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Sample records for real-time pcr-based monitoring

  1. Real-time PCR based analysis of metal resistance genes in metal resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain J007.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sangeeta; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-07-01

    A uranium (U)-resistant and -accumulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was characterized to assess the response of toxic metals toward its growth and expression of metal resistance determinants. The bacterium showed MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 6, 3, and 2 mM for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively; with resistance phenotype conferred by periplasmic Cu sequestering copA and RND type heavy metal efflux czcA genes. Real-time PCR-based expression analysis revealed significant upregulation of both these genes upon exposure to low concentrations of metals for short duration, whereas the global stress response gene sodA encoding superoxide dismutase enzyme was upregulated only at higher metal concentrations or longer exposure time. It could also be inferred that copA and czcA are involved in providing resistance only at low metal concentrations, whereas involvement of "global stress response" phenomenon (expression of sodA) at higher metal concentration or increased exposure was evident. This study provides significant understanding of the adaptive response of bacteria surviving in metal and radionuclide contaminated environments along with the development of real-time PCR-based quantification method of using metal resistance genes as biomarker for monitoring relevant bacteria in such habitats. PMID:26662317

  2. Geodynamic monitoring in real times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outkin, V.; Yurkov, A.; Klimshin, A.; Kozlova, I.

    2011-12-01

    For the decision of problems of the short-term and intermediate term forecast of tectonic earthquakes the technique conditionally named - geodynamic monitoring which does not use the data of seismic monitoring for the operative decision of problems of the forecast is offered. Geodynamic monitoring (GDM) is to studying tensely - deformed conditions of the separate block of rock on change of activity natural radioactive gas is carried out by accommodation in the chosen file of specially designed monitors of radon - devices fixing change in time (VAR). The monitor of radon, (the detector of radon) as the basic measuring device located in the block of rocks, possesses enormous tensosensitivity to relative strain condition of a file. Depending on the enclosed pressure choose three characteristic points: 1) 30-35 % of "background" size VAR - the beginning of accumulation of inelastic energy; 2) 50 % of background VAR - the process of stabilization of an elastic condition of a file; 3) 70-75 % "background" VAR - a critical pressure in the mountain block, an opportunity as spontaneous dump of elastic energy, and under action external "triggerring" forces. If the size of the saved up energy is close to critical dump needs energy at a level of energy of variations of rotation of the Earth. Such significant energy causes "plenty" of earthquakes on all planet simultaneously. This fact confirms an opportunity of the short-term forecast of strong (destructive) earthquakes: dump of elastic pressure of the Earth in this case occurs in 25-30 hours after passage of variations of rotation of the Earth. It is for the notification of the population about coming nearer earthquake. External power functions (mechanical, electromagnetic, etc.), preparations influencing system and occurrence of tectonic earthquakes, are divided on two big classes: 1) "forecasting " functions - processes functionally connected to accumulation of elastic pressure and to dump by its rather small dozes; 2

  3. Real-time monitoring of landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.; Schulz, William H.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides cause fatalities and property damage throughout the Nation. To reduce the impact from hazardous landslides, the U.S. Geological Survey develops and uses real-time and near-real-time landslide monitoring systems. Monitoring can detect when hillslopes are primed for sliding and can provide early indications of rapid, catastrophic movement. Continuous information from up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring provides prompt notification of landslide activity, advances our understanding of landslide behavior, and enables more effective engineering and planning efforts.

  4. The real-time Neutron Monitor database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, K.-L.; Steigies, C.; Nmdb Team

    2009-04-01

    In January 2007 the Real time database for high-resolution neutron monitor measurements (NMDB) project, which is supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, commenced. One year after the project start we have several neutron monitor stations that are sending their data in real-time to a publicly available prototype database in a common format. We have developed applications that make use of the real-time cosmic ray measurements for example for space weather applications and dose calculations at airplane altitudes. We are also in the process of establishing a public outreach site and a training site with material for university students and researchers and engineers who want to get familiar with cosmic rays and neutron monitor measurements. An overview of the project status as well as instructions on how to use the available data will be given. Possible future developments will be briefly discussed.

  5. European validation of a real-time PCR-based method for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Gianfranceschi, Monica Virginia; Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Hernandez, Marta; González-García, Patricia; Comin, Damiano; Gattuso, Antonietta; Delibato, Elisabetta; Sonnessa, Michele; Pasquali, Frederique; Prencipe, Vincenza; Sreter-Lancz, Zuzsanna; Saiz-Abajo, María-José; Pérez-De-Juan, Javier; Butrón, Javier; Kozačinski, Lidija; Tomic, Danijela Horvatek; Zdolec, Nevijo; Johannessen, Gro S; Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; De Santis, Paola; Lovari, Sarah; Bertasi, Barbara; Pavoni, Enrico; Paiusco, Antonella; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; De Medici, Dario

    2014-08-01

    The classical microbiological method for detection of Listeria monocytogenes requires around 7 days for final confirmation, and due to perishable nature of RTE food products, there is a clear need for an alternative methodology for detection of this pathogen. This study presents an international (at European level) ISO 16140-based validation trial of a non-proprietary real-time PCR-based methodology that can generate final results in the following day of the analysis. This methodology is based on an ISO compatible enrichment coupled to a bacterial DNA extraction and a consolidated real-time PCR assay. Twelve laboratories from six European countries participated in this trial, and soft cheese was selected as food model since it can represent a difficult matrix for the bacterial DNA extraction and real-time PCR amplification. The limit of detection observed was down to 10 CFU per 25 of sample, showing excellent concordance and accordance values between samples and laboratories (>75%). In addition, excellent values were obtained for relative accuracy, specificity and sensitivity (82.75%, 96.70% and 97.62%, respectively) when the results obtained for the real-time PCR-based methods were compared to those of the ISO 11290-1 standard method. An interesting observation was that the L. monocytogenes detection by the real-time PCR method was less affected in the presence of Listeria innocua in the contaminated samples, proving therefore to be more reliable than the reference method. The results of this international trial demonstrate that the evaluated real-time PCR-based method represents an excellent alterative to the ISO standard since it shows a higher performance as well as reduce the extent of the analytical process, and can be easily implemented routinely by the competent authorities and food industry laboratories.

  6. European validation of a real-time PCR-based method for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Gianfranceschi, Monica Virginia; Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Hernandez, Marta; González-García, Patricia; Comin, Damiano; Gattuso, Antonietta; Delibato, Elisabetta; Sonnessa, Michele; Pasquali, Frederique; Prencipe, Vincenza; Sreter-Lancz, Zuzsanna; Saiz-Abajo, María-José; Pérez-De-Juan, Javier; Butrón, Javier; Kozačinski, Lidija; Tomic, Danijela Horvatek; Zdolec, Nevijo; Johannessen, Gro S; Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; De Santis, Paola; Lovari, Sarah; Bertasi, Barbara; Pavoni, Enrico; Paiusco, Antonella; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; De Medici, Dario

    2014-08-01

    The classical microbiological method for detection of Listeria monocytogenes requires around 7 days for final confirmation, and due to perishable nature of RTE food products, there is a clear need for an alternative methodology for detection of this pathogen. This study presents an international (at European level) ISO 16140-based validation trial of a non-proprietary real-time PCR-based methodology that can generate final results in the following day of the analysis. This methodology is based on an ISO compatible enrichment coupled to a bacterial DNA extraction and a consolidated real-time PCR assay. Twelve laboratories from six European countries participated in this trial, and soft cheese was selected as food model since it can represent a difficult matrix for the bacterial DNA extraction and real-time PCR amplification. The limit of detection observed was down to 10 CFU per 25 of sample, showing excellent concordance and accordance values between samples and laboratories (>75%). In addition, excellent values were obtained for relative accuracy, specificity and sensitivity (82.75%, 96.70% and 97.62%, respectively) when the results obtained for the real-time PCR-based methods were compared to those of the ISO 11290-1 standard method. An interesting observation was that the L. monocytogenes detection by the real-time PCR method was less affected in the presence of Listeria innocua in the contaminated samples, proving therefore to be more reliable than the reference method. The results of this international trial demonstrate that the evaluated real-time PCR-based method represents an excellent alterative to the ISO standard since it shows a higher performance as well as reduce the extent of the analytical process, and can be easily implemented routinely by the competent authorities and food industry laboratories. PMID:24468028

  7. Real-Time Clinical Monitoring of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Michelle L.; Boutelle, Martyn G.

    2013-06-01

    Continuous monitoring of clinical biomarkers offers the exciting possibility of new therapies that use biomarker levels to guide treatment in real time. This review explores recent progress toward this goal. We initially consider measurements in body fluids by a range of analytical methods. We then discuss direct tissue measurements performed by implanted sensors; sampling techniques, including microdialysis and ultrafiltration; and noninvasive methods. A future directions section considers analytical methods at the cusp of clinical use.

  8. Differential diagnosis of Brucella abortus by real-time PCR based on a single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Kang, Sung-Il; Lee, Jin Ju; Lee, Kichan; Sung, So-Ra; Erdenebaataar, Janchivdorj; Vanaabaatar, Batbaatar; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Yoo, Han-Sang; Her, Moon

    2016-05-01

    To diagnose brucellosis effectively, many genus- and species-specific detection methods based on PCR have been developed. With conventional PCR assays, real-time PCR techniques have been developed as rapid diagnostic tools. Among them, real-time PCR using hybridization probe (hybprobe) has been recommended for bacteria with high DNA homology among species, with which it is possible to make an accurate diagnosis by means of an amplification curve and melting peak analysis. A hybprobe for B. abortus was designed from a specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the fbaA gene. This probe only showed specific amplification of B. abortus from approximately the 14th cycle, given a melting peak at 69°C. The sensitivity of real-time PCR was revealed to be 20 fg/µl by 10-fold DNA dilution, and the detection limit was 4 CFU in clinical samples. This real-time PCR showed greater sensitivity than that of conventional PCR and previous real-time PCR based on Taqman probe. Therefore, this new real-time PCR assay could be helpful for differentiating B. abortus infection with rapidity and accuracy.

  9. Differential diagnosis of Brucella abortus by real-time PCR based on a single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Ji-Yeon; KANG, Sung-Il; LEE, Jin Ju; LEE, Kichan; SUNG, So-Ra; ERDENEBAATAAR, Janchivdorj; VANAABAATAR, Batbaatar; JUNG, Suk Chan; PARK, Yong Ho; YOO, Han-Sang; HER, Moon

    2015-01-01

    To diagnose brucellosis effectively, many genus- and species-specific detection methods based on PCR have been developed. With conventional PCR assays, real-time PCR techniques have been developed as rapid diagnostic tools. Among them, real-time PCR using hybridization probe (hybprobe) has been recommended for bacteria with high DNA homology among species, with which it is possible to make an accurate diagnosis by means of an amplification curve and melting peak analysis. A hybprobe for B. abortus was designed from a specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the fbaA gene. This probe only showed specific amplification of B. abortus from approximately the 14th cycle, given a melting peak at 69°C. The sensitivity of real-time PCR was revealed to be 20 fg/µl by 10-fold DNA dilution, and the detection limit was 4 CFU in clinical samples. This real-time PCR showed greater sensitivity than that of conventional PCR and previous real-time PCR based on Taqman probe. Therefore, this new real-time PCR assay could be helpful for differentiating B. abortus infection with rapidity and accuracy. PMID:26666176

  10. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, René; Křížek, Miroslav

    2006-05-01

    Even the fastest alert robotic follow-up telescope is unable to cover the times just after (within first 10 seconds) and before GRB triggers. This time domain is accessible by optical monitors only. We report on analyses of GRB positions on images taken by optical photographic monitors (now operated remotely) within the European meteor network EN. This system is able to provide real-time and pre-burst optical data for GRBs with limiting magnitudes up to 12 in the best cases. The image database is searchable by special software for coincidences with GRBs and the particular images are then scanned and evaluated by computer.

  11. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF DETECTION EFFICACY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES BY REAL TIME PCR BASED METHOD.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, S K; Dixit, S M; Shrestha, S; Dangol, S D; Pokhrel, D; Banjara, S; Shrestha, K S; Hengoju, S; Dahal, B K

    2013-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Nepal and ranks as one of the most prevalent communicable diseases throughout the country. In Nepal, 45% of total population is infected with TB and 40,000 people get TB every year. Twenty thousand new sputum positive cases are seen every year and 5000-7000 people die each year from TB. Thirty sputum samples were collected from Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku, Kathmandu, Nepal and the comparative study of Acid-fast Bacilli (AFB) test and Real time PCR were conducted separately with the culture test which is regarded as gold standard by WHO. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through use of Real time PCR was found to be higher as compared to AFB and culture. Real-time PCR test showed higher sensitivity (100%) and specificity (94.11%) as compared to AFB test with sensitivity of 84.61% and specificity of 88.24%. Positive predictive value was found to be 84.61% and 92.86% for AFB and Q-PCR respectively. Negative predictive value was found to be 88.24%, and for Q-PCR, it was found to be 100%. Our statistics clearly show that TB diagnosis by Q-PCR is highly efficient and reliableover conventional methods of diagnosis and here we recommend its use in the hospitals and clinics of Nepal.

  13. Neutron monitor database in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery; Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Usoskin, Ilya; Yanke, Victor

    2003-09-01

    A first distributed Real Time Cosmic Ray Database using measurements of several neutron monitors is presented. The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains original cosmic ray as well as all housekeeping and technical data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomnicky Stit, Moscow, Oulu, Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations and it is opened for other neutron monitors. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The datbase and all its mirrors are updated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scipts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication tools developed at Bioengineering division of the IRCCS E. Medea, Italy.

  14. Real-time monitoring system for microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuppo, F.; Cantelli, G.; Fortuna, L.; Arena, P.; Bucolo, M.

    2007-05-01

    A new non-invasive real-time system for the monitoring and control of microfluidodynamic phenomena is proposed. The general purpose design of such system is suitable for in vitro and in vivo experimental setup and therefore for microfluidic application in the biomedical field such as lab-on-chip and for research studies in the field of microcirculation. The system consists of an ad hoc optical setup for image magnification providing images suitable for image acquisition and processing. The optic system was designed and developed using discrete opto-mechanic components mounted on a breadboard in order to provide an optic path accessible at any point where the information needs to be acquired. The optic sensing, acquisition, and processing were performed using an integrated vision system based on the Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) analogic technology called Focal Plane Processor (FPP, Eye-RIS, Anafocus) and inserted in the optic path. Ad hoc algorithms were implemented for the real-time analysis and extraction of fluido-dynamic parameters in micro-channels. They were tested on images recorded during in vivo microcirculation experiments on hamsters and then they were applied on images optically acquired and processed in real-time during in vitro experiments on a continuous microfluidic device (serpentine mixer, ThinXXS) with a two-phase fluid.

  15. Integrated sorting, concentration and real time PCR based detection system for sensitive detection of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Monalisha; Singh, Deepak; Singh, Himanshu; Kant, Rishi; Gupta, Ankur; Pandey, Shashank Shekhar; Mandal, Swarnasri; Ramanathan, Gurunath; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    The extremely low limit of detection (LOD) posed by global food and water safety standards necessitates the need to perform a rapid process of integrated detection with high specificity, sensitivity and repeatability. The work reported in this article shows a microchip platform which carries out an ensemble of protocols which are otherwise carried in a molecular biology laboratory to achieve the global safety standards. The various steps in the microchip include pre-concentration of specific microorganisms from samples and a highly specific real time molecular identification utilizing a q-PCR process. The microchip process utilizes a high sensitivity antibody based recognition and an electric field mediated capture enabling an overall low LOD. The whole process of counting, sorting and molecular identification is performed in less than 4 hours for highly dilute samples. PMID:24253282

  16. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  17. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  18. Comparison of different standards for real-time PCR-based absolute quantification.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, S; Doherty, T Mark; Kenneth, John

    2010-03-31

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool used for both research and diagnostic, which has the advantage, compared to relative quantification, of providing an absolute copy number for a particular target. However, reliable standards are essential for qPCR. In this study, we have compared four types of commonly-used standards--PCR products (with and without purification) and cloned target sequences (circular and linear plasmid) for their stability during storage (using percentage of variance in copy numbers, PCR efficiency and regression curve correlation coefficient (R(2))) using hydrolysis probe (TaqMan) chemistry. Results, expressed as copy numbers/microl, are presented from a sample human system in which absolute levels of HuPO (reference gene) and the cytokine gene IFN-gamma were measured. To ensure the suitability and stability of the four standards, the experiments were performed at 0, 7 and 14 day intervals and repeated 6 times. We have found that the copy numbers vary (due to degradation of standards) over the period of time during storage at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C, which affected PCR efficiency significantly. The cloned target sequences were noticeably more stable than the PCR product, which could lead to substantial variance in results using standards constructed by different routes. Standard quality and stability should be routinely tested for assays using qPCR.

  19. High sensitivity real-time NVR monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D. (Inventor); Chuan, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A real time non-volatile residue (NVR) monitor, which utilizes surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators to detect molecular contamination in a given environment. The SAW resonators operate at a resonant frequency of approximately 200 MHz-2,000 MHz which enables the NVR monitor to detect molecular contamination on the order of 10.sup.-11 g-cm.sup.-2 to 10.sup.-13 g-cm.sup.2. The NVR monitor utilizes active temperature control of (SAW) resonators to achieve a stable resonant frequency. The temperature control system of the NVR monitor is able to directly heat and cool the SAW resonators utilizing a thermoelectric element to maintain the resonators at a present temperature independent of the environmental conditions. In order to enable the direct heating and cooling of the SAW resonators, the SAW resonators are operatively mounted to a heat sink. In one embodiment, the heat sink is located in between the SAW resonators and an electronic circuit board which contains at least a portion of the SAW control electronics. The electrical leads of the SAW resonators are connected through the heat sink to the circuit board via an electronic path which prevents inaccurate frequency measurement.

  20. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  1. Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Ratner, Eliahu; Lokshin, Stas; Silman, Zmira; Breskin, Ilan; Budin, Nahum; Kamar, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is a mechanism which maintains constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Assessing whether this mechanism is intact or impaired and determining its boundaries is important in many clinical settings, where primary or secondary injuries to the brain may occur. Herein we describe the development of a new ultrasound tagged near infra red light monitor which tracks CBF trends, in parallel, it continuously measures blood pressure and correlates them to produce a real time autoregulation index. Its performance is validated in both in-vitro experiment and a pre-clinical case study. Results suggest that using such a tool, autoregulation boundaries as well as its impairment or functioning can be identified and assessed. It may therefore assist in individualized MAP management to ensure adequate organ perfusion and reduce the risk of postoperative complications, and might play an important role in patient care. PMID:27571474

  2. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  3. Real-Time PCR-Based Quantitation Method for the Genetically Modified Soybean Line GTS 40-3-2.

    PubMed

    Kitta, Kazumi; Takabatake, Reona; Mano, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real-time PCR-based method for quantitation of the relative amount of genetically modified (GM) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 [Roundup Ready(®) soybean (RRS)] contained in a batch. The method targets a taxon-specific soybean gene (lectin gene, Le1) and the specific DNA construct junction region between the Petunia hybrida chloroplast transit peptide sequence and the Agrobacterium 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene (epsps) sequence present in GTS 40-3-2. The method employs plasmid pMulSL2 as a reference material in order to quantify the relative amount of GTS 40-3-2 in soybean samples using a conversion factor (Cf) equal to the ratio of the RRS-specific DNA to the taxon-specific DNA in representative genuine GTS 40-3-2 seeds.

  4. Real time monitoring of electroless nickel plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rains, Aaron E.; Kline, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the design and manufacturing of the heat and chemical resistant transducer case required for on-line immersion testing, experimental design, data acquisition and signal processing. Results are presented for several depositions with an accuracy of two ten-thousandths of an inch in coating thickness obtained. Monitoring the deposition rate of Electroless Nickel (EN) plating in-situ will provide measurement of the accurate dimensions of the component being plated, in real time. EN is used as for corrosion and wear protection for automotive an - Electroless Nickel (EN) plating is commonly used for corrosion and wear protection for automotive and aerospace components. It plates evenly and symmetrically, theoretically allowing the part to be plated to its final dimension. Currently the standard approach to monitoring the thickness of the deposited nickel is to remove the component from the plating bath and physically measure the part. This can lead to plating problems such as pitting, non-adhesion of the deposit and contamination of the plating solution. The goal of this research effort is to demonstrate that plating thickness can be rapidly and accurately measured using ultrasonic testing. Here a special housing is designed to allow immersion of the ultrasonic transducers directly into the plating bath. An FFT based signal processing algorithm was developed to resolve closely spaced echoes for precise thickness determination. The technique in this research effort was found to be capable of measuring plating thicknesses to within 0.0002 inches. It is expected that this approach will lead to cost savings in many EN plating operations.

  5. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  6. Use of Occult Blood Detection Cards for Real-Time PCR-Based Diagnosis of Schistosoma Mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kebede Mekonnen, Seleshi; Wondafrash, Beyene; Mengele, Carolin; Fleischmann, Erna; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Verweij, Jaco J.; Geldmacher, Christof; Bretzel, Gisela; Löscher, Thomas; Zeynudin, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background In Schistosoma mansoni infection, diagnosis and control after treatment mainly rely on parasitological stool investigations which are laborious and have limited sensitivity. PCR methods have shown equal or superior sensitivity but preservation and storage methods limit their use in the field. Therefore, the use of occult blood detection cards (fecal cards) for easy sampling and storage of fecal samples for further PCR testing was evaluated in a pilot study. Methodology Stool specimens were collected in a highly endemic area for S. mansoni in Ethiopia and submitted in an investigator-blinded fashion to microscopic examination by Kato-Katz thick smear as well as to real-time PCR using either fresh frozen stool samples or stool smears on fecal cards which have been stored at ambient temperature for up to ten months. Principal Findings Out of 55 stool samples, 35 were positive by microscopy, 33 and 32 were positive by PCR of frozen samples and of fecal card samples, respectively. When microscopy was used as diagnostic “gold standard”, the sensitivity of PCR on fresh stool was 94.3% (95%-CI: 86.6; 100) and on fecal cards 91.4% (95%-CI: 82.2; 100). Conclusions The use of fecal cards proved to be a simple and useful method for stool collection and prolonged storage prior to PCR based diagnosis of S. mansoni infection. This technique may be a valuable approach for large scale surveillance and post treatment assessments PMID:26360049

  7. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  8. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  9. Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Based Gene Expression Studies in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut. PMID:24167633

  10. Comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR-based aneuploidy screening of blastocyst biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Antonio; Treff, Nathan R; Cimadomo, Danilo; Tao, Xin; Upham, Kathleen; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura; Scott, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) methods are being extensively used to select chromosomally normal embryos in human assisted reproduction. Some concerns related to the stage of analysis and which aneuploidy screening method to use still remain. In this study, the reliability of blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening and the diagnostic performance of the two mostly used CCS methods (quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)) has been assessed. aCGH aneuploid blastocysts were rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by qPCR. Discordant cases were subsequently rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based CCS. Although 81.7% of embryos showed the same diagnosis when comparing aCGH and qPCR-based CCS, 18.3% (22/120) of embryos gave a discordant result for at least one chromosome. SNP array reanalysis showed that a discordance was reported in ten blastocysts for aCGH, mostly due to false positives, and in four cases for qPCR. The discordant aneuploidy call rate per chromosome was significantly higher for aCGH (5.7%) compared with qPCR (0.6% P<0.01). To corroborate these findings, 39 embryos were simultaneously biopsied for aCGH and qPCR during blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening cycles. 35 matched including all 21 euploid embryos. Blinded SNP analysis on rebiopsies of the four embryos matched qPCR. These findings demonstrate the high reliability of diagnosis performed at the blastocyst stage with the use of different CCS methods. However, the application of aCGH can be expected to result in a higher aneuploidy rate than other contemporary methods of CCS. PMID:25351780

  11. Evaluation and validation of reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR based gene expression studies in peanut.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut.

  12. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR-Based Strategy for Molecular Evaluation of Nicotine Conversion in Burley Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Xue, Sheng-Ling; Zhang, Fen; Luo, Zhao-Peng; Wu, Ming-Zhu; Chen, Qing; Tang, Hao-Ru; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-17

    Nornicotine production in Nicotiana tabacum is undesirable because it is the precursor of the carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine. In some individual burley tobacco plants, a large proportion of the nicotine can be converted to nornicotine, and this process of nicotine conversion is mediated primarily by enzymatic N-demethylation of nicotine which is controlled mainly by CYP82E4. Here we report a novel strategy based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, which analyzed the ratio of nicotine conversion through examining the transcript level of CYP82E4 in burley leaves and do not need ethylene induction before detected. The assay was linear in a range from 1 × 10¹ to 1 × 10⁵ copies/mL of serially diluted standards, and also showed high specificity and reproducibility (93%-99%). To assess its applicability, 55 plants of burley cultivar Ky8959 at leaf maturing stage were analyzed, and the results were in accordance with those from gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Moreover, a linear correlation existed between conversion level and CYP82E4 transcript abundance. Taken together, the quantitative real-time PCR assay is standardized, rapid and reproducible for estimation of nicotine conversion level in vivo, which is expected to shed new light on monitoring of burley tobacco converter.

  13. Real-time sewer effluent monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, S.; Yamauchi, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has upgraded its early sewer monitoring system from the 1970's. LLNL must insure that its waste water is of a consistent and acceptable nature for the City of Livermore's community sewer system. The Sewer Monitor UpGrade system (SMUG) is now monitoring the Lab's sewer effluent. SMUG monitors the effluent for pH, flow rate, metals, and alpha, beta and gamma emitting isotopes. It turns on the appropriate alarms if present alarm levels are exceeded. The hardware consists of DEC Micro VAX II/GPX that has been repackaged by Nuclear Data Company as the Genie 9900 Data Acquisition and Display System. The gamma detector, three XRFAs, pH meter, and flow rate meter are commercially available. The metals sample cells are custom built at the Lab. The operating system is the VMS version 5.4. The application software is written in DEC's Fortran-77 and MACRO, and Nuclear Data software library. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  15. Real-time alkali monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Goff, David R.; Romanosky, Robert R.; Hensel, Peter

    1990-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium emission line, may be detected in the presence of interfering background radiation. A combustion flame is fed by a diverted portion of a process stream and the common end of a bifurcated or quadfurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted to collect light from the flame. The light is guided through the branches of the fiber optic cable to bandpass filters, one of which is adapted to each of the branches of the fiber optic light guide. The bandpass filters are centered at wavelengths corresponding to the emission lines to be detected and two separate filters are required for each species being detected. The first filter has a bandwidth of about 3 nms and the second filter has a bandwidth of about 10 nms. Light detectors are located to view the light passing through the bandpass filters and amplifiers are connected to receive signals from the light detectors. The amplifier corresponding to the bandpass filter having the narrower bandwidth is preset to scale the signal by a factor equal to the ratio of the wide and narrow bandwidths of the bandpass filters. This scaling produces a scaled signal from which the difference between the scaled signal on the other signal can be calculated to produce a signal having an amplitude directly proportional to the concentration of the species of interest and independent of background radiation.

  16. Development of a high-throughput real time PCR based on a hot-start alternative for Pfu mediated by quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Fuming; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Lin; Ren, Jicun; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2015-09-01

    Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour preincubation at 50 °C before real time PCR. Moreover, the results obtained by QD-based HS PCR were comparable to a commercial Taq antibody DNA polymerase. However, no obvious HS effect of QDs was found in real time PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. The findings of this study demonstrated that a cost-effective high-throughput real time PCR based on QD triggered HS PCR could be established with high consistency, sensitivity and accuracy.Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour

  17. LORD-Q: a long-run real-time PCR-based DNA-damage quantification method for nuclear and mitochondrial genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lehle, Simon; Hildebrand, Dominic G.; Merz, Britta; Malak, Peter N.; Becker, Michael S.; Schmezer, Peter; Essmann, Frank; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Rothfuss, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage is tightly associated with various biological and pathological processes, such as aging and tumorigenesis. Although detection of DNA damage is attracting increasing attention, only a limited number of methods are available to quantify DNA lesions, and these techniques are tedious or only detect global DNA damage. In this study, we present a high-sensitivity long-run real-time PCR technique for DNA-damage quantification (LORD-Q) in both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. While most conventional methods are of low-sensitivity or restricted to abundant mitochondrial DNA samples, we established a protocol that enables the accurate sequence-specific quantification of DNA damage in >3-kb probes for any mitochondrial or nuclear DNA sequence. In order to validate the sensitivity of this method, we compared LORD-Q with a previously published qPCR-based method and the standard single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, demonstrating a superior performance of LORD-Q. Exemplarily, we monitored induction of DNA damage and repair processes in human induced pluripotent stem cells and isogenic fibroblasts. Our results suggest that LORD-Q provides a sequence-specific and precise method to quantify DNA damage, thereby allowing the high-throughput assessment of DNA repair, genotoxicity screening and various other processes for a wide range of life science applications. PMID:24371283

  18. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  19. Real-time performance monitoring and management system

    DOEpatents

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2007-06-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  20. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOEpatents

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2011-11-15

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  1. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOEpatents

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2013-03-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  2. Real-time monitoring for low-level pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkovich, O.P.; Joffe, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Real-time monitors provide a valuable addition to the arsenal of air-sampling methods used for IAQ applications. They are accurate, dependable, flexible, and provide IAQ professionals with more detailed quantitative information. RTM improves efficiency of many IAQ sampling applications and, in some cases, cannot be matched by other sampling techniques. Adequate instrumentation for demanding IAQ applications is available today. Future needs are expanding the range of pollutants that can be monitored with real-time instruments, improving reliability and portability of monitoring instrumentation, and devising cost-effective multiplexing schemes for multi-point RTM sampling.

  3. Development of Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping by Real-Time PCR Based on the NS5B Region

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Sueli M.; Santos, Carlos A.; Riediger, Irina N.; Krieger, Marco A.; Duarte, Cesar A. B.; Lacerda, Marco A.; Biondo, Alexander W.; Carilho, Flair J.; Ono-Nita, Suzane K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is the most significant predictor of the response to antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel real-time PCR method for HCV genotyping based on the NS5B region. Methodology/Principal Findings Two triplex reaction sets were designed, one to detect genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a; and another to detect genotypes 2a, 2b, and 2c. This approach had an overall sensitivity of 97.0%, detecting 295 of the 304 tested samples. All samples genotyped by real-time PCR had the same type that was assigned using LiPA version 1 (Line in Probe Assay). Although LiPA v. 1 was not able to subtype 68 of the 295 samples (23.0%) and rendered different subtype results from those assigned by real-time PCR for 12/295 samples (4.0%), NS5B sequencing and real-time PCR results agreed in all 146 tested cases. Analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was determined by end-point dilution of the 5000 IU/ml member of the OptiQuant HCV RNA panel. The lower limit of detection was estimated to be 125 IU/ml for genotype 3a, 250 IU/ml for genotypes 1b and 2b, and 500 IU/ml for genotype 1a. Conclusions/Significance The total time required for performing this assay was two hours, compared to four hours required for LiPA v. 1 after PCR-amplification. Furthermore, the estimated reaction cost was nine times lower than that of available commercial methods in Brazil. Thus, we have developed an efficient, feasible, and affordable method for HCV genotype identification. PMID:20405017

  4. Real-time monitoring in vitro transcription using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianwei; Feldman, Patricia; Chung, Thomas D Y

    2002-01-01

    A homogeneous fluorescence-based molecular beacon (MB) method has been developed for real-time monitoring of in vitro transcription reactions. MB probes are structured as target-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides containing a proximate fluorophore-quencher pair. Upon binding to its target sequence, the probe undergoes a structural rearrangement that separates the proximate pair, thus dequenching fluorescence. We demonstrate that this simple, inexpensive, rapid, and homogeneous fluorescence-based assay permits real-time monitoring of in vitro transcription and end-point measurement of RNA. The results from the RNA MB assay were comparable to those from other methods.

  5. Real-time seismic monitoring of instrumented hospital buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; McCarthy, William S.; Banga, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the U.S. Geological Survey's National Strong Motion Project has recently installed sophisticated seismic monitoring systems to monitor the structural health of two hospital buildings at the Memphis VA Medical Center in Tennessee. The monitoring systems in the Bed Tower and Spinal Cord Injury buildings combine sensing technologies with an on-site computer to capture and analyze seismic performance of buildings in near-real time.

  6. A multiprocessing architecture for real-time monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, James L.; Kao, Simon M.; Read, Jackson Y.; Weitzenkamp, Scott M.; Laffey, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    A multitasking architecture for performing real-time monitoring and analysis using knowledge-based problem solving techniques is described. To handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time, the system consists of three or more distributed processes which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The Data Management Process acquires, compresses, and routes the incoming sensor data to other processes. The Inference Process consists of a high performance inference engine that performs a real-time analysis on the state and health of the physical system. The I/O Process receives sensor data from the Data Management Process and status messages and recommendations from the Inference Process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The distributed architecture has been interfaced to an actual spacecraft (NASA's Hubble Space Telescope) and is able to process the incoming telemetry in real-time (i.e., several hundred data changes per second). The system is being used in two locations for different purposes: (1) in Sunnyville, California at the Space Telescope Test Control Center it is used in the preflight testing of the vehicle; and (2) in Greenbelt, Maryland at NASA/Goddard it is being used on an experimental basis in flight operations for health and safety monitoring.

  7. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results. Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  8. Improved Real-Time Monitoring Using Multiple Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Angelino, Robert; Quan, Alan G.; Veregge, John; Childs, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Monitor/Analyzer of Real-Time Voyager Engineering Link (MARVEL) computer program implements combination of techniques of both conventional automation and artificial intelligence to improve monitoring of complicated engineering system. Designed to support ground-based operations of Voyager spacecraft, also adapted to other systems. Enables more-accurate monitoring and analysis of telemetry, enhances productivity of monitoring personnel, reduces required number of such personnel by performing routine monitoring tasks, and helps ensure consistency in face of turnover of personnel. Programmed in C language and includes commercial expert-system software shell also written in C.

  9. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)--based tool for detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris in soil.

    PubMed

    Saragih, Syaiful Amri; Takemoto, S; Hisamoto, Y; Fujii, M; Sato, H; Kamata, N

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR using a primer pair CM2946F/CM3160R was developed for specific detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris from soil. Standard curves were obtained for genomic DNA and DNA extracts from autoclaved soil with a certain dose of C. militaris suspension. C. militaris was detected from two forest soil samples out of ten that were collected when fruit bodies of C. militaris were found. This method seemed effective in detection of C. militaris in the soil and useful for rapid and reliable quantification of C. militaris in different ecosystems. PMID:25446034

  10. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)--based tool for detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris in soil.

    PubMed

    Saragih, Syaiful Amri; Takemoto, S; Hisamoto, Y; Fujii, M; Sato, H; Kamata, N

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR using a primer pair CM2946F/CM3160R was developed for specific detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris from soil. Standard curves were obtained for genomic DNA and DNA extracts from autoclaved soil with a certain dose of C. militaris suspension. C. militaris was detected from two forest soil samples out of ten that were collected when fruit bodies of C. militaris were found. This method seemed effective in detection of C. militaris in the soil and useful for rapid and reliable quantification of C. militaris in different ecosystems.

  11. Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System with Synchronized Phasor Measurements

    2005-01-01

    The Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System is designed to monitor the dynamics within the power grid and assess the system behavior during normal and disturbance conditions. The RTDMS application was built on the Grid-3P technology platform and takes real-time information collected by Synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU5) or other collection devices and transmitted to a central Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) for monitoring grid dynamics. The data is sampled 30 times per second and is time-synchronized. Thismore » data is processed to create graphical and geographical displays to provide visualization for frequency/frequency response, voltage magnitudes and angles, voltage angle differences across critical paths as well as real and reactive power-flows on a sub-second and second basis. Software allows for monitoring, tracking, historical data archiving and electric system troubleshooting for reliability management.« less

  12. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  13. Real-time human collaboration monitoring and intervention

    DOEpatents

    Merkle, Peter B.; Johnson, Curtis M.; Jones, Wendell B.; Yonas, Gerold; Doser, Adele B.; Warner, David J.

    2010-07-13

    A method of and apparatus for monitoring and intervening in, in real time, a collaboration between a plurality of subjects comprising measuring indicia of physiological and cognitive states of each of the plurality of subjects, communicating the indicia to a monitoring computer system, with the monitoring computer system, comparing the indicia with one or more models of previous collaborative performance of one or more of the plurality of subjects, and with the monitoring computer system, employing the results of the comparison to communicate commands or suggestions to one or more of the plurality of subjects.

  14. Rapid detection of isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by use of real-time-PCR-based melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Quan, Shengmao; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2014-05-01

    The MeltPro TB/INH assay, recently approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration, is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test specially designed to detect 30 isoniazid (INH) resistance mutations in katG position 315 (katG 315), the inhA promoter (positions -17 to -8), inhA position 94, and the ahpC promoter (positions -44 to -30 and -15 to 3) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we evaluated both the analytical performance and clinical performance of this assay. Analytical studies with corresponding panels demonstrated that the accuracy for detection of different mutation types (10 wild-type samples and 12 mutant type samples), the limit of detection (2×10(3) to 2×10(4) bacilli/ml), reproducibility (standard deviation [SD], <0.4°C), and the lowest heteroresistance level (40%) all met the parameters preset by the kit. The assay could be run on five types of real-time PCR machines, with the shortest running time (105 min) obtained with the LightCycler 480 II. Clinical studies enrolled 1,096 clinical isolates collected from three geographically different tuberculosis centers, including 437 INH-resistant isolates and 659 INH-susceptible isolates characterized by traditional drug susceptibility testing on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/INH assay were 90.8% and 96.4%, respectively. DNA sequencing analysis showed that, except for the 5 mutants outside the detection range of the MeltPro assay, a concordance rate between the two methods of 99.1% (457/461) was obtained. Among the 26 mutation types detected, katG S315T (AGC→ACC), inhA -15C→T, katG S315N (AGC→AAC), and ahpC promoter -10C→T accounted for more than 90%. Overall, the MeltPro TB/INH assay represents a reliable and rapid tool for the detection of INH resistance in clinical isolates.

  15. Real-time PCR-based assay for quantitative detection of Hematodinium sp. in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Nagle, L; Place, A R; Schott, E J; Jagus, R; Messick, G; Pitula, J S

    2009-03-01

    Hematodinium sp. is a parasitic dinoflagellate infecting the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other crustaceans. PCR-based assays are currently being used to identify infections in crabs that would have been undetectable by traditional microscopic examination. We therefore sought to define the limits of quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection within the context of field collection protocols. We present a qPCR assay based on the Hematodinium sp. 18S rRNA gene that can detect 10 copies of the gene per reaction. Analysis of a cell dilution series vs. defined numbers of a cloned Hematodinium sp. 18S rRNA gene suggests a copy number of 10,000 per parasite and predicts a sensitivity of 0.001 cell equivalents. In practice, the assays are based on analysis of 1% of the DNA extracted from 200 microl of serum, yielding a theoretical detection limit of 5 cells ml(-1) hemolymph, assuming that 1 cell is present per sample. When applied to a limited field survey of blue crabs collected in Maryland coastal bays from May to August 2005, 24 of 128 crabs (18.8%) were identified as positive for Hematodinium sp. infection using qPCR. In comparison, only 6 of 128 crabs (4.7%) were identified as positive using traditional hemolymph microscopic examination. The qPCR method also detected the parasite in gill, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas tissues, with 17.2% of the crabs showing infection in at least one of these tissues. Importantly, it is now possible to enumerate parasites within defined quantities of crab tissue, which permits collection of more detailed information on the epizootiology of the pathogen.

  16. A real-time PCR-based semi-quantitative breakpoint to aid in molecular identification of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Wendy L J; van der Donk, Christina F M; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Wolffs, Petra F G

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach to aid in diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A real-time PCR assay was used to screen for culture-positive urinary specimens and to identify the causative uropathogen. Semi-quantitative breakpoints were used to screen for significant bacteriuria (presence of ≥ 10(5) CFU/ml of uropathogens) or low-level bacteriuria (containing between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/ml of uropathogens). The 16S rDNA-based assay could identify the most prevalent uropathogens using probes for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species and Streptococcus species. 330 urinary specimens were analysed and results were compared with conventional urine culture. Using a PCR Ct value of 25 as semi-quantitative breakpoint for significant bacteriuria resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 80%, respectively. In 78% of the samples with monomicrobial infections the assay contained probes to detect the bacteria present in the urine specimens and 99% of these uropathogens was correctly identified. Concluding, this proof-of-concept approach demonstrates that the assay can distinguish bacteriuria from no bacteriuria as well as detect the involved uropathogen within 4 hours after sampling, allowing adequate therapy decisions within the same day as well as drastically reduce consequent urine culturing.

  17. Evaluation of a co-extraction method for real-time PCR-based body fluid identification and DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Iwashima, Yasuki; Akutsu, Tomoko; Sekiguchi, Kazumasa; Sakurada, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Body fluid identification and individual identification are an important series of tests in usual criminal investigations. Recent reports have demonstrated a new approach using DNA/RNA co-extraction methods in which RNA for body fluid identification and DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) typing are extracted simultaneously from the same sample. This study evaluated a standard co-extraction kit, the AllPrep® DNA/RNA Mini Kit, in order to demonstrate the availability of the co-extraction procedure for those real-time polymerase chain reaction-based body fluid identification methods that we have validated previously. We demonstrated that the use of the Allprep Kit, for which we adjusted the lysis temperature to 56°C to improve extraction efficiency, can simultaneously extract sufficient RNA and DNA for body fluid identification and STR analysis; however, a longer incubation at a high temperature slightly affected the ΔCt value of each target gene and appeared to be not as effective for DNA extraction from old stains as from 1-day-old stains. This method is promising for future forensic investigations because the use of this kit can reduce sample consumption for body fluid identification and DNA typing.

  18. Real-time PCR-based identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in ticks collected from humans in Romania.

    PubMed

    Briciu, Violeta T; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Tăţulescu, Doina F; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Carstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Klier, Christiane; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-09-01

    The aims of our study were to determine (i) which tick species bite humans in Romania and (ii) the prevalence of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi genospecies in these ticks. All ticks collected from patients who presented to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases Cluj Napoca in spring/summer 2010 were morphologically identified by an entomologist and tested for B. burgdorferi genospecies prevalence by a real-time PCR assay targeting the hbb gene and melting curve analysis. Out of 532 ticks, 518 were Ixodes ricinus, 10 Dermacentor marginatus, and 3 Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and one unidentified tick due to destruction. Since evaluation of the hbb PCR revealed that it was not possible to differentiate between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. garinii/B. bavariensis, sequencing of an 800-bp fragment of the ospA gene was performed in these cases. Out of 389 investigated ticks, 43 were positive by hbb PCR for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The positive samples were 42 Ixodes ricinus (11.1% B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence) and the one unidentified tick. Species identification revealed the presence of mainly B. afzelii, but also of B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, and B. lusitaniae. In 4 samples, differentiation between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana was impossible. Our study shows that the most relevant human pathogenic B. burgdorferi genospecies - predominantly B. afzelii - are present in ticks collected from Romanian patients.

  19. Web-Based Real-Time Emergency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Craig A.; Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The Web-based Real-Time Asset Monitoring (RAM) module for emergency operations and facility management enables emergency personnel in federal agencies and local and state governments to monitor and analyze data in the event of a natural disaster or other crisis that threatens a large number of people and property. The software can manage many disparate sources of data within a facility, city, or county. It was developed on industry-standard Geo- Spatial software and is compliant with open GIS standards. RAM View can function as a standalone system, or as an integrated plugin module to Emergency Operations Center (EOC) software suites such as REACT (Real-time Emergency Action Coordination Tool), thus ensuring the widest possible distribution among potential users. RAM has the ability to monitor various data sources, including streaming data. Many disparate systems are included in the initial suite of supported hardware systems, such as mobile GPS units, ambient measurements of temperature, moisture and chemical agents, flow meters, air quality, asset location, and meteorological conditions. RAM View displays real-time data streams such as gauge heights from the U.S. Geological Survey gauging stations, flood crests from the National Weather Service, and meteorological data from numerous sources. Data points are clearly visible on the map interface, and attributes as specified in the user requirements can be viewed and queried.

  20. Real-time GNSS volcano deformation monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present comparisons of the precision obtained from several alternative real-time GNSS processing methods, and show how offsets caused by snow and ice on an antenna can be automatically identified in real time using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. We monitor ground deformation using continuous GNSS stations installed on several volcanoes in the Cascade Range and elsewhere, and many of these stations transmit high-rate (1s) data in real-time. We examine real-time, high-rate station position solutions obtained with two implementations of centralized RTNet (GPS Solutions, Inc.) processing, and find that the precision is roughly the same for ambiguity-fixed network solutions and for ambiguity-fixed precise point position solutions (PPPAR). The PPPAR method uses satellite clock corrections provided by GPS Solutions from a network of Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations in western Oregon. The precision of network solutions that include GPS and GLONASS data is similar to the GPS-only solutions, except at stations with a relatively poor view of the sky. An alternative method of processing the real-time GPS data uses clock corrections transmitted directly to the receiver, which then autonomously calculates and transmits positions. We will compare our RTNet results with autonomous point position solutions calculated using Trimble's CenterPoint RTX corrections. RTX performance in repeated, controlled, large antenna-motion tests by USGS and UNAVCO indicates that it meets requirements of USGS volcano-monitoring applications; more thorough testing and performance checks on an ongoing basis would be desirable. GNSS antennas on volcanoes often become temporarily coated with ice or buried by snow in the winter. In these situations, signal delays introduce an apparent offset in the monitoring station's position. We address this problem by implementing in real time a technique developed by Kristine Larson that uses changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of GNSS signals

  1. Simultaneous Real-Time Monitoring of Multiple Cortical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach We study these questions using electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (6 for offline parameter optimization, 6 for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelope. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  2. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  3. A global, real-time flood monitoring model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-07-01

    Floods kill thousands of people and cause billions of dollars in damage each year, and many floods occur in areas of the world that lack resources for flood monitoring and forecasting systems. Wu et al. report on an experimental real-time global flood monitoring system that employs a widely used land surface model coupled with a hierarchical dominant river tracing-based runoff routing model and satellite-based precipitation data to provide streamflow and flood detection/estimation information over most of the globe every 3 hours.

  4. Real-time ECG algorithms for ambulatory patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Wiechmann, Eduardo; Curtis, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Brigham & Women's Hospital is designing a wireless monitoring system for patients on the waiting area of the Emergency Department. A real-time ECG algorithm is required to monitor and alert changes in patients that have not yet been admitted to the Emergency Room. For this purpose, three simple algorithms are compared in terms of processing time, beat detection accuracy and heart rate (HR) estimation. Varying amounts of noise were added to records from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database [1] to mimic expected waiting room conditions. Some recommendations regarding selection of an algorithm and further processing of HR series are presented.

  5. Reporter nanoparticle that monitors its anticancer efficacy in real time

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ashish; Rao, Poornima; Natarajan, Siva; Goldman, Aaron; Sabbisetti, Venkata S.; Khater, Yashika; Korimerla, Navya; Chandrasekar, Vineethkrishna; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2016-01-01

    The ability to monitor the efficacy of an anticancer treatment in real time can have a critical effect on the outcome. Currently, clinical readouts of efficacy rely on indirect or anatomic measurements, which occur over prolonged time scales postchemotherapy or postimmunotherapy and may not be concordant with the actual effect. Here we describe the biology-inspired engineering of a simple 2-in-1 reporter nanoparticle that not only delivers a cytotoxic or an immunotherapy payload to the tumor but also reports back on the efficacy in real time. The reporter nanoparticles are engineered from a novel two-staged stimuli-responsive polymeric material with an optimal ratio of an enzyme-cleavable drug or immunotherapy (effector elements) and a drug function-activatable reporter element. The spatiotemporally constrained delivery of the effector and the reporter elements in a single nanoparticle produces maximum signal enhancement due to the availability of the reporter element in the same cell as the drug, thereby effectively capturing the temporal apoptosis process. Using chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant tumors in vivo, we show that the reporter nanoparticles can provide a real-time noninvasive readout of tumor response to chemotherapy. The reporter nanoparticle can also monitor the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition in melanoma. The self-reporting capability, for the first time to our knowledge, captures an anticancer nanoparticle in action in vivo. PMID:27036008

  6. Real time sound analysis for medical remote monitoring.

    PubMed

    Istrate, Dan; Binet, Morgan; Cheng, Sreng

    2008-01-01

    The increase of aging population in Europe involves more people living alone at home with an increased risk of home accidents or falls. In order to prevent or detect a distress situation in the case of an elderly people living alone, a remote monitoring system based on the sound environment analysis can be used. We have already proposed a system which monitors the sound environment, identifies everyday life sounds and distress expressions in order to participate to an alarm decision. This first system uses a classical sound card on a PC or embedded PC allowing only one channel monitor. In this paper, we propose a new architecture of the remote monitoring system, which relies on a real time multichannel implementation based on an USB acquisition card. This structure allows monitoring eight channels in order to cover all the rooms of an apartment. More than that, the SNR estimation leads currently to the adaptation of the recognition models to environment. PMID:19163750

  7. Task 1. Monitoring real time materials degradation. NRC extended In-situ and real-time Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, Sasan

    2012-03-01

    The overall objective of this project was to perform a scoping study to identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, those sensors and techniques that have the most promising commercial viability and fill a critical inspection or monitoring need. Candidates to be considered include sensors to monitor real-time material degradation, characterize residual stress, monitor and inspect component fabrication, assess radionuclide and associated chemical species concentrations in ground water and soil, characterize fuel properties, and monitor severe accident conditions. Under Task 1—Monitoring Real-Time Materials Degradation—scoping studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of potential inspection and monitoring technologies (i.e., a combination of sensors, advanced signal processing techniques, and data analysis methods) that could be utilized in LWR and/or advanced reactor applications for continuous monitoring of degradation in-situ. The goal was to identify those techniques that appear to be the most promising, i.e., those that are closest to being both technically and commercially viable and that the nuclear industry is most likely to pursue. Current limitations and associated issues that must be overcome before commercial application of certain techniques have also been addressed.

  8. Real-time adherence monitoring for HIV antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Haberer, Jessica E; Kahane, Josh; Kigozi, Isaac; Emenyonu, Nneka; Hunt, Peter; Martin, Jeffrey; Bangsberg, David R

    2010-12-01

    Current adherence assessments typically detect missed doses long after they occur. Real-time, wireless monitoring strategies for antiretroviral therapy may provide novel opportunities to proactively prevent virologic rebound and treatment failure. Wisepill, a wireless pill container that transmits a cellular signal when opened, was pilot tested in ten Ugandan individuals for 6 months. Adherence levels measured by Wisepill, unannounced pill counts, and self-report were compared with each other, prior standard electronic monitoring, and HIV RNA. Wisepill data was initially limited by battery life and signal transmission interruptions. Following device improvements, continuous data was achieved with median (interquartile range) adherence levels of 93% (87-97%) by Wisepill, 100% (99-100%) by unannounced pill count, 100% (100-100%) by self-report, and 92% (79-98%) by prior standard electronic monitoring. Four individuals developed transient, low-level viremia. After overcoming technical challenges, real-time adherence monitoring is feasible for resource-limited settings and may detect suboptimal adherence prior to viral rebound.

