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Sample records for real-time rt-pcr analysis

  1. Real-time RT-PCR for the detection and quantitative analysis of equine rhinitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, M; Maxwell, G; Lyons, P; Arkins, S; Cullinane, A

    2010-03-01

    Equine rhinitis viruses (ERV) cause respiratory disease and loss of performance in horses. It has been suggested that the economic significance of these viruses may have been underestimated due to insensitive methods of detection. To develop a sensitive, rapid, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay suitable for the routine diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of the A and B variants of ERV. TaqMan primer probe sets for ERAV and ERBV were designed from conserved regions of the 5' UTR of the ERV genome. Over 400 samples from both clinically affected and asymptomatic horses were employed for validation of the assays. ERAV samples positive by rRT-PCR were verified by virus isolation and ERBV positive samples were verified by rRT-PCR using a different set of primers. The detection limit of the rRT-PCR for both viruses was 10-100 genome copies. Of 250 archival nasal swabs submitted for diagnostic testing over a 7 year period, 29 were ERAV positive and 3 were ERBV positive with an average incidence rate per year of 10 and 1.5%, respectively. There was evidence of co-circulation of ERAV and ERBV with equine influenza virus (EIV). Of 100 post race urine samples tested, 29 were ERAV positive by rRT-PCR. Partial sequencing of 2 ERBV positive samples demonstrated that one was 100% identical to ERBV1 from a 270 bp sequence and the other was more closely related to ERBV2 than ERBV1 (95% compared to 90% nucleotide identity in 178 bp). The rRT-PCR assays described here are specific and more sensitive than virus isolation. They have good reproducibility and are suitable for the routine diagnosis of ERAV and ERBV. These assays should be useful for investigating the temporal association between clinical signs and rhinitis virus shedding.

  2. A Robust Plant RNA Isolation Method for Affymetrix Genechip® Analysis and Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR are the major high-throughput techniques that are used to study transcript profiles. One of the major limitations in these technologies is the isolation maximum yield of highly-pure RNA from plant tissues rich in complex polysaccharides, polyphen...

  3. Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus strains using real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed A; O'Rourke, Denise; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains is crucial for effective vaccination programs and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a combination of real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of IBDV strains/isolates. The hypervariable region of VP2 gene was amplified from several IBDV strains and subjected to HRM curve analysis. The method could readily differentiate between classical vaccines/isolates and variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from each strain revealed that each melt curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The real-time RT-PCR HRM curve analysis was also able to differentiate IBDV strains/isolates directly in bursal tissues from field submissions and from vaccinated commercial flocks. The differences between melting peaks generated from IBDV strains were significantly different (P<0.0001) demonstrating the high discriminatory power of this technique. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time RT-PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping IBDV isolates/strains and can contribute to effective control of IBDV outbreaks.

  4. Evaluation of endogenous reference genes for analysis of gene expression with real-time RT-PCR during planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yuwen, Yan-Qing; Dong, Zi-Mei; Wang, Qing-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Chang-Ying; Chen, Guang-Wen

    2011-10-01

    It is important that endogenous reference genes for real-time RT-PCR be empirically evaluated for stability in different cell types, developmental stages, and/or sample treatment. To select the most stable endogenous reference genes during planarian regeneration, three housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, ACTB and DjEF2, were identified and established expression levels by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by GeNorm and NormFinder software. Expression levels of the Djsix-1 gene were studied in parallel with ACTB and DjEF2 both or each and 18S rRNA as reference during regeneration. The results showed that ACTB was the most stable expressed reference gene in the planarian regeneration.

  5. Validation of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time RT-PCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Teste, Marie-Ange; Duquenne, Manon; François, Jean M; Parrou, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    Background Real-time RT-PCR is the recommended method for quantitative gene expression analysis. A compulsory step is the selection of good reference genes for normalization. A few genes often referred to as HouseKeeping Genes (HSK), such as ACT1, RDN18 or PDA1 are among the most commonly used, as their expression is assumed to remain unchanged over a wide range of conditions. Since this assumption is very unlikely, a geometric averaging of multiple, carefully selected internal control genes is now strongly recommended for normalization to avoid this problem of expression variation of single reference genes. The aim of this work was to search for a set of reference genes for reliable gene expression analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results From public microarray datasets, we selected potential reference genes whose expression remained apparently invariable during long-term growth on glucose. Using the algorithm geNorm, ALG9, TAF10, TFC1 and UBC6 turned out to be genes whose expression remained stable, independent of the growth conditions and the strain backgrounds tested in this study. We then showed that the geometric averaging of any subset of three genes among the six most stable genes resulted in very similar normalized data, which contrasted with inconsistent results among various biological samples when the normalization was performed with ACT1. Normalization with multiple selected genes was therefore applied to transcriptional analysis of genes involved in glycogen metabolism. We determined an induction ratio of 100-fold for GPH1 and 20-fold for GSY2 between the exponential phase and the diauxic shift on glucose. There was no induction of these two genes at this transition phase on galactose, although in both cases, the kinetics of glycogen accumulation was similar. In contrast, SGA1 expression was independent of the carbon source and increased by 3-fold in stationary phase. Conclusion In this work, we provided a set of genes that are suitable reference

