Science.gov

Sample records for real-time closed-loop processing

  1. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  2. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts.

    PubMed

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  3. A Low-Cost Multielectrode System for Data Acquisition Enabling Real-Time Closed-Loop Processing with Rapid Recovery from Stimulation Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  4. A real-time pressure estimation algorithm for closed-loop combustion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Durra, Ahmed; Canova, Marcello; Yurkovich, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    The cylinder pressure is arguably the most important variable characterizing the combustion process in internal combustion engines. In light of the recent advances in combustion technologies and in engine control, the use of cylinder pressure is now frequently considered as a feedback signal for closed-loop combustion control algorithms. In order to generate an accurate pressure trace for real-time combustion control and diagnostics, the output of the in-cylinder pressure transducer must be conditioned with signal processing methods to mitigate the well-known issues of offset and noise. While several techniques have been proposed for processing the cylinder pressure signal with limited computational burden, most of the available methods still require one to apply low-pass filters or moving average windows in order to mitigate the noise. This ultimately limits the opportunity of exploiting the in-cylinder pressure feedback for a cycle-by-cycle control of the combustion process. To this extent, this paper presents an estimation algorithm that extracts the pressure signal from the in-cylinder sensor in real-time, allowing for estimating the 50% burn rate location and IMEP on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The proposed approach relies on a model-based estimation algorithm whose starting point is a crank-angle based engine combustion model that predicts the in-cylinder pressure from the definition of a burn rate function. Linear parameter varying (LPV) techniques are then used to expand the region of estimation to cover the engine operating map, as well as allowing for real-time cylinder estimation during transients. The estimator is tested on the experimental data collected on an engine dynamometer as well as on a high-fidelity engine simulator. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the estimator in reconstructing the cylinder pressure on a crank-angle basis and in rejecting measurement noise and modeling errors, with considerably low computation effort.

  5. Real-time closed-loop control for micro mirrors with quasistatic comb drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroedter, Richard; Sandner, Thilo; Janschek, Klaus; Roth, Matthias; Hruschka, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the application of a real-time closed-loop control for the quasistatic axis of electrostatic micro scanning mirrors. In comparison to resonantly driven mirrors, the quasistatic comb drive allows arbitrary motion profiles with frequencies up to its eigenfrequency. A current mirror setup at Fraunhofer IPMS is manufactured with a staggered vertical comb (SVC) drive and equipped with an integrated piezo-resistive deflection sensor, which can potentially be used as position feedback sensor. The control design is accomplished based on a nonlinear mechatronic system model and the preliminary parameter characterization. In previous papers [1, 2] we have shown that jerk-limited trajectories, calculated offline, provide a suitable method for parametric trajectory design, taking into account physical limitations given by the electrostatic comb and thus decreasing the dynamic requirements. The open-loop control shows in general unfavorable residual eigenfrequency oscillations leading to considerable tracking errors for desired triangle trajectories [3]. With real-time closed-loop control, implemented on a dSPACE system using an optical feedback, we can significantly reduce these errors and stabilize the mirror motion against external disturbances. In this paper we compare linear and different nonlinear closed-loop control strategies as well as two observer variants for state estimation. Finally, we evaluate the simulation and experimental results in terms of steady state accuracy and the concept feasibility for a low-cost realization.

  6. Real-time, closed-loop dual-wavelength optical polarimetry for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a real-time, dual-wavelength optical polarimetric system to ultimately probe the aqueous humor glucose concentrations as a means of noninvasive diabetic glucose monitoring is the long-term goal of this research. The key impact of the work is the development of an approach for the reduction of the time-variant corneal birefringence due to motion artifact, which is still a limiting factor preventing the realization of such a device. Our dual-wavelength approach utilizes real-time, closed-loop feedback that employs a classical three-term feedback controller and efficiently reduces the effect of motion artifact that appears as a common noise source for both wavelengths. In vitro results are shown for the open-loop system, and although the dual-wavelength system helps to reduce the noise, it is shown that closed-loop control is necessary to bring the noise down to a sufficient level for physiological monitoring. Specifically, in vitro measurement results with the closed-loop dual-wavelength approach demonstrate a sensitivity of 12.8 mg/dl across the physiologic glucose range in the presence of time-variant test cell birefringence. Overall, it is shown that this polarimetric system has the potential to be used as a noninvasive measure of glucose for diabetes.

  7. A reconfigurable visual-programming library for real-time closed-loop cellular electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Biró, István; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Most of the software platforms for cellular electrophysiology are limited in terms of flexibility, hardware support, ease of use, or re-configuration and adaptation for non-expert users. Moreover, advanced experimental protocols requiring real-time closed-loop operation to investigate excitability, plasticity, dynamics, are largely inaccessible to users without moderate to substantial computer proficiency. Here we present an approach based on MATLAB/Simulink, exploiting the benefits of LEGO-like visual programming and configuration, combined to a small, but easily extendible library of functional software components. We provide and validate several examples, implementing conventional and more sophisticated experimental protocols such as dynamic-clamp or the combined use of intracellular and extracellular methods, involving closed-loop real-time control. The functionality of each of these examples is demonstrated with relevant experiments. These can be used as a starting point to create and support a larger variety of electrophysiological tools and methods, hopefully extending the range of default techniques and protocols currently employed in experimental labs across the world. PMID:26157385

  8. A reconfigurable visual-programming library for real-time closed-loop cellular electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Biró, István; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Most of the software platforms for cellular electrophysiology are limited in terms of flexibility, hardware support, ease of use, or re-configuration and adaptation for non-expert users. Moreover, advanced experimental protocols requiring real-time closed-loop operation to investigate excitability, plasticity, dynamics, are largely inaccessible to users without moderate to substantial computer proficiency. Here we present an approach based on MATLAB/Simulink, exploiting the benefits of LEGO-like visual programming and configuration, combined to a small, but easily extendible library of functional software components. We provide and validate several examples, implementing conventional and more sophisticated experimental protocols such as dynamic-clamp or the combined use of intracellular and extracellular methods, involving closed-loop real-time control. The functionality of each of these examples is demonstrated with relevant experiments. These can be used as a starting point to create and support a larger variety of electrophysiological tools and methods, hopefully extending the range of default techniques and protocols currently employed in experimental labs across the world. PMID:26157385

  9. Closed Loop Welding Controller for Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, F.; Bruno, C.; Cantelli, L.; Longo, D.; Muscato, G.; Rapisarda, S.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate on the closed loop welding controller of a rapid manufacturing Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD) process. SMD was developed and patented by Rolls-Royce in order to produce mechanical parts directly from a CAD model. A simplified SMD plant has been set up in order to investigate the welding dynamics and parameters and to develop a SMD automatic controller. On the basis of the experience acquired, some basic control laws have been developed, and a closed loop controller has been implemented. This controller permits to find and to maintain the process stability condition, so that the final process results totally automatic. The control is performed adjusting the welding conditions on the basis of arc voltage information obtained from the welding machine during the deposition. The experimental results reported confirm the validity of the proposed strategy.

  10. Demonstration of innovative techniques used for real-time closed-loop infrared scene generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Eric M.; Coker, Charles F.; Coker, Jason S.; Garbo, Dennis L.

    1998-07-01

    Real-time infrared (IR) scene generation for Hardware-in-the- Loop (HWIL) testing of IR seeker systems is a complex operation. High frame rates and high image fidelity are required to properly evaluate a seeker system's designation, identification, tracking, and aim-point selection tasks. Rapidly improving Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) scene generation hardware has become a viable solution for HWIL test activities conducted at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in- the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility at Eglin AFB, Florida. A real-time IR scene generation implementation for a complete closed-loop guided missile simulation test entry was accomplished at KHILS. The scenarios used for the simulation were Theater Missile Defense (TMD) exo-atmospheric hit-to-kill intercepts of a re-entry target. Innovative scene generation techniques were devised to resolve issues concerning scene content and rendering accuracy while maintaining the required imaging frame rate. This paper focuses on the real-time scene generation requirements, issues, and solutions used for KHILS test entries.

  11. Development of a real-time closed-loop dual wavelength optical polarimeter for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2010-02-01

    Over the last decade, noninvasive glucose sensors based on optical polarimetry have been proposed to probe the anterior chamber of the eye. Such sensors would ultimately be used to measure the aqueous humor glucose concentration which is correlated with blood glucose concentration. Although the effect of other chiral components in the eye has been minimized, the time-variant corneal birefringence due to motion artifact is still a limiting factor which needs to be resolved for realization of such a device. Here we present the development of a real-time dual wavelength optical polarimetric system employing a classical three-term feedback controller. Our dual wavelength system utilizes real-time closed-loop feedback based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control, which effectively reduced the time taken by the system to stabilize to less than 300 ms while minimizing the effect of motion artifact, which appears as common noise source for both wavelengths. Measurements in the presence of time-variant test cell birefringence demonstrate the sensitivity of the current system to measure glucose within the range of 0-600 mg/dl with a standard error of less than 13 mg/dl using the dual wavelength information.

  12. Real time closed loop control of an Ar and Ar/O2 plasma in an ICP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, R.; Soberón, F.; McCarter, A.; Gahan, D.; Karkari, S.; Milosavljevic, V.; Hayden, C.; Islyaikin, A.; Law, V. J.; Hopkins, M. B.; Keville, B.; Iordanov, P.; Doherty, S.; Ringwood, J. V.

    2006-10-01

    Real time closed loop control for plasma assisted semiconductor manufacturing has been the subject of academic research for over a decade. However, due to process complexity and the lack of suitable real time metrology, progress has been elusive and genuine real time, multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) control of a plasma assisted process has yet to be successfully implemented in an industrial setting. A Splasma parameter control strategy T is required to be adopted whereby process recipes which are defined in terms of plasma properties such as critical species densities as opposed to input variables such as rf power and gas flow rates may be transferable between different chamber types. While PIC simulations and multidimensional fluid models have contributed considerably to the basic understanding of plasmas and the design of process equipment, such models require a large amount of processing time and are hence unsuitable for testing control algorithms. In contrast, linear dynamical empirical models, obtained through system identification techniques are ideal in some respects for control design since their computational requirements are comparatively small and their structure facilitates the application of classical control design techniques. However, such models provide little process insight and are specific to an operating point of a particular machine. An ideal first principles-based, control-oriented model would exhibit the simplicity and computational requirements of an empirical model and, in addition, despite sacrificing first principles detail, capture enough of the essential physics and chemistry of the process in order to provide reasonably accurate qualitative predictions. This paper will discuss the development of such a first-principles based, control-oriented model of a laboratory inductively coupled plasma chamber. The model consists of a global model of the chemical kinetics coupled to an analytical model of power deposition. Dynamics of actuators

  13. A Real-Time and Closed-Loop Control Algorithm for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Based on Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Libing; Mao, Chengxiong; Wang, Dan; Lu, Jiming; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB) converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC) sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current's THD (<5%) when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness. PMID:24772025

  14. A real-time and closed-loop control algorithm for cascaded multilevel inverter based on artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Mao, Chengxiong; Wang, Dan; Lu, Jiming; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB) converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC) sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current's THD (<5%) when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness. PMID:24772025

  15. Closed-loop 15N measurement of N2O and its isotopomers for real-time greenhouse gas tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaets, Johanna; Mayr, Leopold; Heiling, Maria; Zaman, Mohammad; Resch, Christian; Weltin, Georg; Gruber, Roman; Dercon, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying sources of nitrous oxide is essential to improve understanding of the global N cycle and to develop climate-smart agriculture, as N2O has a global warming potential 300 times higher than CO2. The isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution (site preference) of 15N are powerful tools to trace N2O, but the application of these methods is limited as conventional methods cannot provide continuous and in situ data. Here we present a method for closed-loop, real time monitoring of the N2O flux, the isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution of 15N by using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, Los Gatos Research). The developed method was applied to a fertilizer inhibitor experiment, in which N2O emissions were measured on undisturbed soil cores for three weeks. The treatments consisted of enriched urea-N (100 kg urea-N/ha), the same fertilizer combined with the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin (375 g/100 kg urea), and control cores. Monitoring the isotopic signature makes it possible to distinguish emissions from soil and fertilizer. Characterization of site preference could additionally provide a tool to identify different microbial processes leading to N2O emissions. Furthermore, the closed-loop approach enables direct measurement on site and does not require removal of CO2 and H2O. Results showed that 75% of total N2O emissions (total=11 346 μg N2O-N/m2) in the fertilized cores originated from fertilizer, while only 55% of total emissions (total=2 450 μg N2ON/m2) stemmed from fertilizer for the cores treated with nitrapyrin. In the controls, N2O derived from soil was only 40% of the size of the corresponding pool from the fertilized cores, pointing towards a priming effect on the microbial community from the fertilizer and demonstrating the bias that could be introduced by relying on non-treated cores to estimate soil emission rates, rather than using the isotopic signature. The site preference increased linearly

  16. Incorporating real time velocity map image reconstruction into closed-loop coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallis, C. E.; Burwitz, T. G.; Andrews, P. R.; Zohrabi, M.; Averin, R.; De, S.; Bergues, B.; Jochim, Bethany; Voznyuk, A. V.; Gregerson, Neal; Gaire, B.; Znakovskaya, I.; McKenna, J.; Carnes, K. D.; Kling, M. F.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.

    2014-11-01

    We report techniques developed to utilize three-dimensional momentum information as feedback in adaptive femtosecond control of molecular dynamics. Velocity map imaging is used to obtain the three-dimensional momentum map of the dissociating ions following interaction with a shaped intense ultrafast laser pulse. In order to recover robust feedback information, however, the two-dimensional momentum projection from the detector must be inverted to reconstruct the full three-dimensional momentum of the photofragments. These methods are typically slow or require manual inputs and are therefore accomplished offline after the images have been obtained. Using an algorithm based upon an "onion-peeling" (also known as "back projection") method, we are able to invert 1040 × 1054 pixel images in under 1 s. This rapid inversion allows the full photofragment momentum to be used as feedback in a closed-loop adaptive control scheme, in which a genetic algorithm tailors an ultrafast laser pulse to optimize a specific outcome. Examples of three-dimensional velocity map image based control applied to strong-field dissociation of CO and O2 are presented.

  17. A closed-loop anesthetic delivery system for real-time control of burst suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, Max Y.; Ching, ShiNung; Chemali, Jessica; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. There is growing interest in using closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems to automate control of brain states (sedation, unconsciousness and antinociception) in patients receiving anesthesia care. The accuracy and reliability of these systems can be improved by using as control signals electroencephalogram (EEG) markers for which the neurophysiological links to the anesthetic-induced brain states are well established. Burst suppression, in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with periods of quiescence or suppression, is a well-known, readily discernible EEG marker of profound brain inactivation and unconsciousness. This pattern is commonly maintained when anesthetics are administered to produce a medically-induced coma for cerebral protection in patients suffering from brain injuries or to arrest brain activity in patients having uncontrollable seizures. Although the coma may be required for several hours or days, drug infusion rates are managed inefficiently by manual adjustment. Our objective is to design a CLAD system for burst suppression control to automate management of medically-induced coma. Approach. We establish a CLAD system to control burst suppression consisting of: a two-dimensional linear system model relating the anesthetic brain level to the EEG dynamics; a new control signal, the burst suppression probability (BSP) defining the instantaneous probability of suppression; the BSP filter, a state-space algorithm to estimate the BSP from EEG recordings; a proportional-integral controller; and a system identification procedure to estimate the model and controller parameters. Main results. We demonstrate reliable performance of our system in simulation studies of burst suppression control using both propofol and etomidate in rodent experiments based on Vijn and Sneyd, and in human experiments based on the Schnider pharmacokinetic model for propofol. Using propofol, we further demonstrate that our control system reliably

  18. The Stomatogastric Nervous System as a Model for Studying Sensorimotor Interactions in Real-Time Closed-Loop Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daur, Nelly; Diehl, Florian; Mader, Wolfgang; Stein, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The perception of proprioceptive signals that report the internal state of the body is one of the essential tasks of the nervous system and helps to continuously adapt body movements to changing circumstances. Despite the impact of proprioceptive feedback on motor activity it has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity interact as they do in behaving animals, i.e., in closed-loop conditions. The interaction of motor and sensory activities, however, can create emergent properties that may govern the functional characteristics of the system. We here demonstrate a method to use a well-characterized model system for central pattern generation, the stomatogastric nervous system, for studying these properties in vitro. We created a real-time computer model of a single-cell muscle tendon organ in the gastric mill of the crab foregut that uses intracellular current injections to control the activity of the biological proprioceptor. The resulting motor output of a gastric mill motor neuron is then recorded intracellularly and fed into a simple muscle model consisting of a series of low-pass filters. The muscle output is used to activate a one-dimensional Hodgkin–Huxley type model of the muscle tendon organ in real-time, allowing closed-loop conditions. Model properties were either hand tuned to achieve the best match with data from semi-intact muscle preparations, or an exhaustive search was performed to determine the best set of parameters. We report the real-time capabilities of our models, its performance and its interaction with the biological motor system. PMID:22435059

  19. Real time SAR processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premkumar, A. B.; Purviance, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified model for the SAR imaging problem is presented. The model is based on the geometry of the SAR system. Using this model an expression for the entire phase history of the received SAR signal is formulated. From the phase history, it is shown that the range and the azimuth coordinates for a point target image can be obtained by processing the phase information during the intrapulse and interpulse periods respectively. An architecture for a VLSI implementation for the SAR signal processor is presented which generates images in real time. The architecture uses a small number of chips, a new correlation processor, and an efficient azimuth correlation process.

  20. Closed-Loop Process Yields Ultrapure Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, J. C.; Moore, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Metallurgical-grade silicon transforms into tribromosilane by reacting it with process byproducts. Tribromosilane is separated from mixture, purified, and finally decomposed in presence of hydrogen in silicon-product reactor. Conversion efficiencies of 30 to greater than 60 percent of tribromosilane to ultrapure granular polycrystalline silicon are typical in produce reactor.

  1. Closed-loop real-time simulation model of hemodynamics and oxygen transport in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer technology enables realistic simulation of cardiovascular physiology. The increasing number of clinical surgical and medical treatment options imposes a need for better understanding of patient-specific pathology and outcome prediction. Methods A distributed lumped parameter real-time closed-loop model with 26 vascular segments, cardiac modelling with time-varying elastance functions and gradually opening and closing valves, the pericardium, intrathoracic pressure, the atrial and ventricular septum, various pathological states and including oxygen transport has been developed. Results Model output is pressure, volume, flow and oxygen saturation from every cardiac and vascular compartment. The model produces relevant clinical output and validation of quantitative data in normal physiology and qualitative directions in simulation of pathological states show good agreement with published data. Conclusion The results show that it is possible to build a clinically relevant real-time computer simulation model of the normal adult cardiovascular system. It is suggested that understanding qualitative interaction between physiological parameters in health and disease may be improved by using the model, although further model development and validation is needed for quantitative patient-specific outcome prediction. PMID:23842033

  2. Real-time closed-loop simulation and upset evaluation of control systems in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1989-01-01

    Digital control systems for applications such as aircraft avionics and multibody systems must maintain adequate control integrity in adverse as well as nominal operating conditions. For example, control systems for advanced aircraft, and especially those with relaxed static stability, will be critical to flight and will, therefore, have very high reliability specifications which must be met regardless of operating conditions. In addition, multibody systems such as robotic manipulators performing critical functions must have control systems capable of robust performance in any operating environment in order to complete the assigned task reliably. Severe operating conditions for electronic control systems can result from electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning, high energy radio frequency (HERF) transmitters, and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). For this reason, techniques must be developed to evaluate the integrity of the control system in adverse operating environments. The most difficult and illusive perturbations to computer-based control systems that can be caused by an electromagnetic environment (EME) are functional error modes that involve no component damage. These error modes are collectively known as upset, can occur simultaneously in all of the channels of a redundant control system, and are software dependent. Upset studies performed to date have not addressed the assessment of fault tolerant systems and do not involve the evaluation of a control system operating in a closed-loop with the plant. A methodology for performing a real-time simulation of the closed-loop dynamics of a fault tolerant control system with a simulated plant operating in an electromagnetically harsh environment is presented. In particular, considerations for performing upset tests on the controller are discussed. Some of these considerations are the generation and coupling of analog signals representative of electromagnetic disturbances to a control system under test

  3. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  4. Perception as a closed-loop convergence process

    PubMed Central

    Ahissar, Ehud; Assa, Eldad

    2016-01-01

    Perception of external objects involves sensory acquisition via the relevant sensory organs. A widely-accepted assumption is that the sensory organ is the first station in a serial chain of processing circuits leading to an internal circuit in which a percept emerges. This open-loop scheme, in which the interaction between the sensory organ and the environment is not affected by its concurrent downstream neuronal processing, is strongly challenged by behavioral and anatomical data. We present here a hypothesis in which the perception of external objects is a closed-loop dynamical process encompassing loops that integrate the organism and its environment and converging towards organism-environment steady-states. We discuss the consistency of closed-loop perception (CLP) with empirical data and show that it can be synthesized in a robotic setup. Testable predictions are proposed for empirical distinction between open and closed loop schemes of perception. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12830.001 PMID:27159238

  5. The Automatic Neuroscientist: A framework for optimizing experimental design with closed-loop real-time fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Romy; Monti, Ricardo Pio; Violante, Inês R.; Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos; Faisal, Aldo A.; Montana, Giovanni; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging typically explores how a particular task activates a set of brain regions. Importantly though, the same neural system can be activated by inherently different tasks. To date, there is no approach available that systematically explores whether and how distinct tasks probe the same neural system. Here, we propose and validate an alternative framework, the Automatic Neuroscientist, which turns the standard fMRI approach on its head. We use real-time fMRI in combination with modern machine-learning techniques to automatically design the optimal experiment to evoke a desired target brain state. In this work, we present two proof-of-principle studies involving perceptual stimuli. In both studies optimization algorithms of varying complexity were employed; the first involved a stochastic approximation method while the second incorporated a more sophisticated Bayesian optimization technique. In the first study, we achieved convergence for the hypothesized optimum in 11 out of 14 runs in less than 10 min. Results of the second study showed how our closed-loop framework accurately and with high efficiency estimated the underlying relationship between stimuli and neural responses for each subject in one to two runs: with each run lasting 6.3 min. Moreover, we demonstrate that using only the first run produced a reliable solution at a group-level. Supporting simulation analyses provided evidence on the robustness of the Bayesian optimization approach for scenarios with low contrast-to-noise ratio. This framework is generalizable to numerous applications, ranging from optimizing stimuli in neuroimaging pilot studies to tailoring clinical rehabilitation therapy to patients and can be used with multiple imaging modalities in humans and animals. PMID:26804778

  6. Gait adaptation to visual kinematic perturbations using a real-time closed-loop brain–computer interface to a virtual reality avatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phat Luu, Trieu; He, Yongtian; Brown, Samuel; Nakagame, Sho; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The control of human bipedal locomotion is of great interest to the field of lower-body brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) for gait rehabilitation. While the feasibility of closed-loop BCI systems for the control of a lower body exoskeleton has been recently shown, multi-day closed-loop neural decoding of human gait in a BCI virtual reality (BCI-VR) environment has yet to be demonstrated. BCI-VR systems provide valuable alternatives for movement rehabilitation when wearable robots are not desirable due to medical conditions, cost, accessibility, usability, or patient preferences. Approach. In this study, we propose a real-time closed-loop BCI that decodes lower limb joint angles from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) during treadmill walking to control a walking avatar in a virtual environment. Fluctuations in the amplitude of slow cortical potentials of EEG in the delta band (0.1–3 Hz) were used for prediction; thus, the EEG features correspond to time-domain amplitude modulated potentials in the delta band. Virtual kinematic perturbations resulting in asymmetric walking gait patterns of the avatar were also introduced to investigate gait adaptation using the closed-loop BCI-VR system over a period of eight days. Main results. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using a closed-loop BCI to learn to control a walking avatar under normal and altered visuomotor perturbations, which involved cortical adaptations. The average decoding accuracies (Pearson’s r values) in real-time BCI across all subjects increased from (Hip: 0.18 ± 0.31 Knee: 0.23 ± 0.33 Ankle: 0.14 ± 0.22) on Day 1 to (Hip: 0.40 ± 0.24 Knee: 0.55 ± 0.20 Ankle: 0.29 ± 0.22) on Day 8. Significance. These findings have implications for the development of a real-time closed-loop EEG-based BCI-VR system for gait rehabilitation after stroke and for understanding cortical plasticity induced by a closed-loop BCI-VR system.

  7. Gait adaptation to visual kinematic perturbations using a real-time closed-loop brain-computer interface to a virtual reality avatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phat Luu, Trieu; He, Yongtian; Brown, Samuel; Nakagame, Sho; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The control of human bipedal locomotion is of great interest to the field of lower-body brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for gait rehabilitation. While the feasibility of closed-loop BCI systems for the control of a lower body exoskeleton has been recently shown, multi-day closed-loop neural decoding of human gait in a BCI virtual reality (BCI-VR) environment has yet to be demonstrated. BCI-VR systems provide valuable alternatives for movement rehabilitation when wearable robots are not desirable due to medical conditions, cost, accessibility, usability, or patient preferences. Approach. In this study, we propose a real-time closed-loop BCI that decodes lower limb joint angles from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) during treadmill walking to control a walking avatar in a virtual environment. Fluctuations in the amplitude of slow cortical potentials of EEG in the delta band (0.1-3 Hz) were used for prediction; thus, the EEG features correspond to time-domain amplitude modulated potentials in the delta band. Virtual kinematic perturbations resulting in asymmetric walking gait patterns of the avatar were also introduced to investigate gait adaptation using the closed-loop BCI-VR system over a period of eight days. Main results. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using a closed-loop BCI to learn to control a walking avatar under normal and altered visuomotor perturbations, which involved cortical adaptations. The average decoding accuracies (Pearson’s r values) in real-time BCI across all subjects increased from (Hip: 0.18 ± 0.31 Knee: 0.23 ± 0.33 Ankle: 0.14 ± 0.22) on Day 1 to (Hip: 0.40 ± 0.24 Knee: 0.55 ± 0.20 Ankle: 0.29 ± 0.22) on Day 8. Significance. These findings have implications for the development of a real-time closed-loop EEG-based BCI-VR system for gait rehabilitation after stroke and for understanding cortical plasticity induced by a closed-loop BCI-VR system.

  8. Use of Microdialysis-Based Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Drive Real-Time Semi-Closed-Loop Insulin Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Freckmann, Guido; Jendrike, Nina; Buck, Harvey; Bousamra, Steven; Galley, Paul; Thukral, Ajay; Wagner, Robin; Weinert, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and automated insulin delivery may make diabetes management substantially easier, if the quality of the resulting therapy remains adequate. In this study, a semi-closed-loop control algorithm was used to drive insulin therapy and its quality was compared to that of subject-directed therapy. Twelve subjects stayed at the study site for approximately 70 hours and were provided with the investigational Automated Pancreas System Test Stand (APS-TS), which was used to calculate insulin dosage recommendations automatically. These recommendations were based on microdialysis CGM values and common diabetes therapy parameters. For the first half of their stay, the subjects directed their diabetes therapy themselves, whereas for the second half, the insulin recommendations were delivered by the APS-TS (so-called algorithm-driven therapy). During subject-directed therapy, the mean glucose was 114 mg/dl compared to 125 mg/dl during algorithm-driven therapy. Time in target (90 to 150 mg/dl) was approximately 46% during subject-directed therapy and approximately 58% during algorithm-driven therapy. When subjects directed their therapy, approximately 2 times more hypoglycemia interventions (oral administration of carbohydrates) were required than during algorithm-driven therapy. No hyperglycemia interventions (delivery of addition insulin) were necessary during subject-directed therapy, while during algorithm-driven therapy, 2 hyperglycemia interventions were necessary. The APS-TS was able to adequately control glucose concentrations in the subjects. Time in target was at least comparable or moderately higher during closed-loop control and markedly fewer hypoglycemia interventions were required, thus increasing patient safety. PMID:25205589

  9. An Internet Protocol-Based Software System for Real-Time, Closed-Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Richard D.; Davis, George; Cary, Everett; Higinbotham, John; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    A mission simulation prototype for Distributed Space Systems has been constructed using existing developmental hardware and software testbeds at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. A locally distributed ensemble of testbeds, connected through the local area network, operates in real time and demonstrates the potential to assess the impact of subsystem level modifications on system level performance and, ultimately, on the quality and quantity of the end product science data.

  10. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  11. An Internet Protocol-Based Software System for Real-Time, Closed-Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Cary, Everett; Higinbotham, John; Burns, Richard; Hogie, Keith; Hallahan, Francis

    2003-01-01

    The paper will provide an overview of the web-based distributed simulation software system developed for end-to-end, multi-spacecraft mission design, analysis, and test at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This software system was developed for an internal research and development (IR&D) activity at GSFC called the Distributed Space Systems (DSS) Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE). The long-term goal of the DSS-DSE is to integrate existing GSFC stand-alone test beds, models, and simulation systems to create a "hands on", end-to-end simulation environment for mission design, trade studies and simulations. The short-term goal of the DSE was therefore to develop the system architecture, and then to prototype the core software simulation capability based on a distributed computing approach, with demonstrations of some key capabilities by the end of Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). To achieve the DSS-DSE IR&D objective, the team adopted a reference model and mission upon which FY02 capabilities were developed. The software was prototyped according to the reference model, and demonstrations were conducted for the reference mission to validate interfaces, concepts, etc. The reference model, illustrated in Fig. 1, included both space and ground elements, with functional capabilities such as spacecraft dynamics and control, science data collection, space-to-space and space-to-ground communications, mission operations, science operations, and data processing, archival and distribution addressed.

  12. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  13. Processing PCM Data in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Novel hardware configuration makes it possible for Space Shuttle launch processing system to monitor pulse-code-modulated data in real time. Using two microprogramable "option planes," incoming PCM data are monitored for changes at rate of one frame of data (80 16-bit words) every 10 milliseconds. Real-time PCM processor utilizes CPU in mini-computer and CPU's in two option planes.

  14. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  15. Gas powered, closed loop power system and process for using same

    SciTech Connect

    Cardone, J.T.; Dill, J.M.; Shatz, K.J.

    1982-06-08

    This invention relates to a gas powered, closed loop power generating system which generates power substantially as a result of the flow of gas through its power generating means. Gas flows through the power generating means because of a pressure drop caused by dissolving the gas in a solvent medium on the exit side of the power generating means. The solution is then separated into the solvent medium, and the gas. The gas pressure is raised and it is then fed back into the power generating means while the separated solvent medium is recycled to redissolve more exiting gas. A process for generating power is also disclosed.

  16. Near real time data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousessian, Ardvas; Vuu, Christina

    2008-08-01

    Raytheon recently developed and implemented a Near Real Time (NRT) data processing subsystem for Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS3) instrument on NASA Aura spacecraft. The NRT can be viewed as a customized Science Information Processing System (SIPS) where the measurements and information provided by the instrument are expeditiously processed, packaged, and delivered. The purpose of the MLS NRT is to process Level 0 data up through Level 2, and distribute standard data products to the customer within 3-5 hours of the first set of data arrival.

  17. Autonomous Closed-Loop Tasking, Acquisition, Processing, and Evaluation for Situational Awareness Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Cappelaere, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the closed loop satellite autonomy methods used to connect users and the assets on Earth Orbiter- 1 (EO-1) and similar satellites. The base layer is a distributed architecture based on Goddard Mission Services Evolution Concept (GMSEC) thus each asset still under independent control. Situational awareness is provided by a middleware layer through common Application Programmer Interface (API) to GMSEC components developed at GSFC. Users setup their own tasking requests, receive views into immediate past acquisitions in their area of interest, and into future feasibilities for acquisition across all assets. Automated notifications via pubsub feeds are returned to users containing published links to image footprints, algorithm results, and full data sets. Theme-based algorithms are available on-demand for processing.

  18. Synthesis of nano precipitated calcium carbonate by using a carbonation process through a closed loop reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thriveni, Thenepalli; Ahn, Ji Whan; Ramakrishna, Chilakala; Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon

    2016-01-01

    Nano calcium carbonate particles have a wide range of industrial applications due to their beneficial properties such as high porosity and high surface area to volume ratio and due to their strengthening the mechanical properties of plastics and paper. Consequently, significant research has been done to deliver a new approach for the synthesis of precipitated nano calcium carbonate by using a carbonation process through a closed loop reactor. Both the experimental and the instrumental parameters, i.e. the CO2 flow rate, the concentration of the starting materials (Ca(OH)2 and CaO), the pH, the orifice diameter, etc., were investigated. The carbonation efficiency was increased due to the diffusion process involved in the loop reactor. The particle size was affected by the CO2 flow rate, reaction time, and orifice diameter. Finally, precipitated nano calcite calcium carbonate (50 to 100 nm) was synthesized by optimizing all the experimental and the instrumental parameters. The synthesized precipitated nano calcium carbonate was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This study has proved that the carbonation efficiency can be enhanced for a short time by using a loop reactor and that the carbonation process was more energy efficient and cost effective than other conventional methods.

  19. OPAD-EDIFIS Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1997-01-01

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) detects engine hardware degradation of flight vehicles through identification and quantification of elemental species found in the plume by analyzing the plume emission spectra in a real-time mode. Real-time performance of OPAD relies on extensive software which must report metal amounts in the plume faster than once every 0.5 sec. OPAD software previously written by NASA scientists performed most necessary functions at speeds which were far below what is needed for real-time operation. The research presented in this report improved the execution speed of the software by optimizing the code without changing the algorithms and converting it into a parallelized form which is executed in a shared-memory multiprocessor system. The resulting code was subjected to extensive timing analysis. The report also provides suggestions for further performance improvement by (1) identifying areas of algorithm optimization, (2) recommending commercially available multiprocessor architectures and operating systems to support real-time execution and (3) presenting an initial study of fault-tolerance requirements.

  20. The role of feed-forward and feedback processes for closed-loop prosthesis control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that both feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms are required for successful object manipulation. Open-loop upper-limb prosthesis wearers receive no tactile feedback, which may be the cause of their limited dexterity and compromised grip force control. In this paper we ask whether observed prosthesis control impairments are due to lack of feedback or due to inadequate feed-forward control. Methods Healthy subjects were fitted with a closed-loop robotic hand and instructed to grasp and lift objects of different weights as we recorded trajectories and force profiles. We conducted three experiments under different feed-forward and feed-back configurations to elucidate the role of tactile feedback (i) in ideal conditions, (ii) under sensory deprivation, and (iii) under feed-forward uncertainty. Results (i) We found that subjects formed economical grasps in ideal conditions. (ii) To our surprise, this ability was preserved even when visual and tactile feedback were removed. (iii) When we introduced uncertainty into the hand controller performance degraded significantly in the absence of either visual or tactile feedback. Greatest performance was achieved when both sources of feedback were present. Conclusions We have introduced a novel method to understand the cognitive processes underlying grasping and lifting. We have shown quantitatively that tactile feedback can significantly improve performance in the presence of feed-forward uncertainty. However, our results indicate that feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms serve complementary roles, suggesting that to improve on the state-of-the-art in prosthetic hands we must develop prostheses that empower users to correct for the inevitable uncertainty in their feed-forward control. PMID:22032545

  1. An 8-channel neural spike processing IC with unsupervised closed-loop control based on spiking probability estimation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Yang, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a neural spike processing IC for simultaneous spike detection, alignment, and transmission on 8 recording channels with unsupervised closed-loop control. In this work, spikes are detected according to online estimated spiking probability maps, which reliably predict the possibility of spike occurrence. The closed-loop control has been made possible by estimating firing rates based on alignment results and turning on/off channels individually and automatically. The 8-channel neural spike processing IC, implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS process, has a varied power dissipation from 36 μW to 54.4 μW per channel at a voltage supply of 1.2 V. The chip also achieves a 380× data rate reduction for the testing in vivo data, allowing easy integration with wireless data transmission modules. PMID:25571180

  2. Industrial use of the real time monitor for quality assurance in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, D. R.; Nablo, S. V.; Weiss, D. E.; Sinz, T. E.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of a three channel real time radiation monitor, installed on a 250 kV×0.3 m electron sterilizer used for controlled depth of sterilization of medical devices, is reported. The bremsstrahlung generated at the window plane is monitored with good spatial resolution at three locations across the beam, and provides information on the electron current density (dose rate) and the electron energy. Software has been developed for analysis and display of these data in real time so that the dose received by the product, and the energy at which it was treated can be displayed and recorded. The several geometries used for bremsstrahlung detection are discussed, and some calculated low energy distributions are shown. Typical data are presented from an eleven channel unit mounted on a 250 kV×1.6 m processor illustrating its use for process quality assurance. The use of Monitorad® for overall closed-loop processor control is reviewed.

  3. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  4. Neural signal processing and closed-loop control algorithm design for an implanted neural recording and stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed

  5. Neural signal processing and closed-loop control algorithm design for an implanted neural recording and stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed

  6. Hybrid interconnection structures for real-time parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. H.; Samson, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The use of hybrid interconnection structures that combine link connections and bus connections for real-time parallel processing is discussed. Idealistic parallel computation models for two real-time computing applications are described with attention given to a tightly coupled network model for object tracking and a network model for image processing. Consideration is given to the following different interconnection structures: the crossbar, the hypercube, the circular linked array, and the bus array.

  7. A fuzzy cost-benefit function to select economical products for processing in a closed-loop supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Cullinane, Thomas P.

    2004-02-01

    The cost-benefit analysis of data associated with re-processing of used products often involves the uncertainty feature of cash-flow modeling. The data is not objective because of uncertainties in supply, quality and disassembly times of used products. Hence, decision-makers must rely on "fuzzy" data for analysis. The same parties that are involved in the forward supply chain often carry out the collection and re-processing of used products. It is therefore important that the cost-benefit analysis takes the data of both new products and used products into account. In this paper, a fuzzy cost-benefit function is proposed that is used to perform a multi-criteria economic analysis to select the most economical products to process in a closed-loop supply chain. Application of the function is detailed through an illustrative example.

  8. Real-Time "Garbage Collection" for List Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed algorithmic techniques for list processing enable immediate identification of computer memory cells having become inactive through disconnection from active cells, together with addition of these inactive cells to pool of reusable cells. These two "garbage collection" techniques reduce memory requirements of list processors or increase their speed or both. With both techniques, processing continuity maintained, enabling real-time processing.

  9. Real-time hierarchically distributed processing network interaction simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Telerobot Testbed is a hierarchically distributed processing system which is linked together through a standard, commercial Ethernet. Standard Ethernet systems are primarily designed to manage non-real-time information transfer. Therefore, collisions on the net (i.e., two or more sources attempting to send data at the same time) are managed by randomly rescheduling one of the sources to retransmit at a later time interval. Although acceptable for transmitting noncritical data such as mail, this particular feature is unacceptable for real-time hierarchical command and control systems such as the Telerobot. Data transfer and scheduling simulations, such as token ring, offer solutions to collision management, but do not appropriately characterize real-time data transfer/interactions for robotic systems. Therefore, models like these do not provide a viable simulation environment for understanding real-time network loading. A real-time network loading model is being developed which allows processor-to-processor interactions to be simulated, collisions (and respective probabilities) to be logged, collision-prone areas to be identified, and network control variable adjustments to be reentered as a means of examining and reducing collision-prone regimes that occur in the process of simulating a complete task sequence.

  10. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA) that were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  11. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA). These dynamic models were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler (Registered TradeMark) and Aspen Plus(Registered TradeMark) process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  12. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  13. Real-time hyperspectral processing for automatic nonferrous material sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, Artzai; Ghita, Ovidiu; Bereciartua, Aranzazu; Echazarra, Jone; Whelan, Paul F.; Iriondo, Pedro M.

    2012-01-01

    The application of hyperspectral sensors in the development of machine vision solutions has become increasingly popular as the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials are better modeled in the hyperspectral domain than in the standard trichromatic red, green, blue data. While there is no doubt that the availability of detailed spectral information is opportune as it opens the possibility to construct robust image descriptors, it also raises a substantial challenge when this high-dimensional data is used in the development of real-time machine vision systems. To alleviate the computational demand, often decorrelation techniques are commonly applied prior to feature extraction. While this approach has reduced to some extent the size of the spectral descriptor, data decorrelation alone proved insufficient in attaining real-time classification. This fact is particularly apparent when pixel-wise image descriptors are not sufficiently robust to model the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials, a case when the spatial information (or textural properties) also has to be included in the classification process. The integration of spectral and spatial information entails a substantial computational cost, and as a result the prospects of real-time operation for the developed machine vision system are compromised. To answer this requirement, in this paper we have reengineered the approach behind the integration of the spectral and spatial information in the material classification process to allow the real-time sorting of the nonferrous fractions that are contained in the waste of electric and electronic equipment scrap.

  14. An architecture for real-time vision processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Chiun-Hong

    1994-01-01

    To study the feasibility of developing an architecture for real time vision processing, a task queue server and parallel algorithms for two vision operations were designed and implemented on an i860-based Mercury Computing System 860VS array processor. The proposed architecture treats each vision function as a task or set of tasks which may be recursively divided into subtasks and processed by multiple processors coordinated by a task queue server accessible by all processors. Each idle processor subsequently fetches a task and associated data from the task queue server for processing and posts the result to shared memory for later use. Load balancing can be carried out within the processing system without the requirement for a centralized controller. The author concludes that real time vision processing cannot be achieved without both sequential and parallel vision algorithms and a good parallel vision architecture.

  15. An intelligent processing environment for real-time simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Wells, Buren Earl, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a highly efficient and thus truly intelligent processing environment for real-time general purpose simulation of continuous systems is described. Such an environment can be created by mapping the simulation process directly onto the University of Alamba's OPERA architecture. To facilitate this effort, the field of continuous simulation is explored, highlighting areas in which efficiency can be improved. Areas in which parallel processing can be applied are also identified, and several general OPERA type hardware configurations that support improved simulation are investigated. Three direct execution parallel processing environments are introduced, each of which greatly improves efficiency by exploiting distinct areas of the simulation process. These suggested environments are candidate architectures around which a highly intelligent real-time simulation configuration can be developed.

  16. An Algorithm for Network Real Time Kinematic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekzadeh, A.; Asgari, J.; Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    NRTK1 is an efficient method to achieve precise real time positioning from GNSS measurements. In this paper we attempt to improve NRTK algorithm by introducing a new strategy. In this strategy a precise relocation of master station observations is performed using Sagnac effect. After processing the double differences, the tropospheric and ionospheric errors of each baseline can be estimated separately. The next step is interpolation of these errors for the atmospheric errors mitigation of desired baseline. Linear and kriging interpolation methods are implemented in this study. In the new strategy the RINEX2 data of the master station is re-located and is converted to the desired virtual observations. Then the interpolated corrections are applied to the virtual observations. The results are compared by the classical method of VRS generation. 1 Network Real Time Kinematic 2 Receiver Independent Exchange Format

  17. Closed-loop anesthesia.

    PubMed

    LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia.