  9. Real-Time Deposition Monitor for Ultrathin Conductive Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    A device has been developed that can be used for the real-time monitoring of ultrathin (2 or more) conductive films. The device responds in less than two microseconds, and can be used to monitor film depositions up to about 60 thick. Actual thickness monitoring capability will vary based on properties of the film being deposited. This is a single-use device, which, due to the very low device cost, can be disposable. Conventional quartz/crystal microbalance devices have proven inadequate to monitor the thickness of Pd films during deposition of ultrathin films for hydrogen sensor devices. When the deposited film is less than 100 , the QCM measurements are inadequate to allow monitoring of the ultrathin films being developed. Thus, an improved, high-sensitivity, real-time deposition monitor was needed to continue Pd film deposition development. The new deposition monitor utilizes a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device in a differential delay-line configuration to produce both a reference response and a response for the portion of the device on which the film is being deposited. Both responses are monitored simultaneously during deposition. The reference response remains unchanged, while the attenuation of the sensing path (where the film is being deposited) varies as the film thickness increases. This device utilizes the fact that on high-coupling piezoelectric substrates, the attenuation of an SAW undergoes a transition from low to very high, and back to low as the conductivity of a film on the device surface goes from nonconductive to highly conductive. Thus, the sensing path response starts with a low insertion loss, and as a conductive film is deposited, the film conductivity increases, causing the device insertion loss to increase dramatically (by up to 80 dB or more), and then with continued film thickness increases (and the corresponding conductivity increases), the device insertion loss goes back down to the low level at which it started. This provides a

  10. Real-Time GPS Network Monitors Bayou Corne Sinkhole Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Joshua D.; Dunaway, Larry

    2013-10-01

    In August 2012 a sinkhole developed in the swampy marshland near the rural community of Bayou Corne in Assumption Parish (i.e., county), Louisiana. The area was evacuated, and some residents have still not been able to return. The sinkhole—which now measures about 450 meters wide and is continuing to grow—is being monitored by multiple systems, including four rapid-response GPS continuously operating reference stations (CORS) called CORS911. The real-time data provided by this system are used by scientists and decision makers to help ensure public safety.

  11. Practical Aspects of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Brett; Sikes, Kristin; Urban, Andrea; Stephenson, Kerry; Tamborlane, William V.

    2010-01-01

    Real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) provides new dimension to diabetes management. However, there are many challenges to using RT-CGM successfully. This article aims to present how RT-CGM is integrated into diabetes clinical practice at the Yale Children’s Diabetes Program (YCDP). The authors provide factors to consider when choosing one of the commercially available RT-CGM systems and a discussion of key strategies for successful use of RT-CGM for families. Careful training and troubleshooting strategies will ensure the most positive experience possible for a family using RT-CGM. PMID:19933872

  12. Real-Time Coil Position Monitoring System for Biomagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Daisuke; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Higuchi, Masanori; Kawai, Jun; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Uehara, Gen

    In this paper, we propose a new method for monitoring the position of marker coils. The marker coil is used for indicating spatial relationship between subject's body and magnetic sensor arrays in biomagnetic measurements, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG). We developed a real-time marker coil position monitoring system combined with a conventional MEG system. In order to achieve simultaneous measurement of MEG signals and marker signals, we separated their frequency bands. The frequency bands of flux-locked loop (FLL) circuits were separated into three parts by three integrators; low-band, mid-band, and high-band. The second and third bands were assigned for MEG signals and marker signals, respectively. This method can avoid the crosstalk of the marker signals to MEG signals. Marker signals were generated from five marker coils driven by five independent sinusoidal current generators. These signals were continuously measured by the high-band of FLL, and then the coils were localized by FFT processing and solving inverse problem. We succeeded in displaying the localized coil position on a PC monitor once per second in real-time.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Schiepek, Günter; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Gruber, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Bachler, Egon; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients' compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific) surveys. Methods: The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. Results: We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4%) amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. Conclusion: The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for the assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities). PMID:27199837

  14. Early warning by near-real time disturbance monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbesselt, J.; Zeileis, A.; Herold, M.

    2013-12-01

    Near real-time monitoring of ecosystem disturbances is critical for rapidly assessing and addressing impacts on carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and socio-ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing enables cost-effective and accurate monitoring at frequent time steps over large areas. Yet, generic methods to detect disturbances within newly captured satellite images are lacking. We propose a multi-purpose time-series-based disturbance detection approach that identifies and models stable historical variation to enable change detection within newly acquired data. Satellite image time series of vegetation greenness provide a global record of terrestrial vegetation productivity over the past decades. Here, we assess and demonstrate the method by applying it to (1) real-world satellite greenness image time series between February 2000 and July 2011 covering Somalia to detect drought-related vegetation disturbances (2) landsat image time series to detect forest disturbances. First, results illustrate that disturbances are successfully detected in near real-time while being robust to seasonality and noise. Second, major drought-related disturbance corresponding with most drought-stressed regions in Somalia are detected from mid-2010 onwards. Third, the method can be applied to landsat image time series having a lower temporal data density. Furthermore the method can analyze in-situ or satellite data time series of biophysical indicators from local to global scale since it is fast, does not depend on thresholds and does not require time series gap filling. While the data and methods used are appropriate for proof-of-concept development of global scale disturbance monitoring, specific applications (e.g., drought or deforestation monitoring) mandates integration within an operational monitoring framework. Furthermore, the real-time monitoring method is implemented in open-source environment and is freely available in the BFAST package for R software. Information

  15. Expert Systems for Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the

  16. Improvements in atrial fibrillation detection for real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Babaeizadeh, Saeed; Gregg, Richard E; Helfenbein, Eric D; Lindauer, James M; Zhou, Sophia H

    2009-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring plays an important role in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Automated real-time AF detection algorithm is an integral part of ECG monitoring during AF therapy. Before and after antiarrhythmic drug therapy and surgical procedures require ECG monitoring to ensure the success of AF therapy. This article reports our experience in developing a real-time AF monitoring algorithm and techniques to eliminate false-positive AF alarms. We start by designing an algorithm based on R-R intervals. This algorithm uses a Markov modeling approach to calculate an R-R Markov score. This score reflects the relative likelihood of observing a sequence of R-R intervals in AF episodes versus making the same observation outside AF episodes. Enhancement of the AF algorithm is achieved by adding atrial activity analysis. P-R interval variability and a P wave morphology similarity measure are used in addition to R-R Markov score in classification. A hysteresis counter is applied to eliminate short AF segments to reduce false AF alarms for better suitability in a monitoring environment. A large ambulatory Holter database (n = 633) was used for algorithm development and the publicly available MIT-BIH AF database (n = 23) was used for algorithm validation. This validation database allowed us to compare our algorithm performance with previously published algorithms. Although R-R irregularity is the main characteristic and strongest discriminator of AF rhythm, by adding atrial activity analysis and techniques to eliminate very short AF episodes, we have achieved 92% sensitivity and 97% positive predictive value in detecting AF episodes, and 93% sensitivity and 98% positive predictive value in quantifying AF segment duration. PMID:19608194

  17. Assessment of real-time PCR based methods for quantification of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in a field study.

    PubMed

    Pla, Maria; La Paz, José-Luis; Peñas, Gisela; García, Nora; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Esteve, Teresa; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé, Enric

    2006-04-01

    Maize is one of the main crops worldwide and an increasing number of genetically modified (GM) maize varieties are cultivated and commercialized in many countries in parallel to conventional crops. Given the labeling rules established e.g. in the European Union and the necessary coexistence between GM and non-GM crops, it is important to determine the extent of pollen dissemination from transgenic maize to other cultivars under field conditions. The most widely used methods for quantitative detection of GMO are based on real-time PCR, which implies the results are expressed in genome percentages (in contrast to seed or grain percentages). Our objective was to assess the accuracy of real-time PCR based assays to accurately quantify the contents of transgenic grains in non-GM fields in comparison with the real cross-fertilization rate as determined by phenotypical analysis. We performed this study in a region where both GM and conventional maize are normally cultivated and used the predominant transgenic maize Mon810 in combination with a conventional maize variety which displays the characteristic of white grains (therefore allowing cross-pollination quantification as percentage of yellow grains). Our results indicated an excellent correlation between real-time PCR results and number of cross-fertilized grains at Mon810 levels of 0.1-10%. In contrast, Mon810 percentage estimated by weight of grains produced less accurate results. Finally, we present and discuss the pattern of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in an example case under field conditions. PMID:16604462

  18. Assessment of real-time PCR based methods for quantification of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in a field study.

    PubMed

    Pla, Maria; La Paz, José-Luis; Peñas, Gisela; García, Nora; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Esteve, Teresa; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé, Enric

    2006-04-01

    Maize is one of the main crops worldwide and an increasing number of genetically modified (GM) maize varieties are cultivated and commercialized in many countries in parallel to conventional crops. Given the labeling rules established e.g. in the European Union and the necessary coexistence between GM and non-GM crops, it is important to determine the extent of pollen dissemination from transgenic maize to other cultivars under field conditions. The most widely used methods for quantitative detection of GMO are based on real-time PCR, which implies the results are expressed in genome percentages (in contrast to seed or grain percentages). Our objective was to assess the accuracy of real-time PCR based assays to accurately quantify the contents of transgenic grains in non-GM fields in comparison with the real cross-fertilization rate as determined by phenotypical analysis. We performed this study in a region where both GM and conventional maize are normally cultivated and used the predominant transgenic maize Mon810 in combination with a conventional maize variety which displays the characteristic of white grains (therefore allowing cross-pollination quantification as percentage of yellow grains). Our results indicated an excellent correlation between real-time PCR results and number of cross-fertilized grains at Mon810 levels of 0.1-10%. In contrast, Mon810 percentage estimated by weight of grains produced less accurate results. Finally, we present and discuss the pattern of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in an example case under field conditions.

  19. Monitoring external beam radiotherapy using real-time beam visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Cesare H.; Naczynski, Dominik J.; Yu, Shu-Jung S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a novel radiation therapy monitoring technique that utilizes a flexible scintillating film, common optical detectors, and image processing algorithms for real-time beam visualization (RT-BV). Methods: Scintillating films were formed by mixing Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb (GOS) with silicone and casting the mixture at room temperature. The films were placed in the path of therapeutic beams generated by medical linear accelerators (LINAC). The emitted light was subsequently captured using a CMOS digital camera. Image processing algorithms were used to extract the intensity, shape, and location of the radiation field at various beam energies, dose rates, and collimator locations. The measurement results were compared with known collimator settings to validate the performance of the imaging system. Results: The RT-BV system achieved a sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio to enable real-time monitoring of the LINAC beam at 20 fps with normal ambient lighting in the LINAC room. The RT-BV system successfully identified collimator movements with sub-millimeter resolution. Conclusions: The RT-BV system is capable of localizing radiation therapy beams with sub-millimeter precision and tracking beam movement at video-rate exposure.

  20. Real-time fluorescence microscopy monitoring of porphyrin biodistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimel, Sol; Gottfried, Varda; Kunzi-Rapp, Karin; Akguen, Nermin; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    In vivo uptake of the natural porphyrins, uroporphyrin III (UP), coproporphyrin III (CP) and protoporphyrin IX (PP), was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Experiments were performed using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, which allowed video documentation of fluorescence both in real time and after integration over a chosen time interval (usually 2 s). Sensitizers at a concentration of 50 (mu) M (100 (mu) L) were injected into a medium-sized vein (diameter approximately 40 micrometer) using an ultra-fine 10 micrometer diameter needle. Fluorescence images were quantitated by subtracting the fluorescence intensity of surrounding CAM tissue (Fmatrix) from the intravascular fluorescence intensity (Fintravascular), after transformation of the video frames into digital form. The differential fluorescence intensity, Fintravascular - Fmatrix, is a measure of the biodistribution. Real time measurements clearly showed that CP and UP fluorescence is associated with moving erythrocytes and not with endothelial cells of the vessel wall. Fluorescence intensity was monitored, up to 60 minutes after injection, by averaging the fluorescence over time intervals of 2 s and recording the integrated images. The fluorescence intensity reached its maximum in about 20 - 30 min after injection, presumably after monomerization inside erythrocyte membranes. The results are interpreted in terms of physical-chemical characteristics (e.g. hydrophilicity) and correlated with the photodynamically induced hemostasis in CAM blood vessels.

  1. Real-time process dynamics monitoring in Anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Alpaslan Kocamemi, B; Dityapak, D

    2014-01-01

    Process dynamics in Anammox systems were evaluated through continuous monitoring of pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and conductivity in two separate newly started-up sequencing batch reactors, one seeded with an enriched Anammox sludge and the other seeded with mixed activated sludge. The pH and ORP profiles exhibited characteristic patterns depending on the process dynamics during early start-up, start-up and enrichment phases of the operational period of 410 days. The simultaneously continuing processes of the start-up period showed apparent indicative trend lines in pH and ORP profiles. Conductivity profiles were consistent with the process dynamics in all phases. During the enrichment phase, conductivity decreases could quantitatively be related to process removal efficiencies and all real-time profiles exhibited specific break-points which coincided with the end of Anammox in each cycle. The end of Anammox was observed as an 'apex' on pH profiles and a 'valley' on ORP profiles. The 'apex' and 'valley' points exactly coincided with the end point of the linear decrease in the conductivity profiles. The overall findings suggested a great potential in using real-time pH, ORP and conductivity measurements for quick and reliable monitoring of Anammox systems during start-up and enrichment periods.

  2. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J M; Cordova, M J

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies.

  3. Monitoring external beam radiotherapy using real-time beam visualization

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Cesare H.; Naczynski, Dominik J.; Yu, Shu-Jung S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a novel radiation therapy monitoring technique that utilizes a flexible scintillating film, common optical detectors, and image processing algorithms for real-time beam visualization (RT-BV). Methods: Scintillating films were formed by mixing Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) with silicone and casting the mixture at room temperature. The films were placed in the path of therapeutic beams generated by medical linear accelerators (LINAC). The emitted light was subsequently captured using a CMOS digital camera. Image processing algorithms were used to extract the intensity, shape, and location of the radiation field at various beam energies, dose rates, and collimator locations. The measurement results were compared with known collimator settings to validate the performance of the imaging system. Results: The RT-BV system achieved a sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio to enable real-time monitoring of the LINAC beam at 20 fps with normal ambient lighting in the LINAC room. The RT-BV system successfully identified collimator movements with sub-millimeter resolution. Conclusions: The RT-BV system is capable of localizing radiation therapy beams with sub-millimeter precision and tracking beam movement at video-rate exposure. PMID:25563243

  4. Real-time signal processing for fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimy, Muhammad I; Ahmed, Firoz; Mohd Ali, M A; Zahedi, Edmond

    2003-02-01

    An algorithm based on digital filtering, adaptive thresholding, statistical properties in the time domain, and differencing of local maxima and minima has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the fetal and maternal heart rates from the maternal abdominal electrocardiogram during pregnancy and labor for ambulatory monitoring. A microcontroller-based system has been used to implement the algorithm in real-time. A Doppler ultrasound fetal monitor was used for statistical comparison on five volunteers with low risk pregnancies, between 35 and 40 weeks of gestation. Results showed an average percent root mean square difference of 5.32% and linear correlation coefficient from 0.84 to 0.93. The fetal heart rate curves remained inside a +/- 5-beats-per-minute limit relative to the reference ultrasound method for 84.1% of the time. PMID:12665042

  5. Method and apparatus for real time weld monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Keng H.; Hunter, Boyd V.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for real time weld monitoring. An infrared signature emitted by a hot weld surface during welding is detected and this signature is compared with an infrared signature emitted by the weld surface during steady state conditions. The result is correlated with weld penetration. The signal processing is simpler than for either UV or acoustic techniques. Changes in the weld process, such as changes in the transmitted laser beam power, quality or positioning of the laser beam, change the resulting weld surface features and temperature of the weld surface, thereby resulting in a change in the direction and amount of infrared emissions. This change in emissions is monitored by an IR sensitive detecting apparatus that is sensitive to the appropriate wavelength region for the hot weld surface.

  6. Real-time monitoring for human clinical trials

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.

    1995-11-01

    On August 3-4, 1994, an INEL team made measurements related to a real-time monitoring system for use on the epithermal beam facility at the BMRR. BNL has installed two fission chambers in front of the beam collimator, which are to monitor the beam coming from the reactor. These two monitors are located with one just above the 16-cm dia. front aperture and the other is just below. The fission chambers contain depleted uranium, but because of the small amount of U-235 present, they respond to thermal and near thermal neutrons rather than fast neutrons. This feature combined with their relatively small size (0.6 cm dia x 4 cm long) makes them very good monitors in the BMRR epithermal neutron beam. The INEL team worked with H.B. Lui (BNL) in performing initial tests of these monitors and established the settings to achieve stable operation. The main purpose of the measurement studies was to establish a basis for a monitoring method that tracks the dose the patient is receiving rather than the neutron fluence being delivered down the beam line.

  7. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  8. Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Dillow, David A; Park, Byung H; Shipman, Galen M; Geist, Al; Gunasekaran, Raghul

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

  9. Near-Real Time Monitoring of Global Lakes and Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, B. D.; Birkett, C. M.; Doorn, B.; Reynolds, C.; Baldwin, B.

    2004-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has the ability to monitor variations in surface water height (stage) for large lakes and reservoirs. A clear advantage is the provision of data where traditional gauges are lacking or where there is restricted access to ground-based measurements. As part of a new USDA-funded program, near-real time altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs in the world is taking place. Data ingestion and manipulation, to some degree, follows the concepts of the NASA Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder although extra provisions have to be made regarding these smaller targets. Archived data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) mission are utilized to provide a historical time series of height variations from 1992-2002. Near-real time stage measurements with respect to the T/P historical mean reference are derived from incoming data from the Jason-1 mission. The project utilizes the IGDR Jason-1 data with its <5 cm orbit accuracy and delivery time of <4 days after satellite overpass. A USDA maintained web site (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir) provides free access to new measurements to the public about a week to ten days after the satellite passes over. Currently there are stage levels from 70 lakes/reservoirs worldwide being made available. As the project progresses, other data from the ERS and ENVISAT missions will also be included. The Foreign Agricultural Service's, Precipitation Estimation and Crop Assessment Division utilize these observations to note potential flood/drought conditions, and to estimate reservoir volume and irrigation potential. In this presentation we demonstrate the current capabilities and limitations of ocean radar altimetry for inland water level monitoring.

  10. Real-time damage monitoring of irradiated DNA.

    PubMed

    Pješčić, Ilija; Tranter, Collin A; Haywood, James C; Paidipalli, Manasa; Ganveer, Ankur; Haywood, Stratton E; Tham, Jessica; Crews, Niel D

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a microfluidic technique for the real-time analysis of DNA damage due to radiation exposure. A continuous-flow spatial melting analysis was performed every three seconds on a sample of isolated DNA while it was being irradiated. The formation of photoproducts being caused by the UV-C radiation was monitored during the process. Cumulative damage produced distinct changes in the DNA melting curves, characterized by a shifting and broadening of the melting peaks. The design of the microfluidic device, the experimental procedure, and the analysis algorithm and interactive GUI are discussed herein. In addition, the advantages of this system are correlated to specific needs of related scientific studies, such as the investigation of sequence-specific damage susceptibility and the characterization of exposure-damage nonlinearities.

  11. System for near real-time crustal deformation monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for use in detecting earth crustal deformation using an RF interferometer technique for such purposes as earthquake predictive research and eventual operational predictions. A lunar based RF transmission or transmissions from earth orbiting satellites are received at two locations on Earth, and a precise time dependent phase measurement is made of the RF signal as received at the two locations to determine two or three spatial parameters of the antenna relative positions. The received data are precisely time tagged and land-line routed to a central station for real-time phase comparison and analysis. By monitoring the antenna relative positions over an extended period of months or years, crustal deformation of the Earth can be detected.

  12. Constructing a Real-Time Prescription Drug Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Tae; Jo, Emmanuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the possibility of the construction of a real-time prescription drug monitoring system (PDMOS) using data from the nationwide Drug Utilization Review (DUR) system in Korea. Methods The DUR system collects information on drug prescriptions issued by healthcare practitioners and on drugs dispensed by pharmacies. PDMOS was constructed using this data. The screen of PDMOS is designed to exhibit the number of drug prescriptions, the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, and the dispensed prescription drug costs on a daily and weekly basis. Data was sourced from the DUR system between June 1, 2016 and July 18, 2016. The TOGA solution developed by the EYEQMC Co. Ltd. of Seoul, Korea was used to produce the screen shots. Results Prescription numbers by medical facilities were more numerous than the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, as expected. The number of prescriptions per day was between 2 to 3 million. The prescriptions issued by primary care clinics were most numerous, at 75% of the total number of prescriptions. Daily prescription drug costs were found to be approximately US $50 million. The prescription drug costs were highest on Mondays and were reduced towards the end of the week. Prescriptions and dispensed prescriptions numbered approximately 1,200 and 1,000 million, respectively. Conclusions The construction of a real-time PDMOS has been successful to provide daily and weekly information. There was a lag time of only one day at the national level in terms of information extraction, and scarcely any time was required to load the data. Therefore, this study highlights the potential of constructing a PDMOS to monitor the estimate the number of prescriptions and the resulting expenditures from prescriptions. PMID:27525159

  13. Real-time monitoring of drowsiness through wireless nanosensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    Detection of sleepiness and drowsiness in human beings has been a daunting task for both engineering and medical technologies. Accuracy, precision and promptness of detection have always been an issue that has to be dealt by technologists. Generally, the bio potential signals - ECG, EOG, EEG and EMG are used to classify and discriminate sleep from being awake. However, the potential drawbacks may be high false detections, low precision, obtrusiveness, aftermath analysis, etc. To overcome the disadvantages, this paper reviews the design aspects of a wireless and a real time monitoring system to track sleep and detect fatigue. This concept involves the use of EOG and EEG to measure the blink rate and asses the person's condition. In this user friendly and intuitive approach, EOG and EEG signals are obtained by the textile based nanosensors mounted on the inner side of a flexible headband. The acquired signals are then electrically transmitted to the data processing and transmission unit, which transmits the processed data to the receiver/monitoring module through ZigBee communication. This system is equipped with a software program to process, feature extract, analyze, display and store the information. Thereby, immediate detection of a person falling asleep is made feasible and, tracking the sleep cycle continuously provides an insight about the fatigue level. This approach of using a wireless, real time, dry sensor on a flexible substrate mitigates obtrusiveness that is expected from a wearable system. We have previously presented the results of the aforementioned wearable systems. This paper aims to extend our work conceptually through a review of engineering and medical techniques involved in wearable systems to detect drowsiness.

  14. Bacterial diversity and real-time PCR based assessment of linA and linB gene distribution at hexachlorocyclohexane contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Lal, Devi; Jindal, Swati; Kumari, Hansi; Jit, Simran; Nigam, Aeshna; Sharma, Pooja; Kumari, Kirti; Lal, Rup

    2015-03-01

    The disposal of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) muck has created large number of HCH dumpsites all over the world from where the harmful HCH isomers are leaking into the environment. Bacteria have evolved at such contaminated sites that have the ability to degrade HCH. Degradation of various HCH isomers in bacterial strains is mediated primarily by two genes: linA and linB which encode dehydrochlorinase and haloalkane dehalogenase respectively. In this study we explored one such highly contaminated HCH dumpsite located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. To assess the biostimulation potential of the contaminated site, microbial diversity study and real-time PCR based quantification of lin genes was carried out. The soil samples from dumpsite and surrounding areas were found to be highly contaminated with HCH residue levels as high as 1.8 × 10(5)  mg kg(-1). The residues were detected in areas upto 13 km from the dumpsite. Sphingomonads, Chromohalobacter, and Marinobacter were the dominant genera present at the dump-site. Role of Sphingomonads in HCH degradation has been well documented. The highest copy numbers of linA and linB genes as determined using real-time PCR were 6.2 × 10(4) and 5.3 × 10(5), respectively, were found in sample from the dump site. The presence of Sphingomonads, linA, and linB genes from HCH contaminated soil indicates the presence of indigenous bacterial communities capable of HCH degradation.

  15. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    PubMed Central

    Corrada-Bravo, Carlos; Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi; Milan, Carlos; Vega, Giovany; Alvarez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON), a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net). Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. PMID:23882441

  16. Real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Flynn, Luke P.; Dean, Ken; Pilger, Eric; Wooster, Martin; Okubo, Chris; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Garbeil, Harold; Thornber, Carl; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Rothery, Dave; Wright, Robert

    Direct satellite data reception at high temporal frequencies and automated processing enable near-real-time, near-continuous thermal monitoring of volcanoes. We review what has been achieved in terms of turning this capability into real-time tools of use to volcano monitoring agencies. Current capabilities focus on 2 instruments: the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager. Collection of lO AVHRR images per day covering Alaska, the Aleutians, and Kamchatka allows routine, on-reception analysis of volcanic hot spots across this region. Data collected between 1996 and 1998 detected 302 hot spots due to lava flows, lava domes, pyroclastic flows, fumaroles, and geothermally heated lakes at 12 different volcanoes. Information was used for hazard mitigation by the Alaskan Volcano Observatory. GOES provides data for North and South American volcanoes every 15-30 minutes. Automated processing allows eruption information and alerts to be posted on the Internet within 15-60 minutes of reception. We use June 1998 to demonstrate the frequency of data acquisition. During this month 2879 GOES images were collected from which 14,832 sub-images of 6 active volcanoes were processed. Although 82% (12,200) of these sub-images were cloud covered, hot spots were still evident on 11% (1634) of the sub-images. Analysis of GOES data for 1998 identified hot spots due to (1) lava flows at Kilauea and Cerro Azul, (2) dome extrusion and explosive activity at Lascar, Popocatepetl, Colima and Pacaya, and (3) dome cooling and collapse at Soufriere Hills. We were also able to suggest that reports of lava flow activity at Cerro Negro were false. This information was supplied to, and used by, various agencies whose task it is to monitor these volcanoes. Global thermal monitoring will become a reality with the launch of the Earth Observing System's moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS). An automated thermal

  17. Enhancements and Evolution of the Real Time Mission Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM has proven extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, mission scientists, instrument scientists and program managers alike appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. We have received numerous plaudits from a wide variety of scientists who used RTMM during recent field campaigns including the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) missions, the 2007-2008 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane flights and the 2008 Soil Moisture Active-Passive Validation Experiment (SMAP-VEX). Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated for altitude, latitude, longitude, flight leg distance, cumulative distance, flight leg time, cumulative time, and

  18. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  19. Collaborative trial validation studies of real-time PCR-based GMO screening methods for detection of the bar gene and the ctp2-cp4epsps construct.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Lutz; Brünen-Nieweler, Claudia; Nemeth, Anne; Waiblinger, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-10-14

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based screening methods targeting genetic elements commonly used in genetically modified (GM) plants are important tools for the detection of GM materials in food, feed, and seed samples. To expand and harmonize the screening capability of enforcement laboratories, the German Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety conducted collaborative trials for interlaboratory validation of real-time PCR methods for detection of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and a construct containing the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens sp. strain CP4 (ctp2-cp4epsps), respectively. To assess the limit of detection, precision, and accuracy of the methods, laboratories had to analyze two sets of 18 coded genomic DNA samples of events LLRice62 and MS8 with the bar method and NK603 and GT73 with the ctp2-cp4epsps method at analyte levels of 0, 0.02, and 0.1% GM content, respectively. In addition, standard DNAs were provided to the laboratories to generate calibration curves for copy number quantification of the bar and ctp2-cp4epsps target sequences present in the test samples. The study design and the results obtained are discussed with respect to the difficult issue of developing general guidelines and concepts for the collaborative trial validation of qualitative PCR screening methods.

  20. Collaborative trial validation studies of real-time PCR-based GMO screening methods for detection of the bar gene and the ctp2-cp4epsps construct.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Lutz; Brünen-Nieweler, Claudia; Nemeth, Anne; Waiblinger, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-10-14

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based screening methods targeting genetic elements commonly used in genetically modified (GM) plants are important tools for the detection of GM materials in food, feed, and seed samples. To expand and harmonize the screening capability of enforcement laboratories, the German Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety conducted collaborative trials for interlaboratory validation of real-time PCR methods for detection of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and a construct containing the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens sp. strain CP4 (ctp2-cp4epsps), respectively. To assess the limit of detection, precision, and accuracy of the methods, laboratories had to analyze two sets of 18 coded genomic DNA samples of events LLRice62 and MS8 with the bar method and NK603 and GT73 with the ctp2-cp4epsps method at analyte levels of 0, 0.02, and 0.1% GM content, respectively. In addition, standard DNAs were provided to the laboratories to generate calibration curves for copy number quantification of the bar and ctp2-cp4epsps target sequences present in the test samples. The study design and the results obtained are discussed with respect to the difficult issue of developing general guidelines and concepts for the collaborative trial validation of qualitative PCR screening methods. PMID:19807158

  1. Development and validation of a range of endogenous controls to support the implementation of practical Taqman real-time PCR-based surveillance for fish diseases within aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bland, F; McIntosh, R; Bain, N; Snow, M

    2012-06-01

    The use of Taqman real-time PCR-based technology has recently become more frequent in the detection of pathogens in the aquaculture industry. This interest has necessitated the development of robust and reliable pathogen-detection assays. The development of a range of endogenous control assays to be run alongside these diagnostic assays works to further increase confidence in the latter. This study describes the design of a range of endogenous control assays based on the elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) gene specific to a range of fish species including Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; brown trout, Salmo trutta; cod, Gadus morhua; haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus; saithe, Pollachius virens; whiting, Merlangius merlangus; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii; carp (family Cyprinidae), roach, Rutilus rutilus; European eel, Anguilla anguilla; and herring, Clupea harengus, as well as a number of fish cell lines. Evidence is provided of the validation of these assays for specific species, a range of tissue types and cell lines as well as an example of the potential uses of these assays.

  2. Real-time video monitoring of ingot casting

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, R.T.; Adomaitis, P.R.; Hildeman, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    During start-up and steady-state casting of ingots, a number of effects related to ingot casting variables can be observed on the surface of the ingot. For example, the amount of curl at the bottom of the ingot, surface laps, liquation, cracks, and folds, as well as extreme events such as bleed-outs when molten metal melts through the shell of the ingot crater, are significant events which could be viewed. Unfortunately, observation of these surface effects is difficult since the as-cast surface is hidden below the casting table and direct visual observations of ingot surfaces are limited due to the proximity of the molds, cooling water sprays, and the ability of the casting operators to safely view ingot surface details at close range. The purpose of this paper is to describe a unique video monitoring capability which is being used as Alcoa`s Advanced Vertical Casting facility, to observe in real-time, surface effects of an ingot during casting. A description of the development of the video monitoring system, including camera, lighting, and video recording capability will be presented. Examples of various surface conditions on direct chill (DC) and electromagnetic cast (EMC) ingots will also be discussed.

  3. Capability of a Mobile Monitoring System to Provide Real-Time Data Broadcasting and Near Real-Time Source Attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, M.; Olaguer, J.; Wijesinghe, A.; Colvin, J.; Neish, B.; Williams, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to understand the emissions and health effects of industrial facilities. Many areas have no or limited sustained monitoring capabilities, making it difficult to quantify the major pollution sources affecting human health, especially in fence line communities. Developments in real-time monitoring and micro-scale modeling offer unique ways to tackle these complex issues. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of coupling real-time observations with micro-scale modeling to provide real-time information and near real-time source attribution. The Houston Advanced Research Center constructed the Mobile Acquisition of Real-time Concentrations (MARC) laboratory. MARC consists of a Ford E-350 passenger van outfitted with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and meteorological equipment. This allows for the fast measurement of various VOCs important to air quality. The data recorded from the van is uploaded to an off-site database and the information is broadcast to a website in real-time. This provides for off-site monitoring of MARC's observations, which allows off-site personnel to provide immediate input to the MARC operators on how to best achieve project objectives. The information stored in the database can also be used to provide near real-time source attribution. An inverse model has been used to ascertain the amount, location, and timing of emissions based on MARC measurements in the vicinity of industrial sites. The inverse model is based on a 3D micro-scale Eulerian forward and adjoint air quality model known as the HARC model. The HARC model uses output from the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) wind model and requires a 3D digital model of the monitored facility based on lidar or industrial permit data. MARC is one of the instrument platforms deployed during the 2014 Benzene and other Toxics Exposure Study (BEE-TEX) in Houston, TX. The main goal of the study is to quantify and explain the

  4. Real-time monitoring of the human alertness level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robin; del Pozo, Francisco; Hernando, Elena; Gomez, Eduardo; Jimenez, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    Many accidents are associated with a driver or machine operator's alertness level. Drowsiness often develops as a result of repetitive or monotonous tasks, uninterrupted by external stimuli. In order to enhance safety levels, it would be most desirable to monitor the individual's level of attention. In this work, changes in the power spectrum of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) are associated with the subject's level of attention. This study reports on the initial research carried out in order to answer the following important questions: (i) Does a trend exist in the shape of the power spectrum, which will indicate the state of a subject's alertness state (drowsy, relaxed or alert)? (ii) What points on the cortex are most suitable to detect drowsiness and/or high alertness? (iii) What parameters in the power spectrum are most suitable to establish a workable alertness classification in human subjects? In this work, we answer these questions and combine power spectrum estimation and artificial neural network techniques to create a non-invasive and real - time system able to classify EEG into three levels of attention: High, Relaxed and Drowsiness. The classification is made every 10 seconds o more, a suitable time span for giving an alarm signal if the individual is with insufficient level of alertness. This time span is set by the user. The system was tested on twenty subjects. High and relaxed attention levels were measured in randomise hours of the day and drowsiness attention level was measured in the morning after one night of sleep deprivation.

  5. Developments in real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano.

    PubMed

    Laiolo, M; Cigolini, C; Coppola, D; Piscopo, D

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of one year of continuous radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano collected at two automated real-time stations. These were deployed on the NE flank (at 520 m a.s.l.) and within the summit area (900 m a.s.l.). Higher daily emissions at the lower station approached 4,200 Bq/m³, with bulk averages around 1,800 (±980) Bq/m³; whereas the summit station reached peak values of 23,000 Bq/m³ and bulk averages of 12,500 Bq/m³ (±4,000). Negative correlations are observed between radon emissions, soil temperature and, to a lesser extent, atmospheric pressure. In contrast, increases in radon concentrations were observed during periods of higher rainfall conditions. Therefore, trends in radon concentrations may be decoupled from those of other geochemical parameters (CO₂ fluxes and CO₂/SO₂ plume ratios) during periods of heavy to moderate rainfalls. Multiple Linear Regression statistics (including the effects of soil temperature, atmospheric pressure and tidal forces) led us to compute the residuals given by the difference of measured and calculated ²²²Rn concentrations. The cross-check between the daily measured radon activities and the absolute variations in radon residuals, for the data collected at the summit station, give us the opportunity to suggest a methodological approach that can be used in the attempt of predicting some major changes in volcanic activity. PMID:22230018

  6. Real Time Monitoring of Flooding from Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Frey, Herb (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new method for making high-resolution flood extent maps (e.g., at the 30-100 m scale of digital elevation models) in real-time from low-resolution (20-70 km) passive microwave observations. The method builds a "flood-potential" database from elevations and historic flood imagery and uses it to create a flood-extent map consistent with the observed open water fraction. Microwave radiometric measurements are useful for flood monitoring because they sense surface water in clear-or-cloudy conditions and can provide more timely data (e.g., compared to radars) from relatively wide swath widths and an increasing number of available platforms (DMSP, ADEOS-II, Terra, NPOESS, GPM). The chief disadvantages for flood mapping are the radiometers' low resolution and the need for local calibration of the relationship between radiances and open-water fraction. We present our method for transforming microwave sensor-scale open water fraction estimates into high-resolution flood extent maps and describe 30-day flood map sequences generated during a retrospective study of the 1993 Great Midwest Flood. We discuss the method's potential improvement through as yet unimplemented algorithm enhancements and expected advancements in microwave radiometry (e.g., improved resolution and atmospheric correction).

  7. Developments in real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano.

    PubMed

    Laiolo, M; Cigolini, C; Coppola, D; Piscopo, D

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of one year of continuous radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano collected at two automated real-time stations. These were deployed on the NE flank (at 520 m a.s.l.) and within the summit area (900 m a.s.l.). Higher daily emissions at the lower station approached 4,200 Bq/m³, with bulk averages around 1,800 (±980) Bq/m³; whereas the summit station reached peak values of 23,000 Bq/m³ and bulk averages of 12,500 Bq/m³ (±4,000). Negative correlations are observed between radon emissions, soil temperature and, to a lesser extent, atmospheric pressure. In contrast, increases in radon concentrations were observed during periods of higher rainfall conditions. Therefore, trends in radon concentrations may be decoupled from those of other geochemical parameters (CO₂ fluxes and CO₂/SO₂ plume ratios) during periods of heavy to moderate rainfalls. Multiple Linear Regression statistics (including the effects of soil temperature, atmospheric pressure and tidal forces) led us to compute the residuals given by the difference of measured and calculated ²²²Rn concentrations. The cross-check between the daily measured radon activities and the absolute variations in radon residuals, for the data collected at the summit station, give us the opportunity to suggest a methodological approach that can be used in the attempt of predicting some major changes in volcanic activity.

  8. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  9. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  10. REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

    2003-10-01

    This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and

  11. Towards real-time regional earthquake simulation I: real-time moment tensor monitoring (RMT) for regional events in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Tu, Feng-Shan; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) which takes advantage of a grid-based moment tensor inversion technique and real-time broad-band seismic recordings to automatically monitor earthquake activities in the vicinity of Taiwan. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion technique and a grid search scheme are applied to obtain the information of earthquake source parameters, including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism. All of these source parameters can be determined simultaneously within 117 s after the occurrence of an earthquake. The monitoring area involves the entire Taiwan Island and the offshore region, which covers the area of 119.3°E to 123.0°E and 21.0°N to 26.0°N, with a depth from 6 to 136 km. A 3-D grid system is implemented in the monitoring area with a uniform horizontal interval of 0.1° and a vertical interval of 10 km. The inversion procedure is based on a 1-D Green's function database calculated by the frequency-wavenumber (fk) method. We compare our results with the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) catalogue data for earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012. The average differences between event origin time and hypocentral location are less than 2 s and 10 km, respectively. The focal mechanisms determined by RMT are also comparable with the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) CMT solutions. These results indicate that the RMT system is realizable and efficient to monitor local seismic activities. In addition, the time needed to obtain all the point source parameters is reduced substantially compared to routine earthquake reports. By connecting RMT with a real-time online earthquake simulation (ROS) system, all the source parameters will be forwarded to the ROS to make the real-time earthquake simulation feasible. The RMT has operated offline (2010-2011) and online (since January 2012 to present) at the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica

  12. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  13. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    George Scott III

    2002-08-01

    Ongoing Phase 2 work comprises the development and field-testing of a real-time reservoir stimulation diagnostic system. Phase 3 work commenced in June 2001, and involved conducting research, development and field-testing of real-time enhanced dual-fluid stimulation processes. Experimental field-testing to date includes three well tests. Application of these real-time stimulation processes and diagnostic technologies has been technically successful with commercial production from the ''marginal'' reservoirs in the first two well tests. The third well test proved downhole-mixing is an efficient process for acid stimulation of a carbonate reservoir that produced oil and gas with 2200 psi bottomhole reservoir pressure, however, subsequent shut-in pressure testing indicated the reservoir was characterized by low-permeability. Realtimezone continues to seek patent protection in foreign markets to the benefit of both RTZ and NETL. Realtimezone and the NETL have licensed the United States patented to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Ongoing Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-testing continues to confirm applications of both real-time technologies, from well testing conducted over the last 12-month work period and including well test scheduled for year-end of 2002. Technical data transfer to industry is ongoing via Internet tech-transfer, public presentations and industry publications. Final Phase 3 test work will be focused on further field-testing the innovational process of blending stimulation fluids downhole. This system provides a number of advantages in comparison to older industry fracturing techniques and allows the operator to control reservoir fracture propagation and concentrations of proppant placed in the reservoir, in real-time. Another observed advantage is that lower friction pressures result, which results in lower pump treating pressures and safer reservoir hydraulic fracturing jobs.

  14. Monitoring gene expression: quantitative real-time rt-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Elke M

    2013-01-01

    Two-step quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), also known as real-time RT-PCR, kinetic RT-PCR, or quantitative fluorescent RT-PCR, has become the method of choice for gene expression analysis during the last few years. It is a fast and convenient PCR method that combines traditional RT-PCR with the phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using fluorogenic primers. The detection of changes in fluorescence intensity during the reaction enables the user to follow the PCR reaction in real time.RT-qPCR comprises several steps: (1) RNA is isolated from target tissue/cells; (2) mRNA is reverse-transcribed to cDNA; (3) modified gene-specific PCR primers are used to amplify a segment of the cDNA of interest, following the reaction in real time; and (4) the initial concentration of the selected transcript in a specific tissue or cell type is calculated from the exponential phase of the reaction. Relative quantification or absolute quantification compared to standards that are run in parallel can be performed.This chapter describes the entire procedure from isolation of total RNA from liver and fatty tissues/cells to the use of RT-qPCR to study gene expression in these tissues. We perform relative quantification of transcripts to calculate the fold-difference of a certain mRNA level between different samples. In addition, tips for choosing primers and performing analyses are provided to help the beginner in understanding the technique.

  15. Monitoring and Acquisition Real-time System (MARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Corbin

    2013-01-01

    MARS is a graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB and Java, allowing the user to configure and control the Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real-Time Acquisition and Analysis (SPARTAA) data acquisition system. SPARTAA not only acquires data, but also allows for complex algorithms to be applied to the acquired data in real time. The MARS client allows the user to set up and configure all settings regarding the data channels attached to the system, as well as have complete control over starting and stopping data acquisition. It provides a unique "Test" programming environment, allowing the user to create tests consisting of a series of alarms, each of which contains any number of data channels. Each alarm is configured with a particular algorithm, determining the type of processing that will be applied on each data channel and tested against a defined threshold. Tests can be uploaded to SPARTAA, thereby teaching it how to process the data. The uniqueness of MARS is in its capability to be adaptable easily to many test configurations. MARS sends and receives protocols via TCP/IP, which allows for quick integration into almost any test environment. The use of MATLAB and Java as the programming languages allows for developers to integrate the software across multiple operating platforms.

  16. Monitoring the immune response using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Stordeur, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Induction of an immune response to a particular antigen is the basis of vaccination. This has been done for years to prevent infectious diseases, and has the potential for the treatment of cancer. The immune response is nowadays more precisely modulated rather than simply induced, like in case of immunotherapy of allergic diseases. Likewise, autoimmune diseases are associated with an inappropriate immune response, and many efforts are made for specifically inhibiting this unwanted response. A possible line of attack is the induction of an antigen-specific immune tolerance, which also has a use in the field of transplantation, where allogeneic responses are deleterious for the graft. In all of these fields of fundamental and clinical medicine, the modulation of immune response requires the assistance of laboratory tests, among which real-time PCR appears more and more helpful. This chapter describes a protocol to quantify immune-related mRNAs using reverse transcription-real-time PCR. The transcripts can be quantified in cultured cells or in cultured whole blood, after an incubation period in the presence of the antigen to which the immune response is analyzed. This is the typical approach to evaluate the efficacy of a vaccine. The transcripts can also be quantified directly in the biological sample, giving information about the in vivo immune status of the individual. The techniques to achieve these different methods are described, and are illustrated by the analysis of the response against the toxoid tetanus antigen.

  17. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of the polymerase chain reaction by mediated redox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Deféver, Thibaut; Druet, Michel; Rochelet-Dequaire, Murielle; Joannes, Martine; Grossiord, Céline; Limoges, Benoit; Marchal, Damien

    2009-08-19

    threshold value (C(t)) that correlates inversely with the initial amount of target DNA. A semilogarithmic plot of C(t) with the initial copy number of target DNA gives a standard linear curve similar to that obtained with fluorescent-based real-time PCR. Although the detection limit (10(3) molecules of target DNA in 50 microL) and sensitivity of the electrochemical method is not as high as conventional optical-based real-time PCR, the methodology described here offers many of the advantages of real-time PCR, such as a high dynamic range (over 8-log(10)) and speed, high amplification efficiency (close to 2), and the elimination of post-PCR processing. The method also has the advantage of being very simple, just requiring the use of low-cost single-use electrodes and the addition of a minute amount of redox catalyst into the PCR mixture. Moreover, compared to the other recently developed electrochemical real-time PCR based on solid-phase amplification, the present approach does not require electrode functionalization by a DNA probe. Finally, on account of the relative insensitivity of electrochemical methods to downscaling, the detection scheme is quite promising for use in miniaturized devices and in the development of point-of-care diagnosis applications.

  18. Real-time space debris monitoring with EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, J.; Lehtinen, M.; Landgraf, M.

    Following a feasibility study in 2000-2001 on using the EISCAT ionospheric research radars to detect centimetre-sized space debris in the frame of an ESA contract, we are now finishing a continuation study, aimed at achieving debris detection and parameter estimation in real-time. A requirement is to "piggy-back" space debris measurements on top of EISCAT's normal ionospheric work, without interfering with that work, and to be able to handle about 500 h of measurements per year. We use a special digital receiver back-end in parallel with EISCAT's standard receiver. We sample fast enough to correctly band-pass sample the EISCAT analog frequency band. To increase detection sensitivity, we use coherent pulse-to-pulse integration. The coherent integration is built-in in our method of parameter estimation, which we call the match function (MF) method. The method is derived from Bayesian statistical inversion, but reduces, with standard assumptions about noise and prior, to minimizing the least squares norm ∥ z( t) - bχ( R, v, a; t)∥, where z is the measured signal and { bχ} is a set of model signals. Because the model signals depend linearly on the amplitude b, it is sufficient to maximize the magnitude of the inner product (cross correlation) between z and χ, the amplitude estimate is then determined by direct computation. The magnitude of the inner product, when properly normalized, is the MF. To construct the set of model signals, we sample the EISCAT transmission, in the same way as we sample the received signal, and apply linearly changing Doppler-shifts to it. Our initial implementation of the MF-method in 2001 was about four orders of magnitude too slow for real-time applications, but we have now gained the required speed factors. A factor of ten comes from using faster computers, another factor of ten comes from coding our key algorithms in C instead of Matlab. The largest factor, typically 100-300, comes from using a special, approximative, but in

  19. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  20. Cloud-ECG for real time ECG monitoring and analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Henian; Asif, Irfan; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in mobile technology and cloud computing have inspired numerous designs of cloud-based health care services and devices. Within the cloud system, medical data can be collected and transmitted automatically to medical professionals from anywhere and feedback can be returned to patients through the network. In this article, we developed a cloud-based system for clients with mobile devices or web browsers. Specially, we aim to address the issues regarding the usefulness of the ECG data collected from patients themselves. Algorithms for ECG enhancement, ECG quality evaluation and ECG parameters extraction were implemented in the system. The system was demonstrated by a use case, in which ECG data was uploaded to the web server from a mobile phone at a certain frequency and analysis was performed in real time using the server. The system has been proven to be functional, accurate and efficient. PMID:23261079

  1. Cotranslational protein folding on the ribosome monitored in real time.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Wolf; Kokic, Goran; Jäger, Marcus; Mittelstaet, Joerg; Komar, Anton A; Rodnina, Marina V

    2015-11-27

    Protein domains can fold into stable tertiary structures while they are synthesized on the ribosome. We used a high-performance, reconstituted in vitro translation system to investigate the folding of a small five-helix protein domain-the N-terminal domain of Escherichia coli N5-glutamine methyltransferase HemK-in real time. Our observations show that cotranslational folding of the protein, which folds autonomously and rapidly in solution, proceeds through a compact, non-native conformation that forms within the peptide tunnel of the ribosome. The compact state rearranges into a native-like structure immediately after the full domain sequence has emerged from the ribosome. Both folding transitions are rate-limited by translation, allowing for quasi-equilibrium sampling of the conformational space restricted by the ribosome. Cotranslational folding may be typical of small, intrinsically rapidly folding protein domains. PMID:26612953

  2. Optical, real-time monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabito, Carlos A.; Chen, Yang; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Modell, Mark D.

    2005-10-01

    An easy and accurate assessment of the renal function is a critical requirement for detecting the initial functional decline of the kidney induced by acute or chronic renal disease. A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. The agent has a large dose-safety coefficient and the same space distribution and clearance characteristics as iothalamate. This new approach is a convenient and accurate way to perform real-time measurements of the glomerular filtration rate to detect early kidney disease before the renal function becomes severely and irreversibly compromised.

  3. Local feature saliency classifier for real-time intrusion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Norbert; Velastin, Sergio A.

    2014-07-01

    We propose a texture saliency classifier to detect people in a video frame by identifying salient texture regions. The image is classified into foreground and background in real time. No temporal image information is used during the classification. The system is used for the task of detecting people entering a sterile zone, which is a common scenario for visual surveillance. Testing is performed on the Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems sterile zone benchmark dataset of the United Kingdom's Home Office. The basic classifier is extended by fusing its output with simple motion information, which significantly outperforms standard motion tracking. A lower detection time can be achieved by combining texture classification with Kalman filtering. The fusion approach running at 10 fps gives the highest result of F1=0.92 for the 24-h test dataset. The paper concludes with a detailed analysis of the computation time required for the different parts of the algorithm.

  4. A Real-Time Phase Vector Display for EEG Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Herbert J.; Anliker, James E.; Rimmer, Tamara

    1973-01-01

    A real-time, computer-based, phase vector display system has been developed which will output a vector whose phase is equal to the delay between a trigger and the peak of a function which is quasi-coherent with respect to the trigger. The system also contains a sliding averager which enables the operator to average successive trials before calculating the phase vector. Data collection, averaging and display generation are performed on a LINC-8 computer. Output displays appear on several X-Y CRT display units and on a kymograph camera/oscilloscope unit which is used to generate photographs of time-varying phase vectors or contourograms of time-varying averages of input functions.

  5. Real-Time Space Debris Monitoring with EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, J.; Lehtinen, M.; Landgraf, M.

