Science.gov

Sample records for real world haskell

  1. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  2. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  3. Diving into Real World Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  4. Virtual Worlds, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Many children between the ages of four and twelve log in to Web-based virtual play spaces each day, and these virtual worlds are quickly becoming an important aspect of their out-of-school lives. Consequently, educators' challenge is to see how they can leverage virtual spaces, such as the virtual play spaces, for learning and literacy. Over the…

  5. The real-world navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balabanovic, Marko; Becker, Craig; Morse, Sarah K.; Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    1994-01-01

    The success of every mobile robot application hinges on the ability to navigate robustly in the real world. The problem of robust navigation is separable from the challenges faced by any particular robot application. We offer the Real-World Navigator as a solution architecture that includes a path planner, a map-based localizer, and a motion control loop that combines reactive avoidance modules with deliberate goal-based motion. Our architecture achieves a high degree of reliability by maintaining and reasoning about an explicit description of positional uncertainty. We provide two implementations of real-world robot systems that incorporate the Real-World Navigator. The Vagabond Project culminated in a robot that successfully navigated a portion of the Stanford University campus. The Scimmer project developed successful entries for the AIAA 1993 Robotics Competition, placing first in one of the two contests entered.

  6. Alice in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  7. The Real World Starts Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The author, principal at North Point High School of Science, Technology and Industry in Charles County, Maryland, describes how the school merges traditional academic classes with cutting-edge career and technical education courses to prepare students for the real world. Realizing that its traditional "vo-tech" model was undersubscribed and…

  8. Mechanics in the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald

    2006-03-01

    In the fall semester of 2004, I taught six discussion sections of a large calculus-based introductory mechanics class at the University of Michigan. I therefore interacted with approximately 200 students twice a week. One of my priorities as a discussion instructor was to help students make the connection between the formulae they were required to memorize and the real world with which they interact every day. Near the end of the term, I gave the students an assignment intended to assess how strongly the ideas of introductory mechanics had affected their thought processes. I asked them to write a paragraph describing a real-world event or process for which they now realized they had a better understanding.

  9. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  10. What Is "Real-World" ID Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The term "real-world ID" is commonly heard at professional conferences, but its meaning is assumed rather than defined. Unless we examine the meanings and implications of rhetoric of the field, we risk error in presenting ourselves, and we risk derailing the progress of our profession. This article examines the term "real world" as applied to…

  11. Mathematics & Science in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus is organized around the theme of mathematics and science in the real world. It intends to provide teachers with practical resources and suggestions for science and mathematics education. Featured articles include: (1) "Real-World Learning: A Necessity for the Success of Current Reform Efforts" (Robert E. Yager); (2)…

  12. Real World: Using Lunar Reactors

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how NASA scientists, like explorers of old, plan to use the natural resources of new worlds to provide life-sustaining materials for the astronauts. During tests in Hawaii, scientists prac...

  13. When the Academic World and the Real World Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetlik, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the need for a complimentary relationship between the academic and real outside world. This is not to compare a college degree with outside work experience--the two are complementary. It is the world of business and industry that often cause changes. Students and practitioners of industrial automation are an…

  14. Studying real-world perceptual expertise

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature. PMID:25147533

  15. Real World Video Clips for Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speers, Robert R.

    1998-04-01

    Video clips of physics in the real world can be a significant enhancement for the TV/Computer generation of students. To be shown and discussed will be a series of real world video clips that have been found to be excellent interest generators in physics lecture/recitations. The main subject areas to be shown come from amusement parks and along the northern coastline of Ohio.

  16. Establishing a Real-World Credential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    This article features Community College of the Air Force (CCAF) as the world's largest two-year higher education institution that will be celebrating the awarding of its 300,000th associate degree this fall. Headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama, CCAF was founded in 1972 as a means of establishing a real-world credential for training…

  17. Physics and the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2006-02-01

    Physics and chemistry underlie the nature of all the world around us, including human brains. Consequently some suggest that in causal terms, physics is all there is. However, we live in an environment dominated by objects embodying the outcomes of intentional design (buildings, computers, teaspoons). The present day subject of physics has nothing to say about the intentionality resulting in existence of such objects, even though this intentionality is clearly causally effective. This paper examines the claim that the underlying physics uniquely causally determines what happens, even though we cannot predict the outcome. It suggests that what occurs is the contextual emergence of complexity: the higher levels in the hierarchy of complexity have autonomous causal powers, functionally independent of lower level processes. This is possible because top-down causation takes place as well as bottom-up action, with higher level contexts determining the outcome of lower level functioning and even modifying the nature of lower level constituents. Stored information plays a key role, resulting in non-linear dynamics that is non-local in space and time. Brain functioning is causally affected by abstractions such as the value of money and the theory of the laser. These are realised as brain states in individuals, but are not equivalent to them. Consequently physics per se cannot causally determine the outcome of human creativity, rather it creates the possibility space allowing human intelligence to function autonomously. The challenge to physics is to develop a realistic description of causality in truly complex hierarchical structures, with top-down causation and memory effects allowing autonomous higher levels of order to emerge with genuine causal powers.

  18. Statistical characterization of real-world illumination.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ron O; Willsky, Alan S; Adelson, Edward H

    2004-09-28

    Although studies of vision and graphics often assume simple illumination models, real-world illumination is highly complex, with reflected light incident on a surface from almost every direction. One can capture the illumination from every direction at one point photographically using a spherical illumination map. This work illustrates, through analysis of photographically acquired, high dynamic range illumination maps, that real-world illumination possesses a high degree of statistical regularity. The marginal and joint wavelet coefficient distributions and harmonic spectra of illumination maps resemble those documented in the natural image statistics literature. However, illumination maps differ from typical photographs in that illumination maps are statistically nonstationary and may contain localized light sources that dominate their power spectra. Our work provides a foundation for statistical models of real-world illumination, thereby facilitating the understanding of human material perception, the design of robust computer vision systems, and the rendering of realistic computer graphics imagery. PMID:15493972

  19. Cellphones and Real-World Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…

  20. Reasoning with Real-World Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.; Amankonah, Frank O.; Thomas, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics education is replete with activities that explore real-world problems. A variety of these problems are added to lessons in the belief that merely applying mathematics knowledge to everyday contexts will enhance the transfer of that knowledge to other settings. However, these contexts are hypothetical rather than authentic. This…

  1. The Power of Real-World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Linked learning transforms students' high school experience by linking a college preparatory course sequence with demanding technical education, and linking real-world experiences with classroom learning to help students gain an advantage in high school, postsecondary education, and careers. With linked learning, students follow industry-themed…

  2. Developing Real-World Spelling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeletti, Sara; Peterson, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies for incorporation into elementary level spelling programs to help students become real-world spellers. The article explains how to make spelling part of the writing process by expanding the word bank, improving proofreading skills, building dictionary skills, and conducting a roundup spelling test to practice new skills. (SM)

  3. Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to encourage enhanced richness and relevance of the undergraduate engineering education experience, and thus produce better-prepared and more globally competitive graduates, by providing practical guidance for incorporating real world experience in US engineering programs. The report, a collaborative effort of the…

  4. Connecting Legal Discourse with Real World Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Nigel

    This paper reports on the strategies used by an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher to help law students whose first language is Chinese in an English-for-law course learn and understand how to negotiate legal texts and ordinances and connect them with the concerns of people in the real world. The example of the recently enacted Human Organ…

  5. Investigating Functions Using Real-World Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities for using graphic calculators to enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics are great. However, the boundaries explode when these powerful tools for learning are connected to data logging devices: a whole new approach to mathematics learning becomes possible. Using real world data to introduce the main functions (which are…

  6. Symbolic Victimization and Real World Fear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examines the relationship between victimization of characters in television drama and susceptibility to the viewers' cultivation of a sense of personal risk in the real world. Found that viewers whose fictional counterparts are more likely to be shown as victims show stronger associations between viewing and perceived vulnerability. (PD)

  7. Predicting Complexity Perception of Real World Images

    PubMed Central

    Corchs, Silvia Elena; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Bricolo, Emanuela; Gasparini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to predict the complexity perception of real world images. We propose a new complexity measure where different image features, based on spatial, frequency and color properties are linearly combined. In order to find the optimal set of weighting coefficients we have applied a Particle Swarm Optimization. The optimal linear combination is the one that best fits the subjective data obtained in an experiment where observers evaluate the complexity of real world scenes on a web-based interface. To test the proposed complexity measure we have performed a second experiment on a different database of real world scenes, where the linear combination previously obtained is correlated with the new subjective data. Our complexity measure outperforms not only each single visual feature but also two visual clutter measures frequently used in the literature to predict image complexity. To analyze the usefulness of our proposal, we have also considered two different sets of stimuli composed of real texture images. Tuning the parameters of our measure for this kind of stimuli, we have obtained a linear combination that still outperforms the single measures. In conclusion our measure, properly tuned, can predict complexity perception of different kind of images. PMID:27336469

  8. Predicting Complexity Perception of Real World Images.

    PubMed

    Corchs, Silvia Elena; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Bricolo, Emanuela; Gasparini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to predict the complexity perception of real world images. We propose a new complexity measure where different image features, based on spatial, frequency and color properties are linearly combined. In order to find the optimal set of weighting coefficients we have applied a Particle Swarm Optimization. The optimal linear combination is the one that best fits the subjective data obtained in an experiment where observers evaluate the complexity of real world scenes on a web-based interface. To test the proposed complexity measure we have performed a second experiment on a different database of real world scenes, where the linear combination previously obtained is correlated with the new subjective data. Our complexity measure outperforms not only each single visual feature but also two visual clutter measures frequently used in the literature to predict image complexity. To analyze the usefulness of our proposal, we have also considered two different sets of stimuli composed of real texture images. Tuning the parameters of our measure for this kind of stimuli, we have obtained a linear combination that still outperforms the single measures. In conclusion our measure, properly tuned, can predict complexity perception of different kind of images. PMID:27336469

  9. Classification Experiments on Real-World Texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Manduchi, Roberto; Fox, Justin

    2001-01-01

    Many papers have been published concerning the analysis of visual texture and yet, very few application domains use texture for image classification. A possible reason for this low transfer of the technology is the lack of experience and testing in real-world imagery. In this paper, we assess the performance of texture-based classification methods on a number of real-world images relevant to autonomous navigation on cross-country terrain and to autonomous geology. Texture analysis will form part of the closed loop that allows a robotic system to navigate autonomously. We have implemented two different classifiers on features extracted by Gabor filter banks. The first classifier models feature distributions for each texture class using a mixture of Gaussians. Classification is performed using Maximum Likelihood. The second classifier represents local statistics using marginal histograms of the features over a region centered on the pixel to be classified. We measure system performance by comparison to ground truth image labels.

  10. Silver biocide's real-world success.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Although temperature control has been the UK's longest-serving means of controlling the growth and proliferation of Legionella in hot and cold water systems, there are other factors, including major rises in energy costs, that warrant the use of biocides--including in the healthcare sector. In 2000, the HSE's new 'L8' guidelines took this into account, giving equal weight to both temperature reg~mes and biocides, such as chlorine dioxide, as control methods. Susan Pearson BSc reports on one potentially effective biocide- silver hydrogen peroxide, explains how it 'works' in practice, and highlights the recent 'real-world' evidence of its effectiveness and advantages. PMID:26268029

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (b) LIGHTHOUSE AND KEEPER'S COTTAGE FROM SOUTHWEST - Lighthouse, Cedar Point Scituate Harbor, Scituate, Plymouth County, MA

  12. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (g) Ext- general view, gateway entrance and fence. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (j) Int- (so- called) Slaves' Pew, East Gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (e) Ext- Detail, main entrance, west front. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (f) Int-General view looking north toward pulpit. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  16. [Development of real-world haptic technology].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kouhei; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Natori, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    This paper introduces the principle of real-world haptic and its technology applied to high-grade surgery and/or welfare areas. The existing technology has depended on force sensors, which leads to a trade-off issue between stability and performance. The implementation and realization of a better system has been an unsolved problem for a long time. The authors invented a novel technology that works without force sensors. Modal decomposition and acceleration-based bilateral control(ABC method)are its key concepts. This idea has been actualized with three dof robotic forceps. Several experimental results found by the application of haptic forceps mounted on a 6 dof industrial robot are shown.

  17. [Development of real-world haptic technology].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kouhei; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Natori, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    This paper introduces the principle of real-world haptic and its technology applied to high-grade surgery and/or welfare areas. The existing technology has depended on force sensors, which leads to a trade-off issue between stability and performance. The implementation and realization of a better system has been an unsolved problem for a long time. The authors invented a novel technology that works without force sensors. Modal decomposition and acceleration-based bilateral control(ABC method)are its key concepts. This idea has been actualized with three dof robotic forceps. Several experimental results found by the application of haptic forceps mounted on a 6 dof industrial robot are shown. PMID:22790037

  18. Field balancing in the real world

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  19. Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L.; Saur, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.

  20. Amblyopia and real-world visuomotor tasks.

    PubMed

    Grant, Simon; Moseley, Merrick J

    2011-09-01

    A question of increasing interest to the basic science and clinical management communities during the past decade is whether children and adults with amblyopia and associated binocular visual abnormalities experience difficulties in executing real-world actions, to which vision normally makes an important functional contribution. Here we provide objective evidence that they do, by reviewing quantitative data from a number of studies comparing their performance with that of matched normally sighted subjects on a range of everyday visuomotor tasks. Because in real life, these tasks (grasping objects, walking, driving, reading) are habitually performed with both eyes open, our focus is on their binocular skill deficits, rather than those with their amblyopic eye alone. General findings are that individuals with abnormal binocularity show impairments in critical aspects of motor control--movement speed, accuracy or both--on every one of these activities, the extent of which correlates with their loss of stereoacuity, but not the severity of their amblyopia. Impairments were especially marked when the task was time-limited or novel. Implications are that children and adults with severely reduced or absent binocularity may be accident-prone when required to respond rapidly to unexpected situations and that amblyopia management should focus more attention on evaluating and restoring stereoacuity and stereomotion processing.

  1. Amblyopia and real-world visuomotor tasks.

    PubMed

    Grant, Simon; Moseley, Merrick J

    2011-09-01

    A question of increasing interest to the basic science and clinical management communities during the past decade is whether children and adults with amblyopia and associated binocular visual abnormalities experience difficulties in executing real-world actions, to which vision normally makes an important functional contribution. Here we provide objective evidence that they do, by reviewing quantitative data from a number of studies comparing their performance with that of matched normally sighted subjects on a range of everyday visuomotor tasks. Because in real life, these tasks (grasping objects, walking, driving, reading) are habitually performed with both eyes open, our focus is on their binocular skill deficits, rather than those with their amblyopic eye alone. General findings are that individuals with abnormal binocularity show impairments in critical aspects of motor control--movement speed, accuracy or both--on every one of these activities, the extent of which correlates with their loss of stereoacuity, but not the severity of their amblyopia. Impairments were especially marked when the task was time-limited or novel. Implications are that children and adults with severely reduced or absent binocularity may be accident-prone when required to respond rapidly to unexpected situations and that amblyopia management should focus more attention on evaluating and restoring stereoacuity and stereomotion processing. PMID:21870915

  2. A Study of Haskell Students: Academic Performance and Cultural Marginality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, behavior of Haskell Indian Junior College freshmen as a whole fit a pattern of cultural marginality, with traditional students exhibiting more pronounced marginal behavior than nontraditional students, reflecting the Haskell social environment. Students' ACT and GPA scores appeared meaningless, supporting the idea of an educational…

  3. The Haskell Transition Evaluation. Research and Evaluation Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiner, Clyde, Comp.

    The Haskell Transition Evaluation was based on meetings with Haskell staff and students during July and August of 1972. Although neither the full complement of faculty nor student body was available at these sessions, the evaluation team felt confident that those attending did furnish them with direct and honest responses. The administrative staff…

  4. Haskell Builds a Home for Entrepreneurs in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First Nations Development Institute Business Alert, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the new associate of arts degree in entrepreneurship at Haskell Indian Nations University, Lawrence, Kansas. Offered in Haskell's Center for Tribal Entrepreneurial Studies, the program comprises four culturally appropriate courses. The first course, Introduction to Entrepreneurship, assists students in analyzing whether or…

  5. Real-World Contexts in Urban High School Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Andrew Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the uses of real-world contexts in mathematics lessons in the classrooms of four teachers across two school years at an urban high school. Drawing upon a framework of culturally relevant mathematics pedagogy, this dissertation focuses on how real-world contexts are connected to teaching mathematics for understanding, centering…

  6. Curricular Orientations to Real-World Contexts in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cathy; Morgan, Candia

    2016-01-01

    A common claim about mathematics education is that it should equip students to use mathematics in the "real world". In this paper, we examine how relationships between mathematics education and the real world are materialised in the curriculum across a sample of eleven jurisdictions. In particular, we address the orientation of the…

  7. Here in the Real World: MTV Meets the Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubbs, Jim

    A study investigated how a contemporary, popular media program such as "The Real World" (on MTV) can be used most effectively in the classroom to illustrate the basic concepts of interpersonal, group, and family communication. The 21 individual 22-minute episodes of the second season of "The Real World" (a combination of video-verite techniques…

  8. Teacher to Teacher: The Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Whether they are learning about long division, Longfellow or a long-lost civilization, students often want to know how the subjects they are studying will help them in "real life." One of the primary responsibilities of teachers is to prepare students for "real life" as informed, engaged and inquisitive citizens. A great way to cultivate these…

  9. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At £8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre

  11. A real-world way to manage real options.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions. PMID:15029793

  12. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Aug. 1937. (j) Int- Mantel and Breast, N. E. First Floor Room, looking toward front. - Joshua Ward House, 148 Washington Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  13. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. August, 1937. (l) Int- Mantel and Breast S. E. First Floor Room. - Joshua Ward House, 148 Washington Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  14. 8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, CALIFORNIA. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May 31, 1936 (ttt) BOSTON STONE, PUBLIC ALLEY No. 102, NEAR MARSHALL ST., BOSTON - Boundary Stones QQQ, RRR, SSS, & TTT, Various Boston locations, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (a) Model of Old Windmill and Vats found in Atwood House, W. Chatham, Mass. - Enoch Harding Salt Works, Buck's Creek, West Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 3, 1938 (k) INT.- MANTLE, NORTHEAST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  18. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (k) Int-Detail of Corner Fireplace in Parlor (Living) (SE) Room, First Floor. - Daniel Shute House, Main & South Pleasant Streets, Hingham, Plymouth County, MA

  19. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1936 (k) Int- Paneled fireplace end, southeast room, first floor. - Squire William Sever House, 2 Linden Street, Kingston, Plymouth County, MA

  20. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. 28, 1935 (i) INT.- WALL STENCILLING, REAR ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Peter Jayne House, 37 Mugford Street, Marblehead, Essex County, MA

  1. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May 29, 1939 (r) INT.- MANTEL & MIRROR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, 1st. FLOOR - Cook-Oliver House, 142 Federal Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  2. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (l) Int-Mantel Detail, Bedroom (S.E. Corner) Second Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (b) Ext- General view of main house from southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (c) Ext- General view of House and Ell from Southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  5. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (k) Int-Mantel detail, Dining (S.E. Corner) Room, First Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (A) Ext. General view from Southeast. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (b) Ext- Detail doorway, east side of house. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (b) Ext- General view rear, looking from north. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey Employee.) (a) Ext- General view from Southeast. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (a) Ext- General front view from southeast. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (c) Ext-Detail entrance on south. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  13. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (i) Int-Looking down on pulpit and first floor from west gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  14. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (h) Int-Detail Gallery Stairs, S.E. Corner. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  15. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. 1937. (h) Int- Old Bar in Basement Tap Room - Old Tavern Inn, Wareham Street (State Route 28), Middleboro, Plymouth County, MA

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Detail of old railroad part way up incline to quarry. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  17. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (c) Detail of track and set pulleys on quarry incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  18. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (e) Portion of old quarry wagon at head of incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) General view of incline to Quarry from Northwest. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (d) SIDE DOORWAY IN TOWER FROM NORTHWEST - Bulfinch Church, North Street & Maplewood Avenue (moved from Park Row), Pittsfield, Berkshire County, MA

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. Oct. 1937. (d) Ext- Detail of Entrance (East) Front. - Colonel Alexander Field House, 280 Longmeadow Street, Longmeadow, Hampden County, MA

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (d) Ext- Detail west entrance doorway. - Captain John Stearns House, Old Post Road, Oldtown, North Attleboro, Bristol County, MA

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. 3, 1936 (d) INT.-MAIN STAIRWAY - Jennie Sampson House, Main Street (moved to Cotchpinicutt Road, North Chatham, MA), Lakeville, Plymouth County, MA

  4. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Nov. 12, 1936 (d) INT.- EAST WALL, NORTHWEST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Francis Wyman House, Francis Wyman Road, Burlington, Middlesex County, MA

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (d) Int-Paneled (East) side of parlor, N.W. corner, first floor. - Daniel Caldwell House, 126 Main Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (c) Int- Mantel detail (sitting) room SE corner, first floor - Fearing-Warr House, 14 Elm Street, Wareham, Plymouth County, MA

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) EXT.-MAPLE MEADOW BROOK AQUEDUCT, WILMINGTON, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middlesex Canal, Maple Meadow Brook Aqueduct, Wilmington, Middlesex County, MA

  8. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  9. Bridging STEM in a Real World Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Mousoulides, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering-based modeling activities provide a rich source of meaningful situations that capitalize on and extend students' routine learning. By integrating such activities within existing curricula, students better appreciate how their school learning in mathematics and science applies to problems in the outside world. Furthermore, modeling…

  10. The Real Impact of Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that as technology continues to change, the generation of students will change also. The best preparation, then, is to train one's own mind to think digitally so that one can best create policies, programs, and interactions that enable a student to connect the two worlds in ways that are productive, satisfying, and meaningful.…

  11. A Virtual World with Real Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Katherine L.; Golann, Joanne Wang

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how students learn invaluable job-readiness and academic skills by setting up and running their own businesses in a virtual world. Virtual Enterprises (VE) International is a high school career and technical education (CTE) program that teaches students about business by having a class create and operate its own virtual…

  12. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  13. Properties of four real world collaboration--competition networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chun-Hua; Xu, Xiu-Lian; He, Da-Ren

    2009-03-01

    Our research group has empirically investigated 9 real world collaboration networks and 25 real world cooperation-competition networks. Among the 34 real world systems, all the 9 real world collaboration networks and 6 real world cooperation-competition networks show the unimodal act-size distribution and the shifted power law distribution of degree and act-degree. We have proposed a collaboration network evolution model for an explanation of the rules [1]. The other 14 real world cooperation-competition networks show that the act-size distributions are not unimodal; instead, they take qualitatively the same shifted power law forms as the degree and act-degree distributions. The properties of four systems (the main land movie film network, Beijing restaurant network, 2004 Olympic network, and Tao-Bao notebook computer sale network) are reported in detail as examples. Via a numerical simulation, we show that the new rule can still be explained by the above-mentioned model. [1] H. Chang, B. B. Su, et al. Phsica A, 2007, 383: 687-702.

  14. Conservation Biology and real-world conservation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John G

    2006-06-01

    In the 20 years since Conservation Biology was launched with the aim of disseminating scientific knowledge to help conserve biodiversity and the natural world, our discipline has hugely influenced the practice of conservation. But we have had less impact outside the profession itself and we have not transformed that practice into an enterprise large enough to achieve our conservation goals. As we look to the next 20 years, we need to become more relevant and important to the societies in which we live. To do so, the discipline of conservation biology must generate answers even when full scientific knowledge is lacking, structure scientific research around polices and debates that influence what we value as conservationists, go beyond the certitude of the biological sciences into the more contextual debates of the social sciences, engage scientifically with human-dominated landscapes, and address the question of how conservation can contribute to the improvement of human livelihoods and the quality of human life.

  15. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects’ gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects’ eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. PMID:21426914

  16. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    PubMed Central

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

  17. Integrating Real World Entities into an Academic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Terrance; Schlesinger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This research will demonstrate how an experiential learning practicum can be successfully implemented into an academic curriculum, using Drexel University's (Philadelphia, PA) award-winning student-run record label, MAD Dragon Records, as a case study. It will describe the components necessary to implement and operate a real-world entity within…

  18. Real-World Connections Can Boost Journalism Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrier, Kathy; Bott, Don; McGuire, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Describes various ways scholastic journalism advisers have attempted to make real-world connections to boost their journalism programs: critiques of student publications by invited guest speakers (professional journalists); regional workshops where professionals offer short presentations; local media offering programming or special sections aimed…

  19. Bringing the Real World into the Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…

  20. Making Connections to the "Real World": A Model Building Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horibe, Shusaku; Underwood, Bret

    2009-01-01

    Classroom activities that include the process of model building, in which students build simplified physical representations of a system, have the potential to help students make meaningful connections between physics and the real world. We describe a lesson designed with this intent for an introductory college classroom that engages students in…

  1. Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2011-01-01

    Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

  2. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  3. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  4. Using Real World Experience to Teach Science and Environmental Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    The use of interpretive reporting techniques and programs offering real world training to writers may provide solutions to the problems encountered in writing about science for the mass media. Both science and environmental writers have suggested that the problems they face would be decreased by the use of more interpretive and investigative…

  5. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  6. Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects

    PubMed Central

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required observers to access existing object knowledge, we observed that real-world objects have a consistent visual size at which they are drawn, imagined, and preferentially viewed. Importantly, this visual size is proportional to the logarithm of the assumed size of the object in the world, and is best characterized not as a fixed visual angle, but by the ratio of the object and the frame of space around it. Akin to the previous literature on canonical perspective, we term this consistent visual size information the canonical visual size. PMID:20822298

  7. Against pragmatism: on efficacy, effectiveness and the real world.

    PubMed

    Kent, David M; Kitsios, Georgios

    2009-07-06

    Explanatory and pragmatic trials represent ends of a continuum of attitudes about clinical trial design. Recent literature argues that pragmatic trials are more informative about clinical care in the real world. Although there is place for more pragmatic studies to inform clinical practice and health policy decision-making, we are concerned that it is generally under-appreciated that extrapolating the results of broadly inclusive pragmatic trials to the care of real patients may often be as problematic as extrapolating the results of narrowly focused explanatory or efficacy trials. Simplistic interpretation of pragmatic trials runs the risk of driving harmful policies.

  8. Applying PUB to the real world: rapid data assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackisch, C.; Zehe, E.; Singh, A. K.

    2011-08-01

    "Predictions in Ungauged Basins" are a challenging task - especially when it comes to meso-scale rural catchments. We present a rapid data assessment scheme based on a functional perspective on the landscape for a hydrological land use decision support model. A hierarchical merging of top down and bottom up approaches combines hydrology, soil physics, agronomy and meteorology in a common nomenclature. The study at hand is an example to bring PUB to real world application.

  9. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  10. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  11. Predicting real-world functional milestones in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Anna-Karin; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Helldin, Lars

    2016-08-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe disorder that often causes impairments in major areas of functioning, and most patients do not achieve expected real-world functional milestones. The aim of this study was to identify which variables of demography, illness activity, and functional capacity predict patients' ability to attain real-world functional milestones. Participants were 235 outpatients, 149 men and 86 women, diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Our results showed that younger patients managed to achieve a higher level of functioning in educational level, marital status, and social contacts. Patients' functional capacity was primarily associated with educational level and housing situation. We also found that women needed less support regarding housing and obtained a higher level of marital status as compared with men. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering current symptoms, especially negative symptoms, and remission stability over time, together with age, duration of illness, gender, educational level, and current functional capacity, when predicting patients' future real-world functioning. We also conclude that there is an advantage in exploring symptoms divided into positive, negative, and general domains considering their probable impact on functional achievements.

  12. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, John; Leontiadis, Ilias; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study containment schemes for mobile phone malware which can spread via short range radio, similar to biological viruses; finally, we study how the temporal network structure of human interactions can be exploited to effectively immunise human populations. Through these applications we demonstrate that temporal metrics provide a more accurate and effective analysis of real-world networks compared to their static counterparts.

  13. Undergraduate Teaching of Ideal and Real Fluid Flows: The Value of Real-World Experimental Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Tom E.; Chanson, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical impact of real-world experimental projects undertaken as part of an advanced undergraduate fluid mechanics subject at an Australian university. The projects have been organized to complement traditional lectures and introduce students to the challenges of professional design, physical modelling, data collection…

  14. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks). PMID:26465533

  15. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  16. Modelling the world in real time: how robots engineer information.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J

    2003-12-15

    Programming robots and other autonomous systems to interact with the world in real time is bringing into sharp focus general questions about representation, inference and understanding. These artificial agents use digital computation to interpret the data gleaned from sensors and produce decisions and actions to guide their future behaviour. In a physical system, however, finite computational resources unavoidably impose the need to approximate and make selective use of the information available to reach prompt deductions. Recent research has led to widespread adoption of the methodology of Bayesian inference, which provides the absolute framework to understand this process fully via modelling as informed, fully acknowledged approximation. The performance of modern systems has improved greatly on the heuristic methods of the early days of artificial intelligence. We discuss the general problem of real-time inference and computation, and draw on examples from recent research in computer vision and robotics: specifically visual tracking and simultaneous localization and mapping. PMID:14667303

  17. Modelling the world in real time: how robots engineer information.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J

    2003-12-15

    Programming robots and other autonomous systems to interact with the world in real time is bringing into sharp focus general questions about representation, inference and understanding. These artificial agents use digital computation to interpret the data gleaned from sensors and produce decisions and actions to guide their future behaviour. In a physical system, however, finite computational resources unavoidably impose the need to approximate and make selective use of the information available to reach prompt deductions. Recent research has led to widespread adoption of the methodology of Bayesian inference, which provides the absolute framework to understand this process fully via modelling as informed, fully acknowledged approximation. The performance of modern systems has improved greatly on the heuristic methods of the early days of artificial intelligence. We discuss the general problem of real-time inference and computation, and draw on examples from recent research in computer vision and robotics: specifically visual tracking and simultaneous localization and mapping.

  18. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  19. Science to services: consumers need "real-world" science.

    PubMed

    Amador, Xavier F; Fitzpatrick, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a revolution in pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia and related disorders. The second generation, or atypical, antipsychotic medications have demonstrated efficacy and generally better side-effect profiles. However, from the perspective of policy makers the higher costs associated with these newer medications leads to tough decisions regarding their continued use in light of an escalating fiscal crisis. For consumers, both persons with the illness and their family caregivers, the budgetary cutbacks leave many scrambling for answers to questions that most treatment (efficacy) studies were never designed to answer. "Should we oppose formulary restrictions on principle alone, or is there scientific data that can be relied on to inform our position?" On a more personal note, many are asking whether or not to switch to one of the newer medications and which medication would be best for them. Unlike CATIE, efficacy studies were never designed to answer such questions. In this article, we start by highlighting how CATIE will fill important gaps in translating the results of efficacy studies to effectiveness in the real world. Both the development of the CATIE methodology and the study design itself reflect what we will refer to as "real-world science": i.e., science that sheds light on effectiveness in vivo and can inform decisions consumers, clinicians, and policy makers are faced with day-to-day. We discuss CATIE in the context of the fiscal crisis hitting MEDICAID programs leading many policy makers to take the more expensive, atypical antipsychotics off the list of medications made available to patients. We argue that studies like CATIE will be highly informative and ultimately vital to policy makers wishing to create mental health policies that will succeed. Throughout, we highlight how CATIE, and real-world science more generally, are vital to consumers striving to find the medication(s) that works best for them. Given the organic

  20. NASA World Wind Near Real Time Data for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Innovation requires open standards for data exchange, not to mention ^access to data^ so that value-added, the information intelligence, can be continually created and advanced by the larger community. Likewise, innovation by academia and entrepreneurial enterprise alike, are greatly benefited by an open platform that provides the basic technology for access and visualization of that data. NASA World Wind Java, and now NASA World Wind iOS for the iPhone and iPad, provides that technology. Whether the interest is weather science or climate science, emergency response or supply chain, seeing spatial data in its native context of Earth accelerates understanding and improves decision-making. NASA World Wind open source technology provides the basic elements for 4D visualization, using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) protocols, while allowing for customized access to any data, big or small, including support for NetCDF. NASA World Wind includes access to a suite of US Government WMS servers with near real time data. The larger community can readily capitalize on this technology, building their own value-added applications, either open or proprietary. Night lights heat map Glacier National Park

  1. The Big Crunch--Models in Physics Meet the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Examines quantitative models in school physics, looking particularly at the degree to which they match the real world. Explores the positive aspects of a mismatch between models and real world conditions. (DDR)

  2. Automatic guidance of attention during real-world visual search

    PubMed Central

    Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Looking for objects in cluttered natural environments is a frequent task in everyday life. This process can be difficult, as the features, locations, and times of appearance of relevant objects are often not known in advance. A mechanism by which attention is automatically biased toward information that is potentially relevant may thus be helpful. Here we tested for such a mechanism across five experiments by engaging participants in real-world visual search and then assessing attentional capture for information that was related to the search set but was otherwise irrelevant. Isolated objects captured attention while preparing to search for objects from the same category embedded in a scene, as revealed by lower detection performance (Experiment 1A). This capture effect was driven by a central processing bottleneck rather than the withdrawal of spatial attention (Experiment 1B), occurred automatically even in a secondary task (Experiment 2A), and reflected enhancement of matching information rather than suppression of non-matching information (Experiment 2B). Finally, attentional capture extended to objects that were semantically associated with the target category (Experiment 3). We conclude that attention is efficiently drawn towards a wide range of information that may be relevant for an upcoming real-world visual search. This mechanism may be adaptive, allowing us to find information useful for our behavioral goals in the face of uncertainty. PMID:25898897

  3. Developing mobile LIBS solutions for real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qun; Li, Jing; Bakeev, Katherine; Wang, Sean

    2015-06-01

    We present a new type of handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectrometer for developing mobile atomic spectroscopy solutions for real world applications. A micro diode-pumped passive Q-switched solid-state laser with high repetition rate of well above 1 kHz in comparison to 1-10 Hz as used in a traditional LIBS instrument is employed to produce a train of laser pulses. The laser beam is further fast scanned over a pre-defined area, hence generating several hundreds of micro-plasmas per second at different locations. Synchronized miniature CCD array spectrometer modules collect the LIBS signal and generate LIBS spectra. By adjusting the integration time of the spectrometer to cover a plurality of periods of the laser pulse train, the spectrometer integrates the LIBS signal produced by this plurality of laser pulses. Hence the intensity of the obtained LIBS spectrum can be greatly improved to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This unique feature of the high repetition rate laser based LIBS system allows it to measure elements at trace levels, hence reducing the limit of detection (LOD). The increased signal intensity also lessens the sensitivity requirement for the optical spectrometer. In addition, the energy of the individual laser pulse can be reduced in comparison to traditional LIBS system to obtain the same signal level, making the laser pulse less invasive to the sample. The typical measurement time is within 1 second. Several examples of real world applications will be presented.

  4. Integrating patients into meaningful real-world research.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Susan J; Barnes, Teresa; McIvor, R Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Research in respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine has historically been the domain of scientists and clinicians attempting to understand pathophysiological mechanisms and consequences of disease in an effort to develop effective treatments. This traditional approach of placing scientific rigor before the patient's reality is changing. There is growing recognition of the importance of integrating patient perspectives (e.g., preferences, expectations, and expanded definitions of what constitutes "successful" outcomes) into clinical research to achieve meaningful results for a broader group of stakeholders. This evolution is reflected in the growth of patient-centered organizations and patient advocacy groups that seek to meaningfully integrate patients into the process of prioritizing research needs and creating alliances wherein patients and researchers can partner together to accomplish research goals. In tandem, a growing number of real-world trials (i.e., those with broader, more representative patient populations and routine care pathways) now complement findings from traditional randomized controlled trials and offer new opportunities to design studies that better reflect patients' healthcare preferences and experiences. Patients' perspectives are key determinants of treatment adherence and outcomes, as well as the feasibility and likely value of implementing care pathways. The advent of smartphone and push technologies offer new opportunities for the collection of more patient-centered and ecologically valid patient data, thereby adding new dimensions to meaningfully integrate patients into real-world research. PMID:24559023

  5. Fingolimod Real World Experience: Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Fingolimod is a multiple sclerosis treatment licensed in Europe since 2011. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in three large phase III trials, used in the regulatory submissions throughout the world. As usual, in these trials the inclusion and exclusion criteria were designed to obtain a homogeneous population, with interchangeable characteristics in the different treatment arms. Although this is the best strategy to achieve a robust answer to the investigation question, it does not guaranty the treatment efficacy in the clinical practice, since in the real world there are concomitant treatments, comorbidities, adherence, and persistence challenges. But, to make informed treatment decision for a real life patient, we need to have evidence of the treatment efficacy, what has been called treatment effectiveness. This work aims to review fingolimod effectiveness, using, as source of information, abstracts, posters, and manuscripts. This unorthodox strategy was developed because more than half of the published experience with fingolimod is still on abstracts and posters. Only a small part of the studies reviewed are already published in peer reviewed journals. Fingolimod seems to be, at least, as effective and safe as it was on clinical trials, and with its long-term experience no new safety signals were observed.