  18. Real-time fractal signal processing in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, András; Mukli, Péter; Nagy, Zoltán; Kocsis, László; Hermán, Péter; Eke, András

    2013-01-01

    Fractal analysis has proven useful for the quantitative characterization of complex time series by scale-free statistical measures in various applications. The analysis has commonly been done offline with the signal being resident in memory in full length, and the processing carried out in several distinct passes. However, in many relevant applications, such as monitoring or forecasting, algorithms are needed to capture changes in the fractal measure real-time. Here we introduce real-time variants of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the closely related Signal Summation Conversion (SSC) methods, which are suitable to estimate the fractal exponent in one pass. Compared to offline algorithms, the precision is the same, the memory requirement is significantly lower, and the execution time depends on the same factors but with different rates. Our tests show that dynamic changes in the fractal parameter can be efficiently detected. We demonstrate the applicability of our real-time methods on signals of cerebral hemodynamics acquired during open-heart surgery.

  19. Towards real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second, demonstrating a trend towards increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process and visualize data in real-time is essential for performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We aim to develop a medical video processing system using an OpenFlow software defined network that is capable of connecting to multiple remote medical facilities and HPC servers.

  20. Toward real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video.

    PubMed

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B; Kwartowitz, David M

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and use small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery uses the images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The video streams generate approximately 360 MB of data per second, demonstrating a trend toward increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process, and visualize data in real time is essential for the performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We have performed image processing algorithms on a high-definition head phantom video (1920 × 1080 pixels) and transferred the video using a message passing interface. The total transfer time is around 53 ms or 19 fps. We will optimize and parallelize these algorithms to reduce the total time to 30 ms. PMID:26668817

  1. A real-time dashboard for managing pathology processes

    PubMed Central

    Halwani, Fawaz; Li, Wei Chen; Banerjee, Diponkar; Lessard, Lysanne; Amyot, Daniel; Michalowski, Wojtek; Giffen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Context: The Eastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association (EORLA) is a newly established association of all the laboratory and pathology departments of Eastern Ontario that currently includes facilities from eight hospitals. All surgical specimens for EORLA are processed in one central location, the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (DPLM) at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH), where the rapid growth and influx of surgical and cytology specimens has created many challenges in ensuring the timely processing of cases and reports. Although the entire process is maintained and tracked in a clinical information system, this system lacks pre-emptive warnings that can help management address issues as they arise. Aims: Dashboard technology provides automated, real-time visual clues that could be used to alert management when a case or specimen is not being processed within predefined time frames. We describe the development of a dashboard helping pathology clinical management to make informed decisions on specimen allocation and tracking. Methods: The dashboard was designed and developed in two phases, following a prototyping approach. The first prototype of the dashboard helped monitor and manage pathology processes at the DPLM. Results: The use of this dashboard helped to uncover operational inefficiencies and contributed to an improvement of turn-around time within The Ottawa Hospital's DPML. It also allowed the discovery of additional requirements, leading to a second prototype that provides finer-grained, real-time information about individual cases and specimens. Conclusion: We successfully developed a dashboard that enables managers to address delays and bottlenecks in specimen allocation and tracking. This support ensures that pathology reports are provided within time frame standards required for high-quality patient care. Given the importance of rapid diagnostics for a number of diseases, the use of real-time dashboards within pathology departments could

  2. Real-time process dynamics monitoring in Anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Alpaslan Kocamemi, B; Dityapak, D

    2014-01-01

    Process dynamics in Anammox systems were evaluated through continuous monitoring of pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and conductivity in two separate newly started-up sequencing batch reactors, one seeded with an enriched Anammox sludge and the other seeded with mixed activated sludge. The pH and ORP profiles exhibited characteristic patterns depending on the process dynamics during early start-up, start-up and enrichment phases of the operational period of 410 days. The simultaneously continuing processes of the start-up period showed apparent indicative trend lines in pH and ORP profiles. Conductivity profiles were consistent with the process dynamics in all phases. During the enrichment phase, conductivity decreases could quantitatively be related to process removal efficiencies and all real-time profiles exhibited specific break-points which coincided with the end of Anammox in each cycle. The end of Anammox was observed as an 'apex' on pH profiles and a 'valley' on ORP profiles. The 'apex' and 'valley' points exactly coincided with the end point of the linear decrease in the conductivity profiles. The overall findings suggested a great potential in using real-time pH, ORP and conductivity measurements for quick and reliable monitoring of Anammox systems during start-up and enrichment periods.

  3. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1975-01-01

    The design, operation, and structure of the hybrid field effect light valve, a real-time input device for application to coherent optical data processing (CODP), is described. The device consists of a sandwich of thin films that electrically control the optical birefringence of a thin (2 micrometer) liquid crystal layer. It has high resolution (greater than 100 1/mm), contrast ratio (greater than 100:1), speed (10 sec on, 15 sec off) and input sensitivity (about 0.3 ergs/sq cm) in addition to cost and size advantages. Performance data for a laboratory model are presented.

  4. HPC enabled real-time remote processing of laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Sapra, Karan; Izard, Ryan; Duffy, Edward; Smith, Melissa C.; Wang, Kuang-Ching; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique. The benefit of small incisions has a disadvantage of limited visualization of subsurface tissues. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses pre-operative and intra-operative images to map subsurface structures. One particular laparoscopic system is the daVinci-si robotic surgical system. The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second. Real-time processing this large stream of data on a bedside PC, single or dual node setup, has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. We have implement and compared performance of compression, segmentation and registration algorithms on Clemson's Palmetto supercomputer using dual NVIDIA K40 GPUs per node. Our computing framework will also enable reliability using replication of computation. We will securely transfer the files to remote HPC clusters utilizing an OpenFlow-based network service, Steroid OpenFlow Service (SOS) that can increase performance of large data transfers over long-distance and high bandwidth networks. As a result, utilizing high-speed OpenFlow- based network to access computing clusters with GPUs will improve surgical procedures by providing real-time medical image processing and laparoscopic data.

  5. A conceptual framework for intelligent real-time information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schudy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    By combining artificial intelligence concepts with the human information processing model of Rasmussen, a conceptual framework was developed for real time artificial intelligence systems which provides a foundation for system organization, control and validation. The approach is based on the description of system processing terms of an abstraction hierarchy of states of knowledge. The states of knowledge are organized along one dimension which corresponds to the extent to which the concepts are expressed in terms of the system inouts or in terms of the system response. Thus organized, the useful states form a generally triangular shape with the sensors and effectors forming the lower two vertices and the full evaluated set of courses of action the apex. Within the triangle boundaries are numerous processing paths which shortcut the detailed processing, by connecting incomplete levels of analysis to partially defined responses. Shortcuts at different levels of abstraction include reflexes, sensory motor control, rule based behavior, and satisficing. This approach was used in the design of a real time tactical decision aiding system, and in defining an intelligent aiding system for transport pilots.

  6. Near Real-Time Processing of Proteomics Data Using Hadoop.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Chris; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Whitehorn, Mark; Cobley, Andy

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a near real-time processing solution using MapReduce and Hadoop. The solution is aimed at some of the data management and processing challenges facing the life sciences community. Research into genes and their product proteins generates huge volumes of data that must be extensively preprocessed before any biological insight can be gained. In order to carry out this processing in a timely manner, we have investigated the use of techniques from the big data field. These are applied specifically to process data resulting from mass spectrometers in the course of proteomic experiments. Here we present methods of handling the raw data in Hadoop, and then we investigate a process for preprocessing the data using Java code and the MapReduce framework to identify 2D and 3D peaks. PMID:27447310

  7. Real-time image processing architecture for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact of MMX technology and PIII Streaming SIMD (Single Instruction stream, Multiple Data stream). Extensions in image processing and machine vision application, which, because of their hard real time constrains, is an undoubtedly challenging task. A comparison with traditional scalar code and with other parallel SIMD architecture (IMPA-VISION board) is discussed with emphasis of the particular programming strategies for speed optimization. More precisely we discuss the low level and intermediate level image processing algorithms, which are best suited for parallel SIMD implementation. High-level image processing algorithms are more suitable for parallel implementation on MIMD architectures. While the IMAP-VISION system performs better because of the large number of processing elements, the MMX processor and PIII (with Streaming SIMD Extensions) remains a good candidate for low-level image processing.

  8. Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Schiepek, Günter; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Gruber, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Bachler, Egon; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients' compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific) surveys. Methods: The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. Results: We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4%) amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. Conclusion: The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for the assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities). PMID:27199837

  9. Methods for real-time speech processing on Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses computer programming done at the University of California, Berkeley, in support of research work in the area of speech analysis and synthesis. The purpose of this programming is to set up a system for doing real-time speech sampling using the Unix operating system. Two alternative approaches to real time work on Unix are discussed. The first approach is to do the real-time input/output on a secondary (satellite) machine that is not running Unix. The second approach is to do the real-time input/output on the main machine with the aid of special hardware.

  10. Closed-Loop Optogenetic Intervention in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oijala, Mikko; Soltesz, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic interventions offer novel ways of probing, in a temporally specific manner, the roles of specific cell types in neuronal network functions of awake, behaving animals. Despite the unique potential for temporally specific optogenetic interventions in disease states, a major hurdle in its broad application to unpredictable brain states in a laboratory setting is constructing a real-time responsive system. We recently created a closed-loop system for stopping spontaneous seizures in chronically epileptic mice using optogenetic intervention. This system performs with very high sensitivity and specificity, and the strategy is relevant not only to epilepsy, but can also be used to react in real time, with optogenetic or other interventions, to diverse brain states. The protocol presented here is highly modular and requires variable time to perform. We describe the basic construction of a complete system, and include our downloadable custom closed-loop detection software which can be employed for this purpose. PMID:23845961

  11. Implementing cascade approach in real-time video stream processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Dmitry M.; Chernushich, Andrey P.

    2005-10-01

    A lot of nowadays machine vision tasks imply real-time video stream processing at rates of order of (25 frames / sec) x (640 x 480 pixels / frame) x (24 bit / pixel) = 184 Megabit / sec and higher. As reasonable estimations show, a very limited number of operations (even quite primitive) is allowed to be applied to each pixel of every video frame being processed in order to realize the processing rate required. Hence implementing algorithms widely exploiting formal methods (e.g. sorts of iterative approaches, transformations in multidimensional feature space etc) over the whole video stream becomes unaffordable. A potential (and practically working) overcome is introducing a cascade approach. From architectural viewpoint cascade processing consists of several predefined stages. Video frame passes through them from the zero stage (original frame) to the final stage (processing results). Some stages can be skipped, and the whole processing can be canceled at any stage. Passing through two sequential stages can be viewed as applying some operation to the information left to be processed. The keystone of cascade approach is designing an optimal sequence in which the simplest operations precede the more complex ones, so that the processing mechanism becomes essentially non-uniform and non-linear in terms of processing rates: the great amount of useless data is discriminated on the initial quick stages while the further analysis exploits smart algorithms over comparatively low data flux. The presentation demonstrates a practical example of cascade approach for the task of airplanes' tail identification numbers recognition.

  12. Real-Time Fault Classification for Plasma Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma process tools, which usually cost several millions of US dollars, are often used in the semiconductor fabrication etching process. If the plasma process is halted due to some process fault, the productivity will be reduced and the cost will increase. In order to maximize the product/wafer yield and tool productivity, a timely and effective fault process detection is required in a plasma reactor. The classification of fault events can help the users to quickly identify fault processes, and thus can save downtime of the plasma tool. In this work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is employed as the metrology sensor for in-situ process monitoring. Splitting into twelve different match rates by spectrum bands, the matching rate indicator in our previous work (Yang, R.; Chen, R.S. Sensors 2010, 10, 5703–5723) is used to detect the fault process. Based on the match data, a real-time classification of plasma faults is achieved by a novel method, developed in this study. Experiments were conducted to validate the novel fault classification. From the experimental results, we may conclude that the proposed method is feasible inasmuch that the overall accuracy rate of the classification for fault event shifts is 27 out of 28 or about 96.4% in success. PMID:22164001

  13. Real-time fault classification for plasma processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma process tools, which usually cost several millions of US dollars, are often used in the semiconductor fabrication etching process. If the plasma process is halted due to some process fault, the productivity will be reduced and the cost will increase. In order to maximize the product/wafer yield and tool productivity, a timely and effective fault process detection is required in a plasma reactor. The classification of fault events can help the users to quickly identify fault processes, and thus can save downtime of the plasma tool. In this work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is employed as the metrology sensor for in-situ process monitoring. Splitting into twelve different match rates by spectrum bands, the matching rate indicator in our previous work (Yang, R.; Chen, R.S. Sensors 2010, 10, 5703-5723) is used to detect the fault process. Based on the match data, a real-time classification of plasma faults is achieved by a novel method, developed in this study. Experiments were conducted to validate the novel fault classification. From the experimental results, we may conclude that the proposed method is feasible inasmuch that the overall accuracy rate of the classification for fault event shifts is 27 out of 28 or about 96.4% in success.

  14. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1976-01-01

    A novel liquid-crystal electro-optical device useful as a real-time input device in coherent optical data processing is described. The device is a special adaptation of an ac photoactivated liquid-crystal light valve, and utilizes a hybrid field effect (45 deg twisted nematic effect in OFF state and pure optical birefringence of the liquid crystal in ON state). A thin-film sandwich exerts photoelectric control over the optical birefringence of a thin liquid-crystal layer. Liquid-crystal layer thickness is successfully reduced without image degradation. The device offers high resolution (better than 100 lines/mm), contrast (better than 100/1), high speed (10 msec ON, 15 msec OFF), high input sensitivity, low power input, low fabrication cost, and can be operated at below 10 V rms. Preliminary measurements on device performance in level slicing, filtering, contrast reversal, and edge enhancement are under way.

  15. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  16. Real-time SAR processing for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Arthur W.; Rogers, George W.; Rais, Houra

    1998-09-01

    The most important parameter in Search and Rescue is the time it takes to locate the downed aircraft and rescue the survivors. The resulting requirement for wide-area coverage, fine resolution, and day-night all-weather operation dictates the use of a SAR sensor. The time urgency dictates a real-time or near real-time SAR processor. This paper presents alternative real-time architectures and gives the results of feasibility studies of the enabling technologies, including new work by the authors in the area of SAR data compression.

  17. Cell-bionics: tools for real-time sensor processing.

    PubMed

    Toumazou, Chris; Cass, Tony

    2007-08-29

    The accurate monitoring of the physiological status of cells, tissues and whole organisms demands a new generation of devices capable of providing accurate data in real time with minimal perturbation of the system being measured. To deliver on the promise of cell-bionics advances over the past decade in miniaturization, analogue signal processing, low-power electronics, materials science and protein engineering need to be brought together. In this paper we summarize recent advances in our research that is moving us in this direction. Two areas in particular are highlighted: the exploitation of the physical properties inherent in semiconductor devices to perform very low power on chip signal processing and the use of gene technology to tailor proteins for sensor applications. In the context of engineered tissues, cell-bionics could offer the ability to monitor the precise physiological state of the construct, both during 'manufacture' and post-implantation. Monitoring during manufacture, particularly by embedded devices, would offer quality assurance of the materials components and the fabrication process. Post-implantation monitoring would reveal changes in the underlying physiology as a result of the tissue construct adapting to its new environment.

  18. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  19. Hybrid integrated optic modules for real-time signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    The most recent progress on four relatively new hybrid integrated optic device modules in LiNbO3 waveguides and one in YIG/GGG waveguide that are currently being studied are discussed. The five hybrid modules include a time-integrating acoustooptic correlator, a channel waveguide acoustooptic frequency shifter/modulator, an electrooptic channel waveguide total internal reflection moculator/switch, an electrooptic analog-to-digital converter using a Fabry-Perot modulator array, and a noncollinear magnetooptic modulator using magnetostatic surface waves. All of these devices possess the desirable characteristics of very large bandwidth (GHz or higher), very small substrate size along the optical path (typically 1.5 cm or less), single-mode optical propagation, and low drive power requirement. The devices utilize either acoustooptic, electrooptic or magnetooptic effects in planar or channel waveguides and, therefore, act as efficient interface devices between a light wave and temporal signals. Major areas of application lie in wideband multichannel optical real-time signal processing and communications. Some of the specific applications include spectral analysis and correlation of radio frequency (RF) signals, fiber-optic sensing, optical computing and multiport switching/routing, and analog-to-digital conversion of wide RF signals.

  20. The Real-Time Processing of Sluiced Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Wolfinger, Katie; Spellman, Lisa; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Ellipsis refers to an element that is absent from the input but whose meaning can nonetheless be recovered from context. In this cross-modal priming study, we examined the online processing of Sluicing, an ellipsis whose antecedent is an entire clause: The handyman threw a book to the programmer but I don’t know which book the handyman threw to the programmerellipsis. To understand such an elliptical construction, the listener arguably must ‘fill in’ the missing material (“the handyman threw___ to the programmer”) based on that which occurs in the antecedent clause. We aimed to determine the point in time in which reconstruction of the sluiced sentence is attempted and whether such a complex antecedent is re-accessed by the ellipsis. Out of the two antecedent constituents for which we probed, only the Object (programmer) was found active in the elliptical clause, confirming that an antecedent is attributed to the sluice in real time. Possible reasons for the non-observation of the Subject (handyman) are considered. We also suggest that ellipses are detected earlier in coordinated than subordinated sentences. PMID:20229060

  1. A digital wireless system for closed-loop inhibition of nociceptive signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Chao; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yang; Hagains, Christopher E.; Li, Ai-Ling; Peng, Yuan B.; Chiao, J.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Neurostimulation of the spinal cord or brain has been used to inhibit nociceptive signals in pain management applications. Nevertheless, most of the current neurostimulation models are based on open-loop system designs. There is a lack of closed-loop systems for neurostimulation in research with small freely-moving animals and in future clinical applications. Based on our previously developed analog wireless system for closed-loop neurostimulation, a digital wireless system with real-time feedback between recorder and stimulator modules has been developed to achieve multi-channel communication. The wireless system includes a wearable recording module, a wearable stimulation module and a transceiver connected to a computer for real-time and off-line data processing, display and storage. To validate our system, wide dynamic range neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn have been recorded from anesthetized rats in response to graded mechanical stimuli (brush, pressure and pinch) applied in the hind paw. The identified nociceptive signals were used to automatically trigger electrical stimulation at the periaqueductal gray in real time to inhibit their own activities by the closed-loop design. Our digital wireless closed-loop system has provided a simplified and efficient method for further study of pain processing in freely-moving animals and potential clinical application in patients. Groups 1, 2 and 3 contributed equally to this project.

  2. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  3. Real-time signal processing for fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimy, Muhammad I; Ahmed, Firoz; Mohd Ali, M A; Zahedi, Edmond

    2003-02-01

    An algorithm based on digital filtering, adaptive thresholding, statistical properties in the time domain, and differencing of local maxima and minima has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the fetal and maternal heart rates from the maternal abdominal electrocardiogram during pregnancy and labor for ambulatory monitoring. A microcontroller-based system has been used to implement the algorithm in real-time. A Doppler ultrasound fetal monitor was used for statistical comparison on five volunteers with low risk pregnancies, between 35 and 40 weeks of gestation. Results showed an average percent root mean square difference of 5.32% and linear correlation coefficient from 0.84 to 0.93. The fetal heart rate curves remained inside a +/- 5-beats-per-minute limit relative to the reference ultrasound method for 84.1% of the time. PMID:12665042

  4. SIMD massively parallel processing system for real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaochu; Zhang, Ming; Yao, Qingdong; Liu, Jilin; Ye, Hong; Wu, Song; Li, Dongxiao; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Lei; Yao, Zhongyang; Yang, Weijian; Pan, Qiaohai

    1998-09-01

    This paper will describe the embedded SIMD massively parallel processor that we have developed for real-time image processing applications, such as real-time small target detection and tracking and video processing. The processor array is based on SIMD chip BAP-128 designed by our own, and uses high performance DSP TMS320C31, which can effectively perform serial and floating point calculations, as the host of the SIMD processor array. As a result, the system is able to perform a variety of image processing tasks in real-time. Furthermore, the processor will be connected with a MIMD parallel processor to construct a heterogeneously parallel processor for more complex real- time ATR (Automatic Target Recognition) and computer vision applications.

  5. Real-time radar signal processing for autonomous aircraft landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.; Helgeson, Michael A.; Radke, Jeffrey D.; Stein, Gunter

    1993-11-01

    Landing in poor weather is a crucial problem for the air transportation system. To aid the pilots for these conditions several solutions have been suggested and/or implemented including instrument landing systems (ILS) and microwave landing systems (MLS) that put the responsibility of the landing to a large extent in the hands of the airport facilities. These systems even though useful are not available due to their high costs even in a few major metropolitan airports. This shortcoming has generated interest in providing all weather capabilities not on the landing facility but on the vehicle itself. The Synthetic Vision System Technology Demonstration sponsored by the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the U.S. Air Force represents an effort to respond to the above needs. In this paper we present a summary of a typical synthetic vision system. This system consists of a scanning 35 GHz radar, a scanning antenna, a signal/image processor and a head up display (HUD). The pilot is presented a final perspective image of the scene sensed by the radar with associated flight guidance symbology. This system is implemented in real time hardware and has been undergoing tower and flight testing under a variety of weather conditions since early 1992.

  6. Real-time radar signal processing using GPGPU (general-purpose graphic processing unit)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanxing; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Cai, Jingxiao; Palmer, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    This study introduces a practical approach to develop real-time signal processing chain for general phased array radar on NVIDIA GPUs(Graphical Processing Units) using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) libraries such as cuBlas and cuFFT, which are adopted from open source libraries and optimized for the NVIDIA GPUs. The processed results are rigorously verified against those from the CPUs. Performance benchmarked in computation time with various input data cube sizes are compared across GPUs and CPUs. Through the analysis, it will be demonstrated that GPGPUs (General Purpose GPU) real-time processing of the array radar data is possible with relatively low-cost commercial GPUs.

  7. Closed-loop rehabilitation of age-related cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual's neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms. This approach should be multimodal and seamlessly integrate other treatment approaches, including neurofeedback and transcranial electrical stimulation. This novel approach will involve the generation of software that engages the individual in an immersive and enjoyable game-based interface, integrated with advanced biosensing hardware, to maximally harness plasticity and assure adherence. Introducing such next-generation closed-loop neurocognitive therapeutics into the mainstream of our mental health care system will require the combined efforts of clinicians, neuroscientists, bioengineers, software game developers, and industry and policy makers working together to meet the challenges and opportunities of translational neuroscience in the 21st century. PMID:25520029

  8. An architecture for heuristic control of real-time processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulefs, P.; Thorndyke, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    Abstract Process management combines complementary approaches of heuristic reasoning and analytical process control. Management of a continuous process requires monitoring the environment and the controlled system, assessing the ongoing situation, developing and revising planned actions, and controlling the execution of the actions. For knowledge-intensive domains, process management entails the potentially time-stressed cooperation among a variety of expert systems. By redesigning a blackboard control architecture in an object-oriented framework, researchers obtain an approach to process management that considerably extends blackboard control mechanisms and overcomes limitations of blackboard systems.

  9. Real-time implementation of cochlear implant speech processing pipeline on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Parris, Shane; Torlak, Murat; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the real-time implementation of an adaptive speech processing pipeline for cochlear implants on the smartphone platform. The pipeline is capable of real-time classification of background noise environment and automated tuning of a noise suppression component based upon the detected background noise environment. This pipeline was previously implemented on the FDA-approved PDA platform for cochlear implant studies. The paper discusses the steps taken to achieve the real-time implementation of the pipeline on the smartphone platform. In addition, it includes the real-time timing as well as the noise suppression results when the entire pipeline was run on the smartphone platform.

  10. Process data acquisition: real-time and historical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Gordon; Moreno, Richard; King, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    With the advent of touch probe technology, it was discovered that current closed architecture controllers do not provide adequate resources to support the implementation of process data acquisition on the shop floor. At AlliedSignal, a process data acquisition systems has been developed for a flexible manufacturing system utilizing touch probe and customized software which allows fixture and cutting tool related information for an entire process to be captured and stored for off-line analysis. The implementation of this system, the difficulties and pitfalls, will be presented along with the functionality required for an open architecture controller to properly support process data acquisition.

  11. Process data acquisition: Real time and historical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.; Moreno, R.; King, M.

    1996-11-01

    With the advent of touch probe technology, it was discovered that current closed architecture controllers do not provide adequate resources to support the implementation of process data acquisition on the shop floor. At AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, a process data acquisition system has been developed for a flexible manufacturing system utilizing touch probes and customized software which allows fixture and cutting tool related information for an entire process to be captured and stored for off-line analysis. The implementation of this system, the difficulties and pitfalls, will be presented along with the functionality required for an open architecture controller to properly support process data acquisition.

  12. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  13. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Terrence C; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of "minimal" simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  14. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Terrence C.; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of “minimal” simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  15. Real-Time Reconfigurable Interconnections for Parallel Optical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, Neil; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.

    1995-06-01

    In this letter we describe the advantages of a dynamic optical interconnection system for parallel information processing applications. The system is based on a liquid crystal television which acts as a binary phase-only spatial light modulator. We describe example algorithms where reconfigurable interconnects would be useful and present results of several interconnection topologies which have been implemented.

  16. Method and system for enabling real-time speckle processing using hardware platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Fernando E. (Inventor); Kelmelis, Eric (Inventor); Durbano, James P. (Inventor); Curt, Peterson F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An accelerator for the speckle atmospheric compensation algorithm may enable real-time speckle processing of video feeds that may enable the speckle algorithm to be applied in numerous real-time applications. The accelerator may be implemented in various forms, including hardware, software, and/or machine-readable media.

  17. Implementing spiking neural networks for real-time signal-processing and control applications: a model-validated FPGA approach.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Martin J; Pipe, A G; Mitchinson, B; Gurney, K; Melhuish, C; Gilhespy, I; Nibouche, M

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present two versions of a hardware processing architecture for modeling large networks of leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons; the second version provides performance enhancing features relative to the first. Both versions of the architecture use fixed-point arithmetic and have been implemented using a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). They have successfully simulated networks of over 1000 neurons configured using biologically plausible models of mammalian neural systems. The neuroprocessor has been designed to be employed primarily for use on mobile robotic vehicles, allowing bio-inspired neural processing models to be integrated directly into real-world control environments. When a neuroprocessor has been designed to act as part of the closed-loop system of a feedback controller, it is imperative to maintain strict real-time performance at all times, in order to maintain integrity of the control system. This resulted in the reevaluation of some of the architectural features of existing hardware for biologically plausible neural networks (NNs). In addition, we describe a development system for rapidly porting an underlying model (based on floating-point arithmetic) to the fixed-point representation of the FPGA-based neuroprocessor, thereby allowing validation of the hardware architecture. The developmental system environment facilitates the cooperation of computational neuroscientists and engineers working on embodied (robotic) systems with neural controllers, as demonstrated by our own experience on the Whiskerbot project, in which we developed models of the rodent whisker sensory system.

  18. Implementing spiking neural networks for real-time signal-processing and control applications: a model-validated FPGA approach.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Martin J; Pipe, A G; Mitchinson, B; Gurney, K; Melhuish, C; Gilhespy, I; Nibouche, M

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present two versions of a hardware processing architecture for modeling large networks of leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons; the second version provides performance enhancing features relative to the first. Both versions of the architecture use fixed-point arithmetic and have been implemented using a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). They have successfully simulated networks of over 1000 neurons configured using biologically plausible models of mammalian neural systems. The neuroprocessor has been designed to be employed primarily for use on mobile robotic vehicles, allowing bio-inspired neural processing models to be integrated directly into real-world control environments. When a neuroprocessor has been designed to act as part of the closed-loop system of a feedback controller, it is imperative to maintain strict real-time performance at all times, in order to maintain integrity of the control system. This resulted in the reevaluation of some of the architectural features of existing hardware for biologically plausible neural networks (NNs). In addition, we describe a development system for rapidly porting an underlying model (based on floating-point arithmetic) to the fixed-point representation of the FPGA-based neuroprocessor, thereby allowing validation of the hardware architecture. The developmental system environment facilitates the cooperation of computational neuroscientists and engineers working on embodied (robotic) systems with neural controllers, as demonstrated by our own experience on the Whiskerbot project, in which we developed models of the rodent whisker sensory system. PMID:18220195

  19. Real-time garbage collection for list processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, R. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  20. Human movement analysis with image processing in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauvet, Eric; Paindavoine, Michel; Cannard, F.

    1991-04-01

    In the field of the human sciences, a lot of applications needs to know the kinematic characteristics of the human movements Psycology is associating the characteristics with the control mechanism, sport and biomechariics are associating them with the performance of the sportman or of the patient. So the trainers or the doctors can correct the gesture of the subject to obtain a better performance if he knows the motion properties. Roherton's studies show the children motion evolution2 . Several investigations methods are able to measure the human movement But now most of the studies are based on image processing. Often the systems are working at the T.V. standard (50 frame per secund ). they permit only to study very slow gesture. A human operator analyses the digitizing sequence of the film manually giving a very expensive, especially long and unprecise operation. On these different grounds many human movement analysis systems were implemented. They consist of: - markers which are fixed to the anatomical interesting points on the subject in motion, - Image compression which is the art to coding picture data. Generally the compression Is limited to the centroid coordinates calculation tor each marker. These systems differ from one other in image acquisition and markers detection.

  1. Closed-Loop, Open-Source Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents) from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents) to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential (LFP) recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation (triggered by recordings) with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents. PMID:20859448

  2. Closed-loop, open-source electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents) from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents) to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential (LFP) recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation (triggered by recordings) with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents. PMID:20859448

  3. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  4. Microgyroscope with closed loop output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

  5. In vivo dynamic process imaging using real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Shao, Peng; Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger J.

    2013-02-01

    The authors demonstrate in vivo dynamic process imaging using a label-free real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM). This reflection-mode system takes advantage of a 532-nm fiber laser source with a high pulse repetition rate of up to 600 kHz combined with a fast-scanning mirror system. Microvasculature in SCID mouse ears is imaged at near real-time (0.5 fps) for a 1×1 mm2 field of view (FOV) with micron-scale lateral resolution. We also demonstrate imaging of cardiac-induced microhemodynamics in murine microvasculature at real-time frame-rates (30 fps) over a 250×250 μ FOV using real-time C-scan OR-PAM with ability to provide sustained imaging with near real-time feedback for focusing and positioning.

  6. Real-Time Monitoring of Scada Based Control System for Filling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soe, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Aung Naing; Latt, Maung Maung; Theingi

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a design of real-time monitoring for filling system using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). The monitoring of production process is described in real-time using Visual Basic.Net programming under Visual Studio 2005 software without SCADA software. The software integrators are programmed to get the required information for the configuration screens. Simulation of components is expressed on the computer screen using parallel port between computers and filling devices. The programs of real-time simulation for the filling process from the pure drinking water industry are provided.

  7. Real-time massively parallel processing of spectral optical coherence tomography data on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Szlag, Daniel; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Targowski, Piotr

    2011-06-01

    In this contribution we describe a specialised data processing system for Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) biomedical imaging which utilises massively parallel data processing on a low-cost, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). One of the most significant limitations of SOCT is the data processing time on the main processor of the computer (CPU), which is generally longer than the data acquisition. Therefore, real-time imaging with acceptable quality is limited to a small number of tomogram lines (A-scans). Recent progress in graphics cards technology gives a promising solution of this problem. The newest graphics processing units allow not only for a very high speed three dimensional (3D) rendering, but also for a general purpose parallel numerical calculations with efficiency higher than provided by the CPU. The presented system utilizes CUDATM graphic card and allows for a very effective real time SOCT imaging. The total imaging speed for 2D data consisting of 1200 A-scans is higher than refresh rate of a 120 Hz monitor. 3D rendering of the volume data build of 10 000 A-scans is performed with frame rate of about 9 frames per second. These frame rates include data transfer from a frame grabber to GPU, data processing and 3D rendering to the screen. The software description includes data flow, parallel processing and organization of threads. For illustration we show real time high resolution SOCT imaging of human skin and eye.

  8. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-01-01

    The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools. PMID:22219683

  9. Closed-Loop, Multichannel Experimentation Using the Open-Source NeuroRighter Electrophysiology Platform

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jonathan P.; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Fong, Ming-Fai; Arcot Desai, Sharanya; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API) for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand-alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system’s abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments. PMID:23346047

  10. Real-time digital signal processing for live electro-optic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Kanno, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2009-08-31

    We present an imaging system that enables real-time magnitude and phase detection of modulated signals and its application to a Live Electro-optic Imaging (LEI) system, which realizes instantaneous visualization of RF electric fields. The real-time acquisition of magnitude and phase images of a modulated optical signal at 5 kHz is demonstrated by imaging with a Si-based high-speed CMOS image sensor and real-time signal processing with a digital signal processor. In the LEI system, RF electric fields are probed with light via an electro-optic crystal plate and downconverted to an intermediate frequency by parallel optical heterodyning, which can be detected with the image sensor. The artifacts caused by the optics and the image sensor characteristics are corrected by image processing. As examples, we demonstrate real-time visualization of electric fields from RF circuits.

  11. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. DAY; J.D. GILPATRICK; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles.

  12. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlensinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios use error-correction techniques that approach Shannon s theoretical limit of performance. The authors describe the benefit of closed-loop measurements for a receiver when paired with a counterpart transmitter and representative channel conditions. We also describe a real-time Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in real-time during the development of software defined radios.

  13. Real-time stream processing for active fire monitoring on Landsat 8 direct reception data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohme, C.; Bouwer, P.; Prinsloo, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    Some remote sensing applications are relatively time insensitive, for others, near-real-time processing (results 30-180 minutes after data reception) offer a viable solution. There are, however, a few applications, such as active wildfire monitoring or ship and airplane detection, where real-time processing and image interpretation offers a distinct advantage. The objective of real-time processing is to provide notifications before the complete satellite pass has been received. This paper presents an automated system for real-time, stream-based processing of data acquired from direct broadcast push-broom sensors for applications that require a high degree of timeliness. Based on this system, a processing chain for active fire monitoring using Landsat 8 live data streams was implemented and evaluated. The real-time processing system, called the FarEarth Observer, is connected to a ground station's demodulator and uses its live data stream as input. Processing is done on variable size image segments assembled from detector lines of the push broom sensor as they are streamed from the satellite, enabling detection of active fires and sending of notifications within seconds of the satellite passing over the affected area, long before the actual acquisition completes. This approach requires performance optimized techniques for radiometric and geometric correction of the sensor data. Throughput of the processing system is kept well above the 400Mbit/s downlink speed of Landsat 8. A latency of below 10 seconds from sensor line acquisition to anomaly detection and notification is achieved. Analyses of geometric and radiometric accuracy and comparisons in latency to traditional near-real-time systems are also presented.

  14. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  15. Investigation of a Real-time Processing System for the NASA Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the data reduction and processing requirements for the multifrequency microwave radiometer system (MFMR). The objectives were to develop and evaluate algorithms and processing techniques which might provide for dedicated real time or near real time data processing and to develop a configuration design and processor recommendation to accomplish the data reduction. An analysis of the required data reduction and calibration equations was included along with the identification of sources of error which may be present in the (MFMR) data. The definition and evaluation of the significance of effects introduced by aircraft perturbation was given.

  16. Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hoa; Ding, Huafeng; Sobh, Nahil; Do, Minh; Patel, Sanjay; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate real time off-axis Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) using a phase reconstruction algorithm based on NVIDIA’s CUDA programming model. The phase unwrapping component is based on Goldstein’s algorithm. By mapping the process of extracting phase information and unwrapping to GPU, we are able to speed up the whole procedure by more than 18.8× with respect to CPU processing and ultimately achieve video rate for mega-pixel images. Our CUDA implementation also supports processing of multiple images simultaneously. This enables our imaging system to support high speed, high throughput, and real-time image acquisition and visualization. PMID:21750757

  17. Real-time hybrid joint transform correlator with parallel processing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuwen; Ge, Bao-Zhen; Zhang, Yimo; Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Zhanhua

    1996-12-01

    A real-time hybrid joint transform correlator (JTC) with parallel processing architecture that use two liquid crystal light valves spatial light modulators, two VP32 image boards and two optical wavefront-division multiplexers as the key parts was presented. Using this hybrid JTC< real-time high- efficiency joint transform correlation, high-speed joint transform correlation and four-channel joint transform correlation were realized. The hybrid JTC system has also been used in the domain of morphological complex-valued kernel scale-space image processing. In this paper, the principles of the above experiments are described, experimental results are also given and analyzed.

  18. Real-time Periodic Processing of RT-middleware Utilizing Linux Standard Functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Masaharu; Toda, Kengo; Hayashibara, Yasuo; Yamato, Hideaki; Furuta, Takayuki

    A new methodology of real-time periodic processing on RT-middleware based on the Linux standard functionalities is presented in this paper. The central of discussion is on the realization of real-time processing while keeping the reusability of software modules ensured by the RT-middleware framework as well as the portability provided by the Linux development mainstream. In order to show the validity of the proposed approach, two robot systems, including an omnidirectional electric wheelchair steered by haptic joystick, are presented and the discussion about the evaluation result follows from the view point of practicality.

  19. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  20. Real-time digital holographic microscopy using the graphic processing unit.

    PubMed

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Sato, Yoshikuni; Miura, Junya; Takenouchi, Mai; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2008-08-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a well-known powerful method allowing both the amplitude and phase of a specimen to be simultaneously observed. In order to obtain a reconstructed image from a hologram, numerous calculations for the Fresnel diffraction are required. The Fresnel diffraction can be accelerated by the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm. However, real-time reconstruction from a hologram is difficult even if we use a recent central processing unit (CPU) to calculate the Fresnel diffraction by the FFT algorithm. In this paper, we describe a real-time DHM system using a graphic processing unit (GPU) with many stream processors, which allows use as a highly parallel processor. The computational speed of the Fresnel diffraction using the GPU is faster than that of recent CPUs. The real-time DHM system can obtain reconstructed images from holograms whose size is 512 x 512 grids in 24 frames per second.

  1. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  2. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  3. Software systems testing of a closed loop tracking system using a SIMULINK-based simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Brendan; Sasaki, Doreen M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper discuses a simulation approach that has streamlined the real-time software development process for a closed loop image-based tracking system. The MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation consists of elements constructed from common source modules shared with the deliverable system. The simulation has provided a tool to support algorithm development for the fundamental system components, including a system controller, a servo controller, and an image processor. In addition, the simulation has provided a testbed for verification of system performance. The context for this application is the low rate initial production phase of a tactical airborne avionics system that includes an image-based tracking system.

  4. Organizing the Extremely Large LSST Database forReal-Time Astronomical Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jacek; Lim, Kian-Tat; Monkewitz, Serge; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Thakar, Ani; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2007-11-07

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will catalog billions of astronomical objects and trillions of sources, all of which will be stored and managed by a database management system. One of the main challenges is real-time alert generation. To generate alerts, up to 100K new difference detections have to be cross-correlated with the huge historical catalogs, and then further processed to prune false alerts. This paper explains the challenges, the implementation of the LSST Association Pipeline and the database organization strategies we are planning to use to meet the real-time requirements, including data partitioning, parallelization, and pre-loading.

  5. Process for fabricating device structures for real-time process control of silicon doping

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon device structures designed to allow measurement of important doping process parameters immediately after the doping step has occurred. The test structures are processed through contact formation using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques. After the contacts have been formed, the structures are covered by an oxide layer and an aluminum layer. The aluminum layer is then patterned to expose the contact pads and selected regions of the silicon to be doped. Doping is then performed, and the whole structure is annealed with a pulsed excimer laser. But laser annealing, unlike standard annealing techniques, does not effect the aluminum contacts because the laser light is reflected by the aluminum. Once the annealing process is complete, the structures can be probed, using standard techniques, to ascertain data about the doping step. Analysis of the data can be used to determine probable yield reductions due to improper execution of the doping step and thus provide real-time feedback during integrated circuit fabrication.

  6. Real-time microstructural and functional imaging and image processing in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure, achieving a spatial resolution of about 10 mum. OCT is similar to B-mode ultrasound (US) except that it uses infrared light instead of ultrasound. In contrast to US, no coupling gel is needed, simplifying the image acquisition. Furthermore, the fiber optic implementation of OCT is compatible with endoscopes. In recent years, the transition from slow imaging, bench-top systems to real-time clinical systems has been under way. This has lead to a variety of applications, namely in ophthalmology, gastroenterology, dermatology and cardiology. First, this dissertation will demonstrate that OCT is capable of imaging and differentiating clinically relevant tissue structures in the gastrointestinal tract. A careful in vitro correlation study between endoscopic OCT images and corresponding histological slides was performed. Besides structural imaging, OCT systems were further developed for functional imaging, as for example to visualize blood flow. Previously, imaging flow in small vessels in real-time was not possible. For this research, a new processing scheme similar to real-time Doppler in US was introduced. It was implemented in dedicated hardware to allow real-time acquisition and overlayed display of blood flow in vivo. A sensitivity of 0.5mm/s was achieved. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a variation of OCT, improving the resolution even further to a few micrometers. Advances made in the OCT scan engine for the Doppler setup enabled real-time imaging in vivo with OCM. In order to generate geometrical correct images for all the previous applications in real-time, extensive image processing algorithms were developed. Algorithms for correction of distortions due to non-telecentric scanning, nonlinear scan mirror movements, and refraction were developed and demonstrated. This has led to interesting new

  7. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research effort to develop an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real-time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns, and monitoring of the mold filling process. This will reduce scrap, improve product quality, and save energy.

  8. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  9. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  10. Real-time image processing for rapid contaminant detection on broiler carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, M. Preston

    2004-11-01

    Recently, the imaging research group at Russell Research Center, ARS in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (515.4, 566.4 and 631-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system. The preliminary results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was 96%. However, the system contains many false positives including scabs, feathers, and boundaries. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time multispectral image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were discussed. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line.

  11. Role of Text and Student Characteristics in Real-Time Reading Processes across the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Linda; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about beginning readers using behavioural measures, real-time processes are still less clear. The present study examined eye movements (skipping rate, gaze, look back and second-pass duration) as a function of text-related (difficulty and word class) and student-related characteristics (word decoding, reading comprehension,…

  12. Closed-Loop Control System for Friction Stir Welding Retractable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Romine, Peter L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA invention disclosure, NASA Case No. MFS-31413, entitled "System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus", (Patent Pending) authored by Jeff Ding, Dr Peter Romine and Pete Oelgoetz, addresses the precision control of the friction stir welding process. The closed-loop control system automatically adjusts the spinning welding pin, real-time, to maintain a precise penetration ligament (i.e., distance between pin-tip and weld panel backside surface). A specific pin length can be maintained while welding constant thickness or tapered material thickness weld panels. The closed-loop control system provides operator data and information relative to the exact position of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This paper presents the closed-loop RPT control system that operates using the auto-feedback of force signals sensed by the tip and shoulder of the welding pin. Significance: The FSW process can be successfully used in a production environment only if there is a method or technique that informs the FSW operator the precise location of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This is essential for applications in aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, commercial aircraft and other industries.