    Following a feasibility study in 2000--2001 about using EISCAT radars to detect centimetre-sized space debris in the frame of an ESA contract, we are now in the middle of a continuation study, aimed at doing the debris detection and parameter estimation in real-time. A requirement in our work is to ``piggy-pack'' space debris measurements on top of EISCAT's normal ionospheric work, without interfering with those measurements, and to be able to handle on the order of 1000 hours of measurements per year. We use a special digital receiver in parallel to EISCAT's standard receiver. We sample fast enough to correctly band-pass sample the EISCAT analog frequency band. To increase detection sensitivity, we use amplitude domain integration (coherent integration) of the samples. The coherent integration is automatically implemented by our method of target parameter estimation, which we call the Generalized Matched Filtering (GMF) method. The method is based on Bayesian statistical inversion, but reduces, with standard assumptions about the noise and the priors, to minimizing the least squares norm || z(t) - A s(R,v,a;t)||^2, where z is the measured signal and A s is the model signal. Because the model signal depends linearly on the amplitude A, it is sufficient to maximize the magnitude of the inner product between z and s, the amplitude estimate is then determined by direct computation. We call this inner product the GMF. To construct an appropriate set of model signals, we sample the EISCAT transmission, in the same way as we sample the received signal, and apply linearly changing Doppler shifts (chirps) on it. With some approximations, it is then possible to use FFT to evaluate the GMF for the relevant Doppler shifts in a single go. The GMF method is conceptually straightforward; the challenge is to make it fast enough. Our original implementation three years ago was about four orders of magnitude too slow. We have now gained the required speed factors. A factor of ten

  6. Cooperating Expert Systems for the Next Generation of Real-time Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, U.; Veregge, J.; Quan, A.

    1995-01-01

    A distributed monitoring and diagnosis system has been developed and successfully applied to real-time monitoring of interplanetary spacecraft at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This system uses a combination of conventional processing and artificial intelligence.

  7. MODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Robert; Flynn, Luke P.; Garbeil, Harold; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Pilger, Eric

    2004-07-01

    MODVOLC is a non-interactive algorithm developed at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) that uses low spatial resolution (1-km pixel-size) infrared satellite data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the global distribution of volcanic thermal anomalies in near-real-time. MODVOLC scans the Level-1B MODIS data stream, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, for evidence of pixel and sub-pixel-sized high-temperature radiators. Once a hot spot has been identified its details (location, emitted spectral radiance, time, satellite observation geometry) are written to ASCII text files and transferred via FTP to HIGP, from where the results are disseminated via the internet http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu). In this paper, we review the underlying principles upon which the algorithm is based before presenting some of the results and data that have been obtained since its inception. We show how MODVOLC reliably detects thermal anomalies at a large number of persistently and sporadically active volcanoes that encompass the full range of common eruptive styles including Erebus (Antarctica), Colima (México), Karymsky (Kamchatka), Popocatépetl (México), Etna (Italy), and Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo), amongst others. We also present a few cautionary notes regarding the limitations of the algorithm and interpretation of the data it provides.

  8. Microprocessor Based Real-Time Monitoring of Multiple ECG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Nasipuri, M.; Basu, D.K.; Dattagupta, R.; Kundu, M.; Banerjee, S.

    1987-01-01

    A microprocessor based system capable of realtime monitoring of multiple ECG signals has been described. The system consists of a number of microprocessors connected in a hierarchical fashion and capable of working concurrently on ECG data collected from different channels. The system can monitor different arrhythmic abnormalities for at least 36 patients even for a heart rate of 500 beats/min.

  9. Real-Time Remote Monitoring with Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal Zainal Abidin, Ahmad; Huzaimy Jusoh, Mohammad; James, Elster; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Mohd Yassin, Ahmad Ihsan

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this system is to provide monitoring system for an electrical device and enable remote monitoring via web based application. This monitoring system allow the user to monitor the device condition from anywhere as the information will be synchronised to the website. The current and voltage reading of the monitored equipment, ambient temperature and humidity level are monitored and recorded. These parameters will be updated on the web page. All these sensor are connected to the microcontroller and the data will saved in micro secure digital (SD) card and send all the gathered information to a web page using the GPRS service connection synchronously. The collected data will be displayed on the website and the user enable to download the data directly from the website. The system will help user to monitor the devices condition and ambient changes with ease. The system is successfully developed, tested and has been installed at residential area in Taman Cahaya Alam, Section U12, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

  10. Real Time Quantitative Radiological Monitoring Equipment for Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Giles; Lyle G. Roybal; Michael V. Carpenter

    2006-03-01

    and measures. These analyses are combined to provide real-time areal activity and coverage maps that are displayed to the operator as the survey progresses. The flexible functionality of the INL systems are well suited to multiple roles supporting homeland security needs.

  11. Instrumented Shoes for Real-Time Activity Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Major, Kristof; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity monitoring in daily life is gaining momentum as a health assessment tool, especially in older adults and at-risk populations. Several research-based and commercial systems have been proposed with varying performances in classification accuracy. Configurations with many sensors are generally accurate but cumbersome, whereas single sensors tend to have lower accuracies. To this end, we propose an instrumented shoes system capable of accurate activity classification and gait analysis that contains sensors located entirely at the level of the shoes. One challenge in daily activity monitoring is providing punctual and subject-tailored feedback to improve mobility. Therefore, the instrumented shoe system was equipped with a Bluetooth® module to transmit data to a smartphone and perform detailed activity profiling of the monitored subjects. The potential applications of such a system are numerous in mobility and fall risk-assessment as well as in fall prevention. PMID:27332298

  12. Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  13. Remote real-time monitoring of subsurface landfill gas migration.

    PubMed

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E; Smeaton, Alan F; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  14. Real-time seismic monitoring and functionality assessment of a building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; ,

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments and approaches (using GPS technology and real-time double-integration) to obtain displacements and, in turn, drift ratios, in real-time or near real-time to meet the needs of the engineering and user community in seismic monitoring and assessing the functionality and damage condition of structures. Drift ratios computed in near real-time allow technical assessment of the damage condition of a building. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and story structural characteristics (including geometry) are used in computing drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Thus, drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can be compared to pre-computed threshold drift ratios. The approaches described herein can be used for performance evaluation of structures and can be considered as building health-monitoring applications.

  15. Structural analysis in real time using continuous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, Juergen; Viano, Charles; Hodac, Bernard

    2005-05-01

    OSMOS developed a completely automatic monitoring-system, which is ideal for the determination and monitoring of the structural state of civil engineering structures. Static and dynamic data are recorded as needed and are available via internet for further analysis. In case of bridges, automatic calculation of the axle load of the flowing traffic is implemented, a weigh in motion system (WIMS). When configurable thresholds are exceeded alarms are sent by SMS, e-mail, SNMP-trap for facility-management-systems or by fax.

  16. Fiber Optics Deliver Real-Time Structural Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    To alter the shape of aircraft wings during flight, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center worked on a fiber optic sensor system with Austin-based 4DSP LLC. The company has since commercialized a new fiber optic system for monitoring applications in health and medicine, oil and gas, and transportation, increasing company revenues by 60 percent.

  17. Real Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie (Inventor); Oliver, Brett D. (Inventor); Brickner, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for clock monitoring in a network is provided. The method comprises receiving a first network clock signal at a network device and comparing the first network clock signal to a local clock signal from a primary oscillator coupled to the network device.

  18. Monitoring Items in Real Time to Enhance CAT Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An IRT-based sequential procedure is developed to monitor items for enhancing test security. The procedure uses a series of statistical hypothesis tests to examine whether the statistical characteristics of each item under inspection have changed significantly during CAT administration. This procedure is compared with a previously developed…

  19. Real-Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie; Oliver, Brett; Brickner, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the utilization of embedded clocks inside of operating network data links as an auxiliary clock source to satisfy local oscillator monitoring requirements. Modem network interfaces, typically serial network links, often contain embedded clocking information of very tight precision to recover data from the link. This embedded clocking data can be utilized by the receiving device to monitor the local oscillator for tolerance to required specifications, often important in high-integrity fault-tolerant applications. A device can utilize a received embedded clock to determine if the local or the remote device is out of tolerance by using a single link. The local device can determine if it is failing, assuming a single fault model, with two or more active links. Network fabric components, containing many operational links, can potentially determine faulty remote or local devices in the presence of multiple faults. Two methods of implementation are described. In one method, a recovered clock can be directly used to monitor the local clock as a direct replacement of an external local oscillator. This scheme is consistent with a general clock monitoring function whereby clock sources are clocking two counters and compared over a fixed interval of time. In another method, overflow/underflow conditions can be used to detect clock relationships for monitoring. These network interfaces often provide clock compensation circuitry to allow data to be transferred from the received (network) clock domain to the internal clock domain. This circuit could be modified to detect overflow/underflow conditions of the buffering required and report a fast or slow receive clock, respectively.

  20. Mass spectrometer for real-time metabolism monitoring during anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Levshankov, A. I.

    2012-06-01

    Mass-spectrometric monitoring of metabolism (CO2/O2) in the inspiration-expiration regime is used to estimate the anesthetic protection of the patient against surgical stimulation during combined anesthesia. A correlation between the anesthetic protection of the patient and the metabolic rate is demonstrated, and the periodic variation of the metabolic rate with time is found. The sevoflurane metabolism products and intravenous analgesic fentanyl are found in the blowing air of the patient during anesthesia.

  1. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0–60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems. PMID:26538293

  2. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  3. Monitoring Distributed Real-Time Systems: A Survey and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, Alwyn E.; Pike, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Runtime monitors have been proposed as a means to increase the reliability of safety-critical systems. In particular, this report addresses runtime monitors for distributed hard real-time systems. This class of systems has had little attention from the monitoring community. The need for monitors is shown by discussing examples of avionic systems failure. We survey related work in the field of runtime monitoring. Several potential monitoring architectures for distributed real-time systems are presented along with a discussion of how they might be used to monitor properties of interest.

  4. A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. L.; Wang, J. K.; Jiang, X.

    2012-05-01

    The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

  5. Real-Time Monitoring of the Dayside Geosynchronous Magnetopause Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmon, R. J.; Lotoaniu, T. M.; Berguson, M.; Codrescu, S. M.; Shue, J. H.; Singer, H. J.; Rowland, W. F.; Denig, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetopause is a boundary separating the geospace magnetic environment from interplanetary space. Its location provides an important demarcation for satellite operators, the interpretation of plasma observations and a measure of the expected level of space weather activity. Substantial increases in the solar wind dynamic pressure and southward interplanetary magnetic field can result in a magnetopause compressed inward of geostationary orbit. In support of the needs of space weather forecasters, we have transitioned a version of the upcoming Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R (launch ~ early 2016) magnetopause monitoring and crossing product into operations. The current version is based on GOES-13, -14 and -15 magnetic measurements and the Shue et al. (1998) model of the magnetopause, while the future version will take advantage of GOES-R's expanded range of particle energies and derived moments to better define the magnetopause location. This paper will present lessons learned from the research to operations (R2O) process, a statistical validation of product performance, comparisons to other similar products, and a brief summary of a few geosynchronous crossings. Our statistical validation uses GOES and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) satellite observations to calculate the detection performance characteristics of dayside crossings predicted by commonly used models of the magnetopause boundary including Chao et al. (2001), Petrinec and Russell (1996) and Shue et al. (1998). In our summary of important geosynchronous crossings, we briefly describe monitoring of the magnetopause during the February 2014 event, which resulted in a geosynchronous crossing and degradation of a high-latitude aircraft navigation system. The home of the Magnetopause Location and Geosynchronous Crossings monitoring and forecast product is: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/mag_pause/

  6. Detection of the free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri by using conventional and real-time PCR based on a single copy DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The amoeba-flagellate Naegleria fowleri is a causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This thermophilic species occurs worldwide and tends to proliferate in warm aquatic environment. The PAM cases remain rare but this infection is mostly fatal. Here, we describe a single copy region which has been cloned and sequenced, and was used for both conventional and real-time PCR. Targeting a single-copy DNA sequence allows to directly quantify the N. fowleri cells. The real-time PCR results give a detection limit of 1 copy per reaction with high reproducibility without the need of a Taqman probe. This procedure is of interest as compared to other procedures which are mostly based on the detection of multi-copy DNA associated with a Taqman probe. PMID:26688582

  7. Detection of the free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri by using conventional and real-time PCR based on a single copy DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The amoeba-flagellate Naegleria fowleri is a causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This thermophilic species occurs worldwide and tends to proliferate in warm aquatic environment. The PAM cases remain rare but this infection is mostly fatal. Here, we describe a single copy region which has been cloned and sequenced, and was used for both conventional and real-time PCR. Targeting a single-copy DNA sequence allows to directly quantify the N. fowleri cells. The real-time PCR results give a detection limit of 1 copy per reaction with high reproducibility without the need of a Taqman probe. This procedure is of interest as compared to other procedures which are mostly based on the detection of multi-copy DNA associated with a Taqman probe.

  8. Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

    2011-12-31

    This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or

  9. PCA3 gene expression in prostate cancer tissue in a Chinese population: quantification by real-time FQ-RT-PCR based on exon 3 of PCA3.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhihua; Shen, Mo; Zheng, Yanbo; Mao, Xiaolu; Chen, Zhanguo; Yin, Yibing; Yu, Kaiyuan; Weng, Zhiliang; Xie, Hui; Li, Chengdi; Wu, Xiuling; Hu, Yuanping; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Ouchen; Song, Qitong; Yu, Zhixian

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men, and its incidence is still increasing. PCA3 is the most prostate cancer specific biomarker. Here we confirmed that both exon 3 and exon 4 are in the prostate-specific region of the PCA3 gene, and established the methodology of real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR) detecting PCA3 mRNA with primer spanning exons 1 and 3, and evaluated its clinical utility in a Chinese population. What disclosed that PCA3 mRNA is prostate cancer specific and shows increased expression in prostate cancer. It could be a reliable molecular marker in prostate cancer diagnosis. Exon 3-based real-time FQ-RT-PCR may prove useful in prostate cancer diagnosis, given that the associated primer would span only exons 1 and 3, relative to other models spanning exons 1 to 4. A shorter amplicon would not only enhance the efficiency of real-time FQ-RT-PCR, but may also simplify the quantification of PCA3 mRNA.

  10. Real-time monitoring and diagnosis of scintillation dosimeters using an ultraviolet light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Lambert, J.; McKenzie, D. R.; Suchowerska, N.

    2008-05-01

    Plastic scintillator fibre optic dosimeters (FODs) have advantages for both brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy applications. Convenient real-time monitoring and diagnosis of such dosimeters are desirable because of changes in the optical circuit that may arise in use. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a real-time method using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LED) to stimulate the scintillator and to diagnose failures of FODs. Key aspects of the LED FOD dosimetry design are investigated, enabling the design of a stable and accurate real-time monitoring dosimetry system. We demonstrate experimentally that the real-time monitoring FOD system is convenient to be used to monitor FOD dosimeters and to diagnose their failures resulted from different mechanisms.

  11. Real-time atomic absorption mercury continuous emission monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamzow, Daniel S.; Bajic, Stanley J.; Eckels, David E.; Baldwin, David P.; Winterrowd, Chris; Keeney, Robert

    2003-08-01

    A continuous emission monitor (CEM) for mercury (Hg) in combustor flue gas streams has been designed and tested for the detection of Hg by optical absorption. A sampling system that allows continuous introduction of stack gas is incorporated into the CEM, for the sequential analysis of elemental and total Hg. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in the system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg for analysis of total Hg; the pyrolysis tube is bypassed to determine the elemental Hg concentration in the gas stream. A key component of the CEM is a laboratory-designed and -assembled echelle spectrometer that provides simultaneous detection of all of the emission lines from a Hg pen lamp, which is used as the light source for the optical absorption measurement. This feature allows for on-line spectroscopic correction for interferent gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, typically present in combustion stack gas streams, that also absorb at the Hg detection wavelength (253.65 nm). This article provides a detailed description of the CEM system, the characteristics and performance of the CEM, and the results of field tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency-Rotary Kiln at Research Triangle Park, NC.

  12. Real-time continuous nitrate monitoring in Illinois in 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Roseboom, Donald; Johnson, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    Many sources contribute to the nitrogen found in surface water in Illinois. Illinois is located in the most productive agricultural area in the country, and nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used to maximize corn production in this area. Additionally, septic/wastewater systems, industrial emissions, and lawn fertilizer are common sources of nitrogen in urban areas of Illinois. In agricultural areas, the use of fertilizer has increased grain production to meet the needs of a growing population, but also has resulted in increases in nitrogen concentrations in many streams and aquifers (Dubrovsky and others, 2010). The urban sources can increase nitrogen concentrations, too. The Federal limit for nitrate nitrogen in water that is safe to drink is 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) (http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/nitrate.cfm, accessed on May 24, 2013). In addition to the concern with nitrate nitrogen in drinking water, nitrogen, along with phosphorus, is an aquatic concern because it feeds the intensive growth of algae that are responsible for the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. The largest nitrogen flux to the waters feeding the Gulf of Mexico is from Illinois (Alexander and others, 2008). Most studies of nitrogen in surface water and groundwater include samples for nitrate nitrogen collected weekly or monthly, but nitrate concentrations can change rapidly and these discrete samples may not capture rapid changes in nitrate concentrations that can affect human and aquatic health. Continuous monitoring for nitrate could inform scientists and water-resource managers of these changes and provide information on the transport of nitrate in surface water and groundwater.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Scada Based Control System for Filling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soe, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Aung Naing; Latt, Maung Maung; Theingi

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a design of real-time monitoring for filling system using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). The monitoring of production process is described in real-time using Visual Basic.Net programming under Visual Studio 2005 software without SCADA software. The software integrators are programmed to get the required information for the configuration screens. Simulation of components is expressed on the computer screen using parallel port between computers and filling devices. The programs of real-time simulation for the filling process from the pure drinking water industry are provided.

  14. A real-time intercepting beam-profile monitor for a medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Cameron, D.; Kellogg, S.; Gray, D.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Verzilov, V.; Hoehr, C.

    2013-11-15

    There is a lack of real-time continuous beam-diagnostic tools for medical cyclotrons due to high power deposition during proton irradiation. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a profile monitor that is capable of providing continuous feedback about beam shape and current in real time while it is inserted in the beam path. This enables users to optimize the beam profile and observe fluctuations in the beam over time with periodic insertion of the monitor.

  15. A real-time intercepting beam-profile monitor for a medical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, C; Uittenbosch, T; Cameron, D; Kellogg, S; Gray, D; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Verzilov, V; Hoehr, C

    2013-11-01

    There is a lack of real-time continuous beam-diagnostic tools for medical cyclotrons due to high power deposition during proton irradiation. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a profile monitor that is capable of providing continuous feedback about beam shape and current in real time while it is inserted in the beam path. This enables users to optimize the beam profile and observe fluctuations in the beam over time with periodic insertion of the monitor.

  16. A real-time intercepting beam-profile monitor for a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Cameron, D.; Kellogg, S.; Gray, D.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Verzilov, V.; Hoehr, C.

    2013-11-01

    There is a lack of real-time continuous beam-diagnostic tools for medical cyclotrons due to high power deposition during proton irradiation. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a profile monitor that is capable of providing continuous feedback about beam shape and current in real time while it is inserted in the beam path. This enables users to optimize the beam profile and observe fluctuations in the beam over time with periodic insertion of the monitor.

  17. Attention focussing and anomaly detection in real-time systems monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Chien, Steve A.; Fayyad, Usama M.; Porta, Harry J.

    1993-02-01

    In real-time monitoring situations, more information is not necessarily better. When faced with complex emergency situations, operators can experience information overload and a compromising of their ability to react quickly and correctly. We describe an approach to focusing operator attention in real-time systems monitoring based on a set of empirical and model-based measures for determining the relative importance of sensor data.

  18. Attention focussing and anomaly detection in real-time systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Chien, Steve A.; Fayyad, Usama M.; Porta, Harry J.

    1993-01-01

    In real-time monitoring situations, more information is not necessarily better. When faced with complex emergency situations, operators can experience information overload and a compromising of their ability to react quickly and correctly. We describe an approach to focusing operator attention in real-time systems monitoring based on a set of empirical and model-based measures for determining the relative importance of sensor data.

  19. Detection of central nervous system tissues in meat products: validation and standardization of a real-time PCR-based detection system.

    PubMed

    Schönenbrücher, Holger; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Göbel, Katrin-Annette; Bülte, Michael

    2007-08-31

    Several phenotypic as well as genotypic methods have been published describing the detection of central nervous system (CNS) tissues that are part of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk material in food products. However, none of these methods is able to differentiate between CNS tissue of the banned ruminant species and tissues of other animal species. A quantitative and species-specific real-time RT-PCR method has been developed that enables the reliable identification of CNS tissues in meat and meat products. This method is based on a messenger (m)RNA assay that uses bovine, ovine and caprine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) encoding gene sequences as markers. The in-house validation studies evaluated the tissue specificity of up to 15 bovine tissues and the standardization of absolute as well as relative quantitative measurement. The specific amplification of spinal cord and brain tissue GFAP cDNA has been shown previously. In addition, two commercially available ELISA kits were used for the comparative analysis of artificially contaminated minced meat. Small quantities of bovine brain that had been stored over the recommended period of 14 days were examined. The real-time PCR method proved to be suitable for the detection of 0.1% CNS tissue. No false negative results were observed. The quantitative detection of GFAP mRNA using real-time RT-PCR seems a suitable tool in routine diagnostic testing that assesses the illegal use of CNS tissue in meat and meat products. The stability of the selected target region of the GFAP mRNA also allows the detection of CNS tissues after the meat has been processed.

  20. Real-time quantitative PCR-based serum neutralization test for detection and titration of neutralizing antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    van Santen, Vicky L; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Joiner, Kellye S; Macklin, Kenneth S; Norton, Robert A

    2004-02-01

    Detection and titration of chicken anemia virus (CAV)-neutralizing antibodies has relied on tedious, time-consuming passaging of infected cells, or subjective recognition of cytopathic effect in individual cells, because CAV replicates in culture only in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and thus generates no plaques. This paper describes a rapid method, in which CAV genomes in infected cells are quantitated by qPCR 3-4 days postinfection (p.i.), without passaging cells. Three sera, weakly positive with a commercial CAV ELISA kit, from broiler chickens immunized with a commercial CAV vaccine, were used to develop the assay. Virus neutralization titers of these sera were determined using two different CAV-susceptible cell lines (MDCC-MSB1 and MDCC-CU147) by the conventional method of passaging cells infected with 10,000 TCID(50) CAV per well, and by qPCR-based methods using cells infected with 100 or 10,000 TCID(50) per well in 24-well or 96-well plates. The method was also adapted to conventional PCR. The positive sera exhibited virus neutralization activity at dilutions ranging from 1:10 to 1:320 by the various assays. Although virus neutralization titers differed somewhat depending on the assay conditions used, the relative order of the titers of the three positive sera was the same for all assays. The qPCR-based assays are as sensitive and more rapid for detection of neutralizing antibody than the conventional assay based on passaging infected cells, and more sensitive for detection of low-level CAV antibodies than a commercial blocking ELISA.

  1. Monitoring Satellite-derived Surface Solar Radiation with Near Real Time Reference Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. Y.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Geostationary satellite observations of the Earth are increasingly made more frequent. For example, Himawari-8 of Japanese Meteorological Agency takes images of the planet every 10 minutes in multiple bands. Similarly, the GOES-R satellite of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will make observations every 5 to 15 minutes. Products, like shortwave (solar) radiation budget at the surface, derived from these observations have or will have similar rapid refresh rates. Routine, near-real time assessment of the quality of these products ideally requires the availability of near-real time reference data. Such near-real time data has recently become available from the NOAA Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD). These data are disseminated every 15 minutes. However, in contrast to non-real-time data with fully quality control, which have a latency of 24 hours or more, the near-real time data have less quality control applied to them in order to achieve low latency. To assess applicability of this near-real time SURFRAD data for the evaluation satellite products we are using them experimentally to evaluate the quality of Downward Shortwave Radiation at the surface (DSR) retrieved operationally every hour from GOES and made available in the Geostationary Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) . Metrics (accuracy and precision) are computed to characterize the level of agreement between satellite retrievals and the near-real time reference data. These metrics are then compared with metrics from the evaluation with the non-real time, fully quality controlled reference. The comparison shows that monitoring of DSR with near-real time data is not very different from monitoring it with non-real time data and so DSR retrievals can be evaluated hourly or shorter times depending on reference data availability.

  2. Real-time particulate fallout contamination monitoring technology development at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Schwindt, Chris J.

    1998-10-01

    Two separate real-time particulate fallout monitoring instruments have been developed by the contamination monitoring Laboratory at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center. These instruments monitor particular fallout contamination deposition rates in cleanrooms and allow certification of cleanliness levels as well as proactive protection of valuable flight hardware.

  3. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures for real time evaluation of the inflight health and performance of gas turbine engines and related systems were developed to enhance flight test safety and productivity. These techniques include the monitoring of the engine, the engine control system, thrust vectoring control system health, and the detection of engine stalls. Real time performance techniques were developed for the determination and display of inflight thrust and for aeroperformance drag polars. These new methods were successfully shown on various research aircraft at NASA-Dryden. The capability of NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range and the advanced data acquisition systems were key factors for implementation and real time display of these methods.

  4. Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and research with real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jake; Wittemyer, George; Klinkenberg, Brian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2014-06-01

    The expansion of global communication networks and advances in animal-tracking technology make possible the real-time telemetry of positional data as recorded by animal-attached tracking units. When combined with continuous, algorithm-based analytical capability, unique opportunities emerge for applied ecological monitoring and wildlife conservation. We present here four broad approaches for algorithmic wildlife monitoring in real time--proximity, geofencing, movement rate, and immobility--designed to examine aspects of wildlife spatial activity and behavior not possible with conventional tracking systems. Application of these four routines to the real-time monitoring of 94 African elephants was made. We also provide details of our cloud-based monitoring system including infrastructure, data collection, and customized software for continuous tracking data analysis. We also highlight future directions of real-time collection and analysis of biological, physiological, and environmental information from wildlife to encourage further development of needed algorithms and monitoring technology. Real-time processing of remotely collected, animal biospatial data promises to open novel directions in ecological research, applied species monitoring, conservation programs, and public outreach and education.

  5. Validation according to ISO 16140:2003 of a commercial real-time PCR-based method for detecting Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in foods.

    PubMed

    Vencia, W; Nogarol, C; Bianchi, D M; Gallina, S; Zuccon, F; Adriano, D; Gramaglia, M; Decastelli, L

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis was the most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union (EU) in 2010, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari as the most frequently reported species in foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Relatively sensitive to environmental factors, these species may be present in low numbers. In line with EU policy for food control and FBO detection and in view of the need to reduce response time, we validated an alternative molecular method according to ISO 16140:2003 which establishes the general principle and technical protocol for the validation of alternative methods in the microbiological analysis of food. We used a qualitative real-time PCR commercial kit for the detection of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in two food categories "fruit and vegetable-based products" and "dairy products". The validation protocol comprises two phases: the first is a method comparison study of the alternative method against the reference method, and the second is an interlaboratory study of each of the two methods. In the first step, ISO 16140:2003 validation examines the following parameters: limit of detection (LOD); relative accuracy, relative specificity and sensitivity; relative detection level (RDL); and inclusivity and exclusivity. Except for LOD, inclusivity and exclusivity, the other steps were performed against the reference method (ISO 10272:2006). The LOD of the real-time PCR method was set at 4CFU/25g or mL for both food categories. Relative accuracy (98.33%), specificity (96.77%), and sensitivity (100%) were recorded for the food category "fruit and vegetable-based products" and 93.3%, 88.24%, 100%, respectively, for "dairy products". The RDL according to Fisher's exact test was p=1 for both food categories, for each level, and each food/strain combination. The interlaboratory study results showed correct identification of all 24 blind samples with both methods by all the participating laboratories. The results show that this

  6. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-06-27

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population.

  7. Development of one-step real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assays for the rapid and simultaneous detection of four viruses causing porcine diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Ashiba, Tomoko; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    Porcine diarrhea caused by viruses is a major problem of the pig farming industry and can result in substantial losses of revenue. Thus, diagnosing the infectious agents is important to prevent and control diseases in pigs. We developed novel one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) assays that can detect four porcine diarrheal viruses simultaneously: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and porcine group A rotavirus (PRVA). The qPCR analysis takes only 75 minutes to detect the presence of the four viruses. The limits of detection of our new assays for PEDV, TGEV, PDCoV, and PRVA were 100, 10, 10 and 10 copies per reaction, respectively. The sensitivity of qPCR was 1-1000 times higher than that of published gel-based RT-PCR. We used our qPCR method to successfully diagnose clinical samples from infected pigs, and no false positive results were obtained. In conclusion, qPCR can drastically reduce the diagnostic time to detect viruses compared to currently employed methods. We predict that the qPCR assays will become a useful tool for detecting viral infections that cause diarrhea and other complications in pigs. PMID:27348884

  8. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population. PMID:27420983

  9. Development and optimization of a real-time quantitative PCR-based method for the titration of AAV-2 vector stocks.

    PubMed

    Veldwijk, Marlon R; Topaly, Julian; Laufs, Stephanie; Hengge, Ulrich R; Wenz, Frederik; Zeller, W Jens; Fruehauf, Stefan

    2002-08-01

    Despite the clinical application of adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy, the titration of viral stocks has not yet been standardized. This complicates the comparison of viral stocks between laboratories. Functional titering of AAV is time-consuming, requires the manipulation of hazardous material, and often has a high degree of variability. We established an optimized real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) titration assay to determine viral titers and compared it with a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based titration method. With a combination of improved lysis procedures and RQ-PCR protocols we could decrease the intraexperimental coefficient of variation (CV) from 0.24 +/- 0.03 to 0.042 +/- 0.004 and the interexperimental CV from 0.34 +/- 0.06 to 0.093 +/- 0.028 following functional and RQPCR-based titration, respectively. This low variability conforms to even the strictest quality standards required, for example, in clinical laboratories. The highly standardized titration by RQPCR described here will be especially advantageous for groups working on AAV-based gene therapy in a good manufacturing practice setting.

  10. Performance of Droplet Digital PCR in Non-Invasive Fetal RHD Genotyping - Comparison with a Routine Real-Time PCR Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hořínek, Aleš; Novotná, Michaela; Calda, Pavel; Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Detection and characterization of circulating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal circulation requires an extremely sensitive and precise method due to very low cffDNA concentration. In our study, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was implemented for fetal RHD genotyping from maternal plasma to compare this new quantification alternative with real-time PCR (qPCR) as a golden standard for quantitative analysis of cffDNA. In the first stage of study, a DNA quantification standard was used. Clinical samples, including 10 non-pregnant and 35 pregnant women, were analyzed as a next step. Both methods’ performance parameters—standard curve linearity, detection limit and measurement precision—were evaluated. ddPCR in comparison with qPCR has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for analysing of cffDNA and determination of fetal RhD status from maternal circulation, results of both methods strongly correlated. Despite the more demanding workflow, ddPCR was found to be slightly more precise technology, as evaluated using quantitative standard. Regarding the clinical samples, the precision of both methods equalized with decreasing concentrations of tested DNA samples. In case of cffDNA with very low concentrations, variance parameters of both techniques were comparable. Detected levels of fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma were slightly higher than expected and correlated significantly with gestational age as measured by both methods (ddPCR r = 0.459; qPCR r = 0.438). PMID:26562517

  11. Rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii by real-time PCR based on the cgcA gene and TaqMan probe with internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangfang; Yu, Yigang; Li, Rong; Wu, Xinwei; Xiao, Xinglong; Wu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a severe virulent strain that is frequently detected in powdered infant formula (PIF). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a fast and specific detection method. The specificity of our newly developed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was validated with DNA from 46 strains. Among them, 12 C. sakazakii strains were correctly amplified, whereas no positive florescent signal was observed from 34 nontarget controls. The detection limit of C. sakazakii was about 110 CFU/mL in broth and 1100 CFU/g in PIF. After enrichment in buffered peptone water for 6 h, our developed qRT-PCR assay could reliably detect C. sakazakii when the inoculation level was as low as 2 CFU/25 g (0.08 CFU/g) in PIF. The growth of C. sakazakii could be inhibited by the presence of Lactobacillus pentosus and Bacillus cereus, which used a longer enrichment period before the isolation was accomplished. However, at 5 and 50 CFU/25 g inoculation levels of C. sakazakii in the presence of 4 × 10(6) CFU L. pentosus/25 g or of 2 × 10(4) CFU B. cereus/25 g, the qRT-PCR assay could detect the presence of Cronobacter even though these artificially spiked samples were negative in culture. Therefore, our results indicated that the qRT-PCR assay could detect samples containing inhibitors and could avoid false negatives by using an internal amplification control.

  12. Real-Time Management of Multimodal Streaming Data for Monitoring of Epileptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllopoulos, Dimitrios; Korvesis, Panagiotis; Mporas, Iosif; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2016-03-01

    New generation of healthcare is represented by wearable health monitoring systems, which provide real-time monitoring of patient's physiological parameters. It is expected that continuous ambulatory monitoring of vital signals will improve treatment of patients and enable proactive personal health management. In this paper, we present the implementation of a multimodal real-time system for epilepsy management. The proposed methodology is based on a data streaming architecture and efficient management of a big flow of physiological parameters. The performance of this architecture is examined for varying spatial resolution of the recorded data. PMID:26643075

  13. Real-Time Management of Multimodal Streaming Data for Monitoring of Epileptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllopoulos, Dimitrios; Korvesis, Panagiotis; Mporas, Iosif; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2016-03-01

    New generation of healthcare is represented by wearable health monitoring systems, which provide real-time monitoring of patient's physiological parameters. It is expected that continuous ambulatory monitoring of vital signals will improve treatment of patients and enable proactive personal health management. In this paper, we present the implementation of a multimodal real-time system for epilepsy management. The proposed methodology is based on a data streaming architecture and efficient management of a big flow of physiological parameters. The performance of this architecture is examined for varying spatial resolution of the recorded data.

  14. OZONE MONITORING, MAPPING, AND PUBLIC OUTREACH: DELIVERING REAL-TIME OZONE INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA had developed a handbook to help state and local government officials implement ozone monitoring, mapping, and outreach programs. The handbook, called Ozone Monitoring, Mapping, and Public Outreach: Delivering Real-Time Ozone Information to Your Community, provides ...

  15. TYPES, USES, AND LOCATIONS OF REAL-TIME BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN EUROPE AND THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many dffferent types of real-time biological monitoring (fish behavior and current, daphnid dynamic and toximeter, clam monitors, algae, and luminescent bacteria) have been used in several countries (Germany, Netherlands, France, England( and many locations in Europe. Only a few ...

  16. A new real time PCR-based assay for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and comparison with other techniques.

    PubMed

    Halaihel, Nabil; Vendrell, Daniel; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; de Blas, Ignacio; Alonso, José Luis; Gironés, Olivia; Pérez, Tania; Muzquiz, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial Kidney Disease of salmonid is caused by a slow-growing gram-positive bacterium, Renibacterium salmoninarum. This bacterium lives both extra-cellular and intra-cellular in the host. Serological and molecular diagnostic methods to detect the bacterium major surface protein antigen p57 have been developed. In the present work, a newly developed quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-QPCR), using self-quenched fluorescent primer (Lux), a nested PCR (NPCR), a commercial ELISA and recently commercially available Immune-chromatographic strip test(IC-Strip) were compared for their ability to detect BKD in kidney tissue samples obtained from experimentally infected fish. ELISA test resulted to be rapid, simple and indicative for the bacterial load. The IC-Strip test had similar characteristics for bacterial detection. Both tests are a good option for rapid and relatively inexpensive screening studies, despite the one and two log decrease in bacterial detection limits compared to NPCR and RT-QPCR, respectively. The use of Lux primers in the newly developed RT-QPCR revealed to be a cost-effective alternative to other fluorescence-based PCR techniques. The option of generating a melting temperature curve with the real time PCR instrument confirmed the specificity of the PCR product. The RT-QPCR technique had the advantage of detecting low numbers of viable bacterial mRNA which implied a higher capacity of detecting chronically infected animals. For instance, some fish in the group infected by cohabitation had very low bacterial load and were only detected by this technique.

  17. Developments in real-time monitoring for geologic hazard warnings (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, W. S.; Mandeville, C. W.; Earle, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Real-time data from global, national and local sensor networks enable prompt alerts and warnings of earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, geomagnetic storms , broad-scale crustal deformation and landslides. State-of-the-art seismic systems can locate and evaluate earthquake sources in seconds, enabling 'earthquake early warnings' to be broadcast ahead of the damaging surface waves so that protective actions can be taken. Strong motion monitoring systems in buildings now support near-real-time structural damage detection systems, and in quiet times can be used for state-of-health monitoring. High-rate GPS data are being integrated with seismic strong motion data, allowing accurate determination of earthquake displacements in near-real time. GPS data, combined with rainfall, groundwater and geophone data, are now used for near-real-time landslide monitoring and warnings. Real-time sea-floor water pressure data are key for assessing tsunami generation by large earthquakes. For monitoring remote volcanoes that lack local ground-based instrumentation, the USGS uses new technologies such as infrasound arrays and the worldwide lightning detection array to detect eruptions in progress. A new real-time UV-camera system for measuring the two dimensional SO2 flux from volcanic plumes will allow correlations with other volcano monitoring data streams to yield fundamental data on changes in gas flux as an eruption precursor, and how magmas de-gas prior to and during eruptions. Precision magnetic field data support the generation of real-time indices of geomagnetic disturbances (Dst, K and others), and can be used to model electrical currents in the crust and bulk power system. Ground-induced electrical current monitors are used to track those currents so that power grids can be effectively managed during geomagnetic storms. Beyond geophysical sensor data, USGS is using social media to rapidly detect possible earthquakes and to collect firsthand accounts of the impacts of

  18. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications. PMID:25340455

  19. Real time monitoring of superoxide dynamics in vivo through fluorescent proteins using a sensitive fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Ken, Chuian-Fu; Hsu, Che-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ging

    2014-03-01

    Superoxide anion is the primary oxygen free radical generated in mitochondria that causes intracellular oxidative stress. The lack of a method to directly monitor superoxide concentration in vivo in real time has severely hindered our understanding on its pathophysiology. We made transgenic zebrafish to specifically express fluorescent proteins, which are recently developed as reversible superoxide-specific indicators, in the liver. A fiber-optic fluorescent probe was used to noninvasively monitor superoxide generation in the liver in real time. The fish were placed in microfluidic channels for manipulation and reagents administration. Several superoxide-inducing and scavenging reagents were administrated onto the fish to investigate their effects on superoxide anion balancing. The biochemical dynamics of superoxide due to the application reagents were revealed in the transient behaviors of fluorescence time courses. With the ability to monitor superoxide dynamics in vivo in real time, this method can be used as an in vivo pharmaceutical screening platform.

  20. Real Time Monitoring of an Injection Test for an Enhanced Geothermal Reservoir, Paralana, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; Thiel, S.; Heinson, G. S.; Reid, P.

    2011-12-01

    Real-time monitoring of changes in subsurface material properties proves valuable in many geophysical aplications where fluids are present, including ground water, geothermal, CO2 sequestration, unconventional gas, and more. Reservoir stimulation typically includes pumping high pressure fluids into tight lithology with the intention of creating or extending the reservior. Unfortunately, the fracturing process and reservoir extension is not always predictable. Therefore, real time monitoring needs to be employed to better understand the system. Electromagnetic methods can exploit the large dynamic range of electrical conductivity from the surface, specifically the magnetotelluric (MT) can measure conductivity contrasts as a function of depth and time. Presented is an example of real-time monitoring of an enhanced geothermal system injection test at around 4~km depth using 11 MT stations with a remote reference. Its found that changes in the MT response are small, on the order of a few percent, but correlate with earthquake clusters measured by a micro-seismic array.

  1. The real-time monitoring surface figure of optical elements in continuous polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Xueke; Wei, Chaoyang; Gu, Jianxun; Dun, Aihuan; Shao, Jianda

    2014-08-01

    Continuous ring polishing is the key process in large aperture optical elements. The surface figure of polishing pad is inferred by the offline testing surface figure of workpiece. The defects, low processing efficiency and uncertainty processing time in traditional continuous polishing, the real-time monitoring method of polishing is proposed. The realtime monitoring system is set up based on the computer, the dynamic interferometer, a beam expanding system and a beam reflecting system. There are a workpiece and a glass monitoring plate placing in same ring. The surface figure of workpiece, monitored by the monitoring plate, synchronize with the surface of glass monitoring plate in Peak-Valley (PV) and POWER. The new method with simple structure is fast measuring and judgmental directly to the changes of surface figures. The results of real-time monitoring and surface figure converging on the workpiece are valid for continuous polishing through experimental validation.

  2. Progress in using real-time GPS for seismic monitoring of the Cascadia megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeliga, W. M.; Melbourne, T. I.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C.; Webb, F.

    2014-12-01

    We report on progress in our development of a comprehensive real-time GPS-based seismic monitoring system for the Cascadia subduction zone. This system is based on 1 Hz point position estimates computed in the ITRF08 reference frame. Convergence from phase and range observables to point position estimates is accelerated using a Kalman filter based, on-line stream editor. Positions are estimated using a short-arc approach and algorithms from JPL's GIPSY-OASIS software with satellite clock and orbit products from the International GNSS Service (IGS). The resulting positions show typical RMS scatter of 2.5 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical with latencies below 2 seconds. To facilitate the use of these point position streams for applications such as seismic monitoring, we broadcast real-time positions and covariances using custom-built streaming software. This software is capable of buffering 24-hour streams for hundreds of stations and providing them through a REST-ful web interface. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we have developed a Java-based front-end that provides a real-time visual display of time-series, vector displacement, and contoured peak ground displacement. We have also implemented continuous estimation of finite fault slip along the Cascadia megathrust using an NIF approach. The resulting continuous slip distributions are combined with pre-computed tsunami Green's functions to generate real-time tsunami run-up estimates for the entire Cascadia coastal margin. This Java-based front-end is available for download through the PANGA website. We currently analyze 80 PBO and PANGA stations along the Cascadia margin and are gearing up to process all 400+ real-time stations operating in the Pacific Northwest, many of which are currently telemetered in real-time to CWU. These will serve as milestones towards our over-arching goal of extending our processing to include all of the available real-time streams from the Pacific rim. In addition

  3. [Real-time forecasting model for monitoring pollutant with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Wen; Liu, Wen-Qing; Xie, Pin-Hua; Wang, Feng-Sui; Yang, Yi-Jun

    2009-11-01

    For real-time and on-line monitoring DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) system, a model based on an improved Elman network for monitoring pollutant concentrations was proposed. In order to reduce the systematical complexity, the forecasting factors have been obtained based on the step-wise regression method. The forecasting factors were current concentrations, temperature and relative humidity, and wind speed and wind direction. The dynamic back propagation (BP) algorithm was used for creating training set. The experiment results show that the predicted value follows the real well. So the modified Elman network can meet the demand of DOAS system's real time forecasting.

  4. Real-time supernova neutrino burst monitor at Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Wendell, R. A.; Yokozawa, T.; Irvine, T.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; McLachlan, T.; Nishimura, Y.; Richard, E.; Okumura, K.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Berkman, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Gustafson, J.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Goldhaber, M.; Carminati, G.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Weatherly, P.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Akiri, T.; Himmel, A.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Jang, J. S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Bronner, C.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tateishi, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Mijakowski, P.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Yamaguchi, R.; Yano, T.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Suda, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Martens, K.; Marti, Ll.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Y.; Connolly, K.; Wilkes, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a real-time supernova neutrino burst monitor at Super-Kamiokande (SK). Detecting supernova explosions by neutrinos in real time is crucial for giving a clear picture of the explosion mechanism. Since the neutrinos are expected to come earlier than light, a fast broadcasting of the detection may give astronomers a chance to make electromagnetic radiation observations of the explosions right at the onset. The role of the monitor includes a fast announcement of the neutrino burst detection to the world and a determination of the supernova direction. We present the online neutrino burst detection system and studies of the direction determination accuracy based on simulations at SK.

  5. Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Vestrand, W Thomas; Davis, H; Wren, J; Wozniak, P; Norman, B; White, R; Bloch, J; Fenimore, E; Hodge, Barry; Jah, Moriba; Rast, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the development of prototypes for a global grid of advanced 'thinking' sky sentinels and robotic follow-up telescopes that observe the full night sky to provide real-time monitoring of the night sky by autonomously recognizing anomalous behavior, selecting targets for detailed investigation, and making real-time anomaly detection to enable rapid recognition and a swift response to transients as they emerge. This T3 global EO grid avoids the limitations imposed by geography and weather to provide persistent monitoring of the night sky.

  6. [Real-time forecasting model for monitoring pollutant with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Wen; Liu, Wen-Qing; Xie, Pin-Hua; Wang, Feng-Sui; Yang, Yi-Jun

    2009-11-01

    For real-time and on-line monitoring DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) system, a model based on an improved Elman network for monitoring pollutant concentrations was proposed. In order to reduce the systematical complexity, the forecasting factors have been obtained based on the step-wise regression method. The forecasting factors were current concentrations, temperature and relative humidity, and wind speed and wind direction. The dynamic back propagation (BP) algorithm was used for creating training set. The experiment results show that the predicted value follows the real well. So the modified Elman network can meet the demand of DOAS system's real time forecasting. PMID:20101985

  7. Real-time monitoring of double-stranded DNA cleavage using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changbei; Tang, Zhiwen; Huo, Xiqin; Yang, Xiaohai; Li, Wei; Tan, Weihong

    2008-07-15

    Traditional methods to assay enzymatic cleavage of DNA are discontinuous, time-consuming and laborious. Here, we report a new approach for real-time monitoring of double-stranded DNA cleavage by restriction endonuclease based on nucleic acid ligation using molecular beacon. Upon cleavage of DNA, the cleavage product can be ligated by DNA ligase, which results in a fluorescence enhancement of the molecular beacon. This method permits real-time monitoring of DNA cleavage and makes it easy to characterize the activity of restriction endonuclease and to study the cleavage reaction kinetics.

  8. Development of a real time streamflow monitoring system for the Indian sub-continental basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, H. L.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time streamflow monitoring is essential in the Indian sub-continental river basins as a large population is affected by floods. Moreover, streamflow monitoring may help in managing the water resources in the agriculture dominated region. In the Indian sub-continental basins, it is challenging to obtain the real time information of streamflow, which is valuable for reservoir operations, water management, and flood forecasts. We setup the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model at daily temporal resolution and 0.25◦ spatial resolution using the bias corrected satellite precipitation product from the Tropical rainfall Measurement Mission Real Time (TRMM-3B42RTV7) and bias corrected temperature product from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), version 2. Near-real-time precipitation and temperatures are bias corrected using the historic precipitation and temperature data from the India Meteorological Department (IMD). Moreover, we evaluated data assimilation approaches to improve the real-time monitoring of streamflow in the sub-continental basins.

  9. Design of an irradiation facility with a real-time radiation effects monitoring capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braisted, J.; Schneider, E.; O'Kelly, S.; van der Hoeven, C.

    2011-12-01

    An in-core irradiation facility for radiation effects testing with a real-time monitoring capability has been designed for the 1.1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor at The University of Texas at Austin. The facility is larger than any currently available non-central location in a TRIGA, supporting testing of larger electronic components as well as other in-core irradiation applications requiring significant volume such as isotope production or neutron transmutation doping of silicon. This article presents the layout and characterization of the large in-core irradiation facility and the real-time electronics performance monitoring capability it is designed to support. To demonstrate this capability, an experimental campaign was conducted where the real-time current transfer ratio for 4N25 general-purpose optocouplers was obtained from in-situ voltage measurements. The resultant radiation effects data - current transfer ratio as a function of neutron and gamma dose - was seen to be repeatable and exceptionally finely resolved. Therefore, the real-time capability at UT TRIGA appears competitive with other effects characterization facilities in terms of number and size of testable samples while additionally offering a novel real-time, in-core monitoring capability.

  10. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  11. Ubiquitous health monitoring and real-time cardiac arrhythmias detection: a case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhou, Haiying; Zuo, Decheng; Hou, Kun-Mean; De Vaulx, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    As the symptoms and signs of heart diseases that cause sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmia has attracted great attention. Due to limitations in time and space, traditional approaches to cardiac arrhythmias detection fail to provide a real-time continuous monitoring and testing service applicable in different environmental conditions. Integrated with the latest technologies in ECG (electrocardiograph) analysis and medical care, the pervasive computing technology makes possible the ubiquitous cardiac care services, and thus brings about new technical challenges, especially in the formation of cardiac care architecture and realization of the real-time automatic ECG detection algorithm dedicated to care devices. In this paper, a ubiquitous cardiac care prototype system is presented with its architecture framework well elaborated. This prototype system has been tested and evaluated in all the clinical-/home-/outdoor-care modes with a satisfactory performance in providing real-time continuous cardiac arrhythmias monitoring service unlimitedly adaptable in time and space. PMID:24211993

  12. Ubiquitous health monitoring and real-time cardiac arrhythmias detection: a case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhou, Haiying; Zuo, Decheng; Hou, Kun-Mean; De Vaulx, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    As the symptoms and signs of heart diseases that cause sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmia has attracted great attention. Due to limitations in time and space, traditional approaches to cardiac arrhythmias detection fail to provide a real-time continuous monitoring and testing service applicable in different environmental conditions. Integrated with the latest technologies in ECG (electrocardiograph) analysis and medical care, the pervasive computing technology makes possible the ubiquitous cardiac care services, and thus brings about new technical challenges, especially in the formation of cardiac care architecture and realization of the real-time automatic ECG detection algorithm dedicated to care devices. In this paper, a ubiquitous cardiac care prototype system is presented with its architecture framework well elaborated. This prototype system has been tested and evaluated in all the clinical-/home-/outdoor-care modes with a satisfactory performance in providing real-time continuous cardiac arrhythmias monitoring service unlimitedly adaptable in time and space.

  13. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  14. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research effort to develop an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real-time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns, and monitoring of the mold filling process. This will reduce scrap, improve product quality, and save energy.

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. ...

  16. EVALUATION OF REAL-TIME INNOVATIVE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS TO PROTECT SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Real-Time Innovative Biological and Chemical Monitoring Systems
    To Protect Source Waters

    Drinking water supplies have in recent years come under increasing pressure from regulatory concerns regarding TMDL designations and restoration strategies as well ...

  17. Surface Plasmon Resonance Label-Free Monitoring of Antibody Antigen Interactions in Real Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kausaite, Asta; van Dijk, Martijn; Castrop, Jan; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Baltrus, John P.; Acaite, Juzefa; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2007-01-01

    Detection of biologically active compounds is one of the most important topics in molecular biology and biochemistry. One of the most promising detection methods is based on the application of surface plasmon resonance for label-free detection of biologically active compounds. This method allows one to monitor binding events in real time without…

  18. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  19. PERFORMANCE RESULTS OF JET-REMPI AS A REAL-TIME PCDD/F EMISSION MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jet REMPI monitor was recently tested on a hazardous-waste firing boiler for its ability to determine real time concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Jet REMPI consists of a laser system coupled with a time of flight mass spectrometer ...

  20. Graphic Server: A real time system for displaying and monitoring telemetry data of several satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douard, Stephane

    1994-01-01

    Known as a Graphic Server, the system presented was designed for the control ground segment of the Telecom 2 satellites. It is a tool used to dynamically display telemetry data within graphic pages, also known as views. The views are created off-line through various utilities and then, on the operator's request, displayed and animated in real time as data is received. The system was designed as an independent component, and is installed in different Telecom 2 operational control centers. It enables operators to monitor changes in the platform and satellite payloads in real time. It has been in operation since December 1991.