  6. Motif structure and cooperation in real-world complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R.; Jalili, Mahdi

    2010-12-01

    Networks of dynamical nodes serve as generic models for real-world systems in many branches of science ranging from mathematics to physics, technology, sociology and biology. Collective behavior of agents interacting over complex networks is important in many applications. The cooperation between selfish individuals is one of the most interesting collective phenomena. In this paper we address the interplay between the motifs’ cooperation properties and their abundance in a number of real-world networks including yeast protein-protein interaction, human brain, protein structure, email communication, dolphins’ social interaction, Zachary karate club and Net-science coauthorship networks. First, the amount of cooperativity for all possible undirected subgraphs with three to six nodes is calculated. To this end, the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game is considered and the cooperativity of each subgraph is calculated as the percentage of cooperating agents at the end of the simulation time. Then, the three- to six-node motifs are extracted for each network. The significance of the abundance of a motif, represented by a Z-value, is obtained by comparing them with some properly randomized versions of the original network. We found that there is always a group of motifs showing a significant inverse correlation between their cooperativity amount and Z-value, i.e. the more the Z-value the less the amount of cooperativity. This suggests that networks composed of well-structured units do not have good cooperativity properties.

  7. REAL-WORLD SORTING OF RHIC SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; PEGGS,S.; THOMPSON,P.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; WANDERER,P.

    1999-03-29

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have been put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-{beta}* interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process.

  8. Mobile Urban Drama: interactive storytelling in real world environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Johanne Kortbek, Karen; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-03-01

    This article presents methods and tools for producing location-based Mobile Urban Dramas. In a Mobile Urban Drama, the user becomes the main character in a play that is presented as a multimedia production (through audio, images, animations and videos) on the user's mobile phone and in the physical surroundings. The media files are linked via tags (2D barcodes/RFID) or GPS to the real world set as the stage of the drama. The dramaturgical concept is described, and a narrative architecture is introduced. It supports a rich variety of plot graphs implemented in a software framework that supports producing Mobile Urban Dramas. Dramas produced with the framework may span from pure art pieces to structured learning experiences, for example, biology learning framed in a thriller. Experiences from six dramas produced with the framework by a Danish theatre group are discussed. The results are general findings on the concept, the narrative structure, scenographic effects and tools for technical production.

  9. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    PubMed

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature. PMID:21264579

  10. Ultrasound: promoting electroanalysis in difficult real world media.

    PubMed

    Banks, Craig E; Compton, Richard G

    2004-08-01

    This article outlines the recent progress in the field of sonoelectroanalysis with strong emphasis on 'real world media' analysis. General principles of stripping analysis and the effects of ultrasound are explained. A section on 'Electroanalysis in extreme media' presents several examples of applications including detection of copper in beer, manganese in tea, lead and cadmium in saliva. The benefits of diamond electrodes are described and in the final section 'Metal ion detection in blood' several novel approaches based on the use of power ultrasound and based on bismuth electrodes are discussed. Specifically it is shown that the combination of ultrasound with classical stripping voltammetry permits quantifiable measurements in media hitherto impossible to study using conventional methods.

  11. Implementation science in the real world: a streamlined model.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Anaya, Henry D

    2012-01-01

    The process of quality improvement may involve enhancing or revising existing practices or the introduction of a novel element. Principles of Implementation Science provide key theories to guide these processes, however, such theories tend to be highly technical in nature and do not provide pragmatic nor streamlined approaches to real-world implementation. This paper presents a concisely comprehensive six step theory-based Implementation Science model that we have successfully used to launch more than two-dozen self-sustaining implementations. In addition, we provide an abbreviated case study in which we used our streamlined theoretical model to successfully guide the development and implementation of an HIV testing/linkage to care campaign in homeless shelter settings in Los Angeles County. PMID:23163970

  12. Implementation science in the real world: a streamlined model.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Anaya, Henry D

    2012-01-01

    The process of quality improvement may involve enhancing or revising existing practices or the introduction of a novel element. Principles of Implementation Science provide key theories to guide these processes, however, such theories tend to be highly technical in nature and do not provide pragmatic nor streamlined approaches to real-world implementation. This paper presents a concisely comprehensive six step theory-based Implementation Science model that we have successfully used to launch more than two-dozen self-sustaining implementations. In addition, we provide an abbreviated case study in which we used our streamlined theoretical model to successfully guide the development and implementation of an HIV testing/linkage to care campaign in homeless shelter settings in Los Angeles County.

  13. Construction of Motion Database Based on Real-World Haptics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    This paper proposes a motion database based on real-world haptics. In order to treat advanced types of haptic information, the motion database contains not only the name of motion and position trajectory of a human operator but also force information. Moreover, the motion database is constructed and managed by a motion database management system, which performs the tasks of inserting, updating, retrieving, and deleting information pertaining to human motion. The motion database management system consists of a motion-copying system, which stores and reproduces the simple motions of the human operator. In this research, the validity and feasibility of the proposed method are verified. By using the proposed method, the motions of human operators in the industrial and medical fields can be stored, dynamically reproduced, and referred.

  14. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    PubMed

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature.

  15. Bridging the divide between laboratory and "real world" in stuttering.

    PubMed

    Venkatagiri, H S

    2004-08-01

    Stutterers stutter significantly less in the laboratory and the clinic than in everyday speaking situations. This paper reviews pertinent literature to show that, in the outside world, stutterers have a stake in what they say and therefore message content and interpersonal dynamics command attention-relegating speech-motor planning and execution to an automatic, memory-based process called speech concatenation. In the laboratory and the clinic, content of communication and interpersonal dynamics are less important, allowing stutterers to concentrate on the motor planning of articulation and prosody. Evidence reviewed here suggests that speech construction (real time preparation of an utterance motor plan) is incompatible with stuttering. Evidence also suggests that a slight delay in retrieving motor plans from memory during speech concatenation is the immediate source of stuttering.

  16. Cancer Models and Real-world Data: Better Together.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane J; Tosteson, Anna Na; Zauber, Ann G; Sprague, Brian L; Stout, Natasha K; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Armstrong, Katrina; Pruitt, Sandi L; Rutter, Carolyn M

    2016-02-01

    Decision-analytic models are increasingly used to inform health policy decisions. These models synthesize available data on disease burden and intervention effectiveness to project estimates of the long-term consequences of care, which are often absent when clinical or policy decisions must be made. While models have been influential in informing US cancer screening guidelines under ideal conditions, incorporating detailed data on real-world screening practice has been limited given the complexity of screening processes and behaviors throughout diverse health delivery systems in the United States. We describe the synergies that exist between decision-analytic models and health care utilization data that are increasingly accessible through research networks that assemble data from the growing number of electronic medical record systems. In particular, we present opportunities to enrich cancer screening models by grounding analyses in real-world data with the goals of projecting the harms and benefits of current screening practices, evaluating the value of existing and new technologies, and identifying the weakest links in the cancer screening process where efforts for improvement may be most productively focused. We highlight the example of the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR), a collaboration to harmonize and analyze screening process and outcomes data on breast, colorectal, and cervical cancers across seven research centers. The pairing of models with such data can create more robust models to not only better inform policy but also inform health care systems about best approaches to improve the provision of cancer screening in the United States.

  17. The real world and lunar base activation scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    A lunar base or a network of lunar bases may have highly desirable support functions in a national or international program to explore and settle Mars. In addition, He-3 exported from the Moon could be the basis for providing much of the energy needs of humankind in the twenty-first century. Both technical and managerial issues must be addressed when considering the establishment of a lunar base that can serve the needs of human civilization in space. Many of the technical issues become evident in the consideration of hypothetical scenarios for the activation of a network of lunar bases. Specific and realistic assumptions must be made about the conduct of various types of activities in addition to the general assumptions given above. These activities include landings, crew consumables, power production, crew selection, risk management, habitation, science station placement, base planning, science, agriculture, resource evaluation, readaptation, plant activation and test, storage module landings, resource transport module landings, integrated operations, maintenance, Base 2 activation, and management. The development of scenarios for the activation of a lunar base or network of bases will require close attention to the 'real world' of space operations. That world is defined by the natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense.

  18. Navigational referencing techniques for real-world environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobart R.; Gage, Douglas W.

    1995-12-01

    The most significant challenge encountered in the implementation of the MDARS Interior security robot system has involved navigational referencing -- the ongoing process of determining a mobile robot's position relative to a specified global frame of reference. Sensors and processing used in local navigation (determining position relative to objects in the environment and not colliding with them en route) can also support global navigation in a mapped environment. The task involves not only detecting and localizing features in the robot's environment, but also establishing with some confidence that these features are in fact specific features that appear in the world model. This perceptual function is one that humans do easily and instinctively, while robotic capabilities in this regard are rudimentary at best. This paper discusses a number of candidate approaches to navigational referencing applicable to indoor operating environments in terms of relevant evaluation criteria (including performance, cost, and generality of applicability), and describes how the experience of phased testing in real-world environments has driven the evolution of the MDARS system design.

  19. Flat world versus real world : where is weathering the most important ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godderis, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mountain ranges are a key driver of the Earth climates. Acting on a large range of timescales, they modulate the atmospheric and oceanic circulations but also plays a crucial role in regulating the geological carbon cycle through their impacts on erosion and continental weathering. Since the 90's, there is an ongoing debate about the role of the mountain uplift on the long term global cooling of the Earth climate. Mountain ranges are thought to enhance silicate weathering and the associated CO2 consumption. But this has been repeatedly questioned in the recent years. Here we present a new method for modeling the spatial distribution of both physical erosion and coupled chemical weathering. The IPSL ocean-atmosphere model calculates the continental climate, which is used to force the erosion/weathering model. We first compare the global silicate weathering for two geographical configurations: the present-day world with mountain ranges, and a world where all mountains have been removed. Depending on the chosen formalism for silicate weathering and on the climate changes linked to the removal of mountains, it can be higher in the flat world than in the real world, or up to 5 times weaker. In the second part of the talk, we will explore the role of the Hercynian mountain range on the onset and demise of the late Paleozoic ice age, within the context of the Pangea assembly.

  20. Multi-bubble sonoluminescence: laboratory curiosity, or real world application?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, P.; Lawton, L.; Robertson, P.; Campbell, P. A.

    2008-08-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL) involves the conversion of mechanical [ultra]sound energy into light. Whilst the phenomenon is invariably inefficient, typically converting just 10-4 of the incident acoustic energy into photons, it is nonetheless extraordinary, as the resultant energy density of the emergent photons exceeds that of the ultrasonic driving field by a factor of some 1012. Sonoluminescence has specific [as yet untapped] advantages in that it can be effected at remote locations in an essentially wireless format. The only [usual] requirement is energy transduction via the violent oscillation of microscopic bubbles within the propagating medium. The dependence of sonoluminescent output on the generating sound field's parameters, such as pulse duration, duty cycle, and position within the field, have been observed and measured previously, and several relevant aspects are discussed presently. We also extrapolate the logic from a recently published analysis relating to the ensuing dynamics of bubble 'clouds' that have been stimulated by ultrasound. Here, the intention was to develop a relevant [yet computationally simplistic] model that captured the essential physical qualities expected from real sonoluminescent microbubble clouds. We focused on the inferred temporal characteristics of SL light output from a population of such bubbles, subjected to intermediate [0.5-2MPa] ultrasonic pressures. Finally, whilst direct applications for sonoluminescent light output are thought unlikely in the main, we proceed to frame the state-of-the- art against several presently existing technologies that could form adjunct approaches with distinct potential for enhancing present sonoluminescent light output that may prove useful in real world [biomedical] applications.

  1. Establishing Real-World Connections for a Better Understanding of Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David

    2009-01-01

    Many physics teachers would agree that students making real-world connections is a critical aspect of learning physics, but what does this really mean? Merely seeing a real-world application of a physical concept does not necessarily allow students to incorporate the concept into the way they perceive their world. It is not just seeing the…

  2. Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano: the First Volcanological Observatory in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avvisati, Gala; de Vita, Sandro; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; Tulino, Sabrina; Uzzo, Tullia; Ghilardi, Massimo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV), historic home of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is the oldest volcanological observatory in the world. It was founded in 1841 by the Bourbon king of Naples. The building is located on the western slope of Mount Vesuvius, one of the most famous and dangerous volcanoes in the world. Since its foundation, the ROV has always attracted researchers, visitors and students from many countries. The ROV site is an elegant neo-classical building which at present hosts permanent exhibitions of part of its inheritance of valuable mineral, scientific instrument and art collections. A radical change is now under way, starting with the structural reinforcement of the building, renewal and upgrading of services, and the redefinition of exhibition itineraries so as to make visits still more enjoyable and informative. This will include the integration of outdoor footpaths and theme-based routes designed for users of differing levels of expertise. This major transformation also involves a study and a number of operations aimed at the possibility of developing self-financed activities. To this end an analysis of tourist movements in Campania was conducted, in part so as to attract to the ROV a larger and more varied group of visitors. In an area that - despite its unique characteristics - is currently significantly degraded and underused, the creation of such a powerful tourist and cultural attraction would serve as a focus for the development of additional activities and services that would greatly enhance it and stimulate growth. These activities would, of course, be compatible with a territory that has a high risk of volcanic hazards - indeed, such growth would constitute an important component in mitigating this risk in the area. The example given illustrates how the restoration and enhancement of a piece of our historic, scientific and cultural heritage could be the driving force behind the economic revival of an

  3. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks.

    PubMed

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-12-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others' popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets' sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity-social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity-valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members' popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior. PMID:26598684

  4. Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Neil C.

    2008-10-01

    A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

  5. Gender differences in real-world hearing protector attenuation.

    PubMed

    Abel, S M; Alberti, P W; Rokas, D

    1988-04-01

    This research investigated the possibility of differences in real-world attenuation attributable to gender. A total of 160 subjects, 80 males and 80 females, under the age of 45 years, and with normal hearing, were tested. Subjects were assigned to four hearing protector categories with the restriction that there were 20 males and 20 females in each group. The devices chosen for study were the E-A-R expandable foam plug, the Willson Sound Silencer premolded vinyl plug with double flange, the Bilsom Soft polyethylene encapsulated glass fiber plug, and the MSA Ear Defender (V-51R) premolded vinyl plug with single flange. Binaural headphone detection thresholds were measured in quiet with the open ear, and subsequently with protectors fitted binaurally for one-third octave noise bands centered at 250, 500, 1000, 3150 and 6300 Hz. The results indicated that attenuation scores achieved by females were less than those observed for males when the device was sold in only one size. Apart from the question of adequate sizing, for two of the insert protectors studied, mean achieved attenuation fell short of the manufacturer's specifications by as much as 18 dB, for particular frequencies tested. The relatively wide variation in scores observed for all four protectors in spite of experimenter-fit could not be accounted for by differences in either hearing threshold across subjects or by size of plug fit, for those devices available in several sizes.

  6. Memory-color test forms in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, Stephen

    2003-12-01

    Many images are received for distribution and reproduction without the possibility of a comparison to the source image. Image quality is difficult to measure and quantify without such a source image. However, test photographs consisting of memory colors can be compared to a remembered image. Test forms consisting of photographs of the real world are the only source of memory colors. They are used to test a graphic-arts color workflow. Such tests: (1) Display the color quality of various output devices. (2) Describe color differences by comparing the difference between reproduction of a test photograph and the remembered colors. (3) Help achieve a preferred state of color reproduction. (4) Characterize reproduction gamut problems of an output device. (5) Remotely trouble-shoot a color workflow. The human visual system cannot provide a precise measurement of quality but does provide direction and goals for a correction process. The criteria for the selection of image content and the usefulness of test photographs are described.

  7. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks

    PubMed Central

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S.; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others’ popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets’ sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity–social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity–valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members’ popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior. PMID:26598684

  8. Monte Carlo modelling of positron transport in real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanović, S.; Banković, A.; Šuvakov, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unstable nature of positrons and their short lifetime, it is difficult to obtain high positron particle densities. This is why the Monte Carlo simulation technique, as a swarm method, is very suitable for modelling most of the current positron applications involving gaseous and liquid media. The ongoing work on the measurements of cross-sections for positron interactions with atoms and molecules and swarm calculations for positrons in gasses led to the establishment of good cross-section sets for positron interaction with gasses commonly used in real-world applications. Using the standard Monte Carlo technique and codes that can follow both low- (down to thermal energy) and high- (up to keV) energy particles, we are able to model different systems directly applicable to existing experimental setups and techniques. This paper reviews the results on modelling Surko-type positron buffer gas traps, application of the rotating wall technique and simulation of positron tracks in water vapor as a substitute for human tissue, and pinpoints the challenges in and advantages of applying Monte Carlo simulations to these systems.

  9. Field Balancing in the Real World: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, R.K.; Surrett, C.L.

    1999-10-06

    This paper is a follow-up to an earlier paper, Field Balancing in the Real World, which was presented at CSI Reliability Week 1997 in Nashville. Case studies of excessive vibrations on fans at ORNL will be discussed. Except for a few small sections from the earlier paper, this paper is entirely new. The case studies are new. As in the first paper, all fans are rigid-rotor type fans. Normal operation, therefore, is at less than the shaft's first critical speed. The presentation of case studies with root cause problems other than unbalance is a major departure from the first paper. We believe they belong here, since unbalance is suspected most of the time when a fan is vibrating excessively, even when it is not the root cause. In reality, unbalance is the underlying cause of the excess vibration on fans we have fixed at ORNL only about half the time. Furthermore, the analyst's credibility could be called into question upon an unsuccessful attempt at field balancing when underlying causes are later discovered and fixed. A demonstration will follow the case study presentation. The additional tests described in this paper to confirm centrifugal force (probable unbalance) will be performed.

  10. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks.

    PubMed

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-12-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others' popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets' sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity-social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity-valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members' popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior.

  11. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    PubMed

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised.

  12. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  13. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  14. Probing Real Sensory Worlds of Receivers with Unsupervised Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Michael; Hartbauer, Manfred; Lang, Alexander B.; Maass, Wolfgang; Römer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    The task of an organism to extract information about the external environment from sensory signals is based entirely on the analysis of ongoing afferent spike activity provided by the sense organs. We investigate the processing of auditory stimuli by an acoustic interneuron of insects. In contrast to most previous work we do this by using stimuli and neurophysiological recordings directly in the nocturnal tropical rainforest, where the insect communicates. Different from typical recordings in sound proof laboratories, strong environmental noise from multiple sound sources interferes with the perception of acoustic signals in these realistic scenarios. We apply a recently developed unsupervised machine learning algorithm based on probabilistic inference to find frequently occurring firing patterns in the response of the acoustic interneuron. We can thus ask how much information the central nervous system of the receiver can extract from bursts without ever being told which type and which variants of bursts are characteristic for particular stimuli. Our results show that the reliability of burst coding in the time domain is so high that identical stimuli lead to extremely similar spike pattern responses, even for different preparations on different dates, and even if one of the preparations is recorded outdoors and the other one in the sound proof lab. Simultaneous recordings in two preparations exposed to the same acoustic environment reveal that characteristics of burst patterns are largely preserved among individuals of the same species. Our study shows that burst coding can provide a reliable mechanism for acoustic insects to classify and discriminate signals under very noisy real-world conditions. This gives new insights into the neural mechanisms potentially used by bushcrickets to discriminate conspecific songs from sounds of predators in similar carrier frequency bands. PMID:22701566

  15. Probing real sensory worlds of receivers with unsupervised clustering.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Michael; Hartbauer, Manfred; Lang, Alexander B; Maass, Wolfgang; Römer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    The task of an organism to extract information about the external environment from sensory signals is based entirely on the analysis of ongoing afferent spike activity provided by the sense organs. We investigate the processing of auditory stimuli by an acoustic interneuron of insects. In contrast to most previous work we do this by using stimuli and neurophysiological recordings directly in the nocturnal tropical rainforest, where the insect communicates. Different from typical recordings in sound proof laboratories, strong environmental noise from multiple sound sources interferes with the perception of acoustic signals in these realistic scenarios. We apply a recently developed unsupervised machine learning algorithm based on probabilistic inference to find frequently occurring firing patterns in the response of the acoustic interneuron. We can thus ask how much information the central nervous system of the receiver can extract from bursts without ever being told which type and which variants of bursts are characteristic for particular stimuli. Our results show that the reliability of burst coding in the time domain is so high that identical stimuli lead to extremely similar spike pattern responses, even for different preparations on different dates, and even if one of the preparations is recorded outdoors and the other one in the sound proof lab. Simultaneous recordings in two preparations exposed to the same acoustic environment reveal that characteristics of burst patterns are largely preserved among individuals of the same species. Our study shows that burst coding can provide a reliable mechanism for acoustic insects to classify and discriminate signals under very noisy real-world conditions. This gives new insights into the neural mechanisms potentially used by bushcrickets to discriminate conspecific songs from sounds of predators in similar carrier frequency bands.

  16. From top Above to Down Under: Linking the Real World With UnderWorld Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D. R.; Heine, C.; May, D.; Moresi, L.

    2005-12-01

    Intraplate sedimentary basins often show a subsidence behaviour which can not be explained by the classical rift models. It appears that the basement heterogeneity is one of the major factors controlling the formation and long-term evolution of those basins. In our project we have tried to integrate the results of an observational study on global intraplate sedimentary basins with particle-in-cell finite element models. By using the UnderWorld(ex SNARK) and Ellipsis2d codes, we are building a numerical model library for different crustal extension scenarios involving a varying heterogeneous basement architecture and attempting to connect the ``pure'' numerical models with real world data as tightly as possible. The direct linking of numerical models with large scale observations offers a new powerful way to investigate the complex lithosphere dynamics and geological processes that account for the evolution of intraplate basins, and the influence of the basement architecture on basin evolution. Here we present the infrastructure and workflow of this new approach together with a first set of modelling results.

  17. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  18. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  19. Connecting Students to the Real World: Developing Gifted Behaviors through Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Davis, Micah N.; Chancey, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning in today's classrooms can be disconnected from students' real world experiences. Providing students the opportunity to address real-world problems may provide avenues for students to engage in their communities while developing academic skills and knowledge. Additionally, for students whose interests are piqued by the nature of their…

  20. Teaching Math and Science in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Marianne, Ed.; Blaser, Stephanie, Ed.; Raack, Lenaya, Ed.; Kinder, Ann, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue offers a collection of timely topics focused on mathematics and science education. It uncovers the past, present, and future of the national standards movement in mathematics and science education with two articles entitled "Setting Standards for Excellence" and "On the Road to REAL Progress." A close-up look at students doing real-life…

  1. Real-World Units in the Conceptual Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo, Blanca; Pierson, Bo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    During an eight-week series of investigations, a class of third-grade students learned how interactions between forces are used to advance technology in their world. This five-part forces and interaction unit was led by a guiding question: How does engineering and design work in the world, and how does it affect our lives? As they explored this…

  2. Training Real World Trainers from the Ivory Tower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallington, Clint

    While most training and development/institutional development professionals are familiar with either the world of formal higher education or the world of training in the business/industrial sector, few training and development practitioners are familiar with both. It is necessary to coordinate the efforts between these two spheres in order to…

  3. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    PubMed

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims. PMID:23584861

  4. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    PubMed

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  5. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Kar, Rahul; Foley, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  6. Strategic Control in the Real World: A Multidisciplinary Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Robert L.; Regel, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This research paper was developed after completing and publishing articles using the Balanced Scorecard as a means of achieving strategic objectives of over twenty destination ski resorts. We believe the balanced scorecard idea is essentially a new model of the way the world works and should be conceptualized. Our research has helped answer a…

  7. Bringing the "Real World" into the Advertising Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Bob

    The world of mass communications has been hard hit by the decline in advertising revenues in print and electronic media, resulting in very few internships for undergraduates and making these students much less attractive as candidates for entry level jobs in advertising. Consequently, advertising faculty should reassess their programs to better…

  8. Online Textbooks Deliver Timely, Real-World Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of keeping up with the rapidly changing field of information systems, author and teacher John Gallaugher opted to write an open source textbook with a new online company, Flat World Knowledge (FWK). Gallaugher's open source textbook, "Information Systems: A Manager's Guide to Harnessing Technology", has an expected…

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope RealWorld-InWorld Design Challenge: Involving Professionals in a Virtual Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Margaret; Bowers, S.

    2011-01-01

    Students around the country are becoming experts on the James Webb Space Telescope by designing solutions to two of the design challenges presented by this complex mission. RealWorld-InWorld has two parts; the first (the Real World portion) has high-school students working face to face in their classroom as engineers and scientists. The InWorld phase starts December 15, 2010 as interested teachers and their teams of high school students register to move their work into a 3D multi-user virtual world environment. At the start of this phase, college students from all over the country choose a registered team to lead InWorld. Each InWorld team is also assigned an engineer or scientist mentor. In this virtual world setting, each team refines their design solutions and creates a 3D model of the Webb telescope. InWorld teams will use 21st century tools to collaborate and build in the virtual world environment. Each team will learn, not only from their own team members, but will have the opportunity to interact with James Webb Space Telescope researchers through the virtual world setting, which allows for synchronous interactions. Halfway through the challenge, design solutions will be critiqued and a mystery problem will be introduced for each team. The top five teams will be invited to present their work during a synchronous Education Forum April 14, 2011. The top team will earn scholarships and technology. This is an excellent opportunity for professionals in both astronomy and associated engineering disciplines to become involved with a unique educational program. Besides the chance to mentor a group of interested students, there are many opportunities to interact with the students as a guest, via chats and presentations.

  10. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models. PMID:25968276

  11. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models.

  12. Tangible display systems: bringing virtual surfaces into the real world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferwerda, James A.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing tangible display systems that enable natural interaction with virtual surfaces. Tangible display systems are based on modern mobile devices that incorporate electronic image displays, graphics hardware, tracking systems, and digital cameras. Custom software allows the orientation of a device and the position of the observer to be tracked in real-time. Using this information, realistic images of surfaces with complex textures and material properties illuminated by environment-mapped lighting, can be rendered to the screen at interactive rates. Tilting or moving in front of the device produces realistic changes in surface lighting and material appearance. In this way, tangible displays allow virtual surfaces to be observed and manipulated as naturally as real ones, with the added benefit that surface geometry and material properties can be modified in real-time. We demonstrate the utility of tangible display systems in four application areas: material appearance research; computer-aided appearance design; enhanced access to digital library and museum collections; and new tools for digital artists.

  13. Water from Space: Real World Opportunities and Far Away Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, N.; Garcia, L. E.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.

    2015-12-01

    A Global Initiative on Remote Sensing for Water Resources Management (Water RS) was launched in October 2013, financed by the World Bank's Water Partnership Program (WPP[1]) of the Global Water Program. It aims, among other things, to put together and disseminate, in collaboration with the Bank's operational staff as well as external partners, a clear picture of the potential role of Earth Observations (EO) in solution approaches to address particular water-related issues.The initiative focuses on the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the EO products to be used by decision makers in water related management and planning contexts. To make informed decisions, the client needs to know about the potential and the limitations of practical application of remote sensing technology and products, through informed recommendations and the development of practical, result-oriented tools. Thus, the objective of the Water RS initiative is to address this issue by taking a two-phase approach focusing respectively on: (i) identifying demand and priorities of the users while raising awareness on the potential and limitation of RS tools and (ii) bridging the gap between science and development of operational projects.While the first phase has come to completion, the second phase is being designed to tackle some of the reasons why there have been rather limited applications in the developing world (World Bank clients), such as: incentive issues, implementation capacity, costs and financing, and the overall issue of "How to do it?. An overview of the initiative and the lessons learned to date will be presented, setting the stage for muti-partner discussions. [1] The Water Partnership Program (WPP) is a longstanding alliance between the World Bank and the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Austria.

  14. Beauty and the beholder: Highly individual taste for abstract, but not real-world images

    PubMed Central

    Vessel, Edward A.; Rubin, Nava

    2012-01-01

    How individual are visual preferences? For real-world scenes, there is high agreement in observer’s preference ratings. This could be driven by visual attributes of the images but also by non-visual associations, since those are common to most individuals. To investigate this, we developed a set of novel abstract, visually diverse images. At the individual observer level both abstract and real-world images yielded robust and consistent visual preferences, and yet abstract images yielded much lower across observer agreement in preferences than did real-world images. This suggests that visual preferences are typically driven by the semantic content of stimuli, and that shared semantic interpretations then lead to shared preferences. Further experiments showed that highly individual preferences can nevertheless emerge also for real-world scenes, in contexts which de-emphasize their semantic associations. PMID:20462319

  15. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module IV, Entrepreneurship and the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students understand the marketplace; manage resources; apply…

  16. The Best of All Worlds: Immersive Interfaces for Art Education in Virtual and Real World Teaching and Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Janette

    2013-01-01

    Selected ubiquitous technologies encourage collaborative participation between higher education students and educators within a virtual socially networked e-learning landscape. Multiple modes of teaching and learning, ranging from real world experiences, to text and digital images accessed within the Deakin studies online learning management…

  17. Validation Of The Airspace Concept Evaluation System Using Real World Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of performing a validation of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) using real world historical flight operational data. ACES inputs are generated from select real world data and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day of operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). ACES outputs are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. Preliminary results indicate that ACES produces delays and airport operational metrics similar to the real world with minor variations of delay by phase of flight. ACES is a nation-wide fast-time simulation tool developed at NASA Ames Research Center. ACES models and simulates the NAS using interacting agents representing center control, terminal flow management, airports, individual flights, and other NAS elements. These agents pass messages between one another similar to real world communications. This distributed agent based system is designed to emulate the highly unpredictable nature of the NAS, making it a suitable tool to evaluate current and envisioned airspace concepts. To ensure that ACES produces the most realistic results, the system must be validated. There is no way to validate future concepts scenarios using real world historical data, but current day scenario validations increase confidence in the validity of future scenario results. Each operational day has unique weather and traffic demand schedules. The more a simulation utilizes the unique characteristic of a specific day, the more realistic the results should be. ACES is able to simulate the full scale demand traffic necessary to perform a validation using real world data. Through direct comparison with the real world, models may continuee to be improved and unusual trends and biases may be filtered out of the system or used to normalize the results of future concept simulations.

  18. Incorporating a Real World Case Study into a Senior Construction Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fini, Eli H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of bringing real world case studies on college students' self efficacy, their confidence, and their motivation toward an engineering field. It was found that working with real cases increases student's motivation and maximizes their learning by becoming personally committed to course and program goals. As a…

  19. Virtual School, Real Experience: Simulations Replicate the World of Practice for Aspiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol

    2013-01-01

    A web-enabled computer simulation program presents real-world opportunities, problems, and challenges for aspiring principals. The simulation challenges areas that are not always covered in lectures, textbooks, or workshops. For example, using the simulation requires dealing--on-screen and in real time--with demanding parents, observing…

  20. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  1. A Real-World Perspective on Molecular Design.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Bernd; Guba, Wolfgang; Hert, Jérôme; Banner, David; Bissantz, Caterina; Ceccarelli, Simona; Haap, Wolfgang; Körner, Matthias; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Lerner, Christian; Mattei, Patrizio; Neidhart, Werner; Pinard, Emmanuel; Rudolph, Markus G; Schulz-Gasch, Tanja; Woltering, Thomas; Stahl, Martin

    2016-05-12

    We present a series of small molecule drug discovery case studies where computational methods were prospectively employed to impact Roche research projects, with the aim of highlighting those methods that provide real added value. Our brief accounts encompass a broad range of methods and techniques applied to a variety of enzymes and receptors. Most of these are based on judicious application of knowledge about molecular conformations and interactions: filling of lipophilic pockets to gain affinity or selectivity, addition of polar substituents, scaffold hopping, transfer of SAR, conformation analysis, and molecular overlays. A case study of sequence-driven focused screening is presented to illustrate how appropriate preprocessing of information enables effective exploitation of prior knowledge. We conclude that qualitative statements enabling chemists to focus on promising regions of chemical space are often more impactful than quantitative prediction. PMID:26878596

  2. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  3. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  4. Welcome to the real world: reflections on teaching and administration.

    PubMed

    Miller, K J

    2000-12-01

    The author compares his former position as an assistant professor in a program preparing future teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students with his present position as an administrator of a public school program serving these students. He maintains that in some ways, teacher training programs in deafness and the public school settings hiring these graduates are separate worlds. The emphasis in teacher training programs appears to be on preparing graduates to work with deaf students in self-contained or residential school settings even though most teaching positions are with hard of hearing students mainstreamed in public schools. Other important areas, such as collaboration with general education teachers, litigation, parental relationships, and individualized education programs, seem to be overlooked by teacher training programs. The author employs the mockingbird metaphor from the novel To Kill A Mockingbird (Lee, 1960) to highlight differences between teacher training programs and public school settings, while making recommendations for strengthening connections between the two.

  5. A turbidity current model for real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; Morales, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    Traditional turbidity current models suffer from several drawbacks. Among them not preserving freshwater mass, a missing pressure term, or not including terms related to deposition, erosion and entrainment in the momentum equation. In Morales et al.(2009) a new turbidity current model was proposed trying to overcome all these drawbacks. This model takes into account the interaction between the turbidity current and the bottom, considering deposition and erosion effects as well as solid bedload transport of particles at the bed due to the current. Moreover, this model includes the effects of the deposition, erosion and water entrainment into the momentum equation,commonly neglected in this type of models and, finally, in the absence of water entrainment, freshwater mass in the turbidity current is preserved. Despite these improvements, the numerical results obtained by this model when applied to real river systems were not satisfactory due to the simple form of the friction term that was considered. In the present work we propose a different parameterization of this term, where bottom and interface fluid frictions are separately parameterized with more complex expressions. Moreover, the discretization of the deposition/erosion terms is now performed semi-implicitly which guarantees the positivity of the volumetric concentration of sediments in suspension and in the erodible sediment layer at the bed. The numerical simulations obtained with this new turbidity current model (component of HySEA numerical computing platform) greatly improve previous numerical results for simplified geometries as well as for real river systems. Acknowledgements: This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069) and the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Andalucía TECH. References: T. Morales, M. Castro, C. Parés, and E. Fernández-Nieto (2009). On

  6. Map Matching and Real World Integrated Sensor Data Warehousing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.

    2014-02-01

    The inclusion of interlinked temporal and spatial elements within integrated sensor data enables a tremendous degree of flexibility when analyzing multi-component datasets. The presentation illustrates how to warehouse, process, and analyze high-resolution integrated sensor datasets to support complex system analysis at the entity and system levels. The example cases presented utilizes in-vehicle sensor system data to assess vehicle performance, while integrating a map matching algorithm to link vehicle data to roads to demonstrate the enhanced analysis possible via interlinking data elements. Furthermore, in addition to the flexibility provided, the examples presented illustrate concepts of maintaining proprietary operational information (Fleet DNA) and privacy of study participants (Transportation Secure Data Center) while producing widely distributed data products. Should real-time operational data be logged at high resolution across multiple infrastructure types, map matched to their associated infrastructure, and distributed employing a similar approach; dependencies between urban environment infrastructures components could be better understood. This understanding is especially crucial for the cities of the future where transportation will rely more on grid infrastructure to support its energy demands.