  13. Passive Identification is Non Stationary Objects With Closed Loop Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyadik, Valeriy F.; Nadezhdin, Igor S.; Goryunov, Alexey G.; Manenti, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Typically chemical processes have significant nonlinear dynamics, but despite this, industry is conventionally still using PID-based regulatory control systems. Moreover, process units are interconnected, in terms of inlet and outlet material/energy flows, to other neighbouring units, thus their dynamic behaviour is strongly influenced by these connections and, as a consequence, conventional control systems performance often proves to be poor. However, there a hybrid fuzzy PID control logic, whose tuning parameters are provided in real time. The fuzzy controller tuning is made on the basis of Mamdani controller, also exploiting the results coming from an identification procedure that is carried on when an unmeasured step disturbance of any shape affects the process behaviour. This paper presents procedure for identifying technological object control in a closed loop, i. e. that operates the automated control system. The variation in the controlled variable, caused by the change of the nonmeasurable disturbance, is considered the initial signal for the identification procedure. The parameters of the control object are found by optimization method Levenberg-Marquardt.

  14. Intelligent real-time CCD data processing system based on variable frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Su-ting

    2009-07-01

    In order to meet the need of image shooting with CCD in unmanned aerial vehicles, a real-time high resolution CCD data processing system based on variable frame rate is designed. The system is consisted of three modules: CCD control module, data processing module and data display module. In the CCD control module, real-time flight parameters (e.g. flight height, velocity and longitude) should be received from GPS through UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) and according to the corresponding flight parameters, the variable frame rate is calculated. Based on the calculated variable frame rate, CCD external synchronization control impulse signal is generated in the control of FPGA and then CCD data is read out. In the data processing module, data segmentation is designed to extract ROI (region of interest), whose resolution is equal to valid data resolution of HDTV standard conforming to SMPTE (1080i). On one hand, Ping-pong SRAM storage controller is designed in FPGA to real-time store ROI data. On the other hand, according to the need of intelligent observing, changeable window position is designed, and a flexible area of interest is obtained. In the real-time display module, a special video encoder is used to accomplish data format conversion. Data after storage is packeted to HDTV format by creating corresponding format information in FPGA. Through inner register configuration, high definition video analog signal is implemented. The entire system has been implemented in FPGA and validated. It has been used in various real-time CCD data processing situations.

  15. Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

  16. A computational approach to real-time image processing for serial time-encoded amplified microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Minoru; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Satoki; Endo, Yutaka; Sugie, Takahisa; Tsumura, Norimichi; Kuroshima, Mai; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Lei, Cheng; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi

    2016-03-01

    High-speed imaging is an indispensable technique, particularly for identifying or analyzing fast-moving objects. The serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM) technique was proposed to enable us to capture images with a frame rate 1,000 times faster than using conventional methods such as CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras. The application of this high-speed STEAM imaging technique to a real-time system, such as flow cytometry for a cell-sorting system, requires successively processing a large number of captured images with high throughput in real time. We are now developing a high-speed flow cytometer system including a STEAM camera. In this paper, we describe our approach to processing these large amounts of image data in real time. We use an analog-to-digital converter that has up to 7.0G samples/s and 8-bit resolution for capturing the output voltage signal that involves grayscale images from the STEAM camera. Therefore the direct data output from the STEAM camera generates 7.0G byte/s continuously. We provided a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device as a digital signal pre-processor for image reconstruction and finding objects in a microfluidic channel with high data rates in real time. We also utilized graphics processing unit (GPU) devices for accelerating the calculation speed of identification of the reconstructed images. We built our prototype system, which including a STEAM camera, a FPGA device and a GPU device, and evaluated its performance in real-time identification of small particles (beads), as virtual biological cells, owing through a microfluidic channel.

  17. Closed Loop Requirements and Analysis Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Michael; Verhoef, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Effective systems engineering involves the use of analysis in the derivation of requirements and verification of designs against those requirements. The initial development of requirements often depends on analysis for the technical definition of specific aspects of a product. Following the allocation of system-level requirements to a product's components, the closure of those requirements often involves analytical approaches to verify that the requirement criteria have been satisfied. Meanwhile, changes that occur in between these two processes need to be managed in order to achieve a closed-loop requirement derivation/verification process. Herein are presented concepts for employing emerging Team center capabilities to jointly manage requirements and analysis data such that analytical techniques are utilized to effectively derive and allocate requirements, analyses are consulted and updated during the change evaluation processes, and analyses are leveraged during the design verification process. Recommendations on concept validation case studies are also discussed.

  18. Massively parallel per-pixel-based zerotree processing architecture for real-time video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagoda, Geoffrey; Rassau, Alexander M.; Eshraghian, Kamran

    2001-11-01

    In the span of a few years, mobile multimedia communication has rapidly become a significant area of research and development constantly challenging boundaries on a variety of technological fronts. Video compression, a fundamental component for most mobile multimedia applications, generally places heavy demands in terms of the required processing capacity. Hardware implementations of typical modern hybrid codecs require realisation of components such as motion compensation, wavelet transform, quantisation, zerotree coding and arithmetic coding in real-time. While the implementation of such codecs using a fast generic processor is possible, undesirable trade-offs in terms of power consumption and speed must generally be made. The improvement in power consumption that is achievable through the use of a slow-clocked massively parallel processing environment, while maintaining real-time processing speeds, should thus not be overlooked. An architecture to realise such a massively parallel solution for a zerotree entropy coder is, therefore, presented in this paper.

  19. A flexible software architecture for scalable real-time image and video processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility because they are normally oriented towards particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse and inefficient execution on multicore processors. This paper presents a novel software architecture for real-time image and video processing applications which addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers: the platform abstraction layer, the messaging layer, and the application layer. The platform abstraction layer provides a high level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of messages. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for real-time image and video processing applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface and data processing modules, take advantage of the power of other well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, we present different prototypes and applications to show the possibilities of the proposed architecture.

  20. Real-time processing of radar return on a parallel computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aalfs, David D.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is working with the FAA to demonstrate the feasibility of pulse Doppler radar as a candidate airborne sensor to detect low altitude windshears. The need to provide the pilot with timely information about possible hazards has motivated a demand for real-time processing of a radar return. Investigated here is parallel processing as a means of accommodating the high data rates required. A PC based parallel computer, called the transputer, is used to investigate issues in real time concurrent processing of radar signals. A transputer network is made up of an array of single instruction stream processors that can be networked in a variety of ways. They are easily reconfigured and software development is largely independent of the particular network topology. The performance of the transputer is evaluated in light of the computational requirements. A number of algorithms have been implemented on the transputers in OCCAM, a language specially designed for parallel processing. These include signal processing algorithms such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), pulse-pair, and autoregressive modelling, as well as routing software to support concurrency. The most computationally intensive task is estimating the spectrum. Two approaches have been taken on this problem, the first and most conventional of which is to use the FFT. By using table look-ups for the basis function and other optimizing techniques, an algorithm has been developed that is sufficient for real time. The other approach is to model the signal as an autoregressive process and estimate the spectrum based on the model coefficients. This technique is attractive because it does not suffer from the spectral leakage problem inherent in the FFT. Benchmark tests indicate that autoregressive modeling is feasible in real time.

  1. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  2. Near Real Time Review of Instrument Performance using the Airborne Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delene, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research aircraft that conduct atmospheric measurements carry an increasing array of instrumentation. While on-board personnel constantly review instrument parameters and time series plots, there are an overwhelming number of items. Furthermore, directing the aircraft flight takes up much of the flight scientist time. Typically, a flight engineer is given the responsibility of reviewing the status of on-board instruments. While major issues like not receiving data are quickly identified during a flight, subtle issues like low but believable concentration measurements may go unnoticed. Therefore, it is critical to review data after a flight in near real time. The Airborne Data Processing and Analysis (ADPAA) software package used by the University of North Dakota automates the post-processing of aircraft flight data. Utilizing scripts to process the measurements recorded by data acquisition systems enables the generation of data files within an hour of flight completion. The ADPAA Cplot visualization program enables plots to be quickly generated that enable timely review of all recorded and processed parameters. Near real time review of aircraft flight data enables instrument problems to be identified, investigated and fixed before conducting another flight. On one flight, near real time data review resulted in the identification of unusually low measurements of cloud condensation nuclei, and rapid data visualization enabled the timely investigation of the cause. As a result, a leak was found and fixed before the next flight. Hence, with the high cost of aircraft flights, it is critical to find and fix instrument problems in a timely matter. The use of a automated processing scripts and quick visualization software enables scientists to review aircraft flight data in near real time to identify potential problems.

  3. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEAR REAL-TIME HYDROLOGICAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G.; ,

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is utilizing a national network of more than 1000 satellite data-collection stations, four satellite-relay direct-readout ground stations, and more than 50 computers linked together in a private telecommunications network to acquire, process, and distribute hydrological data in near real-time. The four Survey offices operating a satellite direct-readout ground station provide near real-time hydrological data to computers located in other Survey offices through the Survey's Distributed Information System. The computerized distribution system permits automated data processing and distribution to be carried out in a timely manner under the control and operation of the Survey office responsible for the data-collection stations and for the dissemination of hydrological information to the water-data users.

  4. Real-time control of electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Keville, Bernard; Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M.; Zhang Yang; Daniels, Stephen; Holohan, Anthony M.

    2013-05-15

    Reactive ion etching (RIE) is sensitive to changes in chamber conditions, such as wall seasoning, which have a deleterious effect on process reproducibility. The application of real time, closed loop control to RIE may reduce this sensitivity and facilitate production with tighter tolerances. The real-time, closed loop control of plasma density with RF power in a capacitively coupled argon plasma using a hairpin resonance probe as a sensor is described. Elementary control analysis shows that an integral controller provides stable and effective set point tracking and disturbance attenuation. The trade off between performance and robustness may be quantified in terms of one parameter, namely the position of the closed loop pole. Experimental results are presented, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  5. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  6. A portable real-time data processing system for standard meteorological radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staffanson, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    The UMET-1 is a microprocessor-based portable system for automatic real-time processing of flight data transmitted from the standard RAWINSONDE upper atmosphere meteorological balloonsonde. The first 'target system' is described which was designed to receive data from a mobile tracking and telemetry receiving station (TRADAT), as the balloonsonde ascends to apogee. After balloon-burst, the UMET-1 produces user-ready hardcopy.

  7. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  8. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Processing and Dissemination of NPP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Chettri, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    We are building a scalable cloud-based infrastructure for generating and disseminating near-real-time data products from a variety of geospatial and meteorological data sources, including the new National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). Our approach relies on linking Direct Broadcast and other data streams to a suite of scientific algorithms coordinated by NASA's International Polar-Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP). The resulting data products are directly accessible to a wide variety of end-user applications, via industry-standard protocols such as OGC Web Services, Unidata Local Data Manager, or OPeNDAP, using open source software components. The processing chain employs on-demand computing resources from Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud and NASA's Nebula cloud services. Our current prototype targets short-term weather forecasting, in collaboration with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program and the National Weather Service. Direct Broadcast is especially crucial for NPP, whose current ground segment is unlikely to deliver data quickly enough for short-term weather forecasters and other near-real-time users. Direct Broadcast also allows full local control over data handling, from the receiving antenna to end-user applications: this provides opportunities to streamline processes for data ingest, processing, and dissemination, and thus to make interpreted data products (Environmental Data Records) available to practitioners within minutes of data capture at the sensor. Cloud computing lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations in data availability (twice daily for polar orbiters) - and similarly large fluctuations in demand from our target (near-real-time) users. This offers a compelling business case for cloud computing: the processing or dissemination systems can grow arbitrarily large to sustain near-real time data access despite surges in

  9. Comparison of Different Techniques for Processing GNSS Data in Real Time for Tsunami Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Dragert, H.; Lu, Y.; Henton, J.; MacLeod, K.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time processing and dissemination of GNSS derived co-seismic position offsets for tsunami early warning has been under development at the Geological Survey of Canada (NRCan) for the past six years. Using streamed data from the Western Canada Deformation Array (WCDA), results from two variations of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and two variations of network-based solutions are evaluated: NRCan's real-time PPP software, and two commercial software packages RTD and RTNET, licensed from Geodetics Inc. and GPS Solutions Inc. respectively. Of the two commercial packages, the former provides independent, epoch-by-epoch network solutions, while the latter has the capability to process data using both PPP and Network approaches. There are clear advantages and disadvantages to the independent PPP solutions vs. the network based solutions. PPP solutions (smoothed and un-smoothed) provide position estimates for single stations in a global framework. They are not reliant on 'fixed' reference stations that, if located within the seismogenic zone, will clearly experience co-seismic displacements. Under best-case scenarios, error levels of 1-2 cm horizontal and 3-6cm vertical are achievable for network based solutions whereas PPP solutions with ambiguity resolution are currently somewhat noisier. Both analysis methodologies are critically dependent on data continuity and robust tracking of all available satellites at each site. A clear case is made for the requirement for network based processing capacity for baselines of greater than 150km in order to ensure robust co-seismic displacement estimates during large earthquakes. Results from tests within the WCDA network using the different techniques are presented as well as recommendations for computational and operational improvements. NRCan's real-time web based interface offers the user community with a real-time display of position offset estimates for sites in southwestern coastal British Columbia.

  10. Closed-loop approach to thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupil, C.; Ouerdane, H.; Herbert, E.; Benenti, G.; D'Angelo, Y.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2016-09-01

    We present the closed-loop approach to linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics considering a generic heat engine dissipatively connected to two temperature baths. The system is usually quite generally characterized by two parameters: the output power P and the conversion efficiency η , to which we add a third one, the working frequency ω . We establish that a detailed understanding of the effects of the dissipative coupling on the energy conversion process requires only knowing two quantities: the system's feedback factor β and its open-loop gain A0, which product A0β characterizes the interplay between the efficiency, the output power, and the operating rate of the system. By raising the abstract hermodynamic analysis to a higher level, the feedback loop approach provides a versatile and economical, hence fairly efficient, tool for the study of any conversion engine operation for which a feedback factor can be defined.

  11. Demonstration plan for real time receiving and processing of flight data from the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.; Avery, Don E.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a detailed demonstration test plan for receiving and processing data from experiments being conducted on the Space Transportation System near real time at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This task can readily be achieved using the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). The Space Shuttle data flow is described including both the payload and the mission data. A description is presented of the OARE instrument which is used to measure low frequency Space Shuttle accelerations in nano-gs. Procedures are shown for obtaining the required mission data and OARE payload data at LaRC. The demonstration test plan schedule and costs are presented. It is recommended that both the OARE data and the pertinent Space Shuttle mission data be received at LaRC over the NASA Communication System (NASCOM) on a near real time basis.

  12. Language at Three Timescales: The Role of Real-Time Processes in Language Development and Evolution.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary developmental systems (evo-devo) theory stresses that selection pressures operate on entire developmental systems rather than just genes. This study extends this approach to language evolution, arguing that selection pressure may operate on two quasi-independent timescales. First, children clearly must acquire language successfully (as acknowledged in traditional evo-devo accounts) and evolution must equip them with the tools to do so. Second, while this is developing, they must also communicate with others in the moment using partially developed knowledge. These pressures may require different solutions, and their combination may underlie the evolution of complex mechanisms for language development and processing. I present two case studies to illustrate how the demands of both real-time communication and language acquisition may be subtly different (and interact). The first case study examines infant-directed speech (IDS). A recent view is that IDS underwent cultural to statistical learning mechanisms that infants use to acquire the speech categories of their language. However, recent data suggest is it may not have evolved to enhance development, but rather to serve a more real-time communicative function. The second case study examines the argument for seemingly specialized mechanisms for learning word meanings (e.g., fast-mapping). Both behavioral and computational work suggest that learning may be much slower and served by general-purpose mechanisms like associative learning. Fast-mapping, then, may be a real-time process meant to serve immediate communication, not learning, by augmenting incomplete vocabulary knowledge with constraints from the current context. Together, these studies suggest that evolutionary accounts consider selection pressure arising from both real-time communicative demands and from the need for accurate language development.

  13. Language at Three Timescales: The Role of Real-Time Processes in Language Development and Evolution.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary developmental systems (evo-devo) theory stresses that selection pressures operate on entire developmental systems rather than just genes. This study extends this approach to language evolution, arguing that selection pressure may operate on two quasi-independent timescales. First, children clearly must acquire language successfully (as acknowledged in traditional evo-devo accounts) and evolution must equip them with the tools to do so. Second, while this is developing, they must also communicate with others in the moment using partially developed knowledge. These pressures may require different solutions, and their combination may underlie the evolution of complex mechanisms for language development and processing. I present two case studies to illustrate how the demands of both real-time communication and language acquisition may be subtly different (and interact). The first case study examines infant-directed speech (IDS). A recent view is that IDS underwent cultural to statistical learning mechanisms that infants use to acquire the speech categories of their language. However, recent data suggest is it may not have evolved to enhance development, but rather to serve a more real-time communicative function. The second case study examines the argument for seemingly specialized mechanisms for learning word meanings (e.g., fast-mapping). Both behavioral and computational work suggest that learning may be much slower and served by general-purpose mechanisms like associative learning. Fast-mapping, then, may be a real-time process meant to serve immediate communication, not learning, by augmenting incomplete vocabulary knowledge with constraints from the current context. Together, these studies suggest that evolutionary accounts consider selection pressure arising from both real-time communicative demands and from the need for accurate language development. PMID:26991438

  14. RF Processing the NLCTA Injector Using Real Time Graphical Vacuum Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Saul L.

    1997-05-01

    One of the objectives of the NLCTA is to demonstrate the reliable operation of high peak power X-band RF transmission and acceleration systems. RF processing is an important function in this endeavor. The first klystron, pulse compression (SLEDII) and injector accelerator sections were processed to 50 MW SLED input power with a power multiplication at the output of SLEDII of almost 4. The paper describes RF processing by the use of real time graphical instrumentation that allows the viewing and recording of system vacuum levels and RF breakdown.

  15. Graphic processing unit accelerated real-time partially coherent beam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Chunyi; Jiang, Huilin; Fang, Hanhan; Song, Lujun; Zhang, Su

    2016-07-01

    A method of using liquid-crystals (LCs) to generate a partially coherent beam in real-time is described. An expression for generating a partially coherent beam is given and calculated using a graphic processing unit (GPU), i.e., the GeForce GTX 680. A liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) with 256 × 256 pixels is used as the partially coherent beam generator (PCBG). An optimizing method with partition convolution is used to improve the generating speed of our LC PCBG. The total time needed to generate a random phase map with a coherence width range from 0.015 mm to 1.5 mm is less than 2.4 ms for calculation and readout with the GPU; adding the time needed for the CPU to read and send to LCOS with the response time of the LC PCBG, the real-time partially coherent beam (PCB) generation frequency of our LC PCBG is up to 312 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first real-time partially coherent beam generator. A series of experiments based on double pinhole interference are performed. The result shows that to generate a laser beam with a coherence width of 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, with a mean error of approximately 1%, the RMS values needed 0.021306 and 0.020883 and the PV values required 0.073576 and 0.072998, respectively.

  16. Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing from Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Qin, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Bauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The results of the technological breakthroughs in computing that have taken place over the last few decades makes it possible to achieve emergency management objectives that focus on saving human lives and decreasing economic effects. In particular, the integration of a wide variety of information sources, including observations from spatially-referenced physical sensors and new social media sources, enables better real-time seismic hazard analysis through distributed computing networks. The main goal of this work is to utilize innovative computational algorithms for better real-time seismic risk analysis by integrating different data sources and processing tools into streaming and cloud computing applications. The Geological Survey of Canada operates the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) with over 100 high-gain instruments and 60 low-gain or strong motion seismographs. The processing of the continuous data streams from each station of the CNSN provides the opportunity to detect possible earthquakes in near real-time. The information from physical sources is combined to calculate a location and magnitude for an earthquake. The automatically calculated results are not always sufficiently precise and prompt that can significantly reduce the response time to a felt or damaging earthquake. Social sensors, here represented as Twitter users, can provide information earlier to the general public and more rapidly to the emergency planning and disaster relief agencies. We introduce joint streaming data processing from social and physical sensors in real-time based on the idea that social media observations serve as proxies for physical sensors. By using the streams of data in the form of Twitter messages, each of which has an associated time and location, we can extract information related to a target event and perform enhanced analysis by combining it with physical sensor data. Results of this work suggest that the use of data from social media, in conjunction

  17. Hardware and software platform for real-time processing and visualization of echographic radiofrequency signals.

    PubMed

    Scabia, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    In this paper the architecture of a hardware and software platform, for ultrasonic investigation is presented. The platform, used in conjunction with an analog front-end hardware for driving the ultrasonic transducers of any commercial echograph, having the radiofrequency echo signal access, make it possible to dispose of a powerful echographic system for experimenting any processing technique, also in a clinical environment in which real-time operation mode is an essential prerequisite. The platform transforms any echograph into a test-system for evaluating the diagnostic effectiveness of new investigation techniques. A particular user interface was designed in order to allow a real-time and simultaneous visualization of the results produced in the different stages of the chosen processing procedure. This is aimed at obtaining a better optimization of the processing algorithm. The most important platform aspect, which also constitutes the basic differentiation with respect to similar systems, is the direct processing of the radiofrequency echo signal, which is essential for a complete analysis of the particular ultrasound-media interaction phenomenon. The platform completely integrates the architecture of a personal computer (PC) giving rise to several benefits, such as the quick technological evolution in the PC field and an extreme degree of programmability for different applications. The PC also constitutes the user interface, as a flexible and intuitive visualization support, and performs some software signal processing, by custom algorithms and commercial libraries. The realized close synergy between hardware and software allows the acquisition and real-time processing of the echographic radiofrequency (RF) signal with fast data representation. PMID:12403146

  18. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  19. Observations of breakup processes of liquid jets using real-time X-ray radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Char, J. M.; Kuo, K. K.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1988-01-01

    To unravel the liquid-jet breakup process in the nondilute region, a newly developed system of real-time X-ray radiography, an advanced digital image processor, and a high-speed video camera were used. Based upon recorded X-ray images, the inner structure of a liquid jet during breakup was observed. The jet divergence angle, jet breakup length, and fraction distributions along the axial and transverse directions of the liquid jets were determined in the near-injector region. Both wall- and free-jet tests were conducted to study the effect of wall friction on the jet breakup process.

  20. Neural networks for process scheduling in real-time communication systems.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, S; Mirabella, O

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the use of Hopfield-type neural networks for process scheduling in the area of factory automation, where bus-based communication systems, called FieldBuses, are widely used to connect sensors and actuators to the control systems. We show how it overcomes the problem of the computational complexity of the algorithmic solution. The neural model proposed allows several processes to be scheduled simultaneously; the time required is polynomial with respect to the number of processes being scheduled. This feature allows real-time process scheduling and makes it possible for the scheduling table to adapt to changes in process control features. The paper presents the neural model for process scheduling and assesses its computational complexity, pointing out the drastic reduction in the time needed to generate a schedule as compared with the algorithmic scheduling solution. Finally, the authors propose an on-line scheduling strategy based on the neural model which can achieve real-time adaptation of the scheduling table to changes in the manufacturing environment.

  1. VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

    2003-02-01

    Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

  2. Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Teoman E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time display of processed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) images is important for applications that require instant feedback of image information, for example, systems developed for rapid screening or image-guided surgery. However, the computational requirements for high-speed FDOCT image processing usually exceeds the capabilities of most computers and therefore display rates rarely match acquisition rates for most devices. We have designed and developed an image processing system, including hardware based upon a field programmable gated array, firmware, and software that enables real-time display of processed images at rapid line rates. The system was designed to be extremely flexible and inserted in-line between any FDOCT detector and any Camera Link frame grabber. Two versions were developed for spectrometer-based and swept source-based FDOCT systems, the latter having an additional custom high-speed digitizer on the front end but using all the capabilities and features of the former. The system was tested in humans and monkeys using an adaptive optics retinal imager, in zebrafish using a dual-beam Doppler instrument, and in human tissue using a swept source microscope. A display frame rate of 27 fps for fully processed FDOCT images (1024 axial pixels×512 lateral A-scans) was achieved in the spectrometer-based systems. PMID:19045902

  3. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  4. Iterative LQG Controller Design Through Closed-Loop Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller design approach for a linear stochastic system with an uncertain open-loop model and unknown noise statistics. This approach consists of closed-loop identification and controller redesign cycles. In each cycle, the closed-loop identification method is used to identify an open-loop model and a steady-state Kalman filter gain from closed-loop input/output test data obtained by using a feedback LQG controller designed from the previous cycle. Then the identified open-loop model is used to redesign the state feedback. The state feedback and the identified Kalman filter gain are used to form an updated LQC controller for the next cycle. This iterative process continues until the updated controller converges. The proposed controller design is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments on a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system.

  5. A Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensor for Monitoring Laser Welding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sibillano, Teresa; Ancona, Antonio; Berardi, Vincenzo; Lugarà, Pietro Mario

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a sensor for real time monitoring of laser welding processes based on spectroscopic techniques. The system is based on the acquisition of the optical spectra emitted from the laser generated plasma plume and their use to implement an on-line algorithm for both the calculation of the plasma electron temperature and the analysis of the correlations between selected spectral lines. The sensor has been patented and it is currently available on the market. PMID:22412317

  6. Enhancing Sensitivity of a Miniature Spectrometer Using a Real-Time Image Processing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Sabarish; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    A real-time image processing algorithm is developed to enhance the sensitivity of a planar single-mode waveguide miniature spectrometer with integrated waveguide gratings. A novel approach of averaging along the arcs in a curved coordinate system is introduced which allows for collecting more light, thereby enhancing the sensitivity. The algorithm is tested using CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots drop casted on the surface of a single-mode waveguide. Measurements indicate that a monolayer of quantum dots is expected to produce guided mode attenuation approximately 11 times above the noise level.

  7. Real time video processing software for the analysis of endoscopic guided-biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, C.; Bouchet, A.; Pastore, J.; Blotta, E.

    2011-12-01

    The severity in Barrett esophagus disease is, undoubtedly, the possibility of its malignization. To make an early diagnosis in order to avoid possible complications, it is absolutely necessary collect biopsies to make a histological analysis. This should be done under endoscopic control to avoid mucus areas that may co-exist within the columnar epithelial, which could lead to a false diagnosis. This paper presents a video processing software in real-time in order to delineate and enhance areas of interest to facilitate the work of the expert.

  8. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Schlahta, St.

    2008-07-01

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  9. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schlahta, Stephan N.

    2008-05-27

    ABSTRACT A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  10. Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yu, Joe X. Z.; Cadotte, David W.; Wilson, Brian C.; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Advances in swept source laser technology continues to increase the imaging speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. These fast imaging speeds are ideal for microvascular detection schemes, such as speckle variance (SV), where interframe motion can cause severe imaging artifacts and loss of vascular contrast. However, full utilization of the laser scan speed has been hindered by the computationally intensive signal processing required by SS-OCT and SV calculations. Using a commercial graphics processing unit that has been optimized for parallel data processing, we report a complete high-speed SS-OCT platform capable of real-time data acquisition, processing, display, and saving at 108,000 lines per second. Subpixel image registration of structural images was performed in real-time prior to SV calculations in order to reduce decorrelation from stationary structures induced by the bulk tissue motion. The viability of the system was successfully demonstrated in a high bulk tissue motion scenario of human fingernail root imaging where SV images (512 × 512 pixels, n = 4) were displayed at 54 frames per second. PMID:22808428

  11. A Real-Time Image Acquisition And Processing System For A RISC-Based Microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckman, Adrian J.; Allinson, Nigel M.

    1989-03-01

    A low cost image acquisition and processing system has been developed for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. Using a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture, the ARM (Acorn Risc Machine) processor provides instruction speeds suitable for image processing applications. The associated improvement in data transfer rate has allowed real-time video image acquisition without the need for frame-store memory external to the microcomputer. The system is comprised of real-time video digitising hardware which interfaces directly to the Archimedes memory, and software to provide an integrated image acquisition and processing environment. The hardware can digitise a video signal at up to 640 samples per video line with programmable parameters such as sampling rate and gain. Software support includes a work environment for image capture and processing with pixel, neighbourhood and global operators. A friendly user interface is provided with the help of the Archimedes Operating System WIMP (Windows, Icons, Mouse and Pointer) Manager. Windows provide a convenient way of handling images on the screen and program control is directed mostly by pop-up menus.

  12. Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Owen; Cuccia, David; Choi, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a technique in which coherent light incident on a surface produces a reflected speckle pattern that is related to the underlying movement of optical scatterers, such as red blood cells, indicating blood flow. Image-processing algorithms can be applied to produce speckle flow index (SFI) maps of relative blood flow. We present a novel algorithm that employs the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform to perform laser speckle image processing on the graphics processing unit. Software written in C was integrated with CUDA and integrated into a LabVIEW Virtual Instrument (VI) that is interfaced with a monochrome CCD camera able to acquire high-resolution raw speckle images at nearly 10 fps. With the CUDA code integrated into the LabVIEW VI, the processing and display of SFI images were performed also at ∼10 fps. We present three video examples depicting real-time flow imaging during a reactive hyperemia maneuver, with fluid flow through an in vitro phantom, and a demonstration of real-time LSI during laser surgery of a port wine stain birthmark. PMID:21280915

  13. Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Owen; Cuccia, David; Choi, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a technique in which coherent light incident on a surface produces a reflected speckle pattern that is related to the underlying movement of optical scatterers, such as red blood cells, indicating blood flow. Image-processing algorithms can be applied to produce speckle flow index (SFI) maps of relative blood flow. We present a novel algorithm that employs the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform to perform laser speckle image processing on the graphics processing unit. Software written in C was integrated with CUDA and integrated into a LabVIEW Virtual Instrument (VI) that is interfaced with a monochrome CCD camera able to acquire high-resolution raw speckle images at nearly 10 fps. With the CUDA code integrated into the LabVIEW VI, the processing and display of SFI images were performed also at ~10 fps. We present three video examples depicting real-time flow imaging during a reactive hyperemia maneuver, with fluid flow through an in vitro phantom, and a demonstration of real-time LSI during laser surgery of a port wine stain birthmark.

  14. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of welding fume derived particles generated from real time welding processes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cali; Demokritou, Philip; Shafer, Martin; Christiani, David

    2013-01-01

    Welding fume particles have been well studied in the past; however, most studies have examined welding fumes generated from machine models rather than actual exposures. Furthermore, the link between physicochemical and toxicological properties of welding fume particles has not been well understood. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of particles derived during real time welding processes generated during actual welding processes and to assess the particle size specific toxicological properties. A compact cascade impactor (Harvard CCI) was stationed within the welding booth to sample particles by size. Size fractionated particles were extracted and used for both off-line physicochemical analysis and in vitro cellular toxicological characterization. Each size fraction was analyzed for ions, elemental compositions, and mass concentration. Furthermore, real time optical particle monitors (DustTrak™, TSI Inc., Shoreview, Minn.) were used in the same welding booth to collect real time PM2.5 particle number concentration data. The sampled particles were extracted from the polyurethane foam (PUF) impaction substrates using a previously developed and validated protocol, and used in a cellular assay to assess oxidative stress. By mass, welding aerosols were found to be in coarse (PM 2.5–10), and fine (PM 0.1–2.5) size ranges. Most of the water soluble (WS) metals presented higher concentrations in the coarse size range with some exceptions such as sodium, which presented elevated concentration in the PM 0.1 size range. In vitro data showed size specific dependency, with the fine and ultrafine size ranges having the highest reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Additionally, this study suggests a possible correlation between welders' experience, the welding procedure and equipment used and particles generated from welding fumes. Mass concentrations and total metal and water soluble metal concentrations of welding fume particles may be

  15. Image corruption detection in diffusion tensor imaging for post-processing and real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M; Lorenz, Christine H; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called "corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity" (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies.

  16. Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan

    2014-04-01

    I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

  17. Real-time software processing and audio reproduction of directional Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Fidanzati, Paolo; Morganti, Tiziano; Tortoli, Piero

    2005-12-01

    In ultrasound Doppler systems, directional signals are typically obtained by processing quadrature demodulated data with dedicated analog or digital circuits. In this paper, a software approach is proposed, that allows fully exploiting the reproduction and recording capabilities of low-cost personal computer sound cards and/or embedded chips. Forward/reverse signals are separated through a wideband Hilbert filter. No limitations are imposed on the input signal sample rate, which is matched to the standard output format of sound cards through a band-limited interpolation filter controlled in a feedback loop. The digital audio streaming is performed in real-time in a Windows-based application. The processed data are in a standard format compatible with real-time recording in waveform or compressed files, as requested in many research applications. Simulations and in vivo tests show a typical cross talk of -50 dB between forward and reverse components, with low latency time (39 ms) and central processing unit load compatible to currently available personal computers.

  18. Real-time scene generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.; Cantle, Allan J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the techniques which have been developed for an infra-red (IR) target, countermeasure and background image generation system working in real time for HWIL and Trial Proving applications. Operation is in the 3 to 5 and 8 to 14 micron bands. The system may be used to drive a scene projector (otherwise known as a thermal picture synthesizer) or for direct injection into equipment under test. The provision of realistic IR target and countermeasure trajectories and signatures, within representative backgrounds, enables the full performance envelope of a missile system to be evaluated. It also enables an operational weapon system to be proven in a trials environment without compromising safety. The most significant technique developed has been that of line by line synthesis. This minimizes the processing delays to the equivalent of 1.5 frames from input of target and sightline positions to the completion of an output image scan. Using this technique a scene generator has been produced for full closed loop HWIL performance analysis for the development of an air to air missile system. Performance of the synthesis system is as follows: 256 * 256 pixels per frame; 350 target polygons per frame; 100 Hz frame rate; and Gouraud shading, simple reflections, variable geometry targets and atmospheric scaling. A system using a similar technique has also bee used for direct insertion into the video path of a ground to air weapon system in live firing trials. This has provided realistic targets without degrading the closed loop performance. Delay of the modified video signal has been kept to less than 5 lines. The technique has been developed using a combination of 4 high speed Intel i860 RISC processors in parallel with the 4000 series XILINX field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Start and end conditions for each line of target pixels are prepared and ordered in the I860. The merging with background pixels and output shading and scaling is then carried out in

  19. A closed-loop dual-modulation multi-spectral polarimeter for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen fang; Pirnstill, Casey W.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical polarimetry is a promising noninvasive means of assessing glucose concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye. One the major limiting factors is time-varying cornea birefringence due to motion artifact, which prevents the realization of this device. In this study, we simultaneously utilize laser intensity modulation and Faraday polarization rotation modulation for a real-time closed-loop multi-spectral polarimeter for glucose monitoring in vitro. In this report, a real-time closed-loop dual-modulation dual-spectral polarimeter was presented and in vitro glucose measurements were performed demonstrating the accuracy and repeatability of this polarimeter.

  20. FPGA based image processing for optical surface inspection with real time constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Ylber; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Brodersen, Jörg; Mayer, Konrad J.

    2015-02-01

    Today, high-quality printing products like banknotes, stamps, or vouchers, are automatically checked by optical surface inspection systems. In a typical optical surface inspection system, several digital cameras acquire the printing products with fine resolution from different viewing angles and at multiple wavelengths of the visible and also near infrared spectrum of light. The cameras deliver data streams with a huge amount of image data that have to be processed by an image processing system in real time. Due to the printing industry's demand for higher throughput together with the necessity to check finer details of the print and its security features, the data rates to be processed tend to explode. In this contribution, a solution is proposed, where the image processing load is distributed between FPGAs and digital signal processors (DSPs) in such a way that the strengths of both technologies can be exploited. The focus lies upon the implementation of image processing algorithms in an FPGA and its advantages. In the presented application, FPGAbased image-preprocessing enables real-time implementation of an optical color surface inspection system with a spatial resolution of 100 μm and for object speeds over 10 m/s. For the implementation of image processing algorithms in the FPGA, pipeline parallelism with clock frequencies up to 150 MHz together with spatial parallelism based on multiple instantiations of modules for parallel processing of multiple data streams are exploited for the processing of image data of two cameras and three color channels. Due to their flexibility and their fast response times, it is shown that FPGAs are ideally suited for realizing a configurable all-digital PLL for the processing of camera line-trigger signals with frequencies about 100 kHz, using pure synchronous digital circuit design.

  1. Three-dimensional fuzzy-directional processing to impulse video color denoising in real time environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Silva, Alberto J.; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr; Gallegos-Funes, Francisco

    2009-05-01

    It is presented a robust three dimensional scheme using fuzzy and directional techniques in denoising video color images contaminated by impulsive random noise. This scheme estimates a noise and movement level in local area, detecting edges and fine details in an image video sequence. The proposed approach cares the chromaticity properties in multidimensional and multichannel images. The algorithm was specially designed to reduce computational charge, and its performance is quantified using objective criteria, such as Pick Signal Noise Relation, Mean Absolute Error and Normalized Color Difference, as well visual subjective views. Novel filter shows superiority rendering against other well known algorithms found in the literature. Real-time analysis is realized on Digital Signal Processor to outperform processing capability. The DSP was designed by Texas Instruments for multichannel processing in the multitask process, and permits to improve the performance of several tasks, and at the same time enhancing processing time and reducing computational charge in such a dedicated hardware.

  2. Real-time digital signal processing in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of multiphoton interactions in biological tissue for imaging contrast requires highly sensitive optical measurements. These often involve signal processing and filtering steps between the photodetector and the data acquisition device, such as photon counting and lock-in amplification. These steps can be implemented as real-time digital signal processing (DSP) elements on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, an approach that affords much greater flexibility than commercial photon counting or lock-in devices. We will present progress toward developing two new FPGA-based DSP devices for multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy applications. The first is a high-speed multiharmonic lock-in amplifier for transient absorption microscopy, which is being developed for real-time analysis of the intensity-dependence of melanin, with applications in vivo and ex vivo (noninvasive histopathology of melanoma and pigmented lesions). The second device is a kHz lock-in amplifier running on a low cost (50-200) development platform. It is our hope that these FPGA-based DSP devices will enable new, high-speed, low-cost applications in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy.

  3. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  4. Real-time processing in picture naming in adults who stutter: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Nathan D.; Morris, Kalie; Frisch, Stefan A.; Morphew, Kathryn; Constantine, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to compare real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically-fluent adults (TFA). Methods Participants named pictures preceded by masked prime words. Primes and target picture labels were Identical or mismatched. Priming effects on naming and picture-elicited ERP activity were analyzed. Vocabulary knowledge correlations with these measures were assessed. Results Priming improved naming RTs and accuracy in both groups. RTs were longer for AWS, and correlated positively with receptive vocabulary in TFA. Electrophysiologically, posterior-P1 amplitude negatively correlated with expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Frontal/temporal-P1 amplitude correlated positively with expressive vocabulary in AWS. Identity priming enhanced frontal/posterior-N2 amplitude in both groups, and attenuated P280 amplitude in AWS. N400 priming was topographically-restricted in AWS. Conclusions Results suggest that conceptual knowledge was perceptually-grounded in expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Poorer expressive vocabulary in AWS was potentially associated with greater suppression of irrelevant conceptual information. Priming enhanced N2-indexed cognitive control and visual attention in both groups. P280-indexed focal attention attenuated with priming in AWS only. Topographically-restricted N400 priming suggests that lemma/word form connections were weaker in AWS. Significance Real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming operates differently in AWS. PMID:24910149

  5. Real-time investigation of nucleic acids phosphorylation process using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong; Ma, Changbei; Li, Jun; Liu, Lingfeng; Guo, Qiuping; Meng, Xiangxian

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation of nucleic acids is an indispensable process to repair strand interruption of nucleic acids. We have studied the process of phosphorylation using molecular beacon (MB) DNA probes in real-time and with high selectivity. The MB employed in this method is devised to sense the product of a 'phosphorylation-ligation' coupled enzyme reaction. Compared with the current assays, this novel method is convenient, fast, selective, highly sensitive and capable of real-time monitoring in a homogenous solution. The preference of T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) has been investigated using this approach. The results revealed that a single-stranded oligonucleotide containing guanine at the 5' termini is most preferred, while those utilizing cytosine in this location are least preferred. The preference of (T)9 was reduced greatly when phosphoryl was modified at the 5' end, implying that T4 PNK could discern the phosphorylated/unphosphorylated oligonucleotides. The increase of oligonucleotide DNA length leads to an enhancement in preference. A fast and accurate method for assaying the kinase activity of T4 PNK has been developed with a wide linear detection range from 0.002 to 4.0 U/ml in 3 min. The effects of certain factors, such as NTP, ADP, (NH4)2SO4 and Na2HPO4, on phosphorylation have been investigated. This novel approach enables us to investigate the interactions between proteins and nucleic acids in a homogenous solution, such as those found in DNA repair or in drug development.

  6. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

  7. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion.

  8. Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated

  9. A design of real time image capturing and processing system using Texas Instrument's processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Toon-Joo; Chaisorn, Lekha; Rahardja, Susanto; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we developed and implemented an image capturing and processing system that equipped with capability of capturing images from an input video in real time. The input video can be a video from a PC, video camcorder or DVD player. We developed two modes of operation in the system. In the first mode, an input image from the PC is processed on the processing board (development platform with a digital signal processor) and is displayed on the PC. In the second mode, current captured image from the video camcorder (or from DVD player) is processed on the board but is displayed on the LCD monitor. The major difference between our system and other existing conventional systems is that image-processing functions are performed on the board instead of the PC (so that the functions can be used for further developments on the board). The user can control the operations of the board through the Graphic User Interface (GUI) provided on the PC. In order to have a smooth image data transfer between the PC and the board, we employed Real Time Data Transfer (RTDX TM) technology to create a link between them. For image processing functions, we developed three main groups of function: (1) Point Processing; (2) Filtering and; (3) 'Others'. Point Processing includes rotation, negation and mirroring. Filter category provides median, adaptive, smooth and sharpen filtering in the time domain. In 'Others' category, auto-contrast adjustment, edge detection, segmentation and sepia color are provided, these functions either add effect on the image or enhance the image. We have developed and implemented our system using C/C# programming language on TMS320DM642 (or DM642) board from Texas Instruments (TI). The system was showcased in College of Engineering (CoE) exhibition 2006 at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and have more than 40 users tried our system. It is demonstrated that our system is adequate for real time image capturing. Our system can be used or applied for

  10. All-IP-Ethernet architecture for real-time sensor-fusion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary; Tezuka, Hiroshi; Tomari, Hisanobu; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kondo, Shuya

    2016-03-01

    Serendipter is a device that distinguishes and selects very rare particles and cells from huge amount of population. We are currently designing and constructing information processing system for a Serendipter. The information processing system for Serendipter is a kind of sensor-fusion system but with much more difficulties: To fulfill these requirements, we adopt All IP based architecture: All IP-Ethernet based data processing system consists of (1) sensor/detector directly output data as IP-Ethernet packet stream, (2) single Ethernet/TCP/IP streams by a L2 100Gbps Ethernet switch, (3) An FPGA board with 100Gbps Ethernet I/F connected to the switch and a Xeon based server. Circuits in the FPGA include 100Gbps Ethernet MAC, buffers and preprocessing, and real-time Deep learning circuits using multi-layer neural networks. Proposed All-IP architecture solves existing problem to construct large-scale sensor-fusion systems.

  11. Demonstration of real-time monitoring of a photolithographic exposure process using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, C.D.