  6. A novel method of multiple nucleic acid detection: Real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Hou, Shao-Yang; Ji, Shang-Zhi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Meng-Yue; He, Li-Juan; Ye, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Yi-Min; Zhang, Yi-Xuan

    2017-09-04

    A novel method, real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) coupled with probe-melting curve analysis, has been established to detect two kinds of samples within one fluorescence channel. Besides a conventional TaqMan probe, this method employs another specially designed melting-probe with a 5' terminus modification which meets the same label with the same fluorescent group. By using an asymmetric PCR method, the melting-probe is able to detect an extra sample in the melting stage effectively while it almost has little influence on the amplification detection. Thus, this method allows the availability of united employment of both amplification stage and melting stage for detecting samples in one reaction. The further demonstration by simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in one channel as a model system is presented in this essay. The sensitivity of detection by real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis was proved to be equal to that detected by conventional real-time RT-PCR. Because real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis can double the detection throughputs within one fluorescence channel, it is expected to be a good solution for the problem of low-throughput in current real-time PCR. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Analysis of one-step and two-step real-time RT-PCR using SuperScript III.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Michael J; Godard, Michael P

    2005-09-01

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a commonly used technique to analyze gene expression. There has been little research conducted to test if SuperScript III quantitative one-step (reverse transcription carried out in the same tube as PCR) and two-step (reverse transcription carried out in a separate reaction) RT-PCR systems provide similar real-time results. In this study, real-time reactions were set up using the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta2-microglobulin (B2M), and RNA polymerase 2 subunit A (PolR2A). Reaction efficiencies were determined by generating standard curves using total RNA isolated from human skeletal muscle and brain. Reaction efficiencies ranged from 97.7+/-0.9% to 99.4+/-1.8% for one-step and 98.0+/-0.2% to 102.6+/-1.3% for two-step RT-PCR (R2 values for all reactions>or=0.995). The sensitivities of one-step and two-step methods, as measured by cycle threshold values, were similar for GAPDH and B2M. However, for the lesser expressed PolR2A mRNA there was a 5 cycle lower threshold for one-step. In summary, both SuperScript III one-step and two-step methods yield reaction efficiencies close to 100% and produce similar, accurate, linear standard curves. However, using the one-step method with gene-specific priming may be more sensitive for quantification of certain genes such as PolR2A.

  8. Molecular simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus by real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, real-time RT-PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed using a...

  9. Simultaneous detection and genotyping of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) by real-time RT-PCR and amplicon melting curve analysis using SYBR Green.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E; Riera, P; Sitjà, M; Fang, Y; Oliveira, S; Maldonado, J

    2008-08-01

    The feasibility of using a SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR assay (SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR) followed by melting curve analysis (MCA) for detecting and genotyping porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was assessed. The SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR and a previously reported two-step, non-nested RT-PCR assays were simultaneously tested on selected European (EU) and North American (US) PRRSV strains and isolates collected from diverse clinical, temporal, and geographical origins. The validation experiments showed that the optimised SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR can sensitively and specifically detect PRRSV, consistently detecting as little as 0.03TCID(50)/sample of each virus genotype, with no type-bias and no amplification signal for other swine pathogens. After MCA, two well-differentiated melting temperature (T(m)) profiles for each virus genotype were obtained, as sequencing confirmed it. High repeatability was obtained for the T(m) values, with intra-run coefficients of variation (CoVs) of 0.25 and 0.32 and inter-run CoVs of 0.42 and 0.52 for EU and US genotypes, respectively. The sensitivity of the SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR (100%) was higher than that of the RT-PCR (95.7%) when testing field isolates. This greater sensitivity of the SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR was further confirmed by the detection of a higher proportion of PRRSV-positive diagnostic specimens (29.7%) than by the RT-PCR (28.5%). The SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR test detected infection as early as 2 dpi in the sera of experimentally infected pigs regardless of virus genotype, and discriminated negative (non-inoculated), EU- and US-infected pigs. In conclusion, the reported SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR assay coupled with MCA can detect and type PRRSV and may be useful as an alternative diagnostic assay in diverse PRRSV epidemiological circumstances.