  7. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Diane E.; Briceño, Emily M.; Sindone, Joseph A.; Alexander, Neil B.; Moffat, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate path integration (PI) requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in PI abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in PI in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 years) and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 years) adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks (TCTs) performed in a virtual environment (VE) and two “real world” conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For TCTs, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition, and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks (DRTs), in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in PI vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway. PMID:23055969

  8. Abstract spatial concept priming dynamically influences real-world actions.

    PubMed

    Tower-Richardi, Sarah M; Brunyé, Tad T; Gagnon, Stephanie A; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2012-01-01

    Experienced regularities in our perceptions and actions play important roles in grounding abstract concepts such as social status, time, and emotion. Might we similarly ground abstract spatial concepts in more experienced-based domains? The present experiment explores this possibility by implicitly priming abstract spatial terms (north, south, east, west) and then measuring participants' hand movement trajectories while they respond to a body-referenced spatial target (up, down, left, right) in a verbal (Exp. 1) or spatial (Exp. 2) format. Results from two experiments demonstrate temporally dynamic and prime biased movement trajectories when the primes are incongruent with the targets (e.g., north - left, west - up). That is, priming abstract coordinate directions influences subsequent actions in response to concrete target directions. These findings provide the first evidence that abstract concepts of world-centered coordinate axes are implicitly understood in the context of concrete body-referenced axes; critically, this abstract-concrete relationship manifests in motor movements, and may have implications for spatial memory organization.

  9. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  10. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Andrew S.; Wing, Erik K.; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M.; Vack, Nathan J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. PMID:26203145

  11. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion.

  12. How prevention curricula are taught under real-world conditions

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L.; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John; Krieger, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As interventions are disseminated widely, issues of fidelity and adaptation become increasingly critical to understand. This study aims to describe the types of adaptations made by teachers delivering a school-based substance use prevention curriculum and their reasons for adapting program content. Design/methodology/approach To determine the degree to which implementers adhere to a prevention curriculum, naturally adapt the curriculum, and the reasons implementers give for making adaptations, the study examined lesson adaptations made by the 31 teachers who implemented the keepin' it REAL drug prevention curriculum in 7th grade classrooms (n = 25 schools). Data were collected from teacher self-reports after each lesson and observer coding of videotaped lessons. From the total sample, 276 lesson videos were randomly selected for observational analysis. Findings Teachers self-reported adapting more than 68 percent of prevention lessons, while independent observers reported more than 97 percent of the observed lessons were adapted in some way. Types of adaptations included: altering the delivery of the lesson by revising the delivery timetable or delivery context; changing content of the lesson by removing, partially covering, revising, or adding content; and altering the designated format of the lesson (such as assigning small group activities to students as individual work). Reasons for adaptation included responding to constraints (time, institutional, personal, and technical), and responding to student needs (students' abilities to process curriculum content, to enhance student engagement with material). Research limitations/implications The study sample was limited to rural schools in the US mid-Atlantic; however, the results suggest that if programs are to be effectively implemented, program developers need a better understanding of the types of adaptations and reasons implementers provide for adapting curricula. Practical implications These descriptive

  13. Haemophilia in a real-world setting: the value of clinical experience in data collection.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Gerry; Iorio, Alfonso; Jokela, Vuokko; Juusola, Kristian; Lassila, Riitta

    2016-02-01

    At the 8th Annual Congress of the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders (EAHAD) held in Helsinki, Finland, in February 2015, Pfizer sponsored a satellite symposium entitled: 'Haemophilia in a real-world setting: The value of clinical experience in data collection' Co-chaired by Riitta Lassila (Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland) and Gerry Dolan (Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK); the symposium provided an opportunity to explore the practical value of real-world data in informing clinical decision-making. Gerry Dolan provided an introduction to the symposium by describing what is meant by real-world data (RWD), stressing the role RWD can play in optimising patient outcomes in haemophilia and highlighting the responsibility of all stakeholders to collaborate in continuous data collection. Kristian Juusola (Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland) then provided personal experience as a haemophilia nurse around patient views on adherence to treatment regimes, and how collecting insights into real-world use of treatment can shape approaches to improving adherence. The importance of elucidating pharmacokinetic parameters in a real-world setting was then explored by Vuokko Jokela (Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland). Finally, Alfonso Iorio (McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) highlighted the importance of quality data collection in translating clinical reality into scientific advances.

  14. Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults.

    PubMed

    Kretch, Kari S; Adolph, Karen E

    2015-09-01

    Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real-world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real-world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real-world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Demands for visual guidance of action were minimal in mothers and absent for infants, so both engaged in free viewing while moving through the environment. Similar to screen-based studies, during free viewing in the real world low-level saliency was related to gaze direction. In contrast to screen-based studies, only infants - not adults - were biased to look at people, participants of both ages did not show a classic center bias, and mothers and infants did not display high levels of inter-observer consistency. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world.

  15. Active Vision in Passive Locomotion: Real-World Free Viewing in Infants and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Demands for visual guidance of action were minimal in mothers and absent for infants, so both engaged in free viewing while moving through the environment. Similar to screen-based studies, during free viewing in the real world low-level saliency was related to gaze direction. In contrast to screen-based studies, only infants—not adults—were biased to look at people, participants of both ages did not show a classic center bias, and mothers and infants did not display high levels of inter-observer consistency. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world. PMID:25438618

  16. Direct Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Profiling of Real-World Samples via a Solid Sampling Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-10-01

    This study presents a novel direct analysis strategy for rapid mass spectrometric profiling of biochemicals in real-world samples via a direct sampling probe (DSP) without sample pretreatments. Chemical modification is applied to a disposable stainless steel acupuncture needle to enhance its surface area and hydrophilicity. After insertion into real-world samples, biofluid can be attached on the DSP surface. With the presence of a high DC voltage and solvent vapor condensing on the tip of the DSP, analyte can be dissolved and electrosprayed. The simplicity in design, versatility in application aspects, and other advantages such as low cost and disposability make this new method a competitive tool for direct analysis of real-world samples.

  17. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  18. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Jacqueline C; Skiba, Rafal M; Coleman, Taylor L; Berryhill, Marian E

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent). We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects vs. color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition.

  19. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Jacqueline C.; Skiba, Rafal M.; Coleman, Taylor L.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent). We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects vs. color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition. PMID:25368568

  20. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Jacqueline C; Skiba, Rafal M; Coleman, Taylor L; Berryhill, Marian E

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent). We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects vs. color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition. PMID:25368568

  1. Neural basis of thinking: laboratory problems versus real-world problems.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive psychologists have long argued about the reality and significance of the distinction between well-structured and ill-structured problems. Laboratory problems are usually well-structured, whereas real-world problems have both well-structured and ill-structured components. This article shows how the neuropsychological data reinforce this distinction and suggests how this distinction may help to explain a puzzle about discontinuous performance of some neurological patients in laboratory and real-world problem situations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  2. Auditory Cortical Processing in Real-World Listening: The Auditory System Going Real

    PubMed Central

    Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well. PMID:25392481

  3. Auditory cortical processing in real-world listening: the auditory system going real.

    PubMed

    Nelken, Israel; Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-12

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well. PMID:25392481

  4. Combining Real World Experiences with WorldWide Telescope Visualization to Build a Better Parallax Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, E. F.; Gingrich, E. C.; Nottis, K. E. K.; Udomprasert, P.; Goodman, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    We present a lab activity designed to help students understand the concept of parallax in both astronomical and non-astronomical contexts. In an outdoor setting, students learn the methodology of distance determination via parallax. They identify a distant landmark to establish a reference of direction, and then measure the change in apparent direction for more nearby objects as they change position in a 2 meter radius “orbit” around the “Sun.” This hands-on activity involves large, visually-discernable angles so that students can internalize the concept of parallax from everyday experience. However, students often have difficulty transferring this experience to the astronomical realm, so we pair this hands-on activity with a more explicitly astronomically-based activity using the WorldWide Telescope visualization environment. Students apply the same methodology in this environment and learn how the apparent motion of stars is related to their distance from Earth. The combination of hands-on activity and computer-aided visualization is designed to produce a deeper understanding of parallax in the astronomical environment, and an improved understanding of the inherently three-dimensional distribution of objects in our universe. More formal assessment is underway.

  5. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Proficiencies in Solving Real-World Problems: Approaches, Strategies and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Yilmaz; Bayazit, Ibrahim; Dönmez, S. Merve Kirnap

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates approaches, strategies and models used by prospective primary school teachers in responding to real-world problems. The research was carried out with 82 participants. Data were collected through written-exam and semi-structured interviews; and they were analysed using content and discourse analysis methods. Most of the…

  6. Teaching for Statistical Literacy: Utilising Affordances in Real-World Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L.; Pierce, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that context is important in teaching mathematics and statistics. Consideration of context is central to statistical thinking, and any teaching of statistics must incorporate this aspect. Indeed, it has been advocated that real-world data sets can motivate the learning of statistical principles. It is not, however, a…

  7. Mining and Modeling Real-World Networks: Patterns, Anomalies, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, Leman

    2012-01-01

    Large real-world graph (a.k.a network, relational) data are omnipresent, in online media, businesses, science, and the government. Analysis of these massive graphs is crucial, in order to extract descriptive and predictive knowledge with many commercial, medical, and environmental applications. In addition to its general structure, knowing what…

  8. A Test of the Tau-Dot Hypothesis of Braking Control in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Paul B.; Harris, Mike G.; Yates, Tim

    2006-01-01

    A controlled experiment used instrumented vehicles in a real-world driving task to compare D. N. Lee's (1976) tau-dot hypothesis of braking control with an alternative based on the direct estimation and control of ideal deceleration (T. Yates, M. Harris, & P. Rock, 2004). Drivers braked to stop as closely as possible to a visual target from…

  9. Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Falling Bodies in Idealized and Real-World Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahyadi, M. Veronica; Butler, Philip H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the understanding of 18 first-year undergraduate students when simultaneously presented with two contrasting dynamical situations: the idealized (without air resistance) and real-world cases of balls being dropped or thrown. Previous work has shown that getting students to recognize flaws in their mental models helps them…

  10. Bringing the Real World in: Reflection on Building a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundkur, Anuradha; Ellickson, Cara

    2012-01-01

    We reflect on translating participatory and experiential learning methodologies into an online teaching environment through a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that simulates the "real-world" contexts of international development in order to develop an applied critical understanding of gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. Rather than being…

  11. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  12. Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion chromatography (IC) as a means to teach important analytical concepts while giving the students a valuable opportunity to identify and investigate a real-world system of interest to them is described. A single IC apparatus can be tailored for different classes of analyses by the selection of different column-eluent combinations.

  13. Prioritization of New Objects in Real-World Scenes: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmole, James R.; Henderson, John M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the prioritization of abruptly appearing objects in real-world scenes by measuring the eyes' propensity to be directed to the new object. New objects were fixated more often than chance whether they appeared during fixations (transient onsets) or saccades (nontransient onsets). However, onsets that appeared during fixations…

  14. The future of real-world neuroscience: imaging techniques to assess active brains in social environments.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Fukuda, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Morita, Kentaro; Fujii, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    The human brain is characterized by an evolutionarily new, highly developed neocortex, which has characteristic connections with phylogenically older structures to enable adaptation to complex social environments. Adaptive social behavior requires successful mental representations of the self and others' emotions and intentions. Measurement of brain activity under laboratory-based settings has been the gold standard in previous cognitive neuroscience studies. However, these measurement settings may be sub-optimal if we want to visualize brain function in active individuals in real-world environments. Neuroscience has historically developed through generations of the "sensing brain," "emotional brain," "social brain," and "ego brain." The next generation is the "action brain" combined with "real-world neuroscience" perspective. To enable in situ measurement of the action brain, real-world or two-person neuroimaging techniques are necessary to visualize brain dynamics during natural social situations, such as the presence of others. This review discusses recent literature describing non-human primate (NHP) and human brain functions during active behaviors in social environments. Uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms of the active brain in the presence of others by using real-world neuroimaging will be an important step toward fully understanding the human brain and its mental functions.

  15. Teaching Molecular Phylogenetics through Investigating a Real-World Phylogenetic Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the "Introduction to biocomputing" course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify…

  16. Aligning High School Graduation Requirements with the Real World: A Road Map for States. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    The link between strong academic preparation in high school and success in college and careers is clearer than it has ever been. Recognizing that the standards students have to meet in the "real world" have become more demanding, governors and policymakers in a growing number of states are taking action to increase the requirements for earning a…

  17. Modeling and verifying the polarizing reflectance of real-world metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kai; Weidlich, Andrea; Wilkie, Alexander; Magnor, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Using measurements of real-world samples of metals, the proposed approach verifies predictions of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models. It employs ellipsometry to verify both the actual polarizing effect and the overall reflectance behavior of the metallic surfaces. PMID:24804944

  18. Working with Missing Data in Higher Education Research: A Primer and Real-World Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Bradley E.; McIntosh, Kadian; Reason, Robert D.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all quantitative analyses in higher education draw from incomplete datasets-a common problem with no universal solution. In the first part of this paper, we explain why missing data matter and outline the advantages and disadvantages of six common methods for handling missing data. Next, we analyze real-world data from 5,905 students across…

  19. Virtual Worlds: Relationship between Real Life and Experience in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstadt, Scott P.; Bradley, Shannon; Burnette, Ashley; Medley, Lesley L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the unique applications of virtual reality in many modern contexts, Second Life (SL) offers inimitable opportunities for research and exploration and experiential learning as part of a distance learning curriculum assignment. A review of current research regarding SL examined real world social influences in online interactions and what the…

  20. Are Real World Projects Worth the Risk? Evidence from Service Learning Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Janis; Glissmeyer, Michael; Gu, Qiannong

    2012-01-01

    Although service learning provides unparalleled real world experiential student learning opportunities and benefits to four major constituencies--student, faculty, community and institution, it takes place in an uncontrolled environment introducing uncertainty into the instructional process. Faculty might avoid this valuable approach to…

  1. Kids Are Consumers, Too! Real-World Reading and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Jan; Melvin, Mary; Bantz, Carol; Vause, Kate

    Designed to help youngsters with real-world learning, and with being a smart consumer, this book focuses on having students participate in decisions facing consumers every day. The book contends that this is the best way to help students think critically and solve problems. Activities in the book require students to make consumer decisions related…

  2. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  3. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  4. The STAR*D study: treating depression in the real world.

    PubMed

    Gaynes, Bradley N; Rush, A John; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Spencer, Donald; Fava, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study evaluated feasible treatment strategies to improve clinical outcomes for real-world patients with treatment-resistant depression. Although the study found no clear-cut "winner", it does provide guidance on how to start therapy and how to proceed if initial treatment fails.

  5. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  6. The Jasper Experiment: Using Video to Furnish Real-World Problem-Solving Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arithmetic Teacher, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a series of four problem-solving videodisc adventure stories designed for research purposes that provide students with open-ended problems based on real-world situations. Presents design principles, research results, the teacher's role, and technology issues related to the utilization of the series.…

  7. Alternative Assessment--Can Real-World Skills Be Tested? Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Karen; Gregg, Soleil

    Many educators are shifting their teaching strategies and approaches to include more emphasis on critical thinking skills, the communication of ideas, a variety of approaches to content emphasizing varied student learning styles, and the need to draw explicit connections among topics for retention of learning. Real-world assessment measures, then,…

  8. TV Crime News and Real-World Blues: A Panel Study of Social Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Garrett J.; Reid-Nash, Kathaleen

    The so-called "cultivation hypothesis" proposes that television content comprises an organic whole of interrelated themes and symbols not necessarily congruent with the real world. However, findings of a primary study have indicated that television news has enough baseline credibility to have a significant impact on fear of crime among citizens.…

  9. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  10. Assessing the real-world performance of modern pollutant abatement systems on motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    The present statutory pollutant emission limits Euro-3 for motorcycles imply the use of modern emission abatement systems such as three-way catalytic converters. Determining the quality of implementation of these new systems in different driving situations such as real-world driving is important, since motorcycles are commonly used for personal transportation in urban areas. For this reason, a test bench series was carried out with a sample of 10 motorcycles of state-of-the-art certification category Euro-3. Emission factors of regulated pollutants and CO 2 are presented on the basis of the statutory driving cycle, the latest version of the real-world Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and the real-world Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC). The results of the statutory driving cycle show that 7 out of 10 motorcycles fail to comply with the present emission limits. The results of both real-world driving cycles confirm notable emissions of HC in urban and NO x in motorway driving conditions. CO emissions of motorcycles with small displacement increase significantly in the urban and extra-urban sections of the CADC, which has a more dynamic velocity profile than the equivalent WMTC. Although pollutant emissions of motorcycles show a marked improvement compared with earlier certification classes, they clearly exceed the emission levels of modern light gasoline passenger cars, especially for CO and HC.

  11. Getting Ready for the Real World: Student Perspectives on Bringing Industry Collaboration into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learning through industry collaborations is critical in decreasing the gap between the real world and the academic environment. Working on challenges drawn from industry can increase students' knowledge and future employability, thus enhancing labor force preparation. This study explored students' perceptions (n = 110) of the benefits…

  12. Polyhedral Sculpture: The Path from Computational Artifact to Real-World Mathematical Object.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael; Nishioka, Ann

    Mathematics educators often despair at math's austere, "abstract" reputation. This paper describes recent work in developing an application named "HyperGami," which is designed to integrate both the abstract and"real-world" aspects of mathematics by allowing children to design and construct polyhedral models and sculptures. Children use formal…

  13. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British…

  14. Managing in the Virtual World: How Second Life is Rewriting the Rules of "Real Life" Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyld, David C.

    In this paper, we will explore the growth of virtual worlds - one of the most exciting and fast-growing concepts in the Web 2.0 era. We will see that while there has been significant growth across all demographic groups, online gaming in MMOGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) are finding particular appeal in today's youth - the so-called "digital native" generation. We then overview the today's virtual world marketplace, both in the youth and adult-oriented markets. Second Life is emerging as the most important virtual world today, due to the intense interest amongst both large organizations and individual entrepreneurs to conduct real business in the virtual environment. Due to its prominence today and its forecasted growth over the next decade, we take a look at the unscripted world of Second Life, examining the corporate presence in-world, as well as the economic, technical, legal, ethical and security issues involved for companies doing business in the virtual world. In conclusion, we present an analysis of where we stand in terms of virtual world development today and a projection of where we will be heading in the near future. Finally, we present advice to management practitioners and academicians on how to learn about virtual worlds and explore the world of opportunities in them.

  15. Multi-wavelength excitation Raman spectrometers and microscopes for measurements of real-world samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, William; Wu, Huawen; Qian, Jack; Chandler, Lin; Lieber, Chad A.; Dentinger, Claire

    2012-10-01

    We report on a variety of BaySpec's newly developed Raman spectrometers and microscopes combining multiple excitation wavelengths and detection ranges. Among those there are the world's first dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared miniature Raman spectral engines built with Volume Phase Gratings (VPGTM), and the world's first three-wavelength (532, 785, and 1064-nm) excitation Raman microscope. Having multiple wavelength excitations in one unit offers extreme flexibility and convenience to identify the best laser wavelength and investigate a great variety of real-world samples. In real-world Raman measurements, fluorescence is the biggest obstacle which significantly reduces the quality of the Raman spectra. We demonstrate many examples spanning from explosives to street drugs to conclude that for those samples, 1064-nm Raman is fluorescence-free and best suited for identification. Other types of miniaturized Raman spectrometers have been realized, enabling handheld, portable, or at-line/ on-line applications for real-world sample measurements, such as threat determination of explosives, chemical and biological materials, quality assurance and contamination control for food safety, and forensics such as evidence gathering, narcotics identification, and anti-counterfeiting.

  16. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols.

  17. First-perspective spatial alignment effects from real-world exploration.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Paul N; Wilson, Duncan A; Griffiths, Laura; Fox, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    When spatial knowledge is acquired from secondary-learning media, such as text, people sometimes remember a route in alignment with the first perspective or first direction of travel. However, this first-perspective alignment (FPA) effect has been found only under special circumstances from primary real-world exploration. In Experiment 1, recall of an enclosed small-scale, U-shaped route was compared following learning from a verbal description, a video recording, or real-world exploration; an FPA effect was found in all cases. In Experiments 2 and 3, exploration of physically larger real routes led to statistically significant evidence of an FPA effect when the route was enclosed, but not when cues external to the route were available. The data are discussed in relation to current theories of spatial reference frames.

  18. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  19. Are clinical measurements of uncomfortable loudness levels a valid indicator of real-world auditory discomfort?

    PubMed

    Munro, K J; Patel, R K

    1998-10-01

    A recent study revealed that most patients were wearing National Health Service hearing aids that were capable of exceeding their uncomfortable loudness level (ULL) measured clinically (Munro et al., 1996). However, there is little evidence to show that these clinical measurements are a valid indicator of real-world auditory discomfort. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ULL and real-world discomfort. The study involved 20 adult subjects, aged 41-92 years, who had been fitted monaurally with an NHS hearing aid. ULLs were measured using a probe-tube microphone situated close to the eardrum. Individual real ear to coupler differences were added to the SSPL90 in order to predict the maximum power output (MPO) of the hearing aid at the eardrum. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to rate the loudness of different environmental sounds. The results show that the more the MPO value exceeded the ULL value, the more likely it was that the subjects reported loudness tolerance problems to environmental sounds of long duration. There was a statistically significant correlation between the ULL and discomfort ratings for sounds of longer duration, such as traffic and wind noise; but not for shorter-duration sounds, such as door banging. Subjects did not express real-world auditory discomfort when the MPO value matched the ULL value. These findings support the argument for setting hearing-aid MPO close to ULL.

  20. Effects of an Online Rational Emotive Curriculum on Primary School Students' Tendencies for Online and Real-World Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Ho, H. C.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between online and real-world aggressive behavior among primary school students as well as the effects of an online rational emotive curriculum on reducing the tendency of students to display aggression online and in the real-world. We developed an online information literacy course integrated with rational…

  1. Motion artifact removal in FNIR spectroscopy for real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Ajit; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Bunce, Scott C.; Li, Connie Y.; Onaral, Banu

    2004-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy as a neuroimaging modality is a recent development. Near infrared neuroimagers are typically safe, portable, relatively affordable and non-invasive. The ease of sensor setup and non-intrusiveness make functional near infrared (fNIR) imaging an ideal candidate for monitoring human cortical function in a wide range of real world situations. However optical signals are susceptible to motion-artifacts, hindering the application of fNIR in studies where subject mobility cannot be controlled. In this paper, we present a filtering framework for motion-artifact cancellation to facilitate the deployment of fNIR imaging in real-world scenarios. We simulate a generic field environment by having subjects walk on a treadmill while performing a cognitive task and demonstrate that measurements can be effectively cleaned of motion-artifacts.

  2. Successful life outcome and management of real-world memory demands despite profound anterograde amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Wszalek, Tracey; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the case of Angie, a 50 year-old woman with profound amnesia (General Memory Index = 49, Full Scale IQ = 126) following a closed head injury in 1985. This case is unique in comparison to other cases reported in the literature in that, despite the severity of her amnesia, she has developed remarkable real-world life abilities, shows impressive self awareness and insight into the impairment and sparing of various functional memory abilities, and exhibits ongoing maturation of her identity and sense of self following amnesia. The case provides insights into the interaction of different memory and cognitive systems in handling real-world memory demands, and has implications for rehabilitation and for successful life outcome after amnesia. PMID:18608659

  3. From image pair to a computer generated hologram for a real-world scene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Sihao; Cao, Siyang; Zheng, Yuan F; Ewing, Robert L

    2016-09-20

    We propose an approach to produce computer generated holograms (CGHs) from image pairs of a real-world scene. The ratio of the three-dimensional (3D) physical size of the object is computed from the image pair to provide the correct depth cue. A multilayer wavefront recording plane method completed with a two-stage occlusion culling process is carried out for wave propagation. Multiple holograms can be generated by propagating the wave toward the desired angles, to cover the circular views that are wider than the viewing angle restricted by the wavelength and pitch size of a single hologram. The impact of the imperfect depth information extracted from the image pair on CGH is examined. The approach is evaluated extensively on image pairs of real-world 3D scenes, and the results demonstrate that the circular-view CGH can be produced from a pair of stereo images using the proposed approach. PMID:27661586

  4. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment

    PubMed Central

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Burte, Heather; Houck, Lindsay A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory. PMID:26353119

  5. Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-World Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadorn, Maik; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    Embryogenic evolution emulates in silico cell-like entities to get more powerful methods for complex evolutionary tasks. As simulations have to abstract from the biological model, implicit information hidden in its physics is lost. Here, we propose to use cell-like entities as a real-world in vitro testbed. In analogy to evolutionary robotics, where solutions evolved in simulations may be tested in real-world on macroscale, the proposed vesicular testbed would do the same for the embryogenic evolutionary tasks on mesoscale. As a first step towards a vesicular testbed emulating growth, cell division, and cell differentiation, we present a modified vesicle production method, providing custom-tailored chemical cargo, and present a novel self-assembly procedure to provide vesicle aggregates of programmable composition.

  6. From image pair to a computer generated hologram for a real-world scene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Sihao; Cao, Siyang; Zheng, Yuan F; Ewing, Robert L

    2016-09-20

    We propose an approach to produce computer generated holograms (CGHs) from image pairs of a real-world scene. The ratio of the three-dimensional (3D) physical size of the object is computed from the image pair to provide the correct depth cue. A multilayer wavefront recording plane method completed with a two-stage occlusion culling process is carried out for wave propagation. Multiple holograms can be generated by propagating the wave toward the desired angles, to cover the circular views that are wider than the viewing angle restricted by the wavelength and pitch size of a single hologram. The impact of the imperfect depth information extracted from the image pair on CGH is examined. The approach is evaluated extensively on image pairs of real-world 3D scenes, and the results demonstrate that the circular-view CGH can be produced from a pair of stereo images using the proposed approach.

  7. Extracting Depth From Motion Parallax in Real-World and Synthetic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Kaiser, Mary K.; Aiken, William; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In psychophysical studies on human sensitivity to visual motion parallax (MP), the use of computer displays is pervasive. However, a number of potential problems are associated with such displays: cue conflicts arise when observers accommodate to the screen surface, and observer head and body movements are often not reflected in the displays. We investigated observers' sensitivity to depth information in MP (slant, depth order, relative depth) using various real-world displays and their computer-generated analogs. Angle judgments of real-world stimuli were consistently superior to judgments that were based on computer-generated stimuli. Similar results were found for perceived depth order and relative depth. Perceptual competence of observers tends to be underestimated in research that is based on computer generated displays. Such findings cannot be generalized to more realistic viewing situations.

  8. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Burte, Heather; Houck, Lindsay A; Taylor, Holly A

    2015-01-01

    Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  9. Implications of Real-World Data and Pharmacoeconomics for Managed Care

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovsky, Lilly

    2016-01-01

    The following summaries represent a sample of the many real-world, evidence-based studies presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP), April 19–22, 2016, in San Francisco, CA. These studies highlight some of the main trends in the current US healthcare with important implications for payers, employers, drug manufacturers, providers, patients, and other healthcare stakeholders. PMID:27625740

  10. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network Translational Pharmacogenetics Program: Overcoming Challenges of Real-World Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Shuldiner, AR; Relling, MV; Peterson, JF; Hicks, JK; Freimuth, RR; Sadee, W; Pereira, NL; Roden, DM; Johnson, JA; Klein, TE

    2013-01-01

    The pace of discovery of potentially actionable pharmacogenetic variants has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the implementation of this new knowledge for individualized patient care has been slow. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) Translational Pharmacogenetics Program seeks to identify barriers and develop real-world solutions to implementation of evidence-based pharmacogenetic tests in diverse health-care settings. Dissemination of the resulting toolbox of “implementation best practices” will prove useful to a broad audience. PMID:23588301

  11. Implications of Real-World Data and Pharmacoeconomics for Managed Care.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Lilly

    2016-05-01

    The following summaries represent a sample of the many real-world, evidence-based studies presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP), April 19-22, 2016, in San Francisco, CA. These studies highlight some of the main trends in the current US healthcare with important implications for payers, employers, drug manufacturers, providers, patients, and other healthcare stakeholders. PMID:27625740

  12. NASA's S'COOL Project: Bridging the Divide Between the 'Real' World and the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Roberto; Chambers, Lin H.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to bridge the gap between scientific research, teacher instruction and student learning, the CERES Students Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project offers a unique perspective on how to narrow the divide between the real world and the classroom. Reality-based learning has become a staple in the education of our youth and the S'COOL Project has taken this concept one step further.

  13. Implications of Real-World Data and Pharmacoeconomics for Managed Care

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovsky, Lilly

    2016-01-01

    The following summaries represent a sample of the many real-world, evidence-based studies presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP), April 19–22, 2016, in San Francisco, CA. These studies highlight some of the main trends in the current US healthcare with important implications for payers, employers, drug manufacturers, providers, patients, and other healthcare stakeholders.

  14. Value-based assessment of pharmacodiagnostic testing from early stage development to real-world use.

    PubMed

    Burns, Leah C; Orsini, Lucinda; L'italien, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Disease etiology may be regarded as a consequence of both genotypic and biochemical phenomena, which impact individual patients in different ways. Disease prognosis, beneficial treatment response, and susceptibility to adverse drug effects are often intimately tied to individual biology. Clinical and genetic biomarkers applied individually or in concert are increasingly used to stratify patient populations in terms of prognosis, therapeutic benefit, or safety. As a result, clinical trialists are challenged to design studies that reflect these determinants of outcome, to optimize the patient's eventual clinical course both in the trial and in actual practice. These designs are informed both by preclinical studies and by real-world research that can establish proof of concept for a novel biomarker and provide a basic understanding of the relationship between biomarker and clinical outcome. As clinical and real-world studies unfold, a deeper understanding of the nature of the biomarker and its potential uses in drug development is gained. Specifically, one can eventually define the biomarker as prognostic (i.e., predicts disease progression), predictive (predicts treatment response or adverse outcome(s)), or exhibiting both prognostic and predictive properties. One must further validate the performance of these emerging biomarkers, again in both the trial and real-world environments. The eventual adoption of the biomarker as a useful pharmacodiagnostic test is premised upon this early translational research. In this article, the development and validation of predictive and prognostic biomarkers is discussed by using selected examples that highlight factors contributing to the valuation of biomarkers and their application to personalized medicine in the real world. PMID:24034307

  15. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, Simon; Crawford, Laura; Munro, Neil

    2015-01-01

    New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Real-World Evidence (RWE) is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined. This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1) includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2) defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3) applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies. However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy.

  16. Assessing biomarkers in a real-world severe asthma study (ARIETTA).

    PubMed

    Buhl, Roland; Korn, Stephanie; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Aubier, Michel; Chapman, Kenneth R; Canonica, Giorgio W; Picado, César; Martin, Nicolas; Escobar, Ramon Aguiar; Korom, Stephan; Hanania, Nicola A

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic value of asthma biomarkers in routine clinical practice is not fully understood. ARIETTA (NCT02537691) is an ongoing, prospective, longitudinal, international, multicentre real-world study designed to assess the relationship between asthma biomarkers and disease-related health outcomes. The trial aims to enrol and follow for 52 weeks approximately 1200 severe asthma patients from approximately 160 sites in more than 20 countries. Severe asthmatics, treated with daily inhaled corticosteroid (≥500 μg of fluticasone propionate or equivalent) and at least 1 second controller medication are to be included. In this real-world study, patients will be treated according to the investigator's routine clinical practices and no treatment regimen will be implemented as part of the trial. At baseline and again at 26 and 52 weeks, FEV1, FeNO, serum periostin, blood eosinophil count and serum IgE will be measured. Asthma-related symptom and quality of life questionnaires will be administered at the visits and during telephone interviews at Weeks 13 and 39. Data about medication use, asthma exacerbation data, asthma-related healthcare utilization and events raising safety concerns will also be collected. This study design, unique in both its scope and scale, will address fundamental unanswered questions regarding asthma biomarkers and their interrelationship, as well as predict deviations in the course of asthma in a real-world setting. PMID:27215497

  17. Real-world data in the United Kingdom: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Laura; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Wasiak, Radek; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2016-01-01

    Real-world data is that collected outside the constraints of controlled clinical trials and is increasingly informing decision-making in healthcare. The landscape of real-world data in the United Kingdom is set to evolve over the coming months as the government plans to build on databases currently in place by collecting patient data from all family practices and linking this information with hospital records. This initiative, called care.data, has the potential to be an invaluable resource. However, the programme has been criticized on grounds of data privacy, which has led to an extended delay in its implementation and the expectation that a large number of people will opt out. Opt-outs may introduce substantial biases to the dataset, and understanding how to account for these presents a significant challenge for researchers. For the scope and quality of real-world evidence in the United Kingdom to be realised, and for this information to be used effectively, it is essential to address this challenge. PMID:27342341

  18. Real-world data in the United Kingdom: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Laura; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Wasiak, Radek; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2016-06-24

    Real-world data is that collected outside the constraints of controlled clinical trials and is increasingly informing decision-making in healthcare. The landscape of real-world data in the United Kingdom is set to evolve over the coming months as the government plans to build on databases currently in place by collecting patient data from all family practices and linking this information with hospital records. This initiative, called care.data, has the potential to be an invaluable resource. However, the programme has been criticized on grounds of data privacy, which has led to an extended delay in its implementation and the expectation that a large number of people will opt out. Opt-outs may introduce substantial biases to the dataset, and understanding how to account for these presents a significant challenge for researchers. For the scope and quality of real-world evidence in the United Kingdom to be realised, and for this information to be used effectively, it is essential to address this challenge.

  19. Influence of real-world environments on the motion of catalytic bubble-propelled micromotors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanjia; Wang, Hong; Khezri, Bahareh; Webster, Richard D; Pumera, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Self-propelled autonomous micromachines have recently been tasked to carry out various roles in real environments. In this study, we expose the microjets to various types of water that are present in the real world, examples include tap water, rain water, lake water and sea water, and we sought to investigate their behaviors under real world conditions. We observed that the viability and mobility of the catalytic bubble jet engines are strongly influenced by the type of environmental water sample. Amongst the four water samples tested, the seawater sample exhibits the strongest influence, completely disabling any motions arising from the microjets. The motion of the microjets is also reduced in tap water, which contains large quantities of inorganic ions that have been purposely introduced into tap water via processing in water treatment plants. Lake water and rain water samples exhibited the least influence on the microjet's motion. All of the four water samples were also characterized by determining their ion compositions and conductivities, and we will show that there is a distinct correlation between the reduced mobility of the microjets with the ion content of the water found in real environments. PMID:23743873

  20. Influence of real-world environments on the motion of catalytic bubble-propelled micromotors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanjia; Wang, Hong; Khezri, Bahareh; Webster, Richard D; Pumera, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Self-propelled autonomous micromachines have recently been tasked to carry out various roles in real environments. In this study, we expose the microjets to various types of water that are present in the real world, examples include tap water, rain water, lake water and sea water, and we sought to investigate their behaviors under real world conditions. We observed that the viability and mobility of the catalytic bubble jet engines are strongly influenced by the type of environmental water sample. Amongst the four water samples tested, the seawater sample exhibits the strongest influence, completely disabling any motions arising from the microjets. The motion of the microjets is also reduced in tap water, which contains large quantities of inorganic ions that have been purposely introduced into tap water via processing in water treatment plants. Lake water and rain water samples exhibited the least influence on the microjet's motion. All of the four water samples were also characterized by determining their ion compositions and conductivities, and we will show that there is a distinct correlation between the reduced mobility of the microjets with the ion content of the water found in real environments.

  1. Walkable Worlds give a Rich Self-Similar Structure to the Real Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosinger, Elemér E.

    2010-05-01

    It is a rather universal tacit and unquestioned belief—and even more so among physicists—that there is one and only one real line, namely, given by the coodinatisation of Descartes through the usual field R of real numbers. Such a dramatically limiting and thus harmful belief comes, unknown to equally many, from the similarly tacit acceptance of the ancient Archimedean Axiom in Euclid's Geometry. The consequence of that belief is a similar belief in the uniqueness of the coordinatization of the plane by the usual field C of complex numbers, and therefore, of the various spaces, manifolds, etc., be they finite or infinite dimensional, constructed upon the real or complex numbers, including the Hilbert spaces used in Quantum Mechanics. A near total lack of awareness follows therefore about the rich self-similar structure of other possible coordinatisations of the real line, possibilities given by various linearly ordered scalar fields obtained through the ultrapower construction. Such fields contain as a rather small subset the usual field R of real numbers. The concept of walkable world, which has highly intuitive and pragmatic algebraic and geometric meaning, illustrates the mentioned rich self-similar structure.