    1998-02-01

    Silicon wafers are coated with photoresist and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light in a laboratory to simulate typical conditions expected in an actual semiconductor manufacturing process tool. Air is drawn through the exposure chamber and analyzed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI/MS). Species that evaporate or outgas from the wafer are thus detected. The purpose of such analyses is to determine the potential of CI/MS as a real-time process monitoring tool. Results demonstrate that CI/MS can remotely detect the products evolved before, during, and after wafer UV exposure; and that the quantity and type of products vary with the photoresist coated on the wafer. Such monitoring could provide semiconductor manufacturers benefits in quality control and process analysis. Tool and photoresist manufacturers could also realize benefits from this measurement technique with respect to new tool, method, or photoresist development. The benefits realized can lead to improved device yields and reduced product and development costs.

  12. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (∼1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  13. Signal quality and Bayesian signal processing in neurofeedback based on real-time fMRI.

    PubMed

    Koush, Yury; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Dyck, Miriam; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Real-time fMRI allows analysis and visualization of the brain activity online, i.e. within one repetition time. It can be used in neurofeedback applications where subjects attempt to control an activation level in a specified region of interest (ROI) of their brain. The signal derived from the ROI is contaminated with noise and artifacts, namely with physiological noise from breathing and heart beat, scanner drift, motion-related artifacts and measurement noise. We developed a Bayesian approach to reduce noise and to remove artifacts in real-time using a modified Kalman filter. The system performs several signal processing operations: subtraction of constant and low-frequency signal components, spike removal and signal smoothing. Quantitative feedback signal quality analysis was used to estimate the quality of the neurofeedback time series and performance of the applied signal processing on different ROIs. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) across the entire time series and the group event-related SNR (eSNR) were significantly higher for the processed time series in comparison to the raw data. Applied signal processing improved the t-statistic increasing the significance of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Accordingly, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the feedback time series was improved as well. In addition, the data revealed increase of localized self-control across feedback sessions. The new signal processing approach provided reliable neurofeedback, performed precise artifacts removal, reduced noise, and required minimal manual adjustments of parameters. Advanced and fast online signal processing algorithms considerably increased the quality as well as the information content of the control signal which in turn resulted in higher contingency in the neurofeedback loop.

  14. Improved radar data processing algorithms for quantitative rainfall estimation in real time.

    PubMed

    Krämer, S; Verworn, H R

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology to process C-band radar data for direct use as rainfall input to hydrologic and hydrodynamic models and in real time control of urban drainage systems. In contrast to the adjustment of radar data with the help of rain gauges, the new approach accounts for the microphysical properties of current rainfall. In a first step radar data are corrected for attenuation. This phenomenon has been identified as the main cause for the general underestimation of radar rainfall. Systematic variation of the attenuation coefficients within predefined bounds allows robust reflectivity profiling. Secondly, event specific R-Z relations are applied to the corrected radar reflectivity data in order to generate quantitative reliable radar rainfall estimates. The results of the methodology are validated by a network of 37 rain gauges located in the Emscher and Lippe river basins. Finally, the relevance of the correction methodology for radar rainfall forecasts is demonstrated. It has become clearly obvious, that the new methodology significantly improves the radar rainfall estimation and rainfall forecasts. The algorithms are applicable in real time.

  15. Real-time network security situation visualization and threat assessment based on semi-Markov process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junhua

    2013-03-01

    To cope with a large amount of data in current sensed environments, decision aid tools should provide their understanding of situations in a time-efficient manner, so there is an increasing need for real-time network security situation awareness and threat assessment. In this study, the state transition model of vulnerability in the network based on semi-Markov process is proposed at first. Once events are triggered by an attacker's action or system response, the current states of the vulnerabilities are known. Then we calculate the transition probabilities of the vulnerability from the current state to security failure state. Furthermore in order to improve accuracy of our algorithms, we adjust the probabilities that they exploit the vulnerability according to the attacker's skill level. In the light of the preconditions and post-conditions of vulnerabilities in the network, attack graph is built to visualize security situation in real time. Subsequently, we predict attack path, recognize attack intention and estimate the impact through analysis of attack graph. These help administrators to insight into intrusion steps, determine security state and assess threat. Finally testing in a network shows that this method is reasonable and feasible, and can undertake tremendous analysis task to facilitate administrators' work.

  16. Processing real-time stereo video for an autonomous robot using disparity maps and sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosselot, Donald W.; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-10-01

    The Bearcat "Cub" Robot is an interactive, intelligent, Autonomous Guided Vehicle (AGV) designed to serve in unstructured environments. Recent advances in computer stereo vision algorithms that produce quality disparity and the availability of low cost high speed camera systems have simplified many of tasks associated with robot navigation and obstacle avoidance using stereo vision. Leveraging these benefits, this paper describes a novel method for autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance currently being implemented on the UC Bearcat Robot. The core of this approach is the synthesis of multiple sources of real-time data including stereo image disparity maps, tilt sensor data, and LADAR data with standard contour, edge, color, and line detection methods to provide robust and intelligent obstacle avoidance. An algorithm is presented with Matlab code to process the disparity maps to rapidly produce obstacle size and location information in a simple format, and features cancellation of noise and correction for pitch and roll. The vision and control computers are clustered with the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software. The significance of this work is in presenting the methods needed for real time navigation and obstacle avoidance for intelligent autonomous robots.

  17. Handheld 2-channel impedimetric cell counting system with embedded real-time processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottigni, A.; Carminati, M.; Ferrari, G.; Vahey, M. D.; Voldman, J.; Sampietro, M.

    2011-05-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been attracting a growing attention for the perspective of miniaturization and portability of bio-chemical assays. Here we present a the design and characterization of a miniaturized, USB-powered, self-contained, 2-channel instrument for impedance sensing, suitable for label-free tracking and real-time detection of cells flowing in microfluidic channels. This original circuit features a signal generator based on a direct digital synthesizer, a transimpedance amplifier, an integrated square-wave lock-in coupled to a Σ▵ ADC converter, and a digital processing platform. Real-time automatic peak detection on two channels is implemented in a FPGA. System functionality has been tested with an electronic resistance modulator to simulate 1% impedance variation produced by cells, reaching a time resolution of 50μs (enabling a count rate of 2000 events/s) with an applied voltage as low as 200mV. Biological experiments have been carried out counting yeast cells. Statistical analysis of events is in agreement with the expected amplitude and time distributions. 2-channel yeast counting has been performed with concomitant dielectrophoretic cell separation, showing that this novel and ultra compact sensing system, thanks to the selectivity of the lock-in detector, is compatible with other AC electrical fields applied to the device.

  18. Real-time digital design for an optical coherence tomography acquisition and processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Mayen, Jose A.; Marks, Dan L.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2004-07-01

    We present a real-time, multi-dimensional, digital, optical coherence tomography (OCT) acquisition and imaging system. The system consists of conventional OCT optics, a rapid scanning optical delay (RSOD) line to support fast data acquisition rates, and a high-speed A/D converter for sampling the interference waveforms. A 1M-gate Virtex-II field programmable gate array (FPGA) is designed to perform digital down conversion. This is analogous to demodulating and low-pass filtering the continuous time signal. The system creates in-phase and quadrature-phase components using a tunable quadrature mixer. Multistage polyphase finite impulse response (FIR) filtering and down sampling is used to remove unneeded high frequencies. A floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) computes the magnitude and phase shifts. The data is read by a host machine and displayed on screen at real-time rates commensurate with the data acquisition rate. This system offers flexible acquisition and processing parameters for a wide range of multi-dimensional optical microscopy techniques.

  19. Real-time image processing for passive mmW imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Paolini, Aaron; Bonnett, James; Harrity, Charles; Mackrides, Daniel; Dillon, Thomas E.; Martin, Richard D.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Kelmelis, Eric; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    The transmission characteristics of millimeter waves (mmWs) make them suitable for many applications in defense and security, from airport preflight scanning to penetrating degraded visual environments such as brownout or heavy fog. While the cold sky provides sufficient illumination for these images to be taken passively in outdoor scenarios, this utility comes at a cost; the diffraction limit of the longer wavelengths involved leads to lower resolution imagery compared to the visible or IR regimes, and the low power levels inherent to passive imagery allow the data to be more easily degraded by noise. Recent techniques leveraging optical upconversion have shown significant promise, but are still subject to fundamental limits in resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. To address these issues we have applied techniques developed for visible and IR imagery to decrease noise and increase resolution in mmW imagery. We have developed these techniques into fieldable software, making use of GPU platforms for real-time operation of computationally complex image processing algorithms. We present data from a passive, 77 GHz, distributed aperture, video-rate imaging platform captured during field tests at full video rate. These videos demonstrate the increase in situational awareness that can be gained through applying computational techniques in real-time without needing changes in detection hardware.

  20. Software-Based Real-Time Acquisition and Processing of PET Detector Raw Data.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph W; Salomon, André; Gebhardt, Pierre; Weissler, Bjoern; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter M; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-02-01

    In modern positron emission tomography (PET) readout architectures, the position and energy estimation of scintillation events (singles) and the detection of coincident events (coincidences) are typically carried out on highly integrated, programmable printed circuit boards. The implementation of advanced singles and coincidence processing (SCP) algorithms for these architectures is often limited by the strict constraints of hardware-based data processing. In this paper, we present a software-based data acquisition and processing architecture (DAPA) that offers a high degree of flexibility for advanced SCP algorithms through relaxed real-time constraints and an easily extendible data processing framework. The DAPA is designed to acquire detector raw data from independent (but synchronized) detector modules and process the data for singles and coincidences in real-time using a center-of-gravity (COG)-based, a least-squares (LS)-based, or a maximum-likelihood (ML)-based crystal position and energy estimation approach (CPEEA). To test the DAPA, we adapted it to a preclinical PET detector that outputs detector raw data from 60 independent digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM)-based detector stacks and evaluated it with a [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-filled hot-rod phantom. The DAPA is highly reliable with less than 0.1% of all detector raw data lost or corrupted. For high validation thresholds (37.1 ± 12.8 photons per pixel) of the dSiPM detector tiles, the DAPA is real time capable up to 55 MBq for the COG-based CPEEA, up to 31 MBq for the LS-based CPEEA, and up to 28 MBq for the ML-based CPEEA. Compared to the COG-based CPEEA, the rods in the image reconstruction of the hot-rod phantom are only slightly better separable and less blurred for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA. While the coincidence time resolution (∼ 500 ps) and energy resolution (∼12.3%) are comparable for all three CPEEA, the system sensitivity is up to 2.5 × higher for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA

  1. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    SciTech Connect

    Versteeg, Roelof J.; Few, Douglas A.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Johnson, Douglas; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-12-15

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  2. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  3. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  4. Near Real-Time Processing and Archiving of GPS Surveys for Crustal Motion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We present an inverse instantaneous RTK method for rapidly processing and archiving GPS data for crustal motion surveys that gives positional accuracy similar to traditional post-processing methods. We first stream 1 Hz data from GPS receivers over Bluetooth to Verizon XV6700 smartphones equipped with Geodetics, Inc. RTD Rover software. The smartphone transmits raw receiver data to a real-time server at the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) running RTD Pro. At the server, instantaneous positions are computed every second relative to the three closest base stations in the California Real Time Network (CRTN), using ultra-rapid orbits produced by SOPAC, the NOAATrop real-time tropospheric delay model, and ITRF2005 coordinates computed by SOPAC for the CRTN stations. The raw data are converted on-the-fly to RINEX format at the server. Data in both formats are stored on the server along with a file of instantaneous positions, computed independently at each observation epoch. The single-epoch instantaneous positions are continuously transmitted back to the field surveyor's smartphone, where RTD Rover computes a median position and interquartile range for each new epoch of observation. The best-fit solution is the last median position and is available as soon as the survey is completed. We describe how we used this method to process 1 Hz data from the February, 2008 Imperial Valley GPS survey of 38 geodetic monuments established by Imperial College, London in the 1970's, and previously measured by SOPAC using rapid-static GPS methods in 1993, 1999 and 2000, as well as 14 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) monuments. For redundancy, each monument was surveyed for about 15 minutes at least twice and at staggered intervals using two survey teams operating autonomously. Archiving of data and the overall project at SOPAC is performed using the PGM software, developed by the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) for the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The

  5. Processing, Cataloguing and Distribution of Uas Images in Near Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkel, I.

    2013-08-01

    can be checked and interpreted in near real-time. For sensible areas it gives you the possibility to inform remote decision makers or interpretation experts in order to provide them situations awareness, wherever they are. For monitoring and inspection tasks it speeds up the process of data capture and data interpretation. The fully automated workflow of data pre-processing, data georeferencing, data cataloguing and data dissemination in near real time was developed based on the Intergraph products ERDAS IMAGINE, ERDAS APOLLO and GEOSYSTEMS METAmorph!IT. It is offered as adaptable solution by GEOSYSTEMS GmbH.

  6. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  7. Real-time model based process monitoring of enzymatic biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M; Huusom, Jakob K

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model for Fed-batch production of biodiesel. For the three process runs investigated, using a single tuning parameter, qx  = 2 × 10(-2) which represents the uncertainty in the process model, it was possible over the entire course of the reaction to reduce the overall mean and standard deviation of the error between the model and the process data for all of the five measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acid methyl esters, and free fatty acid). The most significant reduction for the three process runs, were for the monoglyceride and free fatty acid concentration. For those components, there was over a ten-fold decrease in the overall mean error for the state estimator prediction compared with the predictions from the pure model simulations. It is also shown that the state estimator can be used as a tool for detection of outliers in the measurement data. For the enzymatic biodiesel process, given the infrequent and sometimes uncertain measurements obtained we see the use of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter as a viable tool for real time process monitoring.

  8. A Real-Time Optical Tracking and Measurement Processing System for Flying Targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pengyu; Ding, Shaowen; Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Optical tracking and measurement for flying targets is unlike the close range photography under a controllable observation environment, which brings extreme conditions like diverse target changes as a result of high maneuver ability and long cruising range. This paper first designed and realized a distributed image interpretation and measurement processing system to achieve resource centralized management, multisite simultaneous interpretation and adaptive estimation algorithm selection; then proposed a real-time interpretation method which contains automatic foreground detection, online target tracking, multiple features location, and human guidance. An experiment is carried out at performance and efficiency evaluation of the method by semisynthetic video. The system can be used in the field of aerospace tests like target analysis including dynamic parameter, transient states, and optical physics characteristics, with security control. PMID:24987748

  9. A real-time optical tracking and measurement processing system for flying targets.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengyu; Ding, Shaowen; Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Optical tracking and measurement for flying targets is unlike the close range photography under a controllable observation environment, which brings extreme conditions like diverse target changes as a result of high maneuver ability and long cruising range. This paper first designed and realized a distributed image interpretation and measurement processing system to achieve resource centralized management, multisite simultaneous interpretation and adaptive estimation algorithm selection; then proposed a real-time interpretation method which contains automatic foreground detection, online target tracking, multiple features location, and human guidance. An experiment is carried out at performance and efficiency evaluation of the method by semisynthetic video. The system can be used in the field of aerospace tests like target analysis including dynamic parameter, transient states, and optical physics characteristics, with security control.

  10. The application of digital computers to near-real-time processing of flutter test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures used in monitoring, analyzing, and displaying flight and ground flutter test data are presented. These procedures include three digital computer programs developed to process structural response data in near real time. Qualitative and quantitative modal stability data are derived from time history response data resulting from rapid sinusoidal frequency sweep forcing functions, tuned-mode quick stops, and pilot induced control pulses. The techniques have been applied to both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, during flight, whirl tower rotor systems tests, and wind tunnel flutter model tests. An hydraulically driven oscillatory aerodynamic vane excitation system utilized during the flight flutter test programs accomplished during Lockheed L-1011 and S-3A development is described.

  11. Spectral analysis of laser Doppler signals in real time using digital processing.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, G

    1994-01-01

    A versatile spectrum analyser was developed to generate and display laser Doppler shift signals, and derived parameters, continuously in real time using a digital signal processing chip. A major attraction of the system is that it is entirely programmable, so that both the algorithms and the attributes of the system, such as window function and frame overlap, can be easily altered. It was used to investigate the relative merits of a variety of algorithms using a blood-flow phantom. An index based on the first moment of the Doppler power spectrum was found to be the most reliable flow indicator, with linearity extending towards a velocity of 5 mm s-1 for a blood haematocrit of 5%. The system is not limited to analysis based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), and is suitable for non-linear techniques such as maximum entropy spectral estimation (MESE). PMID:8162263

  12. Counting People and Recognizing Wheelchairs at Elevator Lobby by Real-Time Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchidate, Hikaru; Inoda, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Abe, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a real-time image processing system for wheelchair recognition at elevator lobby. This system extracts objects with frame difference method. From the image of extracted objects, heads of people are detected by the Hough transform. Vertical shooting from ceiling improves the performance of people counting since the detected head has high roundness and occlusion of people is prevented. Two feature quantities are introduced to recognize wheelchairs. They are the area value and the ratio of traveling length to vertical length. Since these quantities require a method for drawing the contour line. This paper proposes a new simple method to draw a contour line. The effectiveness of this system is confirmed through experiments.

  13. Real-time gesture interface based on event-driven processing from stereo silicon retinas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Delbruck, Tobi; Pfeiffer, Michael; Park, Paul K J; Shin, Chang-Woo; Ryu, Hyunsurk Eric; Kang, Byung Chang

    2014-12-01

    We propose a real-time hand gesture interface based on combining a stereo pair of biologically inspired event-based dynamic vision sensor (DVS) silicon retinas with neuromorphic event-driven postprocessing. Compared with conventional vision or 3-D sensors, the use of DVSs, which output asynchronous and sparse events in response to motion, eliminates the need to extract movements from sequences of video frames, and allows significantly faster and more energy-efficient processing. In addition, the rate of input events depends on the observed movements, and thus provides an additional cue for solving the gesture spotting problem, i.e., finding the onsets and offsets of gestures. We propose a postprocessing framework based on spiking neural networks that can process the events received from the DVSs in real time, and provides an architecture for future implementation in neuromorphic hardware devices. The motion trajectories of moving hands are detected by spatiotemporally correlating the stereoscopically verged asynchronous events from the DVSs by using leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons. Adaptive thresholds of the LIF neurons achieve the segmentation of trajectories, which are then translated into discrete and finite feature vectors. The feature vectors are classified with hidden Markov models, using a separate Gaussian mixture model for spotting irrelevant transition gestures. The disparity information from stereovision is used to adapt LIF neuron parameters to achieve recognition invariant of the distance of the user to the sensor, and also helps to filter out movements in the background of the user. Exploiting the high dynamic range of DVSs, furthermore, allows gesture recognition over a 60-dB range of scene illuminance. The system achieves recognition rates well over 90% under a variety of variable conditions with static and dynamic backgrounds with naïve users. PMID:25420246

  14. Side-scan sonar mapping: Pseudo-real-time processing and mosaicking techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, W.W.; Schwab, W.C.; O'Brien, T.F. ); Karl, H. )

    1990-05-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) surveyed 1,000 km{sup 2} of the continental shelf off San Francisco during a 17-day cruise, using a 120-kHz side-scan sonar system, and produced a digitally processed sonar mosaic of the survey area. The data were processed and mosaicked in real time using software developed at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory and modified by the USGS, a substantial task due to the enormous amount of data produced by high-resolution side-scan systems. Approximately 33 megabytes of data were acquired every 1.5 hr. The real-time sonar images were displayed on a PC-based workstation and the data were transferred to a UNIX minicomputer where the sonar images were slant-range corrected, enhanced using an averaging method of desampling and a linear-contrast stretch, merged with navigation, geographically oriented at a user-selected scale, and finally output to a thermal printer. The hard-copy output was then used to construct a mosaic of the survey area. The final product of this technique is a UTM-projected map-mosaic of sea-floor backscatter variations, which could be used, for example, to locate appropriate sites for sediment sampling to ground truth the sonar imagery while still at sea. More importantly, reconnaissance surveys of this type allow for the analysis and interpretation of the mosaic during a cruise, thus greatly reducing the preparation time needed for planning follow-up studies of a particular area.

  15. Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor: A Near-Real-Time Monitor For Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard

    2008-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The threat of protracted diversion of Pu from commercial reprocessing operations is perhaps the greatest concern to national and international agencies tasked with safeguarding these facilities. While it is generally understood that a method for direct monitoring of process on-line and in near-real time (NRT) would be the best defense against protracted diversion scenarios, an effective method with these qualities has yet to be developed. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing an on-line NRT process monitoring method that should be sensitive to minor alterations in process conditions and compatible with small, easily deployable, detection systems. This Approach is known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and involves the determination and recognition of the contaminant pattern within a process stream for a suite of indicator (radioactive) elements present in the spent fuel as a function of process variables. Utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, decreases the likelihood that attempts to divert Pu by altering the ReDox environment within the process would go undetected. In addition, by identifying gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, this Approach might eliminate the need for bulky neutron detection systems, relying instead on small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors easily deployable throughout the facility.

  16. MIMD (multiple instruction multiple data) multiprocessor system for real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirsch, Peter; Jeschke, Hartwig

    1991-06-01

    Anovel MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) based architecture consisting of multiple processing elements (PE) has been developed. This architecture is adapted to real-time processing of sequences of different tasks for local image segments. Each PE contains an arithmetic processing unit (APU), adapted to parallel processing of low level operations, and a high level and control processor (HLCP) for medium and high level operations and control of the PE. This HLCP can be a standard signal processor or a RISC processor. Because of the local control of each PE by the HLCP and a SIMD structure of the APU, the overall system architecture is characterized as MIMD based with a local SIMD structure for low level processing. Due to an overlapped computation and communication the multiprocessor system achieves a linear speedup compared to a single processing element. Main parts of the PE have been realized as two ASICs in a 1.5 jim CMOS-Process. With a system clock rate of 25MHz, each PE provides a peak performance of 400 Mega operations per second (MOPS).

  17. Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires resampling of spectrally resolved depth information from wavelength to wave number, and the subsequent application of the inverse Fourier transform. The display rates of OCT images are much slower than the image acquisition rates due to processing speed limitations on most computers. We demonstrate a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wave-number (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We use the linear-k spectrometer with the combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840-nm spectral region to avoid calculating the resampling process. The calculations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are accelerated by the GPU with many stream processors, which realizes highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames/sec for processed images (2048 FFT size x 1000 lateral A-scans) is achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz. PMID:20059237

  18. Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2009-11-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires resampling of spectrally resolved depth information from wavelength to wave number, and the subsequent application of the inverse Fourier transform. The display rates of OCT images are much slower than the image acquisition rates due to processing speed limitations on most computers. We demonstrate a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wave-number (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We use the linear-k spectrometer with the combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840-nm spectral region to avoid calculating the resampling process. The calculations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are accelerated by the GPU with many stream processors, which realizes highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames/sec for processed images (2048 FFT size×1000 lateral A-scans) is achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz.

  19. Novel real-time diagnosis of the freezing process using an ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Cheng, Chin-Chi; Cheng, Hong-Ping; Lee, Dasheng

    2015-05-04

    The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from -100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy.

  20. Novel Real-Time Diagnosis of the Freezing Process Using an Ultrasonic Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Cheng, Chin-Chi; Cheng, Hong-Ping; Lee, Dasheng

    2015-01-01

    The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from −100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy. PMID:25946629

  1. Novel real-time diagnosis of the freezing process using an ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Cheng, Chin-Chi; Cheng, Hong-Ping; Lee, Dasheng

    2015-01-01

    The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from -100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy. PMID:25946629

  2. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Lopera, Jesús Emilio; S T Motta, José Mauricio; Absi Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo

    2016-09-15

    Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch's t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system.

  3. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Lopera, Jesús Emilio; S. T. Motta, José Mauricio; Absi Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo

    2016-01-01

    Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch’s t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system. PMID:27649198

  4. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Lopera, Jesús Emilio; S T Motta, José Mauricio; Absi Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo

    2016-01-01

    Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch's t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system. PMID:27649198

  5. Real-time image processing system for automated visual inspection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Pais, Cassiano P.; Freitas, Jose C. A.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.

    1993-01-01

    In many potential machine vision applications, the biggest constraint to its industrial use is the cost of the image processing hardware. In fact, there are many visual tasks performed by human operators that could be easily automated. However, it is very difficult to find in the market a vision system with the adequate relation between cost and performance. Most of the image processing systems need too much time to process one image, or have a very high cost. We present an architecture that was developed for surveillance purposes and that we are applying to several applications, namely to the semi-conductor industry and to flexible manufacture. The hardware was conceived in a modular approach with real time performance in each module. Cascading of several modules can produce different image processing functions with an image or data, being generated in every frame of video. The low cost of the hardware together with its very high performance, allow many different industrial applications in particular in the field of industrial automation. The results obtained with the industrial prototypes are presented in two applications and other possible applications are in progress.

  6. Whisper: Tracing the Spatiotemporal Process of Information Diffusion in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nan; Lin, Yu-Ru; Sun, Xiaohua; Lazer, D; Liu, Shixia; Qu, Huamin

    2012-12-01

    When and where is an idea dispersed? Social media, like Twitter, has been increasingly used for exchanging information, opinions and emotions about events that are happening across the world. Here we propose a novel visualization design, "Whisper", for tracing the process of information diffusion in social media in real time. Our design highlights three major characteristics of diffusion processes in social media: the temporal trend, social-spatial extent, and community response of a topic of interest. Such social, spatiotemporal processes are conveyed based on a sunflower metaphor whose seeds are often dispersed far away. In Whisper, we summarize the collective responses of communities on a given topic based on how tweets were retweeted by groups of users, through representing the sentiments extracted from the tweets, and tracing the pathways of retweets on a spatial hierarchical layout. We use an efficient flux line-drawing algorithm to trace multiple pathways so the temporal and spatial patterns can be identified even for a bursty event. A focused diffusion series highlights key roles such as opinion leaders in the diffusion process. We demonstrate how our design facilitates the understanding of when and where a piece of information is dispersed and what are the social responses of the crowd, for large-scale events including political campaigns and natural disasters. Initial feedback from domain experts suggests promising use for today's information consumption and dispersion in the wild.

  7. Reverse engineering of free-form surface based on the closed-loop theory.

    PubMed

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system.

  8. Reverse Engineering of Free-Form Surface Based on the Closed-Loop Theory

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system. PMID:25879078

  9. Sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback stimulation between arbitrary sets of individual neurons

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jan; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We present a system to artificially correlate the spike timing between sets of arbitrary neurons that were interfaced to a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) high-density microelectrode array (MEA). The system features a novel reprogrammable and flexible event engine unit to detect arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of recorded action potentials and is capable of delivering sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback of electrical stimulation upon trigger events in real-time. The relative timing between action potentials of individual neurons as well as the temporal pattern among multiple neurons, or neuronal assemblies, is considered an important factor governing memory and learning in the brain. Artificially changing timings between arbitrary sets of spiking neurons with our system could provide a “knob” to tune information processing in the network. PMID:23335887

  10. MOVIE: a hardware building block for software-only real-time video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzic, Ronan; Bouville, Christian; Charot, Francois; Le Fol, Gwendal; Lemonnier, Pascal; Wagner, Charles

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the MOVIE VLSI chip is to facilitate the development of software-only solutions for real time video processing applications. This chip can be seen as a building block for SIMD arrays of processing elements and its architecture has been designed so as to facilitate high level language programming. The basic architecture building block associates a sub-array of computational processors with a I/O processor. A module can be seen as a small linear, systolic-like array of processing elements, connected at each end to the I/O processor. The module can communicate with its two nearest neighbors via two communication ports. The chip architecture also includes three 16-bit video ports. One important aspect in the programming environment is the C-stolic programming language. C-stolic is a C-like language augmented with parallel constructs which allow to differentiate between the array controller variables (scalar variables) and the local variables in the array structure (systolic variables). A statement operating on systolic variables implies a simultaneous execution on all the cells of the structure. Implementation examples of MOVIE-based architectures dealing with video compression algorithms are given.

  11. Real-time on-line monitoring of process water for low concentrations of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John A.; McCarty, David; Crousore, Kristina

    2006-03-01

    Naturally occurring outbreaks of bacteria have the potential to contaminate process water used in semiconductor manufacturing. Bacteria are normally filtered out in the water treatment process, however contamination can still occur from biofilm growth, filter or media break-through, and air vectors. Because there is seldom a residual disinfectant and system sanitation is intermittent, the manufacturer must rely on point of use filters to prevent contamination at critical points in the process. Particle counters in the distribution system can tell when the number of particles is increasing but cannot discriminate bacteria from small silica particles and often are unable to detect smaller gram-negative particles. If an on-line multi-angle light scattering system is used in place of particle counters or in conjunction with them, then the discrimination between silica particles and bacteria can be made and the proper action taken in the distribution system to help identify the contamination source, improve preventative maintenance, and ultimately increase yields. This paper describes the multi-angle light scattering method of detecting bacteria with the BioSentry TM system to provide an effective real-time on-line water monitoring sensor.

  12. Dynamic Engagement of Cognitive Control Modulates Recovery From Misinterpretation During Real-Time Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nina S; Novick, Jared M

    2016-04-01

    Speech unfolds swiftly, yet listeners keep pace by rapidly assigning meaning to what they hear. Sometimes, though, initial interpretations turn out to be wrong. How do listeners revise misinterpretations of language input moment by moment to avoid comprehension errors? Cognitive control may play a role by detecting when processing has gone awry and then initiating behavioral adjustments accordingly. However, no research to date has investigated a cause-and-effect interplay between cognitive-control engagement and the overriding of erroneous interpretations in real time. Using a novel cross-task paradigm, we showed that Stroop-conflict detection, which mobilizes cognitive-control procedures, subsequently facilitates listeners' incremental processing of temporarily ambiguous spoken instructions that induce brief misinterpretation. When instructions followed incongruent Stroop items, compared with congruent Stroop items, listeners' eye movements to objects in a scene reflected more transient consideration of the false interpretation and earlier recovery of the correct one. Comprehension errors also decreased. Cognitive-control engagement therefore accelerates sentence-reinterpretation processes, even as linguistic input is still unfolding. PMID:26957521

  13. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  14. A cortical architecture on parallel hardware for motion processing in real time.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Karl; Krüger, Norbert; Lappe, Markus; Wörgötter, Florentin; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2010-01-01

    Walking through a crowd or driving on a busy street requires monitoring your own movement and that of others. The segmentation of these other, independently moving, objects is one of the most challenging tasks in vision as it requires fast and accurate computations for the disentangling of independent motion from egomotion, often in cluttered scenes. This is accomplished in our brain by the dorsal visual stream relying on heavy parallel-hierarchical processing across many areas. This study is the first to utilize the potential of such design in an artificial vision system. We emulate large parts of the dorsal stream in an abstract way and implement an architecture with six interdependent feature extraction stages (e.g., edges, stereo, optical flow, etc.). The computationally highly demanding combination of these features is used to reliably extract moving objects in real time. This way-utilizing the advantages of parallel-hierarchical design-we arrive at a novel and powerful artificial vision system that approaches richness, speed, and accuracy of visual processing in biological systems.

  15. APNEA list mode data acquisition and real-time event processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, R.A.; Miller, P.; Bramblett, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    The LMSC Active Passive Neutron Examinations and Assay (APNEA) Data Logger is a VME-based data acquisition system using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware with the application-specific software. It receives TTL inputs from eighty-eight {sup 3}He detector tubes and eight timing signals. Two data sets are generated concurrently for each acquisition session: (1) List Mode recording of all detector and timing signals, timestamped to 3 microsecond resolution; (2) Event Accumulations generated in real-time by counting events into short (tens of microseconds) and long (seconds) time bins following repetitive triggers. List Mode data sets can be post-processed to: (1) determine the optimum time bins for TRU assay of waste drums, (2) analyze a given data set in several ways to match different assay requirements and conditions and (3) confirm assay results by examining details of the raw data. Data Logger events are processed and timestamped by an array of 15 TMS320C40 DSPs and delivered to an embedded controller (PowerPC604) for interim disk storage. Three acquisition modes, corresponding to different trigger sources are provided. A standard network interface to a remote host system (Windows NT or SunOS) provides for system control, status, and transfer of previously acquired data. 6 figs.

  16. Lysosome triggered near-infrared fluorescence imaging of cellular trafficking processes in real time

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Marco; Morgunova, Marina; Cheung, Shane; Scholz, Dimitri; Conroy, Emer; Terrile, Marta; Panarella, Angela; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Gallagher, William M.; O'Shea, Donal F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioresponsive NIR-fluorophores offer the possibility for continual visualization of dynamic cellular processes with added potential for direct translation to in vivo imaging. Here we show the design, synthesis and lysosome-responsive emission properties of a new NIR fluorophore. The NIR fluorescent probe design differs from typical amine functionalized lysosomotropic stains with off/on fluorescence switching controlled by a reversible phenol/phenolate interconversion. Emission from the probe is shown to be highly selective for the lysosomes in co-imaging experiments using a HeLa cell line expressing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 fused to green fluorescent protein. The responsive probe is capable of real-time continuous imaging of fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal trafficking and efflux in 3D and 4D. The advantage of the NIR emission allows for direct translation to in vivo tumour imaging, which is successfully demonstrated using an MDA-MB-231 subcutaneous tumour model. This bioresponsive NIR fluorophore offers significant potential for use in live cellular and in vivo imaging, for which currently there is a deficit of suitable molecular fluorescent tools. PMID:26927507

  17. The role of parallelism in the real-time processing of anaphora

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Josée; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Parallelism effects refer to the facilitated processing of a target structure when it follows a similar, parallel structure. In coordination, a parallelism-related conjunction triggers the expectation that a second conjunct with the same structure as the first conjunct should occur. It has been proposed that parallelism effects reflect the use of the first structure as a template that guides the processing of the second. In this study, we examined the role of parallelism in real-time anaphora resolution by charting activation patterns in coordinated constructions containing anaphora, Verb-Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) and Noun-Phrase Traces (NP-traces). Specifically, we hypothesised that an expectation of parallelism would incite the parser to assume a structure similar to the first conjunct in the second, anaphora-containing conjunct. The speculation of a similar structure would result in early postulation of covert anaphora. Experiment 1 confirms that following a parallelism-related conjunction, first-conjunct material is activated in the second conjunct. Experiment 2 reveals that an NP-trace in the second conjunct is posited immediately where licensed, which is earlier than previously reported in the literature. In light of our findings, we propose an intricate relation between structural expectations and anaphor resolution. PMID:23741080

  18. Near Real Time VIIRS EDR Products Via Direct Broadcast Using the Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cureton, G. P.; Mindock, S.; Martin, G.; Garcia, R.; Strabala, K.; Davies, J.; Bearson, N.; Gumley, L.; Huang, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) has a long history of supporting the Direct Broadcast (DB) community for various sensors, recently with the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) for the NASA EOS polar orbiters Terra and Aqua. CIMSS has continued this effort into the NPP/JPSS (previously NPOESS) era with the development of the Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), supporting the VIIRS, CrIS and ATMS sensors on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) spacecraft. Within CSPP, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Environmental Data Record (EDR) products are based on the NOAA Operational products as implemented by Raytheon in the Algorithm Development Library (ADL), packaged for use in a Direct Broadcast environment. Examples of near real time usage of various VIIRS EDR products are given, with a focus on products obtained using CSPP (which include the Cloud Mask, Active Fires, Aerosol Optical Thickness, Sea Surface Temperature, Surface Reflectance, Vegetation Index, Surface Type and Land Surface Temperature products).

  19. Impedimetric real-time monitoring of neural pluripotent stem cell differentiation process on microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Diana; Obendorf, Janine; Englich, Beate; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Semkova, Vesselina; Haupt, Simone; Girard, Mathilde; Peschanski, Marc; Brüstle, Oliver; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2016-12-15

    In today's neurodevelopment and -disease research, human neural stem/progenitor cell-derived networks represent the sole accessible in vitro model possessing a primary phenotype. However, cultivation and moreover, differentiation as well as maturation of human neural stem/progenitor cells are very complex and time-consuming processes. Therefore, techniques for the sensitive non-invasive, real-time monitoring of neuronal differentiation and maturation are highly demanded. Using impedance spectroscopy, the differentiation of several human neural stem/progenitor cell lines was analyzed in detail. After development of an optimum microelectrode array for reliable and sensitive long-term monitoring, distinct cell-dependent impedimetric parameters that could specifically be associated with the progress and quality of neuronal differentiation were identified. Cellular impedance changes correlated well with the temporal regulation of biomolecular progenitor versus mature neural marker expression as well as cellular structure changes accompanying neuronal differentiation. More strikingly, the capability of the impedimetric differentiation monitoring system for the use as a screening tool was demonstrated by applying compounds that are known to promote neuronal differentiation such as the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. The non-invasive impedance spectroscopy-based measurement system can be used for sensitive and quantitative monitoring of neuronal differentiation processes. Therefore, this technique could be a very useful tool for quality control of neuronal differentiation and moreover, for neurogenic compound identification and industrial high-content screening demands in the field of safety assessment as well as drug development.

  20. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  1. A translational platform for prototyping closed-loop neuromodulation systems

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Pedram; Khambhati, Ankit; Stanslaski, Scott; Carlson, David; Jensen, Randy; Linde, Dave; Dani, Siddharth; Lazarewicz, Maciej; Cong, Peng; Giftakis, Jon; Stypulkowski, Paul; Denison, Tim

    2013-01-01

    While modulating neural activity through stimulation is an effective treatment for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, an opportunity for improving neuromodulation therapy remains in automatically adjusting therapy to continuously optimize patient outcomes. Practical issues associated with achieving this include the paucity of human data related to disease states, poorly validated estimators of patient state, and unknown dynamic mappings of optimal stimulation parameters based on estimated states. To overcome these challenges, we present an investigational platform including: an implanted sensing and stimulation device to collect data and run automated closed-loop algorithms; an external tool to prototype classifier and control-policy algorithms; and real-time telemetry to update the implanted device firmware and monitor its state. The prototyping system was demonstrated in a chronic large animal model studying hippocampal dynamics. We used the platform to find biomarkers of the observed states and transfer functions of different stimulation amplitudes. Data showed that moderate levels of stimulation suppress hippocampal beta activity, while high levels of stimulation produce seizure-like after-discharge activity. The biomarker and transfer function observations were mapped into classifier and control-policy algorithms, which were downloaded to the implanted device to continuously titrate stimulation amplitude for the desired network effect. The platform is designed to be a flexible prototyping tool and could be used to develop improved mechanistic models and automated closed-loop systems for a variety of neurological disorders. PMID:23346048

  2. Systolic architectures based on barrel shifters for real-time digital signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The throughput in real-time digital signal processing applications is limited by both the capability of the processors employed for number-crunching operations and the capacity of a supporting communications link. The systolic architectures eliminate the memory bandwidth problems by allowing multiple computations for each memory access and result in a speed-up in the execution time of compute-bound computations. However, the throughput rate in a systolic array is still limited by the computational time needed for one basic cell, which is composed of a multiplier and an accumulator. The multiplier in the basic cell requires either a large chip area if high speed is desired, or a large amount of time if serial architecture is used. The use of barrel shifters as computational elements in systolic arrays was proposed and studied in detail in this thesis. In the new systolic arrays there are two different structures, parallel and cascaded, that can be used to implement FIR filters. A unique cascaded structure was developed in this study that is shown to have better performance and requires significantly less basic cells.

  3. Real-time nonlinear finite element analysis for surgical simulation using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zeike A; Cheng, Mario; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Clinical employment of biomechanical modelling techniques in areas of medical image analysis and surgical simulation is often hindered by conflicting requirements for high fidelity in the modelling approach and high solution speeds. We report the development of techniques for high-speed nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis for surgical simulation. We employ a previously developed nonlinear total Lagrangian explicit FE formulation which offers significant computational advantages for soft tissue simulation. However, the key contribution of the work is the presentation of a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) solution scheme for the FE equations. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first GPU implementation of a nonlinear FE solver. We show that the present explicit FE scheme is well-suited to solution via highly parallel graphics hardware, and that even a midrange GPU allows significant solution speed gains (up to 16.4x) compared with equivalent CPU implementations. For the models tested the scheme allows real-time solution of models with up to 16000 tetrahedral elements. The use of GPUs for such purposes offers a cost-effective high-performance alternative to expensive multi-CPU machines, and may have important applications in medical image analysis and surgical simulation. PMID:18051120

  4. Real-time measurements of crystallization processes in viscoelastic polymeric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoswell, David R. E.; Finlayson, Chris E.; Zhao, Qibin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-11-01

    We present a study of the dynamic shear ordering of viscoelastic photonic crystals, based on core-shell polymeric composite particles. Using an adapted shear-cell arrangement, the crystalline ordering of the material under conditions of oscillatory shear is interrogated in real time, through both video imaging and from the optical transmission spectra of the cell. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the macroscopic influences of shear on the crystallization process in this solvent-free system, the development of bulk ordering is studied as a function of the key parameters including duty cycle and shear-strain magnitude. In particular, optimal ordering is observed from a prerandomized sample at shear strains of around 160%, for 1-Hz oscillations. This ordering reaches completion over time scales of order 10 s. These observations suggest significant local strains are needed to drive nanoparticles through energy barriers, and that local creep is needed to break temporal symmetry in such high-viscosity nanoassemblies. Crystal shear-melting effects are also characterized under conditions of constant shear rate. These quantitative experiments aim to stimulate the development of theoretical models which can deal with the strong local particle interactions in this system.

  5. ISPATOM: A Generic Real-Time Data Processing Tool Without Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Information Sharing Protocol Advanced Tool of Math (ISPATOM) is an application program allowing for the streamlined generation of comps, which subscribe to streams of incoming telemetry data, perform any necessary computations on the data, then send the data to other programs for display and/or further processing in NASA mission control centers. Heretofore, the development of comps was difficult, expensive, and time-consuming: Each comp was custom written manually, in a low-level computing language, by a programmer attempting to follow requirements of flight controllers. ISPATOM enables a flight controller who is not a programmer to write a comp by simply typing in one or more equation( s) at a command line or retrieving the equation(s) from a text file. ISPATOM then subscribes to the necessary input data, performs all of necessary computations, and sends out the results. It sends out new results whenever the input data change. The use of equations in ISPATOM is no more difficult than is entering equations in a spreadsheet. The time involved in developing a comp is thus limited to the time taken to decide on the necessary equations. Thus, ISPATOM is a real-time dynamic calculator.

  6. Real-time image processing of TOF range images using a reconfigurable processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, S.; Knoll, F.; Edeler, T.

    2011-07-01

    During the last years, Time-of-Flight sensors achieved a significant impact onto research fields in machine vision. In comparison to stereo vision system and laser range scanners they combine the advantages of active sensors providing accurate distance measurements and camera-based systems recording a 2D matrix at a high frame rate. Moreover low cost 3D imaging has the potential to open a wide field of additional applications and solutions in markets like consumer electronics, multimedia, digital photography, robotics and medical technologies. This paper focuses on the currently implemented 4-phase-shift algorithm in this type of sensors. The most time critical operation of the phase-shift algorithm is the arctangent function. In this paper a novel hardware implementation of the arctangent function using a reconfigurable processor system is presented and benchmarked against the state-of-the-art CORDIC arctangent algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is well suited for real-time processing of the range images of TOF cameras.

  7. Feature-level signal processing for near-real-time odor identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.; Padgett, Mary Lou; Waldemark, Joakim T. A.; Wilson, Denise M.