  10. A plastome primer set for comprehensive quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis of Zea mays: a starter primer set for other Poaceae species

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Richard M; Dunn, Sade N; Cahoon, A Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR (q2(RT)PCR) is a maturing technique which gives researchers the ability to quantify and compare very small amounts of nucleic acids. Primer design and optimization is an essential yet time consuming aspect of using q2(RT)PCR. In this paper we describe the design and empirical optimization of primers to amplify and quantify plastid RNAs from Zea mays that are robust enough to use with other closely related species. Results Primers were designed and successfully optimized for 57 of the 104 reported genes in the maize plastome plus two nuclear genes. All 59 primer pairs produced single amplicons after end-point reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) as visualized on agarose gels and subsequently verified by q2(RT)PCR. Primer pairs were divided into several categories based on the optimization requirements or the uniqueness of the target gene. An in silico test suggested the majority of the primer sets should work with other members of the Poaceae family. An in vitro test of the primer set on two unsequenced species (Panicum virgatum and Miscanthus sinensis) supported this assumption by successfully producing single amplicons for each primer pair. Conclusion Due to the highly conserved chloroplast genome in plant families it is possible to utilize primer pairs designed against one genomic sequence to detect the presence and abundance of plastid genes or transcripts from genomes that have yet to be sequenced. Analysis of steady state transcription of vital system genes is a necessary requirement to comprehensively elucidate gene expression in any organism. The primer pairs reported in this paper were designed for q2(RT)PCR of maize chloroplast genes but should be useful for other members of the Poaceae family. Both in silico and in vitro data are presented to support this assumption. PMID:18518993

  11. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Vigna angularis Using Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lihua; Ke, Xiwang; Han, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) is one of the most important legume crops in Asian countries like China, Japan and Korea due to its nutritious protein and starch contents. In spite of its economic importance, gene expression analysis system for gene function verification of adzuki bean is still absent. Therefore, reference genes for gene expression analysis based on the quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were screened in current study. A total of nine general housekeeping genes, including ACT, Fbox, ZMPP, GAPDH, EF, PP2A, UBC, UBN and PTB were evaluated for their expression stability by qRT-PCR in four adzuki bean cultivars, three different tissues, four abiotic stress and one biotic stress. The best group of candidates as reference genes were as follows: PTB and ACT for different cultivars; EF and UBN for different tissues; ACT and ZMPP for biotic stress and waterlogging stress; Fbox and UBC for salinity-alkalinity stress; Fbox and PTB for drought stress. Our results will provide a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in adzuki bean. PMID:27992593

  12. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Vigna angularis Using Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chao; Shen, Yongqiang; Yin, Lihua; Ke, Xiwang; Han, Dong; Zuo, Yuhu

    2016-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) is one of the most important legume crops in Asian countries like China, Japan and Korea due to its nutritious protein and starch contents. In spite of its economic importance, gene expression analysis system for gene function verification of adzuki bean is still absent. Therefore, reference genes for gene expression analysis based on the quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were screened in current study. A total of nine general housekeeping genes, including ACT, Fbox, ZMPP, GAPDH, EF, PP2A, UBC, UBN and PTB were evaluated for their expression stability by qRT-PCR in four adzuki bean cultivars, three different tissues, four abiotic stress and one biotic stress. The best group of candidates as reference genes were as follows: PTB and ACT for different cultivars; EF and UBN for different tissues; ACT and ZMPP for biotic stress and waterlogging stress; Fbox and UBC for salinity-alkalinity stress; Fbox and PTB for drought stress. Our results will provide a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in adzuki bean.

  13. Development of real-time RT-PCR for detection of human metapneumovirus and genetic analysis of circulating strains (2009-2011) in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manohar Lal; Anand, Siddharth P; Sonawane, Nupoor S; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2014-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important respiratory virus implicated in respiratory infections. The purpose of this study was to develop a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay that can detect all four lineages of HMPV and to identify the HMPV lineages circulating in Pune, India. Conserved regions of the nucleoprotein gene were used to design real-time primers and a probe. A total of 224 clinical samples that were positive for different respiratory viruses (including 51 samples that were positive for HMPV) were tested using the real time RT-PCR assay, and the specificity of the assay was observed to be 100 %. Using in vitro-synthesized RNA, the sensitivity of the assay was ascertained to be 100 copies of the target gene per reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and attachment glycoprotein (G) genes confirmed that this assay detected all lineages of HMPV. A2, B1 and B2 strains were observed during the study period. Our assay is highly sensitive and specific for all known lineages of HMPV, making it a valuable tool for rapid detection of the virus. A2 and B2 were the predominant subtypes circulating in Pune, Western India.