  2. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Christopher E.; Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Hayden, Sandra Claire; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the main propulsion system of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The application was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real-time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, these PITEX algorithms were subject to numerous real-world effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. The current research has demonstrated the potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined the performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  3. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100–150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life. PMID:27764167

  4. Efficiency of attack strategies on complex model and real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide; Vincenzi, Simone

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the efficiency of attack strategies to network nodes when targeting several complex model and real-world networks. We tested 5 attack strategies, 3 of which were introduced in this work for the first time, to attack 3 model networks (Erdos and Renyi, Barabasi and Albert preferential attachment network, and scale-free network configuration models) and 3 real networks (Gnutella peer-to-peer network, email network of the University of Rovira i Virgili, and immunoglobulin interaction network). Nodes were removed sequentially according to the importance criterion defined by the attack strategy, and we used the size of the largest connected component (LCC) as a measure of network damage. We found that the efficiency of attack strategies (fraction of nodes to be deleted for a given reduction of LCC size) depends on the topology of the network, although attacks based on either the number of connections of a node or betweenness centrality were often the most efficient strategies. Sequential deletion of nodes in decreasing order of betweenness centrality was the most efficient attack strategy when targeting real-world networks. The relative efficiency of attack strategies often changed during the sequential removal of nodes, especially for networks with power-law degree distribution.

  5. Electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention in real-world driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haufe, Stefan; Kim, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Il-Hwa; Sonnleitner, Andreas; Schrauf, Michael; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The fact that all human action is preceded by brain processes partially observable through neuroimaging devices such as electroencephalography (EEG) is currently being explored in a number of applications. A recent study by Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001) demonstrates the possibility of performing fast detection of forced emergency brakings during driving based on EEG and electromyography, and discusses the use of such neurotechnology for braking assistance systems. Since the study was conducted in a driving simulator, its significance regarding real-world applicability needs to be assessed. Approach. Here, we replicate that experimental paradigm in a real car on a non-public test track. Main results. Our results resemble those of the simulator study, both qualitatively (in terms of the neurophysiological phenomena observed and utilized) and quantitatively (in terms of the predictive improvement achievable using electrophysiology in addition to behavioral measures). Moreover, our findings are robust with respect to a temporary secondary auditory task mimicking verbal input from a fellow passenger. Significance. Our study serves as a real-world verification of the feasibility of electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention as proposed in Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001).

  6. Projector placement planning for high quality visualizations on real-world colored objects.

    PubMed

    Law, Alvin J; Aliaga, Daniel G; Majumder, Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Many visualization applications benefit from displaying content on real-world objects rather than on a traditional display (e.g., a monitor). This type of visualization display is achieved by projecting precisely controlled illumination from multiple projectors onto the real-world colored objects. For such a task, the placement of the projectors is critical in assuring that the desired visualization is possible. Using ad hoc projector placement may cause some appearances to suffer from color shifting due to insufficient projector light radiance being exposed onto the physical surface. This leads to an incorrect appearance and ultimately to a false and potentially misleading visualization. In this paper, we present a framework to discover the optimal position and orientation of the projectors for such projection-based visualization displays. An optimal projector placement should be able to achieve the desired visualization with minimal projector light radiance. When determining optimal projector placement, object visibility, surface reflectance properties, and projector-surface distance and orientation need to be considered. We first formalize a theory for appearance editing image formation and construct a constrained linear system of equations that express when a desired novel appearance or visualization is possible given a geometric and surface reflectance model of the physical surface. Then, we show how to apply this constrained system in an adaptive search to efficiently discover the optimal projector placement which achieves the desired appearance. Constraints can be imposed on the maximum radiance allowed by the projectors and the projectors' placement to support specific goals of various visualization applications. We perform several real-world and simulated appearance edits and visualizations to demonstrate the improvement obtained by our discovered projector placement over ad hoc projector placement. PMID:20975206

  7. When Functional Capacity and Real-World Functioning Converge: The Role of Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Veronica; Abel, Stephanie; Bowie, Christopher R.; Tiznado, Denisse; Depp, Colin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Although functional capacity is typically diminished, there is substantial heterogeneity in functional outcomes in schizophrenia. Motivational factors likely play a significant role in bridging the capacity-to-functioning gap. Self-efficacy theory suggests that although some individuals may have the capacity to perform functional behaviors, they may or may not have confidence they can successfully perform these behaviors in real-world settings. We hypothesized that the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning would be moderated by the individual’s self-efficacy in a sample of 97 middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia (mean age = 50.9 ± 6.5 years). Functional capacity was measured using the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B), self-efficacy with the Revised Self-Efficacy Scale, and Daily Functioning via the Specific Level of Functioning (SLOF) scale and self-report measures. Results indicated that when self-efficacy was low, the relationship between UPSA-B and SLOF scores was not significant (P = .727). However, when self efficacy was high, UPSA-B scores were significantly related to SLOF scores (P = .020). Similar results were observed for self-reported social and work functioning. These results suggest that motivational processes (ie, self-efficacy) may aid in understanding why some individuals have the capacity to function well but do not translate this capacity into real-world functioning. Furthermore, while improvement in capacity may be necessary for improved functioning in this population, it may not be sufficient when motivation is absent. PMID:22328642

  8. An Accelerometry-Based Methodology for Assessment of Real-World Bilateral Upper Extremity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of both upper extremities (UE) is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry. Methods Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing) while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated. Results The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02), and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01) across tasks. Conclusions These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments. PMID:25068258

  9. Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world?

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Lebrecht, Sophie; Tanaka, James W.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or “ALPS” and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words—similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes. PMID:24046756

  10. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Adèle; Bhoopathy, Raja Meenakshi; Read, Jenny C. A.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance) and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems. In this study, we test the performance of young people (18–25 years) and older people (60+-year-olds) on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW) memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any WWW combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task. These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies. PMID:26042030

  11. [Evidence-based medicine and real world study in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ronglin; Hu, Ling; Wu, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely applied in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion, and the real-world study (RWS) has gradually become an important way of clinical research in the world in recent years. It is worthy of our in-depth study and discussion that how to evaluate the advantages and limitations of EBM and RWS as well as their reasonable application in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion. The characteristics and difference between RWS and EBM, and the situation of acupuncture clinical research methods are discussed in this paper. It is proposed that we should understand the advantages of RWS in acupuncture clinical research, fully realize the limitations of EBM and RWS, recognize the complexity and particularity of RWS, and apply EBM and RWS into acupuncture clinical research. Meanwhile acupuncture clinical manipulation standardization should be further promoted, which is benefit to develop clinical study, improve clinical efficacy and promote the popularization of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  12. Welcome to the real world: validating fixation-related brain potentials for ecologically valid settings.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Florian; Braun, Mario; Võ, Melissa L-H; Engl, Verena; Hofmann, Markus; Dambacher, Michael; Leder, Helmut; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2007-10-01

    Exploration of the real world usually expresses itself through a perceptual behaviour that is complex and adaptive -- an interplay between external visual and internal cognitive states. However, up to now, the measurement of electrophysiological correlates of cognitive processes has been limited to situations, in which the experimental setting confined visual exploration to the mere reception of a strict serial order of events. Here we show -- exemplified by the well known old/new effect in the domain of visual word recognition -- that an alternative approach that utilizes brain potentials corresponding to eye fixations during free exploration reveals effects as reliable as conventional event-related brain potentials.

  13. Online detection of the modality of complex-valued real world signals.

    PubMed

    Mandic, Danilo P; Vayanos, Phebe; Chen, Mo; Goh, Su Lee

    2008-04-01

    A novel method for the online detection of the modality of complex-valued nonlinear and nonstationary signals is introduced. This is achieved using a convex combination of complex nonlinear adaptive filters with different transient characteristics. To facilitate the online mode of operation, the convex mixing parameter lambda within the proposed architecture is made gradient adaptive. Our focus is on the most important aspect of complex nonlinear modeling, that is, the identification of the split-complex and fully-complex nature of the signal in hand. The algorithms derived are robust and capable of tracking the changes in the modality of both benchmark and real world radar and wind complex vector fields.

  14. Accessing numeric data via flags and tags: A final report on a real world experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Freeman, J. E.; Staskin, E. R.; Hargrave, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment is reported which: extended the concepts of data flagging and tagging to the aerospace scientific and technical literature; generated experience with the assignment of data summaries and data terms by documentation specialists; and obtained real world assessments of data summaries and data terms in information products and services. Inclusion of data summaries and data terms improved users' understanding of referenced documents from a subject perspective as well as from a data perspective; furthermore, a radical shift in document ordering behavior occurred during the experiment toward proportionately more requests for data-summarized items.

  15. Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  16. fMRI in Translation: The Challenges Facing Real-World Applications

    PubMed Central

    Schleim, Stephan; Roiser, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has increased our understanding of human brain function tremendously and has become a standard tool in clinical and cognitive neuroscience research. We briefly review its methodological foundations and describe remaining challenges for translational research. The application of neuroimaging results to individual subjects, for example in predicting treatment response or determining the veracity of a statement, is limited by these challenges, in particular by the anatomical and statistical procedures commonly employed. We thus argue for sincere caution in the translation of functional neuroimaging to real-world applications. PMID:20130790

  17. Programming and Tuning a Quantum Annealing Device to Solve Real World Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Solving real-world applications with quantum algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language to tuning parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on the performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. Although we will focus on applications of interest to NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the methods and concepts presented here apply to a broader family of hard discrete optimization problems, including those that occur in many machine-learning algorithms.

  18. All You Can Eat or Breaking a Real-World Contactless Payment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Timo; Silbermann, Michael; Paar, Christof

    We investigated a real-world contactless payment application based on mifare Classic cards. In order to analyze the security of the payment system, we combined previous cryptanalytical results and implemented an improved card-only attack with customized low-cost tools, that is to our knowledge the most efficient practical attack to date. We found several flaws implying severe security vulnerabilities on the system level that allow for devastating attacks including identity theft and recharging the amount of money on the cards. We practically verify and demonstrate the attacks on the commercial system.

  19. Extending the Reach of Augmented Cognition To Real-World Decision Making Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-05-02

    The focus of this paper is on the critical challenge of bridging the gap between psychophysiological sensor data and the inferred cognitive states of users. It is argued that a more robust behavioral data collection foundation will facilitate accurate inferences about the state of the user so that an appropriate mitigation strategy, if needed, can be applied. The argument for such a foundation is based on two premises: (1) To realize the envisioned impact of augmented cognition systems, the technology should be applied to a broad, and more cognitively complex, range of real-world problems. (2) To support identifying cognitive states for more complex, real-world tasks, more sophisticated instrumentation will be needed for behavioral data collection. It is argued that such instrumentation would enable inferences to be made about higher-level semantic aspects of performance. The paper describes how instrumentation software developed to support information analysis R&D may serve as an integration environment that can provide additional behavioral data, in context, to facilitate inferences of cognitive state that will enable the successful augmenting of cognitive performance.

  20. Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Treatment for Real-World HCV Genotype 1-Infected Patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. All-oral combination of direct-acting antivirals could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the dual oral treatment with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) plus HCV NS3/4A inhibitor asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks in real-world HCV genotype 1-infected Japanese individuals. Methods. After screening for HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) by PCR invader assay, a total of 54 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with DCV plus ASV were retrospectively analyzed. SVR12 was used for evaluation of the virologic response. Results. Of the total 54 patients, 46 patients (85.2%) were treated with DCV plus ASV for 24 weeks and achieved SVR12. The other 8 patients (14.8%) discontinued this treatment before 24 weeks due to adverse events. Of these 8 patients, 5 and 3 patients did and did not achieve SVR12, respectively. Finally, 51 of 54 (94.4%) patients achieved SVR12. Conclusion. Treatment with DCV and ASV after screening for HCV NS5A RAVs by PCR invader assay is effective and safe in the treatment of real-world HCV genotype 1-infected patients in Japan.

  1. Resource Heterogeneity Moderates the Biodiversity-Function Relationship in Real World Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Kahmen, Ansgar; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Buchmann, Nina; Perner, Jörg; Tscharntke, Teja

    2008-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have tested the effects of plant, pollinator, and predator diversity on primary productivity, pollination, and consumption, respectively. Many have shown a positive relationship, particularly in controlled experiments, but variability in results has emphasized the context-dependency of these relationships. Complementary resource use may lead to a positive relationship between diversity and these processes, but only when a diverse array of niches is available to be partitioned among species. Therefore, the slope of the diversity-function relationship may change across differing levels of heterogeneity, but empirical evaluations of this pattern are lacking. Here we examine three important functions/properties in different real world (i.e., nonexperimental) ecosystems: plant biomass in German grasslands, parasitism rates across five habitat types in coastal Ecuador, and coffee pollination in agroforestry systems in Indonesia. We use general linear and structural equation modeling to demonstrate that the effect of diversity on these processes is context dependent, such that the slope of this relationship increases in environments where limiting resources (soil nutrients, host insects, and coffee flowers, respectively) are spatially heterogeneous. These real world patterns, combined with previous experiments, suggest that biodiversity may have its greatest impact on the functioning of diverse, naturally heterogeneous ecosystems.

  2. Comparison of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive Drive-Cycles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to understand as quickly as possible how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty cycles. These tests may include factors such as duty cycles, climate, battery power profiles, and battery stress statistics. Such tests are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys. Vehicles examined included PHEV10 and PHEV40 EDVs under fixed (28 degrees C), limited cooling (forced ambient temperature), and aggressive cooling (20 degrees C chilled liquid) scenarios using either nightly charging or opportunity charging. The results show that battery life expectancy is 7.8 - 13.2 years for the PHEV10 using a nightly charge in Phoenix, AZ (hot climate), and that the 'aggressive' cooling scenario can extend battery life by 1-3 years, while the 'limited' cooling scenario shortens battery life by 1-2 years. Frequent (opportunity) charging can reduce battery life by 1 year for the PHEV10, while frequent charging can extend battery life by one-half year.

  3. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials.

  4. A real-world evidence study evaluating a treatment for nappy rash.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Martin; Lodhi, Imran

    This retrospective open study evaluating the efficacy of Sudocrem Antiseptic Healing Cream (SAHC) in infantile nappy rash (NR) was based on real-world evidence collected using an online questionnaire that included Likert scales. Participants who had used SAHC in the past (n=2159) were recruited via social media and email. A total of 1818 respondents who had treated NR in the previous 6 months were asked to take part in the study. Over 50% of respondents saw an improvement in NR on the same day that treatment was started, and within 3 days 94.5% of respondents reported an improvement in NR. Of 1804 subjects who answered the question, 72.5% indicated that the NR had completely healed within 3 days of starting treatment and by the fifth day, 94.7% said that the NR had completely healed. A total of 71% of 1793 respondents said that an episode of NR had either no or minimal impact disrupting their normal lives, but 29% reported a noticeable impact, even though evidence suggests that mild to moderate nappy rash can be treated quickly. Based on this real-world retrospective study, the evidence suggests SAHC is rapidly effective, reduces signs and symptoms of inflammation, and heals NR.

  5. Real World Experiences: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are Effective and Well Tolerated Treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Gareth; Toellner, Hannah; Morris, Helen; Leonard, Colm; Chaudhuri, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) now has two licensed treatments available. Pirfenidone was the first drug to be licensed and approved for use, followed by nintedanib. We set out our real world experience with these agents in terms of their adverse events profile outside the restrictions of a clinical trial. We have demonstrated in the real world setting, that side effects are common and predominantly gastrointestinal with both therapies. Our study shows that the side effects can be effectively managed in the majority of patients with an acceptable discontinuation rate similar to that seen in the clinical trials. These findings are compelling despite the fact that the patients in our study are older, have severer disease as depicted by baseline lung function and more co-morbidities. Our data provides ongoing evidence of the safety and tolerability of both pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients who would not have met the rigorous criteria to be included in a clinical trial. Both these agents are effective in the management of IPF and slow the progression of this debilitating life limiting condition. PMID:27598213

  6. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  7. Providing Geospatial Education and Real World Applications of Data across the Climate Initiative Themes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.

    2015-12-01

    Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.

  8. Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Treatment for Real-World HCV Genotype 1-Infected Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. All-oral combination of direct-acting antivirals could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the dual oral treatment with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) plus HCV NS3/4A inhibitor asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks in real-world HCV genotype 1-infected Japanese individuals. Methods. After screening for HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) by PCR invader assay, a total of 54 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with DCV plus ASV were retrospectively analyzed. SVR12 was used for evaluation of the virologic response. Results. Of the total 54 patients, 46 patients (85.2%) were treated with DCV plus ASV for 24 weeks and achieved SVR12. The other 8 patients (14.8%) discontinued this treatment before 24 weeks due to adverse events. Of these 8 patients, 5 and 3 patients did and did not achieve SVR12, respectively. Finally, 51 of 54 (94.4%) patients achieved SVR12. Conclusion. Treatment with DCV and ASV after screening for HCV NS5A RAVs by PCR invader assay is effective and safe in the treatment of real-world HCV genotype 1-infected patients in Japan. PMID:27279790

  9. Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Pinti, Paola; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Lind, Frida; Power, Sarah; Swingler, Elizabeth; Merla, Arcangelo; Hamilton, Antonia; Gilbert, Sam; Burgess, Paul; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light to monitor brain activity. Based on neurovascular coupling, fNIRS is able to measure the haemoglobin concentration changes secondary to neuronal activity. Compared to other neuroimaging techniques, fNIRS represents a good compromise in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, it is portable, lightweight, less sensitive to motion artifacts and does not impose significant physical restraints. It is therefore appropriate to monitor a wide range of cognitive tasks (e.g., auditory, gait analysis, social interaction) and different age populations (e.g., new-borns, adults, elderly people). The recent development of fiberless fNIRS devices has opened the way to new applications in neuroscience research. This represents a unique opportunity to study functional activity during real-world tests, which can be more sensitive and accurate in assessing cognitive function and dysfunction than lab-based tests. This study explored the use of fiberless fNIRS to monitor brain activity during a real-world prospective memory task. This protocol is performed outside the lab and brain haemoglobin concentration changes are continuously measured over the prefrontal cortex while the subject walks around in order to accomplish several different tasks. PMID:26651025

  10. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  11. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  12. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change. PMID:27357001

  13. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    PubMed

    Zachariou, Nicky; Expert, Paul; Takayasu, Misako; Christensen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network. PMID:26606143

  14. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes.

    PubMed

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. PMID:26709591

  15. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials. PMID:22668246

  16. Real World Experiences: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are Effective and Well Tolerated Treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gareth; Toellner, Hannah; Morris, Helen; Leonard, Colm; Chaudhuri, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) now has two licensed treatments available. Pirfenidone was the first drug to be licensed and approved for use, followed by nintedanib. We set out our real world experience with these agents in terms of their adverse events profile outside the restrictions of a clinical trial. We have demonstrated in the real world setting, that side effects are common and predominantly gastrointestinal with both therapies. Our study shows that the side effects can be effectively managed in the majority of patients with an acceptable discontinuation rate similar to that seen in the clinical trials. These findings are compelling despite the fact that the patients in our study are older, have severer disease as depicted by baseline lung function and more co-morbidities. Our data provides ongoing evidence of the safety and tolerability of both pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients who would not have met the rigorous criteria to be included in a clinical trial. Both these agents are effective in the management of IPF and slow the progression of this debilitating life limiting condition. PMID:27598213

  17. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    PubMed

    Zachariou, Nicky; Expert, Paul; Takayasu, Misako; Christensen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network.

  18. Haptograph Representation of Real-World Haptic Information by Wideband Force Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Irie, Kouhei; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Artificial acquisition and reproduction of human sensations are basic technologies of communication engineering. For example, auditory information is obtained by a microphone, and a speaker reproduces it by artificial means. Furthermore, a video camera and a television make it possible to transmit visual sensation by broadcasting. On the contrary, since tactile or haptic information is subject to the Newton's “law of action and reaction” in the real world, a device which acquires, transmits, and reproduces the information has not been established. From the point of view, real-world haptics is the key technology for future haptic communication engineering. This paper proposes a novel acquisition method of haptic information named “haptograph”. The haptograph visualizes the haptic information like photograph. The proposed haptograph is applied to haptic recognition of the contact environment. A linear motor contacts to the surface of the environment and its reaction force is used to make a haptograph. A robust contact motion and sensor-less sensing of the reaction force are attained by using a disturbance observer. As a result, an encyclopedia of contact environment is attained. Since temporal and spatial analyses are conducted to represent haptic information as the haptograph, it is possible to be recognized and to be evaluated intuitively.

  19. A real-world evidence study evaluating a treatment for nappy rash.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Martin; Lodhi, Imran

    This retrospective open study evaluating the efficacy of Sudocrem Antiseptic Healing Cream (SAHC) in infantile nappy rash (NR) was based on real-world evidence collected using an online questionnaire that included Likert scales. Participants who had used SAHC in the past (n=2159) were recruited via social media and email. A total of 1818 respondents who had treated NR in the previous 6 months were asked to take part in the study. Over 50% of respondents saw an improvement in NR on the same day that treatment was started, and within 3 days 94.5% of respondents reported an improvement in NR. Of 1804 subjects who answered the question, 72.5% indicated that the NR had completely healed within 3 days of starting treatment and by the fifth day, 94.7% said that the NR had completely healed. A total of 71% of 1793 respondents said that an episode of NR had either no or minimal impact disrupting their normal lives, but 29% reported a noticeable impact, even though evidence suggests that mild to moderate nappy rash can be treated quickly. Based on this real-world retrospective study, the evidence suggests SAHC is rapidly effective, reduces signs and symptoms of inflammation, and heals NR. PMID:27126752

  20. Optimizing the leveraging of real-world data to improve the development and use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Berger, Marc L; Lipset, Craig; Gutteridge, Alex; Axelsen, Kirsten; Subedi, Prasun; Madigan, David

    2015-01-01

    Health research, including health outcomes and comparative effectiveness research, is on the cusp of a golden era of access to digitized real-world data, catalyzed by the adoption of electronic health records and the integration of clinical and biological information with other data. This era promises more robust insights into what works in health care. Several barriers, however, will need to be addressed if the full potential of these new data are fully realized; these will involve both policy solutions and stakeholder cooperation. Although a number of these issues have been widely discussed, we focus on the one we believe is the most important-the facilitation of greater openness among public and private stakeholders to collaboration, connecting information and data sharing, with the goal of making robust and complete data accessible to all researchers. In this way, we can better understand the consequences of health care delivery, improve the effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems, and develop advancements in health technologies. Early real-world data initiatives illustrate both potential and the need for future progress, as well as the essential role of collaboration and data sharing. Health policies critical to progress will include those that promote open source data standards, expand access to the data, increase data capture and connectivity, and facilitate communication of findings.

  1. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  2. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.

  3. Caffeine enhances real-world language processing: evidence from a proofreading task.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Mahoney, Caroline R; Rapp, David N; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A

    2012-03-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended discourse: simple local errors (misspelling 1- to 2-syllable words), complex local errors (misspelling 3- to 5-syllable words), simple global errors (incorrect homophones), and complex global errors (incorrect subject-verb agreement and verb tense). In 2 placebo-controlled, double-blind studies using repeated-measures designs, we found higher detection and repair rates for complex global errors, asymptoting at 200 mg in low consumers (Experiment 1) and peaking at 400 mg in high consumers (Experiment 2). In both cases, covariate analyses demonstrated that arousal state mediated the relationship between caffeine consumption and the detection and repair of complex global errors. Detection and repair rates for the other 3 error types were not affected by caffeine consumption. Taken together, we demonstrate that caffeine has differential effects on error detection and repair as a function of dose and error type, and this relationship is closely tied to caffeine's effects on subjective arousal state. These results support the notion that central nervous system stimulants may enhance global processing of language-based materials and suggest that such effects may originate in caffeine-related right hemisphere brain processes. Implications for understanding the relationships between caffeine consumption and real-world cognitive functioning are discussed.

  4. Real-world performance of hearing protection systems in Army aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahroon, William A.; Robinette, Martin B.

    2001-05-01

    Methods to measure the performance of hearing protective devices using naive subjects were developed to better estimate the hearing protection that can be reasonably achieved in operational environments. A ``preference'' for subject-fit methods over experimenter-fit or experimenter-supervised-fit methods has been growing among many hearing conservation professionals but has not received universal acceptance. The real-world performance of hearing protection used in Army aviation was measured. Army aviators who had completed 38 weeks of rotary-wing aircraft training were used in personal hearing protector evaluations using ANSI S12.6 real-ear attenuation at threshold procedures. Using their own flight helmets (group 1) or helmets and earplugs (group 2), the aviators were instructed to fit their helmet or helmets with earplugs as they do for flight operations (i.e., an informed-user fit). Following this evaluation, an experimenter-supervised fit evaluation was performed, which included helmet and earplug fit by a technician trained and experienced in helmet fit procedures. For both groups, the real-ear attenuation at threshold results for the informed-user and experimenter-supervised fitting procedures were virtually identical. Thus, the experimenter-supervised fit procedure (ANSI S12.6-1997 Method A) is appropriate for evaluating the performance of personal hearing protective headgear in the Army aviation environments.

  5. A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual…

  6. Integrating Real-time, Real-world Geoscience Experiences into Classroom Instruction with EarthLabs and the JOIDES Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved

  7. The ‘unskilled and unaware’ effect is linear in a real-world setting

    PubMed Central

    Sawdon, Marina; Finn, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Self-assessment ability in medical students and practising physicians is generally poor, yet essential for academic progress and professional development. The aim of this study was to determine undergraduate medical students' ability to self-assess their exam performance accurately in a real-world, high-stakes exam setting, something not previously investigated. Year 1 and Year 2 medical students (n = 74) participated in a self-assessment exercise. Students predicted their exam grade (%) on the anatomy practical exam. This exercise was completed online immediately after the exam. Students' predicted exam grades were correlated with their actual attained exam grades using a Pearson's correlation. Demographic data were analysed using an independent t-test. A negative correlation was found between students' overall predicted and attained exam grades (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the students' predicted grades and actual grades in the bottom, 3rd and top (P < 0.0001), but not 2nd quartiles of participants. There was no relationship between the students' entry status into medical school and self-assessment ability (Year 1: P = 0.112; Year 2: P = 0.236) or between males and females (Year 1: P = 0.174). However, a relationship was determined for these variables in Year 2 (P = 0.022). The number of hours of additional self-directed learning undertaken did not influence students' self-assessment in both years. Our results demonstrate the ‘unskilled and unaware’ phenomenon in a real-world, high-stakes and practice-related setting. Students in all quartiles were unable to self-assess their exam performance, except for a group of mid-range students in the 2nd quartile. Poor performers were shown to overestimate their ability and, conversely, high achievers to underestimate their performance. We present evidence of a strong, significant linear relationship between medical students' ability to self-assess their performance in an

  8. Abundance of common species, not species richness, drives delivery of a real-world ecosystem service.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Rachael; Fox, Jeremy W; Williams, Neal M; Reilly, James R; Cariveau, Daniel P

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have established that species richness and composition are both important determinants of ecosystem function in an experimental context. Determining whether this result holds for real-world ecosystem services has remained elusive, however, largely due to the lack of analytical methods appropriate for large-scale, associational data. Here, we use a novel analytical approach, the Price equation, to partition the contribution to ecosystem services made by species richness, composition and abundance in four large-scale data sets on crop pollination by native bees. We found that abundance fluctuations of dominant species drove ecosystem service delivery, whereas richness changes were relatively unimportant because they primarily involved rare species that contributed little to function. Thus, the mechanism behind our results was the skewed species-abundance distribution. Our finding that a few common species, not species richness, drive ecosystem service delivery could have broad generality given the ubiquity of skewed species-abundance distributions in nature.

  9. Experimenting with ecosystem interaction networks in search of threshold potentials in real-world marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Parkes, Samantha; Lohrer, Andrew M; Pilditch, Conrad; Woodin, Sarah A; Wethey, David S; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Asnaghi, Valentina; De Juan, Silvia; Kraan, Casper; Rodil, Ivan; Savage, Candida; Van Colen, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Thresholds profoundly affect our understanding and management of ecosystem dynamics, but we have yet to develop practical techniques to assess the risk that thresholds will be crossed. Combining ecological knowledge of critical system interdependencies with a large-scale experiment, we tested for breaks in the ecosystem interaction network to identify threshold potential in real-world ecosystem dynamics. Our experiment with the bivalves Macomona liliana and Austrovenus stutchburyi on marine sandflats in New Zealand demonstrated that reductions in incident sunlight changed the interaction network between sediment biogeochemical fluxes, productivity, and macrofauna. By demonstrating loss of positive feedbacks and changes in the architecture of the network, we provide mechanistic evidence that stressors lead to break points in dynamics, which theory predicts predispose a system to a critical transition.

  10. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R. and Stotler, D.P.; Post-Zwicker, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom.

  11. Accuracy and speed of material categorization in real-world images.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Lavanya; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    It is easy to visually distinguish a ceramic knife from one made of steel, a leather jacket from one made of denim, and a plush toy from one made of plastic. Most studies of material appearance have focused on the estimation of specific material properties such as albedo or surface gloss, and as a consequence, almost nothing is known about how we recognize material categories like leather or plastic. We have studied judgments of high-level material categories with a diverse set of real-world photographs, and we have shown (Sharan, 2009) that observers can categorize materials reliably and quickly. Performance on our tasks cannot be explained by simple differences in color, surface shape, or texture. Nor can the results be explained by observers merely performing shape-based object recognition. Rather, we argue that fast and accurate material categorization is a distinct, basic ability of the visual system. PMID:25122216

  12. From the ideal to the real world: a phenomenological inquiry into student sojourners' reentry adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Feilin

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examines the thematic structure of reentry transition for international music therapy graduates who have returned home after studying in the United States. Emphasis is placed upon career development. Standardized open-ended interviews were used to obtain rich and in-depth descriptions of the participants' experiences. Ten music therapists from six countries participated in the study. The themes that emerged from the data include moving from the ideal to the real world, shifting from the role of student to professional, confronting reality and working through challenges, and achieving personal growth and self-transformation. The dynamics of cross-cultural comparison, confronting the home culture, and redefining music therapy and professional identities within the local cultural context are illustrated via quotations from the participants. Implications and recommendations for music therapy education and career preparation for international graduates are discussed. PMID:22506298

  13. Synthetic graph generation for data-intensive HPC benchmarking: Scalability, analysis and real-world application

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Sarah S.; Lothian, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allows the emulation of a broad spectrum of application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report described the in-depth analysis of the generated synthetic graphs' properties at a variety of scales using different generator implementations and examines their applicability to replicating real world datasets.

  14. Host-parasite biology in the real world: the field voles of Kielder.

    PubMed

    Turner, A K; Beldomenico, P M; Bown, K; Burthe, S J; Jackson, J A; Lambin, X; Begon, M

    2014-07-01

    Research on the interactions between the field voles (Microtus agrestis) of Kielder Forest and their natural parasites dates back to the 1930s. These early studies were primarily concerned with understanding how parasites shape the characteristic cyclic population dynamics of their hosts. However, since the early 2000s, research on the Kielder field voles has expanded considerably and the system has now been utilized for the study of host-parasite biology across many levels, including genetics, evolutionary ecology, immunology and epidemiology. The Kielder field voles therefore represent one of the most intensely and broadly studied natural host-parasite systems, bridging theoretical and empirical approaches to better understand the biology of infectious disease in the real world. This article synthesizes the body of work published on this system and summarizes some important insights and general messages provided by the integrated and multidisciplinary study of host-parasite interactions in the natural environment.

  15. Abundance of common species, not species richness, drives delivery of a real-world ecosystem service.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Rachael; Fox, Jeremy W; Williams, Neal M; Reilly, James R; Cariveau, Daniel P

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have established that species richness and composition are both important determinants of ecosystem function in an experimental context. Determining whether this result holds for real-world ecosystem services has remained elusive, however, largely due to the lack of analytical methods appropriate for large-scale, associational data. Here, we use a novel analytical approach, the Price equation, to partition the contribution to ecosystem services made by species richness, composition and abundance in four large-scale data sets on crop pollination by native bees. We found that abundance fluctuations of dominant species drove ecosystem service delivery, whereas richness changes were relatively unimportant because they primarily involved rare species that contributed little to function. Thus, the mechanism behind our results was the skewed species-abundance distribution. Our finding that a few common species, not species richness, drive ecosystem service delivery could have broad generality given the ubiquity of skewed species-abundance distributions in nature. PMID:25959973

  16. Accuracy and speed of material categorization in real-world images

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Lavanya; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    It is easy to visually distinguish a ceramic knife from one made of steel, a leather jacket from one made of denim, and a plush toy from one made of plastic. Most studies of material appearance have focused on the estimation of specific material properties such as albedo or surface gloss, and as a consequence, almost nothing is known about how we recognize material categories like leather or plastic. We have studied judgments of high-level material categories with a diverse set of real-world photographs, and we have shown (Sharan, 2009) that observers can categorize materials reliably and quickly. Performance on our tasks cannot be explained by simple differences in color, surface shape, or texture. Nor can the results be explained by observers merely performing shape-based object recognition. Rather, we argue that fast and accurate material categorization is a distinct, basic ability of the visual system. PMID:25122216

  17. Effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking in real-world rear-end crashes.

    PubMed

    Fildes, B; Keall, M; Bos, N; Lie, A; Page, Y; Pastor, C; Pennisi, L; Rizzi, M; Thomas, P; Tingvall, C

    2015-08-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) technology in current model passenger vehicles, based on real-world crash experience. The validating vehicle safety through meta-analysis (VVSMA) group comprising a collaboration of government, industry consumer organisations and researchers, pooled data from a number of countries using a standard analysis format and the established MUND approach. Induced exposure methods were adopted to control for any extraneous effects. The findings showed a 38 percent overall reduction in rear-end crashes for vehicles fitted with AEB compared to a comparison sample of similar vehicles. There was no statistical evidence of any difference in effect between urban (≤60 km/h) and rural (>60 km/h) speed zones. Areas requiring further research were identified and widespread fitment through the vehicle fleet is recommended.

  18. Stress responses of Calluna vulgaris to reduced and oxidised N applied under 'real world conditions'.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Crossley, A; Van Dijk, N; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A; Woods, C

    2008-08-01

    Effects and implications of reduced and oxidised N, applied under 'real world' conditions, since May 2002, are reported for Calluna growing on an ombrotrophic bog. Ammonia has been released from a 10 m line source generating monthly concentrations of 180-6 microg m(-3), while ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate are applied in rainwater at nitrate and ammonium concentrations below 4mM and providing up to 56 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) above a background deposition of 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Ammonia concentrations, >8 microg m(-3) have significantly enhanced foliar N concentrations, increased sensitivity to drought, frost and winter desiccation, spring frost damage and increased the incidence of pathogen outbreaks. The mature Calluna bushes nearest the NH3 source have turned bleached and moribund. By comparison the Calluna receiving reduced and oxidised N in rain has shown no significant visible or stress related effects with no significant increase in N status.

  19. Decoding dexterous finger movements in a neural prosthesis model approaching real-world conditions.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joshua; Baker, Justin; House, Paul A; Greger, Bradley

    2012-11-01

    Dexterous finger movements can be decoded from neuronal action potentials acquired from a nonhuman primate using a chronically implanted Utah Electrode Array. We have developed an algorithm that can, after training, detect and classify individual and combined finger movements without any a priori knowledge of the data, task, or behavior. The algorithm is based on changes in the firing rates of individual neurons that are tuned for one or more finger movement types. Nine different movement types, which consisted of individual flexions, individual extensions, and combined flexions of the thumb, index finger, and middle finger, were decoded. The algorithm performed reliably on data recorded continuously during movement tasks, including a no-movement state, with an overall average sensitivity and specificity that were both > 92%. These results demonstrate a viable algorithm for decoding dexterous finger movements under conditions similar to those required for a real-world neural prosthetic application.