    1998-09-01

    Rapid detection and classification of odor is of particular interest in applications such as manufacturing of consumer items, food processing, drug and explosives detection, and battlefield situation assessment. Various detection and classification techniques are under investigation so that end users can have access to useful information from odor sensor arrays in near-real-time. Feature-level data clustering and classification techniques are proposed that are (1) parallelizable to permit efficient hardware implementation, (2) adaptable to readily incorporate new data classes, (3) capable of gracefully handling outlier data points and failed sensor conditions, and (4) can provide confidence intervals and/or a traceable decision record along with each classification to permit validation and verification. Results from using specific techniques will be presented and compared. The techniques studied include principal components analysis, automated outlier determination, radial basis functions (RBF), multi-layer perceptrons (MLP), and pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNN). The results reported here are based on data from a testbed in which a gas sensor array is exposed to odor samples on a continuous basis. We have reported previously that more detailed and faster discrimination can be obtained by using sensor transient response in addition to steady state response. As the size of the data set grows we are able to more accurately model performance of a sensor array under realistic conditions.

  8. Real-time monitoring of calcification process by Sporosarcina pasteurii biofilm.

    PubMed

    Harris, Dustin; Ummadi, Jyothir Ganesh; Thurber, Andrew R; Allau, Yvan; Verba, Circe; Colwell, Frederick; Torres, Marta E; Koley, Dipankar

    2016-05-10

    Sporosarcina pasteurii is known to produce calcite or biocement in the presence of urea and Ca(2+). Herein, we report the use of novel ultramicrosensors such as pH, Ca(2+), and redox sensors, along with a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), to monitor a real-time, bacteria-mediated urea hydrolysis process and subsequent changes in morphology due to CaCO3 precipitation. We report that the surface pH of a live biofilm changed rapidly from 7.4 to 9.2 within 2 min, whereas similar fast depletion (10 min) of Ca(2+) was observed from 85 mM to 10 mM in the presence of a high urea (10 g L(-1)) brine solution at 23 °C. Both the pH and the Ca(2+) concentration profiles were extended up to 600 μm from the biofilm surface, whereas the bulk chemical composition of the brine solution remained constant over the entire 4 h of SECM experiments. In addition, we observed a change in biofilm surface morphology and an increase in overall biofilm height of 50 μm after 4 h of precipitation. Electron microscopy confirmed the changes in surface morphology and formation of CaCO3 crystals. Development of the Ca(2+) profile took 10 min, whereas that of the pH profile took 2 min. This finding indicates that the initial urea hydrolysis process is fast and limited by urease or number of bacteria, whereas later CaCO3 formation and growth of crystals is a slow chemical process. The ultramicrosensors and approaches employed here are capable of accurately characterizing bioremediation on temporal and spatial scales pertinent to the microbial communities and the processes they mediate. PMID:26939806

  9. Real-time detection of undersea mines: a complete screening and acoustic fusion processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacramone, Anthony; Desai, Mukund N.

    1999-08-01

    A complete mine detection/classification (D/C) system has been specified and implemented, which runs in real-time, and has been exercised on the latest available dual-frequency side-scan sonar acoustic image sets. The compete DC system is comprised of a collection of algorithms that has been developed and evolved at Draper Laboratory over the past decade. The detection process consists of image normalization, enhancement, segmentation, and feature extraction algorithms. The enhancement algorithm is a variant of a Markov Random Field based anomaly screener developed in FY-94. The feature that were extracted were those derived in FY-93. A distance constrained matching algorithm, which was developed in FY-95, is used to generate a list of high and low frequency fused tokens. The classification process involves the evaluation of a hierarchy of three multi-layer perceptron neural networks: HF, LF, and HF/LF fused. Research performed in FY-95 also concentrated on the development of several variants of information fusion with hierarchical neural networks. The 'discriminant-combining' variant of fusion was selected as part of this DC system. In addition, a classification post- processing and decision node statistic modification step, which was developed in FY-96, was included. This paper will describe the algorithm that were implemented. However, the emphasis will be on the performance results of processing the latest available side-scan imagery, comparison of single sensor vs dual-frequency sensor results, and the issues that were encountered while exercising the DC system on the new data set.

  10. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require

  11. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations.

  12. A Closed-Loop Hardware Simulation of Decentralized Satellite Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebimuma, Takuji; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Baur, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the use of formation flying spacecraft for a variety of earth and space science missions. Formation flying may provide smaller and cheaper satellites that, working together, have more capability than larger and more expensive satellites. Several decentralized architectures have been proposed for autonomous establishment and maintenance of satellite formations. In such architectures, each satellite cooperatively maintains the shape of the formation without a central supervisor, and processing only local measurement information. The Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors are ideally suited to provide such local position and velocity measurements to the individual satellites. An investigation of the feasibility of a decentralized approach to satellite formation flying was originally presented by Carpenter. He extended a decentralized linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) framework proposed by Speyer in a fashion similar to an extended Kalman filter (EKE) which processed GPS position fix solutions. The new decentralized LQG architecture was demonstrated in a numerical simulation for a realistic scenario that is similar to missions that have been proposed by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. Another decentralized architecture was proposed by Park et al. using carrier differential-phase GPS (CDGPS). Recently, Busse et al demonstrated the decentralized CDGPS architecture in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation on the Formation Flying TestBed (FFTB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which features two Spirent Cox 16 channel GPS signal generator. Although representing a step forward by utilizing GPS signal simulators for a spacecraft formation flying simulation, only an open-loop performance, in which no maneuvers were executed based on the real-time state estimates, was considered. In this research, hardware experimentation has been extended to include closed-loop integrated guidance and navigation of multiple spacecraft

  13. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  14. Closed Loop System Identification with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are di.cult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. Closed loop system identi.cation is often required to obtain a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data. In order to provide an accurate initial plant model to guarantee convergence for standard local optimization methods, this paper presents a global parameter optimization method using genetic algorithms. A minimal representation of the state space dynamics is employed to mitigate the non-uniqueness and over-parameterization of general state space realizations. This control-relevant system identi.cation procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identi.cation and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the di.erence between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance.

  15. Similarity Metrics for Closed Loop Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Yang, Lee C.; Bedrossian, Naz; Hall, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways can two closed-loop dynamic systems be said to be "similar?" This question arises in a wide range of dynamic systems modeling and control system design applications. For example, bounds on error models are fundamental to the controller optimization with modern control design methods. Metrics such as the structured singular value are direct measures of the degree to which properties such as stability or performance are maintained in the presence of specified uncertainties or variations in the plant model. Similarly, controls-related areas such as system identification, model reduction, and experimental model validation employ measures of similarity between multiple realizations of a dynamic system. Each area has its tools and approaches, with each tool more or less suited for one application or the other. Similarity in the context of closed-loop model validation via flight test is subtly different from error measures in the typical controls oriented application. Whereas similarity in a robust control context relates to plant variation and the attendant affect on stability and performance, in this context similarity metrics are sought that assess the relevance of a dynamic system test for the purpose of validating the stability and performance of a "similar" dynamic system. Similarity in the context of system identification is much more relevant than are robust control analogies in that errors between one dynamic system (the test article) and another (the nominal "design" model) are sought for the purpose of bounding the validity of a model for control design and analysis. Yet system identification typically involves open-loop plant models which are independent of the control system (with the exception of limited developments in closed-loop system identification which is nonetheless focused on obtaining open-loop plant models from closed-loop data). Moreover the objectives of system identification are not the same as a flight test and

  16. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-11-30

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015.

  17. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  18. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  19. An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju

    The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.

  20. A flexible real-time pulsar processing system for the VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demorest, Paul; Butler, Bryan J.; Cordes, James M.; Chatterjee, Shami; Deller, Adam; Dhawan, Vivek; Lazio, Joseph; Majid, Walid A.; Ransom, Scott M.; Wharton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With its large collecting area, sensitive octave-bandwidth receivers and wide-band digital correlator, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has potential to become a useful instrument for radio pulsar science. Most observations of this type are currently performed by large single-dish telescopes (e.g., GBT, Arecibo). In certain cases, an array instrument like the VLA can provide a unique complement to "traditional" single-dish pulsar data. It is also an excellent development platform for planned future large-area, array-based pulsar telescopes.We have developed a new flexible real-time software signal processing system for "phased array" pulsar observing. In this mode, signals from each antenna in the array are coherently summed to form a sensitive single beam on the sky. This is ideal for timing observations in which pulsars with accurately known positions are monitored for years or decades in order to study their binary properties, explore the nature of dense neutron star matter, test general relativity, and possibly directly detect gravitational radiation. Phased array observing can also be used for pulsar searches; the small field-of-view makes it primarily suited for targeted observations of specific areas of interest. Here we describe the system design and current technical capabilities of this system. Phased, summed data from the correlator are sent over ethernet to a computer cluster that performs filterbank, coherent dedispersion, and/or pulse period folding in software. The system utilizes existing VLA computing resources, and no additional hardware costs were required to enable the new capabilites. The software architecture uses code developed for the GUPPI pulsar instrument together with the community-developed DSPSR pulsar signal processing library, both publicly-available open-source software packages. To date, we have demonstrated processing of up to 4 GHz total bandwidth.We also summarize initial observations and results obtained using this

  1. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Real-Time Computer-Aided Study of the Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article…

  2. Real-time detection of focal position of workpiece surface during laser processing using diffractive beam samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Binh Xuan; Hoang, PhuongLe; Ahn, Sanghoon; Kim, Jeng-o.; Sohn, Hyonkee; Noh, Jiwhan

    2016-11-01

    The real-time fabrication of microgrooves on a curved surface using a laser beam, without preprogramming their shapes into the machining instructions, is a major challenge in laser processing owing to limitations associated with the real-time detection of the focal position. A new approach using a sampled fraction of the beam from a diffractive beam sampler (DBS) is therefore presented in order to overcome this limitation. By considering the sampled fraction of the beam an analysis of the results allows for precise positioning of the specimen for focal-point identification. This allows for the determination of the focus for a broad variety of laser types and laser powers, thereby providing stringent focusing conditions with high numerical apertures. This approach is easy to implement, inexpensive, independent of the roughness or granularity of the workpieces, and more importantly does not require auxiliary lasers and displacement sensors for real-time measurement during the fabrication process.

  3. Real-time detection of optical transients with RAPTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Brumby, Steven P.; Galassi, M. C.; McGowan, K. E.; Starr, D. L.; Vestrand, W. T.; White, R. R.; Wozniak, P. R.; Wren, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fast variability of optical objects is an interesting though poorly explored subject in modern astronomy. Real-time data processing and identification of transient, celestial events in the images is very important, for such study as it allows rapid follow-up with more sensitive instruments, We discuss an approach which we have chosen for the RAPTOR project which is a pioneering close-loop system combining real-time transient detection with rapid follow-up. Our data processing pipeline is able to identify and localize an optical transient within seconds after the observation. We describe the challenges we met, solutions we found and some results obtained in our search for fast optical transients. The software pipeline we have developed for RAPTOR can easily be applied to the data from other experiments.

  4. Graphics processing unit-accelerated real-time compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we systematically demonstrate two real-time CS SD OCT systems based on a conventional desktop having three GPUs. The first one takes fast Fourier transform (FFT) as the sensing technique and under-sampled linear wavenumber spectral sampling as input data, while the second one uses non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) and under-sampled nonlinear wavenumber spectral sampling, respectively. The maximum reconstruction speed of 72k and 33.5k A-line/s were achieved for these two systems, respectively, with A-scan size 2048. It is >100 times faster than the C++ implementation and >400 times faster than the MATLAB implementation. Finally, we present real-time dispersion compensated image reconstruction for both systems.

  5. Digital processing to improve image quality in real-time neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    1985-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography (NTV) has been used for practical applications at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). At present, however, the direct image from the TV system is still poor in resolution and low in contrast. In this paper several image improvements are demonstrated, such as a frame summing technique, which are effective in increasing image quality in neutron radiography. Image integration before the A/D converter has a beneficial effect on image quality and the high quality image reveals details invisible in direct images, such as: small holes by a reversed image, defects in a neutron converter screen through a high quality image, a moving object in a contoured image, a slight difference between two low-contrast images by a subtraction technique, and so on. For the real-time application a contouring operation and an averaging approach can also be utilized effectively.

  6. Real-time monitoring and control of the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters, G.G.

    1996-05-01

    A distributed monitoring and control system is proposed for a plasma hearth, which will be used to decompose hazardous organic materials, encapsulate actinide waste in an obsidian-like slag, and reduce storage volume of actinide waste. The plasma hearth will be installed at ANL-West with the assistance of SAIC. Real-time monitoring of the off-gas system is accomplished using a Sun Workstation and embedded PCs. LabWindows/CVI software serves as the graphical user interface.

  7. Real-time digital processing of Doppler ultrasound signals and calculation of flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, F S; Vieira, M H; Vasconcelos, C F; Simpson, D M

    1994-01-01

    Vascular diseases and their complications are responsible for around 27% of deaths in Brazil. Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive technique that has been used to study blood flow in intact blood vessels since Satomura first reported the potential of the technique in 1959. Because it is non-invasive it makes sequential studies and those in normals feasible. Whereas in contrast angiography only vessel anatomy is displayed, Doppler ultrasound produces dynamic information on blood-flow. It may be used to estimate flow-rates, to image regions of blood flow (colour Doppler), and to help in locating sites of arterial disease, thus complementing X-ray examinations. This paper describes a system based on a Digital Signal Processor for real-time spectrum analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals, real-time display of sonograms, and calculation and analysis of three parameters of clinical interest derived from the Doppler signal. The system comprises a TMS320C25 development board, which acquires the signal and performs spectrum analysis, and a microcomputer, which reads the spectral estimates, displays them as a sonogram in real-time and calculates a set of spectral parameters proposed in the literature. The system permits a maximum sampling frequency of 40.96 kHz, and in the sonogram, 80 power spectra per second (each with 128 frequency bins) are displayed. In a preliminary study, the stability of the haemodynamic parameters and their dependence on a user-defined threshold value is investigated.

  8. A Low-Power Integrated Smart Sensor with on-Chip Real-Time Image Processing Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Massimo; Raffo, Luigi

    2005-12-01

    A low-power, CMOS retina with real-time, pixel-level processing capabilities is presented. Features extraction and edge-enhancement are implemented with fully programmable 1D Gabor convolutions. An equivalent computation rate of 3 GOPS is obtained at the cost of very low-power consumption ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.][InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]W per pixel), providing real-time performances ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] microseconds for overall computation,[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]). Experimental results from the first realized prototype show a very good matching between measures and expected outputs.

  9. A neuron-inspired computational architecture for spatiotemporal visual processing: real-time visual sensory integration for humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Holzbach, Andreas; Cheng, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we present a neurologically motivated computational architecture for visual information processing. The computational architecture's focus lies in multiple strategies: hierarchical processing, parallel and concurrent processing, and modularity. The architecture is modular and expandable in both hardware and software, so that it can also cope with multisensory integrations - making it an ideal tool for validating and applying computational neuroscience models in real time under real-world conditions. We apply our architecture in real time to validate a long-standing biologically inspired visual object recognition model, HMAX. In this context, the overall aim is to supply a humanoid robot with the ability to perceive and understand its environment with a focus on the active aspect of real-time spatiotemporal visual processing. We show that our approach is capable of simulating information processing in the visual cortex in real time and that our entropy-adaptive modification of HMAX has a higher efficiency and classification performance than the standard model (up to ∼+6%).

  10. Real-time process monitoring and temperature mapping of a 3D polymer printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Love, Lonnie J.; Rowe, John C.

    2013-05-01

    An extended-range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation of the parts as they are being fabricated. The IR camera was also used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of build location within the oven. The observation of the temperature variation of a part during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself creates temperature distributions, which can lead to failure.

  11. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Love, Lonnie J; Rowe, John C

    2013-01-01

    An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as quantify the temperature of a part during fabrication. The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of location. The observation of the temperature variation of a part that fails during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself impacts temperature distribution within a single part leading to failure.

  12. Signal processing technique for non-invasive real-time estimation of cardiac output by inductance cardiography (thoracocardiography).

    PubMed

    Bucklar, G B; Kaplan, V; Bloch, K E

    2003-05-01

    Inductance cardiography (thoracocardiography) non-invasively monitors changes in stroke volume by recording ventricular volume curves with an inductive plethysmographic transducer encircling the chest at the level of the heart. Clinical application of this method has been hampered, as data analysis has not been feasible in real time. Therefore a novel, real-time signal processing technique for inductance cardiography has been developed. Its essential concept consists in performance of multiple tasks by several, logically linked signal processing modules that have access to common databases. Based on these principles, a software application was designed that performs acquisition, display, filtering and ECG-triggered ensemble averaging of inductance signals and separates cardiogenic waveforms from noise related to respiration and other sources. The resulting ventricular volume curves are automatically analysed. Performance of the technique for monitoring cardiac output in real time was compared with thermodilution in four patients in an intensive care unit. The bias (mean difference) among 76 paired thoracocardiographic and thermodilution derived changes in cardiac output was 0%; limits of agreement (+/- 2 SD of the bias) were +/- 25%. It is concluded that the proposed signal processing technique for inductance cardiography holds promise for non-invasive, real-time estimation of changes in cardiac output.

  13. Control-oriented modeling and real-time control for the ozone dosing process of drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Shihua; Zhou, Xingpeng

    2013-03-01

    Ozonation is one of the most important steps during drinking water treatment. To improve the efficiency of ozonation and to stabilize the quality of the treated water, control-oriented modeling and a real-time control method for the ozone dosing process are developed in this study. Compared with existing ozonation models developed by bench-scale and pilot-scale batch experiments, the model reported herein is control-oriented and based on plant-scale batch experiments. A real-time control strategy for maintaining a constant ozone exposure is attempted to meet primary disinfection requirements. An internal model control scheme is proposed to maintain a constant ozone exposure by adjusting the ozone dosage. The proposed real-time control method can cope with changing water quality, water flow rate, and process operational conditions. Both simulations and experimental studies have been carried out and implemented for the ozone dosing process control system, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of this real-time control method.

  14. Simple Image Processing Techniques For The Contrast Enhancement Of Real-Time Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. R.; Kothiyal, M. P.; Sirohi, Rajpal S.

    1989-09-01

    Some simple image processing techniques are suggested that can be used for enhancing the contrast of real-time digital speckle pattern interferometry fringes. The techniques have been developed for the commercial Intellect 100 image processing system interfaced to a PDP-1 1 /23+ microcomputer, but they can be adapted to any commercial image processing system with slight modifications, if necessary, depending on the hardware configuration of the system.

  15. Real-time MST radar signal processing using a microcomputer running under FORTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Data on power, correlation time, and velocity were obtained at the Urbana radar using microcomputer and a single floppy disk drive. This system includes the following features: (1) measurement of the real and imaginary components of the received signal at 20 altitudes spaced by 1.5 km; (2) coherent integration of these components over a 1/8-s time period; (3) continuous real time display of the height profiles of the two coherently integrated components; (4) real time calculation of the 1 minute averages of the power and autocovariance function up to 6 lags; (5) output of these data to floppy disk once every 2 minutes; (6) display of the 1 minute power profiles while the data are stored to the disk; (7) visual prompting for the operator to change disks when required at the end of each hour of data; and (8) continuous audible indication of the status of the interrupt service routine. Accomplishments were enabled by two developments: the use of a new correlation algorithm and the use of the FORTH language to manage the various low level and high level procedures involved.

  16. Real-time image processing for label-free enrichment of Actinobacteria cultivated in picolitre droplets.

    PubMed

    Zang, Emerson; Brandes, Susanne; Tovar, Miguel; Martin, Karin; Mech, Franziska; Horbert, Peter; Henkel, Thomas; Figge, Marc Thilo; Roth, Martin

    2013-09-21

    The majority of today's antimicrobial therapeutics is derived from secondary metabolites produced by Actinobacteria. While it is generally assumed that less than 1% of Actinobacteria species from soil habitats have been cultivated so far, classic screening approaches fail to supply new substances, often due to limited throughput and frequent rediscovery of already known strains. To overcome these restrictions, we implement high-throughput cultivation of soil-derived Actinobacteria in microfluidic pL-droplets by generating more than 600,000 pure cultures per hour from a spore suspension that can subsequently be incubated for days to weeks. Moreover, we introduce triggered imaging with real-time image-based droplet classification as a novel universal method for pL-droplet sorting. Growth-dependent droplet sorting at frequencies above 100 Hz is performed for label-free enrichment and extraction of microcultures. The combination of both cultivation of Actinobacteria in pL-droplets and real-time detection of growing Actinobacteria has great potential in screening for yet unknown species as well as their undiscovered natural products.

  17. A closed-loop compressive-sensing-based neural recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Mitra, Srinjoy; Suo, Yuanming; Cheng, Andrew; Xiong, Tao; Michon, Frederic; Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Kloosterman, Fabian; Chin, Peter S.; Hsiao, Steven; Tran, Trac D.; Yazicioglu, Firat; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Objective. This paper describes a low power closed-loop compressive sensing (CS) based neural recording system. This system provides an efficient method to reduce data transmission bandwidth for implantable neural recording devices. By doing so, this technique reduces a majority of system power consumption which is dissipated at data readout interface. The design of the system is scalable and is a viable option for large scale integration of electrodes or recording sites onto a single device. Approach. The entire system consists of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 4 recording readout channels with CS circuits, a real time off-chip CS recovery block and a recovery quality evaluation block that provides a closed feedback to adaptively adjust compression rate. Since CS performance is strongly signal dependent, the ASIC has been tested in vivo and with standard public neural databases. Main results. Implemented using efficient digital circuit, this system is able to achieve >10 times data compression on the entire neural spike band (500-6KHz) while consuming only 0.83uW (0.53 V voltage supply) additional digital power per electrode. When only the spikes are desired, the system is able to further compress the detected spikes by around 16 times. Unlike other similar systems, the characteristic spikes and inter-spike data can both be recovered which guarantes a >95% spike classification success rate. The compression circuit occupied 0.11mm2/electrode in a 180nm CMOS process. The complete signal processing circuit consumes <16uW/electrode. Significance. Power and area efficiency demonstrated by the system make it an ideal candidate for integration into large recording arrays containing thousands of electrode. Closed-loop recording and reconstruction performance evaluation further improves the robustness of the compression method, thus making the system more practical for long term recording.

  18. Study on digital closed-loop system of silicon resonant micro-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yefeng; He, Mengke

    2008-10-01

    Designing a micro, high reliability weak signal extracting system is a critical problem need to be solved in the application of silicon resonant micro-sensor. The closed-loop testing system based on FPGA uses software to replace hardware circuit which dramatically decrease the system's mass and power consumption and make the system more compact, both correlation theory and frequency scanning scheme are used in extracting weak signal, the adaptive frequency scanning arithmetic ensures the system real-time. The error model was analyzed to show the solution to enhance the system's measurement precision. The experiment results show that the closed-loop testing system based on FPGA has the personality of low power consumption, high precision, high-speed, real-time etc, and also the system is suitable for different kinds of Silicon Resonant Micro-sensor.

  19. Real-time processing of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) data using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

    PubMed

    Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Covey, Daniel P; Heidenreich, Byron A; Garris, Paul A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the hardware implementation of a digital signal processing (DSP) unit for real-time processing of data obtained by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM), an electrochemical transduction technique for high-resolution monitoring of brain neurochemistry. Implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), the DSP unit comprises a decimation filter and an embedded processor to process the oversampled FSCV data and obtain in real time a temporal profile of concentration variation along with a chemical signature to identify the target neurotransmitter. Interfaced with an integrated, FSCV-sensing front-end, the DSP unit can successfully process FSCV data obtained by bolus injection of dopamine in a flow cell as well as electrically evoked, transient dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of an anesthetized rat. PMID:25570384

  20. Real-time processing of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) data using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

    PubMed

    Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Covey, Daniel P; Heidenreich, Byron A; Garris, Paul A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the hardware implementation of a digital signal processing (DSP) unit for real-time processing of data obtained by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM), an electrochemical transduction technique for high-resolution monitoring of brain neurochemistry. Implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), the DSP unit comprises a decimation filter and an embedded processor to process the oversampled FSCV data and obtain in real time a temporal profile of concentration variation along with a chemical signature to identify the target neurotransmitter. Interfaced with an integrated, FSCV-sensing front-end, the DSP unit can successfully process FSCV data obtained by bolus injection of dopamine in a flow cell as well as electrically evoked, transient dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of an anesthetized rat.

  1. On-chip image-processing algorithm for real-time CCD-based star trackers and wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielowski, Marek

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, we describe on-chip and off-chip image-processing algorithms utilizing the internal architecture of recently developed CCD sensors to provide high-speed readout of selected portions of the imager or accelerated scanning of an entire CCD frame. Image-processing time comparable to the star-tracker sensor exposure time and to the characteristic time of the atmospheric fluctuations (10 ms) has been achieved. On-chip image processing is particularly suitable for space or ground-based real-time applications (position determination, tip-tilt correctors, wavefront sensing for adaptive optics systems) where the speed of acquisition and processing data from the 'regions of interest' is critical. An example of a star tracker (based on the Texas Instruments TC217 CCD image sensor) for space applications capable of providing real-time multiple position updates with high angular resolution is given and achieved performance is discussed.

  2. Monitoring Digital Closed-Loop Feedback Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A technique of monitoring digital closed-loop feedback systems has been conceived. The basic idea is to obtain information on the performances of closed-loop feedback circuits in such systems to aid in the determination of the functionality and integrity of the circuits and of performance margins. The need for this technique arises as follows: Some modern digital systems include feedback circuits that enable other circuits to perform with precision and are tolerant of changes in environment and the device s parameters. For example, in a precision timing circuit, it is desirable to make the circuit insensitive to variability as a result of the manufacture of circuit components and to the effects of temperature, voltage, radiation, and aging. However, such a design can also result in masking the indications of damaged and/or deteriorating components. The present technique incorporates test circuitry and associated engineering-telemetry circuitry into an embedded system to monitor the closed-loop feedback circuits, using spare gates that are often available in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This technique enables a test engineer to determine the amount of performance margin in the system, detect out of family circuit performance, and determine one or more trend(s) in the performance of the system. In one system to which the technique has been applied, an ultra-stable oscillator is used as a reference for internal adjustment of 12 time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The feedback circuit produces a pulse-width-modulated signal that is fed as a control input into an amplifier, which controls the circuit s operating voltage. If the circuit s gates are determined to be operating too slowly or rapidly when their timing is compared with that of the reference signal, then the pulse width increases or decreases, respectively, thereby commanding the amplifier to increase or reduce, respectively, its output level, and "adjust" the speed of the circuits. The nominal

  3. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Sow, Daby; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Continuous high-volume and high-frequency brain signals such as intracranial pressure (ICP) and electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms are commonly collected by bedside monitors in neurocritical care. While such signals often carry early signs of neurological deterioration, detecting these signs in real time with conventional data processing methods mainly designed for retrospective analysis has been extremely challenging. Such methods are not designed to handle the large volumes of waveform data produced by bedside monitors. In this pilot study, we address this challenge by building a prototype system using the IBM InfoSphere Streams platform, a scalable stream computing platform, to detect unstable ICP dynamics in real time. The system continuously receives electrocardiographic and ICP signals and analyzes ICP pulse morphology looking for deviations from a steady state. We also designed a Web interface to display in real time the result of this analysis in a Web browser. With this interface, physicians are able to ubiquitously check on the status of their patients and gain direct insight into and interpretation of the patient's state in real time. The prototype system has been successfully tested prospectively on live hospitalized patients. PMID:27165881

  4. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Sow, Daby; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Continuous high-volume and high-frequency brain signals such as intracranial pressure (ICP) and electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms are commonly collected by bedside monitors in neurocritical care. While such signals often carry early signs of neurological deterioration, detecting these signs in real time with conventional data processing methods mainly designed for retrospective analysis has been extremely challenging. Such methods are not designed to handle the large volumes of waveform data produced by bedside monitors. In this pilot study, we address this challenge by building a prototype system using the IBM InfoSphere Streams platform, a scalable stream computing platform, to detect unstable ICP dynamics in real time. The system continuously receives electrocardiographic and ICP signals and analyzes ICP pulse morphology looking for deviations from a steady state. We also designed a Web interface to display in real time the result of this analysis in a Web browser. With this interface, physicians are able to ubiquitously check on the status of their patients and gain direct insight into and interpretation of the patient's state in real time. The prototype system has been successfully tested prospectively on live hospitalized patients.

  5. A parallel real-time computing-cluster implementation of spotlight SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Bipin; Rabinkin, Daniel

    2005-05-01

    The high resolution imaging capability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is largely unaffected by atmospheric conditions and has proven to be an indispensable asset in a variety of military and civilian applications. Application of SAR methodology for real-time imaging however carries with it the large computational complexity and storage requirements of the image-forming algorithms. Recently however, the rapidly diminishing cost of computing hardware and the related ascent of cluster-based computing, has made parallelization of these algorithms an appealing area of investigation. This paper describes a parallel SAR processor developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Several novel technologies were employed in it's implementation, including pMatlab which is a parallel extension of standard Matlab that is also being developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. These technologies will be described later in the document. We begin with a brief description of the basic SAR algorithm.

  6. Architecture For The Optimization Of A Machining Process In Real Time Through Rule-Based Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Rafael; González, Luis Carlos; Martín, Francisco Jesús

    2009-11-01

    Under the project SENSOR-IA which has had financial funding from the Order of Incentives to the Regional Technology Centers of the Counsil of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of Andalusia, an architecture for the optimization of a machining process in real time through rule-based expert system has been developed. The architecture consists of an acquisition system and sensor data processing engine (SATD) from an expert system (SE) rule-based which communicates with the SATD. The SE has been designed as an inference engine with an algorithm for effective action, using a modus ponens rule model of goal-oriented rules.The pilot test demonstrated that it is possible to govern in real time the machining process based on rules contained in a SE. The tests have been done with approximated rules. Future work includes an exhaustive collection of data with different tool materials and geometries in a database to extract more precise rules.

  7. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  8. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, N. Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Kato, S.

    2014-04-15

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  9. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, N.; Kato, S.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  10. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Rath, N; Kato, S; Levesque, J P; Mauel, M E; Navratil, G A; Peng, Q

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  11. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received. PMID:25528091

  12. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received.

  13. Detection by real time PCR of walnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Linacero, Rosario; Ballesteros, Isabel; Sanchiz, Africa; Prieto, Nuria; Iniesto, Elisa; Martinez, Yolanda; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Rovira, Mercè; Burbano, Carmen; Cuadrado, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method, employing novel primer sets designed on Jug r 1, Jug r 3, and Jug r 4 allergen-coding sequences, was set up and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity, and applicability were evaluated. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was best for walnut. RT-PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequence, and the limit of detection was 2.5pg of walnut DNA. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples, and Jug r 3 primers detected up to 100mg/kg of raw walnut (LOD 0.01%, LOQ 0.05%). Thermal treatment combined with pressure (autoclaving) reduced yield and amplification (integrity and quality) of walnut DNA. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) did not produce any effect on the walnut DNA amplification. This RT-PCR method showed greater sensitivity and reliability in the detection of walnut traces in commercial foodstuffs compared with ELISA assays.

  14. Detection by real time PCR of walnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Linacero, Rosario; Ballesteros, Isabel; Sanchiz, Africa; Prieto, Nuria; Iniesto, Elisa; Martinez, Yolanda; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Rovira, Mercè; Burbano, Carmen; Cuadrado, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method, employing novel primer sets designed on Jug r 1, Jug r 3, and Jug r 4 allergen-coding sequences, was set up and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity, and applicability were evaluated. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was best for walnut. RT-PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequence, and the limit of detection was 2.5pg of walnut DNA. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples, and Jug r 3 primers detected up to 100mg/kg of raw walnut (LOD 0.01%, LOQ 0.05%). Thermal treatment combined with pressure (autoclaving) reduced yield and amplification (integrity and quality) of walnut DNA. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) did not produce any effect on the walnut DNA amplification. This RT-PCR method showed greater sensitivity and reliability in the detection of walnut traces in commercial foodstuffs compared with ELISA assays. PMID:26920302

  15. Advancement of Solidification Processing Technology Through Real Time X-Ray Transmission Microscopy: Sample Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Curreri, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of samples were prepared for the real time X-ray transmission microscopy (XTM) characterization. In the first series directional solidification experiments were carried out to evaluate the critical velocity of engulfment of zirconia particles in the Al and Al-Ni eutectic matrix under ground (l-g) conditions. The particle distribution in the samples was recorded on video before and after the samples were directionally solidified. In the second series samples of the above two type of composites were prepared for directional solidification runs to be carried out on the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) aboard the space shuttle during the LMS mission in June 1996. X-ray microscopy proved to be an invaluable tool for characterizing the particle distribution in the metal matrix samples. This kind of analysis helped in determining accurately the critical velocity of engulfment of ceramic particles by the melt interface in the opaque metal matrix composites. The quality of the cast samples with respect to porosity and instrumented thermocouple sheath breakage or shift could be easily viewed and thus helped in selecting samples for the space shuttle experiments. Summarizing the merits of this technique it can be stated that this technique enabled the use of cast metal matrix composite samples since the particle location was known prior to the experiment.

  16. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  17. Adaptive multispectral stimulator providing registered IR and RF data in a closed-loop environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stephen C.; Hall, Robert L.

    2004-08-01

    The Multi-Spectral Stimulator described in this paper has been designed to answer the future testing and evaluation needs for emerging multi-spectral technology. This system is portable, low cost, and scalable, and can produce synchronous IR and RF images and signals, respectively, for both injection and projection to multi-mode sensors. The scenes generated are temporally and spatially registered and generated from a three-dimensional database. Its present development provides closed-loop capabilities to a missile simulation. Two adaptive technologies are merged into a flexible system that can stimulate multiple sensors simultaneously in real time. It merges Scientific Research Corporation's Adaptable Radar Environment Simulator (ARES) and Quantum3D/CG2 Inc.'s real-time, multi-spectral Scene Generation system. The stimulator can run in either real-time or stepped mode, providing signals on demand. The resulting stimulator test bed is integrated to a non-real-time high fidelity missile simulation that consists of an IR seeker, IR imaging tracker, and a 6-DOF/Autopilot model. The stimulator design can be modified to stimulate multiple passive sensors, active laser systems, multi-mode systems, multiple radar systems, or almost any combination of sensors. The next planned development stage integrates the system to real-time closed-loop system and associated interface electronics. This will provide a bridge to full hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) integration for the simulation of a dual mode missile system.

  18. Real-Time Parameter Estimation Method Applied to a MIMO Process and its Comparison with an Offline Identification Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplanoglu, Erkan; Safak, Koray K.; Varol, H. Selcuk

    2009-01-12

    An experiment based method is proposed for parameter estimation of a class of linear multivariable systems. The method was applied to a pressure-level control process. Experimental time domain input/output data was utilized in a gray-box modeling approach. Prior knowledge of the form of the system transfer function matrix elements is assumed to be known. Continuous-time system transfer function matrix parameters were estimated in real-time by the least-squares method. Simulation results of experimentally determined system transfer function matrix compare very well with the experimental results. For comparison and as an alternative to the proposed real-time estimation method, we also implemented an offline identification method using artificial neural networks and obtained fairly good results. The proposed methods can be implemented conveniently on a desktop PC equipped with a data acquisition board for parameter estimation of moderately complex linear multivariable systems.

  19. [Real-time automatic cloud detection during the process of taking aerial photographs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xian-Jun; Wan, You-Chuan; Zheng, Shun-Yi; Yang, Yuan-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The present paper adopted a method based on the spectrum signatures with thresholds to detect cloud. Through analyzing the characteristic in the aspect of spectrum signatures of cloud, two effective signatures were explored, one was brightness signature I and the other was normalized difference signature P. Combined with corresponding thresholds, each spectrum condition can detect some cloud pixels. By composing the union of two spectrum conditions together, cloud can be detected more completely. In addition, the threshold was also very important to the accuracy of the detection result. In order to detect cloud efficiently, correctly and automatically, this paper proposed a new strategy about the assignment of thresholds to acquire suitable thresholds. Firstly, the images should be classified into three kinds of types which were images with no cloud, with thin cloud and with thick cloud. Secondly, different assignment methods of automatic thresholds of signatures would be adopted according to different types of images. For images with thick cloud, they would be further classified into three kinds by another standard and assigned by different thresholds integrated by automatic thresholds from other spectrum signatures. The automatic thresholds were acquired by Otsu algorithm and an improved Otsu algorithm. For images with thin cloud, the cloud would be detected by score algorithm. Due to this flexible strategy, cloud in images can be detected rightly and if there isn't cloud in images the detection will be null to show that there is no cloud. Compared to the detection results of other different methods, the contrast results show that the efficiency of the detection method proposed in this paper is high and the accuracy satisfies the demand of real-time evaluation and the application range is wider.

  20. First Results from a Hardware-in-the-Loop Demonstration of Closed-Loop Autonomous Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, E.; Naasz, Bo; Ebinuma, T.

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop system for the demonstration of autonomous satellite formation flying technologies using hardware-in-the-loop has been developed. Making use of a GPS signal simulator with a dual radio frequency outlet, the system includes two GPS space receivers as well as a powerful onboard navigation processor dedicated to the GPS-based guidance, navigation, and control of a satellite formation in real-time. The closed-loop system allows realistic simulations of autonomous formation flying scenarios, enabling research in the fields of tracking and orbit control strategies for a wide range of applications. The autonomous closed-loop formation acquisition and keeping strategy is based on Lyapunov's direct control method as applied to the standard set of Keplerian elements. This approach not only assures global and asymptotic stability of the control but also maintains valuable physical insight into the applied control vectors. Furthermore, the approach can account for system uncertainties and effectively avoids a computationally expensive solution of the two point boundary problem, which renders the concept particularly attractive for implementation in onboard processors. A guidance law has been developed which strictly separates the relative from the absolute motion, thus avoiding the numerical integration of a target trajectory in the onboard processor. Moreover, upon using precise kinematic relative GPS solutions, a dynamical modeling or filtering is avoided which provides for an efficient implementation of the process on an onboard processor. A sample formation flying scenario has been created aiming at the autonomous transition of a Low Earth Orbit satellite formation from an initial along-track separation of 800 m to a target distance of 100 m. Assuming a low-thrust actuator which may be accommodated on a small satellite, a typical control accuracy of less than 5 m has been achieved which proves the applicability of autonomous formation flying techniques to

  1. A method for closed-loop presentation of sensory stimuli conditional on the internal brain-state of awake animals

    PubMed Central

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Kotowicz, Andreas; Laurent, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Brain activity often consists of interactions between internal—or on-going—and external—or sensory—activity streams, resulting in complex, distributed patterns of neural activity. Investigation of such interactions could benefit from closed-loop experimental protocols in which one stream can be controlled depending on the state of the other. We describe here methods to present rapid and precisely timed visual stimuli to awake animals, conditional on features of the animal’s on-going brain state; those features are the presence, power and phase of oscillations in local field potentials (LFP). The system can process up to 64 channels in real time. We quantified its performance using simulations, synthetic data and animal experiments (chronic recordings in the dorsal cortex of awake turtles). The delay from detection of an oscillation to the onset of a visual stimulus on an LCD screen was 47.5 ms and visual-stimulus onset could be locked to the phase of ongoing oscillations at any frequency ≤40 Hz. Our software’s architecture is flexible, allowing on-the-fly modifications by experimenters and the addition of new closed-loop control and analysis components through plugins. The source code of our system “StimOMatic” is available freely as open-source. PMID:23473800

  2. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in very large-scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible and potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for a DPCM-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the CODEC are described, and performance results are provided.

  3. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in very large scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible an potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for DPCM (differential pulse code midulation)-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the codec are described, and performance results are provided.

  4. Advanced real-time bus system for concurrent data paths used in high-performance image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodersen, Jorg; Palkovich, Roland; Landl, Dieter; Furtler, Johannes; Dulovits, Martin

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we present a new bus protocol satisfying extreme real time demands. It has been applied to a high performance quality inspection system which can involve up to eight sensors of various types. Thanks to the modular configuration this multi-sensor inspection system acts on the outside as a single sensor image processing system. In general, image processing systems comprise three basic functions (i) image acquisition, (ii) image processing and (iii) output of processed data. The data transfers for these three fundamental functions can be accomplished either by individual bus systems or by a single bus. In case of using a single bus the system complexity of the implementation, i.e. Development of protocols, hardware employment and EMC technical considerations, is far smaller. An important goal of the new protocol design is to support extremely fast communication between individual processing modules. For example, the input data (image acquisition) is transferred in real time to individual processing modules. Concurrent to this communication the processed data are being transferred to the output module. Therefore, the key function of this protocol is to realize concurrent data paths (data rates over 1.2 Gbit/s) by using principles of pipeline architectures and methods of time division multiplex. Moreover, the new bus protocol enables concurrent data transfers via a single bus system. In this paper the function of the new bus protocol including hardware layout and innovative bus arbiter are described in details.

  5. Implementation of a data processing platform for real-time distance measurement with dual-comb lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kai; Xu, Mingfei; Zhou, Qian; Dong, Hao; Li, Xinghui; Wu, Guanhao

    2015-08-01

    Absolute distance measurement with dual femtosecond comb lasers has advantages of wide-range, high-accuracy and fast speed. It combines time-of-flight and interferometric measurement. The novelty of ranging method leads to new challenges in designing the data acquisition and processing hardware system. Currently there are no available real-time data processing system for dual-comb ranging. This paper introduces our recent progress on designing and implementing such a platform. Our platform mainly contains four different function modules. First, a clock module that accept a 250MHz maximum reference clock input was introduced to generate the sample clock for A/D converter, and the module's output clock can be delayed up to 20ns with a resolution of 714ps. Second, a high-speed data acquisition module with a 14-bit resolution and a 125 MSPS maximum sample rate was designed to convert the analog laser pulse signal to digital signal. Third, we built a real-time data processing module that allows an input of 16-bit data in the FPGA to calculate the distance from the digital signal within 83us. Finally, a data transmission module based on a 128MB DDR SDRAM and USB2.0 was added so that we can easily debug the platform in the PC. The performance of our system is evaluated in real-time. The test bench consists of two femtosecond laser sources, an optical fiber interferometer and our data processing system. The repetition frequencies of the two combs are around 50MHz, with frequency difference of 2.5kHz. The center wavelength of laser pulses is 1560nm. The target distance is from 0m to 3m. The experimental results show that our system can output measurement results at the rate of 2500 pts/s, and the measurement deviation is less than 10um.