  1. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for steel wire monitoring in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Steel wires are widely applied in industrial applications - in most cases as critical components fulfilling high safety requirements in harsh environments (e.g. dockside cranes). In this paper a technique for real-time monitoring of steel ropes applying optical strain sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings is presented. The optical sensors are integrated within the wire strand and replace the core. The strain transmission from the outer wires to the sensors is assured by the mechanical coupling between the optical fiber and the strand. The actual strain load and rope vibrations in the kilohertz range can be determined in real-time.

  2. Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor: A Near-Real-Time Monitor For Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard

    2008-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The threat of protracted diversion of Pu from commercial reprocessing operations is perhaps the greatest concern to national and international agencies tasked with safeguarding these facilities. While it is generally understood that a method for direct monitoring of process on-line and in near-real time (NRT) would be the best defense against protracted diversion scenarios, an effective method with these qualities has yet to be developed. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing an on-line NRT process monitoring method that should be sensitive to minor alterations in process conditions and compatible with small, easily deployable, detection systems. This Approach is known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and involves the determination and recognition of the contaminant pattern within a process stream for a suite of indicator (radioactive) elements present in the spent fuel as a function of process variables. Utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, decreases the likelihood that attempts to divert Pu by altering the ReDox environment within the process would go undetected. In addition, by identifying gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, this Approach might eliminate the need for bulky neutron detection systems, relying instead on small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors easily deployable throughout the facility.

  3. Applications of magnetostrictive materials in the real-time monitoring of vehicle suspension components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Raul

    The purpose of this project is to explore applications of magnetostrictive materials for real-time monitoring of railroad suspension components, in particular bearings. Monitoring of such components typically requires the tracking of temperature vibration and load. In addition, real-time, long-term monitoring can be greatly facilitated through the use of wireless, self-powered sensors. Magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, have the potential to address both requirements. Currently, piezoelectrics are used for many load and energy harvesting applications; however, they are fragile and are difficult to use for static load measurements. Magnetostrictive metals are tougher, and their property of variable permeability when stressed can be utilized to measure static loads. A prototype load sensor was successfully fabricated and characterized yielding less than 10% error under normal operating conditions. Energy harvesting experiments generated a little over 80 mW of power, which is sufficient to run low-power condition monitoring systems.

  4. Quantitation of viral load by real-time PCR-monitoring Invader reaction.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Egashira, Toru; Hara, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    With its broad effective range for fluorescence detection, real-time PCR is one of the most valuable techniques for quantitation in molecular biology. A modified real-time PCR assay is described for determining viral load. The assay uses fluorescence to measure the number of PCR amplicons by monitoring the Invader reaction in four steps in the thermal cycle. The Invader reaction with its cleavase was performed at moderate temperature after the amplicon was denatured at a high temperature. The method was as effective as real-time PCR with a TaqMan probe in determining the quantity of virus in samples of human papillomavirus type 16. Importantly, the assay allows the use of a common probe for multiple reactions. Thus, this method is a rapid inexpensive assay with a common fluorescence probe that does not depend on the conformation of the target DNAs. PMID:19014973

  5. Monitoring Natural Events Globally in Near Real-Time Using NASA's Open Web Services and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boller, Ryan A.; Ward, Kevin Alan; Murphy, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1960, NASA has been making global measurements of the Earth from a multitude of space-based missions, many of which can be useful for monitoring natural events. In recent years, these measurements have been made available in near real-time, making it possible to use them to also aid in managing the response to natural events. We present the challenges and ongoing solutions to using NASA satellite data for monitoring and managing these events.

  6. Real-time monitoring and control of the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters, G.G.

    1996-05-01

    A distributed monitoring and control system is proposed for a plasma hearth, which will be used to decompose hazardous organic materials, encapsulate actinide waste in an obsidian-like slag, and reduce storage volume of actinide waste. The plasma hearth will be installed at ANL-West with the assistance of SAIC. Real-time monitoring of the off-gas system is accomplished using a Sun Workstation and embedded PCs. LabWindows/CVI software serves as the graphical user interface.

  7. Rapid detection of HCV genotyping 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b and 6a in a single reaction using two-melting temperature codes by a real-time PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Athar, Muhammad Ammar; Xu, Ye; Xie, Xiaoting; Xu, Zhenxing; Ahmad, Vakil; Hayder, Zulfiqar; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Liao, Yiqun; Li, Qingge

    2015-09-15

    The genotype of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important indicator for antiviral therapeutic response. We hereby described development of a rapid HCV genotyping approach that enabled the identification of the six most common HCV subtypes of Asia, i.e., 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6a, in a single reaction. Using two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes that target the core region of the HCV genome, the exact subtype could be accurately identified by two-melting temperature codes determined from the two respective probes in a real-time PCR assay. Analytical sensitivity studies using armored RNA samples representing each of the six HCV subtypes showed that 5 copies/reaction of HCV RNA could be detected. The assay was evaluated using 244 HCV-positive serum samples and the results were compared with sequencing analysis. Of the 224 samples, subtype 3a (127, 52.3%) was the dominant, followed by 1b (51, 20.9%), 3b (47, 19.3%), 2a (8, 3.3%), 6a (4, 1.6%) and the least was subtype 1a (1, 0.4%). Moreover, 6 (2.5%) mixed infection samples were also detected. These results were fully concordant with sequencing analysis. We concluded that this real-time PCR-based assay could provide a rapid and reliable tool for routine HCV genotyping in most Asian countries.

  8. Real-time stream processing for active fire monitoring on Landsat 8 direct reception data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohme, C.; Bouwer, P.; Prinsloo, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    Some remote sensing applications are relatively time insensitive, for others, near-real-time processing (results 30-180 minutes after data reception) offer a viable solution. There are, however, a few applications, such as active wildfire monitoring or ship and airplane detection, where real-time processing and image interpretation offers a distinct advantage. The objective of real-time processing is to provide notifications before the complete satellite pass has been received. This paper presents an automated system for real-time, stream-based processing of data acquired from direct broadcast push-broom sensors for applications that require a high degree of timeliness. Based on this system, a processing chain for active fire monitoring using Landsat 8 live data streams was implemented and evaluated. The real-time processing system, called the FarEarth Observer, is connected to a ground station's demodulator and uses its live data stream as input. Processing is done on variable size image segments assembled from detector lines of the push broom sensor as they are streamed from the satellite, enabling detection of active fires and sending of notifications within seconds of the satellite passing over the affected area, long before the actual acquisition completes. This approach requires performance optimized techniques for radiometric and geometric correction of the sensor data. Throughput of the processing system is kept well above the 400Mbit/s downlink speed of Landsat 8. A latency of below 10 seconds from sensor line acquisition to anomaly detection and notification is achieved. Analyses of geometric and radiometric accuracy and comparisons in latency to traditional near-real-time systems are also presented.

  9. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions.

  10. Real-time volcano monitoring using GNSS single-frequency receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Yun, Sung-Hyo; Kim, Do Hyeong; Lee, Dukkee; Lee, Young J.; Schutz, Bob E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a real-time volcano monitoring strategy that uses the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and we examine the performance of the strategy by processing simulated and real data and comparing the results with published solutions. The cost of implementing the strategy is reduced greatly by using single-frequency GNSS receivers except for one dual-frequency receiver that serves as a base receiver. Positions of the single-frequency receivers are computed relative to the base receiver on an epoch-by-epoch basis using the high-rate double-difference (DD) GNSS technique, while the position of the base station is fixed to the values obtained with a deferred-time precise point positioning technique and updated on a regular basis. Since the performance of the single-frequency high-rate DD technique depends on the conditions of the ionosphere over the monitoring area, the ionospheric total electron content is monitored using the dual-frequency data from the base receiver. The surface deformation obtained with the high-rate DD technique is eventually processed by a real-time inversion filter based on the Mogi point source model. The performance of the real-time volcano monitoring strategy is assessed through a set of tests and case studies, in which the data recorded during the 2007 eruption of Kilauea and the 2005 eruption of Augustine are processed in a simulated real-time mode. The case studies show that the displacement time series obtained with the strategy seem to agree with those obtained with deferred-time, dual-frequency approaches at the level of 10-15 mm. Differences in the estimated volume change of the Mogi source between the real-time inversion filter and previously reported works were in the range of 11 to 13% of the maximum volume changes of the cases examined.

  11. A real time monitoring system of ringer's solution residual amount for automatic nursing in hopsitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jong-Won; Ha, Kwan-Yong; Nam, Chul; Ayurzana, Odgelral; Kim, Hie-Sik

    2005-12-01

    A real-time embedded system was developed for remote monitoring and checking the residual quantity and changing of Ringer's solution. It is monitored nurses' room. A Load Cell was applied as a sensor to check the residual quantity of Ringer's solution. This Load Cell detects the physical changes of Ringer's solution and transfers electronic signal to the amplifier. Amplified analog signal is converted into digital signal by A/D converter. Developed Embedded system, which computes these data with microprocess (8052) then makes it possible to monitor the residual quantity of Ringer's solution real-time on a server computer. A Checking system on Residual Quantity of Ringer's Solution Using Load cell cut costs using a simple design for a circuit.

  12. Real-time seismic monitoring needs of a building owner - And the solution: A cooperative effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Sanli, A.; Sinclair, M.; Gallant, S.; Radulescu, D.

    2004-01-01

    A recently implemented advanced seismic monitoring system for a 24-story building facilitates recording of accelerations and computing displacements and drift ratios in near-real time to measure the earthquake performance of the building. The drift ratio is related to the damage condition of the specific building. This system meets the owner's needs for rapid quantitative input to assessments and decisions on post-earthquake occupancy. The system is now successfully working and, in absence of strong shaking to date, is producing low-amplitude data in real time for routine analyses and assessment. Studies of such data to date indicate that the configured monitoring system with its building specific software can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can be used for health monitoring of a building, for assessing performance-based design and analyses procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics, and for long-term damage detection.

  13. A wearable chemical-electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring.

    PubMed

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J; Mohan, A M Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P

    2016-05-23

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices.

  14. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  15. A wearable chemical–electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J.; Mohan, A. M. Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices. PMID:27212140

  16. Real Time Corrosion Monitoring in Lead and Lead-Bismuth Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Stubbins; Alan Bolind; Ziang Chen

    2010-02-25

    The objective of this research program is to develop a real-time, in situ corrosion monitoring technique for flowing liquid Pb and eutectic PbBi (LBE) systems in a temperature range of 400 to 650 C. These conditions are relevant to future liquid metal cooled fast reactor operating parameters. THis program was aligned with the Gen IV Reactor initiative to develp technologies to support the design and opertion of a Pb or LBE-cooled fast reactor. The ability to monitor corrosion for protection of structural components is a high priority issue for the safe and prolonged operation of advanced liquid metal fast reactor systems. In those systems, protective oxide layers are intentionally formed and maintained to limit corrosion rates during operation. This program developed a real time, in situ corrosion monitoring tecnique using impedance spectroscopy (IS) technology.

  17. Real-time monitoring of nucleic acid ligation in homogenous solutions using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong; Li, Jun; Liu, Lingfeng; Guo, Qiuping; Meng, Xiangxian; Ma, Changbei; Huang, Shasheng

    2003-12-01

    Nucleic acids ligation is a vital process in the repair, replication and recombination of nucleic acids. Traditionally, it is assayed by denatured gel electrophoresis and autoradiography, which are not sensitive, and are complex and discontinuous. Here we report a new approach for ligation monitoring using molecular beacon DNA probes. The molecular beacon, designed in such a way that its sequence is complementary with the product of the ligation process, is used to monitor the nucleic acid ligation in a homogeneous solution and in real-time. Our method is fast and simple. We are able to study nucleic acids ligation kinetics conveniently and to determine the activity of DNA ligase accurately. We have studied different factors that influence DNA ligation catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase. The major advantages of our method are its ultrasensitivity, excellent specificity, convenience and real-time monitoring in homogeneous solution. This method will be widely useful for studying nucleic acids ligation process and other nucleic acid interactions.

  18. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  19. Application of two real-time toxicity tests to monitor Rocky Flats Plant water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wolaver, H.; Spence, S.; Paton, I.

    1993-01-01

    Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex and fabricated weapon components for the DOE from 1952 to 1989. Like other industrial facilities, RFP is subject to Clean Water Act (CWA) regulations that require surface water discharge monitoring. Unlike most industrial facilities, RFP is also regulated under a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) that requires development of water quality monitoring on a real-time basis. A surface water toxicity monitoring program was initiated in May 1991 to address requirements concerning prevention of toxic effluent discharges. The goal of the program is to determine which methods will provide real-time monitoring, thereby enhancing water management and protection of the aquatic environment downstream. In addition to the traditional whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing required by the FFCA, two other biological instrumentation techniques that may be applicable to real-time monitoring are being implemented. These are the Microtox[trademark] (Microtox[trademark] is a registered trademark of Microbics Corporation, hereinafter referred to as Microtox'') and automated respirometry. Both methods provide frequent sampling compared to WET testing and allow for more timely and frequent water quality measurement.

  20. Application of two real-time toxicity tests to monitor Rocky Flats Plant water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wolaver, H.; Spence, S.; Paton, I.

    1993-05-01

    Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex and fabricated weapon components for the DOE from 1952 to 1989. Like other industrial facilities, RFP is subject to Clean Water Act (CWA) regulations that require surface water discharge monitoring. Unlike most industrial facilities, RFP is also regulated under a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) that requires development of water quality monitoring on a real-time basis. A surface water toxicity monitoring program was initiated in May 1991 to address requirements concerning prevention of toxic effluent discharges. The goal of the program is to determine which methods will provide real-time monitoring, thereby enhancing water management and protection of the aquatic environment downstream. In addition to the traditional whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing required by the FFCA, two other biological instrumentation techniques that may be applicable to real-time monitoring are being implemented. These are the Microtox{trademark} (Microtox{trademark} is a registered trademark of Microbics Corporation, hereinafter referred to as ``Microtox``) and automated respirometry. Both methods provide frequent sampling compared to WET testing and allow for more timely and frequent water quality measurement.

  1. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, P. T.; Forth, A. R.; Clark, R. D. R.; Dowker, K. P.; Thorpe, A.

    2009-02-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  2. Real-time fracture monitoring in Engineered Geothermal Systems with seismic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Jose A. Rial; Jonathan Lees

    2009-03-31

    As proposed, the main effort in this project is the development of software capable of performing real-time monitoring of micro-seismic activity recorded by an array of sensors deployed around an EGS. The main milestones are defined by the development of software to perform the following tasks: • Real-time micro-earthquake detection and location • Real-time detection of shear-wave splitting • Delayed-time inversion of shear-wave splitting These algorithms, which are discussed in detail in this report, make possible the automatic and real-time monitoring of subsurface fracture systems in geothermal fields from data collected by an array of seismic sensors. Shear wave splitting (SWS) is parameterized in terms of the polarization of the fast shear wave and the time delay between the fast and slow shear waves, which are automatically measured and stored. The measured parameters are then combined with previously measured SWS parameters at the same station and used to invert for the orientation (strike and dip) and intensity of cracks under that station. In addition, this grant allowed the collection of seismic data from several geothermal regions in the US (Coso) and Iceland (Hengill) to use in the development and testing of the software.

  3. Real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitor measurements.

    PubMed

    de Pereda, Diego; Romero-Vivo, Sergio; Ricarte, Beatriz; Rossetti, Paolo; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bondia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitors can measure interstitial glucose concentration in real time for closed-loop glucose control systems, known as artificial pancreas. These control systems use an insulin feedback to maintain plasma glucose concentration within a narrow and safe range, and thus to avoid health complications. As it is not possible to measure plasma insulin concentration in real time, insulin models have been used in literature to estimate them. Nevertheless, the significant inter- and intra-patient variability of insulin absorption jeopardizes the accuracy of these estimations. In order to reduce these limitations, our objective is to perform a real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Hovorka's glucose-insulin model has been incorporated in an extended Kalman filter in which different selected time-variant model parameters have been considered as extended states. The observability of the original Hovorka's model and of several extended models has been evaluated by their Lie derivatives. We have evaluated this methodology with an in-silico study with 100 patients with Type 1 diabetes during 25 h. Furthermore, it has been also validated using clinical data from 12 insulin pump patients with Type 1 diabetes who underwent four mixed meal studies. Real-time insulin estimations have been compared to plasma insulin measurements to assess performance showing the validity of the methodology here used in comparison with that formerly used for insulin models. Hence, real-time estimations for plasma insulin concentration based on subcutaneous glucose monitoring can be beneficial for increasing the efficiency of control algorithms for the artificial pancreas. PMID:26343364

  4. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  5. Digital Image Support in the ROADNet Real-time Monitoring Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Newman, R. L.; Vernon, F. L.; Nayak, A.; Foley, S.; Fricke, T.; Orcutt, J.; Rajasekar, A.

    2004-12-01

    The ROADNet real-time monitoring infrastructure has allowed researchers to integrate geophysical monitoring data from a wide variety of signal domains. Antelope-based data transport, relational-database buffering and archiving, backup/replication/archiving through the Storage Resource Broker, and a variety of web-based distribution tools create a powerful monitoring platform. In this work we discuss our use of the ROADNet system for the collection and processing of digital image data. Remote cameras have been deployed at approximately 32 locations as of September 2004, including the SDSU Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, the Imperial Beach pier, and the Pinon Flats geophysical observatory. Fire monitoring imagery has been obtained through a connection to the HPWREN project. Near-real-time images obtained from the R/V Roger Revelle include records of seafloor operations by the JASON submersible, as part of a maintenance mission for the H2O underwater seismic observatory. We discuss acquisition mechanisms and the packet architecture for image transport via Antelope orbservers, including multi-packet support for arbitrarily large images. Relational database storage supports archiving of timestamped images, image-processing operations, grouping of related images and cameras, support for motion-detect triggers, thumbnail images, pre-computed video frames, support for time-lapse movie generation and storage of time-lapse movies. Available ROADNet monitoring tools include both orbserver-based display of incoming real-time images and web-accessible searching and distribution of images and movies driven by the relational database (http://mercali.ucsd.edu/rtapps/rtimbank.php). An extension to the Kepler Scientific Workflow System also allows real-time image display via the Ptolemy project. Custom time-lapse movies may be made from the ROADNet web pages.

  6. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  7. WWW.NMDB.EU: The real-time Neutron Monitor database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, K.-L.; Steigies, C.; Nmdb Team

    2009-04-01

    In January 2007 the Real time database for high-resolution neutron monitor measurements (NMDB) project, which is supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, commenced. One year after the project start we have several neutron monitor stations that are sending their data in real-time to a publicly available prototype database in a common format. We have developed applications that make use of the real-time cosmic ray measurements for example for space weather applications and dose calculations at airplane altitudes. We are also in the process of establishing a public outreach site and a training site with material for university students and researchers and engineers who want to get familiar with cosmic rays and neutron monitor measurements. An overview of the project status as well as instructions on how to use the available data will be given. Operators of other neutron monitor stations are welcome to submit their data to NMDB. Possible future developments will be briefly discussed.

  8. Definition of a near real-time microbiological monitor for application in space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.; Zahorchak, Robert J.; Arendale, William F.; Woodward, Samuel S.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The concepts and methodologies for microbiological monitoring in space are examined, focusing on the determination of the requirements of a near real-time microbiological monitor. Results are presented from the technical evaluation of five microbiological monitor concepts, including cultural methods, single cell detection, biomolecular detection, specific product detection, and general molecular composition. Within these concepts, twenty-eight specific methodolgies were assessed and the five candidate methodologies with the highest engineering and feasibility scores were selected for further evaluations. The candidate methodologies are laser light scattering, primary fluorescence, secondary fluorescence, volatile product detection, and electronic particle detection. The advantages and disadvantages of these five candidate methodologies are discussed.

  9. A NEAR REAL-TIME BERYLLIUM MONITOR WITH CAM AND WIPE ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    D.T. Kendrick; Steven Saggese

    2002-12-01

    Science & Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract No. DE-AC26-00NT40768, was tasked by the US Department of Energy--National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop and test a near real-time beryllium monitor for airborne and surface measurements. Recent public awareness of the health risks associated with exposure to beryllium has underscored the need for better, faster beryllium monitoring capabilities within the DOE. A near real-time beryllium monitor will offer significant improvements over the baseline monitoring technology currently in use. Whereas the baseline technology relies upon collecting an air sample on a filter and the subsequent analysis of the filter by an analytical laboratory, this effort developed a monitor that offers near real-time measurement results while work is in progress. Since the baseline typically only offers after-the-fact documentation of exposure levels, the near real-time capability provides a significant increase in worker protection. The beryllium monitor developed utilizes laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, or LIBS as the fundamental measurement technology. LIBS has been used in a variety of laboratory and field based instrumentation to provide real-time, and near-real-time elemental analysis capabilities. LIBS is an analytical technique where a pulsed high energy laser beam is focused to a point on the sample to be interrogated. The high energy density produces a small high temperature plasma plume, sometimes called a spark. The conditions within this plasma plume result in the constituent atoms becoming excited and emitting their characteristic optical emissions. The emission light is collected and routed to an optical spectrometer for quantitative spectral analysis. Each element has optical emissions, or lines, of a specific wavelength that can be used to uniquely identify that element. In this application, the intensity of the beryllium emission is used to provide a quantitative measure of the abundance of the

  10. Monitoring Intracellular Oxygen Concentration: Implications for Hypoxia Studies and Real-Time Oxygen Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Potter, Michelle; Badder, Luned; Hoade, Yvette; Johnston, Iain G; Morten, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic properties of cancer cells have been widely accepted as a hallmark of cancer for a number of years and have shown to be of critical importance in tumour development. It is generally accepted that tumour cells exhibit a more glycolytic phenotype than normal cells. In this study, we investigate the bioenergetic phenotype of two widely used cancer cell lines, RD and U87MG, by monitoring intracellular oxygen concentrations using phosphorescent Pt-porphyrin based intracellular probes. Our study demonstrates that cancer cell lines do not always exhibit an exclusively glycolytic phenotype. RD demonstrates a reliance on oxidative phosphorylation whilst U87MG display a more glycolytic phenotype. Using the intracellular oxygen sensing probe we generate an immediate readout of intracellular oxygen levels, with the glycolytic lines reflecting the oxygen concentration of the environment, and cells with an oxidative phenotype having significantly lower levels of intracellular oxygen. Inhibition of oxygen consumption in lines with high oxygen consumption increases intracellular oxygen levels towards environmental levels. We conclude that the use of intracellular oxygen probes provides a quantitative assessment of intracellular oxygen levels, allowing the manipulation of cellular bioenergetics to be studied in real time.

  11. Coordinator Traffic Diffusion for Data-Intensive Zigbee Transmission in Real-time Electrocardiography Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chinyang Henry

    2013-12-01

    Zigbee is expected to have an explosive growth in wireless medical monitoring systems because it possesses the advantages of low cost, safe power strength, and easy deployment. However, limited work focuses on solving the bottleneck issue at the Zigbee coordinator in a data-intensive system to guarantee transmission reliability of life-critical data. This paper proposes coordinator traffic diffusion (CTD) method to redirect excessive traffic from coordinator to the sink in electrocardiography (ECG) medical application. CTD router, which implements CTD design, automatically redirects ECG data traffic to the sink node without involving the coordinator, and thus reliable real-time ECG monitoring service can be delivered precisely. CTD design is tested in both TI CC2530 Zigbee platform and NS2 simulation. Experimental result demonstrates that a CTD design can assist routers in successfully delivering real-time ECG data samples reliably with the best transmission rate, 24 kb/s. This performance cannot be achieved by the original Zigbee design.

  12. Industrial use of the real time monitor for quality assurance in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, D. R.; Nablo, S. V.; Weiss, D. E.; Sinz, T. E.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of a three channel real time radiation monitor, installed on a 250 kV×0.3 m electron sterilizer used for controlled depth of sterilization of medical devices, is reported. The bremsstrahlung generated at the window plane is monitored with good spatial resolution at three locations across the beam, and provides information on the electron current density (dose rate) and the electron energy. Software has been developed for analysis and display of these data in real time so that the dose received by the product, and the energy at which it was treated can be displayed and recorded. The several geometries used for bremsstrahlung detection are discussed, and some calculated low energy distributions are shown. Typical data are presented from an eleven channel unit mounted on a 250 kV×1.6 m processor illustrating its use for process quality assurance. The use of Monitorad® for overall closed-loop processor control is reviewed.

  13. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  14. Method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiotherapy beams

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James; Macey, Daniel J.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2011-11-01

    A method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiation therapy beams is designed to preferentially distinguish and image low energy radiation from high energy secondary radiation emitted from a target as the result of therapeutic beam deposition. A detector having low sensitivity to high energy photons combined with a collimator designed to dynamically image in the region of the therapeutic beam target is used.

  15. Real time monitoring of superparamagnetic nanoparticle self-assembly on surfaces of magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Crawford, T. M.; Qi, B.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.

    2014-05-07

    Nanoparticle self-assembly dynamics are monitored in real-time by detecting optical diffraction from an all-nanoparticle grating as it self-assembles on a grating pattern recorded on a magnetic medium. The diffraction efficiency strongly depends on concentration, pH, and colloidal stability of nanoparticle suspensions, demonstrating the nanoparticle self-assembly process is highly tunable. This metrology could provide an alternative for detecting nanoparticle properties such as colloidal stability.

  16. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control.

  17. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control. PMID:25996514

  18. Air-dropped sensor network for real-time high-fidelity volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Ma, A.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and deployment experience of an air-dropped wireless sensor network for volcano hazard monitoring. The deployment of five stations into the rugged crater of Mount St. Helens only took one hour with a helicopter. The stations communicate with each other through an amplified 802.15.4 radio and establish a self-forming and self-healing multi-hop wireless network. The distance between stations is up to 2 km. Each sensor station collects and delivers real-time continuous seismic, infrasonic, lightning, GPS raw data to a gateway. The main contribution of this paper is the design and evaluation of a robust sensor network to replace data loggers and provide real-time long-term volcano monitoring. The system supports UTC-time synchronized data acquisition with 1ms accuracy, and is online configurable. It has been tested in the lab environment, the outdoor campus and the volcano crater. Despite the heavy rain, snow, and ice as well as gusts exceeding 120 miles per hour, the sensor network has achieved a remarkable packet delivery ratio above 99% with an overall system uptime of about 93.8% over the 1.5 months evaluation period after deployment. Our initial deployment experiences with the system have alleviated the doubts of domain scientists and prove to them that a low-cost sensor network system can support real-time monitoring in extremely harsh environments. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  19. Real-time capability of GEONET system and its application to crust monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagiwa, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Yutsudo, Toru; Miyahara, Basara

    2006-03-01

    The GPS Earth Observation Network system (GEONET) has been playing an important role in monitoring the crustal deformation of Japan. Since its start of operation, the requirements for accuracy and timeliness have become higher and higher. On the other hand, recent broadband communication infrastructure has had capability to realize real-time crust monitoring and to aid the development of a location-based service. In early 2003, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) upgraded the GEONET system to meet new requirements. The number of stations became 1200 in total by March, 2003. The antennas were unified to the choke ring antennas of Dorne Margolin T-type and the receivers were replaced with new ones that are capable of real-time observation and data transfer. The new system uses IP-connection through IP-VPN (Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network) for data transfer, which is provided by communication companies. The Data Processing System, which manages the observation data and analyses in GEONET, has 7 units. GEONET carries out three kinds of routine analyses and an analysis of RTK-type for emergencies. The new system has shown its capability for real-time crust monitoring, for example, the precise and rapid detection of coseismic (and post-seismic) motion caused by 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake.

  20. Optoacoustic monitoring of real-time lesion formation during radiofrequency catheter ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Genny A.; Bay, Erwin; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Current radiofrequency cardiac ablation procedures lack real-time lesion monitoring guidance, limiting the reliability and efficacy of the treatment. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that optoacoustic imaging can be applied to develop a diagnostic technique applicable to radiofrequency ablation for cardiac arrhythmia treatment with the capabilities of real-time monitoring of ablated lesion size and geometry. We demonstrate an optoacoustic imaging method using a 256-detector optoacoustic imaging probe and pulsed-laser illumination in the infrared wavelength range that is applied during radiofrequency ablation in excised porcine myocardial tissue samples. This technique results in images with high contrast between the lesion volume and unablated tissue, and is also capable of capturing time-resolved image sequences that provide information on the lesion development process. The size and geometry of the imaged lesion were shown to be in excellent agreement with the histological examinations. This study demonstrates the first deep-lesion real-time monitoring for radiofrequency ablation generated lesions, and the technique presented here has the potential for providing critical feedback that can significantly impact the outcome of clinical radiofrequency ablation procedures.

  1. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Schlahta, St.

    2008-07-01

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  2. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schlahta, Stephan N.

    2008-05-27

    ABSTRACT A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  3. Real-time monitoring of a salt solution mining cavern: view from microseismic and levelling monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contrucci, Isabelle; Cao, Ngoc-Tuyen; Klein, Emmanuelle; Daupley, Xavier; Bigarre, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    In 2004, in order to better understand processes involved in large-scale mine collapse, an instrumentation was settled in the surrounding of a salt cavern located at a depth of 180 m in NE France. The cavern was mined by solution mining until the large-scale ground failure occurred. A high resolution multi-parameter monitoring system was deployed in the framework of the GISOS (Scientific Interest Group on the Impact and Safety of Underground Structures formed by INERIS, BRGM, INPL and ENSG). Instrumentation, installed by INERIS, consisted of a microseismic network, coupled to automatic-measurement system for levelling (Tacheometer and RTK GPS). Quasi real time transmission of the data to INERIS, at Nancy, enabled rock mass activity of the site to be monitored on a few hours basis. Also, the various recorded observations, in the beginning of spring 2008, led the operator to cause the collapse in February 2009. This was done by intensive extraction of the brine contained in the cavern, which was considered to be at limit equilibrium. On the second day of pumping sudden increase in microseismic activity indicated the start of collapse, followed by manifestation of a surface crater about 35 hours later. All the data and information collected during this experiment are now being processed and back-analysed aimed at ensuring high quality of interpretation. In particular, the space-time distribution of the failures and the evolution of the waveforms enlighten the changing conditions in the geological overburden. When correlated with the measurements of the movement and the known geology, the microseismic data enable a precise description of the failure mechanism(s), and especially of the complex and major role of the overlying bedrock. Similarly, feedback from this experience should lead to practical recommendations concerning collapse phenomena monitoring in such a mining context. While the preliminary results already indicate the exceptional quality of this data set

  4. Real time observation system for monitoring environmental impact on marine ecosystems from oil drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Godø, Olav Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Meier, Sonnich; Tenningen, Eirik; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2014-07-15

    Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and transmitted to land via wireless communication. The system collected information about distribution of the drilling wastes and the welfare of the corals in relation to threshold values. The project experienced a series of failures, but the backup monitoring provided information to fulfil the requirements of the permit. The experience demonstrated the need for real time monitoring and how such systems enhance understanding of impacts on marine organisms. Also, drilling operations may improve by taking environmental information into account. The paper proposes to standardize and streamline monitoring protocols to maintain comparability during all phases of the operation and between drill sites.

  5. Real time observation system for monitoring environmental impact on marine ecosystems from oil drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Godø, Olav Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Meier, Sonnich; Tenningen, Eirik; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2014-07-15

    Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and transmitted to land via wireless communication. The system collected information about distribution of the drilling wastes and the welfare of the corals in relation to threshold values. The project experienced a series of failures, but the backup monitoring provided information to fulfil the requirements of the permit. The experience demonstrated the need for real time monitoring and how such systems enhance understanding of impacts on marine organisms. Also, drilling operations may improve by taking environmental information into account. The paper proposes to standardize and streamline monitoring protocols to maintain comparability during all phases of the operation and between drill sites. PMID:24908516

  6. Real time air monitoring of hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas during a chemical fire.

    PubMed

    Karellas, N S; Chen, Q F; De Brou, G B; Milburn, R K

    2003-08-15

    On 9 August 2000 a fire started at a facility that manufactures pool chemicals in Guelph, Ontario. A mobile trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA) unit was summoned to provide on-site air monitoring operated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (OMOE). The responsibility of the TAGA unit was to monitor in real time the airborne contaminants released through the combustion of pool chemicals. This was accomplished by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source with the newest TAGA (model IIe): a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer which allows for the direct sampling and real time analysis of air for a wide range of toxics at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. The ionization mechanism under negative APCI conditions is dominated by charge transfer reactions, yielding parent ions which are selected in Q1, dissociated in Q2 and the resultant daughter ions are identified in Q3. By monitoring specific parent/daughter (P/D) ion pairs, the TAGA IIe was able to simultaneously measure, in real time, levels of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine (Cl2) present in the air. The response of the TAGA IIe was characterized by multi-point calibration curves which were linear up to 250 microg/m3 for HCl and up to 600 microg/m3 for Cl2. The average detection limit (DL) for this application was 0.50 microg/m3 for both HCl and Cl2. On-site measurements of HCl and Cl2 were made at several locations upwind and downwind of the fire site over a period of 3 days. The data collected by the TAGA unit was used by the local officials for a real time assessment of the airborne levels of HCl and Cl2.

  7. Design and characterization of an irradiation facility with real-time monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braisted, Jonathan David

    Radiation causes performance degradation in electronics by inducing atomic displacements and ionizations. While radiation hardened components are available, non-radiation hardened electronics can be preferable because they are generally more compact, require less power, and less expensive than radiation tolerant equivalents. It is therefore important to characterize the performance of electronics, both hardened and non-hardened, to prevent costly system or mission failures. Radiation effects tests for electronics generally involve a handful of step irradiations, leading to poorly-resolved data. Step irradiations also introduce uncertainties in electrical measurements due to temperature annealing effects. This effect may be intensified if the time between exposure and measurement is significant. Induced activity in test samples also complicates data collection of step irradiated test samples. The University of Texas at Austin operates a 1.1 MW Mark II TRIGA research reactor. An in-core irradiation facility for radiation effects testing with a real-time monitoring capability has been designed for the UT TRIGA reactor. The facility is larger than any currently available non-central location in a TRIGA, supporting testing of larger electronic components as well as other in-core irradiation applications requiring significant volume such as isotope production or neutron transmutation doping of silicon. This dissertation describes the design and testing of the large in-core irradiation facility and the experimental campaign developed to test the real-time monitoring capability. This irradiation campaign was performed to test the real-time monitoring capability at various reactor power levels. The device chosen for characterization was the 4N25 general-purpose optocoupler. The current transfer ratio, which is an important electrical parameter for optocouplers, was calculated as a function of neutron fluence and gamma dose from the real-time voltage measurements. The

  8. Performance results of cooperating expert systems in a distributed real-time monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, U. M.; Veregge, J. R.; Quan, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous definitions for real-time systems, the most stringent of which involve guaranteeing correct system response within a domain-dependent or situationally defined period of time. For applications such as diagnosis, in which the time required to produce a solution can be non-deterministic, this requirement poses a unique set of challenges in dynamic modification of solution strategy that conforms with maximum possible latencies. However, another definition of real time is relevant in the case of monitoring systems where failure to supply a response in the proper (and often infinitesimal) amount of time allowed does not make the solution less useful (or, in the extreme example of a monitoring system responsible for detecting and deflecting enemy missiles, completely irrelevant). This more casual definition involves responding to data at the same rate at which it is produced, and is more appropriate for monitoring applications with softer real-time constraints, such as interplanetary exploration, which results in massive quantities of data transmitted at the speed of light for a number of hours before it even reaches the monitoring system. The latter definition of real time has been applied to the MARVEL system for automated monitoring and diagnosis of spacecraft telemetry. An early version of this system has been in continuous operational use since it was first deployed in 1989 for the Voyager encounter with Neptune. This system remained under incremental development until 1991 and has been under routine maintenance in operations since then, while continuing to serve as an artificial intelligence (AI) testbed in the laboratory. The system architecture has been designed to facilitate concurrent and cooperative processing by multiple diagnostic expert systems in a hierarchical organization. The diagnostic modules adhere to concepts of data-driven reasoning, constrained but complete nonoverlapping domains, metaknowledge of global consequences of anomalous

  9. Remote humidity and temperature real time monitoring system for studying seed biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Thiruparan

    This thesis discusses the design, prototyping, and testing of a remote monitoring system that is used to study the biology of seeds under various controlled conditions. Seed scientists use air-tight boxes to maintain relative humidity, which influences seed longevity and seed dormancy break. The common practice is the use of super-saturated solutions either with different chemicals or different concentrations of LiCl to create various relative humidity. Theretofore, no known system has been developed to remotely monitor the environmental conditions inside these boxes in real time. This thesis discusses the development of a remote monitoring system that can be used to accurately monitor and measure the relative humidity and temperature inside sealed boxes for the study of seed biology. The system allows the remote and real-time monitoring of these two parameters in five boxes with different conditions. It functions as a client that is connected to the internet using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) technology while Google spreadsheet is used as the server for uploading and plotting the data. This system directly gets connected to the Google sever through Wi-Fi and uploads the sensors' values in a Google spread sheet. Application-specific software is created and the user can monitor the data in real time and/or download the data into Excel for further analyses. Using Google drive app the data can be viewed using a smart phone or a tablet. Furthermore, an electronic mail (e-mail) alert is also integrated into the system. Whenever measured values go beyond the threshold values, the user will receive an e-mail alert.

  10. A real-time beam-profile monitor for a PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehr, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Verzilov, V.; English, W.; Buckley, K.; Gray, D.; Kellog, S.; Cameron, D.; Schaffer, P.

    2012-12-01

    Beam profiles in medical cyclotrons are traditionally measured using techniques that do not provide any information about short-term fluctuations of the beam shape or beam intensity. To overcome this, we have developed a real-time harp beam profile monitor which can withstand beam power in excess of 300 W. The monitor and electronics were constructed and applied toward a 13 MeV proton beam with current of up to 25 μA. Herein are reported preliminary beam-profile measurement results.

  11. Real-time expert system diagnostics and monitoring for the High Resolution Microwave Survey Targeted Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macalou, A.; Glass, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    An automated monitoring and diagnostics system (MDS) using virtual real-time software was developed for NASA's High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Targeted Search System (TSS). The four main tasks required of the MDS were monitoring and recording system health, alerting operators of problems, diagnosing poor system performance, and performing an emergency system shutdown. The MDS was implemented using commercial expert system software tools in addition to interface hardware and software developed on site. The expert system used objects, rules, and schematics in its TSS knowledge representation. The MDS was successfully integrated into the HRMS computer environment, and its performance met or exceeded its requirements.

  12. SLODAR turbulence monitors for real-time support of astronomical adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Richard; Butterley, Timothy; Sarazin, Marc; Lombardi, Gianluca; Chun, Mark; Benigni, Samuel; Weir, Donald; Avila, Remy; Aviles, Jose-Luis

    2008-07-01

    We describe the current status of the SLODAR optical turbulence monitors, developed at Durham University, for support of adaptive optics for astronomy. SLODAR systems have been installed and operated at the Cerro Paranal and Mauna Kea observatories, and a third will be deployed at the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2008. The instruments provide real-time measurements of the atmospheric turbulence strength, altitude and velocity. We summarize the capabilities of the systems and describe recent enhancements. Comparisons of contemporaneous data obtained with SLODAR, MASS and DIMM monitors at the ESO Paranal site are presented.

  13. A real-time beam-profile monitor for a PET cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehr, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Verzilov, V.; English, W.; Buckley, K.; Gray, D.; Kellog, S.; Cameron, D.; Schaffer, P.

    2012-12-19

    Beam profiles in medical cyclotrons are traditionally measured using techniques that do not provide any information about short-term fluctuations of the beam shape or beam intensity. To overcome this, we have developed a real-time harp beam profile monitor which can withstand beam power in excess of 300 W. The monitor and electronics were constructed and applied toward a 13 MeV proton beam with current of up to 25 {mu}A. Herein are reported preliminary beam-profile measurement results.

  14. Real-time robot deliberation by compilation and monitoring of anytime algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilberstein, Shlomo

    1994-01-01

    Anytime algorithms are algorithms whose quality of results improves gradually as computation time increases. Certainty, accuracy, and specificity are metrics useful in anytime algorighm construction. It is widely accepted that a successful robotic system must trade off between decision quality and the computational resources used to produce it. Anytime algorithms were designed to offer such a trade off. A model of compilation and monitoring mechanisms needed to build robots that can efficiently control their deliberation time is presented. This approach simplifies the design and implementation of complex intelligent robots, mechanizes the composition and monitoring processes, and provides independent real time robotic systems that automatically adjust resource allocation to yield optimum performance.

  15. Combining real-time monitoring and knowledge-based analysis in MARVEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Quan, A. G.; Angelino, R.; Veregge, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Real-time artificial intelligence is gaining increasing attention for applications in which conventional software methods are unable to meet technology needs. One such application area is the monitoring and analysis of complex systems. MARVEL, a distributed monitoring and analysis tool with multiple expert systems, was developed and successfully applied to the automation of interplanetary spacecraft operations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. MARVEL implementation and verification approaches, the MARVEL architecture, and the specific benefits that were realized by using MARVEL in operations are described.

  16. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  17. The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data.

  18. Rainfall estimation for real time flood monitoring using geostationary meteorological satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerakachen, Watcharee; Raksapatcharawong, Mongkol

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall estimation by geostationary meteorological satellite data provides good spatial and temporal resolutions. This is advantageous for real time flood monitoring and warning systems. However, a rainfall estimation algorithm developed in one region needs to be adjusted for another climatic region. This work proposes computationally-efficient rainfall estimation algorithms based on an Infrared Threshold Rainfall (ITR) method calibrated with regional ground truth. Hourly rain gauge data collected from 70 stations around the Chao-Phraya river basin were used for calibration and validation of the algorithms. The algorithm inputs were derived from FY-2E satellite observations consisting of infrared and water vapor imagery. The results were compared with the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) near real time product (GSMaP_NRT) using the probability of detection (POD), root mean square error (RMSE) and linear correlation coefficient (CC) as performance indices. Comparison with the GSMaP_NRT product for real time monitoring purpose shows that hourly rain estimates from the proposed algorithm with the error adjustment technique (ITR_EA) offers higher POD and approximately the same RMSE and CC with less data latency.

  19. Quantitative real-time monitoring of dryer effluent using fiber optic near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Harris, S C; Walker, D S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time quantitation of the solvents evaporating from a dryer. The vapor stream in the vacuum line of a dryer was monitored in real time using a fiber optic-coupled acousto-optic tunable filter near-infrared (AOTF-NIR) spectrometer. A balance was placed in the dryer, and mass readings were recorded for every scan of the AOTF-NIR. A partial least-squares (PLS) calibration was subsequently built based on change in mass over change in time for solvents typically used in a chemical manufacturing plant. Controlling software for the AOTF-NIR was developed. The software collects spectra, builds the PLS calibration model, and continuously fits subsequently collected spectra to the calibration, allowing the operator to follow the mass loss of solvent from the dryer. The results indicate that solvent loss can be monitored and quantitated in real time using NIR for the optimization of drying times. These time-based mass loss values have also been used to calculate "dynamic" vapor density values for the solvents. The values calculated are in agreement with values determined from the ideal gas law and could prove valuable as tools to measure temperature or pressure indirectly. PMID:10944383

  20. Monitoring HCV RNA viral load by locked nucleic acid molecular beacons real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Luca; Ferrari, Daniela; Lombardo, Claudia; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2007-03-01

    Locked nucleic acids (LNA) based real time PCR was used in particular situations where there are difficulties in primer design due to sequence complexity. In this study a new real time RT-PCR assay was developed using LNA modified primers and LNA molecular beacon probes to monitor hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load in plasma and serum samples. The technique did not suffer from an heterogeneity of the HCV genome and, in addition, an internal RNA control was amplified in the same reaction tube with different short primers and beacon probe. Due to the short consensus LNA primers length, the PCR efficiency was close to 100% with no formation of hairpin loop structures. In summary a new LNA molecular beacon based real time RT-PCR assay was used successfully to measure quantitatively the total level of HCV RNA in both experimental and clinical specimens. The high sensitivity (50 IU/ml), the wide range of genotype detection, increased specificity and robustness obtained with this test are particularly useful for screening large number of specimens and measuring viral loads to monitor the progress of the disease.

  1. System Developed for Real-Time Blade-Flutter Monitoring in the Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Radzikowski, mark; Strukov, Dmitri

    2005-01-01

    A real-time system has been developed to monitor flutter vibrations in turbomachinery. The system is designed for continuous processing of blade tip timing data at a rate of 10 MB/sec. A USB 2.0 interface provides uninterrupted real-time processing of the data, and the blade-tip arrival times are measured with a 50-MHz oscillator and a 24-bit pipelined architecture counter. The input stage includes a glitch catcher, which reduces the probability of detecting a ghost blade to negligible levels. A graphical user interface provides online interrogation of any blade tip from any light probe sensor. Alternatively, data from all blades and all sensors can be superimposed into a single composite scatter plot displaying the vibration amplitude of each blade.

  2. A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

    1993-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  3. Advanced Engine Health Management Applications of the SSME Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorucci, Tony R.; Lakin, David R., II; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is a 32-channel high speed vibration data acquisition and processing system developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It Delivers sample rates as high as 51,200 samples/second per channel and performs Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing via on-board digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a real-time format. Advanced engine health assessment is achieved by utilizing the vibration spectra to provide accurate sensor validation and enhanced engine vibration redlines. Discrete spectral signatures (such as synchronous) that are indicators of imminent failure can be assessed and utilized to mitigate catastrophic engine failures- a first in rocket engine health assessment. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  4. A knowledge-based flight status monitor for real-time application in digital avionics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Disbrow, J. D.; Butler, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) is the principal NASA facility for the flight testing and evaluation of new and complex avionics systems. To aid in the interpretation of system health and status data, a knowledge-based flight status monitor was designed. The monitor was designed to use fault indicators from the onboard system which are telemetered to the ground and processed by a rule-based model of the aircraft failure management system to give timely advice and recommendations in the mission control room. One of the important constraints on the flight status monitor is the need to operate in real time, and to pursue this aspect, a joint research activity between NASA Ames-Dryden and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on real-time knowledge-based systems was established. Under this agreement, the original LISP knowledge base for the flight status monitor was reimplemented using the intelligent knowledge-based system toolkit, MUSE, which was developed under RAE sponsorship. Details of the flight status monitor and the MUSE implementation are presented.

  5. QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

  6. Comprehensive seismic monitoring of the Cascadia megathrust with real-time GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.; Webb, F.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a comprehensive real-time GPS-based seismic monitoring system for the Cascadia subduction zone based on 1- and 5-second point position estimates computed within the ITRF08 reference frame. A Kalman filter stream editor that uses a geometry-free combination of phase and range observables to speed convergence while also producing independent estimation of carrier phase biases and ionosphere delay pre-cleans raw satellite measurements. These are then analyzed with GIPSY-OASIS using satellite clock and orbit corrections streamed continuously from the International GNSS Service (IGS) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The resulting RMS position scatter is less than 3 cm, and typical latencies are under 2 seconds. Currently 31 coastal Washington, Oregon, and northern California stations from the combined PANGA and PBO networks are analyzed. We are now ramping up to include all of the remaining 400+ stations currently operating throughout the Cascadia subduction zone, all of which are high-rate and telemetered in real-time to CWU. These receivers span the M9 megathrust, M7 crustal faults beneath population centers, several active Cascades volcanoes, and a host of other hazard sources. To use the point position streams for seismic monitoring, we have developed an inter-process client communication package that captures, buffers and re-broadcasts real-time positions and covariances to a variety of seismic estimation routines running on distributed hardware. An aggregator ingests, re-streams and can rebroadcast up to 24 hours of point-positions and resultant seismic estimates derived from the point positions to application clients distributed across web. A suite of seismic monitoring applications has also been written, which includes position time series analysis, instantaneous displacement vectors, and peak ground displacement contouring and mapping. We have also implemented a continuous estimation of finite-fault slip along the Cascadia megathrust

  7. A Low-Cost, Real-Time Network for Radiological Monitoring Around Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N A

    2004-08-13

    A low-cost, real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response has been developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the site perimeter to continuously monitor radiological conditions as part of LLNL's comprehensive environment/safety/health protection program. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These low-power sensors transmit measurement data back to a central command center (CCC) computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio- and computer- based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. This system provides a low-cost real-time radiation monitoring solution that is easily converted to incorporate both a hard-wired interior perimeter with strategically positioned wireless secondary and tertiary concentric remote locations. These wireless stations would be configured with solar voltaic panels that provide current to recharge batteries and power the sensors and radio transceivers. These platforms would supply data transmission at a range of up to 95 km from a single transceiver location. As necessary, using radio transceivers in repeater mode can extend the transmission range. The RTRAM network as it is presently configured at LLNL has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions. With the proposed

  8. A real-time applicator position monitoring system for gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Waldron, Timothy; Kim, Yusung

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a real-time applicator position monitoring system (RAPS) for intracavitary brachytherapy using an infrared camera and reflective markers. Methods: 3D image-guided brachytherapy requires high accuracy of applicator localization; however, applicator displacement can happen during patient transfer for imaging and treatment delivery. No continuous applicator position monitoring system is currently available. The RAPS system was developed for real-time applicator position monitoring without additional radiation dose to patients. It includes an infrared camera, reflective markers, an infrared illuminator, and image processing software. After reflective markers are firmly attached to the applicator and the patient body, applicator displacement can be measured by computing the relative change in distance between the markers. The reflective markers are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible, which is suitable for MRI-guided HDR brachytherapy paradigm. In our prototype, a Microsoft Kinect sensor with a resolution of 640 by 480 pixels is used as an infrared camera. A phantom study was carried out to compare RAPS' measurements with known displacements ranging from −15 to +15 mm. A reproducibility test was also conducted. Results: The RAPS can achieve 4 frames/s using a laptop with Intel{sup ®} Core™2 Duo processor. When the pixel size is 0.95 mm, the difference between RAPS' measurements and known shift values varied from 0 to 0.8 mm with the mean value of 0.1 mm and a standard deviation of 0.44 mm. The system reproducibility was within 0.6 mm after ten reposition trials. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the feasibility of a real-time infrared camera based gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy applicator monitoring system. Less than 1 mm accuracy is achieved when using an off-the-shelf infrared camera.

  9. LESSONS-LEARNED AND SUCCESS STORIES FROM EPA'S REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING, DATA DELIVERY, AND PUBLIC OUTREACH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    TTSD has completed a series of technology transfer and risk communication handbooks, case studies, and summary reports for community-based environmental monitoring projects under EPA's Real-Time Environmental Monitoring, Data Delivery, and Public Outreach Program. The Program tak...