  20. Effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking in real-world rear-end crashes.

    PubMed

    Fildes, B; Keall, M; Bos, N; Lie, A; Page, Y; Pastor, C; Pennisi, L; Rizzi, M; Thomas, P; Tingvall, C

    2015-08-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) technology in current model passenger vehicles, based on real-world crash experience. The validating vehicle safety through meta-analysis (VVSMA) group comprising a collaboration of government, industry consumer organisations and researchers, pooled data from a number of countries using a standard analysis format and the established MUND approach. Induced exposure methods were adopted to control for any extraneous effects. The findings showed a 38 percent overall reduction in rear-end crashes for vehicles fitted with AEB compared to a comparison sample of similar vehicles. There was no statistical evidence of any difference in effect between urban (≤60 km/h) and rural (>60 km/h) speed zones. Areas requiring further research were identified and widespread fitment through the vehicle fleet is recommended. PMID:25935427

  1. Stress responses of Calluna vulgaris to reduced and oxidised N applied under 'real world conditions'.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Crossley, A; Van Dijk, N; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A; Woods, C

    2008-08-01

    Effects and implications of reduced and oxidised N, applied under 'real world' conditions, since May 2002, are reported for Calluna growing on an ombrotrophic bog. Ammonia has been released from a 10 m line source generating monthly concentrations of 180-6 microg m(-3), while ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate are applied in rainwater at nitrate and ammonium concentrations below 4mM and providing up to 56 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) above a background deposition of 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Ammonia concentrations, >8 microg m(-3) have significantly enhanced foliar N concentrations, increased sensitivity to drought, frost and winter desiccation, spring frost damage and increased the incidence of pathogen outbreaks. The mature Calluna bushes nearest the NH3 source have turned bleached and moribund. By comparison the Calluna receiving reduced and oxidised N in rain has shown no significant visible or stress related effects with no significant increase in N status. PMID:18177985

  2. Real World Executive Control Impairments in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Pontea Etemad; Kenworthy, Lauren; Wills, Meagan C.; Jarrett, Marian; Atmore, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined executive control (EC) in preschoolers with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). ASD participants were a clinically referred sample of preschoolers; the typically developing control group was selected from the BRIEF-P standardization sample. The ASD group was rated significantly worse on all BRIEF-P scores, and these impairments did not correlate with ASD symptoms. These findings document impairments in real world EC in pre-schoolers with ASD, and have implications for assessing preschoolers suspected of having an ASD. Furthermore, the findings also converge with BRIEF studies of school-aged children with ASD. PMID:23283628

  3. Common nano-materials and their use in real world applications.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2012-01-01

    Today engineered nano-materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their important properties which have given birth to vast technological and economic growth in a number of industrial sectors. Nano-materials are indeed expected to become the cornerstone of a number of sectors such as microelectronics, materials, textiles, energy, healthcare and cosmetic goods. Nanotechnology applications will give rise to cleaner energy production, lighter and more durable materials, inexpensive clean water production and will benefit medical applications such as smart drugs and diagnostics. However, one has to be mindful of the risks involved concerning potential toxicity and exposure route and the verdict is still out on a number of nano-materials as to the relative dangers to humans and the environment. This brief review hopes to describe some of the main contenders and their real world applications but it should only be considered a snapshot of the industry and its relative potential. PMID:22574383

  4. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  5. Learning to train neural networks for real-world control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldkamp, Lee A.; Puskorius, G. V.; Davis, L. I., Jr.; Yuan, F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, our group has concentrated on the application of neural network methods to the training of controllers for real-world systems. This presentation describes our approach, surveys what we have found to be important, mentions some contributions to the field, and shows some representative results. Topics discussed include: (1) executing model studies as rehearsal for experimental studies; (2) the importance of correct derivatives; (3) effective training with second-order (DEKF) methods; (4) the efficacy of time-lagged recurrent networks; (5) liberation from the tyranny of the control cycle using asynchronous truncated backpropagation through time; and (6) multistream training for robustness. Results from model studies of automotive idle speed control serve as examples for several of these topics.

  6. Accuracy and speed of material categorization in real-world images.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Lavanya; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H

    2014-08-13

    It is easy to visually distinguish a ceramic knife from one made of steel, a leather jacket from one made of denim, and a plush toy from one made of plastic. Most studies of material appearance have focused on the estimation of specific material properties such as albedo or surface gloss, and as a consequence, almost nothing is known about how we recognize material categories like leather or plastic. We have studied judgments of high-level material categories with a diverse set of real-world photographs, and we have shown (Sharan, 2009) that observers can categorize materials reliably and quickly. Performance on our tasks cannot be explained by simple differences in color, surface shape, or texture. Nor can the results be explained by observers merely performing shape-based object recognition. Rather, we argue that fast and accurate material categorization is a distinct, basic ability of the visual system.

  7. Cars and Kinetic Energy -- Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-10-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in The Physics Teacher in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below). Here, I illustrate how a basic understanding of kinetic energy—a topic encountered early in any introductory physics course—enables significant insights into the nature of automobile transportation. Specifically, we can accurately predict how much power the average driver in the United States uses, and explain what determines this, without needing to consider any aspects of mechanical engineering or engine design.

  8. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Serfass, David G; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed.

  9. Common nano-materials and their use in real world applications.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2012-01-01

    Today engineered nano-materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their important properties which have given birth to vast technological and economic growth in a number of industrial sectors. Nano-materials are indeed expected to become the cornerstone of a number of sectors such as microelectronics, materials, textiles, energy, healthcare and cosmetic goods. Nanotechnology applications will give rise to cleaner energy production, lighter and more durable materials, inexpensive clean water production and will benefit medical applications such as smart drugs and diagnostics. However, one has to be mindful of the risks involved concerning potential toxicity and exposure route and the verdict is still out on a number of nano-materials as to the relative dangers to humans and the environment. This brief review hopes to describe some of the main contenders and their real world applications but it should only be considered a snapshot of the industry and its relative potential.

  10. Real-world study of everolimus in advanced progressive neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, Francesco; Rinzivillo, Maria; Fazio, Nicola; de Braud, Filippo; Luppi, Gabriele; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Lugli, Francesca; Tomassetti, Paola; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Nuzzo, Carmen; Brizzi, Maria Pia; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Zaniboni, Alberto; Nobili, Elisabetta; Pastorelli, Davide; Cascinu, Stefano; Merlano, Marco; Chiara, Silvana; Antonuzzo, Lorenzo; Funaioli, Chiara; Spada, Francesca; Pusceddu, Sara; Fontana, Annalisa; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Cassano, Alessandra; Campana, Davide; Cartenì, Giacomo; Appetecchia, Marialuisa; Berruti, Alfredo; Colao, Annamaria; Falconi, Massimo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    Everolimus is a valid therapeutic option for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs); however, data in a real-world setting outside regulatory trials are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine everolimus tolerability and efficacy, in relation to previous treatments, in a compassionate use program. A total of 169 patients with advanced progressive NETs treated with everolimus were enrolled, including 85 with pancreatic NETs (pNETs) and 84 with nonpancreatic NETs (non-pNETs). Previous treatments included somatostatin analogs (92.9%), peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT; 50.3%), chemotherapy (49.7%), and PRRT and chemotherapy (22.8%). Overall, 85.2% of patients experienced adverse events (AEs), which were severe (grade 3-4) in 46.1%. The most frequent severe AEs were pneumonitis (8.3%), thrombocytopenia (7.7%), anemia (5.3%), and renal failure (3.5%). In patients previously treated with PRRT and chemotherapy, a 12-fold increased risk for severe toxicity was observed, with grade 3-4 AEs reported in 86.8% (vs. 34.3% in other patients). In addition, 63.3% of patients required temporarily everolimus discontinuation due to toxicity. Overall, 27.8% of patients died during a median follow-up of 12 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 12 months and 32 months, respectively. Similar disease control rates, PFS, and OS were reported in pNETs and non-pNETs. In the real-world setting, everolimus is safe and effective for the treatment of NETs of different origins. Higher severe toxicity occurred in patients previously treated with systemic chemotherapy and PRRT. This finding prompts caution when using this drug in pretreated patients and raises the issue of planning for everolimus before PRRT and chemotherapy in the therapeutic algorithm for advanced NETs.

  11. Treating homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in a real-world setting: Experiences with lomitapide.

    PubMed

    Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine; Averna, Maurizio; Alonso, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare genetic disease characterised by markedly elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Lomitapide is a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor approved as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs), with or without lipoprotein apheresis (LA), for the treatment of adult HoFH. Diet with <20% calories from fat is required. Due to a varying genetic and phenotypic profile of patients with HoFH, individual patients may respond to therapy differently; therefore examining individual cases in a 'real-world' setting provides valuable information on the effective day-to-day management of HoFH cases. Four HoFH cases were selected for analysis and discussion: a 20-year-old female compound heterozygote; a 62-year old female homozygote; a 42-year-old female compound heterozygote; and a 36-year-old male homozygote. Each patient was commenced on lomitapide according to the prescribed protocol and subjected to routine follow-up. All four patients experienced clinically meaningful reductions in LDL-C levels of 35-73%. Three of the patients had evidence of steatosis or mildly elevated liver function tests) before lomitapide was started, but effects of lomitapide on hepatic function were not universal. Three of the patients experienced gastrointestinal adverse events, but were managed with appropriate dietary control. Lomitapide is an effective adjunct LLT in the management of patients with HoFH, with or without LA. Real-world use of lomitapide has a side-effect profile consistent with clinical trials and one that can be managed by adherence to recommendations on dose escalation, dietary modification and dietary supplements. PMID:26228681

  12. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Ming-Chyi; Aref, Hany; Bassil, Nazem; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Lee, Jae-Hong; Srinivasan, AV; diTommaso, Shelley; Yuksel, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rivastigmine transdermal patch has shown higher caregiver satisfaction and greater preference than oral formulation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is limited literature available related to caregiver preference or treatment compliance in real-world clinical settings. To date, no such data are available from Asia and the Middle East, which account for a sizeable proportion of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment preference and compliance with oral and transdermal medications in daily clinical practice in an ethnically diverse patient population from Asia and the Middle East with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Patients and methods RECAP (Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease) was a 24-week, multicenter, prospective, noninterventional study. Two treatment cohorts were observed during the study: oral (cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine) and transdermal (rivastigmine patch). Caregiver preference, physician preference, and patient compliance were evaluated at week 24. Results A total of 978 of 1,931 enrolled patients (mean age: 72.8 years; 50.5% female) were in the transdermal cohort. For patients with exposure to both oral and transdermal monotherapy (n=330), a significant caregivers’ preference for the transdermal monotherapy was observed (82.7%; P<0.0001). Of the 89 participating physicians, 71 indicated preference for transdermal monotherapy. Patient compliance was also significantly higher for transdermal than oral monotherapy (P<0.0001). Conclusion Our study showed higher caregiver and physician preference and greater patient compliance with transdermal monotherapy in daily practice. PMID:26622172

  13. Bringing Real World Underwater Science, Engineering and Technology in Tomorrow's Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, C.

    2012-04-01

    What do Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Ocean Science, Engineering and Technology have in common with science education in today's classroom? They all meet the growing demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals in tomorrow's U.S. workforce. Engaging students in real world science experiences will help them develop skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, innovation, and creativity. These skills are crucial to building a strong, competitive workforce in an integrated global economy. Fifth grade students from St. Andrew's School of Math and Science in Charleston, SC, USA science classes were introduced to engineering and robotics by using a combination of two underwater ROVs programs from the Office of Naval Research (SeaPerch) and Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE). Students were grouped in teams as "real scientists" to design and construct a ROV. Students selected their role from a list of engineering positions, and researched how to construct the best ROV. Students created blueprints and models of their ROV design. Scientists/engineers from various local agencies were scheduled to come and share their expertise with the students. On World Ocean Day, a presentation was planned for fifth grade students to work closely with kindergarten through fourth grade students. The purpose of the day was two-fold; it provided students the opportunity to peer teach and the opportunity to present their experiences to a wide audience. All students presented their designs and demonstrated their ROV's movement capabilities in child size pools. They also modeled how submersible pilots communicate with scientists and other researchers while operating their newly designed ROV. As a culminating event, students visited a local marine science high school class with similar ROVs and evaluated their engineering designs in a fresh water pond.

  14. Improved method for roadside barrier length of need modeling using real-world trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Thomson, Robert; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-07-01

    The 2011 AASHTO Roadside Design Guide (RDG) contains perhaps the most widely used procedure for choosing an appropriate length of need (LON) for roadside barriers. However, this procedure has several limitations. The procedure uses a highly simplified model of vehicle departure, and the procedure does not allow designers to specify an explicit level of protection. A new procedure for choosing LON that addresses these limitations is presented in this paper. This new procedure is based on recent, real-world road departure trajectories and uses this departure data in a more realistic way. The new procedure also allows LON to be specified for a precisely known level of protection - a level which can be based on number of crashes, injury outcomes or even estimated crash cost - while still remaining straightforward and quick to use like the 2011 RDG procedure. In this analysis, the improved procedure was used to explore the effects of the RDG procedure's assumptions. LON recommendations given by the 2011 RDG procedure were compared with recommendations given by this improved procedure. For 55 mph roads, the 2011 RDG procedure appears to lead to a LON sufficient to intercept between 80% and 90% of right-side departures that would otherwise strike a hazard located 10 m from the roadway. For hazards closer than 10 m, the 2011 RDG procedure intercepts progressively higher percentages of real-world departures. This suggests the protection level provided by the 2011 RDG procedure varies with the hazard offset, becoming more conservative as the hazard moves closer to the roadway. The improved procedure, by comparison, gives a consistent protection level regardless of hazard location. PMID:25966283

  15. Real-world emissions from model year 1993, 2000, and 2010 passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Goodwin, R.; Watkins, R.

    1995-11-01

    Air pollution by cars and light trucks is a major problem in metropolitan areas in the United States and around the world. Much of the discussion of this issue is based on the emissions per vehicle mile as determined under somewhat artificial testing conditions. The pollutants actually emitted vary considerably with the particular vehicle and the way it is driven, but the average emissions per mile are much higher than the test values. This report concerns the sources and levels of excess emissions, and the potential for reducing them. The history of automotive emissions regulation reveals remarkable success in reducing the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from new automobiles - as measured in certification tests. The grams-per-mile (g/mile) standards for these tests are stringent, with 96% reductions mandated in comparison to the estimated pre-control (mid-1960s) levels for CO and HC; and 75% reductions mandated for NO{sub x}. Powerful new technologies have been developed and incorporated into every new vehicle in order to accomplish these reductions. Most noteworthy are the catalytic converter and closed-loop engine controls; the latter includes sensors before and after the engine proper, and computer analysis of the information leading to real-time control of fuel injection, with the principal objective of maintaining just the right chemical balance of fuel and air. The average lifetime real-world g/mile emissions associated with conventional gasoline fueled cars for model years 1993, 2000, and 2010 have been projected. Results are discussed.

  16. Development of a Mandarin-English Bilingual Speech Recognition System for Real World Music Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Pan, Jielin; Lin, Yang; Shao, Jian; Yan, Yonghong

    In recent decades, there has been a great deal of research into the problem of bilingual speech recognition-to develop a recognizer that can handle inter- and intra-sentential language switching between two languages. This paper presents our recent work on the development of a grammar-constrained, Mandarin-English bilingual Speech Recognition System (MESRS) for real world music retrieval. Two of the main difficult issues in handling the bilingual speech recognition systems for real world applications are tackled in this paper. One is to balance the performance and the complexity of the bilingual speech recognition system; the other is to effectively deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language**. In order to process the intra-sentential language switching and reduce the amount of data required to robustly estimate statistical models, a compact single set of bilingual acoustic models derived by phone set merging and clustering is developed instead of using two separate monolingual models for each language. In our study, a novel Two-pass phone clustering method based on Confusion Matrix (TCM) is presented and compared with the log-likelihood measure method. Experiments testify that TCM can achieve better performance. Since potential system users' native language is Mandarin which is regarded as a matrix language in our application, their pronunciations of English as the embedded language usually contain Mandarin accents. In order to deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language, different non-native adaptation approaches are investigated. Experiments show that model retraining method outperforms the other common adaptation methods such as Maximum A Posteriori (MAP). With the effective incorporation of approaches on phone clustering and non-native adaptation, the Phrase Error Rate (PER) of MESRS for English utterances was reduced by 24.47% relatively compared to the baseline monolingual English system while the PER on Mandarin utterances was

  17. Real-world study of everolimus in advanced progressive neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, Francesco; Rinzivillo, Maria; Fazio, Nicola; de Braud, Filippo; Luppi, Gabriele; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Lugli, Francesca; Tomassetti, Paola; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Nuzzo, Carmen; Brizzi, Maria Pia; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Zaniboni, Alberto; Nobili, Elisabetta; Pastorelli, Davide; Cascinu, Stefano; Merlano, Marco; Chiara, Silvana; Antonuzzo, Lorenzo; Funaioli, Chiara; Spada, Francesca; Pusceddu, Sara; Fontana, Annalisa; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Cassano, Alessandra; Campana, Davide; Cartenì, Giacomo; Appetecchia, Marialuisa; Berruti, Alfredo; Colao, Annamaria; Falconi, Massimo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    Everolimus is a valid therapeutic option for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs); however, data in a real-world setting outside regulatory trials are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine everolimus tolerability and efficacy, in relation to previous treatments, in a compassionate use program. A total of 169 patients with advanced progressive NETs treated with everolimus were enrolled, including 85 with pancreatic NETs (pNETs) and 84 with nonpancreatic NETs (non-pNETs). Previous treatments included somatostatin analogs (92.9%), peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT; 50.3%), chemotherapy (49.7%), and PRRT and chemotherapy (22.8%). Overall, 85.2% of patients experienced adverse events (AEs), which were severe (grade 3-4) in 46.1%. The most frequent severe AEs were pneumonitis (8.3%), thrombocytopenia (7.7%), anemia (5.3%), and renal failure (3.5%). In patients previously treated with PRRT and chemotherapy, a 12-fold increased risk for severe toxicity was observed, with grade 3-4 AEs reported in 86.8% (vs. 34.3% in other patients). In addition, 63.3% of patients required temporarily everolimus discontinuation due to toxicity. Overall, 27.8% of patients died during a median follow-up of 12 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 12 months and 32 months, respectively. Similar disease control rates, PFS, and OS were reported in pNETs and non-pNETs. In the real-world setting, everolimus is safe and effective for the treatment of NETs of different origins. Higher severe toxicity occurred in patients previously treated with systemic chemotherapy and PRRT. This finding prompts caution when using this drug in pretreated patients and raises the issue of planning for everolimus before PRRT and chemotherapy in the therapeutic algorithm for advanced NETs. PMID:25117065

  18. A real-world evaluation of indacaterol and other bronchodilators in COPD: the INFLOW study

    PubMed Central

    Juvelekian, Georges; El-Sorougi, Waleed; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Yunus, Faisal; De Guia, Teresita; Kuo, Han-Pin; Basu Patnaik, Shalma; Pilipovic, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Aim INFLOW (INdacaterol eFfectiveness and utiLizatiOn in COPD: real World evaluation) was a prospective, noninterventional study assessing the effectiveness and safety of long-acting bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from the Middle East, Asia, and South Africa. Methods Patients newly prescribed or switched to indacaterol or other long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), or tiotropium (monotherapy or in combination) were evaluated over 6 months. The primary endpoint was the clinical COPD questionnaire overall score at the end of the study. Results Data were analyzed from 1,710 patients (mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 59% predicted) who received indacaterol (n=1,179), other LABA (n=68), tiotropium (n=271), indacaterol plus tiotropium (n=167), or other LABA plus tiotropium (n=25). Across treatments, clinical COPD questionnaire overall score improved from baseline by 0.81–1.26 points (all P<0.0001), 63%–84% of patients were satisfied/very satisfied, and physicians rated effectiveness as good/very good in 63%–80% of cases. The indacaterol inhaler was rated easy/very easy to use by the majority of patients, and physicians considered its use clearly understood by most patients. All treatments had acceptable tolerability. Conclusion In real life clinical practice across a diverse region, indacaterol and other long-acting bronchodilators improved health status and were well regarded by patients and physicians. PMID:26491281

  19. Solving large-scale real-world telecommunication problems using a grid-based genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Francisco; Nebro, Antonio; Alba, Enrique; Durillo, Juan

    2008-11-01

    This article analyses the use of a grid-based genetic algorithm (GrEA) to solve a real-world instance of a problem from the telecommunication domain. The problem, known as automatic frequency planning (AFP), is used in a global system for mobile communications (GSM) networks to assign a number of fixed frequencies to a set of GSM transceivers located in the antennae of a cellular phone network. Real data instances of the AFP are very difficult to solve owing to the NP-hard nature of the problem, so combining grid computing and metaheuristics turns out to be a way to provide satisfactory solutions in a reasonable amount of time. GrEA has been deployed on a grid with up to 300 processors to solve an AFP instance of 2612 transceivers. The results not only show that significant running time reductions are achieved, but that the search capability of GrEA clearly outperforms that of the equivalent non-grid algorithm.

  20. Toward a computational approach for collision avoidance with real-world scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Matthias S.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2003-04-01

    In the central nervous systems of animals like pigeons and locusts, neurons were identified which signal objects approaching the animal on a direct collision course. In order to timely initiate escape behavior, these neurons must recognize a possible approach (or at least differentiate it from similar but non-threatening situations), and estimate the time-to-collision (ttc). Unraveling the neural circuitry for collision avoidance, and identifying the underlying computational principles, should thus be promising for building vision-based neuromorphic architectures, which in the near future could find applications in cars or planes. Unfortunately, a corresponding computational architecture which is able to handle real-situations (e.g. moving backgrounds, different lighting conditions) is still not available (successful collision avoidance of a robot was demonstrated only for a closed environment). Here we present two computational models for signalling impending collision. These models are parsimonious since they possess only the minimum number of computational units which are essential to reproduce corresponding biological data. Our models show robust performance in adverse situations, such as with approaching low-contrast objects, or with highly textured backgrounds. Furthermore, a condition is proposed under which the responses of our models match the so-called eta-function. We finally discuss which components need to be added to our model to convert it into a full-fledged real-world-environment collision detector.

  1. Evidence-based medicine, opinion-based medicine, and real-world medicine.

    PubMed

    Hampton, John R

    2002-01-01

    The freedom of a doctor to treat an individual patient in the way he believes best has been markedly limited by the concept of evidence-based medicine. Clearly all would wish to practice according to the best available evidence, but it has become accepted that "evidence-based" means that which is derived from randomized, and preferably double-blind, clinical trials. The history of clinical trial development, which can be traced to the use of oranges and lemons for the treatment of scurvy in 1747, has reflected a progressive need to establish whether smaller and smaller effects of treatment are real. It has led to difficult concepts such as "equivalence" and aberrations such as "meta-analysis." An examination of evidence-based practice shows that it has usually been filtered through the opinions of experts and journal editors, and "opinion-based medicine" would be a more appropriate term. In the real world of individual patients with multiple diseases who are receiving a number of different drugs, the practice of evidence-based (or even opinion-based) medicine is extremely difficult. For each patient a judgment has to be made by the clinician of the likely balance of risks and benefits of any therapy. Good practice still requires clinical freedom for doctors. PMID:12388887

  2. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-02-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, based on issues of great current concern—reusable energy, climate change, and medical advancement. Topics on the website also focus on applications of physics in the natural world around us. There are currently about 70 different topics on the website and it is not possible to justly give a sense of the website in total here. Instead we will present one complete example of the resources available on our website and show how it can be used in the classroom or in lecture. The example discussed here is suitable for a first-year university course and focuses on diffraction through a circular aperture and Rayleigh's resolution criterion by looking at the effect of pupil size on the minimum angle of resolution. The original idea came from reading a book on zoological physics,2 and a short example was later found in a first-year physics textbook.3

  3. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  4. Performance on a computerized shopping task significantly predicts real world functioning in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Laloyaux, Julien; Pellegrini, Nadia; Mourad, Haitham; Bertrand, Hervé; Domken, Marc-André; Van der Linden, Martial; Larøi, Frank

    2013-12-15

    Persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairments. However, little is known concerning how these cognitive deficits impact their real world functioning. We developed a computerized real-life activity task, where participants are required to shop for a list of grocery store items. Twenty one individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 21 matched healthy controls were administered the computerized shopping task. Moreover, the patient group was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests and clinical scales. Performance on the shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for two variables: Total time to complete the shopping task and Mean time spent to consult the shopping list. Moreover, in the patient group, performance on these variables from the shopping task correlated significantly with cognitive functioning (i.e. processing speed, verbal episodic memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition) and with clinical variables including duration of illness and real world functioning. Finally, variables from the shopping task were found to significantly explain 41% of real world functioning of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. These findings suggest that the shopping task provides a good indication of real world functioning and cognitive functioning of persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

  5. Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED): Semi-Structured Tagging for Real-World Events in Large-Scale EEG

    PubMed Central

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Cockfield, Jeremy; Makeig, Scott; Rognon, Thomas; La Valle, Chris; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Robbins, Kay A.

    2016-01-01

    Real-world brain imaging by EEG requires accurate annotation of complex subject-environment interactions in event-rich tasks and paradigms. This paper describes the evolution of the Hierarchical Event Descriptor (HED) system for systematically describing both laboratory and real-world events. HED version 2, first described here, provides the semantic capability of describing a variety of subject and environmental states. HED descriptions can include stimulus presentation events on screen or in virtual worlds, experimental or spontaneous events occurring in the real world environment, and events experienced via one or multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, HED 2 can distinguish between the mere presence of an object and its actual (or putative) perception by a subject. Although the HED framework has implicit ontological and linked data representations, the user-interface for HED annotation is more intuitive than traditional ontological annotation. We believe that hiding the formal representations allows for a more user-friendly interface, making consistent, detailed tagging of experimental, and real-world events possible for research users. HED is extensible while retaining the advantages of having an enforced common core vocabulary. We have developed a collection of tools to support HED tag assignment and validation; these are available at hedtags.org. A plug-in for EEGLAB (sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab), CTAGGER, is also available to speed the process of tagging existing studies. PMID:27799907

  6. Testing the hybrid-3D Hillslope Hydrological Model in a Real-World Controlled Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    Hillslopes play an important role for converting rainfall into runoff, and as such, influence theterrestrial dynamics of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we have developed a hybrid-3D (h3D) hillslope hydrological model that couples a 1D vertical soil column model with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow model. The h3D model gives similar results as the CATchment HYdrological model (CATHY), which simulates the subsurface movement of water with the 3D Richards equation, though the runtime efficiency of the h3D model is about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. In the current work, the ability of the h3D model to predict real-world hydrological dynamics is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at the Biosphere 2 near Tucson, Arizona, USA. LEO offers accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs and storage dynamics of several hillslopes. The level of detail of these observations is generally not possible with real-world hillslope studies. Therefore, LEO offers an optimal environment to test the h3D model. The h3D model captures the observed storage, baseflow, and overland flow dynamics of both a larger and a smaller hillslope. Furthermore, it simulates overland flow better than CATHY. The h3D model has difficulties correctly representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the smaller hillslope, though. There is a gravel layer near this seepage face, and the numerical boundary condition of the h3D model is insufficient to capture the hydrological dynamics within this region. In addition, the h3D model is used to test the hypothesis that model parameters change through time due to the migration of soil particles during the recharge-drainage experiments. An in depth calibration of the h3D model parameters reveals that the best results are obtained by applying an event-based optimization procedure as compared

  7. [Characteristics and drug analysis associated with vertigo disease in real world].

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the characteristics and influenced factors associated with the onset of vertigo disease, analysis of 3 719 cases of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease from the real world. Analysis the date of patients diagnosed with vertigo disease from the hospital information system of 19 grade-III class-A hospital from 2004 to 2011, include general information, the doctor's advice, other diseases combined, diagnostic information and the relationship with the onset of 24 solar terms, and the treatment drugs. The median age of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease was 59, the number of women (65.91%) was more than men (34.09%), manual workers (85.32%) were the majority career, most patients (81.63%) condition were general by the time they were hospital admission, patients more like admitted to neurologist (70.34%) when they first time to outpatient serves, hospitalization days were in 8-14 days (46.65%), 46.04% of the patients in the hospital total cost is in 5 000 RMB to 10 000 RMB, 73.86% of patients paid by National Health Medical Insurance. Hypertension (20.79%) was the most common underlying health problems, The most common syndromes was deficiency of liver-Yin and kidney-Yin(44. 21%) , followed by hyperactivity of liver-yang, disease of phlegm turbidity in mongolia and deficiency of Qi and blood. There were more deficiency syndrome and less excess syndrome. The highest rate of hospital admission solar terms in 2009 was the insects awaken throttle (5.21%), In 2010, the highest rate solar terms of hospital admission was the rain throttle (6.14%). The most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine was gastrodine injection (20.55%), the most frequently used western medicine for betahistine (10.19%), gastrodine injection was the most traditional Chinese medicine that combination with other western medicine. Hypertension was the most underlying health problems in the patients with vertigo disease in the real world, although the mental factors should

  8. [Characteristics and drug analysis associated with vertigo disease in real world].

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the characteristics and influenced factors associated with the onset of vertigo disease, analysis of 3 719 cases of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease from the real world. Analysis the date of patients diagnosed with vertigo disease from the hospital information system of 19 grade-III class-A hospital from 2004 to 2011, include general information, the doctor's advice, other diseases combined, diagnostic information and the relationship with the onset of 24 solar terms, and the treatment drugs. The median age of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease was 59, the number of women (65.91%) was more than men (34.09%), manual workers (85.32%) were the majority career, most patients (81.63%) condition were general by the time they were hospital admission, patients more like admitted to neurologist (70.34%) when they first time to outpatient serves, hospitalization days were in 8-14 days (46.65%), 46.04% of the patients in the hospital total cost is in 5 000 RMB to 10 000 RMB, 73.86% of patients paid by National Health Medical Insurance. Hypertension (20.79%) was the most common underlying health problems, The most common syndromes was deficiency of liver-Yin and kidney-Yin(44. 21%) , followed by hyperactivity of liver-yang, disease of phlegm turbidity in mongolia and deficiency of Qi and blood. There were more deficiency syndrome and less excess syndrome. The highest rate of hospital admission solar terms in 2009 was the insects awaken throttle (5.21%), In 2010, the highest rate solar terms of hospital admission was the rain throttle (6.14%). The most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine was gastrodine injection (20.55%), the most frequently used western medicine for betahistine (10.19%), gastrodine injection was the most traditional Chinese medicine that combination with other western medicine. Hypertension was the most underlying health problems in the patients with vertigo disease in the real world, although the mental factors should

  9. Differences between the real and the desired worlds in the results of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Regina El; Jorge, Eliane Chaves; Kamegasawa, Amélia; Daher, Solange Ramires; Spagnuolo, Regina Stella; da Silva, Marise Pereira; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Volpato, Enilze; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Betini, Marluci; do Valle, Adriana; Corrêa, Ione; Bazan, Rodrigo; Almeida, Ricardo Augusto MB; Weber, Silke Anna Theresa; Molina, Silvana; Yoo, Hugo; Boas, Paulo Villas; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mathew, Joseph; Kapoor, Anil; Carvalho, Raíssa Pierri; Vital, Roberto Bezerra; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We refer to the effectiveness (known as pragmatic or real world) and efficacy (known as explanatory or desired or ideal world) of interventions. However, these terms seem to be randomly chosen by investigators who design clinical trials and do not always reflect the true purpose of the study. A pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary tool was thus developed with the aim of identifying the characteristics of clinical trials that distinguish between effectiveness and efficacy issues. We verified whether clinical trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool, and we categorized these clinical trials according to a new classification. METHOD: A systematic survey of randomized clinical trials was performed. We added a score ranging from 0 (more efficacious) to 10 (more effective) to each domain of the indicator summary tool and proposed the following classifications: high efficacy (<25), moderate efficacy (25-50), moderate effectiveness (51-75), and high effectiveness (<75). RESULTS: A total of 844 randomized trials were analyzed. No analyzed trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool. Approximately 44% of the trials were classified as having moderate effectiveness, and 43.82% were classified as having moderate efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Most clinical trials used the term “efficacy” to illustrate the application of results in clinical practice, but the majority of those were classified as having moderate effectiveness according to our proposed score. The classification based on the 0-100 score is still highly subjective and can be easily misunderstood in all domains based on each investigator's own experiences and knowledge. PMID:26375563

  10. Using string alignment in a query-by-humming system for real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, Christian

    2005-09-01

    Though query by humming (i.e., retrieving music or information about music by singing a characteristic melody) has been a popular research topic during the past decade, few approaches have reached a level of usefulness beyond mere scientific interest. One of the main problems is the inherent contradiction between error tolerance and dicriminative power in conventional melody matching algorithms that rely on a melody contour approach to handle intonation or transcription errors. Adopting the string matching/alignment techniques from bioinformatics to melody sequences allows to directly assess the similarity between two melodies. This method takes an MPEG-7 compliant melody sequence (i.e., a list of note intervals and length ratios) as query and evaluates the steps necessary to transform it into the reference sequence. By introducing a musically founded cost-of-replace function and an adequate post processing, this method yields a measure for melodic similarity. Thus it is possible to construct a query by humming system that can properly discriminate between thousands of melodies and still be sufficiently error tolerant to be used by untrained singers. The robustness has been verified in extensive tests and real world applications.

  11. Google unveils a glimpse of allergic rhinitis in the real world.

    PubMed

    Kang, M-G; Song, W-J; Choi, S; Kim, H; Ha, H; Kim, S-H; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Yoon, S; Chang, Y-S

    2015-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) is a Web-based surveillance tool used to explore the searching trends of specific queries on Google. Recent studies have suggested the utility of GT in predicting outbreaks of influenza and other diseases. However, this utility has not been thoroughly evaluated for allergic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the utility of GT for predicting the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. In the USA, GT for allergic rhinitis showed repetitive seasonality that peaked in late April and early May and then rapidly decreased, and a second small peak occurred in September. These trends are highly correlated with the searching trends for other queries such as 'pollen count', antihistamines such as loratadine and cetirizine (all r > 0.88 and all P < 0.001), and even the total pollen count collected from 21 pollen counters across the USA (r = 0.928, P < 0.001). Google Trends for allergic rhinitis was similar to the monthly changes in rhinitis symptoms according to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, sales for Claritin(®) and all over-the-counter antihistamines, and the number of monthly page views of 'claritin.com'. In conclusion, GT closely reflects the real-world epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in the USA and could potentially be used as a monitoring tool for allergic rhinitis.

  12. Advanced Predictive Model and Real-World Results for Medium Concentration CPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karney, Bruce; Finot, Marc

    2011-12-01

    Skyline Solar has developed a novel medium concentration PV product. The system is a linear concentrator that tracks the sun with a 1-axis horizontal tracker. Reflectors are used to concentrate sunlight 7-50x using non-imaging optics. The receivers use Silicon cells and passive cooling. The product's design has been guided by a detailed Performance Prediction Tool (PPT) that relates component characteristics and climate data to the overall energy production. In contrast with other tools, the PPT captures the non-linearity of conditions such as weather, system architecture (stringing, shadow management) and the value of energy as a function of time of day and season. This paper describes the key elements of the PPT and compares its predictions to real-world results from different locations with significantly different DNI. Moderate DNI sites are San Jose, California and Kona, Hawaii. The higher DNI site is Nipton, California (DNI ˜7.2). Skyline's PPT accurately predicts the energy harvest for two Skyline Solar systems including the HGS 1000 and the new Skyline Solar X14 System.

  13. [Real world study of Dengzhan xixin injection in treatment of cerebral infarction with medication].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cheng, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2014-09-01

    To analysis of Dengzhan Xixin injection (DZI) in treatment of cerebral infarction (EBHM) in the real world population characteristics and concomitant medication. By selecting the 20 hospital information system (HIS) used in the database of DZI and primary diagnosis of 2 484 cases of cerebral infarction patients information, use the Apriori algorithm to construct the model, using Clementine 12.0 analysis, cerebral infarction complicating diseases, commonly used drug combination analysis of DZI. The results showed that patients with more males than females (1.63: 1); age > 46 in older persons, treatment 7-14 days accounted for the majority of patients with hypertension, cerebral infarction, diabetes, coronary heart disease and other diseases; common drug combination can be divided into seven categories: medicine of antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel hydrogen), hypolipidemic drugs (atorvastatin, probucol), calcium channel blockers (cinepazide), cerebral protection drugs (laci staw), to improve cerebral circulation drugs (alprostadil), other traditional Chinese medicine injection (Shuxuetong injection, Xueshuantong), treatment with underlying disease: nifedipine, metoprolol, isosorbide dinitrate etc. The clinical cure rate and improvement rate of 97.60%. The next step needs to be combined with clinical practice, carry out analysis of effectiveness and safety of the combination scheme, and provide reference for clinical rational drug use.

  14. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice.