  6. A Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in Process Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjapornpon, Chanin; Fletcher, Nathan; Soroush, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript describes a flexible, pilot-scale setup that can be used for training students and carrying out research in process systems engineering. The setup allows one to study a variety of process systems engineering concepts such as design feasibility, design flexibility, control configuration selection, parameter estimation, process and…

  7. Fusion of product and process data: Batch-mode and real-time streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent De Sapio; Spike Leonard

    1999-12-01

    In today's DP product realization enterprise it is imperative to reduce the design-to-fabrication cycle time and cost while improving the quality of DP parts (reducing defects). Much of this challenge resides in the inherent gap between the product and process worlds. The lack of seamless, bi-directional flow of information prevents true concurrency in the product realization world. This report addresses a framework for product-process data fusion to help achieve next generation product realization. A fundamental objective is to create an open environment for multichannel observation of process date, and subsequent mapping of that data onto product geometry. In addition to the sensor-based observation of manufacturing processes, model-based process data provides an important complement to empirically acquired data. Two basic groups of manufacturing models are process physics, and machine kinematics and dynamics. Process physics addresses analytical models that describe the physical phenomena of the process itself. Machine kinematic and dynamic models address the mechanical behavior of the processing equipment. As a secondary objective, an attempt has been made in this report to address part of the model-based realm through the development of an open object-oriented library and toolkit for machine kinematics and dynamics. Ultimately, it is desirable to integrate design definition, with all types of process data; both sensor-based and model-based. Collectively, the goal is to allow all disciplines within the product realization enterprise to have a centralized medium for the fusion of product and process data.

  8. Real-time water treatment process control with artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Stanley, S.J.

    1999-02-01

    With more stringent requirements being placed on water treatment performance, operators need a reliable tool to optimize the process control in the treatment plant. In the present paper, one such tool is presented, which is a process control system built with the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling approach. The coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes involve many complex physical and chemical phenomena and thus are difficult to model for process control with traditional methods. Proposed is the use of a neural network process control system for the coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes. Presented is a review of influential control parameters and control requirements for these processes followed by the development of a feed forward neural network control scheme. A neural network process model was built based on nearly 2,000 sets of process control data. This model formed the major component of a software controller and was found to consistently predict the optimum alum and power activated carbon doses for different control actions. With minor modifications, the approach illustrated can be used for building control models for other water treatment processes.

  9. Real-time scattered light dark-field microscopic imaging of the dynamic degradation process of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of Na

  10. Real-time monitoring system for improving corona electrostatic separation in the process of recovering waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-01

    Although corona electrostatic separation is successfully used in recycling waste printed circuit boards in industrial applications, there are problems that cannot be resolved completely, such as nonmetal particle aggregation and spark discharge. Both of these problems damage the process of separation and are not easy to identify during the process of separation in industrial applications. This paper provides a systematic study on a real-time monitoring system. Weight monitoring systems were established to continuously monitor the separation process. A Virtual Instrumentation program written by LabVIEW was utilized to sample and analyse the mass increment of the middling product. It includes four modules: historical data storage, steady-state analysis, data computing and alarm. Three kinds of operating conditions were used to verify the applicability of the monitoring system. It was found that the system achieved the goal of monitoring during the separation process and realized the function of real-time analysis of the received data. The system also gave comprehensible feedback on the accidents of material blockages in the feed inlet and high-voltage spark discharge. With the warning function of the alarm system, the whole monitoring system could save the human cost and help the new technology to be more easily applied in industry.

  11. Development of a Real-Time Pulse Processing Algorithm for TES-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Warburton, William K.; Doriese, W. Bertrand; Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a real-time pulse processing algorithm for superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) based x-ray microcalorimeters. TES-based. microca1orimeters offer ultra-high energy resolutions, but the small volume of each pixel requires that large arrays of identical microcalorimeter pixe1s be built to achieve sufficient detection efficiency. That in turn requires as much pulse processing as possible must be performed at the front end of readout electronics to avoid transferring large amounts of data to a host computer for post-processing. Therefore, a real-time pulse processing algorithm that not only can be implemented in the readout electronics but also achieve satisfactory energy resolutions is desired. We have developed an algorithm that can be easily implemented. in hardware. We then tested the algorithm offline using several data sets acquired with an 8 x 8 Goddard TES x-ray calorimeter array and 2x16 NIST time-division SQUID multiplexer. We obtained an average energy resolution of close to 3.0 eV at 6 keV for the multiplexed pixels while preserving over 99% of the events in the data sets.

  12. Real-time atmospheric imaging and processing with hybrid adaptive optics and hardware accelerated lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jony Jiang; Carhart, Gary W.; Beresnev, Leonid A.; Aubailly, Mathieu; Jackson, Christopher R.; Ejzak, Garrett; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulences can significantly deteriorate the performance of long-range conventional imaging systems and create difficulties for target identification and recognition. Our in-house developed adaptive optics (AO) system, which contains high-performance deformable mirrors (DMs) and the fast stochastic parallel gradient decent (SPGD) control mechanism, allows effective compensation of such turbulence-induced wavefront aberrations and result in significant improvement on the image quality. In addition, we developed advanced digital synthetic imaging and processing technique, "lucky-region" fusion (LRF), to mitigate the image degradation over large field-of-view (FOV). The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions from each image obtained from a series of short exposure frames and fuses them into a final improved image. We further implemented such algorithm into a VIRTEX-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) and achieved real-time video processing. Experiments were performed by combining both AO and hardware implemented LRF processing technique over a near-horizontal 2.3km atmospheric propagation path. Our approach can also generate a universal real-time imaging and processing system with a general camera link input, a user controller interface, and a DVI video output.

  13. Real-time monitoring system for improving corona electrostatic separation in the process of recovering waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-01

    Although corona electrostatic separation is successfully used in recycling waste printed circuit boards in industrial applications, there are problems that cannot be resolved completely, such as nonmetal particle aggregation and spark discharge. Both of these problems damage the process of separation and are not easy to identify during the process of separation in industrial applications. This paper provides a systematic study on a real-time monitoring system. Weight monitoring systems were established to continuously monitor the separation process. A Virtual Instrumentation program written by LabVIEW was utilized to sample and analyse the mass increment of the middling product. It includes four modules: historical data storage, steady-state analysis, data computing and alarm. Three kinds of operating conditions were used to verify the applicability of the monitoring system. It was found that the system achieved the goal of monitoring during the separation process and realized the function of real-time analysis of the received data. The system also gave comprehensible feedback on the accidents of material blockages in the feed inlet and high-voltage spark discharge. With the warning function of the alarm system, the whole monitoring system could save the human cost and help the new technology to be more easily applied in industry. PMID:25395159

  14. A Closed-loop Brain Computer Interface to a Virtual Reality Avatar: Gait Adaptation to Visual Kinematic Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Trieu Phat; He, Yongtian; Brown, Samuel; Nakagome, Sho; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    The control of human bipedal locomotion is of great interest to the field of lower-body brain computer interfaces (BCIs) for rehabilitation of gait. While the feasibility of a closed-loop BCI system for the control of a lower body exoskeleton has been recently shown, multi-day closed-loop neural decoding of human gait in a virtual reality (BCI-VR) environment has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we propose a real-time closed-loop BCI that decodes lower limb joint angles from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) during treadmill walking to control the walking movements of a virtual avatar. Moreover, virtual kinematic perturbations resulting in asymmetric walking gait patterns of the avatar were also introduced to investigate gait adaptation using the closed-loop BCI-VR system over a period of eight days. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using a closed-loop BCI to learn to control a walking avatar under normal and altered visuomotor perturbations, which involved cortical adaptations. These findings have implications for the development of BCI-VR systems for gait rehabilitation after stroke and for understanding cortical plasticity induced by a closed-loop BCI system. PMID:27713915

  15. Real-time display on SD-OCT using a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer and a graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrated a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wavenumber (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We used the linear-k spectrometer with optimal combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840 nm spectral region, to avoid calculating the re-sampling process. The calculations of the FFT (fast Fourier transform) were accelerated by the low cost GPU with many stream processors, which realized highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames per second for processed images (2048 FFT size × 1000 lateral A-scans) was achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz.

  16. Field Installation and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimakov, Leonid; Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Raczka, Jared; Alvarez, Marcos; Barrientos, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chilean National Network. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and, using the Trimble Pivot™ SeismoGeodetic App, the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized package. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording element includes an ANSS Class A, force balance triaxial accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, which produces high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol with back fill capability providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in the seismic station close to the area of the Iquique earthquake of April 1, 2014, in northern Chile, a seismically prone area at the current time. The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the National Seismological Center in Santiago for real-time data processing using Earthworm / Early Bird software. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot software suite. Data from the SG160-09 system was

  17. Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2010-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires either a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer or a computationally heavy software algorithm to recalibrate the acquired optical signal from wavelength to wavenumber. The first method is sensitive to the position of the prism in the spectrometer, while the second method drastically slows down the system speed when it is implemented on a serially oriented central processing unit. We implement the full resampling process on a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU), distributing the necessary calculations to many stream processors that operate in parallel. A comparison between several recalibration methods is made in terms of performance and image quality. The GPU is also used to accelerate the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and to remove the background noise, thereby achieving full GPU-based signal processing without the need for extra resampling hardware. A display rate of 25 framessec is achieved for processed images (1,024 x 1,024 pixels) using a line-scan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera operating at 25.6 kHz. PMID:20614994

  18. Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Jeught, Sam; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-05-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires either a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer or a computationally heavy software algorithm to recalibrate the acquired optical signal from wavelength to wavenumber. The first method is sensitive to the position of the prism in the spectrometer, while the second method drastically slows down the system speed when it is implemented on a serially oriented central processing unit. We implement the full resampling process on a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU), distributing the necessary calculations to many stream processors that operate in parallel. A comparison between several recalibration methods is made in terms of performance and image quality. The GPU is also used to accelerate the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and to remove the background noise, thereby achieving full GPU-based signal processing without the need for extra resampling hardware. A display rate of 25 frames/sec is achieved for processed images (1024×1024 pixels) using a line-scan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera operating at 25.6 kHz.

  19. Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2010-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires either a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer or a computationally heavy software algorithm to recalibrate the acquired optical signal from wavelength to wavenumber. The first method is sensitive to the position of the prism in the spectrometer, while the second method drastically slows down the system speed when it is implemented on a serially oriented central processing unit. We implement the full resampling process on a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU), distributing the necessary calculations to many stream processors that operate in parallel. A comparison between several recalibration methods is made in terms of performance and image quality. The GPU is also used to accelerate the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and to remove the background noise, thereby achieving full GPU-based signal processing without the need for extra resampling hardware. A display rate of 25 framessec is achieved for processed images (1,024 x 1,024 pixels) using a line-scan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera operating at 25.6 kHz.

  20. Physical processes and real-time chemical measurement of the insect olfactory environment.

    PubMed

    Riffell, Jeffrey A; Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G

    2008-07-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems.

  1. Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

  2. Evaluating Mobile Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for Real-Time Resource Constrained Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, J; Conger, J; Liu, Y; Johnson, J

    2005-11-11

    Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) can provide tremendous performance boosts for some applications beyond what a single CPU can accomplish, and their performance is growing at a rate faster than CPUs as well. Mobile GPUs available for laptops have the small form factor and low power requirements suitable for use in embedded processing. We evaluated several desktop and mobile GPUs and CPUs on traditional and non-traditional graphics tasks, as well as on the most time consuming pieces of a full hyperspectral imaging application. Accuracy remained high despite small differences in arithmetic operations like rounding. Performance improvements are summarized here relative to a desktop Pentium 4 CPU.

  3. Multiday Fully Closed Loop Insulin Delivery in Monitored Outpatient Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-29

    To Demonstrate That the Closed Loop System Can be Used Safely Over a Few Consecutive Days.; To Assess Effectiveness in Maintaining Patients' Glucose Levels in the Target Range of 70 to 180 mg/dl, Measured by Blood Glucose Sensor.; To Evaluate the User Experience With a Closed Loop System

  4. A real-time imaging system for rapid processing of radioactive DNA samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, W. J.; McConchie, L.; Entine, G.

    1990-12-01

    A new, high-resolution nuclear-imaging detector system is described which substantially improves the speed of detection of radioactively labeled DNA samples. Ultimately this system will be made compatible with a fully automated DNA processing system to aid in the isolation and harvesting of DNA clones in the human genome.

  5. Options for new real-time image-processing architectures in cardiovascular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Rob; Boosten, Marcel; de With, Peter H. N.

    2007-03-01

    Low-dose X-ray imaging, diagnosis by image analysis and multi-modal medical imaging are example aspects that lead to more advanced image processing algorithms and the corresponding platforms on which they have to be executed. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of commercially available off-the-shelf components for a new computing platform. In the analysis, we will comply to some specific use cases. In cardiovascular minimal invasive surgery, physicians require low-latency imaging applications, as their actions must be directly visible on the screen. Typical image-processing algorithms in this domain are based on multi-resolution decomposition, noise reduction, image analysis and enhancement techniques. We have compared various solutions for possible processing architectures. The most interesting technology areas for constituting a new architecture are presented and we discuss the mapping of the use cases onto the various architectural proposals. Results show that a heterogeneous architecture gives the highest potential for current and upcoming image-processing applications. However, hardware and software solutions to support low-latency, high-bandwidth image streaming and an efficient concurrent distribution of functionality still need further development. This validates a clear direction for the future, which is based on modeling streaming computing architectures and special interconnect infrastructures.

  6. Androgynous, Reconfigurable Closed Loop Feedback Controlled Low Impact Docking System With Load Sensing Electromagnetic Capture Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a fully androgynous, reconfigurable closed loop feedback controlled low impact docking system with load sensing electromagnetic capture ring. The docking system of the present invention preferably comprises two Docking- assemblies, each docking assembly comprising a load sensing ring having an outer face, one of more electromagnets, one or more load cells coupled to said load sensing ring. The docking assembly further comprises a plurality of actuator arms coupled to said load sensing ring and capable of dynamically adjusting the orientation of said load sensing ring and a reconfigurable closed loop control system capable of analyzing signals originating from said plurality of load cells and of outputting real time control for each of the actuators. The docking assembly of the present invention incorporates an active load sensing system to automatically dynamically adjust the load sensing ring during capture instead of requiring significant force to push and realign the ring.

  7. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-01-01

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:27605389

  8. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P.; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:27605389

  9. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-09-08

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

  10. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-20

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  11. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  12. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  13. A Prototype Lisp-Based Soft Real-Time Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan; Wong, Edmond; Simon, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype Lisp-based soft real-time object-oriented Graphical User Interface for control system development is presented. The Graphical User Interface executes alongside a test system in laboratory conditions to permit observation of the closed loop operation through animation, graphics, and text. Since it must perform interactive graphics while updating the screen in real time, techniques are discussed which allow quick, efficient data processing and animation. Examples from an implementation are included to demonstrate some typical functionalities which allow the user to follow the control system's operation.

  14. In-situ real time monitoring of the polymerization in gel-cast ceramic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Bostrom, G.A.; Waterfield, L.G.; Raptis, A.C.; Omatete, O.O.

    1996-08-01

    Gelcasting requires making a mixture of a slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers and casting it in a mold. Gelcasting is different from injection molding in that it separates mold filling from setting during conversion of the ceramic slurry to a formed green part. In this work, NMR spectroscopy and imaging were used for in-situ monitoring of the gelation process and gelcasting of alumina. {sup 1}H NMR spectra and images are obtained during polymerization of a mixture of soluble reactive acrylamide monomers. Polymerization was initiated by adding an initiator and an accelerator to form long- chain, crosslinked polymers. Multidimensional NMR imaging was used for in-situ monitoring of the process and for verification of homogeneous polymerization. Comparison of the modeled intensities with acquired images shows a direction extraction of T{sub 1} data from the images.

  15. Monitoring of dynamic microbiological processes using real-time flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Arnoldini, Markus; Heck, Tobias; Blanco-Fernández, Alfonso; Hammes, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    We describe a straightforward approach to continuously monitor a variety of highly dynamic microbiological processes in millisecond resolution with flow cytometry, using standard bench-top instrumentation. Four main experimental examples are provided, namely: (1) green fluorescent protein expression by antibiotic-stressed Escherichia coli, (2) fluorescent labeling of heat-induced membrane damage in an autochthonous freshwater bacterial community, (3) the initial growth response of late stationary E. coli cells inoculated into fresh growth media, and (4) oxidative disinfection of a mixed culture of auto-fluorescent microorganisms. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of the method to diverse biological experiments, showing that it allows the collection of detailed, time-resolved information on complex processes. PMID:24244624

  16. Non-destructive Real Time Monitoring of the Laser Welding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestova, Hana; Chmelickova, Hana; Nozka, Libor; Moudry, Jiri

    2012-05-01

    Laser welding is a high power density technology of materials joining that has many advantages in comparison with conventional fusion welding methods, for example, high accuracy, flexibility, repeatability and especially very narrow heat-affected zone which results in minimal workpiece distortions. Since it is still quite expensive technology, minimal spoilage is required. Effective system of quality control and processing parameters optimization must be established to reduce total costs, which is particularly required in industrial production. In this article some results of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding process monitoring based on the measurement of plasma electron temperature are presented. The ability of designed sensor to detect weld penetration depth has been demonstrated. Plasma spectral lines intensities measurement can discover gap instabilities as well as local sheet thickness reduction.

  17. Monitoring of Dynamic Microbiological Processes Using Real-Time Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldini, Markus; Heck, Tobias; Blanco-Fernández, Alfonso; Hammes, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    We describe a straightforward approach to continuously monitor a variety of highly dynamic microbiological processes in millisecond resolution with flow cytometry, using standard bench-top instrumentation. Four main experimental examples are provided, namely: (1) green fluorescent protein expression by antibiotic-stressed Escherichia coli, (2) fluorescent labeling of heat-induced membrane damage in an autochthonous freshwater bacterial community, (3) the initial growth response of late stationary E. coli cells inoculated into fresh growth media, and (4) oxidative disinfection of a mixed culture of auto-fluorescent microorganisms. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of the method to diverse biological experiments, showing that it allows the collection of detailed, time-resolved information on complex processes. PMID:24244624

  18. Embedded System for Real-Time Digital Processing of Medical Ultrasound Doppler Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, S.; Dallai, A.; Boni, E.; Bassi, L.; Guidi, F.; Cellai, A.; Tortoli, P.

    2008-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) Doppler systems are routinely used for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Depending on the application, either single tone bursts or more complex waveforms are periodically transmitted throughout a piezoelectric transducer towards the region of interest. Extraction of Doppler information from echoes backscattered from moving blood cells typically involves coherent demodulation and matched filtering of the received signal, followed by a suitable processing module. In this paper, we present an embedded Doppler US system which has been designed as open research platform, programmable according to a variety of strategies in both transmission and reception. By suitably sharing the processing tasks between a state-of-the-art FGPA and a DSP, the system can be used in several medical US applications. As reference examples, the detection of microemboli in cerebral circulation and the measurement of wall _distension_ in carotid arteries are finally presented.

  19. Development of image processing LSI "SuperVchip" for real-time vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Shoji; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Otsuka, Yasuo; Shojima, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Takayuki; Imai, Toshihiko; Yamada, Shigeyoshi

    2002-03-01

    A new image processing LSI SuperVchip with high-performance computing power has been developed. The SuperVchip has powerful capability for vision systems as follows: 1. General image processing by 3x3, 5x5, 7x7 kernel for high speed filtering function. 2. 16-parallel gray search engine units for robust template matching. 3. 49 block matching Pes to calculate the summation of the absolution difference in parallel for stereo vision function. 4. A color extraction unit for color object recognition. The SuperVchip also has peripheral function of vision systems, such as video interface, PCI extended interface, RISC engine interface and image memory controller on a chip. Therefore, small and high performance vision systems are realized via SuperVchip. In this paper, the above specific circuits are presented, and an architecture of a vision device equipped with SuperVchip and its performance are also described.

  20. Image processing algorithm design and implementation for real-time autonomous inspection of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Shaaban, K.M.; Carver, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The ARIES {number_sign}1 (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform autonomous visual inspection leading to a classification as `acceptable` or `suspect`. Specific topics described include vision system design methodology, algorithmic structure,hardware processing structure, and image acquisition hardware. Most of these capabilities were demonstrated at the ARIES Phase II Demo held on Nov. 30, 1995. Finally, Phase III efforts are briefly addressed.

  1. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15–20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  2. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  3. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.

  4. LANDSAT digital data processing: A near real-time application. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Bohn, C.; Stuart, L.; Hill, J.

    1975-01-01

    An application of rapid generation of classed digital images from LANDSAT-1 was demonstrated and its feasibility evaluated by NASA in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Texas A and M University (TAMU), and the Cousteau Society. The primary purpose was to show that satellite data could be processed and transmitted to the Calypso, which was used as a research vessel, in time for use in directing it to specific locations of possible plankton upwellings, sediment, or other anomalies in the coastal water areas along the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. XSTREAM: A Highly Efficient High Speed Real-time Satellite Data Acquisition and Processing System using Heterogeneous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Kumar, K.; Mahendra, P.; Ramakrishna rReddy, V.; Tirupathi, T.; Akilan, A.; Usha Devi, R.; Anuradha, R.; Ravi, N.; Solanki, S. S.; Achary, K. K.; Satish, A. L.; Anshu, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the remote sensing community has observed a significant growth in number of satellites, sensors and their resolutions, thereby increasing the volume of data to be processed each day. Satellite data processing is a complex and time consuming activity. It consists of various tasks, such as decode, decrypt, decompress, radiometric normalization, stagger corrections, ephemeris data processing for geometric corrections etc., and finally writing of the product in the form of an image file. Each task in the processing chain is sequential in nature and has different computing needs. Conventionally the processes are cascaded in a well organized workflow to produce the data products, which are executed on general purpose high-end servers / workstations in an offline mode. Hence, these systems are considered to be ineffective for real-time applications that require quick response and just-intime decision making such as disaster management, home land security and so on. This paper discusses anovel approach to processthe data online (as the data is being acquired) using a heterogeneous computing platform namely XSTREAM which has COTS hardware of CPUs, GPUs and FPGA. This paper focuses on the process architecture, re-engineering aspects and mapping of tasks to the right computing devicewithin the XSTREAM system, which makes it an ideal cost-effective platform for acquiring, processing satellite payload data in real-time and displaying the products in original resolution for quick response. The system has been tested for IRS CARTOSAT and RESOURCESAT series of satellites which have maximum data downlink speed of 210 Mbps.

  6. Real-time garbage collection for list processing using restructured cells for increased reference counter size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  7. Two dimensional recursive digital filters for near real time image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D.; Sherrod, E.

    1980-01-01

    A program was designed toward the demonstration of the feasibility of using two dimensional recursive digital filters for subjective image processing applications that require rapid turn around. The concept of the use of a dedicated minicomputer for the processor for this application was demonstrated. The minicomputer used was the HP1000 series E with a RTE 2 disc operating system and 32K words of memory. A Grinnel 256 x 512 x 8 bit display system was used to display the images. Sample images were provided by NASA Goddard on a 800 BPI, 9 track tape. Four 512 x 512 images representing 4 spectral regions of the same scene were provided. These images were filtered with enhancement filters developed during this effort.

  8. General-Purpose Front End for Real-Time Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    FRONTIER is a computer program that functions as a front end for any of a variety of other software of both the artificial intelligence (AI) and conventional data-processing types. As used here, front end signifies interface software needed for acquiring and preprocessing data and making the data available for analysis by the other software. FRONTIER is reusable in that it can be rapidly tailored to any such other software with minimum effort. Each component of FRONTIER is programmable and is executed in an embedded virtual machine. Each component can be reconfigured during execution. The virtual-machine implementation making FRONTIER independent of the type of computing hardware on which it is executed.

  9. Detection of almond allergen coding sequences in processed foods by real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Nuria; Iniesto, Elisa; Burbano, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rovira, Mercè; Rodríguez, Julia; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesus F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Linacero, Rosario

    2014-06-18

    The aim of this work was to develop and analytically validate a quantitative RT-PCR method, using novel primer sets designed on Pru du 1, Pru du 3, Pru du 4, and Pru du 6 allergen-coding sequences, and contrast the sensitivity and specificity of these probes. The temperature and/or pressure processing influence on the ability to detect these almond allergen targets was also analyzed. All primers allowed a specific and accurate amplification of these sequences. The specificity was assessed by amplifying DNA from almond, different Prunus species and other common plant food ingredients. The detection limit was 1 ppm in unprocessed almond kernels. The method's robustness and sensitivity were confirmed using spiked samples. Thermal treatment under pressure (autoclave) reduced yield and amplificability of almond DNA; however, high-hydrostatic pressure treatments did not produced such effects. Compared with ELISA assay outcomes, this RT-PCR showed higher sensitivity to detect almond traces in commercial foodstuffs. PMID:24857239

  10. Use of miniature magnetic sensors for real-time control of the induction heating process

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of monitoring the process of induction heating a workpiece. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can also be used to measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  11. A real time dynamic data acquisition and processing system for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clukey, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    The real time Dynamic Data Acquisition and Processing System (DDAPS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAPS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. DDAPS receives input from hot wire anemometers. Amplifiers and filters condition the signals with computer controlled modules. The analog signals are simultaneously digitized and digitally recorded on disk. Automatic acquisition collects necessary calibration and environment data. Hot wire sensitivities are generated and applied to the hot wire data to compute fluctuations. The presentation of the raw and processed data is accomplished on demand. The interface to DDAPS is described along with the internal mechanisms of DDAPS. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAPS is also provided.

  12. InSAR processing for volcano monitoring and other near-real time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaans, Karsten; Hooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Radar interferometry (InSAR, interferometric synthetic aperture radar) is routinely used to measure surface deformation prior to, during, and after volcanic events, although not in a monitoring capacity. The improved data availability of some current satellite missions presents us with the opportunity to do just that. We present here a fast and flexible algorithm to estimate coherence and select points on an interferogram-by-interferogram basis, which overcomes limitations of the conventional boxcar ensemble method in areas of marginal coherence. Time series methods, which offer an alternative way to select coherent points, are typically slow, and do not allow for insertion of new data without reprocessing the entire data set. Our new algorithm calculates the coherence for each point based on an ensemble of points with similar amplitude behavior throughout the data set. The points that behave similarly are selected prior to new images being acquired, on the assumption that the behavior of these nearby points does not change rapidly through time. The resulting coherence estimate is superior in resolution and noise level to the boxcar method. In contrast to most other time series methods, we select a different set of coherent points for each interferogram, avoiding the selection compromise inherent to other time series methods. The relative simplicity of this strategy compared to other time series techniques means we can process new images in about 1 h for a typical setup.

  13. An on-line video image processing system for real-time neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    1983-09-01

    The neutron radiography system installed at the E-2 experimental hole of the KUR (Kyoto University Reactor) has been used for some NDT applications in the nuclear field. The on-line video image processing system of this facility is introduced in this paper. A 0.5 mm resolution in images was obtained by using a super high quality TV camera developed for X-radiography viewing a NE-426 neutron-sensitive scintillator. The image of the Ne-426 on a CRT can be observed directly and visually, thus many test samples can be sequentially observed when necessary for industrial purposes. The video image signals from the TV camera are digitized, with a 33 ms delay, through a video A/D converter (ADC) and can be stored in the image bufer (32KB DRAM) of a microcomputer (Z-80) system. The digitized pictures are taken with 16 levels of gray scale and resolved to 240×256 picture elements (pixels) on a monochrome CRT, with the capability also to display 16 distinct colors on a RGB video display. The direct image of this system could be satisfactory for penetrating the side plates to test MTR type reactor fuels and for the investigation of moving objects.

  14. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  15. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  16. Real-time measuring system design and application of thermal expansion displacement during resistance spot welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, YongBing; Xu, Jun; Chen, GuanLong; Lin, ZhongQin

    2005-12-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) technology is the most important joining method in auto-body manufacturing. Quality of spot weld not only determines reliability and safety of cars, but also has an important influence on assembly variation of auto-body. Many welding quality parameters, such as welding current, electric resistance, electrode pressure, and thermal expansion displacement, had been proposed to monitoring and controlling spot weld quality, in which thermal expansion displacement was thought as a very promising method. But the measurement of dynamic displacement encounters many difficulties in measuring precision, measuring speed and sensor installation, which limit the usage of this method. This paper introduced a kind of laser displacement sensor made in OMRON to overcome the limitations of displacement measuring precision and measuring speed, and at the same time designed an ingenious fixture to mount the sensor to welding gun. Calibration experiments showed that the fixture reduced vibration introduced by pneumatic welding gun and interference between sensor and welding gun, and have a good linearity with standard clearance gauge. Based on this measuring system, dynamic thermal expansion displacement during RSW process was real-time monitored. Analysis found thermal expansion displacement can be used to real-time distinguish weld quality, such as small nugget, splash.

  17. Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jie; Xu, Guan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding; Liu, Xiaojun

    2013-08-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with highly sensitive optical absorption contrast and excellent spatial resolution comparable to medical ultrasound (US) imaging. We report the development of a fully integrated PAT and US dual-modality imaging system, which performs signal scanning, image reconstruction, and display for both photoacoustic (PA) and US imaging all in a truly real-time manner. The back-projection (BP) algorithm for PA image reconstruction is optimized to reduce the computational cost and facilitate parallel computation on a state of the art graphics processing unit (GPU) card. For the first time, PAT and US imaging of the same object can be conducted simultaneously and continuously, at a real-time frame rate, presently limited by the laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. Noninvasive PAT and US imaging of human peripheral joints in vivo were achieved, demonstrating the satisfactory image quality realized with this system. Another experiment, simultaneous PAT and US imaging of contrast agent flowing through an artificial vessel, was conducted to verify the performance of this system for imaging fast biological events. The GPU-based image reconstruction software code for this dual-modality system is open source and available for download from http://sourceforge.net/projects/patrealtime.

  18. The use of digital signal processors (DSPs) in real-time processing of multi-parametric bioelectronic signals.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Johann; Dirscherl, Andreas; Grothe, Helmut; Wolf, Bernhard

    2007-02-01

    In many cases of bioanalytical measurement, calculation of large amounts of data, analysis of complex signal waveforms or signal speed can overwhelm the performance of microcontrollers, analog electronic circuits or even PCs. One method to obtain results in real time is to apply a digital signal processor (DSP) for the analysis or processing of measurement data. In this paper we show how DSP-supported multiplying and accumulating (MAC) operations, such as time/frequency transformation, pattern recognition by correlation, convolution or filter algorithms, can optimize the processing of bioanalytical data. Discrete integral calculations are applied to the acquisition of impedance values as part of multi-parametric sensor chips, to pH monitoring using light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) and to the analysis of rapidly changing signal shapes, such as action potentials of cultured neuronal networks, as examples of DSP capability.

  19. Real-time data transmission, processing, and dissemination of GPS dropwindsonde data from the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, M. L.; Wick, G. A.; Spackman, J. R.; Hock, T.; Hood, R.

    2011-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dropwindsondes (dropsonde) designed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have been used on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) aircraft since 1996 to study and provide real-time vertical profiles of winds and thermodynamics within Tropical Cyclones (TC) and their atmospheric environment to forecasters and scientists. Operational and research aircraft from other agencies such as the Air Force, Navy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have since used these instruments, deployed from aircraft to provide invaluable data for use in numerical weather models and for scientific projects as part of their observing systems. The GPS dropsondes are now used routinely by the U. S. Government, universities, and other countries to observe and study a wide range of atmospheric phenomena. NOAA finalized a contract with NCAR to design and build a dropsonde system for the NASA Global Hawk autonomous (unmanned) aircraft to be used initially during the NASA (TC) Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign held during the late summer of 2010. This was the first time that a dropsonde system was designed to be installed on a fully autonomous aircraft. This concept provided numerous engineering obstacles but the potential for positive impacts for the scientific and operational community made the effort worthwhile. The system was installed and tested during GRIP but some engineering problems prevented it from being used fully during the experiment. NCAR engineers overcame these obstacles and the dropsonde system was ready for final testing in early 2011. The Global Hawk completed several successful test and science flights with the dropsonde system from February to March 2011. Three science flights, designed specifically to test and validate the dropsonde system on the GH as part of the NOAA Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) experiment, were conducted in the

  20. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications.

  1. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:27378844

  2. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:27378844

  3. A real time, FEM based optimal control algorithm and its implementation using parallel processing hardware (transistors) in a microprocessor environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, William Neff

    1989-01-01

    There is an evident need to discover a means of establishing reliable, implementable controls for systems that are plagued by nonlinear and, or uncertain, model dynamics. The development of a generic controller design tool for tough-to-control systems is reported. The method utilizes a moving grid, time infinite element based solution of the necessary conditions that describe an optimal controller for a system. The technique produces a discrete feedback controller. Real time laboratory experiments are now being conducted to demonstrate the viability of the method. The algorithm that results is being implemented in a microprocessor environment. Critical computational tasks are accomplished using a low cost, on-board, multiprocessor (INMOS T800 Transputers) and parallel processing. Progress to date validates the methodology presented. Applications of the technique to the control of highly flexible robotic appendages are suggested.

  4. Real-time measurement of joint movement using a digital signal processor-based image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorehead, John D.; Harvey, David M.; Dangerfield, Peter H.; Montgomery, S. C.

    1994-09-01

    A new low cost imaging system has been devised to detect and measure joint movement to help with the diagnosis of ligament injuries in the human knee. The system uses a domestic video camcorder to record the movement of marks on a patient's knee as it is flexed. The pictures are then fed into the imaging system, where the coordinates of each mark are determined for each angle of flexion. The coordinate data is then processed to show the dynamic operation of the knee, from which an assessment of ligament damage can be made. The imaging system is comprised of a PC host, a commercial frame store, and a custom built TMS320C40 digital signal processor (dsp) board. The dsp is used to perform correlation and other imaging functions, to automatically determine the mark coordinates in real time. This paper describes the application and development of the system, and gives the results of the research to date.

  5. Digital codec for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present the hardware implementation of a digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) composite color television signals and produces broadcast-quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 b/pixel. The sampling rate used with this algorithm results in 768 samples over the active portion of each video line by 512 active video lines per video frame. The algorithm is based on differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), but additionally utilizes a nonadaptive predictor, nonuniform quantizer, and multilevel Huffman coder to reduce the data rate substantially below that achievable with straight DPCM. The nonadaptive predictor and multilevel Huffman coder combine to set this technique apart from prior-art DPCM encoding algorithms. The authors describe the data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the codec and provide performance results.

  6. Real-time failure control (SAFD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.; Kemp, Victoria R.; Eckerling, Sherry J.

    1990-01-01

    The Real Time Failure Control program involves development of a failure detection algorithm, referred as System for Failure and Anomaly Detection (SAFD), for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This failure detection approach is signal-based and it entails monitoring SSME measurement signals based on predetermined and computed mean values and standard deviations. Twenty four engine measurements are included in the algorithm and provisions are made to add more parameters if needed. Six major sections of research are presented: (1) SAFD algorithm development; (2) SAFD simulations; (3) Digital Transient Model failure simulation; (4) closed-loop simulation; (5) SAFD current limitations; and (6) enhancements planned for.

  7. An engineered approach to stem cell culture: automating the decision process for real-time adaptive subculture of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Weiss, Lee E; Junkers, Silvina N; Chen, Mei; Yin, Zhaozheng; Sandbothe, Michael F; Huh, Seung-il; Eom, Sungeun; Bise, Ryoma; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; Kanade, Takeo; Campbell, Phil G

    2011-01-01

    Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and developing robotic cell

  8. Generalized modal analysis for closed-loop piezoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud-Audine, Christophe; Giraud, Frédéric; Amberg, Michel; Lemaire-Semail, Betty

    2015-08-01

    Stress in a piezoelectric material can be controlled by imposing an electrical field. Thanks to feedback, this electrical field can be a function of some strain-related measurement so as to confer on the piezoelectric device a closed-loop macroscopic behaviour. In this paper we address the modelling of such a system by extending the modal decomposition methods to account for the closed loop. To do so, the boundary conditions are modified to include the electrical feedback circuit, hence allowing a closed-loop modal analysis. A case study is used to illustrate the theory and to validate it. The main advantage of the method is that design issues such as the coupling factor of the device and closed-loop stability are simultaneously captured.

  9. Microcomputer-based artificial vision support system for real-time image processing for camera-driven visual prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; You, Cindy X.; Tarbell, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to predict exactly what blind subjects with camera-driven visual prostheses (e.g., retinal implants) can perceive. Thus, it is prudent to offer them a wide variety of image processing filters and the capability to engage these filters repeatedly in any user-defined order to enhance their visual perception. To attain true portability, we employ a commercial off-the-shelf battery-powered general purpose Linux microprocessor platform to create the microcomputer-based artificial vision support system (μAVS2) for real-time image processing. Truly standalone, μAVS2 is smaller than a deck of playing cards, lightweight, fast, and equipped with USB, RS-232 and Ethernet interfaces. Image processing filters on μAVS2 operate in a user-defined linear sequential-loop fashion, resulting in vastly reduced memory and CPU requirements during execution. μAVS2 imports raw video frames from a USB or IP camera, performs image processing, and issues the processed data over an outbound Internet TCP/IP or RS-232 connection to the visual prosthesis system. Hence, μAVS2 affords users of current and future visual prostheses independent mobility and the capability to customize the visual perception generated. Additionally, μAVS2 can easily be reconfigured for other prosthetic systems. Testing of μAVS2 with actual retinal implant carriers is envisioned in the near future.

  10. Microcomputer-based artificial vision support system for real-time image processing for camera-driven visual prostheses.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; You, Cindy X; Tarbell, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to predict exactly what blind subjects with camera-driven visual prostheses (e.g., retinal implants) can perceive. Thus, it is prudent to offer them a wide variety of image processing filters and the capability to engage these filters repeatedly in any user-defined order to enhance their visual perception. To attain true portability, we employ a commercial off-the-shelf battery-powered general purpose Linux microprocessor platform to create the microcomputer-based artificial vision support system (microAVS(2)) for real-time image processing. Truly standalone, microAVS(2) is smaller than a deck of playing cards, lightweight, fast, and equipped with USB, RS-232 and Ethernet interfaces. Image processing filters on microAVS(2) operate in a user-defined linear sequential-loop fashion, resulting in vastly reduced memory and CPU requirements during execution. MiccroAVS(2) imports raw video frames from a USB or IP camera, performs image processing, and issues the processed data over an outbound Internet TCP/IP or RS-232 connection to the visual prosthesis system. Hence, microAVS(2) affords users of current and future visual prostheses independent mobility and the capability to customize the visual perception generated. Additionally, microAVS(2) can easily be reconfigured for other prosthetic systems. Testing of microAVS(2) with actual retinal implant carriers is envisioned in the near future. PMID:20210459

  11. X-ray beam modulation, image acquisition and real-time processing in region-of-interest fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chang-Ying Joseph

    2000-07-01

    Region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy is a technique whereby a partially attenuating filter with an aperture in the center is placed in the x-ray beam between the source and the patient The part of the x-ray beam going through the filter aperture un-attenuated is used to project the main features of interest in the patient to form the ROI in each fluoroscopic image. The periphery of the image is formed by the projection of the features needed only for reference using the part of the attenuated x-ray beam passing through the filter. This technique can substantially reduce patient and staff dose and improve the image quality in the ROI of the image. By using Gd for the filter material, it is even possible to improve the x-ray attenuation contrast in the periphery. However, real-time image processing is needed to compensate for the x-ray intensity attenuation in the periphery so that the brightness in the two parts of the fluoroscopic image is linearity is restored. Based on the method of binary masks, a system was developed to perform the real-time image processing with the flexibility to accommodate both the horizontal and vertical movement of the imaging chain relative to the patient. A binary mask is a binary image used to define those regions in the fluoroscopic image which should be processed and those which should not. A method of binary mask generation was proposed so the region defined as not to be processed in the binary mask maintains as close a resemblance as possible to the ROI of the fluoroscopic image. The construction method for the look-up table used for the processing of the periphery and its dependence on physical quantities were described and studied. An algorithm for constantly tracking the change of the ROI in the fluoroscopic images and selecting the proper corresponding binary mask was developed. The quality of the processed ROI fluoroscopic images such as brightness, contrast and noise were evaluated and compared using test phantoms. The test

  12. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  13. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus. [for particle accelerator targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant was circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material was disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which was below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second embodiment, no inert gas was used, the bubble consisting of a vapor produced when the coolant was sprayed against the target.

  14. A GPU based real-time image processing for an axis-symmetrical optical laser triangulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschinelli, Pedro D. V.; Landeira, Gabriel A. B.; Kohler, Christian; Albertazzi, Armando; Teixeira da Silva, Guilherme B.

    2012-10-01

    An axis-symmetrical optical laser triangulation system was developed by the authors to measure the inner geometry of long pipes used in the oil industry. It has a special optical configuration able to acquire shape information of the inner geometry of a section of a pipe from a single image frame. It uses a radial light sheet and conical triangulation to measure the inner geometry of pipes in cylindrical coordinates. A set of equally spaced images of 1024 x 1024 pixels is acquired at 50 Hz while the device is moved along the pipe's axis. The measured geometry is analyzed to identify defects like corrosion damage. A GPU based processing algorithm has been developed to make the system able to process these images and display the geometrical/measurement result in real-time. The algorithm implements an adaptive threshold filter and a light intensity peak search using a graphic processing unit programming architecture (CUDA). Prior to the parallel algorithms (called kernels) a texture data type is used to remap the image, converting from polar to Cartesian coordinates, mapping angular and radial values in a 2D pixel data matrix. Radial lines are only scanned in a limited range (256 pixels) between a minimum and a maximum radius value. The achieved image processing frequency is about 470 frames per second (FPS) using a notebook equipped with a GTX 285m graphics card.

  15. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation. PMID:25897892

  16. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation. PMID:25897892

  17. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test

    PubMed Central

    Kopman, Vladislav; Laut, Jeffrey; Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of zebrafish to a robotic-fish whose morphology and colour pattern are inspired by zebrafish. Experiments are conducted in a three-chambered instrumented water tank where a robotic-fish is juxtaposed with an empty compartment, and the preference of live subjects is scored as the mean time spent in the vicinity of the tank's two lateral sides. The tail-beating of the robotic-fish is controlled in real-time based on feedback from fish motion to explore a spectrum of closed-loop systems, including proportional and integral controllers. Closed-loop control systems are complemented by open-loop strategies, wherein the tail-beat of the robotic-fish is independent of the fish motion. The preference space and the locomotory patterns of fish for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of real-time closed-loop control on zebrafish response. The results of this study show that zebrafish respond differently to the pattern of tail-beating motion executed by the robotic-fish. Specifically, the preference and behaviour of zebrafish depend on whether the robotic-fish tail-beating frequency is controlled as a function of fish motion and how such closed-loop control is implemented. PMID:23152102

  18. The Near Real Time Data Processing System For GPS Radio Occultation Data From Champ At Gfz Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.; Marquardt, Ch.; Beyerle, G.; Reigber, Ch.; Wehrenpfennig, A.

    GPS radio occultation measurements onboard low earth orbiting satellites (CHAMP) offer a prominent method for global and continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmo- sphere. Data assimilation studies using radio occultation data have already shown that this new type of remote sensing technique improves the accuracy of global and re- gional weather analyses and predictions. The use of products obtained from radio occultation data as, e.g., refractivity, tem- perature, or humidity profiles, by weather service centers requires an operational data processing system generating and delivering data products automatically within a 3 hour time limit. Since one year such a near real time data processing system is oper- ated at GFZ Potsdam with radio occultation data from the German satellite CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload). This system, the CHAMP Atmospheric Processor (CAP), will be introduced. The con- trolling and scientific components including ground infrastructure, data flow and soft- ware modules are discussed. CAP is designed to be easily extendable by additional scientific modules or input data. Thus, it also allows for an extension to other single- or multi-satellite occultation missions as, e.g., GRACE to be launched in March 2002. By end of April 2002 more than 50.000 occultations will be recorded. Extensive statis- tics as daily and monthly averages of processed occultations and global distributions of occultation events from one year of CHAMP radio occultation data will be presented.