  10. Real-time monitoring of CO2 storage sites: Application to Illinois Basin-Decatur Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picard, G.; Berard, T.; Chabora, E.; Marsteller, S.; Greenberg, S.; Finley, R.J.; Rinck, U.; Greenaway, R.; Champagnon, C.; Davard, J.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage operations for efficiency and safety requires use of monitoring techniques and implementation of control protocols. The monitoring techniques consist of permanent sensors and tools deployed for measurement campaigns. Large amounts of data are thus generated. These data must be managed and integrated for interpretation at different time scales. A fast interpretation loop involves combining continuous measurements from permanent sensors as they are collected to enable a rapid response to detected events; a slower loop requires combining large datasets gathered over longer operational periods from all techniques. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it presents an analysis of the monitoring objectives to be performed in the slow and fast interpretation loops. Second, it describes the implementation of the fast interpretation loop with a real-time monitoring system at the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) in Illinois, USA. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Control charts for accident frequency: a motivation for real-time occupational safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Anna; Camelio, Jaime A; Woodall, William H

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantitatively motivates the need for active monitoring of occupational safety incident data through the use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. The frequency of incidents within a subset of historical accident data is analysed. The performance of Poisson CUSUM and exponential CUSUM (time-between-events) charts is compared in an illustrative example to show that shorter periods of aggregation and time-between-events monitoring lead to more timely indications of increased accident frequency. An extension showing the anticipated performance of these charts with real-time data is given. Various adjustments to the monitoring system are also simulated to show that quick implementation of hazard controls can significantly impact safety performance. Decreases in the frequency of safety incidents as a result of implemented hazard controls can also be monitored.

  12. WWW.NMDB.EU: The real-time Neutron Monitor database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Steigies, Christian T.; NMDB Consortium

    2010-05-01

    The Real time database for high-resolution neutron monitor measurements (NMDB), which was supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, hosts data on cosmic rays in the GeV range from European and some non-European neutron monitor stations. It offers a variety of applications ranging from the representation and retrieval of cosmic ray data over solar energetic particle alerts to the calculation of ionisation doses in the atmosphere and radiation dose rates at aircraft altitudes. Furthermore the web site comprises public outreach pages in several languages and offers training material on cosmic rays for university students and researchers and engineers who want to get familiar with cosmic rays and neutron monitor measurements. This contribution presents an overview of the provided services and indications on how to access the database. Operators of other neutron monitor stations are welcome to submit their data to NMDB.

  13. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    George L. Scott III

    2005-01-01

    Finalized Phase 2-3 project work has field-proven two separate real-time reservoir processes that were co-developed via funding by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Both technologies are presently patented in the United States and select foreign markets; a downhole-commingled reservoir stimulation procedure and a real-time tracer-logged fracturing diagnostic system. Phase 2 and early Phase 3 project work included the research, development and well testing of a U.S. patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This stimulation logging process was successfully field-demonstrated; real-time tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing was accomplished and proven technically possible. However, after the initial well tests, there were several licensing issues that developed between service providers that restricted and minimized Realtimezone's (RTZ) ability to field-test the real-time gamma diagnostic system as was originally outlined for this project. Said restrictions were encountered after when one major provider agreed to license their gamma logging tools to another. Both of these companies previously promised contributory support toward Realtimezone's DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work, however, actual support was less than desired when newly-licensed wireline gamma logging tools from one company were converted by the other from electric wireline into slickline, batter-powered ''memory'' tools for post-stimulation logging purposes. Unfortunately, the converted post-fracture measurement memory tools have no applications in experimentally monitoring real-time movement of tracers in the reservoir concurrent with the fracturing treatment. RTZ subsequently worked with other tracer gamma-logging tool companies for basic gamma logging services, but with lessened results due to lack of multiple-isotope detection capability. In addition to real-time logging system development and well testing, final Phase 2 and Phase 3 project work included the

  14. Real time remote monitoring and pre-warning system for Highway landslide in mountain area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghui; Li, Hongxu; Sheng, Qian; Wu, Kai; Chen, Guoliang

    2011-06-01

    The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter with precision of 1 mm and the grid pluviometer with precision of 0.1 mm are used to monitor the surface displacement and rainfall for Highway slope, and the measured data are transferred to the remote computer in real time by general packet radio service (GPRS) net of China telecom. The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter, grid pluviometer, data acquisition and transmission unit, and solar power supply device are integrated to form a comprehensive monitoring hardware system for Highway landslide in mountain area, which proven to be economical, energy-saving, automatic and high efficient. Meantime, based on the map and geographic information system (MAPGIS) platform, the software system is also developed for three dimensional (3D) geology modeling and visualization, data inquiring and drawing, stability calculation, displacement forecasting, and real time pre-warning. Moreover, the pre-warning methods based on monitoring displacement and rainfall are discussed. The monitoring and forecasting system for Highway landslide has been successfully applied in engineering practice to provide security for Highway transportation and construction and reduce environment disruption.

  15. Real Time Monitoring of Containerless Microreactions in Acoustically Levitated Droplets via Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Elizabeth A; Esen, Cemal; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2016-09-01

    Direct in-droplet (in stillo) microreaction monitoring using acoustically levitated micro droplets has been achieved by combining acoustic (ultrasonic) levitation for the first time with real time ambient tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acoustic levitation and inherent mixing of microliter volumes of reactants (3 μL droplets), yielding total reaction volumes of 6 μL, supported monitoring the acid-catalyzed degradation reaction of erythromycin A. This reaction was chosen to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of directly monitoring in stillo microreactions via hyphenated acoustic levitation and ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The microreactions took place completely in stillo over 30, 60, and 120 s within the containerless stable central pressure node of an acoustic levitator, thus readily promoting reaction miniaturization. For the evaluation of the miniaturized in stillo reactions, the degradation reactions were also carried out in vials (in vitro) with a total reaction volume of 400 μL. The reacted in vitro mixtures (6 μL total) were similarly introduced into the acoustic levitator prior to ambient ionization MS/MS analysis. The in stillo miniaturized reactions provided immediate real-time snap-shots of the degradation process for more accurate reaction monitoring and used a fraction of the reactants, while the larger scale in vitro reactions only yielded general reaction information. PMID:27505037

  16. WWW.NMDB.EU: The real-time Neutron Monitor databas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Steigies, Christian; Steigies, Christian T.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Kudela, Karel; Strharsky, Igor; Langer, Ronald; Usoskin, Ilya; Ibragimov, Askar; Flückiger, Erwin O.; Bütikofer, Rolf; Eroshenko, Eugenia; Belov, Anatoly; Yanke, Victor; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Fuller, Nicolas; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Papaioannou, Athana-Sios; Sarlanis, Christos; Souvatzoglou, George; Plainaki, Christina; Geron-Tidou, Maria; Papailiou, Maria-Christina; Mariatos, George; Chilingaryan, Ashot; Hovsepyan, G.; Reymers, Artur; Parisi, Mario; Kryakunova, Olga; Tsepakina, Irina; Nikolayevskiy, Nikolay; Dor-Man, Lev; Pustil'Nik, Lev; García-Población, Oscar

    The Real time database for high-resolution neutron monitor measurements(NMDB), which was supported by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission, hosts data on cosmic rays in the GeV range from European and some non-European neutron monitor stations. Besides real-time data and historical data over several decades in a unified format, it offers data products such as galactic cosmic ray spectra and applications including solar energetic particle alerts and the calculation of ionisation rates in the atmosphere and effective radiation dose rates at aircraft altitudes. Furthermore the web site comprises public outreach pages in several languages and offers training material on cosmic rays for university students and researchers and engineers who want to become familiar with cosmic rays and neutron monitor measurements. This contribution presents an overview of the provided services and indications on how to access the database. Operators of other neutron monitor stations are welcome to submit their data to NMDB.

  17. Soil Monitor: an open source web application for real-time soil sealing monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Giannecchini, Simone; Iamarino, Michela; Munafò, Michele; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification. In Europe, soil covered by impermeable materials has increased by about 80% from the Second World War till nowadays, while population has only grown by one third. There is an increasing concern at the high political levels about the need to attenuate imperviousness itself and its effects on soil functions. European Commission promulgated a roadmap (COM(2011) 571) by which the net land take would be zero by 2050. Furthermore, European Commission also published a report in 2011 providing best practices and guidelines for limiting soil sealing and imperviousness. In this scenario, we developed an open source and an open source based Soil Sealing Geospatial Cyber Infrastructure (SS-GCI) named as "Soil Monitor". This tool merges a webGIS with parallel geospatial computation in a fast and dynamic fashion in order to provide real-time assessments of soil sealing at high spatial resolution (20 meters and below) over the whole Italy. Common open source webGIS packages are used to implement both the data management and visualization infrastructures, such as GeoServer and MapStore. The high-speed geospatial computation is ensured by a GPU parallelism using the CUDA (Computing Unified Device Architecture) framework by NVIDIA®. This kind of parallelism required the writing - from scratch - all codes needed to fulfil the geospatial computation built behind the soil sealing toolbox. The combination of GPU computing with webGIS infrastructures is relatively novel and required particular attention at the Java-CUDA programming interface. As a result, Soil Monitor is smart because it can perform very high time-consuming calculations (querying for instance an Italian administrative region as area of interest) in less than one minute. The web application is embedded in a web browser and nothing must be installed before using it. Potentially everybody can use it, but the main targets are the

  18. Real time information from bedside monitors as part of a web-based patient record.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, U; de Sà Rebelo, M; de Magalhães Oliveira, P P; Pilon, P E

    2001-01-01

    Traditional paper-based Medical Records, and even most of their digital counterparts, represent historical patient information. On the other hand new generations of Point-of-Care devices can be connected to standard networks and deliver streams of real time data through an Intranet, or even the Internet. Vital signs provided by IP-based devices can then be viewed at remote stations. Merging both worlds, real time and historical, in the pursuit of a comprehensive EPR is the main challenge of the present project. The basic infra-structure is composed of three main components: an existing Web-based EPR viewing station1 (Web-EPR); a fully integrated HIS/PACS system1; and a monitoring network (Siemens Infinity Network 2). Communication between the components was obtained by developing interfaces based on both HL7 and Siemens protocols the later only for waveforms. For the graphical display a web-browser-based application of the streamed signals was developed and integrated into the existing Web-EPR. This addition expanded the Web-EPR capabilities providing means to include real time signals and calculated parameters on the set of information already available. Some extra features of this project include: one-way SMS messaging of the parameters, interactive WAP access and a DICOM compliant storage of signal waveforms.

  19. Real-Time Monitoring System Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integrated with Sensor Observation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witayangkurn, A.; Nagai, M.; Honda, K.; Dailey, M.; Shibasaki, R.

    2011-09-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service) makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and Sensor Service Grid (SSG) to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  20. Pipeline Implementation of Real Time Event Cross Correlation for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junek, W. N.; Wehlen, J. A., III

    2014-12-01

    The United States National Data Center (US NDC) is responsible for monitoring international compliance to nuclear test ban treaties. This mission is performed through real time acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data acquired by a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic sensors. Automatic and human reviewed event solutions are stored in a data warehouse which contains over 15 years of alphanumeric information and waveform data. A significant effort is underway to employ the data warehouse in real time processing to improve the quality of automatic event solutions, reduce analyst burden, and supply decision makers with information regarding relevant historic events. To this end, the US NDC processing pipeline has been modified to automatically recognize events built in the past. Event similarity information and the most relevant historic solution are passed to the human analyst to assist their evaluation of automatically formed events. This is achieved through real time cross correlation of selected seismograms from automatically formed events against those stored in the data warehouse. Historic events used in correlation analysis are selected based on a set of user defined parameters, which are tuned to maintain pipeline timeliness requirements. Software architecture and database infrastructure were modified using a multithreaded design for increased processing speed, database connection pools for parallel queries, and Oracle spatial indexing to enhance query efficiency. This functionality allows the human analyst to spend more time studying anomalous events and less time rebuilding routine events.

  1. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  2. New Products for Near Real-Time Enhanced Landslide Identification and Precipitation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts-Pierel, J.; Ahamed, A.; Fayne, J.; Rumsey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal and the Himalayan region are hotspots for landslide activity due to mountainous topography, complex terrain, and monsoon rains. Current research in landslide modeling and detection generally requires high resolution imagery with software aided classification or manual digitization by analysts. These methods are plagued by low spatial and temporal accuracy. Addressing issues in conventional measurement, this study combined optical data from Landsat 8, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) to create two products. The Sudden Landslide Identification Product (SLIP) uses Landsat 8 and the ASTER DEM to identify landslides in near real-time, and provides damage assessments by mapping landslides triggered by precipitation. Detecting Real-time Increased Precipitation (DRIP) monitors precipitation levels extracted from the GPM-IMERG 30-minute product to create alerts in near real-time when current rainfall levels exceed regional threshold values. After a landslide detection is made by SLIP, historical rainfall data from DRIP is analyzed to estimate a date for the detected landslide. Together, DRIP and SLIP will be used by local and regional organizations in Nepal such as the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), as well as the international scientific community to protect lives, preserve infrastructure, and manage local ecosystems.

  3. High-throughput real-time electrochemical monitoring of LAMP for pathogenic bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin; Ng, Andy; Zourob, Mohammed

    2014-08-15

    One of the significant challenges in healthcare is the development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. POC diagnostics require low-cost devices that offer portability, simplicity in operation and the ability for high-throughput and quantitative analysis. Here, we present a novel roll-to-roll ribbon fluid-handling device for electrochemical real-time monitoring of nucleic acid (NA) amplification and bacteria detection. The device rendered loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and real-time electrochemical detection based on the interaction between LAMP amplicon and the redox-reactive osmium complex. We have shown the detection of 30CFU/ml of Escherichia coli (in the range between 30 and 3×10(7)CFU/ml) and 200CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus (in the range of 200-2×10(5)CFU/ml) cultured samples in both real-time and end point detection. This device can be used for the detection of various Gram-negative and a number of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity in a high-throughput format. Using a roll-to-roll cassette approach, we could detect 12 samples in one assay. Since the LAMP and electrochemical analysis are implemented within sealed flexible biochips, time-consuming processing steps are not required and the risk of contamination is significantly reduced.

  4. Implementation of a real-time human movement classifier using a triaxial accelerometer for ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Karantonis, Dean M; Narayanan, Michael R; Mathie, Merryn; Lovell, Nigel H; Celler, Branko G

    2006-01-01

    The real-time monitoring of human movement can provide valuable information regarding an individual's degree of functional ability and general level of activity. This paper presents the implementation of a real-time classification system for the types of human movement associated with the data acquired from a single, waist-mounted triaxial accelerometer unit. The major advance proposed by the system is to perform the vast majority of signal processing onboard the wearable unit using embedded intelligence. In this way, the system distinguishes between periods of activity and rest, recognizes the postural orientation of the wearer, detects events such as walking and falls, and provides an estimation of metabolic energy expenditure. A laboratory-based trial involving six subjects was undertaken, with results indicating an overall accuracy of 90.8% across a series of 12 tasks (283 tests) involving a variety of movements related to normal daily activities. Distinction between activity and rest was performed without error; recognition of postural orientation was carried out with 94.1% accuracy, classification of walking was achieved with less certainty (83.3% accuracy), and detection of possible falls was made with 95.6% accuracy. Results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an accelerometry-based, real-time movement classifier using embedded intelligence.

  5. Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.

    PubMed

    Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

    2003-10-01

    The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw.

  6. Real Time Monitoring of the Vadose Zone - Key to Groundwater Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2015-04-01

    Minimization subsurface pollution is much dependent on reliable and effective monitoring tools. Such monitoring tools should be capable to provide real-time information on the chemical and hydrological state of the percolating water, from land surface to the groundwater. Today, most monitoring programs are based on observation wells that enable collection of hydrological and chemical information from the saturated part of the subsurface. As a result, identification of pollution in well water is clear evidence that the contaminants already crossed the entire vadose-zone and accumulated in the aquifer. Unfortunately, only little can be done to fully remediate contaminated aquifers. Accordingly, effective monitoring program must include monitoring means that provide real-time information on the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating in the unsaturated zone, long before contaminates reach the water-table and accumulate in the aquifers. Such monitoring programs may provide "early warning" for potential pollution processes that may risk groundwater quality. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS), which was developed recently, allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water in the deep vadose zone. Data which is collected by the system allows direct measurements of the water percolation fluxes and detect the chemical evolution of the percolating water across the entire unsaturated domain. The VMS is designed for long term continuous operation in a time scale of years to decades. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in various hydrological and geological setups. These include research projects on: (a) floodwater infiltration and groundwater recharge from stream channels and reservoirs, (b) impact of various agricultural regimes on quality and quantity of groundwater recharge, (c) subsurface pollution of dairy farms, (d) chemical

  7. Near-real-time acoustic monitoring of beaked whales and other cetaceans using a Seaglider™.

    PubMed

    Klinck, Holger; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Karolin; Bogue, Neil M; Luby, James C; Jump, William A; Shilling, Geoffrey B; Litchendorf, Trina; Wood, Angela S; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W

    2012-01-01

    In most areas, estimating the presence and distribution of cryptic marine mammal species, such as beaked whales, is extremely difficult using traditional observational techniques such as ship-based visual line transect surveys. Because acoustic methods permit detection of animals underwater, at night, and in poor weather conditions, passive acoustic observation has been used increasingly often over the last decade to study marine mammal distribution, abundance, and movements, as well as for mitigation of potentially harmful anthropogenic effects. However, there is demand for new, cost-effective tools that allow scientists to monitor areas of interest autonomously with high temporal and spatial resolution in near-real time. Here we describe an autonomous underwater vehicle--a glider--equipped with an acoustic sensor and onboard data processing capabilities to passively scan an area for marine mammals in near-real time. The glider was tested extensively off the west coast of the Island of Hawai'i, USA. The instrument covered approximately 390 km during three weeks at sea and collected a total of 194 h of acoustic data. Detections of beaked whales were successfully reported to shore in near-real time. Manual analysis of the recorded data revealed a high number of vocalizations of delphinids and sperm whales. Furthermore, the glider collected vocalizations of unknown origin very similar to those made by known species of beaked whales. The instrument developed here can be used to cost-effectively screen areas of interest for marine mammals for several months at a time. The near-real-time detection and reporting capabilities of the glider can help to protect marine mammals during potentially harmful anthropogenic activities such as seismic exploration for sub-sea fossil fuels or naval sonar exercises. Furthermore, the glider is capable of under-ice operation, allowing investigation of otherwise inaccessible polar environments that are critical habitats for many

  8. Near-real-time acoustic monitoring of beaked whales and other cetaceans using a Seaglider™.

    PubMed

    Klinck, Holger; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Karolin; Bogue, Neil M; Luby, James C; Jump, William A; Shilling, Geoffrey B; Litchendorf, Trina; Wood, Angela S; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W

    2012-01-01

    In most areas, estimating the presence and distribution of cryptic marine mammal species, such as beaked whales, is extremely difficult using traditional observational techniques such as ship-based visual line transect surveys. Because acoustic methods permit detection of animals underwater, at night, and in poor weather conditions, passive acoustic observation has been used increasingly often over the last decade to study marine mammal distribution, abundance, and movements, as well as for mitigation of potentially harmful anthropogenic effects. However, there is demand for new, cost-effective tools that allow scientists to monitor areas of interest autonomously with high temporal and spatial resolution in near-real time. Here we describe an autonomous underwater vehicle--a glider--equipped with an acoustic sensor and onboard data processing capabilities to passively scan an area for marine mammals in near-real time. The glider was tested extensively off the west coast of the Island of Hawai'i, USA. The instrument covered approximately 390 km during three weeks at sea and collected a total of 194 h of acoustic data. Detections of beaked whales were successfully reported to shore in near-real time. Manual analysis of the recorded data revealed a high number of vocalizations of delphinids and sperm whales. Furthermore, the glider collected vocalizations of unknown origin very similar to those made by known species of beaked whales. The instrument developed here can be used to cost-effectively screen areas of interest for marine mammals for several months at a time. The near-real-time detection and reporting capabilities of the glider can help to protect marine mammals during potentially harmful anthropogenic activities such as seismic exploration for sub-sea fossil fuels or naval sonar exercises. Furthermore, the glider is capable of under-ice operation, allowing investigation of otherwise inaccessible polar environments that are critical habitats for many

  9. Near-Real-Time Acoustic Monitoring of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans Using a Seaglider™

    PubMed Central

    Klinck, Holger; Mellinger, David K.; Klinck, Karolin; Bogue, Neil M.; Luby, James C.; Jump, William A.; Shilling, Geoffrey B.; Litchendorf, Trina; Wood, Angela S.; Schorr, Gregory S.; Baird, Robin W.

    2012-01-01

    In most areas, estimating the presence and distribution of cryptic marine mammal species, such as beaked whales, is extremely difficult using traditional observational techniques such as ship-based visual line transect surveys. Because acoustic methods permit detection of animals underwater, at night, and in poor weather conditions, passive acoustic observation has been used increasingly often over the last decade to study marine mammal distribution, abundance, and movements, as well as for mitigation of potentially harmful anthropogenic effects. However, there is demand for new, cost-effective tools that allow scientists to monitor areas of interest autonomously with high temporal and spatial resolution in near-real time. Here we describe an autonomous underwater vehicle – a glider – equipped with an acoustic sensor and onboard data processing capabilities to passively scan an area for marine mammals in near-real time. The glider was tested extensively off the west coast of the Island of Hawai'i, USA. The instrument covered approximately 390 km during three weeks at sea and collected a total of 194 h of acoustic data. Detections of beaked whales were successfully reported to shore in near-real time. Manual analysis of the recorded data revealed a high number of vocalizations of delphinids and sperm whales. Furthermore, the glider collected vocalizations of unknown origin very similar to those made by known species of beaked whales. The instrument developed here can be used to cost-effectively screen areas of interest for marine mammals for several months at a time. The near-real-time detection and reporting capabilities of the glider can help to protect marine mammals during potentially harmful anthropogenic activities such as seismic exploration for sub-sea fossil fuels or naval sonar exercises. Furthermore, the glider is capable of under-ice operation, allowing investigation of otherwise inaccessible polar environments that are critical habitats for many

  10. Interoperable Access to Near Real Time Ocean Observations with the Observing System Monitoring Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R.; Smith, B.; Kern, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC), a project funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Observations Division (COD), exists to join the discrete 'networks' of In Situ ocean observing platforms -- ships, surface floats, profiling floats, tide gauges, etc. - into a single, integrated system. The OSMC is addressing this goal through capabilities in three areas focusing on the needs of specific user groups: 1) it provides real time monitoring of the integrated observing system assets to assist management in optimizing the cost-effectiveness of the system for the assessment of climate variables; 2) it makes the stream of real time data coming from the observing system available to scientific end users into an easy-to-use form; and 3) in the future, it will unify the delayed-mode data from platform-focused data assembly centers into a standards- based distributed system that is readily accessible to interested users from the science and education communities. In this presentation, we will be focusing on the efforts of the OSMC to provide interoperable access to the near real time data stream that is available via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). This is a very rich data source, and includes data from nearly all of the oceanographic platforms that are actively observing. We will discuss how the data is being served out using a number of widely used 'web services' (including OPeNDAP and SOS) and downloadable file formats (KML, csv, xls, netCDF), so that it can be accessed in web browsers and popular desktop analysis tools. We will also be discussing our use of the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP), available from NOAA/NMFS, which has allowed us to achieve our goals of serving the near real time data. From an interoperability perspective, it's important to note that access to the this stream of data is not just for humans, but also for machine-to-machine requests. We'll also delve into how we

  11. Real-time in vivo uric acid biosensor system for biophysical monitoring of birds.

    PubMed

    Gumus, A; Lee, S; Karlsson, K; Gabrielson, R; Winkler, D W; Erickson, D

    2014-02-21

    Research on birds has long played an important role in ecological investigations, as birds are relatively easily observed, and their high metabolic rates and diurnal habits make them quite evidently responsive to changes in their environments. A mechanistic understanding of such avian responses requires a better understanding of how variation in physiological state conditions avian behavior and integrates the effects of recent environmental changes. There is a great need for sensor systems that will allow free-flying birds to interact with their environment and make unconstrained decisions about their spatial location at the same time that their physiological state is being monitored in real time. We have developed a miniature needle-based enzymatic sensor system suitable for continuous real-time amperometric monitoring of uric acid levels in unconstrained live birds. The sensor system was constructed with Pt/Ir wire and Ag/AgCl paste. Uricase enzyme was immobilized on a 0.7 mm sensing cavity of Nafion/cellulose inner membrane to minimize the influences of background interferents. The sensor response was linear from 0.05 to 0.6 mM uric acid, which spans the normal physiological range for most avian species. We developed a two-electrode potentiostat system that drives the biosensor, reads the output current, and wirelessly transmits the data. In addition to extensive characterization of the sensor and system, we also demonstrate autonomous operation of the system by collecting in vivo extracellular uric acid measurements on a domestic chicken. The results confirm our needle-type sensor system's potential for real-time monitoring of birds' physiological state. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new era of studying both the physiological preparation for migration and the consequences of sustained avian flight.

  12. Real-time in vivo uric acid biosensor system for biophysical monitoring of birds.

    PubMed

    Gumus, A; Lee, S; Karlsson, K; Gabrielson, R; Winkler, D W; Erickson, D

    2014-02-21

    Research on birds has long played an important role in ecological investigations, as birds are relatively easily observed, and their high metabolic rates and diurnal habits make them quite evidently responsive to changes in their environments. A mechanistic understanding of such avian responses requires a better understanding of how variation in physiological state conditions avian behavior and integrates the effects of recent environmental changes. There is a great need for sensor systems that will allow free-flying birds to interact with their environment and make unconstrained decisions about their spatial location at the same time that their physiological state is being monitored in real time. We have developed a miniature needle-based enzymatic sensor system suitable for continuous real-time amperometric monitoring of uric acid levels in unconstrained live birds. The sensor system was constructed with Pt/Ir wire and Ag/AgCl paste. Uricase enzyme was immobilized on a 0.7 mm sensing cavity of Nafion/cellulose inner membrane to minimize the influences of background interferents. The sensor response was linear from 0.05 to 0.6 mM uric acid, which spans the normal physiological range for most avian species. We developed a two-electrode potentiostat system that drives the biosensor, reads the output current, and wirelessly transmits the data. In addition to extensive characterization of the sensor and system, we also demonstrate autonomous operation of the system by collecting in vivo extracellular uric acid measurements on a domestic chicken. The results confirm our needle-type sensor system's potential for real-time monitoring of birds' physiological state. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new era of studying both the physiological preparation for migration and the consequences of sustained avian flight. PMID:24326318

  13. Real time acousto-ultrasonic NDE technique for monitoring damage in ceramic composites under dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Anil

    1995-01-01

    Research effort was directed towards developing a near real-time, acousto-ultrasonic (AU), nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool to study the failure mechanisms of ceramic composites. Progression of damage is monitored in real-time by observing the changes in the received AU signal during the actual test. During the real-time AU test, the AU signals are generated and received by the AU transducers attached to the specimen while it is being subjected to increasing quasi-static loads or cyclic loads (10 Hz, R = 1.0). The received AU signals for 64 successive pulses were gated in the time domain (T = 40.96 micro sec) and then averaged every second over ten load cycles and stored in a computer file during fatigue tests. These averaged gated signals are representative of the damage state of the specimen at that point of its fatigue life. This is also the first major attempt in the development and application of real-time AU for continuously monitoring damage accumulation during fatigue without interrupting the test. The present work has verified the capability of the AU technique to assess the damage state in silicon carbide/calcium aluminosilicate (SiC/CAS) and silicon carbide/ magnesium aluminosilicate (SiC/MAS) ceramic composites. Continuous monitoring of damage initiation and progression under quasi-static ramp loading in tension to failure of unidirectional and cross-ply SiC/CAS and quasi-isotropic SiC/MAS ceramic composite specimens at room temperature was accomplished using near real-time AU parameters. The AU technique was shown to be able to detect the stress levels for the onset and saturation of matrix cracks, respectively. The critical cracking stress level is used as a design stress for brittle matrix composites operating at elevated temperatures. The AU technique has found that the critical cracking stress level is 10-15% below the level presently obtained for design purposes from analytical models. An acousto-ultrasonic stress-strain response (AUSSR) model

  14. Real-time monitoring of laser surface hardening of ferrous alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Leong, K. H.; Reed, C. B.

    1999-09-30

    An infrared process monitor was used to monitor in real-time the infrared emissions during laser surface hardening of gray cast iron and 1045 steel. The signal from the monitor was correlated with the hardness and case depth of the laser-treated tracks. Test data show that a linear relationship exists between the monitor output DC level voltage and hardness up to the maximum hardness possible and also between the monitor output DC level voltage and case depth. This simple relationship of the monitor voltage signal with hardness and case depth makes it easy to monitor process hardness, case depth and quality. A calibration test on prototypic material can be used to determine at what voltage level melting occurs and the heat treating process hardness and case depth can be monitored easily by setting an upper and lower bound for the voltage signal. The monitor is also capable of tracking changes in surface quality or flatness of the part that is being treated.

  15. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  16. Real-time In-Flight Strain and Deflection Monitoring with Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Dryden's efforts to develop in-flight monitoring based on Fiber Optics. One of the motivating factors for this development was the breakup of the Helios aircraft. On Ikhana the use of fiber optics for wing shape sensing is being developed. They are being used to flight validate fiber optic sensor measurements and real-time wing shape sensing predictions on NASA's Ikhana vehicle; validate fiber optic mathematical models and design tools; Assess technical viability and, if applicable, develop methodology and approach to incorporate wing shape measurements within the vehicle flight control system, and develop and flight validate advanced approaches to perform active wing shape control.

  17. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  18. Biomedical real-time monitoring in restricted and safety-critical environments

    PubMed Central

    Astaras, A; Bamidis, P D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Maglaveras, N

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical signal monitoring can counteract the risk of human operator error due to inattention or fatigue in safetycritical and restrictive environments, such as in aviation, space, automobile and heavy industrial machinery operation. Real-time biomedical data acquisition is changing through advances in microelectronics fabrication, bio-MEMS and power micro-generators. Such data acquisition and processing systems are becoming increasingly miniaturised, flexible and pervasive, while data is being collected from inside the human body as well as around it. In this paper we review two related research projects exploiting this technological convergence, discuss its implications and suggest future innovation prospects through further similar cross-disciplinary synergies. PMID:19048087

  19. A Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensor for Monitoring Laser Welding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sibillano, Teresa; Ancona, Antonio; Berardi, Vincenzo; Lugarà, Pietro Mario

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a sensor for real time monitoring of laser welding processes based on spectroscopic techniques. The system is based on the acquisition of the optical spectra emitted from the laser generated plasma plume and their use to implement an on-line algorithm for both the calculation of the plasma electron temperature and the analysis of the correlations between selected spectral lines. The sensor has been patented and it is currently available on the market. PMID:22412317

  20. Boronate probes as diagnostic tools for real time monitoring of peroxynitrite and hydroperoxides

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Jacek; Sikora, Adam; Hardy, Micael; Joseph, Joy; Dranka, Brian P.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2012-01-01

    Boronates, a group of organic compounds, are emerging as one of the most effective probes for detecting and quantifying peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Boronates react with peroxynitrite nearly a million times faster than with hydrogen peroxide. Boronate-containing fluorogenic compounds have been used to monitor real time generation of peroxynitrite in cells and for imaging hydrogen peroxide in living animals. This Perspective highlights potential applications of boronates and other fluorescent probes to high-throughput analyses of peroxynitrite and hydroperoxides in toxicological studies. PMID:22731669

  1. Quasi-dynamical analysis and real-time tissue temperature monitoring during laser vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Ray, Aditi; Jebens, Dave; Chia, Ray; Hasenberg, Tom

    2014-03-01

    Vaporization and coagulation are two fundamental processes that can be performed during laser-tissue ablation. We demonstrated a method allowing quasi-dynamically observing of the cross-sectional images of tissue response during ablation. The results showed that coagulation depth is relatively constant during vaporization, which supports the excellent hemostasis of green laser benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. We also verified a new technology for real-time, in situ tissue temperature monitoring, which may be promising for in vivo tissue vaporization degree feedback during laser ablation to improve the vaporization efficiency and avoid complications.

  2. Real-time reaction monitoring by ultrafast 2D NMR on a benchtop spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gouilleux, Boris; Charrier, Benoît; Danieli, Ernesto; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Akoka, Serge; Felpin, François-Xavier; Rodriguez-Zubiri, Mireia; Giraudeau, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Reaction monitoring is widely used to follow chemical processes in a broad range of application fields. Recently, the development of robust benchtop NMR spectrometers has brought NMR under the fume hood, making it possible to monitor chemical reactions in a safe and accessible environment. However, these low-field NMR approaches suffer from limited resolution leading to strong peak overlaps, which can limit their application range. Here, we propose an approach capable of recording ultrafast 2D NMR spectra on a compact spectrometer and of following in real time reactions in the synthetic chemistry laboratory. This approach--whose potential is shown here on a Heck-Matsuda reaction--is highly versatile; the duration of the measurement can be optimized to follow reactions whose time scale ranges from between a few tens of seconds to a few hours. It makes it possible to monitor complex reactions in non-deuterated solvents, and to confirm in real time the molecular structure of the compounds involved in the reaction while giving access to relevant kinetic parameters.

  3. Development of on package indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Vivek; Kandeepan, G.; Vishnuraj, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to develop an indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality and to compare the response of indicator sensor with meat quality parameters at ambient temperature. Materials and Methods: Indicator sensor was prepared using bromophenol blue (1% w/v) as indicator solution and filter paper as indicator carrier. Indicator sensor was fabricated by coating indicator solution onto carrier by centrifugation. To observe the response of indicator sensor buffalo meat was packed in polystyrene foam trays covered with PVC film and indicator sensor was attached to the inner side of packaging film. The pattern of color change in indicator sensor was monitored and compared with meat quality parameters viz. total volatile basic nitrogen, D-glucose, standard plate count and tyrosine value to correlate ability of indicator sensor for its suitability to predict the meat quality and storage life. Results: The indicator sensor changed its color from yellow to blue starting from margins during the storage period of 24 h at ambient temperature and this correlated well with changes in meat quality parameters. Conclusions: The indicator sensor can be used for real-time monitoring of meat quality as the color of indicator sensor changed from yellow to blue starting from margins when meat deteriorates with advancement of the storage period. Thus by observing the color of indicator sensor quality of meat and shelf life can be predicted. PMID:27047103

  4. Study of weld quality real-time monitoring system for auto-body assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Yong-Bing; Chen, Guan-Long

    2005-12-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) is widely used for the auto-body assembly in automotive industry. But RSW suffers from a major problem of inconsistent quality from weld to weld. The major problem is the complexity of the basic process that may involve material coatings, electrode force, electrode wear, fit up, etc. Therefore weld quality assurance is still a big challenge and goal. Electrode displacement has proved to be a particularly useful signal which correlates well with weld quality. This paper introduces a novel auto-body spot weld quality monitoring system which uses electrode displacement as the quality parameter. This system chooses the latest laser displacement sensor with high resolution to measure the real-time electrode displacement. It solves the interference problem of sensor mounting by designing special fixture, and can be successfully applied on the portable welding machine. It is capable of evaluating weld quality and making diagnosis of process variations such as surface asperities, shunting, worn electrode and weld expansion with real-time electrode displacement. As proved by application in the workshop, the monitoring system has good stability and reliability, and is qualified for monitoring weld quality in process.

  5. A Real-Time Measurement System for Long-Life Flood Monitoring and Warning Applications

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Perez, Rafael; García-Pintado, Javier; Gómez, Antonio Skarmeta

    2012-01-01

    A flood warning system incorporates telemetered rainfall and flow/water level data measured at various locations in the catchment area. Real-time accurate data collection is required for this use, and sensor networks improve the system capabilities. However, existing sensor nodes struggle to satisfy the hydrological requirements in terms of autonomy, sensor hardware compatibility, reliability and long-range communication. We describe the design and development of a real-time measurement system for flood monitoring, and its deployment in a flash-flood prone 650 km2 semiarid watershed in Southern Spain. A developed low-power and long-range communication device, so-called DatalogV1, provides automatic data gathering and reliable transmission. DatalogV1 incorporates self-monitoring for adapting measurement schedules for consumption management and to capture events of interest. Two tests are used to assess the success of the development. The results show an autonomous and robust monitoring system for long-term collection of water level data in many sparse locations during flood events. PMID:22666028

  6. Real-time Implementation of the Waveloc Technique for Monitoring Earthquake Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Langet, N.; Michelini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring regions with high swarm-type seismicity (e.g. volcanoes, certain tectonic regions) is a challenge for the traditional pick-associate-locate type algorithms that form the basis of most seismicity monitoring software. Over the past few years, new approaches that avoid the association phase by direct migration of some characteristic function of the recorded seismograms have started to be implemented, and have shown great promise (see related abstract on the Waveloc method applied to Piton de la Fournaise volcano). Implementing such methods in real-time is an essential step in proving their usefulness and robustness in swarm-monitoring situations. Here we describe the work in progress on adapting the Waveloc migration technique to real-time operation. The resulting software package, RT-Waveloc, is currently in the prototype stage, and we hope to have a version that can be distributed to the scientific community for beta-testing within a year. The development of RT-Waveloc is financed by the EU NERA project.

  7. Gun Launch System: efficient and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarev, Alexander; Ventskovsky, Oleg; Korostelev, Oleg; Yakovenko, Peter; Kanevsky, Valery; Tselinko, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    The Gun Launch System with a reusable sub-orbital launch vehicle as a central element is proposed by a consortium of several Ukrainian high-tech companies as an effective, fast-response and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring. The system is described in details, with the emphasis on its most important advantages. Multiple applications of the system are presented, including ones for the purposes of microgravity research; chemical, bacteriological and radiation monitoring and research of atmosphere and ionosphere; operational monitoring of natural and man-made disasters, as well as for some other areas of great practical interest. The current level of the system development is given, and the way ahead towards full system's implementation is prescribed.

  8. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  9. Real-time Data Access Monitoring in Distributed, Multi-petabyte Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Azemoon, Tofigh; Becla, Jacek, a=Hanushevsky, Andrew; Turri, Massimiliano; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    Petascale systems are in existence today and will become common in the next few years. Such systems are inevitably very complex, highly distributed and heterogeneous. Monitoring a petascale system in real-time and understanding its status at any given moment without impacting its performance is a highly intricate task. Common approaches and off-the-shelf tools are either unusable, do not scale, or severely impact the performance of the monitored servers. This paper describes unobtrusive monitoring software developed at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) for a highly distributed petascale production data set. The paper describes the employed solutions, the lessons learned, the problems still to be addressed, and explains how the system can be reused elsewhere.

  10. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachen; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring. PMID:26610511

  11. Intelligent Classification of Heartbeats for Automated Real-Time ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juyoung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The automatic interpretation of electrocardiography (ECG) data can provide continuous analysis of heart activity, allowing the effective use of wireless devices such as the Holter monitor. Materials and Methods: We propose an intelligent heartbeat monitoring system to detect the possibility of arrhythmia in real time. We detected heartbeats and extracted features such as the QRS complex and P wave from ECG signals using the Pan–Tompkins algorithm, and the heartbeats were then classified into 16 types using a decision tree. Results: We tested the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of our system against data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. Our system achieved an average accuracy of 97% in heartbeat detection and an average heartbeat classification accuracy of above 96%, which is comparable with the best competing schemes. Conclusions: This work provides a guide to the systematic design of an intelligent classification system for decision support in Holter ECG monitoring. PMID:25010717

  12. Impedimetric microbial sensor for real-time monitoring of phage infection of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming Soon; Ho, Jia Shin; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T K; Toh, Chee-Seng

    2013-09-15

    We describe an impedimetric microbial sensor for real-time monitoring of the non-lytic M13 bacteriophage infection of Escherichia coli cells using a gold electrode covalently grafted with a monolayer of lipopolysaccharide specific antibody. After infection, damage to the lipopolysaccharide layer on the outer membrane of E. coli causes changes to its surface charge and morphology, resulting in the aggregation of redox probe, Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) at the electrode surface and thereby increases its electron-transfer rate. This consequent decrease of electron-transfer resistance in the presence of bacteriophage can be easily monitored using Faradaic impedance spectroscopy. Non-lytic bacterium-phage interaction which is hardly observable using conventional microscopic methods is detected within 3h using this impedimetric microbial sensor which demonstrates its excellent performance in terms of analysis time, ease and reduced reliance on labeling steps during in-situ monitoring of the phage infection process. PMID:23603131

  13. Real time monitoring of a fiber fuse using an optical time-domain reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Kazi S; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2010-09-27

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate monitoring of a fiber fuse in real time using an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). When a fuse starts, a weak reflection of light occurs from the leading edge of the fuse where plasma and voids are being formed in the core. In this work, we examined the possibility of monitoring a fiber fuse from a remote location using an OTDR. We demonstrate a method that allows us detect a fuse progressing at remote locations (over kilometers away). It was found to be effective even in the presence of strong spurious backscattering, such as spontaneous Raman scattering due to a strong continuous wave pump. Moreover, from the progress of the reflection edge monitored by the OTDR, the fuse velocity could be readily determined.

  14. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiachen; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring. PMID:26610511

  15. Prototype development for real-time monitoring of neutron energy spectra in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Takada, Masashi; Yajima, Kazuaki; Goka, Tateo; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    A prototype instrument for real-time monitoring of neutron spectra in a spacecraft has been developed for ISS and future interplanetary missions to moon and Mars. The monitor consists of a phoswich-type scintillation detector with a photomultiplier and a data processing unit including an unfolding program running on Windows PC. The monitor detects the signals of high-energy neutrons(>5MeV) separately from other particles and can give a whole energy spectra by incorporating the low to middle energy spectra that are estimated by calculation or with another detector such as a Bonner-Ball neutron spectrometer. The prototype has been processed in calibrations at accelerator facilities in Japan and measurements on a business jet aircraft. Results of the observations were compared to model calculations using the PHITS code.

  16. In situ real-time monitoring of apoptosis on leukemia cells by surface infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Ryo-taro; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio; Miyamoto, Ko-ichiro; Isoda, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated in situ real-time monitoring of apoptosis on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells using infrared absorption spectroscopy with the multiple internal reflection (MIR-IRAS) geometry. Actinomycin D (Act D)-induced apoptosis on HL-60 cells was monitored for 24 h. Apoptotic cells showed two strong peaks around the protein amide I and amide II bands probably due to the leakage of cytoplasmic proteins, while growing viable cells showed a peak corresponding to the secretion of metabolites and two downward peaks corresponding to uptake of nutrients from culture media. In addition, IR absorption peak intensity of the amide I and amide II bands was proportional to the extracellular concentration of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker protein for cell damage. These results demonstrate that our MIR-IRAS method is useful for discrimination of apoptotic cells from viable ones and cell apoptotic processes can be monitored in situ by analyzing the amide I and amide II peak intensity.

  17. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  18. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachen; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-11-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring.

  19. Intelligent Janus nanoparticles for intracellular real-time monitoring of dual drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Han; Yang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2016-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have been receiving much attention as drug delivery carriers, however understanding of multi-drug release from the carriers for efficient therapeutics is highly challenging. Here, we report a novel nanosystem, Janus particle Dox-CMR-MS/Au-6MP (Dox: doxorubicin, CMR: 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylate, MS: mesoporous silica, Au: gold, 6MP: 6-mercaptopurine) with opposing MS and Au faces, which can monitor intracellular dual-drug (Dox and 6MP) controlled release in real time based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The FRET acceptor Dox is attached to CMR (as a FRET donor) conjugated MS with a pH-responsive linker hydrazone, and 6MP is conjugated to the Au surface through the gold-thiol interaction. As the Janus nanoparticle enters into tumor cells, the breakage of the hydrazone bond in an acidic environment and the substitution of glutathione (GSH) overexpressed in cancer cells give rise to the release of Dox and 6MP, respectively. Thus, the change of the CMR fluorescence signal and the SERS decrease of 6MP can be used to monitor the dual-drug release within living cells in real time. In addition, this work demonstrates the enhanced anticancer effect of the designed dual-drug loaded nanosystem. Therefore, the current study may provide new perspectives for the real-time study of intelligent multi-drug delivery and release, as well as cellular responses to drug treatment.Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have been receiving much attention as drug delivery carriers, however understanding of multi-drug release from the carriers for efficient therapeutics is highly challenging. Here, we report a novel nanosystem, Janus particle Dox-CMR-MS/Au-6MP (Dox: doxorubicin, CMR: 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylate, MS: mesoporous silica, Au: gold, 6MP: 6-mercaptopurine) with opposing MS and Au faces, which can monitor intracellular dual-drug (Dox and 6MP) controlled release in real time based on

  20. Real-time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, R. L.; Dimarco, S. F.; Walpert, J. N.; Guinasso, N. L.; Howard, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean observing systems (OOS) provide coastal managers with data for informed decision-making. OOS are designed to monitor oceanographic and atmospheric conditions from a variety of offshore platforms. In the summer of 2009, a multi-disciplinary system, the Galveston Instrument Garden for Environmental Monitoring (GIGEM), was deployed off the coast of Galveston, Texas (Location: 29o 08’ 29.654’’N, 94o 44’ 51.339’’W) to monitor coastal waters and provide real-time observations for investigating processes responsible for coastal Texas hypoxia. Hypoxia occurs in the Gulf of Mexico over the continental shelf and refers to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters caused by a combination of environmental and physical parameters. Events form rapidly, last for a few days to weeks, and commonly occur along the Louisiana and Texas coasts; however, little research has been conducted to investigate the processes responsible for Texas hypoxia formation. GIGEM was designed to study this problem by contributing real-time measurements to compare with historical coastal data series. Unlike most coastal OOS, GIGEM is installed on an experimental wind farm platform operated by Wind Energy System Technologies Inc. This platform is the first executed offshore wind energy lease in the United States. GIGEM is comprised of two components, the subsurface mooring and a nearby bottom package. The data telemetry system includes a unique design of underwater and surface inductive modems. GIGEM is the only coastal OOS currently collecting real-time environmental water quality measurements on the Texas shelf. The work presented describes: the obstacles and challenges associated with deploying GIGEM, the flow of information from the water column to the user, and how this type of OOS fulfills the societal goals for protecting coastal ecosystems and improving coastal weather and ocean predictions envisioned by the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Data and

  1. Diffusion-sensitive optical coherence tomography for real-time monitoring of mucus thinning treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Sears, Patrick R.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Hill, David B.; Chapman, Brian S.; Tracy, Joseph B.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-03-01

    Mucus hydration (wt%) has become an increasingly useful metric in real-time assessment of respiratory health in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD, with higher wt% indicative of diseased states. However, available in vivo rheological techniques are lacking. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are attractive biological probes whose diffusion through tissue is sensitive to the correlation length of comprising biopolymers. Through employment of dynamic light scattering theory on OCT signals from GNRs, we find that weakly-constrained GNR diffusion predictably decreases with increasing wt% (more disease-like) mucus. Previously, we determined this method is robust against mucus transport on human bronchial epithelial (hBE) air-liquid interface cultures (R2=0.976). Here we introduce diffusion-sensitive OCT (DS-OCT), where we collect M-mode image ensembles, from which we derive depth- and temporally-resolved GNR diffusion rates. DS-OCT allows for real-time monitoring of changing GNR diffusion as a result of topically applied mucus-thinning agents, enabling monitoring of the dynamics of mucus hydration never before seen. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cell) with a layer of endogenous mucus were doped with topically deposited GNRs (80x22nm), and subsequently treated with hypertonic saline (HS) or isotonic saline (IS). DS-OCT provided imaging of the mucus thinning response up to a depth of 600μm with 4.65μm resolution, over a total of 8 minutes in increments of >=3 seconds. For both IS and HS conditions, DS-OCT captured changes in the pattern of mucus hydration over time. DS-OCT opens a new window into understanding mechanisms of mucus thinning during treatment, enabling real-time efficacy feedback needed to optimize and tailor treatments for individual patients.

  2. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  3. Real-time monitoring of intracellular mRNA hybridization inside single living cells.

    PubMed

    Perlette, J; Tan, W

    2001-11-15

    A molecular beacon, an oligonucleotide probe with inherent signal transduction mechanisms, is an optimal tool for visualizing real-time mRNA hybridization in single living cells. Each molecular beacon (MB) consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule in a stem-loop conformation with a fluorophore linked to the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end. In this study, we demonstrate real-time monitoring of mRNA-DNA hybridization inside living cells using molecular beacons. A MB specific for beta-actin mRNA has been designed and synthesized. After microinjection into the cytoplasm of single living kangaroo rat kidney cells (PtK2 cells), the MB hybridizes with beta-actin mRNA as shown by fluorescence measurements over time. Hybridization dynamics have been followed. Strict control experiments have been carried out to confirm that the fluorescence signal increase is indeed due to the hybridization of mRNA inside single living cells. Variation in the MB/mRNA hybridization fluorescent signal has been observed for different PtK2 cells, which indicates the amount of mRNA in different cells is different. We have also monitored the beta-1 andrenergic receptor mRNA inside the PtK2 cells. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using MBs and the ultrasensitivity achieved in our fluorescence imaging system for real-time detection of mRNA hybridization and for the visualization of oligonucleotide/mRNA interactions inside single living cells.

  4. A real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool for patient specific VMAT QA and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Neelam; Yang Kai; Gersten, David; Yan Di

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool to identify and quantify sources of errors during patient specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery and quality assurance. Methods: The authors develop a VMAT delivery monitor tool called linac data monitor that connects to the linac in clinical mode and records, displays, and compares real time machine parameters with the planned parameters. A new measure, called integral error, keeps a running total of leaf overshoot and undershoot errors in each leaf pair, multiplied by leaf width, and the amount of time during which the error exists in monitor unit delivery. Another tool reconstructs Pinnacle{sup 3} Trade-Mark-Sign format delivered plan based on the saved machine logfile and recalculates actual delivered dose in patient anatomy. Delivery characteristics of various standard fractionation and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) VMAT plans delivered on Elekta Axesse and Synergy linacs were quantified. Results: The MLC and gantry errors for all the treatment sites were 0.00 {+-} 0.59 mm and 0.05 {+-} 0.31 Degree-Sign , indicating a good MLC gain calibration. Standard fractionation plans had a larger gantry error than SBRT plans due to frequent dose rate changes. On average, the MLC errors were negligible but larger errors of up to 6 mm and 2.5 Degree-Sign were seen when dose rate varied frequently. Large gantry errors occurred during the acceleration and deceleration process, and correlated well with MLC errors (r= 0.858, p= 0.0004). PTV mean, minimum, and maximum dose discrepancies were 0.87 {+-} 0.21%, 0.99 {+-} 0.59%, and 1.18 {+-} 0.52%, respectively. The organs at risk (OAR) doses were within 2.5%, except some OARs that showed up to 5.6% discrepancy in maximum dose. Real time displayed normalized total positive integral error (normalized to the total monitor units) correlated linearly with MLC (r= 0.9279, p < 0.001) and gantry errors (r= 0.742, p= 0.005). There

  5. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Fung, Kitty S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  6. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Fung, Kitty S C; Yuen, K Y

    2015-07-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  7. Multi-level Simulation of a Real Time Vibration Monitoring System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Bryan A.; Wilkerson, Delisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a custom built Digital Signal Processing (DSP) printed circuit board designed to implement the Advanced Real Time Vibration Monitoring Subsystem proposed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Transportation Directorate in 2000 for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is being developed for ground use as part of the AHMS Health Management Computer-Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA). The HMC-IRA RTVMS design contains five DSPs which are highly interconnected through individual communication ports, shared memory, and a unique communication router that allows all the DSPs to receive digitized data fiom two multi-channel analog boards simultaneously. This paper will briefly cover the overall board design but will focus primarily on the state-of-the-art simulation environment within which this board was developed. This 16-layer board with over 1800 components and an additional mezzanine card has been an extremely challenging design. Utilization of a Mentor Graphics simulation environment provided the unique board and system level simulation capability to ascertain any timing or functional concerns before production. By combining VHDL, Synopsys Software and Hardware Models, and the Mentor Design Capture Environment, multiple simulations were developed to verify the RTVMS design. This multi-level simulation allowed the designers to achieve complete operability without error the first time the RTVMS printed circuit board was powered. The HMC-IRA design has completed all engineering and deliverable unit testing. P

  8. Multi-level Simulation of a Real Time Vibration Monitoring System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberston, Bryan; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a custom built Digital Signal Processing (DSP) printed circuit board designed to implement the Advanced Real Time Vibration Monitoring Subsystem proposed by MSFC Transportation Directorate in 2000 for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is being developed for ground use as part of the AHMS Health Management Computer-Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA). The HMC-IRA RTVMS design contains five DSPs which are highly interconnected through individual communication ports, shared memory, and a unique communication router that allows all the DSPs to receive digitized data from two multi-channel analog boards simultaneously. This paper will briefly cover the overall board design but will focus primarily on the state-of-the-art simulation environment within which this board was developed. This 16-layer board with over 1800 components and an additional mezzanine card has been an extremely challenging design. Utilization of a Mentor Graphics simulation environment provided the unique board and system level simulation capability to ascertain any timing or functional concerns before production. By combining VHDL, Synopsys Software and Hardware Models, and the Mentor Design Capture Environment, multiple simulations were developed to verify the RTVMS design. This multi-level simulation allowed the designers to achieve complete operability without error the first time the RTVMS printed circuit board was powered. The HMCIRA design has completed all engineering unit testing and the deliverable unit is currently under development.