  15. Real-World-Time Simulation of Memory Consolidation in a Large-Scale Cerebellar Model

    PubMed Central

    Gosui, Masato; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    We report development of a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum composed of more than 1 million neurons. The model is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs), which are dedicated hardware for parallel computing. Using 4 GPUs simultaneously, we achieve realtime simulation, in which computer simulation of cerebellar activity for 1 s completes within 1 s in the real-world time, with temporal resolution of 1 ms. This allows us to carry out a very long-term computer simulation of cerebellar activity in a practical time with millisecond temporal resolution. Using the model, we carry out computer simulation of long-term gain adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR) eye movements for 5 days aimed to study the neural mechanisms of posttraining memory consolidation. The simulation results are consistent with animal experiments and our theory of posttraining memory consolidation. These results suggest that realtime computing provides a useful means to study a very slow neural process such as memory consolidation in the brain. PMID:26973472

  16. Microinverter Thermal Performance in the Real-World: Measurements and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Xu, Yifan; Peshek, Timothy J.; Ji, Liang; Abramson, Alexis R.; French, Roger H.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world performance, durability and reliability of microinverters are critical concerns for microinverter-equipped photovoltaic systems. We conducted a data-driven study of the thermal performance of 24 new microinverters (Enphase M215) connected to 8 different brands of PV modules on dual-axis trackers at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE) SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University, based on minute by minute power and thermal data from the microinverters and PV modules along with insolation and environmental data from July through October 2013. The analysis shows the strengths of the associations of microinverter temperature with ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power of the PV systems. The importance of the covariates are rank ordered. A multiple regression model was developed and tested based on stable solar noon-time data, which gives both an overall function that predicts the temperature of microinverters under typical local conditions, and coefficients adjustments reecting refined prediction of the microinverter temperature connected to the 8 brands of PV modules in the study. The model allows for prediction of internal temperature for the Enphase M215 given similar climatic condition and can be expanded to predict microinverter temperature in fixed-rack and roof-top PV systems. This study is foundational in that similar models built on later stage data in the life of a device could reveal potential influencing factors in performance degradation. PMID:26147339

  17. Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings.

    PubMed

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0-100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n=15) then played Tetris for 3min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n=16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f(2)=0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating.

  18. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Hooker, Christine I.; Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life. PMID:26413478

  19. Understanding remission in real-world lupus patients across five European countries.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M; Mosca, M; Pego-Reigosa, J M; Hachulla, E; Teh, L-S; Perna, A; Koscielny, V; Pike, J; Lobosco, S; Apolone, G

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with increased mortality and significant personal, psychological and socioeconomic consequences. An agreed definition of remission is needed and lacking. We sought to visualize 'remission in SLE' in European patients considered by their physicians to be 'in remission' by comparing the reported symptom burden as reported by treating physicians for patients considered to be 'in remission' and those not considered to be 'in remission'. Data for 1227 patients drawn from a multinational, real-world survey of patients with SLE consulting practising rheumatologists and nephrologists in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK show that physicians classed their patients as 'in remission' despite a considerable ongoing symptom burden and intensive immunosuppressive medication. Patients considered to be 'in remission' still had a mean of 2.68 current symptoms vs 5.48 for those considered to be not 'in remission' (p < 0.0001). The most common symptoms among those seen to be 'in remission' were joint symptoms, fatigue, pain, mucocutaneous involvement, haematological manifestations and kidney abnormalities. The current analysis highlights important ongoing disease activity, symptom burden and immunosuppressive medication in European patients with SLE considered by their treating physician to be 'in remission'. For a further improvement of outcome, there is an urgent need for an international consensus on the definitions for remission among patients with SLE.

  20. The orbitofrontal cortex, real-world decision making, and normal aging.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Natalie L; Cole, Catherine A; Hernandez, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine; Wallace, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    The present series of three studies aims at investigating the hypothesis that some seemingly normal older persons have deficits in reasoning and decision making due to dysfunction in a neural system which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortices. This hypothesis is relevant to the comprehensive study of aging, and also addresses the question of why so many older adults fall prey to fraud. To our knowledge, this work represents the first of its kind to begin to identify, from an individual-differences perspective, the behavioral, psychophysiological, and consumer correlates of defective decision making among healthy older adults. Our findings, in a cross-sectional sample of community-dwelling participants, demonstrate that a sizeable subset of older adults (approximately 35-40%) perform disadvantageously on a laboratory measure of decision making that closely mimics everyday life, by the manner in which it factors in reward, punishment, risk, and ambiguity. These same poor decision makers display defective autonomic responses (or somatic markers), reminiscent of that previously established in patients with acquired prefrontal lesions. Finally, we present data demonstrating that poor decision makers are more likely to fall prey to deceptive advertising, suggesting compromise of real-world judgment and decision-making abilities. PMID:17872394

  1. Lesions to right prefrontal cortex impair real-world planning through premature commitments.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod; Vartanian, Oshin; Bartolo, Angela; Hakim, Lila; Ferraro, Anna Maria; Isella, Valeria; Appollonio, Ildebrando; Drei, Silvia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    While it is well accepted that the left prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in planning and problem-solving tasks, very little is known about the role of the right prefrontal cortex. We addressed this issue by testing five neurological patients with focal lesions to right prefrontal cortex on a real-world travel planning task, and compared their performance with the performance of five neurological patients with focal lesions to left prefrontal cortex, five neurological patients with posterior lesions, and five normal controls. Only patients with lesions to right prefrontal cortex generated substandard solutions compared to normal controls. Examination of the underlying cognitive processes and strategies revealed that patients with lesions to right prefrontal cortex approached the task at an excessively precise, concrete level compared to normal controls, and very early locked themselves into substandard solutions relative to the comparison group. In contrast, the behavior of normal controls was characterized by a judicious interplay of concrete and abstract levels/modes of representations. We suggest that damage to the right prefrontal system impairs the encoding and processing of more abstract and vague representations that facilitate lateral transformations, resulting in premature commitment to precise concrete patterns, and hasty albeit substandard conclusions (because the space of possibilities has not been properly explored).

  2. Hard and Soft Selection Revisited: How Evolution by Natural Selection Works in the Real World.

    PubMed

    Reznick, David

    2016-01-01

    The modern synthesis of evolutionary biology unified Darwin's natural selection with Mendelian genetics, but at the same time it created the dilemma of genetic load. Lewontin and Hubby's (1966) and Harris's (1966) characterization of genetic variation in natural populations increased the apparent burden of this load. Neutrality or near neutrality of genetic variation was one mechanism proposed for the revealed excessive genetic variation. Bruce Wallace coined the term "soft selection" to describe an alternative way for natural selection to operate that was consistent with observed variation. He envisioned nature as presenting ecological vacancies that could be filled by diverse genotypes. Survival and successful reproduction was a combined function of population density, genotype, and genotype frequencies, rather than a fixed value of the relative fitness of each genotype. My goal in this review is to explore the importance of soft selection in the real world. My motive and that of my colleagues as described here is not to explain what maintains genetic variation in natural populations, but rather to understand the factors that shape how organisms adapt to natural environments. We characterize how feedbacks between ecology and evolution shape both evolution and ecology. These feedbacks are mediated by density- and frequency-dependent selection, the mechanisms that underlie soft selection. Here, I report on our progress in characterizing these types of selection with a combination of a consideration of the published literature and the results from my collaborators' and my research on natural populations of guppies.

  3. Real-world impact of neurocognitive deficits in acute and early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie L; Morgan, Erin E; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-12-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions.

  4. Real-world datasets for portfolio selection and solutions of some stochastic dominance portfolio models.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Renato; Cesarone, Francesco; Scozzari, Andrea; Tardella, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    A large number of portfolio selection models have appeared in the literature since the pioneering work of Markowitz. However, even when computational and empirical results are described, they are often hard to replicate and compare due to the unavailability of the datasets used in the experiments. We provide here several datasets for portfolio selection generated using real-world price values from several major stock markets. The datasets contain weekly return values, adjusted for dividends and for stock splits, which are cleaned from errors as much as possible. The datasets are available in different formats, and can be used as benchmarks for testing the performances of portfolio selection models and for comparing the efficiency of the algorithms used to solve them. We also provide, for these datasets, the portfolios obtained by several selection strategies based on Stochastic Dominance models (see "On Exact and Approximate Stochastic Dominance Strategies for Portfolio Selection" (Bruni et al. [2])). We believe that testing portfolio models on publicly available datasets greatly simplifies the comparison of the different portfolio selection strategies. PMID:27508232

  5. Why is Binocular Rivalry Uncommon? Discrepant Monocular Images in the Real World

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Derek Henry

    2011-01-01

    When different images project to corresponding points in the two eyes they can instigate a phenomenon called binocular rivalry (BR), wherein each image seems to intermittently disappear such that only one of the two images is seen at a time. Cautious readers may have noted an important caveat in the opening sentence – this situation can instigate BR, but usually it doesn’t. Unmatched monocular images are frequently encountered in daily life due to either differential occlusions of the two eyes or because of selective obstructions of just one eye, but this does not tend to induce BR. Here I will explore the reasons for this and discuss implications for BR in general. It will be argued that BR is resolved in favor of the instantaneously stronger neural signal, and that this process is driven by an adaptation that enhances the visibility of distant fixated objects over that of more proximate obstructions of an eye. Accordingly, BR would reflect the dynamics of an inherently visual operation that usually deals with real-world constraints. PMID:22028689

  6. Microinverter Thermal Performance in the Real-World: Measurements and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Xu, Yifan; Peshek, Timothy J; Ji, Liang; Abramson, Alexis R; French, Roger H

    2015-01-01

    Real-world performance, durability and reliability of microinverters are critical concerns for microinverter-equipped photovoltaic systems. We conducted a data-driven study of the thermal performance of 24 new microinverters (Enphase M215) connected to 8 different brands of PV modules on dual-axis trackers at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE) SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University, based on minute by minute power and thermal data from the microinverters and PV modules along with insolation and environmental data from July through October 2013. The analysis shows the strengths of the associations of microinverter temperature with ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power of the PV systems. The importance of the covariates are rank ordered. A multiple regression model was developed and tested based on stable solar noon-time data, which gives both an overall function that predicts the temperature of microinverters under typical local conditions, and coefficients adjustments reecting refined prediction of the microinverter temperature connected to the 8 brands of PV modules in the study. The model allows for prediction of internal temperature for the Enphase M215 given similar climatic condition and can be expanded to predict microinverter temperature in fixed-rack and roof-top PV systems. This study is foundational in that similar models built on later stage data in the life of a device could reveal potential influencing factors in performance degradation.

  7. Apparatus to characterize gas sensor response under real-world conditions in the lab.

    PubMed

    Kneer, J; Eberhardt, A; Walden, P; Ortiz Pérez, A; Wöllenstein, J; Palzer, S

    2014-05-01

    The use of semiconducting metal-oxide (MOX) based gas sensors in demanding applications such as climate and environmental research as well as industrial applications is currently hindered by their poor reproducibility, selectivity, and sensitivity. This is mainly due to the sensing mechanism which relies on the change of conductivity of the metal-oxide layer. To be of use for advanced applications metal-oxide (MOX) gas sensors need to be carefully prepared and characterized in laboratory environments prior to deployment. This paper describes the working principle, design, and use of a new apparatus that can emulate real-world conditions in the laboratory and characterize the MOX gas sensor signal in tailor-made atmospheres. In particular, this includes the control of trace gas concentrations and the control of oxygen and humidity levels which are important for the surface chemistry of metal-oxide based sensors. Furthermore, the sensor temperature can be precisely controlled, which is a key parameter of semiconducting, sensitive layers, and their response to particular gas compositions. The setup also allows to determine the power consumption of each device individually which may be used for performance benchmarking or monitoring changes of the temperature of the gas composition. Both, the working principle and the capabilities of the gas measurement chamber are presented in this paper employing tin dioxide (SnO2) based micro sensors as exemplary devices. PMID:24880407

  8. Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings.

    PubMed

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0-100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n=15) then played Tetris for 3min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n=16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f(2)=0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating. PMID:26275843

  9. Ontologies to capture adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) from real world health data.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Harshana; de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Immunisation is an important part of health care and adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) are relatively rare. AEFI can be detected through long term follow up of a cohort or from looking for signals from real world, routine data; from different health systems using a variety of clinical coding systems. Mapping these is a challenging aspect of integrating data across borders. Ontological representations of clinical concepts provide a method to map similar concepts, in this case AEFI across different coding systems. We describe a method using ontologies to be flag definite, probable or possible cases. We use Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) as an AEFI to illustrate this method, and the Brighton collaboration's case definition of GBS as the gold standard. Our method can be used to flag definite, probable or possible cases of GBS. Whilst there has been much research into the use of ontologies in immunisation these have focussed on database interrogation; where ours looks to identify varying signal strength. PMID:24743070

  10. Reward guides attention to object categories in real-world scenes.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Clayton; Kaiser, Daniel; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-04-01

    Reward is thought to motivate animal-approach behavior in part by automatically facilitating the perceptual processing of reward-associated visual stimuli. Studies have demonstrated this effect for low-level visual features such as color and orientation. However, outside of the laboratory, it is rare that low-level features uniquely characterize objects relevant for behavior. Here, we test whether reward can prime representations at the level of object category. Participants detected category exemplars (cars, trees, people) in briefly presented photographs of real-world scenes. On a subset of trials, successful target detection was rewarded and the effect of this reward was measured on the subsequent trial. Results show that rewarded selection of a category exemplar caused other members of this category to become visually salient, disrupting search when subsequently presented as distractors. It is important to note that this occurred even when there was little opportunity for the repetition of visual features between examples, with the rewarded selection of a human body increasing the salience of a subsequently presented face. Thus, selection of a category example appears to activate representations of prototypical category characteristics even when these are not present in the stimulus. In this way, reward can guide attention to categories of stimuli even when individual examples share no visual characteristics.

  11. Navigating through digital folders uses the same brain structures as real world navigation.

    PubMed

    Benn, Yael; Bergman, Ofer; Glazer, Liv; Arent, Paris; Wilkinson, Iain D; Varley, Rosemary; Whittaker, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of digital data is the focus of much commercial and academic attention. With personal computers, there are two main ways to retrieve files: hierarchical navigation and query-based search. In navigation, users move down their virtual folder hierarchy until they reach the folder in which the target item is stored. When searching, users first generate a query specifying some property of the target file (e.g., a word it contains), and then select the relevant file when the search engine returns a set of results. Despite advances in search technology, users prefer retrieving files using virtual folder navigation, rather than the more flexible query-based search. Using fMRI we provide an explanation for this phenomenon by demonstrating that folder navigation results in activation of the posterior limbic (including the retrosplenial cortex) and parahippocampal regions similar to that previously observed during real-world navigation in both animals and humans. In contrast, search activates the left inferior frontal gyrus, commonly observed in linguistic processing. We suggest that the preference for navigation may be due to the triggering of automatic object finding routines and lower dependence on linguistic processing. We conclude with suggestions for future computer systems design.

  12. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Serfass, David G.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed. PMID:26566125

  13. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Thomas L.; Jaffe, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups. PMID:25548575

  14. Semantics-Based Composition of Integrated Cardiomyocyte Models Motivated by Real-World Use Cases.

    PubMed

    Neal, Maxwell L; Carlson, Brian E; Thompson, Christopher T; James, Ryan C; Kim, Karam G; Tran, Kenneth; Crampin, Edmund J; Cook, Daniel L; Gennari, John H

    2015-01-01

    Semantics-based model composition is an approach for generating complex biosimulation models from existing components that relies on capturing the biological meaning of model elements in a machine-readable fashion. This approach allows the user to work at the biological rather than computational level of abstraction and helps minimize the amount of manual effort required for model composition. To support this compositional approach, we have developed the SemGen software, and here report on SemGen's semantics-based merging capabilities using real-world modeling use cases. We successfully reproduced a large, manually-encoded, multi-model merge: the "Pandit-Hinch-Niederer" (PHN) cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction model, previously developed using CellML. We describe our approach for annotating the three component models used in the PHN composition and for merging them at the biological level of abstraction within SemGen. We demonstrate that we were able to reproduce the original PHN model results in a semi-automated, semantics-based fashion and also rapidly generate a second, novel cardiomyocyte model composed using an alternative, independently-developed tension generation component. We discuss the time-saving features of our compositional approach in the context of these merging exercises, the limitations we encountered, and potential solutions for enhancing the approach.

  15. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A.; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages. PMID:26617539

  16. Real-World-Time Simulation of Memory Consolidation in a Large-Scale Cerebellar Model.

    PubMed

    Gosui, Masato; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    We report development of a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum composed of more than 1 million neurons. The model is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs), which are dedicated hardware for parallel computing. Using 4 GPUs simultaneously, we achieve realtime simulation, in which computer simulation of cerebellar activity for 1 s completes within 1 s in the real-world time, with temporal resolution of 1 ms. This allows us to carry out a very long-term computer simulation of cerebellar activity in a practical time with millisecond temporal resolution. Using the model, we carry out computer simulation of long-term gain adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR) eye movements for 5 days aimed to study the neural mechanisms of posttraining memory consolidation. The simulation results are consistent with animal experiments and our theory of posttraining memory consolidation. These results suggest that realtime computing provides a useful means to study a very slow neural process such as memory consolidation in the brain.

  17. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation.

    PubMed

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  18. Cluster formation by allelomimesis in real-world complex adaptive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanico, Dranreb Earl; Monterola, Christopher; Saloma, Caesar

    2005-04-01

    Animal and human clusters are complex adaptive systems and many organize in cluster sizes s that obey the frequency distribution D(s)∝s-τ . The exponent τ describes the relative abundance of the cluster sizes in a given system. Data analyses reveal that real-world clusters exhibit a broad spectrum of τ values, 0.7 (tuna fish schools) ⩽τ⩽4.61 (T4 bacteriophage gene family sizes). Allelomimesis is proposed as an underlying mechanism for adaptation that explains the observed broad τ spectrum. Allelomimesis is the tendency of an individual to imitate the actions of others and two cluster systems have different τ values when their component agents display unequal degrees of allelomimetic tendencies. Cluster formation by allelomimesis is shown to be of three general types: namely, blind copying, information-use copying, and noncopying. Allelomimetic adaptation also reveals that the most stable cluster size is formed by three strongly allelomimetic individuals. Our finding is consistent with available field data taken from killer whales and marmots.

  19. Lesions to right prefrontal cortex impair real-world planning through premature commitments.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod; Vartanian, Oshin; Bartolo, Angela; Hakim, Lila; Ferraro, Anna Maria; Isella, Valeria; Appollonio, Ildebrando; Drei, Silvia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    While it is well accepted that the left prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in planning and problem-solving tasks, very little is known about the role of the right prefrontal cortex. We addressed this issue by testing five neurological patients with focal lesions to right prefrontal cortex on a real-world travel planning task, and compared their performance with the performance of five neurological patients with focal lesions to left prefrontal cortex, five neurological patients with posterior lesions, and five normal controls. Only patients with lesions to right prefrontal cortex generated substandard solutions compared to normal controls. Examination of the underlying cognitive processes and strategies revealed that patients with lesions to right prefrontal cortex approached the task at an excessively precise, concrete level compared to normal controls, and very early locked themselves into substandard solutions relative to the comparison group. In contrast, the behavior of normal controls was characterized by a judicious interplay of concrete and abstract levels/modes of representations. We suggest that damage to the right prefrontal system impairs the encoding and processing of more abstract and vague representations that facilitate lateral transformations, resulting in premature commitment to precise concrete patterns, and hasty albeit substandard conclusions (because the space of possibilities has not been properly explored). PMID:23266766

  20. Association between volume and momentum of online searches and real-world collective unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Johnson, Daniela; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Neil F.

    A fundamental idea from physics is that macroscopic transitions can occur as a result of an escalation in the correlated activity of a many-body system's constituent particles. Here we apply this idea in an interdisciplinary setting, whereby the particles are individuals, their correlated activity involves online search activity surrounding the topics of social unrest, and the macroscopic phenomenon being measured are real-world protests. Our empirical study covers countries in Latin America during 2011-2014 using datasets assembled from multiple sources by subject matter experts. We find specifically that the volume and momentum of searches on Google Trends surrounding mass protest language, can detect - and may even pre-empt - the macroscopic on-street activity. Not only can this simple open-source solution prove an invaluable aid for monitoring civil order, our study serves to strengthen the increasing literature in the physics community aimed at understanding the collective dynamics of interacting populations of living objects across the life sciences.

  1. Advanced consequence management program: challenges and recent real-world implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graser, Tom; Barber, K. S.; Williams, Bob; Saghir, Feras; Henry, Kurt A.

    2002-08-01

    The Enhanced Consequence Management, Planning and Support System (ENCOMPASS) was developed under DARPA's Advanced Consequence Management program to assist decision-makers operating in crisis situations such as terrorist attacks using conventional and unconventional weapons and natural disasters. ENCOMPASS provides the tools for first responders, incident commanders, and officials at all levels to share vital information and consequently, plan and execute a coordinated response to incidents of varying complexity and size. ENCOMPASS offers custom configuration of components with capabilities ranging from map-based situation assessment, situation-based response checklists, casualty tracking, and epidemiological surveillance. Developing and deploying such a comprehensive system posed significant challenges for DARPA program management, due to an inherently complex domain, a broad spectrum of customer sites and skill sets, an often inhospitable runtime environment, demanding development-to-deployment transition requirements, and a technically diverse and geographically distributed development team. This paper introduces ENCOMPASS and explores these challenges, followed by an outline of selected ENCOMPASS deployments, demonstrating how ENCOMPASS can enhance consequence management in a variety real world contexts.

  2. Real-World Impact of Neurocognitive Deficits in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24277439

  3. Motor Vehicle Crash-Related Subdural Hematoma from Real-World Head Impact Data

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Jillian E.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Edgerton, Colston A.; Powers, Alexander K.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 1,700,000 people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of hospitalization from TBI. Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common intracranial injury that occurs in MVCs associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study, SDH volume and midline shift have been analyzed in order to better understand occupant injury by correlating them to crash and occupant parameters. Fifty-seven head computed tomography (CT) scans were selected from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) level 3+ SDH. Semi-automated methods were used to isolate the intracranial volume. SDH and additional occupant intracranial injuries were segmented across axial CT images, providing a total SDH injury volume. SDH volume was correlated to crash parameters and occupant characteristics. Results show a positive correlation between SDH volume and crash severity in near-side and frontal crashes. Additionally, the location of the resulting hemorrhage varied by crash type. Those with greater SDH volumes had significantly lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores at the crash site in near-side crashes. Age and fracture type were found to be significant contributors to SDH volume. This study is a volumetric analysis of real world brain injuries and known MVC impacts. The results of this study demonstrate a relationship among SDH volume, crash mechanics, and occupant characteristics that provide a better understanding of the injury mechanisms of MVC-associated TBI. PMID:22928543

  4. Validating vignette and conjoint survey experiments against real-world behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Yamamoto, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    Survey experiments, like vignette and conjoint analyses, are widely used in the social sciences to elicit stated preferences and study how humans make multidimensional choices. However, there is a paucity of research on the external validity of these methods that examines whether the determinants that explain hypothetical choices made by survey respondents match the determinants that explain what subjects actually do when making similar choices in real-world situations. This study compares results from conjoint and vignette analyses on which immigrant attributes generate support for naturalization with closely corresponding behavioral data from a natural experiment in Switzerland, where some municipalities used referendums to decide on the citizenship applications of foreign residents. Using a representative sample from the same population and the official descriptions of applicant characteristics that voters received before each referendum as a behavioral benchmark, we find that the effects of the applicant attributes estimated from the survey experiments perform remarkably well in recovering the effects of the same attributes in the behavioral benchmark. We also find important differences in the relative performances of the different designs. Overall, the paired conjoint design, where respondents evaluate two immigrants side by side, comes closest to the behavioral benchmark; on average, its estimates are within 2% percentage points of the effects in the behavioral benchmark. PMID:25646415

  5. Validating vignette and conjoint survey experiments against real-world behavior.

    PubMed

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Yamamoto, Teppei

    2015-02-24

    Survey experiments, like vignette and conjoint analyses, are widely used in the social sciences to elicit stated preferences and study how humans make multidimensional choices. However, there is a paucity of research on the external validity of these methods that examines whether the determinants that explain hypothetical choices made by survey respondents match the determinants that explain what subjects actually do when making similar choices in real-world situations. This study compares results from conjoint and vignette analyses on which immigrant attributes generate support for naturalization with closely corresponding behavioral data from a natural experiment in Switzerland, where some municipalities used referendums to decide on the citizenship applications of foreign residents. Using a representative sample from the same population and the official descriptions of applicant characteristics that voters received before each referendum as a behavioral benchmark, we find that the effects of the applicant attributes estimated from the survey experiments perform remarkably well in recovering the effects of the same attributes in the behavioral benchmark. We also find important differences in the relative performances of the different designs. Overall, the paired conjoint design, where respondents evaluate two immigrants side by side, comes closest to the behavioral benchmark; on average, its estimates are within 2% percentage points of the effects in the behavioral benchmark.

  6. Semantics-Based Composition of Integrated Cardiomyocyte Models Motivated by Real-World Use Cases

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Maxwell L.; Carlson, Brian E.; Thompson, Christopher T.; James, Ryan C.; Kim, Karam G.; Tran, Kenneth; Crampin, Edmund J.; Cook, Daniel L.; Gennari, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Semantics-based model composition is an approach for generating complex biosimulation models from existing components that relies on capturing the biological meaning of model elements in a machine-readable fashion. This approach allows the user to work at the biological rather than computational level of abstraction and helps minimize the amount of manual effort required for model composition. To support this compositional approach, we have developed the SemGen software, and here report on SemGen’s semantics-based merging capabilities using real-world modeling use cases. We successfully reproduced a large, manually-encoded, multi-model merge: the “Pandit-Hinch-Niederer” (PHN) cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction model, previously developed using CellML. We describe our approach for annotating the three component models used in the PHN composition and for merging them at the biological level of abstraction within SemGen. We demonstrate that we were able to reproduce the original PHN model results in a semi-automated, semantics-based fashion and also rapidly generate a second, novel cardiomyocyte model composed using an alternative, independently-developed tension generation component. We discuss the time-saving features of our compositional approach in the context of these merging exercises, the limitations we encountered, and potential solutions for enhancing the approach. PMID:26716837

  7. Real-world datasets for portfolio selection and solutions of some stochastic dominance portfolio models.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Renato; Cesarone, Francesco; Scozzari, Andrea; Tardella, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    A large number of portfolio selection models have appeared in the literature since the pioneering work of Markowitz. However, even when computational and empirical results are described, they are often hard to replicate and compare due to the unavailability of the datasets used in the experiments. We provide here several datasets for portfolio selection generated using real-world price values from several major stock markets. The datasets contain weekly return values, adjusted for dividends and for stock splits, which are cleaned from errors as much as possible. The datasets are available in different formats, and can be used as benchmarks for testing the performances of portfolio selection models and for comparing the efficiency of the algorithms used to solve them. We also provide, for these datasets, the portfolios obtained by several selection strategies based on Stochastic Dominance models (see "On Exact and Approximate Stochastic Dominance Strategies for Portfolio Selection" (Bruni et al. [2])). We believe that testing portfolio models on publicly available datasets greatly simplifies the comparison of the different portfolio selection strategies.

  8. Navigating through digital folders uses the same brain structures as real world navigation.

    PubMed

    Benn, Yael; Bergman, Ofer; Glazer, Liv; Arent, Paris; Wilkinson, Iain D; Varley, Rosemary; Whittaker, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of digital data is the focus of much commercial and academic attention. With personal computers, there are two main ways to retrieve files: hierarchical navigation and query-based search. In navigation, users move down their virtual folder hierarchy until they reach the folder in which the target item is stored. When searching, users first generate a query specifying some property of the target file (e.g., a word it contains), and then select the relevant file when the search engine returns a set of results. Despite advances in search technology, users prefer retrieving files using virtual folder navigation, rather than the more flexible query-based search. Using fMRI we provide an explanation for this phenomenon by demonstrating that folder navigation results in activation of the posterior limbic (including the retrosplenial cortex) and parahippocampal regions similar to that previously observed during real-world navigation in both animals and humans. In contrast, search activates the left inferior frontal gyrus, commonly observed in linguistic processing. We suggest that the preference for navigation may be due to the triggering of automatic object finding routines and lower dependence on linguistic processing. We conclude with suggestions for future computer systems design. PMID:26423226

  9. Real-World-Time Simulation of Memory Consolidation in a Large-Scale Cerebellar Model.

    PubMed

    Gosui, Masato; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    We report development of a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum composed of more than 1 million neurons. The model is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs), which are dedicated hardware for parallel computing. Using 4 GPUs simultaneously, we achieve realtime simulation, in which computer simulation of cerebellar activity for 1 s completes within 1 s in the real-world time, with temporal resolution of 1 ms. This allows us to carry out a very long-term computer simulation of cerebellar activity in a practical time with millisecond temporal resolution. Using the model, we carry out computer simulation of long-term gain adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR) eye movements for 5 days aimed to study the neural mechanisms of posttraining memory consolidation. The simulation results are consistent with animal experiments and our theory of posttraining memory consolidation. These results suggest that realtime computing provides a useful means to study a very slow neural process such as memory consolidation in the brain. PMID:26973472

  10. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Hooker, Christine I; Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal-striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life. PMID:26413478

  11. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use among a purposive sample of 50 current adult users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. Results Several important themes emerged. Although most users started with “closed system” products, the majority switched from that type of e-cigarette to “open system” devices. Responses were diverse on preferred flavors, although mixing flavors was a common practice. Many users had difficulty estimating the total amount of e-liquid they used within a given period and described an iterative process in which they experimented with different nicotine levels to determine their preferred concentration. Reported frequency of use and puffing behaviors varied greatly between users and also differed from the way traditional cigarettes are smoked. Conclusion Results from this study have implications for developing appropriate survey metrics for e-cigarette surveillance, the regulation of flavorings, and reporting of e-cigarette product constituents. PMID:26766848

  12. Transfer of visual data from the laboratory to the real world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchi, Lucia R.

    2002-06-01

    After a brief report on the gap existing between the visual functionality assessed in the constrained laboratory conditions and its applications in the complex, multidimensional, real world, two examples concerning color appearance are described in the former experiment we wonder why a colotimetrically uniform, 10° diam. test field has a uniform color appearance, in spite of the eccentricity dependence of the color naming for a 1° diam exploring spot. It is as if the underlying gradient of responsiveness of the underlying array of photoreceptors were discounted. But this does not tell us what is the actual color appearance. Less distal mechanisms resulting in assimilation or filling-in are to be called into play. In the second experiment we consider as test objects the modern, expensive, flashy cars. Although coated uniformly, under natural outdoor lighting they appear as a complex set of segmented 'regions' differing in lightness and even in hue. However, simultaneously and effortlessly, we perceive a coexisting idealized uniform surface color, probably reconstructed as if the perturbation due to natural lighting, responsible for the segregation into regions, and the gloss responsible for intra-region textures were discounted.

  13. The ``Real World'' of gasification: Database of worldwide facilities and market drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.

    1999-07-01

    Few coal experts fully appreciate the extensive ``real world'' commercial experience and success of gasification. Many only associate gasification with coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation. Many view IGCC as an advanced technology that is not commercial and not competitive with traditional coal-fired central power plants. However, gasification is commercially used without subsidies for manufacture of syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) for chemicals and fuels. Furthermore, the new growth area for gasification is industrial polygeneration (syngas + cogen steam and power) with ``opportunity fuels'' such as residual oil and petroleum coke. The objectives of this project were to collect, organize and maintain facility-specific information necessary to illustrate, characterize and enumerate the worldwide gasification industry; and to conduct an analysis of the public policy, market, and technical drivers and trends that will affect the degree and pace of increasing use of gasification technologies on a worldwide basis. The paper presents some of the data and the results of the analysis.

  14. Hard and Soft Selection Revisited: How Evolution by Natural Selection Works in the Real World.

    PubMed

    Reznick, David

    2016-01-01

    The modern synthesis of evolutionary biology unified Darwin's natural selection with Mendelian genetics, but at the same time it created the dilemma of genetic load. Lewontin and Hubby's (1966) and Harris's (1966) characterization of genetic variation in natural populations increased the apparent burden of this load. Neutrality or near neutrality of genetic variation was one mechanism proposed for the revealed excessive genetic variation. Bruce Wallace coined the term "soft selection" to describe an alternative way for natural selection to operate that was consistent with observed variation. He envisioned nature as presenting ecological vacancies that could be filled by diverse genotypes. Survival and successful reproduction was a combined function of population density, genotype, and genotype frequencies, rather than a fixed value of the relative fitness of each genotype. My goal in this review is to explore the importance of soft selection in the real world. My motive and that of my colleagues as described here is not to explain what maintains genetic variation in natural populations, but rather to understand the factors that shape how organisms adapt to natural environments. We characterize how feedbacks between ecology and evolution shape both evolution and ecology. These feedbacks are mediated by density- and frequency-dependent selection, the mechanisms that underlie soft selection. Here, I report on our progress in characterizing these types of selection with a combination of a consideration of the published literature and the results from my collaborators' and my research on natural populations of guppies. PMID:26424874

  15. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice. PMID:27475049

  16. Sentence understanding depends on contextual use of semantic and real world knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Nagels, Arne; Small, Steven L; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2016-08-01

    Human language allows us to express our thoughts and ideas by combining entities, concepts and actions into multi-event episodes. Yet, the functional neuroanatomy engaged in interpretation of such high-level linguistic input remains poorly understood. Here, we used easy to detect and more subtle "borderline" anomalies to investigate the brain regions and mechanistic principles involved in the use of real-world event knowledge in language comprehension. Overall, the results showed that the processing of sentences in context engages a complex set of bilateral brain regions in the frontal, temporal and inferior parietal lobes. Easy anomalies preferentially engaged lower-order cortical areas adjacent to the primary auditory cortex. In addition, the left supramarginal gyrus and anterior temporal sulcus as well as the right posterior middle temporal gyrus contributed to the processing of easy and borderline anomalies. The observed pattern of results is explained in terms of (i) hierarchical processing along a dorsal-ventral axis and (ii) the assumption of high-order association areas serving as cortical hubs in the convergence of information in a distributed network. Finally, the observed modulation of BOLD signal in prefrontal areas provides support for their role in the implementation of executive control processes.

  17. A fast method for detecting Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in real world samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Shona; McClelland, Lindy; Maier, John

    2005-04-01

    Contamination of drinking water with pathogenic microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium has become an increasing concern in recent years. Cryptosporidium oocysts are particularly problematic, as infections caused by this organism can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients. Current methods for monitoring and analyzing water are often laborious and require experts to conduct. In addition, many of the techniques require very specific reagents to be employed. These factors add considerable cost and time to the analytical process. Raman spectroscopy provides specific molecular information on samples, and offers advantages of speed, sensitivity and low cost over current methods of water monitoring. Raman spectroscopy is an optical method that has demonstrated the capability to identify and differentiate microorganisms at the species and strain levels. In addition, this technique has exhibited sensitivities down to the single organism detection limit. We have employed Raman spectroscopy and Raman Chemical Imaging, in conjunction with chemometric techniques, to detect small numbers of oocysts in the presence of interferents derived from real-world water samples. Our investigations have also indicated that Raman Chemical Imaging may provide chemical and physiological information about an oocyst sample which complements information provided by the traditional methods. This work provides evidence that Raman imaging is a useful technique for consideration in the water quality industry.

  18. Activation of new attentional templates for real-world objects in visual search.

    PubMed

    Nako, Rebecca; Smith, Tim J; Eimer, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Visual search is controlled by representations of target objects (attentional templates). Such templates are often activated in response to verbal descriptions of search targets, but it is unclear whether search can be guided effectively by such verbal cues. We measured ERPs to track the activation of attentional templates for new target objects defined by word cues. On each trial run, a word cue was followed by three search displays that contained the cued target object among three distractors. Targets were detected more slowly in the first display of each trial run, and the N2pc component (an ERP marker of attentional target selection) was attenuated and delayed for the first relative to the two successive presentations of a particular target object, demonstrating limitations in the ability of word cues to activate effective attentional templates. N2pc components to target objects in the first display were strongly affected by differences in object imageability (i.e., the ability of word cues to activate a target-matching visual representation). These differences were no longer present for the second presentation of the same target objects, indicating that a single perceptual encounter is sufficient to activate a precise attentional template. Our results demonstrate the superiority of visual over verbal target specifications in the control of visual search, highlight the fact that verbal descriptions are more effective for some objects than others, and suggest that the attentional templates that guide search for particular real-world target objects are analog visual representations.