  19. A real-time GNSS-R system based on software-defined radio and graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Amagai, Jun; Aida, Masanori; Narita, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    Reflected signals of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) from the sea or land surface can be utilized to deduce and monitor physical and geophysical parameters of the reflecting area. Unlike most other remote sensing techniques, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) operates as a passive radar that takes advantage from the increasing number of navigation satellites that broadcast their L-band signals. Thereby, most of the GNSS-R receiver architectures are based on dedicated hardware solutions. Software-defined radio (SDR) technology has advanced in the recent years and enabled signal processing in real-time, which makes it an ideal candidate for the realization of a flexible GNSS-R system. Additionally, modern commodity graphic cards, which offer massive parallel computing performances, allow to handle the whole signal processing chain without interfering with the PC's CPU. Thus, this paper describes a GNSS-R system which has been developed on the principles of software-defined radio supported by General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs), and presents results from initial field tests which confirm the anticipated capability of the system.

  20. Excimer laser activation of ultra-shallow junctions in doped Si: Modeling, experiments and real time process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmar, Nadjib; Darif, Mohamed; Millon, Eric; Petit, Agnès; Etienne, Hasnaa; Delaporte, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    This work concerns the ALDIP (Laser Activation of Doping agents Implanted by Plasma immersion) project that was a successful collaboration with Ion Beam Services (IBS) corporation, the "Lasers, Plasmas and Photonic Processes" (LP3) laboratory and the GREMI laboratory. The aim of this work is to control the melted thickness (i.e. junction thickness in the range 10-100 nm) by the Real Time Reflectivity (TRR) monitoring during the Laser Thermal Processing (LTP). The LTP is achieved by using a KrF laser beam (248 nm, 27 ns) with a homogeneous 'Top-Hat' space distribution to induce a selective melting and the resolidification of the doped Si:B samples on few nanometers. This recrystallization is conducted here after the pre-amorphisation process resulting from the ionic implantation of Si (PIII IBS implanter). Thus, all the studied samples are partially amorphized and boron doped. TRR method allows the accurate evaluation of the melting threshold, the duration of the melting phase, and the maximum melted thickness. Obtained results versus laser fluence are shown in the new case of under vacuum treatment. In order to calibrate the TRR method (to determine the intensity and the profile of the TRR signal versus the melting depth), we have used the secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. This technique gives the doping agents profile versus the depth before and after LTP and confirms also the melting kinetics from TRR results.

  1. NEAR-REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT OF TRACE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM COMBUSTION PROCESSES USING AN ON-LINE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's current regulatory approach for combustion and incineration sources emphasizes the use of real-time continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for particulate, Metals, and volatile, semivolatile, and of nonvolatile organic compounds to monitor source emissions. Currently...

  2. Automated Droplet Manipulation Using Closed-Loop Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyle; Yang, Jinlong; Zuo, Yi Y

    2016-05-17

    Droplet manipulation plays an important role in a wide range of scientific and industrial applications, such as synthesis of thin-film materials, control of interfacial reactions, and operation of digital microfluidics. Compared to micron-sized droplets, which are commonly considered as spherical beads, millimeter-sized droplets are generally deformable by gravity, thus introducing nonlinearity into control of droplet properties. Such a nonlinear drop shape effect is especially crucial for droplet manipulation, even for small droplets, at the presence of surfactants. In this paper, we have developed a novel closed-loop axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA), integrated into a constrained drop surfactometer (CDS), for manipulating millimeter-sized droplets. The closed-loop ADSA generalizes applications of the traditional drop shape analysis from a surface tension measurement methodology to a sophisticated tool for manipulating droplets in real time. We have demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of the closed-loop ADSA in three applications, including control of drop volume by automatically compensating natural evaporation, precise control of surface area variations for high-fidelity biophysical simulations of natural pulmonary surfactant, and steady control of surface pressure for in situ Langmuir-Blodgett transfer from droplets. All these applications have demonstrated the accuracy, versatility, applicability, and automation of this new ADSA-based droplet manipulation technique. Combining with CDS, the closed-loop ADSA holds great promise for advancing droplet manipulation in a variety of material and surface science applications, such as thin-film fabrication, self-assembly, and biophysical study of pulmonary surfactant.

  3. An alternative quantitative acoustical and electrical method for detection of cell adhesion process in real-time.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou-Buffello, Delphine; Gindre, Marcel; Johnson, Paul; Laugier, Pascal; Migonney, Véronique

    2011-04-01

    Sauerbrey [(1956), Z Phys 55:206-222] showed that the shift in resonance frequency of thickness shear mode (TSM) of a quartz crystal sensor is proportional to the mass, which is deposited on it. However, new powerful electrical circuits were developed that are capable of operating TSM quartz crystal sensors in fluids which enabled this method to be introduced into electrochemical and biological applications. These applications include the detection of virus capsids, bacteria, mammalian cells, the interaction of DNA and RNA with complementary strands, specific recognition of protein ligands by immobilized receptors, and last but not least the study of complete immunosensors. Piezoelectric quartz transducers allow a label-free identification of molecules; they are more than mass sensors since the biosensor response is also influenced by the surface charge of adsorbed proteins, interfacial phenomena, surface roughness and viscoelastic properties of the adhered biomaterial. These new characteristics have recently been used to investigate cell, liposome, and protein adhesion onto surfaces, thus permitting the rapid determination of morphological cell changes as a response to pharmacological substances, and changes in the water content of biopolymers avoiding of time-consuming methods. We validated an alternative quantitative acoustical engineering for cell adhesion process monitored by the TSM. Shear acoustical results (motional resistance) are further correlated to cell counting procedures and are sensitive of adhesion processes in real-time.

  4. Parallel processing of real-time dynamic systems simulation on OSCAR (Optimally SCheduled Advanced multiprocessoR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasahara, Hironori; Honda, Hiroki; Narita, Seinosuke

    1989-01-01

    Parallel processing of real-time dynamic systems simulation on a multiprocessor system named OSCAR is presented. In the simulation of dynamic systems, generally, the same calculation are repeated every time step. However, we cannot apply to Do-all or the Do-across techniques for parallel processing of the simulation since there exist data dependencies from the end of an iteration to the beginning of the next iteration and furthermore data-input and data-output are required every sampling time period. Therefore, parallelism inside the calculation required for a single time step, or a large basic block which consists of arithmetic assignment statements, must be used. In the proposed method, near fine grain tasks, each of which consists of one or more floating point operations, are generated to extract the parallelism from the calculation and assigned to processors by using optimal static scheduling at compile time in order to reduce large run time overhead caused by the use of near fine grain tasks. The practicality of the scheme is demonstrated on OSCAR (Optimally SCheduled Advanced multiprocessoR) which has been developed to extract advantageous features of static scheduling algorithms to the maximum extent.

  5. Novel development tool for software pipeline optimization for VLIW-DSPs used in real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuertler, Johannes; Mayer, Konrad J.; Krattenthaler, Werner; Bajla, Ivan

    2003-04-01

    Although the hardware platform is often seen as the most important element of real-time imaging systems, software optimization can also provide remarkable reduction of overall computational costs. The recommended code development flow for digital signal processors based on the TMS320C6000(TM) architecture usually involves three phases: development of C code, refinement of C code, and programming linear assembly code. Each step requires a different level of knowledge of processor internals. The developer is not directly involved in the automatic scheduling process. In some cases, however, this may result in unacceptable code performance. A better solution can be achieved by scheduling the assembly code by hand. Unfortunately, scheduling of software pipelines by hand not only requires expert skills but is also time consuming, and moreover, prone to errors. To overcome these drawbacks we have designed an innovative development tool - the Software Pipeline Optimization Tool (SPOT(TM)). The SPOT is based on visualization of the scheduled assembly code by a two-dimensional interactive schedule editor, which is equipped with feedback mechanisms deduced from analysis of data dependencies and resource allocation conflicts. The paper addresses optimization techniques available by the application of the SPOT. Furthermore, the benefit of the SPOT is documented by more than 20 optimized image processing algorithms.

  6. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  7. Real-time simulation of a spiking neural network model of the basal ganglia circuitry using general purpose computing on graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Jun; Shouno, Osamu; Fukai, Tomoki; Tsujino, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Real-time simulation of a biologically realistic spiking neural network is necessary for evaluation of its capacity to interact with real environments. However, the real-time simulation of such a neural network is difficult due to its high computational costs that arise from two factors: (1) vast network size and (2) the complicated dynamics of biologically realistic neurons. In order to address these problems, mainly the latter, we chose to use general purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPUs) for simulation of such a neural network, taking advantage of the powerful computational capability of a graphics processing unit (GPU). As a target for real-time simulation, we used a model of the basal ganglia that has been developed according to electrophysiological and anatomical knowledge. The model consists of heterogeneous populations of 370 spiking model neurons, including computationally heavy conductance-based models, connected by 11,002 synapses. Simulation of the model has not yet been performed in real-time using a general computing server. By parallelization of the model on the NVIDIA Geforce GTX 280 GPU in data-parallel and task-parallel fashion, faster-than-real-time simulation was robustly realized with only one-third of the GPU's total computational resources. Furthermore, we used the GPU's full computational resources to perform faster-than-real-time simulation of three instances of the basal ganglia model; these instances consisted of 1100 neurons and 33,006 synapses and were synchronized at each calculation step. Finally, we developed software for simultaneous visualization of faster-than-real-time simulation output. These results suggest the potential power of GPGPU techniques in real-time simulation of realistic neural networks.

  8. Real-time processing of dual band HD video for maintaining operational effectiveness in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Steve C. J.; Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.

    2015-05-01

    Effective reconnaissance, surveillance and situational awareness, using dual band sensor systems, require the extraction, enhancement and fusion of salient features, with the processed video being presented to the user in an ergonomic and interpretable manner. HALO™ is designed to meet these requirements and provides an affordable, real-time, and low-latency image fusion solution on a low size, weight and power (SWAP) platform. The system has been progressively refined through field trials to increase its operating envelope and robustness. The result is a video processor that improves detection, recognition and identification (DRI) performance, whilst lowering operator fatigue and reaction times in complex and highly dynamic situations. This paper compares the performance of HALO™, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with conventional blended fusion for operation in degraded visual environments (DVEs), such as those experienced during ground and air-based operations. Although image blending provides a simple fusion solution, which explains its common adoption, the results presented demonstrate that its performance is poor compared to the HALO™ fusion scheme in DVE scenarios.

  9. Closed-loop, non-linear feedback control simulations of beam-driven field-reversed configurations (FRCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, N.; Onofri, M.; Barnes, D.; Romero, J.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    The C-2U device has recently demonstrated sustainment of an advanced, beam-driven FRC over time scales longer than the characteristic times for confinement, fast ion slow-down, and wall current decay. In anticipation of further advances in plasma lifetime, we are developing feedback control techniques for major FRC parameters and resistive instabilities. The LamyRidge code solves the time-dependent extended MHD equations in axisymmetric geometry. In the Q2D code, LamyRidge is combined with a 3-D kinetic code that tracks fast ions and runs in parallel with LamyRidge. Periodically, the background fields in the kinetic code are updated from the MHD simulation and the averaged fast particle distribution is integrated into the fluid equations. Recently, we have added the capability to run Q2D simulations as subordinate processes in Simulink, giving us the ability to run non-linear, closed-loop simulations using control algorithms developed in Simulink. The same Simulink models can be exported to real-time targets (CPU or FPGA) to perform feedback control in experiments. We present closed-loop simulations of beam-driven FRCs under magnetically-actuated feedback control. Results for positionally unstable FRCs are compared with the predictions of a linearized rigid-plasma model. Plasmas predicted to be passively stabilized by the linear model are found to exhibit Alfvenic growth in several cases. Feedback gains predicted to be stabilizing in the linear model are generally found to be insufficient in non-linear simulations, and vice versa. Control of separatrix geometry is demonstrated.

  10. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  11. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  12. Closed-loop autonomous docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous docking system is provided which produces commands for the steering and propulsion system of a chase vehicle used in the docking of that chase vehicle with a target vehicle. The docking system comprises a passive optical target affixed to the target vehicle and comprising three reflective areas including a central area mounted on a short post, and tracking sensor and process controller apparatus carried by the chase vehicle. The latter apparatus comprises a laser diode array for illuminating the target so as to cause light to be reflected from the reflective areas of the target; a sensor for detecting the light reflected from the target and for producing an electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal and for producing, based thereon, output signals relating to the relative range, roll, pitch, yaw, azimuth, and elevation of the chase and target vehicles; and a docking process controller, responsive to the output signals produced by the signal processor, for producing command signals for controlling the steering and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  13. Real-time Data Processing and Visualization for the Airborne Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; Revercomb, H. E.; Hoese, D.; Garcia, R. K.; Smith, W. L.; Weisz, E.; Tobin, D. C.; Best, F. A.; Knuteson, R. O.; Sullivan, D. V.; Barnes, C. M.; Van Gilst, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a five-year NASA mission targeted to enhance the understanding of the formation and evolution of hurricanes in the Atlantic basin. Measurements were made from two NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) during the 2012 through 2014 hurricane seasons, with flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The Global Hawk aircraft are capable of high altitude flights with durations of up to 30 hours, which allow extensive observations over distant storms, not typically possible with manned aircraft. The two NASA Global Hawks were equipped with instrument suites to study the storm environment, and inner core structure and processes, respectively. The Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), designed and built by the University of Wisconsin (UW) Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC), measures emitted thermal radiation at high spectral resolution between 3.3 and 18 microns. The radiance measurements are used to obtain temperature and water vapor profiles of the Earth's atmosphere. The S-HIS spatial resolution is 2 km at nadir, across a 40 km ground swath from a nominal altitude of 20 kilometers. Since 1998, the S-HIS has participated in 33 field campaigns and has proven to be extremely dependable, effective, and highly accurate. It has flown on the NASA ER-2, DC-8, Proteus, WB-57, and Global Hawk airborne platforms. The UW S-HIS infrared sounder instrument is equipped with a real-time ground data processing system capable of delivering atmospheric profiles, radiance data, and engineering status to mission support scientists - all within less than one minute from the time of observation. This ground data processing system was assembled by a small team using existing software and proven practical techniques similar to a satellite ground system architecture. This summary outlines the design overview for the system and illustrates the data path, content, and outcomes.

  14. DSPACE hardware architecture for on-board real-time image/video processing in European space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Donati, Massimiliano; Fanucci, Luca; Odendahl, Maximilian; Leupers, Reiner; Errico, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The on-board data processing is a vital task for any satellite and spacecraft due to the importance of elaborate the sensing data before sending them to the Earth, in order to exploit effectively the bandwidth to the ground station. In the last years the amount of sensing data collected by scientific and commercial space missions has increased significantly, while the available downlink bandwidth is comparatively stable. The increasing demand of on-board real-time processing capabilities represents one of the critical issues in forthcoming European missions. Faster and faster signal and image processing algorithms are required to accomplish planetary observation, surveillance, Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging and telecommunications. The only available space-qualified Digital Signal Processor (DSP) free of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions faces inadequate performance, thus the development of a next generation European DSP is well known to the space community. The DSPACE space-qualified DSP architecture fills the gap between the computational requirements and the available devices. It leverages a pipelined and massively parallel core based on the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) paradigm, with 64 registers and 8 operational units, along with cache memories, memory controllers and SpaceWire interfaces. Both the synthesizable VHDL and the software development tools are generated from the LISA high-level model. A Xilinx-XC7K325T FPGA is chosen to realize a compact PCI demonstrator board. Finally first synthesis results on CMOS standard cell technology (ASIC 180 nm) show an area of around 380 kgates and a peak performance of 1000 MIPS and 750 MFLOPS at 125MHz.

  15. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data. PMID:25923294

  16. Real-time studies of surface roughness development and reticulation mechanism of advanced photoresist materials during plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, A. R.; Bruce, R. L.; Weilnboeck, F.; Engelmann, S.; Lin, T.; Kuo, M.-S.; Phaneuf, R.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2009-01-01

    Surface roughness development of photoresist (PR) films during low pressure plasma etching has been studied using real-time laser light scattering from photoresist materials along with ellipsometric and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization. We show that evolution of the intensity of light scattered from a film surface can be used to study the development of surface roughness for a wide range of roughness starting from subnanometer to few hundred nanometers. Laser light scattering in combination with ellipsometry and AFM is also used to study the reticulation mechanism of 193 and 248 nm PRs during argon plasma processing. We employ a three-layer model (modified layer, rough layer, and bulk film) of the modified PR surface (193 and 248 nm PRs) to simulate and understand the behavior of ellipsometric Ψ-Δ trajectories. Bruggeman's effective medium approximation is employed to study the roughness that develops on the surface after reticulation. When the glass transition temperature of the organic materials is reached during Ar plasma processing, the PR films reticulate and roughness develops rapidly. Roughness development is more pronounced for 248 nm PR than for 193 nm PR. Simulation of Ψ-Δ shows that the growth of roughness is accompanied by strong expansion in the materials, which is stronger for 248 nm PR than 193 nm PR. The leading factors responsible for reticulation are found to be compressive stress that develops in the modified surface layer as it is created along with strong molecular chain motion and expansion of the material when the temperature is increased past the glass transition temperature. Reticulation leads to a significantly different surface morphology for 248 nm PR as compared to 193 nm PR and can be related to differences in molecular structure and composition leading to different responses when a modified surface layer is formed by ion bombardment accompanying plasma etching.

  17. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data.

  18. Closed-Loop Dynamic Modeling of Cerebral Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marmarelis, V. Z.; Shin, D. C.; Orme, M. E.; Zhang, R.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of cerebral hemodynamics have been studied extensively because of their fundamental physiological and clinical importance. In particular, the dynamic processes of cerebral flow autoregulation and CO2 vasomotor reactivity have attracted broad attention because of their involvement in a host of pathologies and clinical conditions (e.g. hypertension, syncope, stroke, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment etc.). This raises the prospect of useful diagnostic methods being developed on the basis of quantitative models of cerebral hemodynamics, if cerebral vascular dysfunction can be quantified reliably from data collected within practical clinical constraints. This paper presents a modeling method that utilizes beat-to-beat measurements of mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity and end-tidal CO2 (collected non-invasively under resting conditions) to quantify the dynamics of cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR). The unique and novel aspect of this dynamic model is that it is nonlinear and operates in a closed-loop configuration. PMID:23292615

  19. Inline real-time near-infrared granule moisture measurements of a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    PubMed

    Chablani, Lipika; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Rameas, Patrick; Stagner, William C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to use inline real-time near-infrared (NIR) to measure the moisture content of granules manufactured using a commercial production scale continuous twin-screw granulator fluid-bed dryer milling process. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to study the effect of inlet air temperature and dew point on granule moisture content. The NIR moisture content was compared to Karl Fischer (KF) and loss on drying (LOD) moisture determinations. Using multivariate analysis, the data showed a statistically significant correlation between the conventional methods and NIR. The R(2) values for predicted moisture content by NIR versus KF and predicted moisture values by NIR versus LOD were 0.94 (p < 0.00001) and 0.85 (p < 0.0002), respectively. The adjusted R(2) for KF versus LOD correlation was 0.85 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of the response surface design data showed that inlet air temperature over a range of 35-55°C had a significant linear impact on granule moisture content as measured by predicted NIR (adjusted R(2) = 0.84, p < 0.02), KF (adjusted R(2) = 0.91, p < 0.0001), and LOD (adjusted R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0006). The inlet air dew point range of 10-20°C did not have a significant impact on any of the moisture measurements.

  20. Dynamics of closed-loop systems containing flexible bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadikonda, Sivakumar S. K.; Singh, Ramendra P.

    1991-01-01

    An important characteristic of flexible multibody systems containing closed-loop topologies is that the component modes used to describe individual bodies will no longer be independent because of loop closure constraints. Thus, the issue of component modal selection becomes even more complicated. In addition, the foreshortening effect that has been studied extensively in the literature in the context of open-loop topologies will also be present in these constraint equations. Simulation results presented demonstrate the effects of modal selection and foreshortening on the dynamic response of closed-loop flexible systems.

  1. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  2. Design of embedded real-time cross-coupling compensation controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jinyong; Jiang, Tongmin; Li, Chuanri

    2006-11-01

    The cross-coupling compensation controller is a device for multi-shaker vibration testing to avoid deviations from the test specification caused by the inter-actuator forces. The applied theory and the developed closed-loop control algorithm are first introduced. An embedded real-time controller with PCI interface is designed to implement the algorithm. A bussimulating based system architecture design method is proposed for simplifying the logic design. To satisfy the special requirements of the forward channels, a multiple mode data acquisition subsystem is also designed. The system uses the embedded real-time kernel uC/OS-II as the algorithm development platform. The whole vibration control process is divided into several tasks, of which the communicating mechanism is given, according to their importance. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Real-time monitoring of the mitophagy process by a photostable fluorescent mitochondrion-specific bioprobe with AIE characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijie; Kwok, Ryan T K; Chen, Yilong; Chen, Sijie; Zhao, Engui; Yu, Chris Y Y; Lam, Jacky W Y; Zheng, Qichang; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-05-28

    An isothiocyanate-functionalized tetraphenylethene is synthesized and used as a fluorescent bioprobe for mitochondrion imaging with high specificity and photostability. The covalent conjugation of the bioprobe to mitochondrial proteins endows it with high resistance to microenvironmental changes, enabling it for real-time monitoring of mitophagy.

  4. Post-processing method to reduce noise while preserving high time resolution in aethalometer real-time black carbon data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time aerosol black carbon (BC) data, presented at time resolutions on the order of seconds to minutes, is desirable in field and source characterization studies measuring rapidly varying concentrations of BC. The Optimized Noise-reduction Averaging (ONA) algorithm has been d...

  5. Optimizing the real-time automatic location of the events produced in Romania using an advanced processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real time seismic network which is designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romanian territory, which is dominated by the intermediate earthquakes (60-200 km) from Vrancea area. The ability to reduce the impact of earthquakes on society depends on the existence of a large number of high-quality observational data. The development of the network in recent years and an advanced seismic acquisition are crucial to achieving this objective. The software package used to perform the automatic real-time locations is Seiscomp3. An accurate choice of the Seiscomp3 setting parameters is necessary to ensure the best performance of the real-time system i.e., the most accurate location for the earthquakes and avoiding any false events. The aim of this study is to optimize the algorithms of the real-time system that detect and locate the earthquakes in the monitored area. This goal is pursued by testing different parameters (e.g., STA/LTA, filters applied to the waveforms) on a data set of representative earthquakes of the local seismicity. The results are compared with the locations from the Romanian Catalogue ROMPLUS.

  6. A real-time simulator of a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    A real-time digital simulator of a Pratt and Whitney F100 engine has been developed for real-time code verification and for actuator diagnosis during full-scale engine testing. This self-contained unit can operate in an open-loop stand-alone mode or as part of closed-loop control system. It can also be used for control system design and development. Tests conducted in conjunction with the NASA Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation program show that the simulator is a valuable tool for real-time code verification and as a real-time actuator simulator for actuator fault diagnosis. Although currently a small perturbation model, advances in microprocessor hardware should allow the simulator to evolve into a real-time, full-envelope, full engine simulation.

  7. Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Antigen-Antibody Capture Processes Using the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Ping; Dai, Jun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jing-Yi; Lü, Hui-Bin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Jin, Kui-Juan; Zhou, Yue-Liang; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2012-07-01

    We successfully label-free and real-time detect the capture processes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG)/goat anti-human IgG and mouse IgG/goat anti-mouse IgG antigen-antibody pairs with different concentrations using the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method, and obtain the interaction kinetics curves and the interaction times. The experimental results prove that the OIRD method is a promising technique for label-free and real-time detection of the biomolecular interaction processes and achieving the quantitative information of interaction kinetics.

  8. A study of closed-loop application for logic patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hidemichi; Yoshikawa, Shingo; Takamizawa, Hideyoshi; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Pelletier, Alice; Sundermann, Frank; Buttgereit, Ute; Trautzsch, Thomas; Thaler, Thomas; Graitzer, Erez

    2012-06-01

    Optical lithography stays at 193nm with a numerical aperture of 1.35 for several more years before moving to EUV lithography. Utilization of 193nm lithography for 45nm and beyond forces the mask shop to produce complex mask designs and tighter lithography specifications which in turn make process control more important than ever. High yield with regards to chip production requires accurate process control. Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is one of the key parameters necessary to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit. There are different contributors which impact the total wafer CDU, mask CD uniformity, resist process, scanner and lens fingerprint, wafer topography, etc. In this paper, the wafer level CD metrology tool WLCD of Carl Zeiss SMS is utilized for CDU measurements in conjunction with the CDC tool from Carl Zeiss SMS which provides CD uniformity correction. The WLCD measures CD based on proven aerial imaging technology. The CDC utilizes an ultrafast femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In ElementsTM) inside the bulk material of the mask. By adjusting the density of the shading elements, the light transmission through the mask is locally changed in a manner that improves wafer CDU when the corrected mask is printed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of these two tools in a closed loop process to optimize CDU of the mask before leaving the mask shop and to ensure improved intra-field CDU at wafer level. Mainly we present the method of operation and results for logic pattering by using these two tools.

  9. Low-temperature plasma technology as part of a closed-loop resource management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetland, Melanie D.; Rindt, John R.; Jones, Frank A.; Sauer, Randal S.

    1990-01-01

    The results of this testing indicate that the agitated low-temperature plasma reactor system successfully converted carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen into gaseous products at residence times that were about ten times shorter than those achieved by stationary processing. The inorganic matrix present was virtually unchanged by the processing technique. It was concluded that this processing technique is feasible for use as part of a close-looped processing resource management system.

  10. Going to space: Implementation of spatial input data processing in real-time flood forecasting in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasak, T.; Krejci, J.; Danhelka, J.

    2009-04-01

    Real-time forecasting systems were developed and used in the Czech Republic since late 90's. AquaLog forecasting system is used for forecasting in the Czech part of the Elbe river basin. AquaLog uses SAC-SMA for rainfall-runoff modeling and SNOW17 for modeling of snow cover accumulation and melting. There are about 150 forecasting profiles (computed sub-basins). Data input pre-processing module AquaBase for data quality check and correction. Previous version of AquaBase and AquaLog (ver.5) operated in the scale of basins using time-series of observed precipitation and temperature to compute MAP and MAT based on Thiessen polygons method for basins of typical size of 200-500 km2 (basins were internally divided into 2-4 computation units based on elevation to simulate more precisely the snow cover). New version of AquaBase (ver.6) process data into regular 1 km grid offering to choose between several interpolating techniques: - Inverse distance weighted (IDW) with optional value of power parameter, number of stations and diameter in km to be taken into account - IDW quadrant (IDWq) using only the nearest station from every quadrant of space (optional power parameter and diameter applicable) - IDW and temperature gradient (for temperature only) correcting the interpolated value according to optional vertical temperature gradient and elevation difference among used stations (optional power parameter and diameter applicable) - Krigging with optional parameters - Co-krigging with optional parameters - Use of radar-raingauge dynamically combined field product AquaBase ver.6 enables editing of precipitation and temperature field by implementing pseudo-gauges anywhere in the space and editing its values. AquaLog computation unit were changed to small sub-basins of typical size of 10 to 15 km2 and specific unit hydrographs were derived for every sub-basin. MAP and MAT based on grid analysis in AquaBase environment input every particular sub-basin. Long time runoff simulation

  11. Closed Loop Test Facility for hot dirty gas valves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-06

    A design study of a closed loop test facility for eight-inch hot dirty gas valves is presented. The objective of the facility is to quality valves for use in coal gasifiers, combined cycle plants, and pressurized fluid bed combustors. Outline sketches and estimated costs are presented for the selected design.

  12. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  13. Successful Validation of Sample Processing and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Capabilities on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Tran, Luan; Boone, Travis; Almeida, Eduardo; Schonfeld, Julie

    2016-01-01

    ability to get on-orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experimental parameters in real time without the need for sample return and re-flight. The WetLab-2 Project is supported by the Research Integration Office in the ISS Program.

  14. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects. PMID:23518739

  15. Barrow real-time sea ice mass balance data: ingestion, processing, dissemination and archival of multi-sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Eicken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor data can be highly variable in nature and also varied depending on the physical quantity being observed, sensor hardware and sampling parameters. The sea ice mass balance site (MBS) operated in Barrow by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (http://seaice.alaska.edu/gi/observatories/barrow_sealevel) is a multisensor platform consisting of a thermistor string, air and water temperature sensors, acoustic altimeters above and below the ice and a humidity sensor. Each sensor has a unique specification and configuration. The data from multiple sensors are combined to generate sea ice data products. For example, ice thickness is calculated from the positions of the upper and lower ice surfaces, which are determined using data from downward-looking and upward-looking acoustic altimeters above and below the ice, respectively. As a data clearinghouse, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) processes real time data from many sources, including the Barrow MBS. Doing so requires a system that is easy to use, yet also offers the flexibility to handle data from multisensor observing platforms. In the case of the Barrow MBS, the metadata system needs to accommodate the addition of new and retirement of old sensors from year to year as well as instrument configuration changes caused by, for example, spring melt or inquisitive polar bears. We also require ease of use for both administrators and end users. Here we present the data and processing steps of using sensor data system powered by the NoSQL storage engine, MongoDB. The system has been developed to ingest, process, disseminate and archive data from the Barrow MBS. Storing sensor data in a generalized format, from many different sources, is a challenging task, especially for traditional SQL databases with a set schema. MongoDB is a NoSQL (not only SQL) database that does not require a fixed schema. There are several advantages using this model over the traditional relational database management system (RDBMS

  16. Real-Time Processing of Gender-Marked Articles by Native and Non-Native Spanish-Speaking Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew-Williams, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments explored how native and non-native Spanish speakers process article-noun sequences in real time, using eye movements as a response measure. Can listeners use gender-marked articles ("la" and "el", the feminine and masculine forms of "the") to rapidly identify familiar and novel nouns? In Experiment 1, adults who learned Spanish as…

  17. The Availability of Semantic and Syntactic Information and Their Use as a Structural Predictor in the Real-Time Processing of L1 and L2 Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the real-time sentence processing of Korean both by native speakers and learners in terms of the availability and the effectiveness of different types of information in the structural prediction. Built on the crosslinguistically contrastive findings between Japanese in Yoshida (2006) and Chinese in…

  18. Real-Time Moire Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, O. D. D.; Lage, A. I. V. S.

    1986-08-01

    Interferometric techniques including hologrametry, both classical and electronic, present high sensitivity making difficult its practical use in real-time. The introduction of the differencial concept as moire evaluation techniques permits to use with advantage an arbitrary reference pattern within the correlation range. The carrier spatial spectrum can be directly the interferogram fringe pattern instead of the original interference pattern of wavelength dimensional scale. A moire techniques is in itself an optical processing method reducing evaluation time which is advantageous when real-time response is desired from hybrid metrological systems. The moire evaluation is performed via a dynamical digital memory that executes arithmetic operations on two frames temporally in sequence, at TV rate. These characteristics of the moire evaluation techniques can be implemented on a real-time holographic (or speckle based) hybrid system with great practical advantage for dynamical studies.

  19. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  20. Closed Loop Interactions between Spiking Neural Network and Robotic Simulators Based on MUSIC and ROS.

    PubMed

    Weidel, Philipp; Djurfeldt, Mikael; Duarte, Renato C; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    In order to properly assess the function and computational properties of simulated neural systems, it is necessary to account for the nature of the stimuli that drive the system. However, providing stimuli that are rich and yet both reproducible and amenable to experimental manipulations is technically challenging, and even more so if a closed-loop scenario is required. In this work, we present a novel approach to solve this problem, connecting robotics and neural network simulators. We implement a middleware solution that bridges the Robotic Operating System (ROS) to the Multi-Simulator Coordinator (MUSIC). This enables any robotic and neural simulators that implement the corresponding interfaces to be efficiently coupled, allowing real-time performance for a wide range of configurations. This work extends the toolset available for researchers in both neurorobotics and computational neuroscience, and creates the opportunity to perform closed-loop experiments of arbitrary complexity to address questions in multiple areas, including embodiment, agency, and reinforcement learning. PMID:27536234

  1. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

    2015-10-23

    Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude.

  2. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

    2015-12-01

    Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude. PMID:26495855

  3. Closed Loop Interactions between Spiking Neural Network and Robotic Simulators Based on MUSIC and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Weidel, Philipp; Djurfeldt, Mikael; Duarte, Renato C.; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    In order to properly assess the function and computational properties of simulated neural systems, it is necessary to account for the nature of the stimuli that drive the system. However, providing stimuli that are rich and yet both reproducible and amenable to experimental manipulations is technically challenging, and even more so if a closed-loop scenario is required. In this work, we present a novel approach to solve this problem, connecting robotics and neural network simulators. We implement a middleware solution that bridges the Robotic Operating System (ROS) to the Multi-Simulator Coordinator (MUSIC). This enables any robotic and neural simulators that implement the corresponding interfaces to be efficiently coupled, allowing real-time performance for a wide range of configurations. This work extends the toolset available for researchers in both neurorobotics and computational neuroscience, and creates the opportunity to perform closed-loop experiments of arbitrary complexity to address questions in multiple areas, including embodiment, agency, and reinforcement learning. PMID:27536234

  4. A double closed loop to enhance the quality of life of Parkinson's Disease patients: REMPARK system.

    PubMed

    Samà, Albert; Pérez-López, Carlos; Rodríguez-Martín, Daniel; Moreno-Aróstegui, J Manuel; Rovira, Jordi; Ahlrichs, Claas; Castro, Rui; Cevada, João; Graça, Ricardo; Guimarães, Vânia; Pina, Bernardo; Counihan, Timothy; Lewy, Hadas; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Bayés, Angels; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Cabestany, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents REMPARK system, a novel approach to deal with Parkinson's Disease (PD). REMPARK system comprises two closed loops of actuation onto PD. The first loop consists in a wearable system that, based on a belt-worn movement sensor, detects movement alterations that activate an auditory cueing system controlled by a smartphone in order to improve patient's gait. The belt-worn sensor analyzes patient's movement through real-time learning algorithms that were developed on the basis of a database previously collected from 93 PD patients. The second loop consists in disease management based on the data collected during long periods and that enables neurologists to tailor medication of their PD patients and follow the disease evolution. REMPARK system is going to be tested in 40 PD patients in Spain, Ireland, Italy and Israel. This paper describes the approach followed to obtain this system, its components, functionalities and trials in which the system will be validated. PMID:25488217

  5. Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2010-05-24

    We realized graphics processing unit (GPU) based real-time 4D (3D+time) signal processing and visualization on a regular Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system with a nonlinear k-space spectrometer. An ultra-high speed linear spline interpolation (LSI) method for lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling is implemented in the GPU architecture, which gives average interpolation speeds of >3,000,000 line/s for 1024-pixel OCT (1024-OCT) and >1,400,000 line/s for 2048-pixel OCT (2048-OCT). The complete FD-OCT signal processing including lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and post-FFT processing have all been implemented on a GPU. The maximum complete A-scan processing speeds are investigated to be 680,000 line/s for 1024-OCT and 320,000 line/s for 2048-OCT, which correspond to 1GByte processing bandwidth. In our experiment, a 2048-pixel CMOS camera running up to 70 kHz is used as an acquisition device. Therefore the actual imaging speed is camera- limited to 128,000 line/s for 1024-OCT or 70,000 line/s for 2048-OCT. 3D Data sets are continuously acquired in real time at 1024-OCT mode, immediately processed and visualized as high as 10 volumes/second (12,500 A-scans/volume) by either en face slice extraction or ray-casting based volume rendering from 3D texture mapped in graphics memory. For standard FD-OCT systems, a GPU is the only additional hardware needed to realize this improvement and no optical modification is needed. This technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks.

  6. Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2010-05-24

    We realized graphics processing unit (GPU) based real-time 4D (3D+time) signal processing and visualization on a regular Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system with a nonlinear k-space spectrometer. An ultra-high speed linear spline interpolation (LSI) method for lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling is implemented in the GPU architecture, which gives average interpolation speeds of >3,000,000 line/s for 1024-pixel OCT (1024-OCT) and >1,400,000 line/s for 2048-pixel OCT (2048-OCT). The complete FD-OCT signal processing including lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and post-FFT processing have all been implemented on a GPU. The maximum complete A-scan processing speeds are investigated to be 680,000 line/s for 1024-OCT and 320,000 line/s for 2048-OCT, which correspond to 1GByte processing bandwidth. In our experiment, a 2048-pixel CMOS camera running up to 70 kHz is used as an acquisition device. Therefore the actual imaging speed is camera- limited to 128,000 line/s for 1024-OCT or 70,000 line/s for 2048-OCT. 3D Data sets are continuously acquired in real time at 1024-OCT mode, immediately processed and visualized as high as 10 volumes/second (12,500 A-scans/volume) by either en face slice extraction or ray-casting based volume rendering from 3D texture mapped in graphics memory. For standard FD-OCT systems, a GPU is the only additional hardware needed to realize this improvement and no optical modification is needed. This technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks. PMID:20589038

  7. Application of ISFETs in closed-loop systems for greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieling, Th. H.; van den Vlekkert, H. H.

    In horticulture, growing in artificial substrates such as rockwool is more and more considered to be a sound alternative to growing in soil. This development enables the opportunity to create closed-loop systems which lower the waste of raw materials and reduce pollution of the environment. Applying closed-loop systems needs precise knowledge of the composition of the recirculating nutrient solution. This paper presents basic principles of a measuring system, which can monitor continuously the concentration of nutrients in water. The system is based on ion-selective field effect transistors (ISFETs). By appropriate calibration, a high accuracy is achieved for pH and potassium measurements in the nutrient solution. An accuracy of better than 10% (mMol/l) has been achieved.

  8. Integrated closed-loop cavity of a tunable laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Cai, H.; Gu, Y. D.; Chin, L. K.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Ser, W.; Sun, H. D.; Liang, Q. X.; Kwong, D.-L.; Liu, A. Q.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a closed-loop cavity of a tunable laser integrated onto a silicon chip is demonstrated. The closed-loop cavity consists of a semiconductor optical amplifier chip, two separated micro-ring resonators, and a U-shaped waveguide sub-loop, enabling dominating lasing in the counterclockwise direction. The lasing wavelength is tuned by varying the effective refractive index of the thermal ring-resonators. It has achieved wide tuning range (55.4 nm), high spectral purity (50-dB side mode suppression ratio), ˜1-mW output power, and 36-dB counter-propagation power suppression ratio. The integrated tunable laser has high potential in applications such as optical network, optical sensing, and integrated optoelectronic systems.

  9. Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, George R.; Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Aryal, Harishchandra; Benzerga, M. Lamine

    2015-04-11

    This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.

  10. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  11. Real-time sonography

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischey, A.C.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook acquaints the reader with normal and pathologic anatomy as depicted on dynamic or real-time scanning. Chapters are organized by specialty, such as abdominal, urologic, or pediatric. The text is illustrated with still-frame images and line drawings. The drawings show important areas of interest and provide graphic notation as to where and in what orientation the scan was obtained.

  12. Feasibility of Outpatient Fully Integrated Closed-Loop Control

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris P.; Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C.; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Anderson, Stacey M.; Brown, Sue A.; Chernavvsky, Daniel R.; Breton, Marc D.; Farret, Anne; Pelletier, Marie-Josée; Place, Jérôme; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Del Favero, Simone; Visentin, Roberto; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Avogaro, Angelo; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of a wearable artificial pancreas system, the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), which uses a smart phone as a closed-loop control platform. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled at the Universities of Padova, Montpellier, and Virginia and at Sansum Diabetes Research Institute. Each trial continued for 42 h. The United States studies were conducted entirely in outpatient setting (e.g., hotel or guest house); studies in Italy and France were hybrid hospital–hotel admissions. A continuous glucose monitoring/pump system (Dexcom Seven Plus/Omnipod) was placed on the subject and was connected to DiAs. The patient operated the system via the DiAs user interface in open-loop mode (first 14 h of study), switching to closed-loop for the remaining 28 h. Study personnel monitored remotely via 3G or WiFi connection to DiAs and were available on site for assistance. RESULTS The total duration of proper system communication functioning was 807.5 h (274 h in open-loop and 533.5 h in closed-loop), which represented 97.7% of the total possible time from admission to discharge. This exceeded the predetermined primary end point of 80% system functionality. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that a contemporary smart phone is capable of running outpatient closed-loop control and introduced a prototype system (DiAs) for further investigation. Following this proof of concept, future steps should include equipping insulin pumps and sensors with wireless capabilities, as well as studies focusing on control efficacy and patient-oriented clinical outcomes. PMID:23801798

  13. Closed loop models for analyzing engineering requirements for simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Muralidharan, R.; Kleinman, D.

    1980-01-01

    A closed loop analytic model, incorporating a model for the human pilot, (namely, the optimal control model) that would allow certain simulation design tradeoffs to be evaluated quantitatively was developed. This model was applied to a realistic flight control problem. The resulting model is used to analyze both overall simulation effects and the effects of individual elements. The results show that, as compared to an ideal continuous simulation, the discrete simulation can result in significant performance and/or workload penalties.

  14. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  15. Validation of end-point and real-time PCR methods for the rapid detection of soy allergen in processed products.

    PubMed

    Espineira, Montserrat; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Santaclara, Francisco J

    2010-04-01

    This work describes the development and validation of two PCR methods, end-point and real-time PCR, for the detection of soy protein in a wide rage of foodstuffs. These techniques are reliable and sensitive, allowing detection of trace amounts of soybean in processed products. TaqMan real-time PCR was the simpler and more rapid process, with a higher potential for automation and, therefore, currently the most suitable screening method. To verify correct operation of the proposed methodology, ELISA was used for quantitative determination of soy protein. In addition, 35 meat, fish and bakery processed products, which could potentially contain soy but was not declared on the label, were tested for the presence of soy DNA using the proposed methods. The methodologies will be valuable in issues regarding the presence of soy protein in processed products, especially in verifying labelling and security regulations to protect consumer's rights.

