; Healy, Robert M; Hilker, Nathan; Evans, Greg J

    2017-04-04

    A majority of the ultrafine particles observed in real-world conditions are systematically excluded from many measurements that help to guide regulation of vehicle emissions. To investigate the impact of this exclusion, coincident near-road particle number (PN) emission factors were quantified up- and downstream of a thermodenuder during two seasonal month-long campaigns with wide-ranging ambient temperatures (-19 to +30 °C) to determine the volatile fraction of particles. During colder temperatures (<0 °C), the volatile fraction of particles was 94%, but decreased to 85% during warmer periods (>20 °C). Additionally, mean PN emission factors were a factor of 3.8 higher during cold compared to warm periods. On the basis of 130 000 vehicle plumes including three additional campaigns, fleet mean emission factors were calculated for PN (8.5 × 10(14) kg-fuel(-1)), black carbon (37 mg kg-fuel(-1)), organic aerosol (51 mg kg-fuel(-1)), and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (0.7 mg kg-fuel(-1)). These findings demonstrate that significant differences exist between particles in thermally treated vehicle exhaust as compared to in real-world vehicle plumes to which populations in near-road environments are actually exposed. Furthermore, the magnitude of these differences are dependent upon season and may be more extreme in colder climates.

  12. Can attentional bias modification inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world food cues?

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Stewart-Davis, Ebony

    2017-09-06

    Two experiments investigated whether attentional bias modification can inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world appetitive food cues, namely television advertisements for chocolate products. Using a modified dot probe task, undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward (attend) or away from (avoid) chocolate pictures. Experiment 1 (N = 178) consisted of one training session; Experiment 2 (N = 161) included 5 weekly sessions. Following training, participants viewed television advertisements of chocolate or control products. They then took part in a so-called taste test as a measure of chocolate consumption. Attentional bias for chocolate was measured before training and after viewing the advertisements, and in Experiment 2 also at 24-h and 1-week follow-up. In Experiment 2, but not Experiment 1, participants in the avoid condition showed a significant reduction in attentional bias for chocolate, regardless of whether they had been exposed to advertisements for chocolate or control products. However, this inoculation effect on attentional bias did not generalise to chocolate intake. Future research involving more extensive attentional re-training may be needed to ascertain whether the inoculation effect on attentional bias can extend to consumption, and thus help people withstand exposure to real-world palatable food cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Real-world program evaluation of integrated behavioral health care: Improving scientific rigor.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Shepardson, Robyn L

    2017-06-01

    Designing systematic, scientifically rigorous program evaluations (PE) is 1 way to contribute to the significant need to build best practices and a stronger evidence base for integrated behavioral health care. However, there are many potential pitfalls when conducting PE in real-world settings, and many clinicians and administrators may be hesitant to engage in PE due to lack of training or resources. Rigorous PE can be achieved feasibly and efficiently. This article discusses common challenges that arise when conducting PE in integrated behavioral health care settings and illustrates ways to increase the methodological quality of PE efforts using lessons learned from 2 real-world case examples. The first example included a PE of a training program for brief alcohol interventions, and the second example included a PE of a depression medication monitoring service. The case examples demonstrate the need for strategic planning beforehand, including the use of a conceptual framework as well as appropriate study designs/methodology, measurement, and the need for consistency to achieve a well-designed PE. Using the recommendations within this article, it is hoped that the quality of PEs can be improved resulting in more generalizable data that can be used to inform organizations and policymakers to improve health care delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    PubMed

    Zachariou, Nicky; Expert, Paul; Takayasu, Misako; Christensen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network.