  19. A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Real-World Problem in Mathematics: Looking for Signs of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of "access" and "relevance" feature prominently in the discourse of change in mathematics education in South Africa. One way in which these concepts have been played out in mathematics classrooms is in the use of mathematical problems with real-world contexts. This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of one such problem,…

  20. A generic model of real-world non-ideal behaviour of FES-induced muscle contractions: simulation tool.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Cheryl L; Graham, Geoff M; Popovic, Milos R

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications are frequently evaluated in simulation prior to testing in human subjects. Such simulations are usually based on the typical muscle responses to electrical stimulation, which may result in an overly optimistic assessment of likely real-world performance. We propose a novel method for simulating FES applications that includes non-ideal muscle behaviour during electrical stimulation resulting from muscle fatigue, spasms and tremors. A 'non-idealities' block that can be incorporated into existing FES simulations and provides a realistic estimate of real-world performance is described. An implementation example is included, showing how the non-idealities block can be incorporated into a simulation of electrically stimulated knee extension against gravity for both a proportional-integral-derivative controller and a sliding mode controller. The results presented in this paper illustrate that the real-world performance of a FES system may be vastly different from the performance obtained in simulation using nominal muscle models. We believe that our non-idealities block should be included in future simulations that involve muscle response to FES, as this tool will provide neural engineers with a realistic simulation of the real-world performance of FES systems. This simulation strategy will help engineers and organizations save time and money by preventing premature human testing. The non-idealities block will become available free of charge at www.toronto-fes.ca in late 2011. PMID:21757801

  1. Particle number concentration near road traffic in Amsterdam (the Netherlands): Comparison of standard and real-world emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Zandveld, P.; Verhagen, H.; Stelwagen, U.; Jonge de, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, NOx and particle number concentration (PNC) at an urban background and a traffic location were measured in the city of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Modelled and measured contributions to NOx and PNC at the traffic location were used to derive real-world PN emission factors for average urban road traffic. The results for NOx were applied to validate our approach. The real-world PN emission factors (#.km-1) were 2.9E+14 (urban road) and 3E+14 (motorway). These values were at least a factor eight higher than dynamometer-based PN emission factors from COPERT 4 and HBEFA databases. The real-world PN emission factors were used to model the contribution to PNC near road traffic in 2014. This was two to three times higher than the PNC urban background along urban roads over 20,000 vehicles per day and near motorways. The discrepancy between dynamometer-based and real-world emission factors demonstrates the need for more PNC observations to assess actual PN emissions from road traffic.

  2. Cultural differences in morality in the real and virtual worlds: a comparison of Chinese and U.S. youth.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Qiu, Wei; Kolenic, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Harold, Rena; Von Eye, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    In this research, we examined cultural differences in morality in the real and virtual worlds and the relationship between the two. Approximately 600 Chinese and 600 U.S. youth, average age 12 years old, completed surveys assessing their moral attitudes and behavior in the real world and the acceptability of a diverse set of morally questionable online behaviors. Findings indicated that (a) Chinese youth considered good moral character to be more important than did U.S. youth, whereas U.S. youth considered exceptions to moral behavior that advanced individual goals to be more acceptable than did Chinese youth; (b) Chinese females had the highest level of moral behavior, followed by U.S. females and then Chinese and U.S. males, who did not differ; (c) Chinese youth found morally questionable online behaviors to be more acceptable than did U.S. youth, with the exception of videogame violence, which U.S. youth, especially males, found more acceptable; (d) moral attitudes and behavior in the real world predicted the acceptability of morally questionable online behaviors, whereas the importance of good moral character and the extent of Internet and other technology use did not. The more accepting youth were of exceptions to moral behavior that advanced individual goals, and the less moral their behavior in the real world, the more acceptable they found morally questionable online behaviors. Cultural differences are explained in terms of differences in perceptions of cyberspace as a venue for expressing individual autonomy. PMID:18537497

  3. A generic model of real-world non-ideal behaviour of FES-induced muscle contractions: simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Cheryl L.; Graham, Geoff M.; Popovic, Milos R.

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications are frequently evaluated in simulation prior to testing in human subjects. Such simulations are usually based on the typical muscle responses to electrical stimulation, which may result in an overly optimistic assessment of likely real-world performance. We propose a novel method for simulating FES applications that includes non-ideal muscle behaviour during electrical stimulation resulting from muscle fatigue, spasms and tremors. A 'non-idealities' block that can be incorporated into existing FES simulations and provides a realistic estimate of real-world performance is described. An implementation example is included, showing how the non-idealities block can be incorporated into a simulation of electrically stimulated knee extension against gravity for both a proportional-integral-derivative controller and a sliding mode controller. The results presented in this paper illustrate that the real-world performance of a FES system may be vastly different from the performance obtained in simulation using nominal muscle models. We believe that our non-idealities block should be included in future simulations that involve muscle response to FES, as this tool will provide neural engineers with a realistic simulation of the real-world performance of FES systems. This simulation strategy will help engineers and organizations save time and money by preventing premature human testing. The non-idealities block will become available free of charge at www.toronto-fes.ca in late 2011.

  4. A generic model of real-world non-ideal behaviour of FES-induced muscle contractions: simulation tool.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Cheryl L; Graham, Geoff M; Popovic, Milos R

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications are frequently evaluated in simulation prior to testing in human subjects. Such simulations are usually based on the typical muscle responses to electrical stimulation, which may result in an overly optimistic assessment of likely real-world performance. We propose a novel method for simulating FES applications that includes non-ideal muscle behaviour during electrical stimulation resulting from muscle fatigue, spasms and tremors. A 'non-idealities' block that can be incorporated into existing FES simulations and provides a realistic estimate of real-world performance is described. An implementation example is included, showing how the non-idealities block can be incorporated into a simulation of electrically stimulated knee extension against gravity for both a proportional-integral-derivative controller and a sliding mode controller. The results presented in this paper illustrate that the real-world performance of a FES system may be vastly different from the performance obtained in simulation using nominal muscle models. We believe that our non-idealities block should be included in future simulations that involve muscle response to FES, as this tool will provide neural engineers with a realistic simulation of the real-world performance of FES systems. This simulation strategy will help engineers and organizations save time and money by preventing premature human testing. The non-idealities block will become available free of charge at www.toronto-fes.ca in late 2011.

  5. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module I, The Canadian Marketplace and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

  6. Challenges in Seeing Data as Useful Evidence in Making Predictions of the Probability of a Real-World Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between deterministic and probabilistic reasoning when students experiment on a real-world situation involving uncertainty. Twelve students, aged eight to nine years, participated in an outdoor teaching activity that called for reflection on the growth of sunflowers within the frame of a sunflower lottery,…

  7. Evidence-Based Practice in School Substance Use Prevention: Fidelity of Implementation under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, S. T.; Haws, S.; Ringwalt, C. L.; Vincus, A. A.; Hanley, S.; Bowling, J. M.; Rohrbach, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. We assessed five domains of fidelity--adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant…

  8. Quality labeled faces in the wild (QLFW): a database for studying face recognition in real-world environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Lina J.; Zhu, Tong

    2015-03-01

    The varying quality of face images is an important challenge that limits the effectiveness of face recognition technology when applied in real-world applications. Existing face image databases do not consider the effect of distortions that commonly occur in real-world environments. This database (QLFW) represents an initial attempt to provide a set of labeled face images spanning the wide range of quality, from no perceived impairment to strong perceived impairment for face detection and face recognition applications. Types of impairment include JPEG2000 compression, JPEG compression, additive white noise, Gaussian blur and contrast change. Subjective experiments are conducted to assess the perceived visual quality of faces under different levels and types of distortions and also to assess the human recognition performance under the considered distortions. One goal of this work is to enable automated performance evaluation of face recognition technologies in the presence of different types and levels of visual distortions. This will consequently enable the development of face recognition systems that can operate reliably on real-world visual content in the presence of real-world visual distortions. Another goal is to enable the development and assessment of visual quality metrics for face images and for face detection and recognition applications.

  9. Promoting High School Boys' Reading Engagement and Motivation: The Role of the School Psychologist in Real World Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    It can be difficult for school psychologists to become involved in research within their day-to-day role. This article details real world research undertaken in a single high school to identify and address mechanisms which were contributing to boys' literacy underachievement. In an attempt to promote reading engagement and motivation amongst high…

  10. The Trivial Pursuit of Reading Psychology in the "Real World": A Response to West, Stanovich, and Mitchell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Denny

    1994-01-01

    Critiques an article by Richard F. West, Keith E. Stanovich, and H. R. Mitchell entitled "Reading in the Real World and Its Correlates," published in an earlier issue of this journal. Questions that article's outdated concepts of mind and mental processes and its inappropriate use of statistics. (HB)

  11. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  12. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-01

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  13. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module V, Citizen Participation in Canada's Market-Based Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students understand the marketplace; manage resources; apply…

  14. Training School Personnel to Implement a Universal School-Based Prevention of Depression Program under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, P.H.; Dadds, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of a universal prevention of depression program [the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] when implemented under real-world conditions in a school setting. Prior research has found the RAP program to be beneficial for high-school students when the program was implemented by university staff selected,…

  15. The Way Adults with Orientation to Mathematics Teaching Cope with the Solution of Everyday Real-World Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazit, Avikam; Patkin, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to check the way adults, "some who are" practicing mathematics teachers at elementary school, "some who are" academicians making a career change to mathematics teachers at junior high school and the "rest who are" pre-service mathematics teachers at elementary school, cope with the solution of everyday real-world problems of…

  16. Brief Report: Relationship between Self-Awareness of Real-World Behavior and Treatment Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H. J. C.; Oudshoorn, J.; van der Sijde, A.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at start of treatment was related with an increase in…

  17. Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematical Literacy and Connections between Mathematics and Real World: The Case of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate high school student's self-efficacy beliefs in mathematical literacy (ML) and to explore their views on the connections between mathematics and the real world according to their levels of ML self-efficacy beliefs. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected from 40 high school students. Data…

  18. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module II, Your Economic Decisions and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

  19. Evaluation of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a Predictor of Adolescent Real-World Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Pedulla, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 26 adolescents tested the utility of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. Data indicate that riskyness on the BART was related to self-reported engagement in real-world risk-taking behaviors. These data suggest that the BART may be a useful addition to self-report batteries for the…

  20. A Real-World Study of Switching From Allopurinol to Febuxostat in a Health Plan Database

    PubMed Central

    Altan, Aylin; Shiozawa, Aki; Bancroft, Tim; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the real-world comparative effectiveness of continuing on allopurinol versus switching to febuxostat. Methods In a retrospective claims data study of enrollees in health plans affiliated with Optum, we evaluated patients from February 1, 2009, to May 31, 2012, with a gout diagnosis, a pharmacy claim for allopurinol or febuxostat, and at least 1 serum uric acid (SUA) result available during the follow-up period. Univariate and multivariable-adjusted analyses (controlling for patient demographics and clinical factors) assessed the likelihood of SUA lowering and achievement of target SUA of less than 6.0 mg/dL or less than 5.0 mg/dL in allopurinol continuers versus febuxostat switchers. Results The final study population included 748 subjects who switched to febuxostat from allopurinol and 4795 continuing users of allopurinol. The most common doses of allopurinol were 300 mg/d or less in 95% of allopurinol continuers and 93% of febuxostat switchers (prior to switching); the most common dose of febuxostat was 40 mg/d, in 77% of febuxostat switchers (after switching). Compared with allopurinol continuers, febuxostat switchers had greater (1) mean preindex SUA, 8.0 mg/dL versus 6.6 mg/dL (P < 0.001); (2) likelihood of postindex SUA of less than 6.0 mg/dL, 62.2% versus 58.7% (P = 0.072); (3) likelihood of postindex SUA of less than 5.0 mg/dL, 38.9% versus 29.6% (P < 0.001); and (4) decrease in SUA, 1.8 (SD, 2.2) mg/dL versus 0.4 (SD, 1.7) mg/dL (P < 0.001). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, compared with allopurinol continuers, febuxostat switchers had significantly higher likelihood of achieving SUA of less than 6.0 mg/dL (40% higher) and SUA of less than 5.0 mg/dL (83% higher). Conclusions In this “real-world” setting, many patients with gout not surprisingly were not treated with maximum permitted doses of allopurinol. Patients switched to febuxostat were more likely to achieve target SUA levels than those

  1. Incidental Memory of Younger and Older Adults for Objects Encountered in a Real World Context

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Bochsler, Tiana M.; Aizpurua, Alaitz; Cheong, Allen M. Y.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Legge, Gordon E.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults’ incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals’ attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults’ reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the theoretical and

  2. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting

    PubMed Central

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects—after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition—underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN). Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3) = 4.137, p < 0.001] from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the 1st day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r = 0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p < 0.001), but not AT mood (r = 0.279, 95%CI [−0.122, 0.602], p = 0.167) and CN mood (r

  3. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches Based on Real-World Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, R. B.; Briley, L. J.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly two decades of experience using both seasonal and long-term climate model projections has led to the identification of a set of characteristics of the successful use of climate knowledge in planning and adaptation applications. These characteristics include end-to-end knowledge systems, co-generation or co-production of solution approaches by scientists and practitioners, and tailoring climate model information to the decision-making processes of the specific application. Glisaclimate.org strives to apply the growing body of research into the successful use of climate knowledge using a set of prototype, real-world applications. We describe an online problem-solving environment whose design is based on the characteristics of the successful use of climate predictions and projections by practitioners such as resource managers, urban planners, public health professionals, and policy makers. Design features of Glisaclimate.org include: Based on principles extracted from social science studies of the use of climate information. Anchored on structured templates of problem solving with the identification of common steps in problem solving that are repeated in one application to the next. Informed by interviews with real-world users who desire to incorporate climate-science knowledge into their decision making. Built with open-source tools to allow participation of a community of developers and to facilitate the sustainability of the effort. A structured approach to problem solving is described by four functions of information management. At the foundation of problem solving is the collection of existing information, an inventory stage. Following the collection of the information there are analysis and evaluation stages. In the analysis stage interfaces are described and knowledge gaps are identified. The evaluation stage assesses the quality of the information and the relevance of the information to the specific attributes of the problem. The development of plans

  4. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  5. A real world data of dabigatran etexilate: multicenter registry of oral anticoagulants in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Bunyamin; Ayturk, Mehmet; Ozkan, Selcuk; Ozturk, Mujgan; Topaloglu, Caner; Aksoy, Hakan; Şabanoglu, Cengiz; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Dal, Kursat; Ata, Naim; Yavuz, Burcu Balam

    2016-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia. Dabigatran etixalate (DE) is one of the new oral anticoagulant drugs being used in nonvalvular AF (NVAF). There is no adequate real world data in different populations about DE. The aim of this registry was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DE Consecutive NVAF patients treated with warfarin or both DE doses were enrolled during 18 months study period. The patients were re-evaluated at regular 6-month intervals during the follow-up period. During the follow-up period outcomes were documented according to RELY methodology A total of 555 patients were analyzed. There was no significant difference in ischemic stroke rates (p = 0.73), death rates (p = 0.15) and MI rates (p = 0.56) between groups. The rate of major bleeding was significantly higher in warfarin and dabigatran 150 mg group than dabigatran 110 mg (p < 0.001). Intracranial bleeding rate and relative risk were significantly lower in dabigatran 110 mg group than warfarin group (p = 0.004). Dyspepsia was significantly higher in both DE doses than warfarin (p = 0.004) Both DE doses are as effective as warfarin in reducing stroke rates in NVAF patients, without increasing MI rates. Intracranial bleeding rates are significantly lower in warfarin than both doses of DE and gastrointestinal bleeding risk increases with increased DE doses.

  6. How does a real-world child psychiatric clinic diagnose and treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Kumi; Bhagia, Jyoti; Mrazek, David; Jensen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate child and adolescent psychiatrists’ (CAPs) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) diagnoses and treatments in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: The medical records of 69 ADHD children (mean age = 9.5 years), newly referred to the ADHD clinic, were reviewed for their scores of parent- and teacher-reported Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scales (VADRSs), CAPs’ diagnoses of ADHD and ODD, and CAPs’ treatment recommendations. Among 63 ADHD subjects who completed both parent and teacher VADRSs, we examined the agreement of the parent and teacher VADRSs. We also examined the concurrent validity of CAPs’ ODD diagnoses against the results from the VADRSs. In addition, we compared CAPs’ treatment recommendations against established ADHD and ODD guidelines. RESULTS: Among 63 ADHD subjects, the majority of the subjects (92%) met full ADHD diagnostic criteria at least in one setting (parent or teacher) on the VADRSs. Nearly half of the patients met full ADHD diagnostic criteria in two settings (parent and teacher). Relatively low agreement between the parent and teacher VADRSs were found (95%CI: -0.33 to 0.14). For 29 children who scored positive for ODD on the rating scales, CAPs confirmed the ODD diagnosis in only 12 of these case-positives, which is considered as a fair agreement between CAPs and VADRSs (95%CI: 0.10-0.53). For 27 children with no ODD diagnosis made by either CAP or VADRS, more than half of them were recommended for medication only. In contrast, where CAPs made the diagnosis of ODD, or where the parent or teacher VADRS was positive for ODD, almost all of the patients received recommendations for medication and behavior therapy. CONCLUSION: CAPs’ ADHD diagnoses have strong concurrent validity against valid rating scales, but ADHD’s most common comorbid condition - ODD - may be under-recognized. PMID:27014602

  7. Measures of outcome in metastatic breast cancer: insights from a real-world scenario.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Marta; Gerratana, Lorenzo; Poletto, Elena; Driol, Pamela; Giangreco, Manuela; Russo, Stefania; Minisini, Alessandro M; Andreetta, Claudia; Mansutti, Mauro; Pisa, Federica E; Fasola, Gianpiero; Puglisi, Fabio

    2014-06-01

    No gold standard treatment exists for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Clinical decision making is based on knowledge of prognostic and predictive factors that are extrapolated from clinical trials and, sometimes, are not reliably transferable to a real-world scenario. Moreover, misalignment between endpoints used in drug development and measures of outcome in clinical practice has been noted. The roles of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) as primary endpoints in the context of clinical trials are the subjects of lively debate. Information about these parameters in routine clinical practice is potentially useful to design new studies and/or to interpret the results of clinical research. This study analyzed the impact of patient and tumor characteristics on the major measures of outcome across different lines of treatment in a cohort of 472 patients treated for MBC. OS, PFS, and postprogression survival (PPS) were analyzed. The study showed how biological and clinical characteristics may have different prognostic value across different lines of therapy for MBC. After first-line treatment, the median PPS of luminal A, luminal B, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive groups was longer than 12 months. The choice of OS as a primary endpoint for clinical trials could not be appropriate with these subtypes. In contrast, OS could be an appropriate endpoint when PPS is expected to be low (e.g., triple-negative subtype after the first line; other subtypes after the third line). The potential implications of these findings are clinical and methodological.

  8. Optimizing the energy efficiency of capacitive deionization reactors working under real-world conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Lado, Julio; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2013-10-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a rapidly emerging desalination technology that promises to deliver clean water while storing energy in the electrical double layer (EDL) near a charged surface in a capacitive format. Whereas most research in this subject area has been devoted to using CDI for removing salts, little attention has been paid to the energy storage aspect of the technology. However, it is energy storage that would allow this technology to compete with other desalination processes if this energy could be stored and reused efficiently. This requires that the operational aspects of CDI be optimized with respect to energy used both during the removal of ions as well as during the regeneration cycle. This translates into the fact that currents applied during deionization (charging the EDL) will be different from those used in regeneration (discharge). This paper provides a mechanistic analysis of CDI in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiencies during the charging and discharging of the system under several scenarios. In a previous study, we proposed an operational buffer mode in which an effective separation of deionization and regeneration steps would allow one to better define the energy balance of this CDI process. This paper reports on using this concept, for optimizing energy efficiency, as well as to improve upon the electro-adsorption of ions and system lifetime. Results obtained indicate that real-world operational modes of running CDI systems promote the development of new and unexpected behavior not previously found, mainly associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of ions across the structure of the electrodes.

  9. Real-world outcomes in young women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Matus-Santos, Juan; Cabrera, Paula; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Mohar, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer in young women has been shown to have an aggressive behavior and worse prognosis. Studies evaluating young women enrolled in clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have shown that age is a determinant factor in the achievement of a pathological complete response (pCR). In this study, we sought to analyze the outcomes of young patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution. 1639 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. 316 patients ≤40 years were compared with 1323 patients aged >40 years regarding the achievement of a pCR (defined as no invasive residual tumor in the breast or lymph nodes). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were compared between groups according to pCR status and subtype, defined by hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Young women were more likely to have a pCR than their older counterparts (37.4 vs. 26.3 %, P < 0.001). This difference was significant both for HR+/HER2- and triple-negative (TN) tumors. Young age and achieving less than pCR were associated with a greater chance of recurrence for the entire population. Age was not an independent factor for recurrence in TN and HER2+ disease. However, being younger than 40 increased recurrence risk in HR+/HER2- tumors. The achievement of a pCR was not associated with improved DFS in young women with HR+/HER2- tumors. Although young women have a high rate of pCR, they also have a worse prognosis. In a real-world clinical setting, the achievement of a pCR was an independently significant protective factor for recurrence across all subtypes and ages, except for HR+, HER2- disease in young women. PMID:27189008

  10. Stable operation of a Secure QKD system in the real-world setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-06-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) now steps forward from the proof of principle to the validation of the practical feasibility. Nevertheless, the QKD technology should respond to the challenges from the real-world such as stable operation against the fluctuating environment, and security proof under the practical setting. We report our recent progress on stable operation of a QKD system, and key generation with security assurance. A QKD system should robust to temperature fluctuation in a common office environment. We developed a loop-mirror, a substitution of a Faraday mirror, to allow easy compensation for the temperature dependence of the device. Phase locking technique was also employed to synchronize the system clock to the quantum signals. This technique is indispensable for the transmission system based on the installed fiber cables, which stretch and shrink due to the temperature change. The security proof of QKD, however, has assumed the ideal conditions, such as the use of a genuine single photon source and/or unlimited computational resources. It has been highly desirable to give an assurance of security for practical systems, where the ideal conditions are no longer satisfied. We have constructed a theory to estimate the leakage information on the transmitted key under the practically attainable conditions, and have developed a QKD system equipped with software for secure key distillation. The QKD system generates the final key at the rate of 2000 bps after 20 km fiber transmission. Eavesdropper's information on the final key is guaranteed to be less than 2-7 per bit. This is the first successful generation of the secure key with quantitative assurance of the upper bound of the leakage information. It will put forth the realization of highly secure metropolitan optical communication network against any types of eavesdropping.

  11. A neural basis for real-world visual search in human occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Kastner, Sabine

    2011-07-19

    Mammals are highly skilled in rapidly detecting objects in cluttered natural environments, a skill necessary for survival. What are the neural mechanisms mediating detection of objects in natural scenes? Here, we use human brain imaging to address the role of top-down preparatory processes in the detection of familiar object categories in real-world environments. Brain activity was measured while participants were preparing to detect highly variable depictions of people or cars in natural scenes that were new to the participants. The preparation to detect objects of the target category, in the absence of visual input, evoked activity patterns in visual cortex that resembled the response to actual exemplars of the target category. Importantly, the selectivity of multivoxel preparatory activity patterns in object-selective cortex (OSC) predicted target detection performance. By contrast, preparatory activity in early visual cortex (V1) was negatively related to search performance. Additional behavioral results suggested that the dissociation between OSC and V1 reflected the use of different search strategies, linking OSC preparatory activity to relatively abstract search preparation and V1 to more specific imagery-like preparation. Finally, whole-brain searchlight analyses revealed that, in addition to OSC, response patterns in medial prefrontal cortex distinguished the target categories based on the search cues alone, suggesting that this region may constitute a top-down source of preparatory activity observed in visual cortex. These results indicate that in naturalistic situations, when the precise visual characteristics of target objects are not known in advance, preparatory activity at higher levels of the visual hierarchy selectively mediates visual search.

  12. Number size distribution of particulate emissions of heavy-duty engines in real world test cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Urs; Mohr, Martin; Schweizer, Thomas; Rütter, Josef

    Five in-service engines in heavy-duty trucks complying with Euro II emission standards were measured on a dynamic engine test bench at EMPA. The particulate matter (PM) emissions of these engines were investigated by number and mass measurements. The mass of the total PM was evaluated using the standard gravimetric measurement method, the total number concentration and the number size distribution were measured by a Condensation Particle Counter (lower particle size cut-off: 7 nm) and an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (lower particle size: 32 nm), respectively. The transient test cycles used represent either driving behaviour on the road (real-world test cycles) or a type approval procedure. They are characterised by the cycle power, the average cycle power and by a parameter for the cycle dynamics. In addition, the particle number size distribution was determined at two steady-state operating modes of the engine using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. For quality control, each measurement was repeated at least three times under controlled conditions. It was found that the number size distributions as well as the total number concentration of emitted particles could be measured with a good repeatability. Total number concentration was between 9×10 11 and 1×10 13 particles/s (3×10 13-7×10 14 p/kWh) and mass concentration was between 0.09 and 0.48 g/kWh. For all transient cycles, the number mean diameter of the distributions lay typically at about 120 nm for aerodynamic particle diameter and did not vary significantly. In general, the various particle measurement devices used reveal the same trends in particle emissions. We looked at the correlation between specific gravimetric mass emission (PM) and total particle number concentration. The correlation tends to be influenced more by the different engines than by the test cycles.

  13. Real-world outcomes in young women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Matus-Santos, Juan; Cabrera, Paula; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Mohar, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer in young women has been shown to have an aggressive behavior and worse prognosis. Studies evaluating young women enrolled in clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have shown that age is a determinant factor in the achievement of a pathological complete response (pCR). In this study, we sought to analyze the outcomes of young patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution. 1639 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. 316 patients ≤40 years were compared with 1323 patients aged >40 years regarding the achievement of a pCR (defined as no invasive residual tumor in the breast or lymph nodes). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were compared between groups according to pCR status and subtype, defined by hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Young women were more likely to have a pCR than their older counterparts (37.4 vs. 26.3 %, P < 0.001). This difference was significant both for HR+/HER2- and triple-negative (TN) tumors. Young age and achieving less than pCR were associated with a greater chance of recurrence for the entire population. Age was not an independent factor for recurrence in TN and HER2+ disease. However, being younger than 40 increased recurrence risk in HR+/HER2- tumors. The achievement of a pCR was not associated with improved DFS in young women with HR+/HER2- tumors. Although young women have a high rate of pCR, they also have a worse prognosis. In a real-world clinical setting, the achievement of a pCR was an independently significant protective factor for recurrence across all subtypes and ages, except for HR+, HER2- disease in young women.

  14. Preparing Laboratory and Real-World EEG Data for Large-Scale Analysis: A Containerized Approach.

    PubMed

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Makeig, Scott; Robbins, Kay A

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface models. However, the absence of standardized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the difficulty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a "containerized" approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of annotating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-)analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS) comprises three data "Levels," each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP) pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1) data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2) suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are increasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at www.eegstudy.org and a central catalog of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at studycatalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to enable data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org).

  15. Preparing Laboratory and Real-World EEG Data for Large-Scale Analysis: A Containerized Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Makeig, Scott; Robbins, Kay A.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain–computer interface models. However, the absence of standardized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the difficulty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a “containerized” approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of annotating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-)analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS) comprises three data “Levels,” each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP) pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1) data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2) suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are increasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at www.eegstudy.org and a central catalog of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at studycatalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to enable data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org). PMID:27014048

  16. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam; Thomas, Neil; LaClair, Tim J; Barker, Alan M; Knee, Helmut E

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  17. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  18. Effect of short-term exposure to stereoscopic three-dimensional flight displays on real-world depth perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    High-fidelity color pictorial displays that incorporate depth cues in the display elements are currently available. Depth cuing applied to advanced head-down flight display concepts potentially enhances the pilot's situational awareness and improves task performance. Depth cues provided by stereopsis exhibit constraints that must be fully understood so depth cuing enhancements can be adequately realized and exploited. A fundamental issue (the goal of this investigation) is whether the use of head-down stereoscopic displays in flight applications degrade the real-world depth perception of pilots using such displays. Stereoacuity tests are used in this study as the measure of interest. Eight pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both nonstereo and stereo 3-D head-down pathway-in-the-sky displays. At this decision height of each approach (where the pilot changes to an out-the-window view to obtain real-world visual references) the pilots changed to a stereoacuity test that used real objects. Statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures (data for a control condition of no exposure to any electronic flight display compared with data for changes from nonstereo and from stereo displays) reveals no significant differences for any of the conditions. Therefore, changing from short-term exposure to a head-down stereo display has no more effect on real-world relative depth perception than does changing from a nonstereo display. However, depth perception effects based on sized and distance judgements and on long-term exposure remain issues to be investigated.

  19. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    PubMed

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  20. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    PubMed

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors. PMID:25851082

  1. A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object Representation

    PubMed Central

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual size than when it was incongruent— demonstrating a familiar-size Stroop effect. Critically, the real-world size of the objects was irrelevant for the task. This Stroop effect was also present when only one item was present at a congruent or incongruent visual size on the display. In contrast, no Stroop effect was observed for participants who simply learned a rule to categorize novel objects as big or small. These results show that people access the familiar size of objects without the intention of doing so, demonstrating that real-world size is an automatic property of object representation. PMID:22545601

  2. A familiar-size Stroop effect: real-world size is an automatic property of object representation.

    PubMed

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-06-01

    When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual size than when it was incongruent--demonstrating a familiar-size Stroop effect. Critically, the real-world size of the objects was irrelevant for the task. This Stroop effect was also present when only one item was present at a congruent or incongruent visual size on the display. In contrast, no Stroop effect was observed for participants who simply learned a rule to categorize novel objects as big or small. These results show that people access the familiar size of objects without the intention of doing so, demonstrating that real-world size is an automatic property of object representation.

  3. Estimation of gaseous real-world traffic emissions downstream a motorway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, M.; Corsmeier, U.; Vogt, U.; Vogel, B.

    The consequences of air pollution scenarios caused by road traffic or the impact of exhaust gas reduction techniques are estimated by emission models. To ensure the quality of model results, it is necessary to evaluate the used emission factors under real-world conditions. Therefore, the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe initiated the field campaign BAB II (BundesAutoBahn, Federal motorway). The campaign was conducted in May 2001 with the objective of measuring the traffic emissions at a motorway section and to compare them to modelled emissions. Based on experiences during a precursor campaign (BAB I, 1997), a symmetric experimental set-up was installed which allowed measurements up- and downwind of a motorway nearby Heidelberg, Germany. This paper focuses on the determination of source intensities and emission factors for CO and NO x, whereas other papers in this issue handle VOC and particulate matter. First the basic approach of BAB II measurements up- and downwind of a motorway was approved, showing that it is possible to detect the plume originating from traffic emissions. A case study during a traffic jam illustrates that driving patterns have a strong impact on the emissions and therefore a detailed traffic census is required to obtain reliable emission calculations. Two different strategies were used: (i) long-time measurements during the whole campaign to obtain vertical profiles each 30 min and (ii) measurements during eight special operation periods (SOP) in a higher temporal resolution of 5 min, using instrumentation in elevators. It could be shown that even at a distance of 60-80 m from the motorway the structure of the plume is still inhomogeneous, and concentration changes within short times. The inhomogeneity of the plume not only affects the temporal scale, the spatial scale is also influenced and frequently concentration maxima in higher altitudes are observed. Mean source intensities of 9.5 kg

  4. Spatial Thinking and Visualisation of Real-World Concepts using GeoMapApp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session

  5. ESSD: Real World Issues and Challenges of High-Quality Data Publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2013-04-01

    The Copernicus data publication journal Earth System Science Data (ESSD) represents an important and unique (and by no means final!) step forward in the larger world of data publication. Working with authors, reviewers, editors and data centres, ESSD has successfully produced many high-quality data publications across a wide variety of scientific disciplines, for individual data sets, multiple data sets as the product of scientific consortia and in special issues coordinated with other science journals. The ESSD success also exposes issues and challenges for present and future data publication, particularly around the topic and implementation of persistent identifiers. • As ESSD encourages redundant data sets across multiple data centres for access and archive purposes, how will DOIs be employed to accurately point to those distributed or replicated data? How can authenticity and integrity be verified? • How can or should object identifiers be employed in pointing from raw to quality-controlled and finally derived data processing levels; how can we designate or distinguish among these, particularly as those terms vary substantially among, for example, geophysical and ecological communities? Likewise, how to distinguish an auto-generated data product (e.g a species identification from GBIF) from a high-effort expertly reviewed data product (e.g. an ESSD publication)? • For a growing number of ESSD data publications with expected annual or periodic revisions and updates, how should data journals' and the repositories' use of persistent identifiers best record the subsequent versions, extensions or corrections? • As published data sets become a valued part of high profile science, with attendant deadlines, announcements and publicity, do the various DOI policies and minting practices among cooperating publishers, data centres and journals represent a help or a hindrance? These questions evolve directly from increasing interest in and activity by ESSD and, as

  6. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Peng, X; Sun, P; Novick, D; Andrews, J; Sun, S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009). Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs) had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years), percentage of women (87%–88%), and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis). In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%). The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05), any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05), and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05). From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort experienced decreases in certain utilization rates, whereas the pregabalin cohort had increases (percentage of patients with a fibromyalgia

  7. Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Pugliese, Cara E.; Popal, Haroon S.; White, Emily I.; Brodsky, Emily; Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their…

  8. Designing and incorporating a real world data approach to international drug development and use: what the UK offers.

    PubMed

    Bate, Andrew; Juniper, Jane; Lawton, Andy M; Thwaites, Rob M A

    2016-03-01

    Assessments of the safety, efficacy and appropriate use of new medicines lie at the heart of treatment development and subsequent adoption in clinical practice. Highly controlled randomised clinical trials routinely inform decisions on the approval, coverage and use of a medicine. Researchers and decision makers have become increasingly aware that these experimental data alone are insufficient to address those decisions fully. Real world data recorded from routine healthcare delivery by healthcare professionals and patients help provide a more complete picture of care. The UK, with its connectivity and rich longitudinal patient records, accumulated research and informatics experience and National Health Service, provides an exemplar of how real world data address a wide range of challenges across drug development. PMID:26694021

  9. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    PubMed

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  10. Big data to smart data in Alzheimer's disease: Real-world examples of advanced modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Haas, Magali; Stephenson, Diane; Romero, Klaus; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Zach, Neta; Geerts, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Many disease-modifying clinical development programs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to date, and development of new and advanced preclinical models that generate actionable knowledge is desperately needed. This review reports on computer-based modeling and simulation approach as a powerful tool in AD research. Statistical data-analysis techniques can identify associations between certain data and phenotypes, such as diagnosis or disease progression. Other approaches integrate domain expertise in a formalized mathematical way to understand how specific components of pathology integrate into complex brain networks. Private-public partnerships focused on data sharing, causal inference and pathway-based analysis, crowdsourcing, and mechanism-based quantitative systems modeling represent successful real-world modeling examples with substantial impact on CNS diseases. Similar to other disease indications, successful real-world examples of advanced simulation can generate actionable support of drug discovery and development in AD, illustrating the value that can be generated for different stakeholders. PMID:27327540

  11. Big data to smart data in Alzheimer's disease: Real-world examples of advanced modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Haas, Magali; Stephenson, Diane; Romero, Klaus; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Zach, Neta; Geerts, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Many disease-modifying clinical development programs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to date, and development of new and advanced preclinical models that generate actionable knowledge is desperately needed. This review reports on computer-based modeling and simulation approach as a powerful tool in AD research. Statistical data-analysis techniques can identify associations between certain data and phenotypes, such as diagnosis or disease progression. Other approaches integrate domain expertise in a formalized mathematical way to understand how specific components of pathology integrate into complex brain networks. Private-public partnerships focused on data sharing, causal inference and pathway-based analysis, crowdsourcing, and mechanism-based quantitative systems modeling represent successful real-world modeling examples with substantial impact on CNS diseases. Similar to other disease indications, successful real-world examples of advanced simulation can generate actionable support of drug discovery and development in AD, illustrating the value that can be generated for different stakeholders.