  16. Real-time GPU-accelerated processing and volumetric display for wide-field laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Heesung; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Eun-Soo; Kim, Se-Hwa; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-01-01

    Fast signal processing and real-time displays are essential for practical imaging modality in various fields of applications. However, the imaging speed in optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), in particular, depends on factors such as the pulse repetition rate of the laser, scanning method, field of view (FOV), and signal processing time. In the past, efforts to increase acquisition speed either focused on developing new scanning methods or using lasers with higher pulse repetition rates. However, high-speed signal processing is also important for real-time volumetric display in OR-PAM. In this study, we carried out parallel signal processing using a graphics processing unit (GPU) to enable fast signal processing and wide-field real-time displays in laser-scanning OR-PAM. The average total GPU processing time for a B-mode PAM image was approximately 1.35 ms at a display speed of 480 fps when the data samples were acquired with 736 (axial) × 500 (lateral) points/B-mode-frame at a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz. In addition, we successfully displayed maximum amplitude projection images of a mouse’s ear as volumetric images with an FOV of 3 mm × 3 mm (500 × 500 pixels) at 1.02 s, corresponding to 0.98 fps. PMID:26713184

  17. Closed-loop snowplow applicator control using road condition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Alexander, Lee; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2011-04-01

    Closed-loop control of a snowplow applicator, based on direct measurement of the road surface condition, is a valuable technology for the optimisation of winter road maintenance costs and for the protection of the environment from the negative impacts of excessive usage of de-icing chemicals. To this end, a novel friction measurement wheel is designed to provide a continuous measurement of road friction coefficient, which is, in turn, utilised to control the applicator automatically on a snowplow. It is desired that the automated snowplow applicator deploy de-icing materials right from the beginning of any slippery surface detected by the friction wheel, meaning that no portion of the slippery road surface should be left untreated behind, as the snowplow travels over it at a reasonably high speed. This paper describes the developed wheel-based measurement system, the friction estimation algorithm and the expected performance of the closed-loop applicator system. Conventional and zero velocity applicators are introduced and their hardware time delays are measured in addition to the time delay of the friction estimation algorithm. The overall performance of the closed-loop applicator control system is shown to be reliable at typical snowplowing speeds if the zero velocity applicator is used.

  18. Closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunlin; Wang, Lin-Cheng; Wang, Yuanlong

    2013-01-01

    For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H(∞) control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention.

  19. An IP-Based Software System for Real-time, Closed Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, Everett; Davis, George; Higinbotham, John; Burns, Richard; Hogie, Keith; Hallahan, Francis

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the architecture of a computerized testbest for simulating Distributed Space Systems (DSS) for controlling spacecraft flying in formation. The presentation also discusses and diagrams the Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE) for simulating and planning DSS missions.

  20. The XH-map algorithm: A method to process stereo video to produce a real-time obstacle map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosselot, Donald; Hall, Ernest L.

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple and fast algorithm to produce a "floor plan" obstacle map in real time using video. The XH-map algorithm is a transformation of stereo vision data in disparity map space into a two dimensional obstacle map space using a method that can be likened to a histogram reduction of image information. The classic floor-ground background noise problem is addressed with a simple one-time semi-automatic calibration method incorporated into the algorithm. This implementation of this algorithm utilizes the Intel Performance Primitives library and OpenCV libraries for extremely fast and efficient execution, creating a scaled obstacle map from a 480x640x256 stereo pair in 1.4 milliseconds. This algorithm has many applications in robotics and computer vision including enabling an "Intelligent Robot" robot to "see" for path planning and obstacle avoidance.

  1. A robust adaptive denoising framework for real-time artifact removal in scalp EEG measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Atilla; Grossman, Robert G.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Non-invasive measurement of human neural activity based on the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) allows for the development of biomedical devices that interface with the nervous system for scientific, diagnostic, therapeutic, or restorative purposes. However, EEG recordings are often considered as prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts of different types and frequency characteristics. Among them, ocular artifacts and signal drifts represent major sources of EEG contamination, particularly in real-time closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) applications, which require effective handling of these artifacts across sessions and in natural settings. Approach. We extend the usage of a robust adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) scheme ({H}∞ filtering) for removal of eye blinks, eye motions, amplitude drifts and recording biases simultaneously. We also characterize the volume conduction, by estimating the signal propagation levels across all EEG scalp recording areas due to ocular artifact generators. We find that the amplitude and spatial distribution of ocular artifacts vary greatly depending on the electrode location. Therefore, fixed filtering parameters for all recording areas would naturally hinder the true overall performance of an ANC scheme for artifact removal. We treat each electrode as a separate sub-system to be filtered, and without the loss of generality, they are assumed to be uncorrelated and uncoupled. Main results. Our results show over 95-99.9% correlation between the raw and processed signals at non-ocular artifact regions, and depending on the contamination profile, 40-70% correlation when ocular artifacts are dominant. We also compare our results with the offline independent component analysis and artifact subspace reconstruction methods, and show that some local quantities are handled better by our sample-adaptive real-time framework. Decoding performance is also compared with multi-day experimental data from 2 subjects

  2. Potential for real-time understanding of coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in stream ecosystems: Future integration of telemetered data with process models for glacial meltwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Cozzetto, Karen; Cullis, James D. S.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Jaros, Christopher; Koch, Joshua C.; Lyons, W. Berry; Neupauer, Roseanna; Wlostowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    While continuous monitoring of streamflow and temperature has been common for some time, there is great potential to expand continuous monitoring to include water quality parameters such as nutrients, turbidity, oxygen, and dissolved organic material. In many systems, distinguishing between watershed and stream ecosystem controls can be challenging. The usefulness of such monitoring can be enhanced by the application of quantitative models to interpret observed patterns in real time. Examples are discussed primarily from the glacial meltwater streams of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Although the Dry Valley landscape is barren of plants, many streams harbor thriving cyanobacterial mats. Whereas a daily cycle of streamflow is controlled by the surface energy balance on the glaciers and the temporal pattern of solar exposure, the daily signal for biogeochemical processes controlling water quality is generated along the stream. These features result in an excellent outdoor laboratory for investigating fundamental ecosystem process and the development and validation of process-based models. As part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research project, we have conducted field experiments and developed coupled biogeochemical transport models for the role of hyporheic exchange in controlling weathering reactions, microbial nitrogen cycling, and stream temperature regulation. We have adapted modeling approaches from sediment transport to understand mobilization of stream biomass with increasing flows. These models help to elucidate the role of in-stream processes in systems where watershed processes also contribute to observed patterns, and may serve as a test case for applying real-time stream ecosystem models.

  3. Sensor based real-time process monitoring for ultra-precision manufacturing processes with non-linearity and non-stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyca, Omer Faruk

    This research investigates methodologies for real-time process monitoring in ultra-precision manufacturing processes, specifically, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and ultra-precision machining (UPM), are investigated in this dissertation. The three main components of this research are as follows: (1) developing a predictive modeling approaches for early detection of process anomalies/change points, (2) devising approaches that can capture the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics of CMP and UPM processes, and (3) integrating multiple sensor data to make more reliable process related decisions in real-time. In the first part, we establish a quantitative relationship between CMP process performance, such as material removal rate (MRR) and data acquired from wireless vibration sensors. Subsequently, a non-linear sequential Bayesian analysis is integrated with decision theoretic concepts for detection of CMP process end-point for blanket copper wafers. Using this approach, CMP polishing end-point was detected within a 5% error rate. Next, a non-parametric Bayesian analytical approach is utilized to capture the inherently complex, non-Gaussian, and non-stationary sensor signal patterns observed in CMP process. An evolutionary clustering analysis, called Recurrent Nested Dirichlet Process (RNDP) approach is developed for monitoring CMP process changes using MEMS vibration signals. Using this novel signal analysis approach, process drifts are detected within 20 milliseconds and is assessed to be 3-7 times faster than traditional SPC charts. This is very beneficial to the industry from an application standpoint, because, wafer yield losses will be mitigated to a great extent, if the onset of CMP process drifts can be detected timely and accurately. Lastly, a non-parametric Bayesian modeling approach, termed Dirichlet Process (DP) is combined with a multi-level hierarchical information fusion technique for monitoring of surface finish in UPM process

  4. A Novel Digital Closed Loop MEMS Accelerometer Utilizing a Charge Pump.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yixing; Dong, Jingxin; Chi, Baoyong; Liu, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel digital closed loop microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer with the architecture and experimental evaluation. The complicated timing diagram or complex power supply in published articles are circumvented by using a charge pump system of adjustable output voltage fabricated in a 2P4M 0.35 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, therefore making it possible for interface circuits of MEMS accelerometers to be integrated on a single die on a large scale. The output bitstream of the sigma delta modulator is boosted by the charge pump system and then applied on the feedback comb fingers to form electrostatic forces so that the MEMS accelerometer can operate in a closed loop state. Test results agree with the theoretical formula nicely. The nonlinearity of the accelerometer within ±1 g is 0.222% and the long-term stability is about 774 µg.

  5. Fault Detection and Safety in Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas. PMID:25049365

  6. Fault detection and safety in closed-loop artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas. PMID:25049365

  7. A Novel Digital Closed Loop MEMS Accelerometer Utilizing a Charge Pump

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yixing; Dong, Jingxin; Chi, Baoyong; Liu, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel digital closed loop microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer with the architecture and experimental evaluation. The complicated timing diagram or complex power supply in published articles are circumvented by using a charge pump system of adjustable output voltage fabricated in a 2P4M 0.35 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, therefore making it possible for interface circuits of MEMS accelerometers to be integrated on a single die on a large scale. The output bitstream of the sigma delta modulator is boosted by the charge pump system and then applied on the feedback comb fingers to form electrostatic forces so that the MEMS accelerometer can operate in a closed loop state. Test results agree with the theoretical formula nicely. The nonlinearity of the accelerometer within ±1 g is 0.222% and the long-term stability is about 774 µg. PMID:26999157

  8. Evaluation of DNA colony hybridization and real-time PCR for detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in postharvest-processed oysters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jessica L; Noe, Kathy E; Byars, Robin; Depaola, Angelo

    2009-10-01

    The applicability of real-time PCR was examined for detection of vibrios from postharvest-processed (PHP) oysters to allow for a more rapid assay and higher sample throughput than currently used. During June to October 2004, 68 PHP oyster samples were collected directly from PHP firms or from retail markets across the United States. PHP oysters were examined to determine the effectiveness of treatments in the reduction of vibrio levels and to compare the analytical methods utilized. The latter is the focus of the data presented here. Each sample was analyzed for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus by using a 2-dilution, three-tube most-probable-number (MPN) and a 25-g presence/absence enrichment in alkaline peptone water. Following 6-h and overnight enrichment, aliquots from each MPN tube and the 25-g sample were streaked onto selective media and tested by real-time PCR. Colonies from the selective agar were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus by DNA colony hybridization. DNA hybridization and real-time PCR results for each MPN tube and the 25-g enrichment at both time points were analyzed individually for each organism. The methods were in agreement for 857 (95%) of 901 and for 882 (98%) of 903 tubes for detection of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, respectively. Overall, there was 96% agreement between real-time and DNA colony hybridization. The results obtained by real-time PCR were comparable to those from DNA colony hybridization, but analysis time was significantly reduced for the detection of vibrios in PHP-treated oysters.

  9. Close-loop simulation of the medial olivocochlear anti-masking effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Wen; Yu, Lu-Ming; Wu, Po-Jui

    2015-12-01

    The medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) is known to affect cochlear signal processing via the electromechanical changes it induces in outer hair cells (OHCs). Experiments showed that electrically stimulating the MOC efferents (i.e., open-loop stimulation) suppresses cochlear responses to acoustic noise while enhancing the response to tone bursts if the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high [5]. However, such experiments did not reveal precisely how MOCR affects cochlear signal processing in a close loop. Presently we have built an integrated computer model for the MOCR pathway; the constituting sub-models include a model for cochlear mechanics with electromotile OHCs [11], a neurotransmitter release model for the synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion cells [16], an electrical model for the T-multipolar (TM) cells in the cochlear nucleus [6], a relay from TM cells to the MOC interneurons, and a convolution kernel describing the change of OHC potassium conductance triggered by the MOC inhibitory post synaptic potentials. Thus, close-loop responses of the entire system can be simulated for arbitrary acoustic stimuli. Both open-loop and close-loop simulations demonstrate a decrease in the auditory nerve fiber (ANF) response to noise but an increase in the response to high-level tone bursts. The present integrated computer model can potentially be used for testing hypotheses regarding the physiological mechanisms for MOC anti-masking effects.

  10. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  11. System identification from closed-loop data with known output feedback dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Minh; Juang, Jer-Nan; Horta, Lucas G.; Longman, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to identify the open loop systems when it is operating under closed loop conditions. First, closed loop excitation data are used to compute the system open loop and closed loop Markov parameters. The Markov parameters, which are the pulse response samples, are then used to compute a state space representation of the open loop system. Two closed loop configurations are considered in this paper. The closed loop system can have either a linear output feedback controller or a dynamic output feedback controller. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the proposed closed loop identification method.

  12. An Open-Source Hardware and Software System for Acquisition and Real-Time Processing of Electrophysiology during High Field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Purdon, Patrick L.; Millan, Hernan; Fuller, Peter L.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electrophysiology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique of growing importance in neuroscience. Rapidly evolving clinical and scientific requirements have created a need for hardware and software that can be customized for specific applications. Hardware may require customization to enable a variety of recording types (e.g., electroencephalogram, local field potentials, or multi-unit activity) while meeting the stringent and costly requirements of MRI safety and compatibility. Real-time signal processing tools are an enabling technology for studies of learning, attention, sleep, epilepsy, neurofeedback, and neuropharmacology, yet real-time signal processing tools are difficult to develop. We describe an open source system for simultaneous electrophysiology and fMRI featuring low-noise (< 0.6 uV p-p input noise), electromagnetic compatibility for MRI (tested up to 7 Tesla), and user-programmable real-time signal processing. The hardware distribution provides the complete specifications required to build an MRI-compatible electrophysiological data acquisition system, including circuit schematics, print circuit board (PCB) layouts, Gerber files for PCB fabrication and robotic assembly, a bill of materials with part numbers, data sheets, and vendor information, and test procedures. The software facilitates rapid implementation of real-time signal processing algorithms. This system has used in human EEG/fMRI studies at 3 and 7 Tesla examining the auditory system, visual system, sleep physiology, and anesthesia, as well as in intracranial electrophysiological studies of the non-human primate visual system during 3 Tesla fMRI, and in human hyperbaric physiology studies at depths of up to 300 feet below sea level. PMID:18761038

  13. Real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide using microelectrodes in an ultrasonic enhanced heterogeneous Fenton process catalyzed by ferrocene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Xin, Qing; Gao, Xiumin

    2015-07-01

    Microelectrodes were used for real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a heterogeneous sono-Fenton system with ferrocene as the catalyst. The working mechanism of reactive blue 13 decolorization in a heterogeneous sono-Fenton system was investigated. Ultrasonic irradiation showed no effect on decolorization when used alone and did not enhance decolorization in the H2O2 system (43.0 % for H2O2 vs. 48.1 % for US+H2O2). However, a system with the presence of Fenton-like reagents achieved complete decolorization. Decolorization was greatly accelerated by the addition of ultrasonic irradiation. Thorough decolorization was achieved in 20 min in the heterogeneous sono-Fenton system, which was 30 min faster than in the heterogeneous Fenton system. Based on the data collected by microelectrodes, accelerated decomposition of H2O2 was also observed. Ultrasonic irradiation aided the ferrocene catalyst in liberating more •OH from Fenton reactions, leading to the faster decolorization.

  14. Multihit two-dimensional charged-particle imaging system with real-time image processing at 1000 frames/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horio, Takuya; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed imaging system developed for two-dimensional counting of charged particles is presented. Microchannel plates coupled with a phosphor screen of a short emission lifetime (<1 μs) are used to visualize the two-dimensional positions of charged-particle impacts, and the image on the phosphor screen is captured with a 1 kHz complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor (512×512 pixels). A multistage image intensifier consisting of the first and second generation devices was used to compensate for the low sensitivity of CMOS. The centers of gravity (COG) of individual light spots in each image frame are calculated in real time by a field programmable gate array circuit. The performance of this system is tested by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TR-PEI) of NO using (1+1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization via the A Σ2+ state with a femtosecond laser operated at 1 kHz. The new system enabled COG detection for more than ten particles in each frame at 1 kHz and achieved an extremely high degree of accuracy in the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions in TR-PEI.

  15. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R

    2012-02-23

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  16. Real-time reconfigurable foveal target acquisition and tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, David J.; Bandera, Cesar; Wrigley, Christopher J.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a target acquisition and tracking system based on the biomimetic concept of foveal vision. The system electronically reconfigures the resolution, sizes, shape, and focal plane position of visual acuity to meet time- varying operational requirements while maximizing the relevance of acquired video. A reconfigurable multiresolution active pixel CMOS imaging array is integrated in a closed-loop fashion with video processing and configuration control. Imager and algorithm configuration is updated frame-by-frame and reactively to target and scene conditions. By dynamically tailoring the visual acuity of the senor itself, the relevance and acquired visual information is maximized and a fast update rate is achieved with reduced communications bandwidth and processing requirements throughout the entire system. The system also features small size and less power consumption, and does not require a pointing mechanism. The distinguishing features of reconfigurable foveal machine vision are presented, and the hardware and software architecture of the target acquisition and tracking system is discussed. Real-time experimental result for automated target search, detection, interrogation, and tracking are then presented.

  17. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision.

    PubMed

    Goavec-Mérou, G; Chrétien, N; Friedt, J-M; Sandoz, P; Martin, G; Lenczner, M; Ballandras, S

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates. PMID:24517814

  18. Real-time feedback control using online attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy for continuous flow optimization and process knowledge.

    PubMed

    Skilton, Ryan A; Parrott, Andrew J; George, Michael W; Poliakoff, Martyn; Bourne, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    The use of automated continuous flow reactors is described, with real-time online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis to enable rapid optimization of reaction yield using a self-optimizing feedback algorithm. This technique has been applied to the solvent-free methylation of 1-pentanol with dimethyl carbonate using a γ-alumina catalyst. Calibration of the FT-IR signal was performed using gas chromatography to enable quantification of yield over a wide variety of flow rates and temperatures. The use of FT-IR as a real-time analytical technique resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in the time and materials required compared to previous studies. This permitted a wide exploration of the parameter space to provide process understanding and validation of the optimization algorithms. PMID:24067568

  19. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: Demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goavec-Mérou, G.; Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Sandoz, P.; Martin, G.; Lenczner, M.; Ballandras, S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates.

  20. On-off closed-loop control of vagus nerve stimulation for the adaptation of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Hector Romero; Le Rolle, Virginie; Bel, Alain; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Andreu, David; Mabo, Philippe; Carrault, Guy; Hernández, Alfredo I

    2014-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a potential therapeutic approach in a number of clinical applications. Although VNS is commonly delivered in an open-loop approach, it is now recognized that closed-loop approaches may be necessary to optimize the therapy and minimize side effects of neuro-stimulation devices. In this paper, we describe a prototype system for real-time control of the instantaneous heart rate, working synchronously with the heart period. As a first step, an on-off control method has been integrated. The system is evaluated on one sheep with induced heart failure, showing the interest of the proposed approach.

  1. Mechanical ventilation in orbit: emphasis on closed-loop ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kaczka, David W; Beck, George

    2004-09-01

    As part of a Crew Health Care Maintenance System onboard the International Space Station, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has included a Respiratory Support Pack (RSP) to resuscitate or sustain a crew member with an acute impairment in pulmonary function. This article provides a critical appraisal of the RSP and of current strategies for mechanical ventilation in space. Various closed-loop ventilation strategies are reviewed,and their appropriateness for respiratory support in space is explored. Recommendations are made for enhancing and upgrading the current RSP to provide an injured crew member with the best possible chance of survival.

  2. Integrated Evaluation of Closed Loop Air Revitalization System Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s vision and mission statements include an emphasis on human exploration of space, which requires environmental control and life support technologies. This Contractor Report (CR) describes the development and evaluation of an Air Revitalization System, modeling and simulation of the components, and integrated hardware testing with the goal of better understanding the inherent capabilities and limitations of this closed loop system. Major components integrated and tested included a 4-Bed Modular Sieve, Mechanical Compressor Engineering Development Unit, Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and a Sabatier Engineering and Development Unit. The requisite methodolgy and technical results are contained in this CR.

  3. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  4. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  5. Inverse spin Hall effect in a closed loop circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, Y.; Auvray, F.; Wakamura, T.; Niimi, Y.; Fert, A.

    2014-06-16

    We present measurements of inverse spin Hall effects (ISHEs), in which the conversion of a spin current into a charge current via the ISHE is detected not as a voltage in a standard open circuit but directly as the charge current generated in a closed loop. The method is applied to the ISHEs of Bi-doped Cu and Pt. The derived expression of ISHE for the loop structure can relate the charge current flowing into the loop to the spin Hall angle of the SHE material and the resistance of the loop.

  6. Numerical investigation of closed-loop control for Hall accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Barral, S.; Miedzik, J.

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency discharge current oscillations in Hall accelerators are conventionally damped with external inductor-capacitor (LC) or resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) networks. The role of such network in the stabilization of the plasma discharge is investigated with a numerical model and the potential advantages of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control over RLC networks are subsequently assessed using either discharge voltage or magnetic field modulation. Simulations confirm the reduction of current oscillations in the presence of a RLC network, but suggest that PID control could ensure nearly oscillation-free operation with little sensitivity toward the PID settings.

  7. Digital phosphorimeter with frequency domain signal processing: Application to real-time fiber-optic oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcala, J. Ricardo; Yu, Clement; Yeh, Gong Jong

    1993-06-01

    An instrument to measure the excited-state lifetimes of phosphorescent materials in real time is described. This apparatus uses pulsed and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG solid-state laser for excitation, sampler for data acquisition, and frequency domain methods for data fitting. The instrument amplifies the ac components of the detector output and band limits the signal to 25 kHz. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is then set to obtain a desired number of harmonics. This band limited signal is sampled and averaged over few thousand cycles in the time domain. The frequency domain representation of the data is obtained by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio of each sampled harmonic is then computed. Ten to a hundred values of the phase and modulations are averaged before computing the sensor lifetime. The instrument is capable of measuring precise and accurate excited-state lifetimes from subpicowatt luminescent signals in 100 μm optical fibers. To monitor oxygen for biomedical applications the response time of the system is decreased by collecting only 8 or 16 harmonics. A least-squares fit yields the lifetimes of single exponentials. A component of zero lifetime is introduced to account for the backscatter excitation. The phosphorescence lifetimes measured reproducibly to three parts in a thousand are used to monitor oxygen. Oxygen concentrations are computed employing empirical polynomials. The system drift is less than 1% over 100 h of continuous operation. This instrument is used to measure oxygen concentrations in vitro and in vivo with 2 s update times and 90 s full response times. Examples of measurements in saline solutions and in dogs are presented.

  8. Exploring the Potential of an Isotopic N2O Analyzer to Observe Soil Biogeochemical Processes in Real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, R.; Koyama, A.; von Fischer, J. C.; Gupta, M.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the potential applications of an Isotopic Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Analyzer (Los Gatos Research), which can measure isotopic values of N2O (δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ15N and δ18O) as well as [N2O] at real-time. The analyzer can provide continuous and precise measurements of the isotopic values with a quantum cascade laser along with cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy technique. We evaluated the analyzer by quantifying N2O produced from soils and sediments, N2O dissolved in water, and a N2O standard for δ15N and δ18O. In quantifying N2O production from soils, we used four soils collected from diverse grassland sites across the North American Great Plains. In this lobe of the study, we investigated the relationship between N2O production rates and soil water content (SWC) by manipulating soil water levels in a lab setting. We hypothesized that N2O production rates would be positively correlated with SWC because we expected denitrification to be a more important N2O source than nitrification. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that soils adjusted at high SWC (20 to 50%) produced significant N2O. Parallel experiments using 15N labeling (15NH4+ and 15NO3-) suggested that N2O from the soils with high SWC was produced mostly via denitrification. Most of the soils adjusted with low SWC (10 to 20%) produced little N2O. When we observed measurable N2O from one soil with low SWC, the 15N labeling experiment suggested that N2O was produced via nitrification. Our measurements demonstrate that the Isotopic N2O Analyzer can be a powerful tool to investigate N2O dynamics in various materials, such as soils and water, in different environmental settings.

  9. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  10. Real-Time Revolution?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-03-01

    Austin Regional Clinic (ARC) physicians and officials know patient feedback is important, but getting patients to provide it can be a challenge. A pilot program of a new, real-time feedback system provided ARC patients a high-tech convenience previous attempts lacked and produced participation numbers dwarfing those past efforts. ARC's initial results with the system, in which patients answer five to seven questions on a computer tablet and can leave free-text comments, were so successful the clinic is already planning to expand it to all of its locations by the end of June.

  11. Real-time dual-mode standard/complex Fourier-domain OCT system using graphics processing unit accelerated 4D signal processing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    We realized a real-time dual-mode standard/complex Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system using graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated 4D (3D+time) signal processing and visualization. For both standard and complex FD-OCT modes, the signal processing tasks were implemented on a dual-GPUs architecture that included λ-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT), modified Hilbert transform, logarithmic-scaling, and volume rendering. The maximum A-scan processing speeds achieved are >3,000,000 line/s for the standard 1024-pixel-FD-OCT, and >500,000 line/s for the complex 1024-pixel-FD-OCT. Multiple volumerendering of the same 3D data set were preformed and displayed with different view angles. The GPU-acceleration technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks.

  12. On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated master-slave optical coherence tomography (MS-OCT), an OCT method that does not need resampling of data and can be used to deliver en face images from several depths simultaneously. In a separate report, we have also demonstrated MS-OCT's capability of producing cross-sectional images of a quality similar to those provided by the traditional Fourier domain (FD) OCT technique, but at a much slower rate. Here, we demonstrate that by taking advantage of the parallel processing capabilities offered by the MS-OCT method, cross-sectional OCT images of the human retina can be produced in real time. We analyze the conditions that ensure a true real-time B-scan imaging operation and demonstrate in vivo real-time images from human fovea and the optic nerve, with resolution and sensitivity comparable to those produced using the traditional FD-based method, however, without the need of data resampling.

  13. On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system.

    PubMed

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated master-slave optical coherence tomography (MS-OCT), an OCT method that does not need resampling of data and can be used to deliver en face images from several depths simultaneously. In a separate report, we have also demonstrated MS-OCT's capability of producing cross-sectional images of a quality similar to those provided by the traditional Fourier domain (FD) OCT technique, but at a much slower rate. Here, we demonstrate that by taking advantage of the parallel processing capabilities offered by the MS-OCT method, cross-sectional OCT images of the human retina can be produced in real time. We analyze the conditions that ensure a true real-time B-scan imaging operation and demonstrate in vivo real-time images from human fovea and the optic nerve, with resolution and sensitivity comparable to those produced using the traditional FD-based method, however, without the need of data resampling.

  14. Real-time parallel processing of grammatical structure in the fronto-striatal system: a recurrent network simulation study using reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Hinaut, Xavier; Dominey, Peter Ford

    2013-01-01

    Sentence processing takes place in real-time. Previous words in the sentence can influence the processing of the current word in the timescale of hundreds of milliseconds. Recent neurophysiological studies in humans suggest that the fronto-striatal system (frontal cortex, and striatum--the major input locus of the basal ganglia) plays a crucial role in this process. The current research provides a possible explanation of how certain aspects of this real-time processing can occur, based on the dynamics of recurrent cortical networks, and plasticity in the cortico-striatal system. We simulate prefrontal area BA47 as a recurrent network that receives on-line input about word categories during sentence processing, with plastic connections between cortex and striatum. We exploit the homology between the cortico-striatal system and reservoir computing, where recurrent frontal cortical networks are the reservoir, and plastic cortico-striatal synapses are the readout. The system is trained on sentence-meaning pairs, where meaning is coded as activation in the striatum corresponding to the roles that different nouns and verbs play in the sentences. The model learns an extended set of grammatical constructions, and demonstrates the ability to generalize to novel constructions. It demonstrates how early in the sentence, a parallel set of predictions are made concerning the meaning, which are then confirmed or updated as the processing of the input sentence proceeds. It demonstrates how on-line responses to words are influenced by previous words in the sentence, and by previous sentences in the discourse, providing new insight into the neurophysiology of the P600 ERP scalp response to grammatical complexity. This demonstrates that a recurrent neural network can decode grammatical structure from sentences in real-time in order to generate a predictive representation of the meaning of the sentences. This can provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of human cortico

  15. Real-time exploitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Richard D.

    1998-11-01

    The proliferation and technology advances of digital sensors for reconnaissance imaging require a commensurate increase in the productivity of ground-based exploitation system to process the increased volume of remotely-sensed data. Systems to support this level of production, themselves, must have significantly reduced development and life-cycle costs from previously installed systems. For cost, growth, and integration advantages, reconnaissance exploitation systems should be designed to maximize Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software. As an example, the Real-Time Exploitation System is a state-of-the-art system for photo interpretation and exploitation of real-time digital reconnaissance imagery. Using COTS hardware, the system is able to receive imagery at rates greater than 80 Mpixels/sec; perform detailed interpretation, exploitation and report generation, and; disseminate reports to intelligence users over secure networks. New technologies have been applied in workflow management, database management, and user interfaces to provide the image analyst with superior analysis tools and access to other intelligence data sources. Photogrammetric functions are also provided for monoscopic and stereoscopic imagery. These functions provide greater geographic accuracy than is achievable in most reconnaissance exploitation systems. The Real-Time Exploitation System significantly reduces timelines for the analysis and report generation process, and significantly increases the quality and accuracy of reports.

  16. Optical Closed-Loop Propulsion Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this program was to design and fabricate the components required for optical closed-loop control of a F404-400 turbofan engine, by building on the experience of the NASA Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program. Evaluating the performance of fiber optic technology at the component and system levels will result in helping to validate its use on aircraft engines. This report includes descriptions of three test plans. The EOI Acceptance Test is designed to demonstrate satisfactory functionality of the EOI, primarily fail-safe throughput of the F404 sensor signals in the normal mode, and validation, switching, and output of the five analog sensor signals as generated from validated optical sensor inputs, in the optical mode. The EOI System Test is designed to demonstrate acceptable F404 ECU functionality as interfaced with the EOI, making use of a production ECU test stand. The Optical Control Engine Test Request describes planned hardware installation, optical signal calibrations, data system coordination, test procedures, and data signal comparisons for an engine test demonstration of the optical closed-loop control.

  17. A Real-Time Optical Profile Sensor For Robot Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, G. L.; Verbeek, W. J.

    1984-02-01

    For robot ano automated arc welding a compact 3D vision sensor has been developed. It generates data to correct the preprogrammed welding path. It can find the starting point of toe seam, calculate the seam volume for process control and detect tack welds, all in real-time with submillimeter resolution. Mounted to the robot hand the He-Ne laser-based scanning triangulation sensor takes distance measurements to the workpiece at a 2000/s rate. Preproduction models were tested in operation for the effects of arclight, heat, smoke, spatter ano e.m.i., using various combinations of the welding_ parameters: process (MIG, TIG), mode (short cktg, globular, spray), welding current and voltage, protective gas (He, Ar, CO2) and travel speed. Included in the paper is a discussion of environmental influences and of closed-loop operation.

  18. Real-time Experiment Interface for Biological Control Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Risa J.; Bettencourt, Jonathan; White, John A.; Christini, David J.; Butera, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Real-time Experiment Interface (RTXI) is a fast and versatile real-time biological experimentation system based on Real-Time Linux. RTXI is open source and free, can be used with an extensive range of experimentation hardware, and can be run on Linux or Windows computers (when using the Live CD). RTXI is currently used extensively for two experiment types: dynamic patch clamp and closed-loop stimulation pattern control in neural and cardiac single cell electrophysiology. RTXI includes standard plug-ins for implementing commonly used electrophysiology protocols with synchronized stimulation, event detection, and online analysis. These and other user-contributed plug-ins can be found on the website (http://www.rtxi.org). PMID:21096883

  19. Real-time experiment interface for biological control applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Risa J; Bettencourt, Jonathan; Wha Ite, John; Christini, David J; Butera, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The Real-time Experiment Interface (RTXI) is a fast and versatile real-time biological experimentation system based on Real-Time Linux. RTXI is open source and free, can be used with an extensive range of experimentation hardware, and can be run on Linux or Windows computers (when using the Live CD). RTXI is currently used extensively for two experiment types: dynamic patch clamp and closed-loop stimulation pattern control in neural and cardiac single cell electrophysiology. RTXI includes standard plug-ins for implementing commonly used electrophysiology protocols with synchronized stimulation, event detection, and online analysis. These and other user-contributed plug-ins can be found on the website (http://www.rtxi.org).

  20. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  2. Real-time range generation for ladar hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Eric M.; Coker, Charles F.

    1996-05-01

    Real-time closed loop simulation of LADAR seekers in a hardware-in-the-loop facility can reduce program risk and cost. This paper discusses an implementation of real-time range imagery generated in a synthetic environment at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the Loop facility at Eglin AFB, for the stimulation of LADAR seekers and algorithms. The computer hardware platform used was a Silicon Graphics Incorporated Onyx Reality Engine. This computer contains graphics hardware, and is optimized for generating visible or infrared imagery in real-time. A by-produce of the rendering process, in the form of a depth buffer, is generated from all objects in view during its rendering process. The depth buffer is an array of integer values that contributes to the proper rendering of overlapping objects and can be converted to range values using a mathematical formula. This paper presents an optimized software approach to the generation of the scenes, calculation of the range values, and outputting the range data for a LADAR seeker.

  3. Real-time random delay compensation with prediction-based digital redesign.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongpeng; Cofie, Penrose; Ajuzie, Augustine N; Zhang, Jian; Akujuobi, Cajetan M

    2011-04-01

    Today's technological demands require challenging control solutions such as real-time applications of Networked Control System (NCS). However, due to communication protocol and shared data bus, NCS experiences uncertain and unpredictable time delays in both input and output channels. These delays cause asynchronization between the controller and the plant thereby degrading the performance of closed-loop control systems. To address this problem, this paper proposes to utilize digital redesign technique to provide real-time random delay compensation. PMID:21194688

  4. Proof of Concept Simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near-Real-Time Safeguards Monitor for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing plants. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  5. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in realtime by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  6. Development of a visiometric process analyzer for real-time monitoring of bottom spray fluid-bed coating.

    PubMed

    Liew, Celine Valeria; Wang, Li Kun; Wan Sia Heng, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Particle recirculation within the partition column is a major source of process variability in the bottom spray fluid-bed coating process. However, its locality and complex nature make it hidden from the operator. The aim of this study was to take snapshots of the process by employing a visiometric process analyzer based on high-speed imaging and ensemble correlation particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify particle recirculation. High-speed images of particles within the partition column of a bottom spray fluid-bed coater were captured and studied by morphological image processing and ensemble correlation PIV. Particle displacement probability density function (PDF) obtained from ensemble correlation PIV was consistent with validation experiments using an image tracking method. Particle displacement PDF was further resolved into particle velocity magnitude and particle velocity orientation histograms, which gave information about particle recirculation probability, thus quantifying the main source of process variability. Deeper insights into particle coating process were obtained and better control of coat uniformity can thus be achieved with use of the proposed visiometric process analyzer. The concept of visiometric process analyzers was proposed and their potential applications in pharmaceutical processes were further discussed. PMID:19504576

  7. Large detector array and real-time processing and elemental image projection of X-ray and proton microprobe fluorescence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, C. G.; Siddons, D. P.; Moorhead, G.; Kirkham, R.; Dunn, P. A.; Dragone, A.; De Geronimo, G.

    2007-07-01

    A detector concept is described that integrates a large solid-angle detector array developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and a high speed pipelined parallel processing engine developed at CSIRO for machine vision, with an embedded implementation of the Dynamic Analysis method for fluorescence spectra deconvolution and image projection, to yield a detection system capable of energy-dispersive detection, spectral deconvolution and real-time elemental imaging at ˜10 8 events per second for PIXE elemental imaging using the nuclear microprobe and SXRF elemental imaging using the synchrotron X-ray microprobe.

  8. DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

    2013-09-01

    In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

  9. Real-time single-shot measurement and correction of pulse phase and amplitude for ultrafast lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestov, Dmitry; Ryabtsev, Anton; Rasskazov, Gennady; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Dantus, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    The transition of femtosecond lasers from the laboratory to commercial applications requires real-time automated pulse compression, ensuring optimum performance without assistance. Single-shot phase measurements together with closed-loop optimization based on real-time multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan are demonstrated. On-the-fly correction of amplitude, as well as second- and third-order phase distortions based on the real-time measurements, is accomplished by a pulse shaper.

  10. Closed loop heading control in the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Tiwari, Rashi; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-04-01

    The study of Tobacco hawkmoths, Manduca sexta, with respect to the relationships between muscle activation and flight response has progressed to a point that closed loop heading control is possible on the live, tethered animals. We present a method of control through stimulation of the dorsoventral muscle (DVM) groups that are responsible for the upward motion of the wings. An experimental setup allowing for only yaw in flying moths was developed. A 10% duty cycle square wave input was used to stimulate the DVM on the side of the moth inboard of the desired turn. Both continuous and discontinuous signals were used and the results suggest that the moth is able to compensate for consistent input stimulation.

  11. [Near infrared spectroscopy on-line and real-time monitoring of alcohol precipitation process of reduning injection].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Mi, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Chuan-Li; Su, Guang; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a kind of rapid process analysis technology has been successfully applied in Chinese medicine pharmaceutical process. In this research, the technology was adopted to establish the rapid quantitative analysis models of main indicators from the Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua alcohol precipitation process of Reduning injection. On-line NIR spectra of 142 samples from alcohol precipitation process were collected and the content of main indicators for each sample were detected through off-line HPLC. With eliminating outliers, determination of spectra pretreatment method and selecting optimal band, the NIR quantitative calibration model for each indicator was established using partial least squares (PLS). These models were used to predict the unknown samples from precipitation process of Reduning injection to achieve the goal of rapid detection. The results showed that the models were ideal. The correlation coefficients of models for neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid and secoxyloganin were 0.973 872, 0.985 449, 0.975 509 and 0.979 790, respectively and their relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were 2.922 49%, 2.341 37%, 2.930 40% and 2.184 60%, respectively. This study indicated that the NIR quantitative calibration model showed good stability and precision, and it can be used in rapid quantitative detection of main indicators of efficacy in order to on-line monitor the alcohol precipitation process of Reduning injection. PMID:25911810

  12. Closed loop computer control for an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determined from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  13. THE MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR: A NEAR-REAL-TIME, NON-DESTRUCTIVE, INDICATOR OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard

    2010-05-07

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and The Ohio State University are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, non-destructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Signatures from these indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory validation is currently under way and significant results are available. The latest experimental results, along with an overview of the method will be presented.

  14. MONITORING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING CONDITIONS NON-DESTRUCTIVELY AND IN NEAR-REAL-TIME USING THE MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-05-07

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and The Ohio State University are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, nondestructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Signatures from these indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory testing is currently under way and significant results are available. Recent experimental results, along with an overview of the method are presented.

  15. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie; Fowler, Thomas David; Vinegar, Harold J.; Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  16. Characterizing the Processes for Navigating Internet Health Information Using Real-Time Observations: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Paterniti, Debora A; Wilson, Machelle; Bell, Robert A; Chan, Man Shan; Villareal, Chloe C; Nguyen, Hien Huy; Kravitz, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the processes people use to find health-related information on the Internet or the individual characteristics that shape selection of information-seeking approaches. Objective Our aim was to describe the processes by which users navigate the Internet for information about a hypothetical acute illness and to identify individual characteristics predictive of their information-seeking strategies. Methods Study participants were recruited from public settings and agencies. Interested individuals were screened for eligibility using an online questionnaire. Participants listened to one of two clinical scenarios—consistent with influenza or bacterial meningitis—and then conducted an Internet search. Screen-capture video software captured Internet search mouse clicks and keystrokes. Each step of the search was coded as hypothesis testing (etiology), evidence gathering (symptoms), or action/treatment seeking (behavior). The coded steps were used to form a step-by-step pattern of each participant’s information-seeking process. A total of 78 Internet health information seekers ranging from 21-35 years of age and who experienced barriers to accessing health care services participated. Results We identified 27 unique patterns of information seeking, which were grouped into four overarching classifications based on the number of steps taken during the search, whether a pattern consisted of developing a hypothesis and exploring symptoms before ending the search or searching an action/treatment, and whether a pattern ended with action/treatment seeking. Applying dual-processing theory, we categorized the four overarching pattern classifications as either System 1 (41%, 32/78), unconscious, rapid, automatic, and high capacity processing; or System 2 (59%, 46/78), conscious, slow, and deliberative processing. Using multivariate regression, we found that System 2 processing was associated with higher education and younger age. Conclusions We

  17. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  18. A deep look into the spray coating process in real-time-the crucial role of x-rays.

    PubMed

    Roth, Stephan V

    2016-10-12

    Tailoring functional thin films and coating by rapid solvent-based processes is the basis for the fabrication of large scale high-end applications in nanotechnology. Due to solvent loss of the solution or dispersion inherent in the installation of functional thin films and multilayers the spraying and drying processes are strongly governed by non-equilibrium kinetics, often passing through transient states, until the final structure is installed. Therefore, the challenge is to observe the structural build-up during these coating processes in a spatially and time-resolved manner on multiple time and length scales, from the nanostructure to macroscopic length scales. During installation, the interaction of solid-fluid interfaces and between the different layers, the flow and evaporation themselves determine the structure of the coating. Advanced x-ray scattering methods open a powerful pathway for observing the involved processes in situ, from the spray to the coating, and allow for gaining deep insight in the nanostructuring processes. This review first provides an overview over these rapidly evolving methods, with main focus on functional coatings, organic photovoltaics and organic electronics. Secondly the role and decisive advantage of x-rays is outlined. Thirdly, focusing on spray deposition as a rapidly emerging method, recent advances in investigations of spray deposition of functional materials and devices via advanced x-ray scattering methods are presented.

  19. A deep look into the spray coating process in real-time-the crucial role of x-rays.

    PubMed

    Roth, Stephan V

    2016-10-12

    Tailoring functional thin films and coating by rapid solvent-based processes is the basis for the fabrication of large scale high-end applications in nanotechnology. Due to solvent loss of the solution or dispersion inherent in the installation of functional thin films and multilayers the spraying and drying processes are strongly governed by non-equilibrium kinetics, often passing through transient states, until the final structure is installed. Therefore, the challenge is to observe the structural build-up during these coating processes in a spatially and time-resolved manner on multiple time and length scales, from the nanostructure to macroscopic length scales. During installation, the interaction of solid-fluid interfaces and between the different layers, the flow and evaporation themselves determine the structure of the coating. Advanced x-ray scattering methods open a powerful pathway for observing the involved processes in situ, from the spray to the coating, and allow for gaining deep insight in the nanostructuring processes. This review first provides an overview over these rapidly evolving methods, with main focus on functional coatings, organic photovoltaics and organic electronics. Secondly the role and decisive advantage of x-rays is outlined. Thirdly, focusing on spray deposition as a rapidly emerging method, recent advances in investigations of spray deposition of functional materials and devices via advanced x-ray scattering methods are presented. PMID:27537198

  20. Real-time signal processing XII; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 10, 11, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Letellier, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The conference addresses trends in electronic implementations, algorithms and architectures for signal processing, optical processors, and trends in optical processing. Papers on optical point-to-point interconnections and their use in neural nets are included, along with works dealing with both the general use of neural nets and the specific use of specialized neural nets in system applications. A series of papers on the computation of two-dimensional Fourier transforms is found in the proceedings, as well as works on programing methods for crystallography, fast mapping of gravity equations on a linear array, adaptive signal processing using a liquid-crystal television, and hybrid digital-optical processors. Focus is placed on electrooptical implementations for two-dimensional array neural nets, radar imaging using the Wigner-Ville distribution, a recursive optical notching filter, and parallel algorithms for automatic target identification using CO{sub 2}-laser radar imagery.