  9. Publicly Available Online Tool Facilitates Real-Time Monitoring Of Vaccine Conversations And Sentiments.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Chi Y; Cumming, Melissa; Paushter, Louisa; Madoff, Lawrence C; Thomson, Angus; Brownstein, John S

    2016-02-01

    Real-time monitoring of mainstream and social media can inform public health practitioners and policy makers about vaccine sentiment and hesitancy. We describe a publicly available platform for monitoring vaccination-related content, called the Vaccine Sentimeter. With automated data collection from 100,000 mainstream media sources and Twitter, natural-language processing for automated filtering, and manual curation to ensure accuracy, the Vaccine Sentimeter offers a global real-time view of vaccination conversations online. To assess the system's utility, we followed two events: polio vaccination in Pakistan after a news story about a Central Intelligence Agency vaccination ruse and subsequent attacks on health care workers, and a controversial episode in a television program about adverse events following human papillomavirus vaccination. For both events, increased online activity was detected and characterized. For the first event, Twitter response to the attacks on health care workers decreased drastically after the first attack, in contrast to mainstream media coverage. For the second event, the mainstream and social media response was largely positive about the HPV vaccine, but antivaccine conversations persisted longer than the provaccine reaction. Using the Vaccine Sentimeter could enable public health professionals to detect increased online activity or sudden shifts in sentiment that could affect vaccination uptake.

  10. Image corruption detection in diffusion tensor imaging for post-processing and real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M; Lorenz, Christine H; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called "corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity" (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies.

  11. A real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation which computes a 3D numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC[1,2]) project.

  12. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid. PMID:27240365

  13. Real-time and in situ monitoring of mechanochemical milling reactions.

    PubMed

    Friščić, Tomislav; Halasz, Ivan; Beldon, Patrick J; Belenguer, Ana M; Adams, Frank; Kimber, Simon A J; Honkimäki, Veijo; Dinnebier, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and structural transformations have long been carried out by milling. Such mechanochemical steps are now ubiquitous in a number of industries (such as the pharmaceutical, chemical and metallurgical industries), and are emerging as excellent environmentally friendly alternatives to solution-based syntheses. However, mechanochemical transformations are typically difficult to monitor in real time, which leaves a large gap in the mechanistic understanding required for their development. We now report the real-time study of mechanochemical transformations in a ball mill by means of in situ diffraction of high-energy synchrotron X-rays. Focusing on the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, we have directly monitored reaction profiles, the formation of intermediates, and interconversions of framework topologies. Our results reveal that mechanochemistry is highly dynamic, with reaction rates comparable to or greater than those in solution. The technique also enabled us to probe directly how catalytic additives recently introduced in the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, such as organic liquids or ionic species, change the reactivity pathways and kinetics.

  14. Real time in-line monitoring of large scale Bacillus fermentations with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alves-Rausch, José; Bienert, Roland; Grimm, Christian; Bergmaier, Dirk

    2014-11-10

    NIR spectroscopy was used to monitor Bacillus fermentations in 50 m(3) reactors under harsh industrial conditions. The BioPAT(®) Spectro NIR sensor was attached directly to the bioreactor and provided fast, sensitive, non-destructive and robust measurements without interfering with the microorganism metabolism. Multivariate data analysis techniques related the spectra collected in real time during the fermentation with reference analyte concentrations. Analyte concentrations of future batches can be determined in real time with these models. The SugarSUM parameter was modeled with a SEP of 1.33 g/L in a range of 0-35 g/L. The models for AnalyteSUM (SEP = 0.81 g/L in 0.5-43 g/L range), OD(600) (SEP = 2.88 OD in 3.5-50 OD range), dry mass (SEP = 0.09 in 0.4-1.7% range) and Acetoin (SEP = 0.94 g/L in 0-11 g/L range) also show a great prediction performance in the complex media matrix. Sophisticated process control strategies such as a feeding control of the sugar source can be implemented in the future, potentially increasing spore yield due to a reduction of carbon overflow mechanisms. Media classification with PCA identified media formulation errors. Batch evolution models, built with spectra data only, monitored the evolution of new batches by comparing it with a "golden batch" trajectory.

  15. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M.; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J.; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid. PMID:27240365

  16. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-05-26

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  17. Publicly Available Online Tool Facilitates Real-Time Monitoring Of Vaccine Conversations And Sentiments.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Chi Y; Cumming, Melissa; Paushter, Louisa; Madoff, Lawrence C; Thomson, Angus; Brownstein, John S

    2016-02-01

    Real-time monitoring of mainstream and social media can inform public health practitioners and policy makers about vaccine sentiment and hesitancy. We describe a publicly available platform for monitoring vaccination-related content, called the Vaccine Sentimeter. With automated data collection from 100,000 mainstream media sources and Twitter, natural-language processing for automated filtering, and manual curation to ensure accuracy, the Vaccine Sentimeter offers a global real-time view of vaccination conversations online. To assess the system's utility, we followed two events: polio vaccination in Pakistan after a news story about a Central Intelligence Agency vaccination ruse and subsequent attacks on health care workers, and a controversial episode in a television program about adverse events following human papillomavirus vaccination. For both events, increased online activity was detected and characterized. For the first event, Twitter response to the attacks on health care workers decreased drastically after the first attack, in contrast to mainstream media coverage. For the second event, the mainstream and social media response was largely positive about the HPV vaccine, but antivaccine conversations persisted longer than the provaccine reaction. Using the Vaccine Sentimeter could enable public health professionals to detect increased online activity or sudden shifts in sentiment that could affect vaccination uptake. PMID:26858390

  18. Real-time amyloid aggregation monitoring with a photonic crystal-based approach.

    PubMed

    Santi, Sara; Musi, Valeria; Descrovi, Emiliano; Paeder, Vincent; Di Francesco, Joab; Hvozdara, Lubos; van der Wal, Peter; Lashuel, Hilal A; Pastore, Annalisa; Neier, Reinhard; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-10-21

    We propose the application of a new label-free optical technique based on photonic nanostructures to real-time monitor the amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) fibrillization, including the early stages of the aggregation process, which are related to the onset of the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The aggregation of Aβ peptides into amyloid fibrils has commonly been associated with neuronal death, which culminates in the clinical features of the incurable degenerative AD. Recent studies revealed that cell toxicity is determined by the formation of soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ peptides in the early stages of aggregation. At this phase, classical amyloid detection techniques lack in sensitivity. Upon a chemical passivation of the sensing surface by means of polyethylene glycol, the proposed approach allows an accurate, real-time monitoring of the refractive index variation of the solution, wherein Aβ(1-42) peptides are aggregating. This measurement is directly related to the aggregation state of the peptide throughout oligomerization and subsequent fibrillization. Our findings open new perspectives in the understanding of the dynamics of amyloid formation, and validate this approach as a new and powerful method to screen aggregation at early stages. PMID:24105966

  19. Prostate Intrafraction Translation Margins for Real-Time Monitoring and Correction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Balter, James M.; Hadley, Scott W.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Djemil, Toufik; Mahadevan, Arul; Jani, Shirish; Weinstein, Geoffrey; Solberg, Timothy; Enke, Charles; Levine, Lisa; Sandler, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine appropriate radiation therapy beam margins to account for intrafraction prostate translations for use with real-time electromagnetic position monitoring and correction strategies. Motion was measured continuously in 35 patients over 1157 fractions at 5 institutions. This data was studied using van Herk's formula of (αΣ + γσ') for situations ranging from no electromagnetic guidance to automated real-time corrections. Without electromagnetic guidance, margins of over 10 mm are necessary to ensure 95% dosimetric coverage while automated electromagnetic guidance allows the margins necessary for intrafraction translations to be reduced to submillimeter levels. Factors such as prostate deformation and rotation, which are not included in this analysis, will become the dominant concerns as margins are reduced. Continuous electromagnetic monitoring and automated correction have the potential to reduce prostate margins to 2-3 mm, while ensuring that a higher percentage of patients (99% versus 90%) receive a greater percentage (99% versus 95%) of the prescription dose. PMID:22111005

  20. Real-time, closed-loop dual-wavelength optical polarimetry for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a real-time, dual-wavelength optical polarimetric system to ultimately probe the aqueous humor glucose concentrations as a means of noninvasive diabetic glucose monitoring is the long-term goal of this research. The key impact of the work is the development of an approach for the reduction of the time-variant corneal birefringence due to motion artifact, which is still a limiting factor preventing the realization of such a device. Our dual-wavelength approach utilizes real-time, closed-loop feedback that employs a classical three-term feedback controller and efficiently reduces the effect of motion artifact that appears as a common noise source for both wavelengths. In vitro results are shown for the open-loop system, and although the dual-wavelength system helps to reduce the noise, it is shown that closed-loop control is necessary to bring the noise down to a sufficient level for physiological monitoring. Specifically, in vitro measurement results with the closed-loop dual-wavelength approach demonstrate a sensitivity of 12.8 mg/dl across the physiologic glucose range in the presence of time-variant test cell birefringence. Overall, it is shown that this polarimetric system has the potential to be used as a noninvasive measure of glucose for diabetes.

  1. A real-time fatigue monitoring and analysis system for lower extremity muscles with cycling movement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Chang, Ya-Ju; Ku, Chia-Hao

    2014-01-01

    A real-time muscle fatigue monitoring system was developed to quantitatively detect the muscle fatigue of subjects during cycling movement, where a fatigue progression measure (FPM) was built-in. During the cycling movement, the electromyogram (EMG) signals of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscles in one leg as well as cycling speed are synchronously measured in a real-time fashion. In addition, the heart rate (HR) and the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale value are recorded per minute. Using the EMG signals, the electrical activity and median frequency (MF) are calculated per cycle. Moreover, the updated FPM, based on the percentage of reduced MF counts during cycling movement, is calculated to measure the onset time and the progressive process of muscle fatigue. To demonstrate the performance of our system, five young healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was asked to maintain a fixed speed of 60 RPM, as best he/she could, under a constant load during the pedaling. When the speed reached 20 RPM or the HR reached the maximal training HR, the experiment was then terminated immediately. The experimental results show that the proposed system may provide an on-line fatigue monitoring and analysis for the lower extremity muscles during cycling movement. PMID:25014101

  2. Real-time sensing and monitoring in robotic gas metal arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. S.; Gao, J. Q.; Hu, J. K.

    2007-01-01

    A real-time monitoring system is developed for detecting abnormal conditions in robotic gas metal arc welding. The butt-joint test pieces with simulated large gaps are used to intentionally introduce step disturbance of welding conditions. During the welding process, the welding voltage and current signals are sampled and processed on-line to extract the characteristic information reflecting the process quality. After the first statistical processing, it is found that seven statistical parameters (the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variance and kurtosis of welding voltage; the mean, coefficient of variance and kurtosis of welding current) show variations during the step disturbance. Through the second statistical processing of the means of the welding voltage for subgroups of continuous measurement, the statistical control chart is obtained, and an SPC (statistical process control)-based on-line identifying method is developed. Ten robotic welding experiments are conducted to verify the real-time monitoring system. It is found that the correct identification rates for normal and abnormal welding conditions are 100% and 95%, respectively.

  3. Real-time health monitoring of civil infrastructure systems in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Peter; Marulanda Casas, Johannio; Marulanda Arbelaez, Johannio; Caicedo, Juan

    2001-08-01

    Colombia's topography, climatic conditions, intense seismic activity and acute social problems place high demands on the nations deteriorating civil infrastructure. Resources that are available for maintenance of the road and railway networks are often misdirected and actual inspection methods are limited to a visual examination. New techniques for inspection and evaluation of safety and serviceability of civil infrastructure, especially bridges, must be developed. Two cases of civil structures with health monitoring systems in Colombia are presented in this paper. Construction of the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct was completed in 1997 with a total cost of 58 million dollars, including 1.5 million dollars in health monitoring instrumentation provided and installed by foreign companies. This health monitoring system is not yet fully operational due to the lack of training of national personnel in system operation and extremely limited technical documentation. In contrast to the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct monitoring system, the authors have proposed a relatively low cost health monitoring system via telemetry. This system has been implemented for real-time monitoring of accelerations of El Hormiguero Bridge spanning the Cauca River using the Colombian Southwest Earthquake Observatory telemetry systems. This two span metallic bridge, located along a critical road between the cities of Puerto Tejada and Cali in the Cauca Valley, was constructed approximately 50 years ago. Experiences with this system demonstrate how effective low cost systems can be used to remotely monitor the structural integrity of deteriorating structures that are continuously subject to high loading conditions.

  4. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  5. Real time hydro-metereological hazards monitoring system for the Ravenna municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, W.; Cattarossi, A.; Gonella, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Ravenna municipality (Italy, Emilia Romagna region), through a cooperative agreement with ENI S.p.A’s., AGIP division, is carrying out a research study for the development of a real time monitoring system of hydro-meteorological conditions. The system aims to support the city Crisis Response Unit to provide more efficient support all over the municipal territory that is the largest in Italy with more than 700 km2. The support unit, a GIS computer based application, directly links to a broad range of sources, gathering real time information from a Local Area Model (meteorological data), a Wave Model (sea hydrodynamic circulation), monitoring stations, located partially on the Adriatic sea (AGIP offshore platform, SIMN) and partially over the Ravenna inland (SPDS, SIN). In the first phase, now completed and undergoing testing, this vast and diversified collection of data feeds a number of statistical models with up to 72 hours of forecast capabilities. The GIS application displays actual and forecast sea conditions offshore of Ravenna littorals in addition to actual and forecast flood conditions along the Ravenna Province inland. Model generated data are used for the forecast, which is then calibrated using the measured data. When the predefined warning limits are exceeded, end users are alerted via prerecorded phone messages, SMS, or visually through the direct or remote interaction with the GIS system (remotely accessible via portable computers). In the second stage, the statistical approach will be substituted by a more deterministic approach. A coupled hydrologic-hydraulic model will be used to forecast water stages along rivers and runoff volume along major watersheds. Moreover, already functioning capabilities allows direct control of remote monitoring points (stream and rain gages, etc.) The entire Real Time Monitoring System was developed on a GIS platform. The GEOdatabase, a relational database based on MSDE technology, is the core of the application

  6. Demonstration of real-time monitoring of a photolithographic exposure process using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, C.D.

    1998-02-01

    Silicon wafers are coated with photoresist and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light in a laboratory to simulate typical conditions expected in an actual semiconductor manufacturing process tool. Air is drawn through the exposure chamber and analyzed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI/MS). Species that evaporate or outgas from the wafer are thus detected. The purpose of such analyses is to determine the potential of CI/MS as a real-time process monitoring tool. Results demonstrate that CI/MS can remotely detect the products evolved before, during, and after wafer UV exposure; and that the quantity and type of products vary with the photoresist coated on the wafer. Such monitoring could provide semiconductor manufacturers benefits in quality control and process analysis. Tool and photoresist manufacturers could also realize benefits from this measurement technique with respect to new tool, method, or photoresist development. The benefits realized can lead to improved device yields and reduced product and development costs.

  7. The real-time quantification of autofluorescence spectrum shape for the monitoring of mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Long, Zac; Maltas, Jeff; Zatt, Michael C; Cheng, Jun; Alquist, Erik J; Brest, Alex; Urayama, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The cellular proportion of free and protein-bound NADH complexes is increasingly recognized as a metabolic indicator and biomarker. Because free and bound forms exhibit different fluorescence spectra, we consider whether autofluorescence shape sufficiently correlates with mitochondrial metabolism to be useful for monitoring in cellular suspensions. Several computational approaches for rapidly quantifying spectrum shape are used to detect Saccharomyces cereviseae response to oxygenation, and to the addition of mitochondrial functional modifiers and metabolic substrates. Observed changes appear consistent with previous studies probing free/protein-bound proportions, making this a potentially useful approach for the real-time monitoring of metabolism. (© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  8. Generic Raman-based calibration models enabling real-time monitoring of cell culture bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Lauri, David; Karry, Krizia M; Moshgbar, Mojgan; Procopio-Melino, Renee; Drapeau, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Raman-based multivariate calibration models have been developed for real-time in situ monitoring of multiple process parameters within cell culture bioreactors. Developed models are generic, in the sense that they are applicable to various products, media, and cell lines based on Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) host cells, and are scalable to large pilot and manufacturing scales. Several batches using different CHO-based cell lines and corresponding proprietary media and process conditions have been used to generate calibration datasets, and models have been validated using independent datasets from separate batch runs. All models have been validated to be generic and capable of predicting process parameters with acceptable accuracy. The developed models allow monitoring multiple key bioprocess metabolic variables, and hence can be utilized as an important enabling tool for Quality by Design approaches which are strongly supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  9. Real-time monitoring of railway infrastructures using fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, N.; Carcaterra, A.; Sestieri, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present the results of a field trial with a FBG sensor array system for the real time monitoring of railway traffic and for the structural health monitoring of both the railway track and train wheels. The test campaign is performed on the 2nd line of Milan metropolitan underground, employing more than 50 FBG sensors along 1.5 km of the rail track, where the trains are tested during daily passenger rail transport, with a roughly maximum speeds of 90 km/h. The measurements were continuatively performed for over 6 months, with a sampling frequency of about 400 Hz. The large amount of data/sensors allows a rather accurate statistical treatment of the measurement data and permits, with dedicated algorithms, the estimation of rail and wheel wear, key traffic parameters such as the number of axles, the train speed and load, and, in the next future, the detection of localized imperfections.

  10. [Methods Used for Monitoring Cure Reactions in Real-time in an Autoclave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time in an autoclave. This is of particular importance to NASA Langley Research Center because polyimides were proposed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Understanding the cure chemistry behind the polyimides would allow for intelligent processing of the composites made from their use. This work has led to two publications in peer-reviewed journals and a patent. The journal articles are listed as Appendix A which is on the instrument design of the research and Appendix B which is on the cure chemistry. Also, a patent has been awarded for the instrumental design developed under this grant which is given as Appendix C. There has been a significant amount of research directed at developing methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time within the autoclave. The various research efforts can be categorized as methods providing either direct chemical bonding information or methods that provide indirect chemical bonding information. Methods falling into the latter category are fluorescence, dielectric loss, ultrasonic and similar type methods. Correlation of such measurements with the underlying chemistry is often quite difficult since these techniques do not allow monitoring of the curing chemistry which is ultimately responsible for material properties. Direct methods such as vibrational spectroscopy, however, can often be easily correlated with the underlying chemistry of a reaction. Such methods include Raman spectroscopy, mid-IR absorbance, and near-IR absorbance. With the recent advances in fiber-optics, these spectroscopic techniques can be applied to remote on-line monitoring.

  11. Test plan for glove box testing with the real-time transuranic dust monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Fincke, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the objectives, instrumentation, and testing procedures used to prove the feasibility of a real-time transuranic dust monitor (RTDM). The RTDM is under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a Waste Characterization Technology funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Project. The instrument is an in situ monitor that uses optical techniques to establish particle size, particle number density, and mass and species of heavy metal contamination. US Department of Energy orders mandate the assessment of radiological exposure and contamination spread during the remediation of radioactive waste. Of particular concern is heavy metal contamination of dust, both radioactive and nonradioactive. Small particles of metal, particularly the radioactive species, tend to become electrically charged and consequently attach themselves to dust particles. This airborne activated dust is a primary means of contamination transport during remediation activities, and therefore, must be continuously monitored to protect personnel involved in the operations and to control the spread of contamination. If real-time monitoring is not available there is increased likelihood of generating unacceptably high levels of contamination and being forced to shut down costly retrieval operations to decontaminate. A series of experiments are described to determine the optimal experimental design, operational parameters, and levels of detection for the RTDM. Initial screening will be performed using monodisperse particle standards to set parameters and calibrate the instrument. Additional testing will be performed using INEL soil samples spiked with a surrogate, cerium oxide, to prove the design before transporting the apparatus to the Test Reactor Area for testing with plutonium-contaminated dusts.

  12. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    multiple observation geometries in change detection procedures. Additionally, it will be shown how SAR-based hazard information can be integrated with data from optical satellites, thermal sensors, webcams and models to create near-real time volcano hazard information. We will introduce a prototype monitoring system that integrates SAR-based hazard information into the near real-time volcano hazard monitoring system of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. This prototype system was applied to historic eruptions of the volcanoes Okmok and Augustine, both located in the North Pacific. We will show that for these historic eruptions, the addition of SAR data lead to a significant improvement in activity detection and eruption monitoring, and improved the accuracy and timeliness of eruption alerts.

  13. Integrating and Visualizing Tropical Cyclone Data Using the Real Time Mission Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Conover, Helen; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM is extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, scientists, and managers appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. A broad spectrum of interdisciplinary scientists used RTMM during field campaigns including the hurricane-focused 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane Noel flight, 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), plus a soil moisture (SMAP-VEX) and two arctic research experiments (ARCTAS) in 2008. Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated "on the fly". The resultant flight plan is then immediately posted to the Google Earth-based RTMM for interested scientists to view the planned flight track and subsequently compare it to the actual real time flight progress. We are planning additional capabilities to RTMM including collaborations with the Jet Propulsion

  14. Efficient near-real-time monitoring of 3D surface displacements in complex landslide scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allasia, Paolo; Manconi, Andrea; Giordan, Daniele; Baldo, Marco; Lollino, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    Ground deformation measurements play a key role in monitoring activities of landslides. A wide spectrum of instruments and methods is nowadays available, going from in-situ to remote sensing approaches. In emergency scenarios, monitoring is often based on automated instruments capable to achieve accurate measurements, possibly with a very high temporal resolution, in order to achieve the best information about the evolution of the landslide in near-real-time, aiming at early warning purposes. However, the available tools for a rapid and efficient exploitation, understanding and interpretation of the retrieved measurements is still a challenge. This issue is particularly relevant in contexts where monitoring is fundamental to support early warning systems aimed at ensuring safety to people and/or infrastructures. Furthermore, in many cases the results obtained might be of difficult reading and divulgation, especially when people of different backgrounds are involved (e.g. scientists, authorities, civil protection operators, decision makers, etc.). In this work, we extend the concept of automatic and near real time from the acquisition of measurements to the data processing and divulgation, in order to achieve an efficient monitoring of surface displacements in landslide scenarios. We developed an algorithm that allows to go automatically and in near-real-time from the acquisition of 3D displacements on a landslide area to the efficient divulgation of the monitoring results via WEB. This set of straightforward procedures is called ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning), and has been already successfully applied in several emergency scenarios. The algorithm includes: (i) data acquisition and transfer protocols; (ii) data collection, filtering, and validation; (iii) data analysis and restitution through a set of dedicated software, such as ©3DA [1]; (iv) recognition of displacement/velocity threshold and early warning (v) short term

  15. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  16. Real-time monitoring of cisplatin cytotoxicity on three-dimensional spheroid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, NamHuk; Seo, Ok Won; Lee, Jaehwa; Hulme, John; An, Seong Soo A

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation is a powerful technique for monitoring and understanding diverse cellular mechanisms in developmental cancer and neuronal biology, tissue engineering, and drug development. 3D systems could relate better to in vivo models than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Several factors, such as cell type, survival rate, proliferation rate, and gene and protein expression patterns, determine whether a particular cell line can be adapted to a 3D system. The 3D system may overcome some of the limitations of 2D cultures in terms of cell–cell communication and cell networks, which are essential for understanding differentiation, structural organization, shape, and extended connections with other cells or organs. Here, the effect of the anticancer drug cisplatin, also known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP, on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation was investigated using 3D spheroid-forming cells and real-time monitoring for 7 days. First, 12 cell lines were screened for their ability to form 3D spheroids: prostate (DU145), testis (F9), embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3), muscle (C2C12), embryonic kidney (293T), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cell (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), HeLa contaminant (HEp2), pituitary epithelial-like cell (GH3), embryonic cell (PA317), and osteosarcoma (U-2OS) cells. Of these, eight cell lines were selected: NIH-3T3, C2C12, 293T, SH-SY5Y, A549, HeLa, PA317, and U-2OS; and five underwent real-time monitoring of CDDP cytotoxicity: HeLa, A549, 293T, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS. ATP generation was blocked 1 day after addition of 50 μM CDDP, but cytotoxicity in HeLa, A549, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS cells could be visualized only 4 days after treatment. In 293T cells, CDDP failed to kill entirely the culture and ATP generation was only partially blocked after 1 day. This suggests potential CDDP resistance of 293T cells or metabolic clearance of the drug. Real-time monitoring and ATP

  17. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  18. Real-time monitoring of cisplatin cytotoxicity on three-dimensional spheroid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, NamHuk; Seo, Ok Won; Lee, Jaehwa; Hulme, John; An, Seong Soo A

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation is a powerful technique for monitoring and understanding diverse cellular mechanisms in developmental cancer and neuronal biology, tissue engineering, and drug development. 3D systems could relate better to in vivo models than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Several factors, such as cell type, survival rate, proliferation rate, and gene and protein expression patterns, determine whether a particular cell line can be adapted to a 3D system. The 3D system may overcome some of the limitations of 2D cultures in terms of cell-cell communication and cell networks, which are essential for understanding differentiation, structural organization, shape, and extended connections with other cells or organs. Here, the effect of the anticancer drug cisplatin, also known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP, on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation was investigated using 3D spheroid-forming cells and real-time monitoring for 7 days. First, 12 cell lines were screened for their ability to form 3D spheroids: prostate (DU145), testis (F9), embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3), muscle (C2C12), embryonic kidney (293T), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cell (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), HeLa contaminant (HEp2), pituitary epithelial-like cell (GH3), embryonic cell (PA317), and osteosarcoma (U-2OS) cells. Of these, eight cell lines were selected: NIH-3T3, C2C12, 293T, SH-SY5Y, A549, HeLa, PA317, and U-2OS; and five underwent real-time monitoring of CDDP cytotoxicity: HeLa, A549, 293T, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS. ATP generation was blocked 1 day after addition of 50 μM CDDP, but cytotoxicity in HeLa, A549, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS cells could be visualized only 4 days after treatment. In 293T cells, CDDP failed to kill entirely the culture and ATP generation was only partially blocked after 1 day. This suggests potential CDDP resistance of 293T cells or metabolic clearance of the drug. Real-time monitoring and ATP

  19. Managing landslide monitoring networks with near real time Geo-browsers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Dell'Anese, Federico; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring applications are an extremely important task for the analysis and understanding geo-hazards, as well as for promptly recognizing and eventually warn about their potential paroxysmal evolution. Nowadays, a wide range of monitoring strategies and instruments can be applied in operative monitoring scenarios, and the technological evolution of last decades has considerably increased the possibility of managing complex multi-parametric networks. The effectiveness of a monitoring network in geo-hazard scenarios is usually directly associated to the type of instruments considered, the suitability and completeness of the monitoring network, and the frequency of acquisition of measurements (revisit time). However, especially during emergency scenarios, another fundamental parameter to consider is the possibility to achieve an easy and clear access to all the available information. The Geohazard Monitoring Group of CNR IRPI exploited the Google Earth® plugin to organize and present the information obtained d from a monitoring network installed on a landslide scenario in a straightforward fashion. The system restitutes all the available information on the monitored area as different layers, which are superimposed to the base map and digital elevation models provided by Google. The layers include data as raster (ortophotos, shaded relieves, etc.) and point information (position of instruments, monitored targets, etc.), as well as the most recent results obtained from the monitoring network in near real time. The resulting geo-browser is hosted on a dedicated website, where authorized end-users can select between several thematic visualizations. The system has been developed and tested in the Mont de La Saxe landslide scenario, a large instable slope located in the northwestern Italian. This new data exploitation modality has demonstrated to be an efficient tool to support the decision makers in particular during emergency phases.

  20. The Utility of the Real-Time NASA Land Information System Data for Drought Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring

  1. The first clinical treatment with kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM): A real-time image guidance method

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J. O’Brien, Ricky; Huang, Chen-Yu; Aun Ng, Jin; Colvill, Emma; Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Fledelius, Walther; Juneja, Prabhjot; Booth, Jeremy T.; Simpson, Emma; Bell, Linda; Alfieri, Florencia; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time image guidance method that uses widely available radiotherapy technology, i.e., a gantry-mounted x-ray imager. The authors report on the geometric and dosimetric results of the first patient treatment using KIM which occurred on September 16, 2014. Methods: KIM uses current and prior 2D x-ray images to estimate the 3D target position during cancer radiotherapy treatment delivery. KIM software was written to process kilovoltage (kV) images streamed from a standard C-arm linear accelerator with a gantry-mounted kV x-ray imaging system. A 120° pretreatment kV imaging arc was acquired to build the patient-specific 2D to 3D motion correlation. The kV imager was activated during the megavoltage (MV) treatment, a dual arc VMAT prostate treatment, to estimate the 3D prostate position in real-time. All necessary ethics, legal, and regulatory requirements were met for this clinical study. The quality assurance processes were completed and peer reviewed. Results: During treatment, a prostate position offset of nearly 3 mm in the posterior direction was observed with KIM. This position offset did not trigger a gating event. After the treatment, the prostate motion was independently measured using kV/MV triangulation, resulting in a mean difference of less than 0.6 mm and standard deviation of less than 0.6 mm in each direction. The accuracy of the marker segmentation was visually assessed during and after treatment and found to be performing well. During treatment, there were no interruptions due to performance of the KIM software. Conclusions: For the first time, KIM has been used for real-time image guidance during cancer radiotherapy. The measured accuracy and precision were both submillimeter for the first treatment fraction. This clinical translational research milestone paves the way for the broad implementation of real-time image guidance to facilitate the detection and correction of geometric and

  2. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working

    PubMed Central

    Pancardo, Pablo; Acosta, Francisco D.; Hernández-Nolasco, José Adán; Wister, Miguel A.; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Working (AAW) is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers' comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS) happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS. PMID:26184218

  3. Real-time monitoring of progression towards renal failure in primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Peter J; Sousa, Inês; Asar, Özgür

    2015-07-01

    Chronic renal failure is a progressive condition that, typically, is asymptomatic for many years. Early detection of incipient kidney failure enables ameliorative treatment that can slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure, at which point expensive and invasive renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation) is required. We use routinely collected clinical data from a large sample of primary care patients to develop a system for real-time monitoring of the progression of undiagnosed incipient renal failure. Progression is characterized as the rate of change in a person's kidney function as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate, an adjusted version of serum creatinine level in a blood sample. Clinical guidelines in the UK suggest that a person who is losing kidney function at a relative rate of at least 5% per year should be referred to specialist secondary care. We model the time-course of a person's underlying kidney function through a combination of explanatory variables, a random intercept and a continuous-time, non-stationary stochastic process. We then use the model to calculate for each person the predictive probability that they meet the clinical guideline for referral to secondary care. We suggest that probabilistic predictive inference linked to clinical criteria can be a useful component of a real-time surveillance system to guide, but not dictate, clinical decision-making.

  4. MOBLAB: a mobile laboratory for testing real-time vision-based systems in path monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumani, Aldo; Denasi, Sandra; Grattoni, Paolo; Guiducci, Antonio; Pettiti, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Giorgio

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS European Project, a Mobile Laboratory (MOBLAB) has been equipped for studying, implementing and testing real-time algorithms which monitor the path of a vehicle moving on roads. Its goal is the evaluation of systems suitable to map the position of the vehicle within the environment where it moves, to detect obstacles, to estimate motion, to plan the path and to warn the driver about unsafe conditions. MOBLAB has been built with the financial support of the National Research Council and will be shared with teams working in the PROMETHEUS Project. It consists of a van equipped with an autonomous power supply, a real-time image processing system, workstations and PCs, B/W and color TV cameras, and TV equipment. This paper describes the laboratory outline and presents the computer vision system and the strategies that have been studied and are being developed at I.E.N. `Galileo Ferraris'. The system is based on several tasks that cooperate to integrate information gathered from different processes and sources of knowledge. Some preliminary results are presented showing the performances of the system.

  5. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring of photocatalytic activity promoted by graphene in a microfluidic reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan; Lin, Beichen; Ge, Likai; Guo, Hongchen; Chen, Xinyi; Lu, Miao

    2016-06-01

    Photocatalytic microreactors have been utilized as rapid, versatile platforms for the characterization of photocatalysts. In this work, a photocatalytic microreactor integrated with absorption spectroscopy was proposed for the real-time monitoring of photocatalytic activity using different catalysts. The validity of this method was investigated by the rapid screening on the photocatalytic performance of a titanium oxide (TiO2)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet for the degradation of methylene blue under monochromatic visible irradiation. The sampling interval time could be minimized to 10 s for achieving real-time detection. The best photocatalytic activity was observed for an optimized TiO2/GO weight mixing ratio of 7:11, with a reaction rate constant up to 0.067 min‑1. The addition of GO into TiO2 enhances photocatalytic activity and adsorption of MB molecules. The synthetic reaction rate constant was up to approximately 0.11 min‑1, which was also the highest among the catalysts. The microreactor exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility without weakening the performance of the photocatalysts. Consequently, the photocatalytic microreactor is promising as a simple, portable, and rapid screening tool for new photocatalysts.

  6. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working.

    PubMed

    Pancardo, Pablo; Acosta, Francisco D; Hernández-Nolasco, José Adán; Wister, Miguel A; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Working (AAW) is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers' comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS) happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS. PMID:26184218

  7. The Real Time Mission Monitor: A Situational Awareness Tool For Managing Experiment Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Goodman, Michael; Parker, Philip; Freudinger, Larry; He, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, airborne and surface data sets; weather information; model and forecast outputs; and vehicle state data (e.g., aircraft navigation, satellite tracks and instrument field-of-views) for field experiment management RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses experiment during summer 2006 in Cape Verde, Africa. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols.

  8. Real-time monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce; Van Laer, Koen; Owusu, Theresa N E; Ezeriņa, Daria; Pastor-Flores, Daniel; Amponsah, Prince Saforo; Tursch, Anja; Dick, Tobias P

    2016-06-01

    Genetically encoded probes based on the H2O2-sensing proteins OxyR and Orp1 have greatly increased the ability to detect elevated H2O2 levels in stimulated or stressed cells. However, these proteins are not sensitive enough to monitor metabolic H2O2 baseline levels. Using yeast as a platform for probe development, we developed two peroxiredoxin-based H2O2 probes, roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR and roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCPΔCR, that afford such sensitivity. These probes are ∼50% oxidized under 'normal' unstressed conditions and are equally responsive to increases and decreases in H2O2. Hence, they permit fully dynamic, real-time measurement of basal H2O2 levels, with subcellular resolution, in living cells. We demonstrate that expression of these probes does not alter endogenous H2O2 homeostasis. The roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR probe revealed real-time interplay between basal H2O2 levels and partial oxygen pressure. Furthermore, it exposed asymmetry in H2O2 trafficking between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix and a strong correlation between matrix H2O2 levels and cellular growth rate.

  9. A cellular isolation system for real-time single-cell oxygen consumption monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Dragavon, Joe; Molter, Tim; Young, Cody; Strovas, Tim; McQuaide, Sarah; Holl, Mark; Zhang, Meng; Cookson, Brad; Jen, Alex; Lidstrom, Mary; Meldrum, Deirdre; Burgess, Lloyd

    2008-01-01

    The development of a cellular isolation system (CIS) that enables the monitoring of single-cell oxygen consumption rates in real time is presented. The CIS was developed through a multidisciplinary effort within the Microscale Life Sciences Center (MLSC) at the University of Washington. The system comprises arrays of microwells containing Pt-porphyrin-embedded polystyrene microspheres as the reporter chemistry, a lid actuator system and a gated intensified imaging camera, all mounted on a temperature-stabilized confocal microscope platform. Oxygen consumption determination experiments were performed on RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells as proof of principle. Repeatable and consistent measurements indicate that the oxygen measurements did not adversely affect the physiological state of the cells measured. The observation of physiological rates in real time allows studies of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in oxygen consumption rate to be performed. Such studies have implications in understanding the role of mitochondrial function in the progression of inflammatory-based diseases, and in diagnosing and treating such diseases. PMID:18522927

  10. Real-time monitoring of carbonarius DNA structured biochip by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manera, M. G.; Rella, R.; Spadavecchia, J.; Moreau, J.; Canva, M.

    2008-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) studies, performed on a specially designed system exploiting the Kretschmann configuration, have been carried out to develop a DNA sensor for the detection of gene mutations accounting for the analysis of a fungin species which can proliferate especially in cereals, producing toxic compounds such as mycotoxins. The SPRI system has been used in order to study the hybridization process of ssDNA carbonarius probes immobilized onto a bio-functionalized Au surface in order to detect in real time the mutations in a DNA fragment. The SPRI system is a good choice for real-time monitoring of hybridization dynamics on an array of immobilized oligonucleotide probes because of the high sensitivity in characterization of ultra-thin films adsorbed onto gold or other noble metal surfaces. Using this technique, local changes in the reflectivity of a thin metal film describe the hybridization process between the molecules tethered to the surface and those sent in solution in the test chamber. The increase in the greyscale levels of the images (representing the functionalized gold traps) during the hybridization process demonstrated the occurrence of the binding event. The process has been proven to be reversible and specific for the investigated probes, since no signal has been detected in the presence of a negative control which is a non-complementary target.

  11. Real time charge efficiency monitoring for nickel electrodes in NICD and NIH2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The charge efficiency of nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery cells is critical in spacecraft applications for determining the amount of time required for a battery to reach a full state of charge. As the nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries approach about 90 percent state of charge, the charge efficiency begins to drop towards zero, making estimation of the total amount of stored charge uncertain. Charge efficiency estimates are typically based on prior history of available capacity following standardized conditions for charge and discharge. These methods work well as long as performance does not change significantly. A relatively simple method for determining charge efficiencies during real time operation for these battery cells would be a tremendous advantage. Such a method was explored and appears to be quite well suited for application to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery cells. The charge efficiency is monitored in real time, using only voltage measurements as inputs. With further evaluation such a method may provide a means to better manage charge control of batteries, particularly in systems where a high degree of autonomy or system intelligence is required.

  12. Real-time QCM-D monitoring of cellular responses to different cytomorphic agents.

    PubMed

    Fatisson, Julien; Azari, Fereshteh; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2011-03-15

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) is used for real-time in situ detection of cytoskeletal changes in live primary endothelial cells in response to different cytomorphic agents; namely, the surfactant Triton-X 100 (TX-100) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reproducible dissipation versus frequency (Df) plots provide unique signatures of the interactions between endothelial cells and cytomorphic agents. While the QCM-D response for TX-100 can be described in two steps (changes in the osmotic pressure of the medium prior to observing the expected cell lysis), LPS results in a different single-phase signal. A complementary analysis is carried out to evaluate the possible competitive effects of TX-100 and LPS through the QCM-D response to BAEC stress by analyzing the Df plots obtained. Experiments with non-toxic components (fibronectin or serum) produce a different QCM-D response than that observed for the toxic chemicals, suggesting the use of Df plot signatures for the possible differentiation between cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic effects. Observations obtained by QCM-D signals are confirmed by conducting fluorescence microscopy at the same time. Our results show that a fast (few minutes) sensing response can be obtained in situ and in real-time. The conclusions from this study suggest that QCM-D can potentially be used in biodetection for applications in drug screening tests and diagnosis. PMID:21237634

  13. Periodical gait asymmetry assessment using real-time wireless gyroscopes gait monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Gouwanda, D; Senanayake, S M N A

    2011-11-01

    A real-time gait monitoring system that incorporates an immediate and periodical assessment of gait asymmetry is described. This system was designed for gait analysis and rehabilitation of patients with pathologic gait. It employs wireless gyroscopes to measure the angular rate of the thigh and shank in real time. Cross-correlation of the lower extremity (Cc(norm)), and normalized Symmetry Index (SI(norm)) are implemented as new approaches to periodically determine the gait asymmetry in each gait cycle. Cc(norm) evaluates the signal patterns measured by wireless gyroscopes in each gait cycle. SI(norm) determines the movement differences between the left and right limb. An experimental study was conducted to examine the viability of these methods. Artificial asymmetrical gait was simulated by placing a load on one side of the limbs. Results showed that there were significant differences between the normal gait and asymmetrical gait (p < 0.01). They also indicated that the system worked well in periodically assessing the gait asymmetry.

  14. A real-time monitoring system for airborne particle shape and size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, P. H.; Alexander-Buckley, K.; Hirst, E.; Saunders, S.; Clark, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a new instrument for the study of airborne particles. The instrument performs a rapid analysis of the transient spatial intensity distribution of laser-light scattered by individual aerosol particles drawn from an ambient environment and uses this to characterize the particles in terms of both size and shape parameters. Analyses are carried out at peak particle throughput rates of up to 10,000 particles per second, and semiquantitative data relating to the size and shape (or more correctly asymmetry) spectra of the sampled particles are provided to the user via a graphical display which is refreshed or updated at 5-s intervals. In addition to the real-time display of data, continuous data recording allows subsequent replay of measurements at either normal or high speed. Preliminary experimental results are given for aerosols of both spherical and nonspherical particle types, and these suggest the instrument may find use in environmental monitoring of aerosols or clouds where some real-time semiquantitative assessment of particulate size and shape spectra may be desirable as an aid to characterizing the aerosol and its constituent particulate species.

  15. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring of photocatalytic activity promoted by graphene in a microfluidic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Lin, Beichen; Ge, Likai; Guo, Hongchen; Chen, Xinyi; Lu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic microreactors have been utilized as rapid, versatile platforms for the characterization of photocatalysts. In this work, a photocatalytic microreactor integrated with absorption spectroscopy was proposed for the real-time monitoring of photocatalytic activity using different catalysts. The validity of this method was investigated by the rapid screening on the photocatalytic performance of a titanium oxide (TiO2)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet for the degradation of methylene blue under monochromatic visible irradiation. The sampling interval time could be minimized to 10 s for achieving real-time detection. The best photocatalytic activity was observed for an optimized TiO2/GO weight mixing ratio of 7:11, with a reaction rate constant up to 0.067 min−1. The addition of GO into TiO2 enhances photocatalytic activity and adsorption of MB molecules. The synthetic reaction rate constant was up to approximately 0.11 min−1, which was also the highest among the catalysts. The microreactor exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility without weakening the performance of the photocatalysts. Consequently, the photocatalytic microreactor is promising as a simple, portable, and rapid screening tool for new photocatalysts. PMID:27346555

  16. Real-time Monitoring and Simulating of Urban Flood, a Case Study in Guangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Wang, X.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years urban flood frequently occurred and seriously impacted city's normal operation, particular on transportation. The increase of urban flood could be attributed to many factors, such as the increase of impervious land surface and extreme precipitation, the decrease of surface storage capacity, poor maintenance of drainage utilities, and so on. In order to provide accurate and leading prediction on urban flooding, this study acquires precise urban topographic data via air-borne Lidar system, collects detailed underground drainage pipes, and installs in-situ monitoring networks on precipitation, water level, video record and traffic speed in the downtown area of Panyu District, Guangzhou, China. Based on the above data acquired, a urban flood model with EPA SWMM5 is established to simulate the flooding and inundation processes in the study area of 20 km2. The model is driven by the real-time precipitation data and calibrated by the water level data, which are converted to flooding volume with precise topographic data. After calibration, the model could be employed to conduct sensitivity analysis for investigating primary factors of urban flooding, and to simulate the flooding processes in different scenarios, which are beneficial to assessment of flooding risk and drainage capacity. This model is expected to provide real-time forecasting in emergency management.

  17. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  18. Real-Time Monitoring of Cellular Bioenergetics with a Multi-Analyte Screen-Printed Electrode

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jennifer R.; Cognata, Andrew C.; Davis, Anna N.; Wikswo, John P.; Cliffel, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of changes to cellular bioenergetics can provide new insights into mechanisms of action for disease and toxicity. This work describes the development of a multi-analyte screen-printed electrode for the detection of analytes central to cellular bioenergetics: glucose, lactate, oxygen, and pH. Platinum screen-printed electrodes were designed in-house and printed by Pine Research Instrumentation. Electrochemical plating techniques were used to form quasi-reference and pH electrodes. A Dimatix materials inkjet printer was used to deposit enzyme and polymer films to form sensors for glucose, lactate, and oxygen. These sensors were evaluated in bulk solution and microfluidic environments, and found to behave reproducibly and possess a lifetime of up to six weeks. Linear ranges and limits of detection for enzyme-based sensors were found to have an inverse relationship with enzyme loading, and iridium oxide pH sensors were found to have super-Nernstian responses. Preliminary measurements where the sensor was enclosed within a microfluidic channel with RAW 264.7 macrophages were performed to demonstrate the sensors’ capabilities for performing real-time microphysiometry measurements. PMID:26125545

  19. Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

    2014-05-01

    Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Topčiderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Topčiderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Topčiderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Topčiderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

  20. Real time health monitoring and control system methodology for flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, Sanjay

    This dissertation is concerned with the Near Real-time Autonomous Health Monitoring of Flexible Space Structures. The dynamics of multi-body flexible systems is uncertain due to factors such as high non-linearity, consideration of higher modal frequencies, high dimensionality, multiple inputs and outputs, operational constraints, as well as unexpected failures of sensors and/or actuators. Hence a systematic framework of developing a high fidelity, dynamic model of a flexible structural system needs to be understood. The fault detection mechanism that will be an integrated part of an autonomous health monitoring system comprises the detection of abnormalities in the sensors and/or actuators and correcting these detected faults (if possible). Applying the robust control law and the robust measures that are capable of detecting and recovering/replacing the actuators rectifies the actuator faults. The fault tolerant concept applied to the sensors will be in the form of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF is going to weigh the information coming from multiple sensors (redundant sensors used to measure the same information) and automatically identify the faulty sensors and weigh the best estimate from the remaining sensors. The mechanization is comprised of instrumenting flexible deployable panels (solar array) with multiple angular position and rate sensors connected to the data acquisition system. The sensors will give position and rate information of the solar panel in all three axes (i.e. roll, pitch and yaw). The position data corresponds to the steady state response and the rate data will give better insight on the transient response of the system. This is a critical factor for real-time autonomous health monitoring. MATLAB (and/or C++) software will be used for high fidelity modeling and fault tolerant mechanism.

  1. Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated

  2. Real-time monitoring of fine-scale changes in fault and earthquake properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The high-resolution back-processing and re-analysis of long-term seismic archives has generated new data that provide insight into the fine-scale structures of active faults and seismogenic processes that control them. Such high-precision studies are typically carried out retro-actively, for a specific time period and/or fault of interest. For the last 5 years we have been operating a real-time system, DD-RT, that uses waveform cross-correlation and double-difference algorithms to automatically compute high-precision (10s to 100s of meters) locations of new earthquakes recorded by the Northern California Seismic System. These locations are computed relative to a high-resolution, 30 year long background archive that includes over half a million earthquakes, 20 million seismograms, and 1.7 billion correlation measurements. In this paper we present results from using the DD-RT system and its relational database to monitor changes in earthquake and fault properties at the scale of individual events. We developed baseline characteristics for repeating earthquakes, fore- and aftershock sequences, and fault zone properties, against which we evaluate new events in near real-time. We developed these baseline characteristics from a comprehensive analysis of the double-difference archive, and developed real-time modules that plug into the DD-RT system for monitoring deviations from these baselines. For example, we defined baseline characteristics for 8,500 repeating earthquake sequences, including more than 25,000 events, that were found in an extensive search across Northern California. Precise measurements of relative hypocenter positions, differential magnitudes, and waveform similarity are used to automatically associate new member events to existing sequences. This allows us to monitor changes relative to baseline parameters such as recurrence intervals and their coefficient of variation (CV). Alerting of such changes are especially important for large sequences of

  3. Real-time monitoring of intracellular signal transduction in PC12 cells by non-adiabatic tapered optical fiber biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Asadollahi, A.; Noraeipoor, Z.; Dargahi, L.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time observation of intracellular process of signal transduction is very useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications as well as for basic research work of cell biology. For feasible and reagentless observation of intracellular alterations in real time, we examined the use of a nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber (NATOF) biosensor for monitoring of intracellular signal transduction that was mainly translocation of protein kinase C via refractive index change in PC12 cells adhered on tapered fiber sensor without any indicator reagent. PC12 cells were stimulated with KCl . Our results suggest that complex intracellular reactions could be real-time monitored and characterized by NATOF biosensor.

  4. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it shows that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.

  5. Research of a real-time overload monitoring and response system of bridges and roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Shi, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Ou, Jinping

    2012-04-01

    Due to the general overloading of vehicles, premature failure of bridges and roads are more and more obvious. Structural behaviors of engineering structures need real-time monitoring and diagnosis, timely detection of structural damage, evaluation of their safety, and necessary precautions, in order to prevent major accident such as the collapse of bridges and roads. But the existing monitoring system, which is very expensive, does not apply to the low budget structures. Therefore, a potable, low-cost, low-power structural monitoring system, which consists of electric resistance strain gauge, collection and execution unit, graph collection system and analysis software, is designed in this paper. The system can collect the critical data about the force of pavement to take the certain judge algorithm. The alarm will be given and the overburden data will be transmitted to IDC to make the further analysis when the pavement is overburden. At the same time, the plates of overweight vehicles can be collected and sent to the relevant departments. The system has the features of simple structure, easy realization, and low cost, which fills the application gaps in structural health monitoring of low-budget project.