  12. Evaluating the real-world predictive validity of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory using Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Heron, Kristin E; Mason, Tyler B; Sutton, Tiphanie G; Myers, Taryn A

    2015-09-01

    Perceptions of physical appearance, or body image, can affect psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QOL). The present study evaluated the real-world predictive validity of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). College women reporting subclinical disordered eating/body dissatisfaction (N=131) completed the BIQLI and related measures. For one week they then completed five daily EMA surveys of mood, social interactions, stress, and eating behaviors on palmtop computers. Results showed better body image QOL was associated with less negative affect, less overwhelming emotions, more positive affect, more pleasant social interactions, and higher self-efficacy for handling stress. Lower body image QOL was marginally related to less overeating and lower loss of control over eating in daily life. To our knowledge, this is the first study to support the real-world predictive validity of the BIQLI by identifying social, affective, and behavioral correlates in everyday life using EMA. PMID:26302376

  13. Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Song, Guanli; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Runshun; Liu, Baoyan; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Xiaji; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yufeng; Xue, Yanxing; Xu, Lili

    2014-09-01

    The current modes of experience inheritance from famous specialists in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) include master and disciple, literature review, clinical-epidemiology-based clinical research observation, and analysis and data mining via computer and database technologies. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. However, a scientific and instructive experience inheritance mode has not been developed. The advent of the big data era as well as the formation and practice accumulation of the TCM clinical research paradigm in the real world have provided new perspectives, techniques, and methods for inheriting experience from famous TCM specialists. Through continuous exploration and practice, the research group proposes the innovation research mode based on the real-world TCM clinical research paradigm, which involves the inheritance and innovation of the existing modes. This mode is formulated in line with its own development regularity of TCM and is expected to become the main mode of experience inheritance in the clinical field.

  14. Designing and incorporating a real world data approach to international drug development and use: what the UK offers.

    PubMed

    Bate, Andrew; Juniper, Jane; Lawton, Andy M; Thwaites, Rob M A

    2016-03-01

    Assessments of the safety, efficacy and appropriate use of new medicines lie at the heart of treatment development and subsequent adoption in clinical practice. Highly controlled randomised clinical trials routinely inform decisions on the approval, coverage and use of a medicine. Researchers and decision makers have become increasingly aware that these experimental data alone are insufficient to address those decisions fully. Real world data recorded from routine healthcare delivery by healthcare professionals and patients help provide a more complete picture of care. The UK, with its connectivity and rich longitudinal patient records, accumulated research and informatics experience and National Health Service, provides an exemplar of how real world data address a wide range of challenges across drug development.

  15. Setting the bar: divergent sociocultural norms for women's and men's ideal appearance in real-world contexts.

    PubMed

    Buote, Vanessa M; Wilson, Anne E; Strahan, Erin J; Gazzola, Stephanie B; Papps, Fiona

    2011-09-01

    Research suggests that exposure to sociocultural norms for idealized appearance can reduce both women's and men's body satisfaction. Despite comparable effects for both genders in the lab, in the "real-world" women's body satisfaction is chronically lower than men's. Real-world gender differences may arise from discrepancies in men's and women's everyday exposure to norms. Across eight studies using a variety of content analysis, survey, and experimental methods, we examine differences in sociocultural norms for ideal appearance pertaining to women and men in "daily life" contexts. We demonstrate that appearance norms encountered by women in daily life are more rigid, homogenous and pervasive than those for men, and that more messages implying the attainability of the ideal appearance are directed at women. Finally, experimental results show that homogeneous, rigid norms (like those typically encountered by women) are more harmful to body image than heterogeneous, flexible norms (like those typically encountered by men).

  16. The real relationship in a postmodern world: theoretical and empirical explorations.

    PubMed

    Gelso, Charles J

    2009-05-01

    A theory of the real relationship, including its place in the overall therapeutic relationship, is amplified. The real relationship is seen as a key component of all psychotherapy relationships. It exists from the first moment of contact between therapist and patient, and it deepens as the work progresses. Recently, reliable measures of the real relationship from the therapist's and client's perspectives have been developed, and these measures have demonstrated sound beginning validity. Studies have explored the variables with which the real relationship correlates and have demonstrated significant relationships to treatment progress and outcome. The real relationship appears to be a promising variable for future study, and potentially fruitful directions for such study are noted.

  17. An Empirical Overview of the No Free Lunch Theorem and Its Effect on Real-World Machine Learning Classification.

    PubMed

    Gómez, David; Rojas, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    A sizable amount of research has been done to improve the mechanisms for knowledge extraction such as machine learning classification or regression. Quite unintuitively, the no free lunch (NFL) theorem states that all optimization problem strategies perform equally well when averaged over all possible problems. This fact seems to clash with the effort put forth toward better algorithms. This letter explores empirically the effect of the NFL theorem on some popular machine learning classification techniques over real-world data sets.

  18. An Empirical Overview of the No Free Lunch Theorem and Its Effect on Real-World Machine Learning Classification.

    PubMed

    Gómez, David; Rojas, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    A sizable amount of research has been done to improve the mechanisms for knowledge extraction such as machine learning classification or regression. Quite unintuitively, the no free lunch (NFL) theorem states that all optimization problem strategies perform equally well when averaged over all possible problems. This fact seems to clash with the effort put forth toward better algorithms. This letter explores empirically the effect of the NFL theorem on some popular machine learning classification techniques over real-world data sets. PMID:26599713

  19. Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

    2007-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey

  20. Issues and Challenges of Teaching and Learning in 3D Virtual Worlds: Real Life Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeil, Ulrike; Ang, Chee Siang; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to study the characteristics and usage patterns of 3D virtual worlds in the context of teaching and learning. To achieve this, we organised a full-day workshop to explore, discuss and investigate the educational use of 3D virtual worlds. Thirty participants took part in the workshop. All conversations were recorded and transcribed for…

  1. Virtual World, Real Education: A Descriptive Study of Instructional Design in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual worlds like Second Life are emerging technologies that have gained popularity among educators. As these worlds emerged, greater focus has been placed on the design of the environments themselves rather than the design of instruction within them. Educators have begun using these environments for teaching and instructional designers are now…

  2. Real world programs, real world strategies, real world successes

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a very brief overview of market opportunities for using energy efficient technology. A brief summary of greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change concludes that the threat of global warming must be taken seriously. It is stated that there are numerous technologies available which can reduce energy use by up to 50%, while offering attractive rates of return. Market analysis has identified a trillion dollar market for high efficiency products and services over the next decade. Three main areas of business opportunity for capitalizing on the growing market for energy efficiency are identified: (1) using efficient energy technology in-house, (2) marketing energy efficient products, and (3) international markets.

  3. Real-world objects are not represented as bound units: independent forgetting of different object details from visual memory.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude

    2013-08-01

    Are real-world objects represented as bound units? Although a great deal of research has examined binding between the feature dimensions of simple shapes, little work has examined whether the featural properties of real-world objects are stored in a single unitary object representation. In a first experiment, we found that information about an object's color is forgotten more rapidly than the information about an object's state (e.g., open, closed), suggesting that observers do not forget objects as entirely bound units. In a second and third experiment, we examined whether state and exemplar information are forgotten separately or together. If these properties are forgotten separately, the probability of getting one feature correct should be independent of whether the other feature was correct. We found that after a short delay, observers frequently remember both state and exemplar information about the same objects, but after a longer delay, memory for the two properties becomes independent. This indicates that information about object state and exemplar are forgotten separately over time. We thus conclude that real-world objects are not represented in a single unitary representation in visual memory. PMID:22905874

  4. Temporal and kinematic variables for real-world falls harvested from lumbar sensors in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Bourke, A K; Klenk, J; Schwickert, L; Aminian, K; Ihlen, E A F; Helbostad, J L; Chiari, L; Becker, C

    2015-01-01

    Automatic fall detection will reduce the consequences of falls in the elderly and promote independent living, ensuring people can confidently live safely at home. Inertial sensor technology can distinguish falls from normal activities. However, <;7% of studies have used fall data recorded from elderly people in real life. The FARSEEING project has compiled a database of real life falls from elderly people, to gain new knowledge about fall events. We have extracted temporal and kinematic parameters to further improve the development of fall detection algorithms. A total of 100 real-world falls were analysed. Subjects with a known fall history were recruited, inertial sensors were attached to L5 and a fall report, following a fall, was used to extract the fall signal. This data-set was examined, and variables were extracted that include upper and lower impact peak values, posture angle change during the fall and time of occurrence. These extracted parameters, can be used to inform the design of fall-detection algorithms for real-world falls detection in the elderly. PMID:26737459

  5. Transition to life--a sendoff to the real world for graduating medical students.

    PubMed

    Coates, Wendy C; Spector, Tahlia S; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Graduating medical students will enter the workforce, often for the first time. Many have spent the past 20 years as students, receiving financial support from parents, and have not managed real-life issues such as financial planning, real estate, balancing well-being with employment, and integrating into a new community with stressful working conditions. To address a perceived need, we designed an intervention to introduce graduating medical students to financial planning, real estate choices, physician wellness during relocation/internship, and traits of efficient interns. The objectives of this study are to (a) assess baseline experience, knowledge, and comfort of seniors about "real-life" experiences, and (b) assess the efficacy of a 4-hr educational intervention on perceptions of understanding financial planning, real estate choices, intern preparedness, and physician wellness. Acute Care College seniors (classes of 2009 and 2010) attended the intervention after match day and completed a survey to gather demographic data and assess preexisting knowledge and a postintervention survey (1-7 Likert scale). Forty-nine students (45% male; M age = 25.5 years) participated. Prior experiences: 43% no break in education, 51% no full-time job, 38% never signed a rental lease and 94% had not purchased real estate, 90% did not have (or were not aware of having) disability insurance, and 82% had educational debt exceeding $50,000. Following the workshop, students felt more confident in their understanding of life skills topics (real estate, 83%; financial planning, 94%; well-being, 86%). Our workshop assisted in preparing for life after medical school for 98% of the participants. Graduating medical students can gain knowledge about real-life responsibilities and confidence during an educational session prior to starting residency. PMID:22250934

  6. Mimewrighting: Preparing Students for the Real World of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    READING, WRITING, & ENACTING SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL LITERATURE: Mimewrighting applies the art of mime as an interpretive springboard to integrate conceptual understanding across all content areas. Mimewrighting guides students to read and express complex ideas in carefully crafted movement integrations, mediating experience, so that students obtain an intuitive grasp of difficult and abstract ideas. THE PROBLEM: Reading science writing presents obstacles for middle and high school students, to the point that many students are turned OFF to science altogether. A typical science abstract, written for colleagues, is as densely packed with concept-laden words as a black hole is densely packed with matter- and just as mysterious. What reads to a science colleague as a richly crafted paragraph, from which a myriad of elegantly interrelated concepts can unfold to point to the significance and context of the study at hand, reads as jabberwocky nonsense to the uninitiated student. So, how do we turn such kids (and teachers) back ON to the inquiry-driven desire to seek out challenging and educative experiences? How do we step up to the national challenge to prepare ALL students adequately for the REAL-WORLD demands of science, technology, engineering, math, (STEM) and communications? How do we help kids read, write, and understand scientific and technical literature? AN UNCONVENTIONAL ANSWER: Mimewrighting applies the classic art of mime to unpack the meaning of science writing. We help students view the text as sequences of action, scenarios that can be enacted theatrically for understanding. HOW DOES IT WORK? READ ALOUD, MIME ALONG: It's as simple as read aloud and mime along. And as complex, in that it requires taking the time to acknowledge each concept packed into the passage. Three opening sentences might involve twenty minutes of mimewrighting activity to ensure that students apprehend the patterns, perceive the relationships, and comprehend the dynamics of such a

  7. Correcting for finite spatial scales of self-similarity when calculating fractal dimensions of real-world structures

    PubMed Central

    Berntson, G. M.; Stoll, P.

    1997-01-01

    Fractal geometry is a potentially valuable tool for quantitatively characterizing complex structures. The fractal dimension (D) can be used as a simple, single index for summarizing properties of real and abstract structures in space and time. Applications in the fields of biology and ecology range from neurobiology to plant architecture, landscape structure, taxonomy and species diversity. However, methods to estimate the D have often been applied in an uncritical manner, violating assumptions about the nature of fractal structures. The most common error involves ignoring the fact that ideal, i.e. infinitely nested, fractal structures exhibit self-similarity over any range of scales. Unlike ideal fractals, real-world structures exhibit self-similarity only over a finite range of scales. Here we present a new technique for quantitatively determining the scales over which real-world structures show statistical self-similarity. The new technique uses a combination of curve-fitting and tests of curvilinearity of residuals to identify the largest range of contiguous scales that exhibit statistical self-similarity. Consequently, we estimate D only over the statistically identified region of self-similarity and introduce the finite scale- corrected dimension (FSCD). We demonstrate the use of this method in two steps. First, using mathematical fractal curves with known but variable spatial scales of self-similarity (achieved by varying the iteration level used for creating the curves), we demonstrate that our method can reliably quantify the spatial scales of self-similarity. This technique therefore allows accurate empirical quantification of theoretical Ds. Secondly, we apply the technique to digital images of the rhizome systems of goldenrod (Solidago altissima). The technique significantly reduced variations in estimated fractal dimensions arising from variations in the method of preparing digital images. Overall, the revised method has the potential to significantly

  8. A FRET-Based Real-Time PCR Assay to Identify the Main Causal Agents of New World Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    De Los Santos, Maxy; Soberón, Valeria; Lucas, Carmen M.; Matlashewski, Greg; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Ore, Marianela; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Lescano, Andres G.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Bacon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In South America, various species of Leishmania are endemic and cause New World tegumentary leishmaniasis (NWTL). The correct identification of these species is critical for adequate clinical management and surveillance activities. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and evaluated its diagnostic performance using 64 archived parasite isolates and 192 prospectively identified samples collected from individuals with suspected leishmaniasis enrolled at two reference clinics in Lima, Peru. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect a single parasite and provided unambiguous melting peaks for five Leishmania species of the Viannia subgenus that are highly prevalent in South America: L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) lainsoni. Using kinetoplastid DNA-based PCR as a gold standard, the real-time PCR had sensitivity and specificity values of 92% and 77%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of conventional tests such as microscopy, culture and the leishmanin skin test (LST). In addition, the real-time PCR identified 147 different clinical samples at the species level, providing an overall agreement of 100% when compared to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data performed on a subset of these samples. Furthermore, the real-time PCR was three times faster and five times less expensive when compared to PCR - MLST for species identification from clinical specimens. In summary, this new assay represents a cost-effective and reliable alternative for the identification of the main species causing NWTL in South America. PMID:23301111

  9. The Brave New World of Real-time GPS for Hazards Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over 600 continuously-operating, real-time telemetered GPS receivers operate throughout California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. These receivers straddle active crustal faults, volcanoes and landslides, the magnitude-9 Cascadia and northeastern Alaskan subduction zones and their attendant tsunamigenic regions along the Pacific coast. Around the circum-Pacific, there are hundreds more and the number is growing steadily as real-time networks proliferate. Despite offering the potential for sub-cm positioning accuracy in real-time useful for a broad array of hazards mitigation, these GPS stations are only now being incorporated into routine seismic, tsunami, volcanic, land-slide, space-weather, or meterologic monitoring. We will discuss NASA's READI (Real-time Earthquake Analysis for DIsasters) initiative. This effort is focussed on developing all aspects of real-time GPS for hazards mitigation, from establishing international data-sharing agreements to improving basic positioning algorithms. READI's long-term goal is to expand real-time GPS monitoring throughout the circum-Pacific as overseas data become freely available, so that it may be adopted by NOAA, USGS and other operational agencies responsible for natural hazards monitoring. Currently ~100 stations are being jointly processed by CWU and Scripps Inst. of Oceanography for algorithm comparison and downstream merging purposes. The resultant solution streams include point-position estimates in a global reference frame every second with centimeter accuracy, ionospheric total electron content and tropospheric zenith water content. These solutions are freely available to third-party agencies over several streaming protocols to enable their incorporation and use in hazards monitoring. This number will ramp up to ~400 stations over the next year. We will also discuss technical efforts underway to develop a variety of downstream applications of the real-time position streams, including the ability to broadcast

  10. Applying a toolkit for dissemination and analysis of near real-time data through the World Wide Web: integration of the Antelope Real Time System, ROADNet, and PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ROADNet project has enabled the acquisition and storage of diverse data streams through seamless integration of the Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) with (for example) ecological, seismological and geodetic instrumentation. The robust system architecture allows researchers to simply network data loggers with relational databases; however, the ability to disseminate these data to policy makers, scientists and the general public has (until recently) been provided on an 'as needed' basis. The recent development of a Datascope interface to the popular open source scripting language PHP has provided an avenue for presenting near real time data (such as integers, images and movies) from within the ARTS framework easily on the World Wide Web. The interface also indirectly provided the means to transform data types into various formats using the extensive function libraries that accompany a PHP installation (such as image creation and manipulation, data encryption for sensitive information, and XML creation for structured document interchange through the World Wide Web). Using a combination of Datascope and PHP library functions, an extensible tool-kit is being developed to allow data managers to easily present their products on the World Wide Web. The tool-kit has been modeled after the pre-existing ARTS architecture to simplify the installation, development and ease-of-use for both the seasoned researcher and the casual user. The methodology and results of building the applications that comprise the tool-kit are the focus of this presentation, including procedural vs. object oriented design, incorporation of the tool-kit into the existing contributed software libraries, and case-studies of researchers who are employing the tools to present their data. http://anf.ucsd.edu

  11. The Third Place in Second Life: Real Life Community in a Virtual World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peachey, Anna

    In June 2006 The Open University (OU) purchased its first land in Second LifeTM (SL). Over a two and a half year period, the OU presence evolved and grew to a point where an average of between 150 and 250 unique users in any 7-day period are active in an OU area. This chapter charts the history of the development of the OU Second Life social community and considers the nature of that activity at a point of critical change, in January 2009, shortly before a new island is developed to provide a permanent home for the community. In order for the community to continue evolving it is necessary to understand the nature of the core activities of these users, and to consider this in a context of sustainable development. Through reference to aspects of socialisation and physical community, the author proposes that a virtual world environment can be described using the physical world concept of a Third Place in the information age, and considers the value of virtual space to a learning community. From a perspective of ethnography, this chapter captures a community development within SL and proposes that physical world concepts of community and Third Place are exhibited in a virtual world, and that there are equivalent benefits in the sense of support and belonging to a virtual world community.

  12. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: The Higgs Boson, String Theory, and the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I'll describe how string theory is exciting because it can address most, perhaps all, of the questions we hope to understand about our world: why quarks and leptons make up our world, what forces form our world, cosmology, parity violation, and much more. I'll explain why string theory is testable in basically the same ways as the rest of physics, and why much of what is written about that is misleading. String theory is already or soon being tested in several ways, including correctly predicting the recently observed Higgs boson properties and mass, and predictions for dark matter, LHC physics, cosmological history, and more, from work in the increasingly active subfield ``string phenomenology.''

  13. The dark side of visual awareness in sport: Inattentional blindness in a real-world basketball task.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Heller, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Most research in the field of decision making in sports has focused on the bright side of visual attention and has not taken the dark side of visual awareness into account. Understanding the costs of such inattention should be complementary to the study of how attention facilitates perception. In the present study, we provide evidence for the existence of inattentional blindness (IB) in a real-world basketball setting among adults (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, we found that players with hardly any basketball experience were more likely to experience IB in a real-world basketball setting, as compared with experienced athletes. Improving the ecological validity of the setting by enhancing the perception-action coupling (Experiment 3) and increasing task difficulty (Experiment 4) did not appear to affect the occurrence of IB among experienced athletes. IB can be considered a limitation of the visual system, but it also highlights a critical aspect of visual processing, which allows us to remain focused on the important aspects of the world. But as is shown in the present experiments, it is possible to induce an attentional set--for example, by sport-specific instructions--that leads to players' missing important game-relevant information.

  14. Implementing lung cancer screening in the real world: opportunity, challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Optican, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that, in 2012, there were 1,589,925 deaths from lung cancer worldwide. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has the potential to significantly alter this statistic, by identifying lung cancers in earlier stages, enabling curative treatment. Challenges remain, however, in replicating the 20% mortality benefit demonstrated by the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), in populations outside the confines of a research trial, not only in the US but around the world. We review the history of lung cancer screening, the current evidence for LDCT screening, and the key elements needed for a successful screening program. PMID:26380176

  15. The swath segment selection problem: extending AI search techniques to a novel real-world problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R.; Smith, B.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the Swath Segment Selection problem (SSSP). The SSSP consists of a constrained geometric covering problem and a capacitated resource problem. It comes from the real-life problem of scheduling on- and off-times for air or space-borne instruments that image a target by flying over and collecting a swath of information.

  16. Is strong reciprocity really strong in the lab, let alone in the real world?

    PubMed

    Güney, Şule; Newell, Ben R

    2012-02-01

    We argue that standard experiments supporting the existence of "strong reciprocity" do not represent many cooperative situations outside the laboratory. More representative experiments that incorporate "earned" rather than "windfall" wealth also do not provide evidence for the impact of strong reciprocity on cooperation in contemporary real-life situations or in evolutionary history, supporting the main conclusions of the target article.

  17. Real World Projects with Companies Supporting Competence Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baaken, Thomas; Kiel, Bert; Kliewe, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The department of business administration of Münster University of Applied Sciences (MUAS) in Germany has a long tradition in realising practice-oriented research projects in cooperation with industry. The objective of these cooperative projects is to offer students real-life experiences and to make the theoretical know-how of university lectures…

  18. Two Fifth Grade Teachers' Use of Real-World Situations in Science and Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Serin, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the types, sources, and cognitive levels of tasks that included real-life situations used in science and mathematics lessons in the classrooms of two 5th-grade teachers at an urban elementary school in Turkey. A qualitative approach was used to analyze data that included classroom observations, teacher…

  19. University Facilities as Real-World Foci of Multidisciplinary Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojdak, Jeremy; Guinan, Judy; Wirgau, Joseph; Kugler, Charles; Hammond, Georgia; Small, Christine; Manyara, Charles; Singer, Frederick; Watts, Chester; Bodo, Bethany; Baldwin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The authors sought to better approximate the practice of "real" science in our classrooms by having students study a newly built storm-water remediation wetland on campus. The wetland was meant to gather and clean storm water running off of student parking lots--thus students had ownership in the problem and potential solution. Participating…

  20. The World Bank's Shift Away from Neoliberal Ideology: Real or Rhetoric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman

    2012-01-01

    Some literature on World Bank education policies after 1999 tries to project a shift away of the Bank from its 1980s neoliberal mandate. This article argues that the shift is only in the form of rhetoric, which facilitates a hidden agenda of creating a worldwide higher education market, leaving the poor with primary education only. At the…

  1. Can Virtual Science Foster Real Skills? A Study of Inquiry Skills in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Online education has grown into a part of the educational market answering the demand for learning at the learner's choice of time and place. Inquiry skills such as observing, questioning, collecting data, and devising fair experiments are an essential element of 21st-century online science coursework. Virtual immersive worlds such as Second Life…

  2. Preparation for the Real Business World: Empirical Research in the MBA Finance Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavin, Angeline M.; Johnson, Stephen K.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of MBA students receive little exposure to formal empirical research even though research and development spending at corporations around the world continues to increase. We believe that in order to be successful managers, MBA graduates need to understand the empirical research process as well as the intricacies of finance, such as…

  3. Academy and the Real World: Developing Realistic Notions of Career in the Performing Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Performing arts courses within the university sector retain a necessarily strong practical focus as they prepare graduates for work within a highly competitive environment. However, the reality for graduates is a world in which performance is only one component of the myriad activities required to build a sustainable career. This article reports…

  4. The Corporate Communication Culture Project: Studying the Real World of Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, James T.; Kuseski, Brenda K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a business communication class assignment that helps students discover the assumptions and expectations of business culture, and develop the skills needed for the world of work in at least four areas: team skills; time and project management skills; use of technology to research, prepare, and present the project; and networking with…

  5. Elaborating the Relationship between TV Viewing and Beliefs about the Real World: Possible Contingent Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    Two studies investigated the validity of the Cultivation Hypothesis, which holds that the more people view television the more they will see the world as mean and violent. Specifically, the study examined whether three psychological variables affected the relationship. The variables are (1) Magic Window, the degree to which a person believes…

  6. Can virtual science foster real skills? A study of inquiry skills in a virtual world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, Heather E.

    Online education has grown into a part of the educational market answering the demand for learning at the learner's choice of time and place. Inquiry skills such as observing, questioning, collecting data, and devising fair experiments are an essential element of 21st-century online science coursework. Virtual immersive worlds such as Second Life are being used as new frontiers in science education. There have been few studies looking specifically at science education in virtual worlds that foster inquiry skills. This quantitative quasi-experimental nonrandomized control group pretest and posttest study explored what affect a virtual world experience had on inquiry skills as measured by the TIPS (Test of Integrated Process Skills) and TIPS II (Integrated Process Skills Test II) instruments. Participants between the ages of 18 and 65 were recruited from educator mailing lists and Second Life discussion boards and then sorted into the experimental group, which received instructions to utilize several displays in Mendelian genetics at the Genome Island location within Second Life, or the control group, which received text-based PDF documents of the same genetics course content. All participants, in the form of avatars, were experienced Second Life residents to reduce any novelty effect. This study found a greater increase in inquiry skills in the experimental group interacting using a virtual world to learn science content (0.90 points) than a control group that is presented only with online text-based content (0.87 points). Using a mixed between-within ANOVA (analysis of variance), with an alpha level of 0.05, there was no significant interaction between the control or experimental groups and inquiry skills, F (1, 58) = .783, p = .380, partial eta squared = .013, at the specified .05 alpha level suggesting no significant difference as a result of the virtual world exercise. However, there is not enough evidence to state that there was no effect because there was a

  7. EEG-based decoding of error-related brain activity in a real-world driving task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Chavarriaga, R.; Khaliliardali, Z.; Gheorghe, L.; Iturrate, I.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives. Recent studies have started to explore the implementation of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as part of driving assistant systems. The current study presents an EEG-based BCI that decodes error-related brain activity. Such information can be used, e.g., to predict driver’s intended turning direction before reaching road intersections. Approach. We executed experiments in a car simulator (N = 22) and a real car (N = 8). While subject was driving, a directional cue was shown before reaching an intersection, and we classified the presence or not of an error-related potentials from EEG to infer whether the cued direction coincided with the subject’s intention. In this protocol, the directional cue can correspond to an estimation of the driving direction provided by a driving assistance system. We analyzed ERPs elicited during normal driving and evaluated the classification performance in both offline and online tests. Results. An average classification accuracy of 0.698 ± 0.065 was obtained in offline experiments in the car simulator, while tests in the real car yielded a performance of 0.682 ± 0.059. The results were significantly higher than chance level for all cases. Online experiments led to equivalent performances in both simulated and real car driving experiments. These results support the feasibility of decoding these signals to help estimating whether the driver’s intention coincides with the advice provided by the driving assistant in a real car. Significance. The study demonstrates a BCI system in real-world driving, extending the work from previous simulated studies. As far as we know, this is the first online study in real car decoding driver’s error-related brain activity. Given the encouraging results, the paradigm could be further improved by using more sophisticated machine learning approaches and possibly be combined with applications in intelligent vehicles.

  8. Dabigatran in real-world atrial fibrillation. Meta-analysis of observational comparison studies with vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Carmo, João; Moscoso Costa, Francisco; Ferreira, Jorge; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-09-27

    In the RE-LY clinical trial, dabigatran presented a better effectiveness/safety profile when compared to warfarin. However, clinical trials are not very representative of the real-world setting. We aimed to assess the performance of dabigatran in real-world patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational comparison studies with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases until November 2015 and selected studies according to the following criteria: observational study performed with nonvalvular AF patients; reporting adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of clinical events in a follow-up period; for dabigatran 75 mg, 110 mg or 150 mg versus VKA. Twenty studies were selected which included 711,298 patients, 210,279 of which were treated with dabigatran and the remaining 501,019 with VKA. Ischaemic stroke incidence was of 1.65 /100 patient-years for dabigatran and 2.85/100 patient-years for VKA (HR 0.86, 95 % confidence interval of 0.74-0.99). Major bleeding rate was 3.93/100 patient-years for dabigatran and 5.61/100 patient-years for VKA (0.79, 0.69-0.89). Risk of mortality (0.73, 0.61-0.87) and intracranial bleeding (0.45, 0.38-0.52) were significantly lower in patients treated with dabigatran when compared to patients on VKA. Risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was significantly higher in patients treated with dabigatran (1.13, 1.00-1.28). No significant difference was observed in risk of myocardial infarction (0.99, 0.89-1.11). In this combined analysis of real-world observational comparison studies with VKA, dabigatran was associated with a lower risk of ischaemic stroke, major bleeding, intracranial bleeding and mortality, higher risk of GI bleeding and a similar risk of myocardial infarction.

  9. If the real world were irrelevant, so to speak: The role of propositional truth-value in counterfactual sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Martin, Andrea E

    2012-01-01

    Propositional truth-value can be a defining feature of a sentence's relevance to the unfolding discourse, and establishing propositional truth-value in context can be key to successful interpretation. In the current study, we investigate its role in the comprehension of counterfactual conditionals, which describe imaginary consequences of hypothetical events, and are thought to require keeping in mind both what is true and what is false. Pre-stored real-world knowledge may therefore intrude upon and delay counterfactual comprehension, which is predicted by some accounts of discourse comprehension, and has been observed during online comprehension. The impact of propositional truth-value may thus be delayed in counterfactual conditionals, as also claimed for sentences containing other types of logical operators (e.g., negation, scalar quantifiers). In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we investigated the impact of propositional truth-value when described consequences are both true and predictable given the counterfactual premise. False words elicited larger N400 ERPs than true words, in negated counterfactual sentences (e.g., "If N.A.S.A. had not developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon would have been Russia/America") and real-world sentences (e.g., "Because N.A.S.A. developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon was America/Russia") alike. These indistinguishable N400 effects of propositional truth-value, elicited by opposite word pairs, argue against disruptions by real-world knowledge during counterfactual comprehension, and suggest that incoming words are mapped onto the counterfactual context without any delay. Thus, provided a sufficiently constraining context, propositional truth-value rapidly impacts ongoing semantic processing, be the proposition factual or counterfactual.

  10. When drugs in the same controlled substance schedule differ in real-world abuse, should they be differentiated in labeling?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nabarun; Henningfield, Jack E; Ertischek, Michelle D; Schnoll, Sidney H

    2011-12-01

    The prescription drugs regulated in the most restrictive controlled substance schedule for those with an approved therapeutic use vary widely in their real world risk of abuse and harm. Opioid analgesics have the highest rates of abuse, overdose death, drug abuse treatment needs and societal costs in comparison to other Schedule II drugs. Stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) account for substantially lower rates of abuse, harm, and public health impact. The scheduling of drugs is determined by the World Health Organization, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and other regulatory agencies, through a quasi-public process that relies heavily on pre-marketing studies that are conducted in highly controlled clinical settings. We propose that it is increasingly in the interest of science-based regulation and public health to recognize and communicate differences among drugs based on their real-world abuse and public health harm using surveillance data. Appropriate differentiation through labeling of drugs that will likely remain in the same schedule could provide powerful incentives for drug development and research, would aid prescriber/patient decision making by informing them of real differences across drugs within a schedule, and may also contribute to public health efforts to reduce drug abuse. There are risks of course, that include inadvertent perceptions that drugs labeled to be lower in risk are not taken as seriously as others in the same category. Challenges such as these, however, can be overcome and should not serve as barriers to objective communications regarding a drug's actual risks.

  11. If the real world were irrelevant, so to speak: The role of propositional truth-value in counterfactual sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Martin, Andrea E

    2012-01-01

    Propositional truth-value can be a defining feature of a sentence's relevance to the unfolding discourse, and establishing propositional truth-value in context can be key to successful interpretation. In the current study, we investigate its role in the comprehension of counterfactual conditionals, which describe imaginary consequences of hypothetical events, and are thought to require keeping in mind both what is true and what is false. Pre-stored real-world knowledge may therefore intrude upon and delay counterfactual comprehension, which is predicted by some accounts of discourse comprehension, and has been observed during online comprehension. The impact of propositional truth-value may thus be delayed in counterfactual conditionals, as also claimed for sentences containing other types of logical operators (e.g., negation, scalar quantifiers). In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we investigated the impact of propositional truth-value when described consequences are both true and predictable given the counterfactual premise. False words elicited larger N400 ERPs than true words, in negated counterfactual sentences (e.g., "If N.A.S.A. had not developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon would have been Russia/America") and real-world sentences (e.g., "Because N.A.S.A. developed its Apollo Project, the first country to land on the moon was America/Russia") alike. These indistinguishable N400 effects of propositional truth-value, elicited by opposite word pairs, argue against disruptions by real-world knowledge during counterfactual comprehension, and suggest that incoming words are mapped onto the counterfactual context without any delay. Thus, provided a sufficiently constraining context, propositional truth-value rapidly impacts ongoing semantic processing, be the proposition factual or counterfactual. PMID:21962826

  12. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  13. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  14. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  15. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  16. Development and evaluation of a general aviation real world noise simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, E.; Popper, R.

    1980-01-01

    An acoustic playback system is described which realistically simulates the sounds experienced by the pilot of a general aviation aircraft during engine idle, take-off, climb, cruise, descent, and landing. The physical parameters of the signal as they appear in the simulator environment are compared to analogous parameters derived from signals recorded during actual flight operations. The acoustic parameters of the simulated and real signals during cruise conditions are within plus or minus two dB in third octave bands from 0.04 to 4 kHz. The overall A-weighted levels of the signals are within one dB of signals generated in the actual aircraft during equivalent maneuvers. Psychoacoustic evaluations of the simulator signal are compared with similar measurements based on transcriptions of actual aircraft signals. The subjective judgments made by human observers support the conclusion that the simulated sound closely approximates transcribed sounds of real aircraft.

  17. Stellar Evolution: Theory and the Real World I. AGB Stars - Fantasy, Fact, and Fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    This paper discusses the impact which observations with telescopes at Cerro Tololo of bright M- and C-stars in the Magellanic Clouds have had on the elucidation of the final phases of the evolution of intermediate mass stars, emphasizing that the behavior of real asymptotic giant branch stars is quite different from that predicted by the theory of stellar evolution as it stood prior to the observational work.

  18. A "world" distribution of income and of real poverty and affluence.

    PubMed

    Yotopoulos, P A

    1987-01-01

    International comparative estimates of income distribution are formulated using data from household income and expenditure surveys for nine developing and five developed countries. The focus is on a comparison among countries concerning the percentage and number of the affluent and those living in poverty. The results show a decrease since the 1960s in the number of those living in poverty. The significance for economic development of the growth of an affluent population in the developing world is considered.

  19. AB020. To produce a white paper on: ‘how to develop the perfect real-time, real-world effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial’

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Background The Salford Lung Study (SLS) involves two prospective patient cohorts—one patients with asthma; the other patients with COPD. SLS is believed to be the first pre-license, prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) to use electronic healthcare records to monitor patient safety. Safety events are processed in near real-time, and a linked database system creates daily summaries that alert a specialist safety team to potential treatment-related adverse events. SLS is a ‘world first’ in effectiveness research. To synthesise the learnings from the SLS and experiences from leading experts in real-world research in a White Paper to help guide the future design and feasibility of pragmatic RCTs. Methods Hold an advisory board involving representatives from: the pioneering SLS collaboration (between the UK National Health Service, The University of Manchester, GlaxoSmithKline); the Pharmaceutical Industry, Government, regulatory and health technology appraisal agencies as well as clinical experts, social scientists and information technology specialists to pool expertise in effectiveness and cost-effectiveness research. Through shared experiences, discussion and consensus, develop a joint stakeholder position on the value of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness research and clear standards to guide the future design and delivery of meaningful, affordable and implementable pragmatic RCTs in the future. Results None available at the time of writing. Conclusions There have been significant advances in effectiveness and cost-effectiveness research in recent years and important learnings resulting from the SLS. Current expertise must be shared, documented and discussed by experts and used to develop standards to guide optimised use of research resource in the future.

  20. Effect on real-world depth perception from exposure to heads-down stereoscopic flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    A stereoacuity test was used as part of the experimental protocol of a study in which eight transport pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both stereo and nonstereo three-dimensional heads-down 'pathway in the sky' displays. At the decisionmaking crux of each approach, the pilots transitioned to a stereoacuity test employing real objects rather than a two-dimensional target apparatus. A statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures which compared a controlled condition of no exposure to any electronic flight display with the transition data from nonstereo and stereopsis displays indicated no significant differences for any of the conditions.