  14. Identification of suitable normalizing genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in fetal mouse gonads.

    PubMed

    Svingen, T; Spiller, C M; Kashimada, K; Harley, V R; Koopman, P

    2009-01-01

    In biological research, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays are commonly employed to study mRNA abundance in cells and tissues. This type of assay usually relies on assessing transcript abundance relative to constitutively expressed endogenous reference genes. Therefore, it is important that the reference genes themselves are stably expressed in the cells or tissues analyzed, independent of factors such as age, sex, disease or experimental manipulations. Since no gene is expressed at the same level in all cells at all times, suitable reference genes must be identified for the specific cellular system or tissue being investigated. Here, we sought to identify stably expressed endogenous reference genes during embryonic gonad development in the mouse. We measured the transcript abundance of 10 frequently employed normalizing genes, of which 4 were stably expressed in fetal gonads from 11.5 to 14.5 dpc irrespective of sex. Based on our analysis, we suggest that Rn18s, Rps29, Tbp and Sdha are suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR expression studies during early gonad differentiation in the mouse.

  15. AFP mRNA Detected in Bone Marrow by Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis Predicts Survival and Recurrence After Curative Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Toshiya; Takahashi, Masato; Nakagawa, Takahito; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Ozaki, Michitaka; Matsushita, Michiaki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Todo, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by real-time quantitative RT-PCR targeting of alpha-fetoprotein mRNA (AFP mRNA) before or after curative hepatectomy predicts HCC recurrence and patient survival. Summary Background Data: The presence of cancer cells in peripheral blood and/or bone marrow in patients with malignant disease has been reported to correlate with outcome. Methods: Between July 2000 and June 2005, 136 consecutive HCC patients underwent primary curative hepatectomy. Bone marrow aspirated preoperatively, and peripheral blood samples collected before and after operation were subjected to real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis using AFP mRNA as a target molecule. Median follow-up was 23 months (range, 6–54 months). Patient survival (PS), disease-free survival (DFS), and clinicopathologic features were compared between patients with positive and negative AFP mRNA. Results: Twenty-four patients died (22 from HCC). HCC recurred in 66 patients (hepatic in 37 [56.1%]; hepatic and remote in 17 [25.8%], and remote alone in 12 [18.2%]). Bone marrow was positive for AFP mRNA in 38 patients (27.9%) and negative in 98 (72.1%). One- and 3-year PS was 96.6% and 91.4%, respectively, with negative AFP mRNA versus 86.2% and 55.5%, respectively, with positive AFP mRNA (P < 0.0001). One- and 3-year DFS were 73.2% and 44.8%, respectively, with negative AFP mRNA versus 54.5% and 25.8%, respectively, with positive AFP mRNA (P = 0.0399). Portal vascular invasion, tumor size, multiple tumors, and tumor differentiation correlated with inferior PS and DFS on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, positive AFP mRNA was the most important risk factor for PS (P = 0.001) and DFS (P = 0.0165). In addition, positive AFP mRNA in peripheral blood after operation tended to predict reduced DFS. Conclusion: AFP mRNA in the bone marrow and systemic circulation during the perioperative period predicts patient survival and recurrence after

  16. [Detection and subgrouping of respiratory syncytial virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hajime; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Mizumura, Ayano; Kitahashi, Tomoko

    2012-09-01

    The TaqMan-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay we developed uses specific probes to identify respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to distinguish RSV subgroups A (RSV-A) and B (RSV-B). We selected conserved regions of the F gene as assay targets and designed new primers and TaqMan MGB probes to detect RSV-A and B. RSV-A and B control plasmids confirmed real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) reactivity whose efficiency was 2.5 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(7) copies/tube. The assay detection limit was 10 to 10(2) times higher than that of the conventional RT-PCR assay and was equal to the nested PCR assay. No cross-reactions occurred against other respiratory viruses, including influenza virus, metapneumovirus, measles virus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus, echovirus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, and rhinovirus. Of 154 clinical specimens derived from subjects with acute respiratory infection and tested by using both real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR, 40 were RSV-positive in both assays. Of these, 25 were identified as RSV-A and 15 as RSV-B by both assays. There was 100% concordance in RSV subgroup identification between real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR assays. These results indicate that our real-time RT-PCR assay can be used for rapid detection, quantitative analysis and subgrouping of RSV-A and RSV-B.