  15. When and how can real world data analyses substitute for randomized controlled trials?

    PubMed

    Franklin, Jessica M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2017-08-24

    Regulators consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the gold standard for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medications, but their costs, duration, and limited generalizability have caused some to look for alternatives. Real world evidence based on data collected outside of RCTs, such as registries and longitudinal healthcare databases, can sometimes substitute for RCTs, but concerns about validity have limited their impact. Greater reliance on such real world data (RWD) in regulatory decision-making requires understanding why some studies fail while others succeed in producing results similar to RCTs. Key questions when considering whether RWD analyses can substitute for RCTs for regulatory decision-making are WHEN one can study drug effects without randomization and HOW to implement a valid RWD analysis if one has decided to pursue that option. The WHEN is primarily driven by externalities not controlled by investigators, while the HOW is focused on avoiding known mistakes in RWD analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Paola; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Lind, Frida; Power, Sarah; Swingler, Elizabeth; Merla, Arcangelo; Hamilton, Antonia; Gilbert, Sam; Burgess, Paul; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2015-12-02

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light to monitor brain activity. Based on neurovascular coupling, fNIRS is able to measure the haemoglobin concentration changes secondary to neuronal activity. Compared to other neuroimaging techniques, fNIRS represents a good compromise in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, it is portable, lightweight, less sensitive to motion artifacts and does not impose significant physical restraints. It is therefore appropriate to monitor a wide range of cognitive tasks (e.g., auditory, gait analysis, social interaction) and different age populations (e.g., new-borns, adults, elderly people). The recent development of fiberless fNIRS devices has opened the way to new applications in neuroscience research. This represents a unique opportunity to study functional activity during real-world tests, which can be more sensitive and accurate in assessing cognitive function and dysfunction than lab-based tests. This study explored the use of fiberless fNIRS to monitor brain activity during a real-world prospective memory task. This protocol is performed outside the lab and brain haemoglobin concentration changes are continuously measured over the prefrontal cortex while the subject walks around in order to accomplish several different tasks.

  17. Real-World Verbal Communication Performance of Children Provided With Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids.

    PubMed

    Meister, Hartmut; Keilmann, Annerose; Leonhard, Katharina; Streicher, Barbara; Müller, Linda; Lang-Roth, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    To compare the real-world verbal communication performance of children provided with cochlear implants (CIs) with their peers with hearing aids (HAs). Cross-sectional study in university tertiary referral centers and at hearing aid dispensers. Verbal communication performance was assessed by the Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI) instrument. The FAPCI was administered to 38 parents of children using CIs and 62 parents of children with HAs. According to the WHO classification, children with HAs were categorized into three groups (mild-moderate-severe hearing loss). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the FAPCI scores, with study group, hearing age (i.e., device experience), and age at hearing intervention as sources of variation. ANOVA showed that hearing age and study group significantly contribute to the FAPCI outcome. In all study groups except the children with mild hearing loss, FAPCI scores increased alongside growing experience with the devices. Children with mild hearing loss using HAs showed higher scores than those with severe hearing loss or implanted children. There were no significant differences between the children with CIs and the children with moderate or severe hearing loss using HAs. Real-world verbal communication abilities of children with CIs are similar to those of children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using amplification. Because hearing age significantly influences performance, children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using HAs and implanted children catch up with children with mild hearing loss at a hearing age of approximately 3 years.

  18. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zachariou, Nicky; Expert, Paul; Takayasu, Misako; Christensen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network. PMID:26606143

  19. Extending the Reach of Augmented Cognition To Real-World Decision Making Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-05-02

    The focus of this paper is on the critical challenge of bridging the gap between psychophysiological sensor data and the inferred cognitive states of users. It is argued that a more robust behavioral data collection foundation will facilitate accurate inferences about the state of the user so that an appropriate mitigation strategy, if needed, can be applied. The argument for such a foundation is based on two premises: (1) To realize the envisioned impact of augmented cognition systems, the technology should be applied to a broad, and more cognitively complex, range of real-world problems. (2) To support identifying cognitive states for more complex, real-world tasks, more sophisticated instrumentation will be needed for behavioral data collection. It is argued that such instrumentation would enable inferences to be made about higher-level semantic aspects of performance. The paper describes how instrumentation software developed to support information analysis R&D may serve as an integration environment that can provide additional behavioral data, in context, to facilitate inferences of cognitive state that will enable the successful augmenting of cognitive performance.

  20. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.