  6. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  7. Real-time Web GIS to monitor marine water quality using wave glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneesa Amiruddin, Siti

    2016-06-01

    In the past decade, Malaysia has experienced unprecedented economic development and associated socioeconomic changes. As environmentalists anticipate these changes could have negative impacts on the marine and coastal environment, a comprehensive, continuous and long term marine water quality monitoring programme needs to be strengthened to reflect the government's aggressive mind-set of enhancing its authority in protection, preservation, management and enrichment of vast resources of the ocean. Wave Glider, an autonomous, unmanned marine vehicle provides continuous ocean monitoring at all times and is durable in any weather condition. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is ideally suited as a tool for the presentation of data derived from continuous monitoring of locations, and used to support and deliver information to environmental managers and the public. Combined with GeoEvent Processor, an extension from ArcGIS for Server, it extends the Web GIS capabilities in providing real-time data from the monitoring activities. Therefore, there is a growing need of Web GIS for easy and fast dissemination, sharing, displaying and processing of spatial information which in turn helps in decision making for various natural resources based applications.

  8. Exploring infrared sensoring for real time welding defects monitoring in GTAW.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Sadek C A; Franco, Fernand Díaz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an infrared sensor for monitoring the welding pool temperature in a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process. The purpose of the study is to develop a real time system control. It is known that the arc welding pool temperature is related to the weld penetration depth; therefore, by monitoring the temperature, the arc pool temperature and penetration depth are also monitored. Various experiments were performed; in some of them the current was varied and the temperature changes were registered, in others, defects were induced throughout the path of the weld bead for a fixed current. These simulated defects resulted in abrupt changes in the average temperature values, thus providing an indication of the presence of a defect. The data has been registered with an acquisition card. To identify defects in the samples under infrared emissions, the timing series were analyzed through graphics and statistic methods. The selection of this technique demonstrates the potential for infrared emission as a welding monitoring parameter sensor.

  9. Impedimetric real-time monitoring of neural pluripotent stem cell differentiation process on microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Diana; Obendorf, Janine; Englich, Beate; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Semkova, Vesselina; Haupt, Simone; Girard, Mathilde; Peschanski, Marc; Brüstle, Oliver; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2016-12-15

    In today's neurodevelopment and -disease research, human neural stem/progenitor cell-derived networks represent the sole accessible in vitro model possessing a primary phenotype. However, cultivation and moreover, differentiation as well as maturation of human neural stem/progenitor cells are very complex and time-consuming processes. Therefore, techniques for the sensitive non-invasive, real-time monitoring of neuronal differentiation and maturation are highly demanded. Using impedance spectroscopy, the differentiation of several human neural stem/progenitor cell lines was analyzed in detail. After development of an optimum microelectrode array for reliable and sensitive long-term monitoring, distinct cell-dependent impedimetric parameters that could specifically be associated with the progress and quality of neuronal differentiation were identified. Cellular impedance changes correlated well with the temporal regulation of biomolecular progenitor versus mature neural marker expression as well as cellular structure changes accompanying neuronal differentiation. More strikingly, the capability of the impedimetric differentiation monitoring system for the use as a screening tool was demonstrated by applying compounds that are known to promote neuronal differentiation such as the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. The non-invasive impedance spectroscopy-based measurement system can be used for sensitive and quantitative monitoring of neuronal differentiation processes. Therefore, this technique could be a very useful tool for quality control of neuronal differentiation and moreover, for neurogenic compound identification and industrial high-content screening demands in the field of safety assessment as well as drug development.

  10. MyNewsFlash: A System for Near Real-Time Variable Star Monitoring and Alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Turner, R.; Malatesta, K.; Simonsen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    MyNewsFlash is an automated and customizable system for distributing timely variable star data. It supplies near real-time reports to the user of the latest activity of a variable star or class of stars. The stars it monitors, the frequency of report delivery, the delivery format, and more features are all completely customizable so the reader receives only reports of information he or she wants and nothing more or less. In addition, manually-generated alerts called Special MyNewsFlashes are occasionally sent out with additional information on special or abnormal behavior of a variable star. MyNewsFlash evolved from the AAVSO News Flash, an electronic publication dedicated to outbursts of popular cataclysmic variable stars

  11. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Changing Diabetes Behavior in Real Time and Retrospectively

    PubMed Central

    Block, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of both the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Studies supported the role of tight glucose control in reducing long-term complications of diabetes. There is further evidence that glycemic variability may be better correlated with the risk for complications than sustained hyperglycemia. These studies reinforce the need to work toward improved glucose control with minimal variability in patients with diabetes. Continuous glucose monitoring technology offers a means of obtaining a more complete picture of glucose patterns and can be used to aid in identifying trends in glycemic variability, especially overnight and after meals when blood glucose testing is not usually performed. Increased access to retrospective trends, the addition of real-time glucose alarms, and prospective trend data can be advantageous in motivating and evaluating behavior change. PMID:19885215

  12. Stretchable Electrochemical Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ling; Jin, Zi-He; Liu, Yan-Hong; Hu, Xue-Bo; Qin, Yu; Xu, Jia-Quan; Fan, Cui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2016-03-24

    Stretchable electrochemical sensors are conceivably a powerful technique that provides important chemical information to unravel elastic and curvilinear living body. However, no breakthrough was made in stretchable electrochemical device for biological detection. Herein, we synthesized Au nanotubes (NTs) with large aspect ratio to construct an effective stretchable electrochemical sensor. Interlacing network of Au NTs endows the sensor with desirable stability against mechanical deformation, and Au nanostructure provides excellent electrochemical performance and biocompatibility. This allows for the first time, real-time electrochemical monitoring of mechanically sensitive cells on the sensor both in their stretching-free and stretching states as well as sensing of the inner lining of blood vessels. The results demonstrate the great potential of this sensor in electrochemical detection of living body, opening a new window for stretchable electrochemical sensor in biological exploration.

  13. Real-time concentration monitoring in microfluidic system via plasmonic nanocrescent arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bingpu; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Ting; Gao, Yibo; Huang, Yingzhou; Wen, Weijia

    2016-03-15

    In this work, on-chip bio/chemical sensor was reported based on localized surface plasmon resonance of nanocrescent patterns fabricated via electron beam lithography. The nanocrescent arrays with different dimensional features exhibited controllable plasmonic properties in accordance with the simulation results based on the finite-difference time-domain model. The highest refractive index sensitivity of the fabricated samples was achieved to be ~699.2 nm/RIU with a figure of merit of ~3.1 when the two opposite crescents own a gap of ~43.3 nm. Such obtained plasmonic sensor was further integrated into the microfluidic system which can simply control the specific analyte concentrations via tuning the flow rate ratios between two injecting microstreams. Our method has successfully demonstrated the capability of the nanocrescent patterns as on-chip plasmonic bio/chemical sensor for real-time monitoring of dynamic concentrations in the microchannel. PMID:26436326

  14. Laboratory real-time and in situ monitoring of mechanochemical milling reactions by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gracin, Davor; Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Friščić, Tomislav; Halasz, Ivan; Užarević, Krunoslav

    2014-06-10

    Mechanistic understanding of mechanochemical reactions is sparse and has been acquired mostly by stepwise ex situ analysis. We describe herein an unprecedented laboratory technique to monitor the course of mechanochemical transformations at the molecular level in situ and in real time by using Raman spectroscopy. The technique, in which translucent milling vessels are used that enable the collection of a Raman scattering signal from the sample as it is being milled, was validated on mechanochemical reactions to form coordination polymers and organic cocrystals. The technique enabled the assessment of the reaction dynamics and course under different reaction conditions as well as, for the first time, direct insight into the behavior of liquid additives during liquid-assisted grinding.

  15. Real-time monitoring of amyloid growth in a rigid gel matrix.

    PubMed

    Dalpadado, Roshan C; Maat, Hendrik; Carver, John A; Hall, Damien

    2016-10-15

    We demonstrate the real-time monitoring of the growth of amyloid-protein aggregates in a semi-rigid gel environment constructed from a 5% w/v gelatin solution. The kinetics of amyloid fibril growth from reduced and carboxy-methylated κ-casein occurring in the gel medium was contrasted against that obtained in a regular solution assay. Aggregation kinetics were recorded using Thioflavin T fluorescence. Transmission electron microscopy was used to confirm the aggregates' existence and morphology. The current demonstration of controlled amyloid growth in a gel environment represents the first step towards development of an experimental model for investigating the role of spatial and medium factors in the kinetics of aggregation-based proteopathies.

  16. Ingestible Biosensors for Real-Time Medical Adherence Monitoring: MyTMed

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Peter R.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Boyer, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    Medication nonadherence complicates the management and treatment of chronic disease. Nonadherence to medications is associated with significant mortality, accelerated disease progression, and increased health care costs. My/Treatment/Medication (MyTMed) is a novel adherence monitoring system that obtains direct measures of medication adherence/nonadherence. MyTMed consists of 1) a “digital pill” with a radiofrequency emitter that activates on contact with gastric pH; 2) a relay Hub that captures the radiofrequency signal and transmits it to 3) a cloud based server that connects patient and physicians via a bidirectional interface. In our increasingly mobile world, MyTMed is able to provide medication ingestion data and deliver interventions in real time that support adherence. We describe the patient-centered design of MyTMed as well as the behavioral theory supporting the interface architecture. PMID:27182206

  17. Wearable autonomous microsystem with electrochemical gas sensor array for real-time health and safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Mu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaowen; Guo, Min; Jin, Rong; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high demand for a wearable autonomous multi-analyte gas sensor system for real-time environmental monitoring. This paper presents a system level solution through synergistic integration of sensors, electronics, and data analysis algorithms. Electrochemical sensors featuring ionic liquids were chosen to provide low-power room-temperature operation, rapid response, high sensitivity, good selectivity, and a long operating life with low maintenance. The system utilizes a multi-mode electrochemical instrumentation circuit that combines all signal condition functions within a single microelectronics chip to minimize system cost, size and power consumption. Embedded sensor array signal processing algorithms enable gas classification and concentration estimation within a real-world mixture of analytes. System design and integration methodologies are described, and preliminary results are shown for a first generation SO(2) sensor and a thumb-drive sized prototype system.

  18. Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

    2012-12-01

    We have introduced recently new methods to determine rapidly the tsunami potential and magnitude of large earthquakes (e.g., Lomax and Michelini, 2009ab, 2011, 2012). To validate these methods we have implemented them along with other new algorithms within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it, http://early-est.alomax.net). Early-est is a lightweight software package for real-time earthquake monitoring (including phase picking, phase association and event detection, location, magnitude determination, first-motion mechanism determination, ...), and for tsunami early warning based on discriminants for earthquake tsunami potential. In a simulation using archived broadband seismograms for the devastating M9, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Early-est determines: the epicenter within 3 min after the event origin time, discriminants showing very high tsunami potential within 5-7 min, and magnitude Mwpd(RT) 9.0-9.2 and a correct shallow-thrusting mechanism within 8 min. Real-time monitoring with Early-est givess similar results for most large earthquakes using currently available, real-time seismogram data. Here we summarize some of the key algorithms within Early-est that enable rapid, real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami early warning worldwide: >>> FilterPicker - a general purpose, broad-band, phase detector and picker (http://alomax.net/FilterPicker); >>> Robust, simultaneous association and location using a probabilistic, global-search; >>> Period-duration discriminants TdT0 and TdT50Ex for tsunami potential available within 5 min; >>> Mwpd(RT) magnitude for very large earthquakes available within 10 min; >>> Waveform P polarities determined on broad-band displacement traces, focal mechanisms obtained with the HASH program (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002); >>> SeisGramWeb - a portable-device ready seismogram viewer using web-services in a browser (http://alomax.net/webtools/sgweb/info.html). References (see also: http

  19. Real-time monitoring of amyloid growth in a rigid gel matrix.

    PubMed

    Dalpadado, Roshan C; Maat, Hendrik; Carver, John A; Hall, Damien

    2016-10-15

    We demonstrate the real-time monitoring of the growth of amyloid-protein aggregates in a semi-rigid gel environment constructed from a 5% w/v gelatin solution. The kinetics of amyloid fibril growth from reduced and carboxy-methylated κ-casein occurring in the gel medium was contrasted against that obtained in a regular solution assay. Aggregation kinetics were recorded using Thioflavin T fluorescence. Transmission electron microscopy was used to confirm the aggregates' existence and morphology. The current demonstration of controlled amyloid growth in a gel environment represents the first step towards development of an experimental model for investigating the role of spatial and medium factors in the kinetics of aggregation-based proteopathies. PMID:27477869

  20. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (∼1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  1. Integrated real-time PCR for detection and monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in water systems.

    PubMed

    Yaradou, Diaraf Farba; Hallier-Soulier, Sylvie; Moreau, Sophie; Poty, Florence; Hillion, Yves; Reyrolle, Monique; André, Janine; Festoc, Gabriel; Delabre, Karine; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome; Jarraud, Sophie

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated a ready-to-use real-time quantitative Legionella pneumophila PCR assay system by testing 136 hot-water-system samples collected from 55 sites as well as 49 cooling tower samples collected from 20 different sites, in parallel with the standard culture method. The PCR assay was reproducible and suitable for routine quantification of L. pneumophila. An acceptable correlation between PCR and culture results was obtained for sanitary hot-water samples but not for cooling tower samples. We also monitored the same L. pneumophila-contaminated cooling tower for 13 months by analyzing 104 serial samples. The culture and PCR results were extremely variable over time, but the curves were similar. The differences between the PCR and culture results did not change over time and were not affected by regular biocide treatment. This ready-to-use PCR assay for L. pneumophila quantification could permit more timely disinfection of cooling towers. PMID:17194840

  2. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  3. Real-time monitoring of rolling-circle amplification using a modified molecular beacon design.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Mats; Gullberg, Mats; Dahl, Fredrik; Szuhai, Karoly; Raap, Anton K

    2002-07-15

    We describe a method to monitor rolling-circle replication of circular oligonucleotides in dual-color and in real-time using molecular beacons. The method can be used to study the kinetics of the polymerization reaction and to amplify and quantify circularized oligonucleotide probes in a rolling-circle amplification (RCA) reaction. Modified molecular beacons were made of 2'-O-Me-RNA to prevent 3' exonucleolytic degradation by the polymerase used. Moreover, the complement of one of the stem sequences of the molecular beacon was included in the RCA products to avoid fluorescence quenching due to inter-molecular hybridization of neighboring molecular beacons hybridizing to the concatemeric polymerization product. The method allows highly accurate quantification of circularized DNA over a broad concentration range by relating the signal from the test DNA circle to an internal reference DNA circle reporting in a distinct fluorescence color.

  4. The optothermal approach to a real time monitoring of glucose content during fermentation by brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Favier, J P; Bicanic, D; Helander, P; van Iersel, M

    1997-06-01

    During production of both normal and low-alcohol beers, sugar is fermented to ethanol, carbon dioxide and several flavour products. Tight control of fermentation is necessary in order to keep production costs low, and to prevent formation of excessive ethanol in low-alcohol beer. Several types of control devices based on, e.g., determination of carbon dioxide, ethanol, and extract have been developed so far; the main disadvantage of these devices is their unsuitability for on-line applications. Here, the optothermal window was used in a laboratory experiment as a new sensor for real time monitoring fermentation of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional techniques.

  5. Real-time monitoring of enzyme-free strand displacement cascades by colorimetric assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ruixue; Wang, Boya; Hong, Fan; Zhang, Tianchi; Jia, Yongmei; Huang, Jiayu; Hakeem, Abdul; Liu, Nannan; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan

    2015-03-01

    The enzyme-free toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction has shown potential for building programmable DNA circuits, biosensors, molecular machines and chemical reaction networks. Here we report a simple colorimetric method using gold nanoparticles as signal generators for the real-time detection of the product of the strand displacement cascade. During the process the assembled gold nanoparticles can be separated, resulting in a color change of the solution. This assay can also be applied in complex mixtures, fetal bovine serum, and to detect single-base mismatches. These results suggest that this method could be of general utility to monitor more complex enzyme-free strand displacement reaction-based programmable systems or for further low-cost diagnostic applications.The enzyme-free toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction has shown potential for building programmable DNA circuits, biosensors, molecular machines and chemical reaction networks. Here we report a simple colorimetric method using gold nanoparticles as signal generators for the real-time detection of the product of the strand displacement cascade. During the process the assembled gold nanoparticles can be separated, resulting in a color change of the solution. This assay can also be applied in complex mixtures, fetal bovine serum, and to detect single-base mismatches. These results suggest that this method could be of general utility to monitor more complex enzyme-free strand displacement reaction-based programmable systems or for further low-cost diagnostic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and analytical data are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00697j

  6. Real Time, On Line Crop Monitoring and Analysis with Near Global Landsat-class Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlyguin, D.; Hulina, S.; Crutchfield, J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Frantz, R.

    2015-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of GDA technology for operational, automated generation of 10-30 meter near global mosaics of Landsat-class data for visualization, monitoring, and analysis. Current version of the mosaic combines Landsat 8 and Landsat 7. Sentinel-2A imagery will be added once it is operationally available. The mosaics are surface reflectance calibrated and are analysis ready. They offer full spatial resolution and all multi-spectral bands of the source imagery. Each mosaic covers all major agricultural regions of the world and 16 day time window. 2014-most current dates are supported. The mosaics are updated in real-time, as soon as GDA downloads Landsat imagery, calibrates it to the surface reflectances, and generates data gap masks (all typically under 10 minutes for a Landsat scene). The technology eliminates the complex, multi-step, hands-on process of data preparation and provides imagery ready for repetitive, field-to-country analysis of crop conditions, progress, acreages, yield, and production. The mosaics can be used for real-time, on-line interactive mapping and time series drilling via GeoSynergy webGIS platform. The imagery is of great value for improved, persistent monitoring of global croplands and for the operational in-season analysis and mapping of crops across the globe in USDA FAS purview as mandated by the US government. The presentation will overview operational processing of Landsat-class mosaics in support of USDA FAS efforts and will look into 2015 and beyond.

  7. Real-time monitoring of pre-collapse phenomena using locations of seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarpe, S. P.; Burkhard, N. R.

    1985-09-01

    We attempted to develop a method for real-time monitoring of pre-collapse activity in the cavity region using seismic trace data recorded following EGMONT. Signals from an array of eight three-component, short-period seismometer stations were recorded using a new high dynamic range, portable digital telemetry and recording system. Three stations were located at 1 DOB, three at 2 DOB, and two at 4 DOB. Seismic data were recorded continuously before, during, and after collapse. As has been reported by previous studies, the pre-collapse period was characterized by a continuous high level of activity, but unlike previous studies, the recording system was not saturated, which allowed us to attempt to process the information. We discovered that all of the signals at a given location are very similar, but that the character is very different at the separate locations. A variety of computer processing techniques were attempted with the aim of obtaining source locations accurately enough to monitor chimney growth, i.e., +-50m both horizontally and vertically. These included the traditional methods of picking arrival times of phases at the different stations and using the time differences to locate the source, as well as more unusual approaches. We concluded that an array of sensors such as that used for EGMONT will not produce satisfactory results with real-time processing. We did, however, come up with an approach using several small, closely-spaced groups of sensors called arrays that should be more successful for this type of situation. The arrays, if designed properly, will take advantage of the similarity of the signals at a given location to estimate source direction. The directions from several arrays to one source can be combined to determine the source location.

  8. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  9. Development of real-time voltage stability monitoring tool for power system transmission network using Synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulok, Md Kamrul Hasan

    Intelligent and effective monitoring of power system stability in control centers is one of the key issues in smart grid technology to prevent unwanted power system blackouts. Voltage stability analysis is one of the most important requirements for control center operation in smart grid era. With the advent of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Synchrophasor technology, real time monitoring of voltage stability of power system is now a reality. This work utilizes real-time PMU data to derive a voltage stability index to monitor the voltage stability related contingency situation in power systems. The developed tool uses PMU data to calculate voltage stability index that indicates relative closeness of the instability by producing numerical indices. The IEEE 39 bus, New England power system was modeled and run on a Real-time Digital Simulator that stream PMU data over the Internet using IEEE C37.118 protocol. A Phasor data concentrator (PDC) is setup that receives streaming PMU data and stores them in Microsoft SQL database server. Then the developed voltage stability monitoring (VSM) tool retrieves phasor measurement data from SQL server, performs real-time state estimation of the whole network, calculate voltage stability index, perform real-time ranking of most vulnerable transmission lines, and finally shows all the results in a graphical user interface. All these actions are done in near real-time. Control centers can easily monitor the systems condition by using this tool and can take precautionary actions if needed.

  10. High-Performance Bioinstrumentation for Real-Time Neuroelectrochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I.; Wang, Chu; Rogers, Michelle L.; Gowers, Sally A. N.; Leong, Chi L.; Boutelle, Martyn G.; Drakakis, Emmanuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as an important cause of death and severe disability in all age groups and particularly in children and young adults. Central to TBIs devastation is a delayed secondary injury that occurs in 30–40% of TBI patients each year, while they are in the hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Secondary injuries reduce survival rate after TBI and usually occur within 7 days post-injury. State-of-art monitoring of secondary brain injuries benefits from the acquisition of high-quality and time-aligned electrical data i.e., ElectroCorticoGraphy (ECoG) recorded by means of strip electrodes placed on the brains surface, and neurochemical data obtained via rapid sampling microdialysis and microfluidics-based biosensors measuring brain tissue levels of glucose, lactate and potassium. This article progresses the field of multi-modal monitoring of the injured human brain by presenting the design and realization of a new, compact, medical-grade amperometry, potentiometry and ECoG recording bioinstrumentation. Our combined TBI instrument enables the high-precision, real-time neuroelectrochemical monitoring of TBI patients, who have undergone craniotomy neurosurgery and are treated sedated in the ICU. Electrical and neurochemical test measurements are presented, confirming the high-performance of the reported TBI bioinstrumentation. PMID:27242477

  11. Design and Implementation of an Interactive Web-Based Near Real-Time Forest Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; DeVries, Ben; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Herold, Martin; Bergsma, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive web-based near real-time (NRT) forest monitoring system using four levels of geographic information services: 1) the acquisition of continuous data streams from satellite and community-based monitoring using mobile devices, 2) NRT forest disturbance detection based on satellite time-series, 3) presentation of forest disturbance data through a web-based application and social media and 4) interaction of the satellite based disturbance alerts with the end-user communities to enhance the collection of ground data. The system is developed using open source technologies and has been implemented together with local experts in the UNESCO Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. The results show that the system is able to provide easy access to information on forest change and considerably improves the collection and storage of ground observation by local experts. Social media leads to higher levels of user interaction and noticeably improves communication among stakeholders. Finally, an evaluation of the system confirms the usability of the system in Ethiopia. The implemented system can provide a foundation for an operational forest monitoring system at the national level for REDD+ MRV applications.

  12. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectroscopy: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, S.M.; Mowry, C.D.; Keenan, M.R.; Bender, S.F.A.; Owen, T.

    1997-04-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission to the atmosphere is of great concern to semiconductor manufacturing industries, research laboratories, the public, and regulatory agencies. Some industries are seeking ways to reduce emissions by reducing VOCs at the point of use (or generation). This paper discusses the requirements, design, calibration, and use of a sampling inlet/quadrupole mass spectrometer system for monitoring VOCs in a semiconductor manufacturing production line. The system uses chemical ionization to monitor compounds typically found in the lithography processes used to manufacture semiconductor devices (e.g., acetone, photoresist). The system was designed to be transportable from tool to tool in the production line and to give the operator real-time feedback so the process(es) can be adjusted to minimize VOC emissions. Detection limits ranging from the high ppb range for acetone to the low ppm range fore other lithography chemicals were achieved using chemical ionization mass spectroscopy at a data acquisition rate of approximately 1 mass spectral scan (30 to 200 daltons) per second. A demonstration of exhaust VOC monitoring was performed at a working semiconductor fabrication facility during actual wafer processing.

  13. A Real-Time Health Monitoring System for Remote Cardiac Patients Using Smartphone and Wearable Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kakria, Priyanka; Tripathi, N K; Kitipawang, Peerapong

    2015-01-01

    Online telemedicine systems are useful due to the possibility of timely and efficient healthcare services. These systems are based on advanced wireless and wearable sensor technologies. The rapid growth in technology has remarkably enhanced the scope of remote health monitoring systems. In this paper, a real-time heart monitoring system is developed considering the cost, ease of application, accuracy, and data security. The system is conceptualized to provide an interface between the doctor and the patients for two-way communication. The main purpose of this study is to facilitate the remote cardiac patients in getting latest healthcare services which might not be possible otherwise due to low doctor-to-patient ratio. The developed monitoring system is then evaluated for 40 individuals (aged between 18 and 66 years) using wearable sensors while holding an Android device (i.e., smartphone under supervision of the experts). The performance analysis shows that the proposed system is reliable and helpful due to high speed. The analyses showed that the proposed system is convenient and reliable and ensures data security at low cost. In addition, the developed system is equipped to generate warning messages to the doctor and patient under critical circumstances. PMID:26788055

  14. A Real-Time Health Monitoring System for Remote Cardiac Patients Using Smartphone and Wearable Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kakria, Priyanka; Tripathi, N K; Kitipawang, Peerapong

    2015-01-01

    Online telemedicine systems are useful due to the possibility of timely and efficient healthcare services. These systems are based on advanced wireless and wearable sensor technologies. The rapid growth in technology has remarkably enhanced the scope of remote health monitoring systems. In this paper, a real-time heart monitoring system is developed considering the cost, ease of application, accuracy, and data security. The system is conceptualized to provide an interface between the doctor and the patients for two-way communication. The main purpose of this study is to facilitate the remote cardiac patients in getting latest healthcare services which might not be possible otherwise due to low doctor-to-patient ratio. The developed monitoring system is then evaluated for 40 individuals (aged between 18 and 66 years) using wearable sensors while holding an Android device (i.e., smartphone under supervision of the experts). The performance analysis shows that the proposed system is reliable and helpful due to high speed. The analyses showed that the proposed system is convenient and reliable and ensures data security at low cost. In addition, the developed system is equipped to generate warning messages to the doctor and patient under critical circumstances.

  15. High-Performance Bioinstrumentation for Real-Time Neuroelectrochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I; Wang, Chu; Rogers, Michelle L; Gowers, Sally A N; Leong, Chi L; Boutelle, Martyn G; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as an important cause of death and severe disability in all age groups and particularly in children and young adults. Central to TBIs devastation is a delayed secondary injury that occurs in 30-40% of TBI patients each year, while they are in the hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Secondary injuries reduce survival rate after TBI and usually occur within 7 days post-injury. State-of-art monitoring of secondary brain injuries benefits from the acquisition of high-quality and time-aligned electrical data i.e., ElectroCorticoGraphy (ECoG) recorded by means of strip electrodes placed on the brains surface, and neurochemical data obtained via rapid sampling microdialysis and microfluidics-based biosensors measuring brain tissue levels of glucose, lactate and potassium. This article progresses the field of multi-modal monitoring of the injured human brain by presenting the design and realization of a new, compact, medical-grade amperometry, potentiometry and ECoG recording bioinstrumentation. Our combined TBI instrument enables the high-precision, real-time neuroelectrochemical monitoring of TBI patients, who have undergone craniotomy neurosurgery and are treated sedated in the ICU. Electrical and neurochemical test measurements are presented, confirming the high-performance of the reported TBI bioinstrumentation. PMID:27242477

  16. Real-time low-level pollution monitoring for IAQ applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkovich, O.P.; Joffe, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Quantitative air analysis provides valuable information for indoor air quality (IAQ) investigations in airports, hospitals, museums, etc. Currently, grab sampling is the most frequently used monitoring technique. However, for certain applications real-time monitoring (RTM) is more suitable. RTM addresses a number of problems unattainable with traditional collecting devices. RTM is especially beneficial when fast response and quick analysis turnaround are required. RTM proves indispensable in monitoring short concentration spikes, accurate measuring of low pollution levels, and applications requiring in situ statistical validation. We present our results of applying RTM to IAQ problems. We have detected ozone, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with sensitivity in the low parts-per-billion range and response time of a few seconds. Using RTM, we have determined penetration routes of combustion engine exhaust fumes into building air handling systems, have carried out on-site evaluation of the remaining chemical filter capacity, and have performed fast and comprehensive IAQ surveys in a 2,000,000 ft{sup 2} museum storage facility. We present examples when RTM enables better understanding of indoor air chemistry. We also discuss future applications of RTM and give recommendations for IAQ practitioners. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A Real-Time Health Monitoring System for Remote Cardiac Patients Using Smartphone and Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kakria, Priyanka; Tripathi, N. K.; Kitipawang, Peerapong

    2015-01-01

    Online telemedicine systems are useful due to the possibility of timely and efficient healthcare services. These systems are based on advanced wireless and wearable sensor technologies. The rapid growth in technology has remarkably enhanced the scope of remote health monitoring systems. In this paper, a real-time heart monitoring system is developed considering the cost, ease of application, accuracy, and data security. The system is conceptualized to provide an interface between the doctor and the patients for two-way communication. The main purpose of this study is to facilitate the remote cardiac patients in getting latest healthcare services which might not be possible otherwise due to low doctor-to-patient ratio. The developed monitoring system is then evaluated for 40 individuals (aged between 18 and 66 years) using wearable sensors while holding an Android device (i.e., smartphone under supervision of the experts). The performance analysis shows that the proposed system is reliable and helpful due to high speed. The analyses showed that the proposed system is convenient and reliable and ensures data security at low cost. In addition, the developed system is equipped to generate warning messages to the doctor and patient under critical circumstances. PMID:26788055

  18. Design and Implementation of an Interactive Web-Based Near Real-Time Forest Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; DeVries, Ben; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Herold, Martin; Bergsma, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive web-based near real-time (NRT) forest monitoring system using four levels of geographic information services: 1) the acquisition of continuous data streams from satellite and community-based monitoring using mobile devices, 2) NRT forest disturbance detection based on satellite time-series, 3) presentation of forest disturbance data through a web-based application and social media and 4) interaction of the satellite based disturbance alerts with the end-user communities to enhance the collection of ground data. The system is developed using open source technologies and has been implemented together with local experts in the UNESCO Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. The results show that the system is able to provide easy access to information on forest change and considerably improves the collection and storage of ground observation by local experts. Social media leads to higher levels of user interaction and noticeably improves communication among stakeholders. Finally, an evaluation of the system confirms the usability of the system in Ethiopia. The implemented system can provide a foundation for an operational forest monitoring system at the national level for REDD+ MRV applications. PMID:27031694

  19. Real-Time Debonding Monitoring of Composite Repaired Materials via Electrical, Acoustic, and Thermographic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikos, S. A.; Kordatos, E. Z.; Matikas, T. E.; Paipetis, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical properties of composite materials have been thoroughly investigated recently for the detection and monitoring of damage in carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) under mechanical loading. Carbon nanotubes are incorporated in the polymer matrix of CFRPs for the enhancement of their electrical properties. The electrical properties have shown to be sensitive to the damage state of the material and hence their monitoring provides the profile of their structural deterioration. The aim of the paper is the cross-validation and benchmarking of an electrical potential change monitoring (EPCM) technique against acoustic emission (AE) and lock-in thermography (LT). All techniques successfully identified damage and its propagation. Thermography was more efficient in quantifying damage and describing dynamically the debond topology, as it provided full 2D imaging of the debond in real time. EPCM was successful in providing quantitative information on debond propagation and its directionality. AE provided consistent information on damage propagation. All techniques identified three stages in the fatigue life of the interrogated coupons. The representation of the fatigue behavior as a function of life fraction, the correlation of AE data with EPCM and LT data, and most importantly the consistent behavior of all tested coupons allowed for both the direct and indirect cross-correlation of all employed methodologies, which consistently identified all aforementioned fatigue life stages.

  20. Design and Implementation of an Interactive Web-Based Near Real-Time Forest Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; DeVries, Ben; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Herold, Martin; Bergsma, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive web-based near real-time (NRT) forest monitoring system using four levels of geographic information services: 1) the acquisition of continuous data streams from satellite and community-based monitoring using mobile devices, 2) NRT forest disturbance detection based on satellite time-series, 3) presentation of forest disturbance data through a web-based application and social media and 4) interaction of the satellite based disturbance alerts with the end-user communities to enhance the collection of ground data. The system is developed using open source technologies and has been implemented together with local experts in the UNESCO Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. The results show that the system is able to provide easy access to information on forest change and considerably improves the collection and storage of ground observation by local experts. Social media leads to higher levels of user interaction and noticeably improves communication among stakeholders. Finally, an evaluation of the system confirms the usability of the system in Ethiopia. The implemented system can provide a foundation for an operational forest monitoring system at the national level for REDD+ MRV applications. PMID:27031694

  1. Real time monitoring of urban surface water quality using a submersible, tryptophan-like fluorescence sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamis, Kieran; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Stevens, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Due to the recent development of field-deployable optical sensor technology, continuous quantification and characterization of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) is possible now. Tryptophan-like (T1) fluorescence has the potential to be a particularly useful indicator of human influence on water quality as T1 peaks are associated with the input of labial organic carbon (e.g. sewage or farm waste) and its microbial breakdown. Hence, real-time recording of T1 fluorescence could be particular useful for monitoring waste water infrastructure, treatment efficiency and the identification of contamination events at higher temporal resolution than available hitherto. However, an understanding of sensor measurement repeatability/transferability and interaction with environmental parameters (e.g. turbidity) is required. Here, to address this practical knowledge gap, we present results from a rigorous test of a commercially available submersible tryptophan fluorometer (λex 285, λem 350). Sensor performance was first examined in the laboratory by incrementally increasing turbidity under controlled conditions. Further to this the sensor was integrated into a multi-parameter sonde and field tests were undertaken involving: (i) a spatial sampling campaign across a range of surface water sites in the West Midlands, UK; and (ii) collection of high resolution (sub-hourly) samples from an urban stream (Bournbrook, Birmingham, U.K). To determine the ability of the sensor to capture spatiotemporal dynamics of urban waters DOM was characterized for each site or discrete time step using Excitation Emission Matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC. In both field and laboratory settings fluorescence intensity was attenuated at high turbidity due to suspended particles increasing absorption and light scattering. For the spatial survey, instrument readings were compared to those obtained by a laboratory grade fluorometer (Varian Cary Eclipse) and a strong, linear relationship was apparent

  2. Real-time water and wastewater quality monitoring using LED-based fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgeman, John; Zakharova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there have been a number of attempts to design and introduce into water management tools that are capable of measuring organic and microbial matter in real time and in situ. This is important, as the delivery of safe water to customers, and the discharge of good quality effluent to rivers are primary concerns to water undertakers. A novel, LED-based portable fluorimeter 'Duo Fluor' has been designed and constructed at the University of Birmingham to monitor the quality of (waste)water continuously and in real time, and its performance has been assessed in a range of environments. To be of use across a range of environments, special attention must be paid to two crucially important characteristics of such instruments, i.e. their sensitivity and robustness. Thus, the objectives of this study were: 1. To compare the performance (in terms of their sensitivity and robustness) of the Duo Fluor and two other commercial fluorescence devices in laboratory conditions. 2. To assess the performance of the Duo Fluor in situ, in real time at a 450,000PE WwTW. Initially, the impact of quinine sulphate (QS), a highly fluorescent alkaloid with high quantum fluorescence yield, on peak T fluorescence in environmental waters was examined for the Duo Fluor and two commercially available, chamber-based fluorimeters, (F1) and (F2). The instruments' responses to three scenarios were assessed: 1. Deionised water (DW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 2. Environmental water (pond water, PW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 3. Different water samples from various environmental source. The results show that the facility to amend gain settings and the suitable choice of gain are crucial to obtaining reliable data on both peaks T and C in a wide range of water types. The Duo Fluor offers both of these advantages whilst commercially available instruments currently do not. The Duo Fluor was subsequently fixed at the final effluent (FE) discharge point of a WwTW and FE

  3. Preliminary Results from Real-Time GPS Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, J. O.; Guillemot, C.

    2013-12-01

    A web-based monitoring system has been implemented to display displacement estimates in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations in the San Francisco Bay area. Tools and utilities developed in-house are used to visually analyze the quality of estimated positions and gain a better understanding of the challenges involved in integrating displacement data into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms. Comparisons of results between differential and precise position estimates obtained from a variety of software packages have led to a closer examination of the epoch-per-epoch latencies, or delays with which those estimates are generated. For example, although position estimates from precise point positioning, with ambiguity resolution, (PPP-AR) computed in real-time are reasonably stable over short-time scales, latencies of 50 seconds or more currently preclude their useful incorporation into EEW algorithms. On the other hand, the latencies for differential position range between less than a second to 10 seconds. The large latencies for PPP-AR are partly due to the fact that displacement estimates obtained from GPS cannot yet be generated at the source but must rely on centralized processing that incorporates instantaneous clock corrections which, in turn must be obtained from external agencies. The latencies, however, are not as critical for the study of post-seismic deformation that occurs minutes to hours following an earthquake. Computation of the power spectra of time series provides a quantitative means to compare the precision of estimated positions that are obtained from various software that process the data in real-time. To first order, the current set of processing algorithms, including those using differential position and PPP-AR, provides nearly equal performance in terms of temporal correlations which is represented by their power spectra. At the shortest periods

  4. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Harjadi, P.; Fauzi; Gitews Seismology Group

    2010-12-01

    The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network - consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations - out of these 21 stations in Indonesia - is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The seismological processing software as part

  5. Real-time optical monitoring of permanent lesion progression in radiofrequency ablated cardiac tissue (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-02-01

    Despite considerable advances in guidance of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapies for atrial fibrillation, success rates have been hampered by an inability to intraoperatively characterize the extent of permanent injury. Insufficient lesions can elusively create transient conduction blockages that eventually reconduct. Prior studies suggest significantly greater met-myoglobin (Mmb) concentrations in the lesion core than those in the healthy myocardium and may serve as a marker for irreversible tissue damage. In this work, we present real-time monitoring of permanent injury through spectroscopic assessment of Mmb concentrations at the catheter tip. Atrial wedges (n=6) were excised from four fresh swine hearts and submerged under pulsatile flow of warm (37oC) phosphate buffered saline. A commercial RFA catheter inserted into a fiber optic sheath allowed for simultaneous measurement of tissue diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra (500-650nm) during application of RF energy. Optical measurements were continuously acquired before, during, and post-ablation, in addition to healthy neighboring tissue. Met-myoglobin, oxy-myoglobin, and deoxy-myoglobin concentrations were extracted from each spectrum using an inverse Monte Carlo method. Tissue injury was validated with Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Time courses revealed a rapid increase in tissue Mmb concentrations at the onset of RFA treatment and a gradual plateauing thereafter. Extracted Mmb concentrations were significantly greater post-ablation (p<0.0001) as compared to healthy tissue and correlated well with histological assessment of severe thermal tissue destruction. On going studies are aimed at integrating these findings with prior work on near infrared spectroscopic lesion depth assessment. These results support the use of spectroscopy-facilitated guidance of RFA therapies for real-time permanent injury estimation.

  6. Latest Development of Real-Time Strong-Motion Monitoring System in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, N.; Wu, Y.; Shin, T.; Teng, T.

    2003-12-01

    Based on the experience of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) has made substantial improvements to the earthquake rapid report system. Besides the current use of digital lease phone line and internet transmission, the satellite link for station to center is setup for backup. The station is also equipped with UPS to prevent the failure of electricity power. This backup link system is designed as automatically switching in case of ground link interrupted. On the other hand, two real-time seismic sub-network are deployed stand alone at Hualein (East coast of Taiwan) and Tainan (south Taiwan) stations separately. The sub-network only manipulates real-time seismic data of nearby stations to shorten the procession time. The configuration and function of sub-network can be monitored and changed by Taipei center through computer link. Results from sub-network can be sent to Taipei center simultaneously. The collective use of these redundant systems significantly improves the capability and reliability of seismic emergency response. It will provide more robust foundation to develop earthquake early warning system. To safeguard train transportation from a disaster earthquake, the CWB assists Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) to establish a seismic alert system including 44 3-component accelerographs along the track of the round-the-island Taiwan railway system. The configuration of the system is similar to the use of sub-network of CWB. It becomes the third backup of earthquake report system. In addition, ground vibration of a TRA instrument exceeds 180 gals, the power of the railway will be automatically cut-off to slow down the nearby train.

  7. A HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) approach for bio-digestate real time monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    One of the key issues in developing Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) is represented by the optimal utilisation of fertilisers and herbicidal to reduce the impact of Nitrates in soils and the environment. In traditional agriculture practises, these substances were provided to the soils through the use of chemical products (inorganic/organic fertilizers, soil improvers/conditioners, etc.), usually associated to several major environmental problems, such as: water pollution and contamination, fertilizer dependency, soil acidification, trace mineral depletion, over-fertilization, high energy consumption, contribution to climate change, impacts on mycorrhizas, lack of long-term sustainability, etc. For this reason, the agricultural market is more and more interested in the utilisation of organic fertilisers and soil improvers. Among organic fertilizers, there is an emerging interest for the digestate, a sub-product resulting from anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. Several studies confirm the high properties of digestate if used as organic fertilizer and soil improver/conditioner. Digestate, in fact, is somehow similar to compost: AD converts a major part of organic nitrogen to ammonia, which is then directly available to plants as nitrogen. In this paper, new analytical tools, based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) sensing devices, and related detection architectures, is presented and discussed in order to define and apply simple to use, reliable, robust and low cost strategies finalised to define and implement innovative smart detection engines for digestate characterization and monitoring. This approach is finalized to utilize this "waste product" as a valuable organic fertilizer and soil conditioner, in a reduced impact and an "ad hoc" soil fertilisation perspective. Furthermore, the possibility to contemporary utilize the HSI approach to realize a real time physicalchemical characterisation of agricultural soils (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, etc., detection) could

  8. Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

    2012-06-01

    Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

  9. Near real-time GRACE gravity field solutions for hydrological monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvas, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Güntner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Within the EGSIEM (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management) project, a demonstrator for a near real-time (NRT) gravity field service which provides daily GRACE gravity field solutions will be established. Compared to the official GRACE gravity products, these NRT solutions will increase the temporal resolution from one month to one day and reduce the latency from currently two months to five days. This fast availability allows the monitoring of total water storage variations and of hydrological extreme events as they occur, in contrast to a 'confirmation after occurrence' as is the situation today. The service will be jointly run by GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences) and Graz University of Technology, with each analysis center providing an independent solution. A Kalman filter framework, in which GRACE data is combined with prior information, serves as basis for the gravity field recovery in order to increase the redundancy of the gravity field estimates. The on-line nature of the NRT service necessitates a tailored smoothing algorithm as opposed to post-processing applications, where forward-backward smoothing can be applied. This contribution gives an overview on the near real-time processing chain and highlights differences between the computed NRT solutions and the standard GRACE products. We discuss the special characteristics of the Kalman filtered gravity field models as well as derived products and give an estimate of the expected error levels. Additionally, we show the added value of the NRT solutions through comparison of the first results of the pre-operational phase with in-situ data and monthly GRACE gravity field models.

  10. Interagency Collaborators Develop and Implement ForWarn, a National, Near Real Time Forest Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    ForWarn is a satellite-based forest monitoring tool that is being used to detect and monitor disturbances to forest conditions and forest health. It has been developed through the synergistic efforts, capabilities and contributions of four federal agencies, including the US Forest Service Eastern Forest and Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Centers, NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and US Geological Survey Earth (USGS) Earth Research Observation System (EROS), as well as university partners, including the University of North Carolina Asheville's National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center (NEMAC). This multi-organizational partnership is key in producing a unique, path finding near real-time forest monitoring system that is now used by many federal, state and local government end-users. Such a system could not have been produced so effectively by any of these groups on their own. The forests of the United States provide many societal values and benefits, ranging from ecological, economic, cultural, to recreational. Therefore, providing a reliable and dependable forest and other wildland monitoring system is important to ensure the continued health, productivity, sustainability and prudent use of our Nation's forests and forest resources. ForWarn does this by producing current health indicator maps of our nation's forests based on satellite data from NASA's MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors. Such a capability can provide noteworthy value, cost savings and significant impact at state and local government levels because at those levels of government, once disturbances are evident and cause negative impacts, a response must be carried out. The observations that a monitoring system like ForWarn provide, can also contribute to a much broader-scale understanding of vegetation disturbances.

  11. Real-time monitoring of auxin vesicular exocytotic efflux from single plant protoplasts by amperometry at microelectrodes decorated with nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Tao; Hu, Liang-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Rong-Sheng; Cheng, Zhi; Chen, Shi-Jing; Amatore, Christian; Huang, Wei-Hua; Huo, Kai-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Recent biochemical results suggest that auxin (IAA) efflux is mediated by a vesicular cycling mechanism, but no direct detection of vesicular IAA release from single plant cells in real-time has been possible up to now. A TiC@C/Pt-QANFA micro-electrochemical sensor has been developed with high sensitivity in detection of IAA, and it allows real-time monitoring and quantification of the quantal release of auxin from single plant protoplast by exocytosis.

  12. All-IP wireless sensor networks for real-time patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Le, Deguang; Cheng, Hongbin; Xie, Conghua

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes the all-IP WSNs (wireless sensor networks) for real-time patient monitoring. In this paper, the all-IP WSN architecture based on gateway trees is proposed and the hierarchical address structure is presented. Based on this architecture, the all-IP WSN can perform routing without route discovery. Moreover, a mobile node is always identified by a home address and it does not need to be configured with a care-of address during the mobility process, so the communication disruption caused by the address change is avoided. Through the proposed scheme, a physician can monitor the vital signs of a patient at any time and at any places, and according to the IPv6 address he can also obtain the location information of the patient in order to perform effective and timely treatment. Finally, the proposed scheme is evaluated based on the simulation, and the simulation data indicate that the proposed scheme might effectively reduce the communication delay and control cost, and lower the packet loss rate.

  13. A novel real-time health monitoring system for unmanned vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, David C.; Ouyang, Lien; Qing, Peter; Li, Irene

    2008-04-01

    Real-time monitoring the status of in-service structures such as unmanned vehicles can provide invaluable information to detect the damages to the structures on time. The unmanned vehicles can be maintained and repaired in time if such damages are found. One typical cause of damages of unmanned vehicles is from impacts caused by bumping into some obstacles or being hit by some objects such as hostile fire. This paper introduces a novel impact event sensing system that can detect the location of the impact events and the force-time history of the impact events. The system consists of the Piezo-electric sensor network, the hardware platform and the analysis software. The new customized battery-powered impact event sensing system supports up to 64-channel parallel data acquisition. It features an innovative low-power hardware trigger circuit that monitors 64 channels simultaneously. The system is in the sleep mode most of the time. When an impact event happens, the system will wake up in micro-seconds and detect the impact location and corresponding force-time history. The system can be combined with the SMART sensing system to further evaluate the impact damage severity.

  14. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  15. All-IP wireless sensor networks for real-time patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Le, Deguang; Cheng, Hongbin; Xie, Conghua

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes the all-IP WSNs (wireless sensor networks) for real-time patient monitoring. In this paper, the all-IP WSN architecture based on gateway trees is proposed and the hierarchical address structure is presented. Based on this architecture, the all-IP WSN can perform routing without route discovery. Moreover, a mobile node is always identified by a home address and it does not need to be configured with a care-of address during the mobility process, so the communication disruption caused by the address change is avoided. Through the proposed scheme, a physician can monitor the vital signs of a patient at any time and at any places, and according to the IPv6 address he can also obtain the location information of the patient in order to perform effective and timely treatment. Finally, the proposed scheme is evaluated based on the simulation, and the simulation data indicate that the proposed scheme might effectively reduce the communication delay and control cost, and lower the packet loss rate. PMID:25153310

  16. Real-time Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS) Monitoring Using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Maleke, Caroline; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2009-04-14

    Monitoring changes in tissue mechanical properties to optimally control thermal exposure is important in thermal therapies. The amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging (HMI) for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique is a radiation force technique, which has the capability of tracking tissue stiffness during application of an oscillatory force. The feasibility of HMIFU for assessing mechanical tissue properties has been previously demonstrated. In this paper, a confocal transducer, combining a 4.5 MHz FUS transducer and a 3.3 MHz phased array imaging transducer, was used. The FUS transducer was driven by AM wave at 15 Hz with an acoustic intensity (I{sub spta}) was equal to 1050 W/cm{sup 2}. A lowpass digital filter was used to remove the spectrum of the higher power beam prior to displacement estimation. The resulting axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D cross-correlation with a correlation window of 2 mm and a 92.5% overlap. A thermocouple was also used to measure the temperature near the ablated region. 2D HMI-images from six-bovine-liver specimens indicated the onset of coagulation necrosis through changes in amplitude displacement after coagulation due to its simultaneous probing and heating capability. The HMI technique can thus be used to monitor temperature-related stiffness changes of tissues during thermal therapies in real-time, i.e., without interrupting or modifying the treatment protocol.

  17. A multichannel, real-time MRI RF power monitor for independent SAR determination

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Qian Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Accurate measurements of the RF power delivered during clinical MRI are essential for safety and regulatory compliance, avoiding inappropriate restrictions on clinical MRI sequences, and for testing the MRI safety of peripheral and interventional devices at known RF exposure levels. The goal is to make independent RF power measurements to test the accuracy of scanner-reported specific absorption rate (SAR) over the extraordinary range of operating conditions routinely encountered in MRI. Methods: A six channel, high dynamic range, real-time power profiling system was designed and built for monitoring power delivery during MRI up to 440 MHz. The system was calibrated and used in two 3 T scanners to measure power applied to human subjects during MRI scans. The results were compared with the scanner-reported SAR. Results: The new power measurement system has highly linear performance over a 90 dB dynamic range and a wide range of MRI duty cycles. It has about 0.1 dB insertion loss that does not interfere with scanner operation. The measurements of whole-body SAR in volunteers showed that scanner-reported SAR was significantly overestimated by up to about 2.2 fold. Conclusions: The new power monitor system can accurately and independently measure RF power deposition over the wide range of conditions routinely encountered during MRI. Scanner-reported SAR values are not appropriate for setting exposure limits during device or pulse sequence testing.

  18. Real time bridge scour monitoring with magneto-inductive field coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Andriy; Pommerenke, David; Chen, Genda; Maheshwari, Pratik; Shinde, Satyajeet; Pilla, Viswa; Zheng, Yahong R.

    2013-04-01

    Scour was responsible for most of the U.S. bridges that collapsed during the past 40 years. The maximum scour depth is the most critical parameter in bridge design and maintenance. Due to scouring and refilling of river-bed deposits, existing technologies face a challenge in measuring the maximum scour depth during a strong flood. In this study, a new methodology is proposed for real time scour monitoring of bridges. Smart Rocks with embedded electronics are deployed around the foundation of a bridge as field agents. With wireless communications, these sensors can send their position change information to a nearby mobile station. This paper is focused on the design, characterization, and performance validation of active sensors. The active sensors use 3-axis accelerometers/ magnetometers with a magneto-inductive communication system. In addition, each sensor includes an ID, a timer, and a battery level indicator. A Smart Rock system enables the monitoring of the most critical scour condition and time by logging and analyzing sliding, rolling, tilting, and heading of the spatially distributed sensors.

  19. Real-time monitoring of enzymatic DNA hydrolysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Robert H H; Gato, Sara; Versluis, Cees; Gerbaux, Pascal; Kleanthous, Colin; Heck, Albert J R

    2005-01-01

    A fast and direct method for the monitoring of enzymatic DNA hydrolysis was developed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We incorporated the use of a robotic chip-based electrospray ionization source for increased reproducibility and throughput. The mass spectrometry method allows the detection of DNA fragments and intact non-covalent protein-DNA complexes in a single experiment. We used the method to monitor in real-time single-stranded (ss) DNA hydrolysis by colicin E9 DNase and to characterize transient non-covalent E9 DNase-DNA complexes present during the hydrolysis reaction. The mass spectra showed that E9 DNase interacts with ssDNA in the absence of a divalent metal ion, but is strictly dependent on Ni2+ or Co2+ for ssDNA hydrolysis. We demonstrated that the sequence selectivity of E9 DNase is dependent on the ratio protein:ssDNA or the ssDNA concentration and that only 3'-hydroxy and 5'-phosphate termini are produced. It was also shown that the homologous E7 DNase is reactive with Zn2+ as transition metal ion and that this DNase displays a different sequence selectivity. The method described is of general use to analyze the reactivity and specificity of nucleases. PMID:15956101

  20. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for real-time monitoring of integrated-constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Scholz, Miklas; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Siobhán; Sani, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring large-scale treatment wetlands is costly and time-consuming, but required by regulators. Some analytical results are available only after 5 days or even longer. Thus, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were developed to predict the effluent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N from a full-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) treating domestic wastewater. The ANFIS models were developed and validated with a 4-year data set from the ICW system. Cost-effective, quicker and easier to measure variables were selected as the possible predictors based on their goodness of correlation with the outputs. A self-organizing neural network was applied to extract the most relevant input variables from all the possible input variables. Fuzzy subtractive clustering was used to identify the architecture of the ANFIS models and to optimize fuzzy rules, overall, improving the network performance. According to the findings, ANFIS could predict the effluent quality variation quite strongly. Effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations were predicted relatively accurately by other effluent water quality parameters, which can be measured within a few hours. The simulated effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations well fitted the measured concentrations, which was also supported by relatively low mean squared error. Thus, ANFIS can be useful for real-time monitoring and control of ICW systems. PMID:25607665

  1. A multichannel, real-time MRI RF power monitor for independent SAR determination

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate measurements of the RF power delivered during clinical MRI are essential for safety and regulatory compliance, avoiding inappropriate restrictions on clinical MRI sequences, and for testing the MRI safety of peripheral and interventional devices at known RF exposure levels. The goal is to make independent RF power measurements to test the accuracy of scanner-reported specific absorption rate (SAR) over the extraordinary range of operating conditions routinely encountered in MRI. Methods: A six channel, high dynamic range, real-time power profiling system was designed and built for monitoring power delivery during MRI up to 440 MHz. The system was calibrated and used in two 3 T scanners to measure power applied to human subjects during MRI scans. The results were compared with the scanner-reported SAR. Results: The new power measurement system has highly linear performance over a 90 dB dynamic range and a wide range of MRI duty cycles. It has about 0.1 dB insertion loss that does not interfere with scanner operation. The measurements of whole-body SAR in volunteers showed that scanner-reported SAR was significantly overestimated by up to about 2.2 fold. Conclusions: The new power monitor system can accurately and independently measure RF power deposition over the wide range of conditions routinely encountered during MRI. Scanner-reported SAR values are not appropriate for setting exposure limits during device or pulse sequence testing. PMID:22559603

  2. Real-Time Monitoring of Catheter-Related Biofilm Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Yin, Hong; Xu, Xianxing; Cheng, Yuanguo; Cai, Yun; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    This study was done to establish a mouse model for catheter-related biofilm infection suitable to bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) Xen5 grown on catheter disks in vitro and in an implanted mouse model was real-time monitored during a 7-day study period using BLI. The numbers of integrated brightness (IB) and viable bacterial count (VBC) in the biofilm disks in vitro were highest at 24 h after inoculation; the IB of biofilm in vivo was increased until 24 h after implantation. A statistical correlation was observed between IB and VBC in vitro by linear regression analysis. The actual VBC value in vivo can be estimated accurately by IB without sacrifice. In addition, we monitored the change in white blood cells (WBCs) during infection. The number of WBCs on day 7 was significantly higher in the infection group than in the control group. This study indicates that BLI is a simple, fast, and sensitive method to measure catheter biofilm infection in mice.

  3. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  4. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  5. Real-time damage monitoring scheme in PSC girder bridge using output-only acceleration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Tae; Park, Jae-Hyung; Do, Han-Sung; Lee, Jung-Mi

    2007-04-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been increasingly utilized for structural health monitoring (SHM) due to the advantage that it needs only a few training data to detect damage in structures. In this study, a new damage monitoring method using a set of parallel ANNs and acceleration signals is developed for alarming locations of damage in PSC girder bridges. First, theoretical backgrounds are described. The problem addressed in this paper is defined as the stochastic process. In addition, a parallel ANN-algorithm using output-only acceleration responses is newly designed for damage detection in real time. The cross-covariance of two acceleration-signals measured at two different locations is selected as the feature representing the structural condition. Neural networks are trained for potential loading patterns and damage scenarios of the target structure for which its actual loadings are unknown. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated from numerical model tests on PSC beams for which accelerations were acquired before and after several damage cases.

  6. Real-time nondestructive structural health monitoring using support vector machines and wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, Ahmet; Singh, Ambuj K.; Shin, Peter; Fountain, Tony; Jasso, Hector; Yan, Linjun; Elgamal, Ahmed

    2005-05-01

    We present an alternative to visual inspection for detecting damage to civil infrastructure. We describe a real-time decision support system for nondestructive health monitoring. The system is instrumented by an integrated network of wireless sensors mounted on civil infrastructures such as bridges, highways, and commercial and industrial facilities. To address scalability and power consumption issues related to sensor networks, we propose a three-tier system that uses wavelets to adaptively reduce the streaming data spatially and temporally. At the sensor level, measurement data is temporally compressed before being sent upstream to intermediate communication nodes. There, correlated data from multiple sensors is combined and sent to the operation center for further reduction and interpretation. At each level, the compression ratio can be adaptively changed via wavelets. This multi-resolution approach is useful in optimizing total resources in the system. At the operation center, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used to detect the location of potential damage from the reduced data. We demonstrate that the SVM is a robust classifier in the presence of noise and that wavelet-based compression gracefully degrades its classification accuracy. We validate the effectiveness of our approach using a finite element model of the Humboldt Bay Bridge. We envision that our approach will prove novel and useful in the design of scalable nondestructive health monitoring systems.

  7. Evaluation of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry for onsite monitoring of batch slurry reactions.

    PubMed

    Cho, David S; Gibson, Stephen C; Bhandari, Deepak; McNally, Mary Ellen; Hoffman, Ron M; Cook, Kelsey D; Song, Liguo

    2011-12-15

    Batch slurry reactions are widely used in the industrial manufacturing of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals and polymers. However, onsite monitoring of batch slurry reactions is still not feasible in production plants due to the challenge in analyzing heterogeneous samples without complicated sample preparation procedures. In this study, direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) has been evaluated for the onsite monitoring of a model batch slurry reaction. The results suggested that automation of the sampling process of DART-MS is important to achieve quantitative results. With a sampling technique of manual sample deposition on melting point capillaries followed by automatic sample introduction across the helium beam, relative standard deviation (RSD) of the protonated molecule signals from the reaction product of the model batch slurry reaction ranged from 6 to 30%. This RSD range is improved greatly over a sampling technique of manual sample deposition followed by manual sample introduction where the RSDs are up to 110%. Furthermore, with the semi-automated sampling approach, semi-quantitative analysis of slurry samples has been achieved. Better quantification is expected with a fully automated sampling approach.

  8. Reusable Floating-Electrode Sensor for Real-Time Electrophysiological Monitoring of Nonadherent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Ba, Viet Anh; Ta, Van-Thao; Park, Juhun; Park, Eun Jin; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    We herein report the development of a reusable floating-electrode sensor (FES) based on aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes, which allowed quantitatively monitoring the electrophysiological responses from nonadherent cells. The FES was used to measure the real-time responses of normal lung cells and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells to the addition of nicotine. The SCLC cells exhibited rather large electrophysiological responses to nicotine compared to normal cells, which was attributed to the overexpressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the SCLC cells. Importantly, using only a single device could measure repeatedly the responses of multiple individual cells to various drugs, enabling statistically meaningful measurements without errors from the device-to-device variations of the sensor characteristics. As results, that the treatment with drugs such as genistin or daidzein reduced Ca2+ influx in SCLC cells was found. Moreover, tamoxifen, has been known as an anti-estrogen compound, was found to only partly block the binding of daidzein to nAChRs. Our FES can be a promising tool for various biomedical applications such as drug screening and therapy monitoring.

  9. Monitoring RNA transcription in real time by using surface plasmon resonance

    PubMed Central

    Greive, Sandra J.; Weitzel, Steven E.; Goodarzi, Jim P.; Main, Lisa J.; Pasman, Zvi; von Hippel, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The decision to elongate or terminate the RNA chain at specific DNA template positions during transcription is kinetically regulated, but the methods used to measure the rates of these processes have not been sufficiently quantitative to permit detailed mechanistic analysis of the steps involved. Here, we use surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology to monitor RNA transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) in solution and in real time. We show that binding of RNAP to immobilized DNA templates to form active initiation or elongation complexes can be resolved and monitored by this method, and that changes during transcription that involve the gain or loss of bound mass, including the release of the sigma factor during the initiation–elongation transition, the synthesis of the RNA transcript, and the release of core RNAP and nascent RNA at intrinsic terminators, can all be observed. The SPR method also permits the discrimination of released termination products from paused and other intermediate complexes at terminators. We have used this approach to show that the rate constant for transcript release at intrinsic terminators tR2 and tR′ is ≈2–3 s−1 and that the extent of release at these terminators is consistent with known termination efficiencies. Simulation techniques have been used to fit the measured parameters to a simple kinetic model of transcription and the implications of these results for transcriptional regulation are discussed. PMID:18299563

  10. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Erik T; Dulay, Maria T; Zare, Richard N

    2016-06-21

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  11. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2004-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

  12. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  13. ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2002-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  14. Real time dynamic strain monitoring of optical links using the backreflection of live PSK data.

    PubMed

    Martins, H F; Shi, K; Thomsen, B C; Martin-Lopez, S; Gonzalez-Herraez, M; Savory, S J

    2016-09-19

    A major cause of faults in optical communication links is related to unintentional third party intrusions (normally related to civil/agricultural works) causing fiber breaks or cable damage. These intrusions could be anticipated and avoided by monitoring the dynamic strain recorded along the cable. In this work, a novel technique is proposed to implement real-time distributed strain sensing in parallel with an operating optical communication channel. The technique relies on monitoring the Rayleigh backscattered light from optical communication data transmitted using standard modulation formats. The system is treated as a phase-sensitive OTDR (ΦOTDR) using random and non-periodical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) phase-shift keying (PSK) pulse coding. An I/Q detection unit allows for a full (amplitude, phase and polarization) characterization of the backscattered optical signal, thus achieving a fully linear system in terms of ΦOTDR trace coding/decoding. The technique can be used with different modulation formats, and operation using 4 Gbaud single-polarization dual PSK and 4 Gbaud dual-polarization quadrature PSK is demonstrated. As a proof of concept, distributed sensing of dynamic strain with a sampling of 125 kHz and a spatial resolution of 2.5 cm (set by the bit size) over 500 m is demonstrated for applied sinusoidal strain signals of 500 Hz. The limitations and possibilities for improvement of the technique are also discussed. PMID:27661964

  15. Real-time monitoring of enzymatic DNA hydrolysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Robert H. H.; Gato, Sara; Versluis, Cees; Gerbaux, Pascal; Kleanthous, Colin; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2005-01-01

    A fast and direct method for the monitoring of enzymatic DNA hydrolysis was developed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We incorporated the use of a robotic chip-based electrospray ionization source for increased reproducibility and throughput. The mass spectrometry method allows the detection of DNA fragments and intact non-covalent protein–DNA complexes in a single experiment. We used the method to monitor in real-time single-stranded (ss) DNA hydrolysis by colicin E9 DNase and to characterize transient non-covalent E9 DNase–DNA complexes present during the hydrolysis reaction. The mass spectra showed that E9 DNase interacts with ssDNA in the absence of a divalent metal ion, but is strictly dependent on Ni2+ or Co2+ for ssDNA hydrolysis. We demonstrated that the sequence selectivity of E9 DNase is dependent on the ratio protein:ssDNA or the ssDNA concentration and that only 3′-hydroxy and 5′-phosphate termini are produced. It was also shown that the homologous E7 DNase is reactive with Zn2+ as transition metal ion and that this DNase displays a different sequence selectivity. The method described is of general use to analyze the reactivity and specificity of nucleases. PMID:15956101

  16. Real-Time Plasmonic Monitoring of Single Gold Amalgam Nanoalloy Electrochemical Formation and Stripping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Gang; Fossey, John S; Li, Meng; Xie, Tao; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Direct electrodeposition of mercury onto gold nanorods on an ITO substrate, without reducing agents, is reported. The growth of single gold amalgam nanoalloy particles and subsequent stripping was monitored in real-time monitoring by plasmonic effects and single-nanoparticle dark-field spectroelectrochemistry techniques. Time-dependent scattering spectral information conferred insight into the growth and stripping mechanism of a single nanoalloy particle. Four critical stages were observed: First, rapid deposition of Hg atoms onto Au nanorods; second, slow diffusion of Hg atoms into Au nanorods; third, prompt stripping of Hg atoms from Au nanorods; fourth, moderate diffusion from the inner core of Au nanorods. Under high Hg(2+) concentrations, homogeneous spherical gold amalgam nanoalloys were obtained. These results demonstrate that the morphology and composition of individual gold amalgam nanoalloys can be precisely regulated electrochemically. Moreover, gold amalgam nanoalloys with intriguing optical properties, such as modulated plasmonic lifetimes and quality factor Q, could be obtained. This may offer opportunities to extend applications in photovoltaic energy conversion and chemical sensing. PMID:26942394

  17. Real-time monitoring of moisture levels in wound dressings in vitro: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    McColl, David; Cartlidge, Brian; Connolly, Patricia

    2007-10-01

    Retaining an appropriate level of moisture at the interface between a healing wound and an applied dressing is considered to be critical for effective wound healing. Failure to control exudate at this interface can result in maceration or drying out of the wound surface. The ability to control moisture balance at the wound interface is therefore a key aspect of wound dressing performance. To date it has not been possible to monitor in any effective manner the distribution of moisture within dressings or how this varies with time. A new measurement system is presented based on sensors placed at the wound/dressing interface which are capable of monitoring moisture levels in real time. The system comprises a model wound bed and sensor array complete with fluid injection path to mimic exudate flow. Eight monitoring points, situated beneath the test dressing, allow the moisture profile across the complete dressing to be measured both during and after fluid injection. The system has been used to evaluate the performance of four foam dressings, a composite hydrofibre dressing and a film dressing. Stark contrasts in the performance of the wound contact layer were found between the different wound dressing types. The composite hydrofibre dressing retained moisture at the wound interface throughout the experiments while areas of the foam dressing quickly became dry, even during constant injection of fluid. The abundance of sensors allowed a moisture map of the surface of the wound dressing to be constructed, illustrating that the moisture profile was not uniform across several of the dressings tested during absorption and evaporation of liquid. These results raise questions as to how the dressings behave on a wound in vivo and indicate the need for a similar clinical monitoring system for tracking wound moisture levels.

  18. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvey, Christine S.; Sherwood, Carly A.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2009-11-01

    Apoptosis-programmed cell death-is a cellular process exhibiting distinct biochemical and morphological changes. An understanding of the early morphological changes that a cell undergoes during apoptosis can provide the opportunity to monitor apoptosis in tissue, yielding diagnostic and prognostic information. There is avid interest regarding the involvement of apoptosis in cancer. The initial response of a tumor to successful cancer treatment is often massive apoptosis. Current apoptosis detection methods require cell culture disruption. Our aim is to develop a nondisruptive optical method to monitor apoptosis in living cells and tissues. This would allow for real-time evaluation of apoptotic progression of the same cell culture over time without alteration. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is used to monitor changes in light-scattering properties of cells in vitro due to apoptotic morphology changes. We develop a simple instrument capable of wavelength-resolved ESS measurements from cell cultures in the backward direction. Using Mie theory, we also develop an algorithm that extracts the size distribution of scatterers in the sample. The instrument and algorithm are validated with microsphere suspensions. For cell studies, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are cultured to confluence on plates and are rendered apoptotic with staurosporine. Backscattering measurements are performed on pairs of treated and control samples at a sequence of times up to 6-h post-treatment. Initial results indicate that ESS is capable of discriminating between treated and control samples as early as 10- to 15-min post-treatment, much earlier than is sensed by standard assays for apoptosis. Extracted size distributions from treated and control samples show a decrease in Rayleigh and 150-nm scatterers, relative to control samples, with a corresponding increase in 200-nm particles. Work continues to correlate these size distributions with underlying morphology. To our knowledge, this

  19. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space

  20. Real-time satellite monitoring of Nornahraun lava flow NE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Davis, Ashley; Schneider, David; Wright, Robert; Kestay, Laszlo; Hamilton, Christopher; Harris, Andrew; Coppola, Diego; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús; Durig, Tobias; Pedersen, Gro; Drouin, Vincent; Höskuldsson, Friðrik; Símonarson, Hreggviður; Örn Arnarson, Gunnar; Örn Einarsson, Magnús; Riishuus, Morten

    2015-04-01

    An effusive eruption started in Holuhraun, NE Iceland, on 31 August 2014, producing the Nornahraun lava flow field which had, by the beginning of 2015, covered over 83 km2. Throughout this event, various satellite images have been analyzed to monitor the development, active areas and map the lava extent in close collaboration with the field group, which involved regular exchange of direct observations and satellite based data for ground truthing and suggesting possible sites for lava sampling. From the beginning, satellite images in low geometric but high temporal resolution (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS) were used to monitor main regions of activity and position new vents to within 1km accuracy. As they became available, multispectral images in higher resolution (LANDSAT 8, LANDSAT 7, ASTER, EO-1 ALI) were used to map the lava channels, study lava structures and classify regions of varying activity. Hyper spectral sensors (EO-1 HYPERION), though with limited area coverage, have given a good indication of vent and lava temperature and effusion rates. All available radar imagery (SENTINEL-1, RADARSAT, COSMO SKYMED, TERRASAR X) have been used for studying lava extent, landscape and roughness. The Icelandic Coast Guard has, on a number of occasions, provided high resolution radar and thermal images from reconnaissance flights. These data sources compliment each other well and have improved analysis of events. Whilst classical TIR channels were utilized to map the temperature history of the lava, SWIR and NIR channels caught regions of highest temperature, allowing an estimate of the most active lava channels and even indicating potential changes in channel structure. Combining thermal images and radar images took this prediction a step further, improving interpretation of both image types and studying the difference between open and closed lava channels. Efforts are underway of comparing different methods of estimating magma discharge and improving the process for use in real

  1. Real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok Wong, Wai; Hisdal, Hege

    2013-04-01

    Drought is considered to be one of the most costly natural disasters. Drought monitoring and forecasting are thus important for sound water management. In this study hydrological drought characteristics applicable for real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway were developed. A spatially distributed hydrological model (HBV) implemented in a Web-based GIS framework provides a platform for drought analyses and visualizations. A number of national drought maps can be produced, which is a simple and effective way to communicate drought conditions to decision makers and the public. The HBV model is driven by precipitation and air temperature data. On a daily time step it calculates the water balance for 1 x 1 km2 grid cells characterized by their elevation and land use. Drought duration and areal drought coverage for runoff and subsurface storage (sum of soil moisture and groundwater) were derived. The threshold level method was used to specify drought conditions on a grid cell basis. The daily 10th percentile thresholds were derived from seven-day windows centered on that calendar day from the reference period 1981-2010 (threshold not exceeded 10% of the time). Each individual grid cell was examined to determine if it was below its respective threshold level. Daily drought-stricken areas can then be easily identified when visualized on a map. The drought duration can also be tracked and calculated by a retrospective analysis. Real-time observations from synoptic stations interpolated to a regular grid of 1 km resolution constituted the forcing data for the current situation. 9-day meteorological forecasts were used as input to the HBV model to obtain short-term hydrological drought forecasts. Downscaled precipitation and temperature fields from two different atmospheric models were applied. The first two days of the forecast period adopted the forecasts from Unified Model (UM4) while the following seven days were based on the 9-day forecasts

  2. Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM): a volcano monitoring and prediction tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Endo, E.T.; Murray, T.

    1991-01-01

    Seismicity is one of the most commonly monitored phenomena used to determine the state of a volcano and for the prediction of volcanic eruptions. Although several real-time earthquake-detection and data acquisition systems exist, few continuously measure seismic amplitude in circumstances where individual events are difficult to recognize or where volcanic tremor is prevalent. Analog seismic records provide a quick visual overview of activity; however, continuous rapid quantitative analysis to define the intensity of seismic activity for the purpose of predicing volcanic eruptions is not always possible because of clipping that results from the limited dynamic range of analog recorders. At the Cascades Volcano Observatory, an inexpensive 8-bit analog-to-digital system controlled by a laptop computer is used to provide 1-min average-amplitude information from eight telemetered seismic stations. The absolute voltage level for each station is digitized, averaged, and appended in near real-time to a data file on a multiuser computer system. Raw realtime seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM) data or transformed RSAM data are then plotted on a common time base with other available volcano-monitoring information such as tilt. Changes in earthquake activity associated with dome-building episodes, weather, and instrumental difficulties are recognized as distinct patterns in the RSAM data set. RSAM data for domebuilding episodes gradually develop into exponential increases that terminate just before the time of magma extrusion. Mount St. Helens crater earthquakes show up as isolated spikes on amplitude plots for crater seismic stations but seldom for more distant stations. Weather-related noise shows up as low-level, long-term disturbances on all seismic stations, regardless of distance from the volcano. Implemented in mid-1985, the RSAM system has proved valuable in providing up-to-date information on seismic activity for three Mount St. Helens eruptive episodes from 1985 to

  3. Unattended monitoring system at a static storage area with real-time event notification.

    SciTech Connect

    West, J. D.; Betts, S. E.; Michel, K. D.; Schanfein, M. J.; Ricketts, T. E.

    2005-01-01

    Domestic Safeguards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and throughout the Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) complex has historically relied on administrative and non-integrated approaches to implement nuclear safeguards at its facilities. Besides the heavy cost born by the facility and the compliance oversight organization, the safeguards assurance is only periodic, potentially allowing an adversary a longer time before detection. Even after detection, the lack of situational awareness makes it difficult to assess events. By leveraging unattended monitoring systems (UMS) used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), we have designed a baseline system that has high reliability through fault tolerant designs for both hardware and software. Applying IAEA design goals to assure no loss of data and using a dual containment strategy, this system is a first step in implementing modern safeguards monitoring systems at LANL and, hopefully, applications at other DOE/NNSA sites. This paper will review the design requirements and how they will be met, to provide a real-time event notification for a static storage location. The notification system triggers communications to pagers and email addresses for a fast response by facility personnel to the violation of a defined safeguards exclusion zone. Since the system has to be installed in an existing facility, the challenges to the designers will be presented. Aside from the initial baseline system that relies on surveillance cameras and seals, other optional upgrades will be detailed, showing both the power and the promise of unattended systems for domestic safeguards. We will also include a short discussion of the business obstacles to modernizing safeguards and how a UMS system may be applied to dynamic activities at a nuclear facility. Ultimately, the current lack of such modern monitoring systems reflects the many business obstacles internal to DOE/NNSA to the use of

  4. REAL-TIME MONITORING OF A SALT SOLUTION MINING CAVERN: FROM PRECURSORY SIGNS TO GENERAL COLLAPSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E.; Contrucci, I.; Cao, N.; Bigarré, P.

    2009-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding in brutal large scale ground failure phenomenon, a salt solution mining cavern was instrumented in 2004 previously to its expected collapse as part of its mining scheme. A permanent early warning system was set up, including a high resolution microseismic monitoring network linked to a surface field displacement measurement system. The important amount of data collected during this 5 years experiment offered real-time insight of the evolution of the geological system. The complete data set recorded during the experiment made it possible to track with precision the main stages in the evolution of the cavern. The early signs of failure were detected by high resolution microseismic monitoring during spring 2008: a shift in microseismic background regime as well as recurrent microseismic episodes were undoubtedly associated to a general process of rock failure due to the salt cavern extending up to a critical size. This was accompanied by a few episodes of massive roof falls while the upper part of the overburden remained elastic, with no ground surface movement detected. During a second and last stage of evolution, on-line processing and analysis of a sudden intense microseismic activity allowed the interpretation of the rapid, energetic failure of a thin and very stiff bed rock underlying 120 meters deep. After this failure, the ground surface measurements indicated an irreversible acceleration of the subsidence up to the general collapse 24 hours later. As it will be shown, the in-depth analysis of the whole data set enables to characterize the dynamic process of rupture and its associated precursory signs. It provides also essential knowledge and feedback experience for operational monitoring of underground operations carried out on other sensitive mining sites.

  5. Real-time Prescription Surveillance and its Application to Monitoring Seasonal Influenza Activity in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Ibuka, Yoko; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time surveillance is fundamental for effective control of disease outbreaks, but the official sentinel surveillance in Japan collects information related to disease activity only weekly and updates it with a 1-week time lag. Objective To report on a prescription surveillance system using electronic records related to prescription drugs that was started in 2008 in Japan, and to evaluate the surveillance system for monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Methods We developed an automatic surveillance system using electronic records of prescription drug purchases collected from 5275 pharmacies through the application service provider’s medical claims service. We then applied the system to monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. The surveillance system collected information related to drugs and patients directly and automatically from the electronic prescription record system, and estimated the number of influenza cases based on the number of prescriptions of anti-influenza virus medication. Then it shared the information related to influenza activity through the Internet with the public on a daily basis. Results During the 2009–2010 influenza season, the number of influenza patients estimated by the prescription surveillance system between the 28th week of 2009 and the 12th week of 2010 was 9,234,289. In the 2010–2011 influenza season, the number of influenza patients between the 36th week of 2010 and the 12th week of 2011 was 7,153,437. The estimated number of influenza cases was highly correlated with that predicted by the official sentinel surveillance (r = .992, P < .001 for 2009–2010; r = .972, P < .001 for 2010–2011), indicating that the prescription surveillance system produced a good approximation of activity patterns. Conclusions Our prescription surveillance system presents great potential for monitoring influenza activity and for

  6. A sustained intravitreal drug delivery system with remote real time monitoring capability

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huiyuan; Nieto, Alejandra; Belghith, Akram; Nan, Kaihui; Li, Yangyang; Freeman, William R.; Sailor, Michael J.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Many chorioretinal diseases are chronic and need sustained drug delivery systems to keep therapeutic drug level at the disease site. Many intravitreal drug delivery systems under developing do not have mechanism incorporated for a non-invasive monitoring of drug release. Current study prepared rugate porous silicon (pSi) particles by electrochemical etching with the currents frequency (K value) of 2.17 and 2.45. Two model drugs (Rapmycin and Dexamethasone) and two drug-loading strategies were tested for the feasibility to monitor drug release from the pSi particles through a color fundus camera. The pSi particles (k=2.45) with infiltration loading of rapamycin demonstrated progressively more violet color reflection which was negatively associated with the rapamycin released into the vitreous (r=−0.4, p<0.001, pairwise). In contrast, pSi with K value of 2.17 demonstrated progressive color change towards green and a weak association between rapmycin released into vitreous and green color abundance was identified (r=−0.23, p=0.002, pairwise). Dexamethasone was covalently loaded on to the fully oxidized pSi particles that appeared in vitreous as yellow color and fading over time. The yellow color decrease over time was strongly associated with the dexamethasone detected from the vitreous samples (r=0.7, p<0.0001, pairwise). These results suggest that engineered porous silicon particles may be used as a self-reporting drug delivery system for a non-invasive real time remote monitoring. PMID:26087110

  7. Real time monitoring of sickle cell hemoglobin fiber formation by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Knee, Kelly M; Mukerji, Ishita

    2009-10-20

    In sickle cell hemoglobin, individual tetramers associate into long fibers as a consequence of the mutation at the beta6 position. In this study UV resonance Raman spectroscopy is used to monitor the formation of Hb S fibers in real time through aromatic amino acid vibrational modes. The intermolecular contact formed by the mutation site ((1)beta(1)6 Glu-->Val) of one tetramer and the (2)beta(2)85 Phe-(2)beta(2)88 Leu hydrophobic pocket on a different tetramer is observed by monitoring the increase in signal intensity of Phe vibrational modes as a function of time, yielding kinetic progress curves similar to those obtained by turbidity measurements. Comparison of individual spectra collected at early time points (<1000 s) show small Phe intensity changes, which are attributed to weak transient associations of Hb S tetramers during the initial stages of the polymerization process. At later times (1000-2000 s) Phe signal intensity steadily increases because of increasing hydrophobicity of local Phe environment, a consequence of forming more stable (1)beta(1)-(2)beta(2) contacts. Tyr and Trp vibrational modes monitor H-bond strength between critical residues at the alpha(1)beta(2) interface of individual tetramers. Kinetic progress curves generated from these signals exhibit two distinct transitions at 2040 and 7340 s. These transitions, which occur later in time than those detected either by turbidity (1560 s) or by Phe signal intensity (1680 s), are attributed to initial fiber formation and subsequent formation of larger assemblies, such as macrofibers or gels. These results provide molecular insight into the interactions governing Hb S fiber formation. PMID:19778007

  8. Evaluation of the pDR-1200 real-time aerosol monitor.

    PubMed

    Benton-Vitz, Kaila; Volckens, John

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the ability of the pDR-1200 real-time aerosol monitor to measure aerosols of varying size, composition, and origin. Particle aspiration and transmission efficiency was characterized at airflow rates of 2 L/min, 5 L/min, and 10 L/min in a wind tunnel in both static and orientation-averaged configurations. At 10 L/min, the particle cut point for 50% penetration of particles through the device (d(50)) was approximately 6 micro m, while at 2 L/min and 5 L/min the d(50) was significantly larger, about 9 micro m (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in particle penetration efficiency between facing-the-wind and orientation-averaged configurations (p(avg) = 0.66). The pDR-1200 response factor, which is defined as the ratio the time-averaged, monitor-reported concentration to a gravimetric filter concentration measured directly downstream of the sensing zone, was evaluated for four aerosol types: Arizona road dust, background ambient aerosol, environmental tobacco smoke, and diesel particulate matter. These aerosols, each of varying refractive index and particle size distribution, produced significant changes in the measured response factor (p < 0.01). The pDR-1200 both overestimated and underestimated (up to a factor of 7) the gravimetrically determined aerosol concentration. These discrepancies further reinforce the need to calibrate the instrument in situ for each aerosol of interest. Inter-instrument variability was generally low for co-located monitors.

  9. Label-free molecular beacon for real-time monitoring of DNA polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changbei; Liu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Jin, Shunxin; Wang, Kemin

    2016-05-01

    Traditional methods for assaying DNA polymerase activity are discontinuous, time consuming, and laborious. Here, we report a new approach for label-free and real-time monitoring of DNA polymerase activity using a Thioflavin T (ThT) probe. In the presence of DNA polymerase, the DNA primer could be elongated through polymerase reaction to open MB1, leading to the release of the G-quartets. These then bind to ThT to form ThT/G-quadruplexes with an obvious fluorescence generation. It exhibits a satisfying detection result for the activity of DNA polymerase with a low detection limit of 0.05 unit/ml. In addition, no labeling with a fluorophore or a fluorophore-quencher pair is required; this method is fairly simple, fast, and low cost. Furthermore, the proposed method was also applied to assay the inhibition of DNA polymerase activity. This approach may offer potential applications in drug screening, clinical diagnostics, and some other related biomedical research. PMID:26894757

  10. Surface plasmon resonance label-free monitoring of antibody antigen interactions in real time

    SciTech Connect

    Kausaite, A.; van Dijk, M.; Castrop, J.; Ramanaviciene, A.; Baltrus, J.P.; Acaite, J.; Ramanavicius, A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of biologically active compounds is one of the most important topics in molecular biology and biochemistry. One of the most promising detection methods is based on the application of surface plasmon resonance for label-free detection of biologically active compounds. This method allows one to monitor binding events in real time without labeling. The system can therefore be used to determine both affinity and rate constants for interactions between various types of molecules. Here, we describe the application of a surface plasmon resonance biosensor for label-free investigation of the interaction between an immobilized antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA) and antibody rabbit anti-cow albumin IgG1 (anti-BSA). The formation of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) over a gold surface is introduced into this laboratory training protocol as an effective immobilization method, which is very promising in biosensing systems based on detection of affinity interactions. In the next step, covalent attachment via artificially formed amide bonds is applied for the immobilization of proteins on the formed SAM surface. These experiments provide suitable experience for postgraduate students to help them understand immobilization of biologically active materials via SAMs, fundamentals of surface plasmon resonance biosensor applications, and determination of non-covalent biomolecular interactions. The experiment is designed for master and/or Ph.D. students. In some particular cases, this protocol might be adoptable for bachelor students that already have completed an extended biochemistry program that included a background in immunology.

  11. Monitoring mechanistic details in the synthesis of pyrimidines via real-time, ultrafast multidimensional NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Zulay D.; Olsen, Greg; Fernández-Valle, María Encarnación; Frydman, Lucio; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed unprecedented advances in the development of fast multidimensional NMR acquisition techniques. This progress could open valuable new opportunities for the elucidation of chemical and biochemical processes. This study demonstrates one such capability, with the first real-time 2D dynamic analysis of a complex organic reaction relying on unlabeled substrates. Implementing such measurements required the development of new ultrafast 2D methods, capable of monitoring multiple spectral regions of interest as the reaction progressed. The alternate application of these acquisitions in an interleaved, excitation-optimized fashion, allowed us to extract new structural and dynamic insight concerning the reaction between aliphatic ketones and triflic anhydride in the presence of nitriles to yield alkylpyrimidines. Up to 2500 2D NMR data sets were thus collected over the course of this nearly 100 min long reaction, in an approach resembling that used in functional magnetic resonance imaging. With the aid of these new frequency-selective low-gradient-strength experiments, supplemented by chemical shift calculations of the spectral coordinates observed in the 2D heteronuclear correlations, previously postulated intermediates involved in the alkylpyrimidine formation process could be confirmed, and hitherto undetected ones were revealed. The potential and limitations of the resulting methods are discussed. PMID:22283498

  12. Real-time on-line monitoring of process water for low concentrations of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John A.; McCarty, David; Crousore, Kristina

    2006-03-01

    Naturally occurring outbreaks of bacteria have the potential to contaminate process water used in semiconductor manufacturing. Bacteria are normally filtered out in the water treatment process, however contamination can still occur from biofilm growth, filter or media break-through, and air vectors. Because there is seldom a residual disinfectant and system sanitation is intermittent, the manufacturer must rely on point of use filters to prevent contamination at critical points in the process. Particle counters in the distribution system can tell when the number of particles is increasing but cannot discriminate bacteria from small silica particles and often are unable to detect smaller gram-negative particles. If an on-line multi-angle light scattering system is used in place of particle counters or in conjunction with them, then the discrimination between silica particles and bacteria can be made and the proper action taken in the distribution system to help identify the contamination source, improve preventative maintenance, and ultimately increase yields. This paper describes the multi-angle light scattering method of detecting bacteria with the BioSentry TM system to provide an effective real-time on-line water monitoring sensor.

  13. Real-time soil compaction monitoring through pad strain measurements: modeling to inform strain gage placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Shawn C.; Mooney, Michael A.

    2011-04-01

    Soil compaction monitoring is critical to earthwork projects, including roadways, earth dams, and levees. Current methods require a halt of production, and provide at best sparse coverage. A system is proposed for static pad foot soil compaction to provide real-time feedback at higher spatial resolutions through machine integrated sensors. The system is composed of pad sensors that measure total normal force and contact stress distribution (CSD), laser sensors that measure soil deflection, and GPS to spatially reference measurements. By combining these measurements, soil stiffness and potentially modulus can be determined. This paper discusses the development of the force and CSD sensing pad. The concept is to instrument individual pads with strain gages to determine loading conditions. Modeling is used to inform strain gage positioning through pad strain behavior analysis of different simulated soil conditions. The finite element analysis (FEA) of a Caterpillar pad is discussed, including formulation and rationale for the various model parameters. The loading parameters are explained, including the range of force magnitudes experienced throughout compaction and the CSD elicited by various soils. The results of this analysis are presented, and show that pad strain is sensitive to both force magnitude and CSD. Specific strain trends are identified in the sidewall and bottom face of the pad which are particularly sensitive to the loading variables. Strain gage placements are proposed that capture the identified trends, thereby providing definitive information on total normal force and CSD.

  14. Near real-time monitoring systems for adaptive management and improved forest governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinsky, J.; Tabor, K.; Cano, A.

    2012-12-01

    The destruction and degradation of the world's forests from deforestation, illegal logging and fire has wide-ranging environmental and economic impacts, including biodiversity loss, the degradation of ecosystem services and the emission of greenhouse gases. In an effort to strengthen local capacity to respond to these threats, Conservation International has developed a suite of near real-time satellite monitoring systems generating daily alerts, maps and reports of forest fire, fire risk, deforestation and degradation that are used by national and sub-national government agencies, NGO's, scientists, communities, and the media to respond to and report on threats to forest resources. Currently, the systems support more than 1000 subscribers from 45 countries, focusing on Madagascar, Indonesia, Bolivia and Peru. This presentation will explore the types of innovative applications users have found for these data, challenges they've encountered in data acquisition and accuracy, and feedback they've given on the usefulness of these systems for REDD+ implementation, protected areas management and improved forest governance.;

  15. Real-Time Safety Monitoring and Prediction for the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    As new operational paradigms and additional aircraft are being introduced into the National Airspace System (NAS), maintaining safety in such a rapidly growing environment becomes more challenging. It is therefore desirable to have both an overview of the current safety of the airspace at different levels of granularity, as well an understanding of how the state of the safety will evolve into the future given the anticipated flight plans, weather forecasts, predicted health of assets in the airspace, and so on. To this end, we have developed a Real-Time Safety Monitoring (RTSM) that first, estimates the state of the NAS using the dynamic models. Then, given the state estimate and a probability distribution of future inputs to the NAS, the framework predicts the evolution of the NAS, i.e., the future state, and analyzes these future states to predict the occurrence of unsafe events. The entire probability distribution of airspace safety metrics is computed, not just point estimates, without significant assumptions regarding the distribution type and or parameters. We demonstrate our overall approach by predicting the occurrence of some unsafe events and show how these predictions evolve in time as flight operations progress.

  16. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Gromaire, M-C; Chebbo, G

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification and common parameters, such as the antecedent dry weather period, total event volume per impervious hectare and both the mean and maximum hydraulic flow for each event, was also studied. Moreover, the dynamics of flow and turbidity signals were compared at the event scale. No simple relation between turbidity responses, hydraulic flow dynamics and the chosen parameters was derived from this effort. Knowledge of turbidity dynamics could therefore potentially improve wet weather management, especially when using pollution-based real-time control (P-RTC) since turbidity contains information not included in hydraulic flow dynamics and not readily predictable from such dynamics.

  17. Global and Regional Real-time Systems for Flood and Drought Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Xue, X.; Flamig, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A Hydrometeorological Extreme Mapping and Prediction System (HyXtreme-MaP), initially built upon the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) distributed hydrological model, is driven by real-time quasi-global TRMM/GPM satellites and by the US Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) radar network with dual-polarimetric upgrade to simulate streamflow, actual ET, soil moisture and other hydrologic variables at 1/8th degree resolution quasi-globally (http://eos.ou.edu) and at 250-meter 2.5-mintue resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS: http://flash.ou.edu).­ Multifaceted and collaborative by-design, this end-to-end research framework aims to not only integrate data, models, and applications but also brings people together (i.e., NOAA, NASA, University researchers, and end-users). This presentation will review the progresses, challenges and opportunities of such HyXTREME-MaP System used to monitor global floods and droughts, and also to predict flash floods over the CONUS.

  18. Packaged FBG sensors for real-time stress monitoring on deep-water riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Yang, Dexing; Jiang, Yajun; Wang, Meirong; Zhai, Huailun; Bai, Yang

    2014-11-01

    The safety of under-water risers in drilling platform is of great significance. A packaged fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for real-time stress monitoring is designed for the applications on oil drilling risers under 3000 meters deep water. A copper tube which is the main component of the sensor has a small hole along its axes and a groove at its each end. The bare FBG is passed through the small hole and fixed to its ends by epoxy resin. Then the copper tube is packaged by filling the groove with structural adhesive. In order to avoid that the outer water-pressure is applied on the epoxy resin through the structural adhesive, a gap between the two types of glues is left. The relationships between the stress of the riser and the tension, pressure, temperature of the single sensor are discussed, respectively. The measured tension sensitivity is 136.75 pm/KN while the minimum R-square value is 0.99997. The experimental results also show that there is a good linear response between water-pressure and the Bragg wavelength from 0 to 30MPa, and the sensor can even survive under the pressure more than 30MPa. In addition, the Bragg wavelength shifts linearly with the increasing temperature from 0 to 40°C. So, the pressure and temperature can be easily compensated if another sensor without tension is used.

  19. A dual sensor for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqiang; Su, Fengyu; Buizer, Sean; Lu, Hongguang; Gao, Weimin; Tian, Yanqing; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    A dual glucose and oxygen sensor in a polymer format was developed. The dual sensor composed of a blue emitter as the glucose probe, a red emitter as an oxygen probe, and a yellow emitter as a built-in reference probe which does not respond to either glucose or oxygen. All the three probes were chemically immobilized in a polyacrylamide-based matrix. Therefore, the dual sensor possesses three well separated emission colors and ratiometric approach is applicable for analysis of the glucose and oxygen concentration at biological conditions. The sensor was applied for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen consumption of bacterial cells, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), and mammalian cells of mouse macrophage J774 and human cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. On the other hand, in order to achieve satisfactory sensing performance for glucose, compositions of the matrices among poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), polyacrylamide, and poly(6-aminohexyl methacrylamide) which is a linker polymer for grafting the glucose probe, were optimized.

  20. A dual sensor for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqiang; Su, Fengyu; Buizer, Sean; Lu, Hongguang; Gao, Weimin; Tian, Yanqing; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    A dual glucose and oxygen sensor in a polymer format was developed. The dual sensor composed of a blue emitter as the glucose probe, a red emitter as an oxygen probe, and a yellow emitter as a built-in reference probe which does not respond to either glucose or oxygen. All the three probes were chemically immobilized in a polyacrylamide-based matrix. Therefore, the dual sensor possesses three well separated emission colors and ratiometric approach is applicable for analysis of the glucose and oxygen concentration at biological conditions. The sensor was applied for real-time monitoring of glucose and oxygen consumption of bacterial cells, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), and mammalian cells of mouse macrophage J774 and human cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. On the other hand, in order to achieve satisfactory sensing performance for glucose, compositions of the matrices among poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), polyacrylamide, and poly(6-aminohexyl methacrylamide) which is a linker polymer for grafting the glucose probe, were optimized. PMID:24090834

  1. Real-time machine vision FPGA implementation for microfluidic monitoring on Lab-on-Chips.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope-Louisa; Voudouris, Liberis; Gentsos, Christos; Demiris, Athanasios M; Vassiliadis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Spyridon

    2014-04-01

    A machine vision implementation on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device for real-time microfluidic monitoring on Lab-On-Chips is presented in this paper. The machine vision system is designed to follow continuous or plug flows, for which the menisci of the fluids are always visible. The system discriminates between the front or "head" of the flow and the back or "tail" and is able to follow flows with a maximum speed of 20 mm/sec in circular channels of a diameter of 200 μm (corresponding to approx. 60 μl/sec ). It is designed to be part of a complete Point-of-Care system, which will be portable and operate in non-ideal laboratory conditions. Thus, it is able to cope with noise due to lighting conditions and small LoC displacements during the experiment execution. The machine vision system can be used for a variety of LoC devices, without the need for fiducial markers (such as redundancy patterns) for its operation. The underlying application requirements called for a complete hardware implementation. The architecture uses a variety of techniques to improve performance and minimize memory access requirements. The system input is 8 bit grayscale uncompressed video of up to 1 Mpixel resolution. The system uses an operating frequency of 170 Mhz and achieves a computational time of 13.97 ms (worst case), which leads to a throughput of 71.6 fps for 1 Mpixel video resolution.

  2. Monitoring the Dissolution Mechanisms of Amorphous Bicalutamide Solid Dispersions via Real-Time Raman Mapping.

    PubMed

    Tres, Francesco; Patient, Jamie D; Williams, Philip M; Treacher, Kevin; Booth, Jonathan; Hughes, Leslie P; Wren, Stephen A C; Aylott, Jonathan W; Burley, Jonathan C

    2015-05-01

    Real-time in situ Raman mapping has been employed to monitor, during dissolution, the crystallization transitions of amorphous bicalutamide formulated as a molecular dispersion in a copovidone VA64 matrix. The dissolution performance was also investigated using the rotating disc dissolution rate methodology, which allows simultaneous determination of the dissolution rate of both active ingredient and polymer. The dissolution behavior of two bicalutamide:copovidone VA64 dispersion formulations, containing 5% (w/w) and 50% (w/w) bicalutamide, respectively, was investigated, with the aim of exploring the effect of increasing the bicalutamide loading on the dissolution performance. Spatially time-resolved Raman maps generated using multivariate curve resolution indicated the simultaneous transformation of amorphous bicalutamide present in the 50% drug-loaded extrudate into metastable polymorphic form II and low-energy polymorphic form I. Fitting a kinetic model and spatially correlating the data extracted from the Raman maps also allowed us to understand the re-crystallization mechanisms by which the low-energy form I appears. Form I was shown to crystallize mainly directly from the amorphous solid dispersion, with crystallization from the metastable form II being a minor contribution. PMID:25872658

  3. Real-time monitoring of molecular dynamics of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate glass former.

    PubMed

    Viciosa, M T; Correia, N T; Salmerón Sanchez, M; Carvalho, A L; Romão, M J; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Dionísio, M

    2009-10-29

    The isothermal cold-crystallization of the glass-former low-molecular-weight compound, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), was monitored by real-time dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The alpha-relaxation associated with the dynamic glass transition as detected by DRS was followed at different crystallization temperatures, T(cr), nearly above the glass transition temperature, 176 K (1.06 < or = T(cr)/T(g) < or = 1.12). It was found that the alpha-process depletes upon cold-crystallization with no significant changes in either shape or location. At advanced crystallization states, a new relaxation, alpha'-process, evolves that was assigned to the mobility of molecules lying adjacent to crystalline surfaces. From the time evolution of the normalized permittivity, it was possible to get kinetic information that was complemented with the calorimetric data. From DSC measurements that were also carried out under melt-crystallization, an enlarged temperature range was covered (up to T(cr)/T(g) = 1.24), allowing us to draw a diagram of time-temperature crystallization for this system. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy proved to be a sensitive tool to probe the mobility in the remaining amorphous regions even at high crystallinities. PMID:19803485

  4. Real time in situ ellipsometric and gravimetric monitoring for electrochemistry experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Broch, Laurent; Johann, Luc; Stein, Nicolas; Zimmer, Alexandre; Beck, Raphaeel

    2007-06-15

    This work describes a new system using real time spectroscopic ellipsometer with simultaneous electrochemical and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements. This method is particularly adapted to characterize electrolyte/electrode interfaces during electrochemical and chemical processes in liquid medium. The ellipsometer, based on a rotating compensator Horiba Jobin-Yvon ellipsometer, has been adapted to acquire {psi}-{delta} spectra every 25 ms on a spectral range fixed from 400 to 800 nm. Measurements with short sampling times are only achievable with a fixed analyzer position (A=45 deg.). Therefore the ellipsometer calibration is extremely important for high precision measurements and we propose a spectroscopic calibration (i.e., determination of the azimuth of elements according to the wavelength) on the whole spectral range. A homemade EQCM was developed to detect mass variations attached to the electrode. This additional instrument provides further information useful for ellipsometric data modeling of complex electrochemical systems. The EQCM measures frequency variations of piezoelectric quartz crystal oscillator working at 5 MHz. These frequency variations are linked to mass variations of electrode surface with a precision of 20 ng cm{sup -2} every 160 ms. Data acquisition has been developed in order to simultaneously record spectroscopic ellipsometry, EQCM, and electrochemical measurements by a single computer. Finally the electrodeposition of bismuth telluride film was monitored by this new in situ experimental setup and the density of electroplated layers was extracted from the optical thickness and EQCM mass.

  5. Real time in situ ellipsometric and gravimetric monitoring for electrochemistry experiments.

    PubMed

    Broch, Laurent; Johann, Luc; Stein, Nicolas; Zimmer, Alexandre; Beck, Raphaël

    2007-06-01

    This work describes a new system using real time spectroscopic ellipsometer with simultaneous electrochemical and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements. This method is particularly adapted to characterize electrolyte/electrode interfaces during electrochemical and chemical processes in liquid medium. The ellipsometer, based on a rotating compensator Horiba Jobin-Yvon ellipsometer, has been adapted to acquire Psi-Delta spectra every 25 ms on a spectral range fixed from 400 to 800 nm. Measurements with short sampling times are only achievable with a fixed analyzer position (A=45 degrees ). Therefore the ellipsometer calibration is extremely important for high precision measurements and we propose a spectroscopic calibration (i.e., determination of the azimuth of elements according to the wavelength) on the whole spectral range. A homemade EQCM was developed to detect mass variations attached to the electrode. This additional instrument provides further information useful for ellipsometric data modeling of complex electrochemical systems. The EQCM measures frequency variations of piezoelectric quartz crystal oscillator working at 5 MHz. These frequency variations are linked to mass variations of electrode surface with a precision of 20 ng cm(-2) every 160 ms. Data acquisition has been developed in order to simultaneously record spectroscopic ellipsometry, EQCM, and electrochemical measurements by a single computer. Finally the electrodeposition of bismuth telluride film was monitored by this new in situ experimental setup and the density of electroplated layers was extracted from the optical thickness and EQCM mass.

  6. Real-time model based process monitoring of enzymatic biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M; Huusom, Jakob K

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model for Fed-batch production of biodiesel. For the three process runs investigated, using a single tuning parameter, qx  = 2 × 10(-2) which represents the uncertainty in the process model, it was possible over the entire course of the reaction to reduce the overall mean and standard deviation of the error between the model and the process data for all of the five measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acid methyl esters, and free fatty acid). The most significant reduction for the three process runs, were for the monoglyceride and free fatty acid concentration. For those components, there was over a ten-fold decrease in the overall mean error for the state estimator prediction compared with the predictions from the pure model simulations. It is also shown that the state estimator can be used as a tool for detection of outliers in the measurement data. For the enzymatic biodiesel process, given the infrequent and sometimes uncertain measurements obtained we see the use of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter as a viable tool for real time process monitoring.