  17. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemin; Fu, Yuanyuan; Ban, Liping; Wang, Zan; Feng, Guangyan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method for accurately detecting gene expression patterns. As part of qRT-PCR analysis, normalization of the data requires internal control gene(s) that display uniform expression under different biological conditions. However, no invariable internal control gene exists, and therefore more than one reference gene is needed to normalize RT-PCR results. In this study, we assessed the expression of eight candidate internal control genes, namely 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor-1alpha, β-Actin, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, β-Tubulin (TUB), ACTIN2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and Msc27 of unknown function, in a diverse set of 16 alfalfa (Medicago sativa) samples representing different tissues and abiotic stress challenges, using geNorm and BestKeeper software. The results revealed that the eight candidate genes are inconsistently expressed under different experimental conditions. Msc27 and 18S rRNA are suitable reference genes for comparing different tissue types. Under different abscisic acid and NaCl conditions, three reference genes are necessary. Finally, GAPDH, TUB and β-Actin are unsuitable for normalization of qRT-PCR data under these given conditions in alfalfa. The relative expression level of MsWRKY33 was analyzed using selected reference genes. These results provide an experimental guideline for future research on gene expression in alfalfa using qRT-PCR.

  18. Avian influenza virus detection and quantitation by real-time RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been used for avian influenza virus (AIV) detection since the early 2000’s for routine surveillance, during outbreaks and for research. Some of the advantages of rRT-PCR are: high sensitivity, high specificity, rapid time-to-result, scalability, cost, and its inherentl...

  19. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  20. Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection of Lyssavirus Species

    PubMed Central

    Deubelbeiss, A.; Zahno, M.-L.; Zanoni, M.; Bruegger, D.; Zanoni, R.

    2014-01-01

    The causative agents of rabies are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae, consisting of twelve classified and three as yet unclassified species including classical rabies virus (RABV). Highly neurotropic RABV causes rapidly progressive encephalomyelitis with nearly invariable fatal outcome. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of rabies is highly relevant for public and veterinary health. Due to growing variety of the genus Lyssavirus observed, the development of suitable molecular assays for diagnosis and differentiation is challenging. This work focused on the establishment of a suitable real-time RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis as a complement to fluorescent antibody test and rabies tissue culture infection test as gold standard for diagnosis and confirmation. The real-time RT-PCR was adapted with the goal to detect the whole spectrum of lyssavirus species, for nine of which synthesized DNA fragments were used. For the detection of species, seven probes were developed. Serial dilutions of the rabies virus strain CVS-11 showed a 100-fold higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to heminested RT-PCR. Using a panel of thirty-one lyssaviruses representing four species, the suitability of the protocol could be shown. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained by heminested PCR allowed correct classification of all viruses used. PMID:26464934

  1. Type A influenza virus detection from horses by real-time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease of horses caused by the equine influenza virus (EIV) H3N8 subtype. EI is the most important respiratory virus infection of horses and can disrupt major equestrian events and cause significant economic losses to the equine industry worldwide. Influenza H3N8 virus spreads rapidly in susceptible horses and can result in very high morbidity within 24-48 h after exposure to the virus. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis of EI is critical for implementation of prevention and control measures to avoid the spread of EIV and to reduce the economic impact of the disease. The probe-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays targeting various EIV genes are reported to be highly sensitive and specific compared to the Directigen Flu A(®) test and virus isolation in embryonated hens' eggs. Recently, a TaqMan(®) probe-based insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for the detection of EIV H3N8 subtype has been described. These molecular based diagnostic assays provide a fast and reliable means of EIV detection and disease surveillance.

  2. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level

  3. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debashree L; Johnson, Joshua C

    2014-05-18

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across

  4. The adipokinetic hormones in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: cDNA cloning, quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis, and gene specific localization.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latief, Mohatmed; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2007-10-01

    Small neuropeptides of the adipokinetic/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family regulate energy metabolism in insects. Within lepidopterans, the nonapeptide Manduca sexta AKH (Manse-AKH) represents a widely occurring AKH, whereas the decapeptide Helze-HrTH (at first isolated from Helicoverpa zea) seems to be restricted to moths. Here we report the identification of the Manse-AKH-like Spofr-AKH 1 and the Helze-HrTH-like Spofr-AKH 2 prohormone precursors from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Moreover, by PCR screening of a random primer cDNA library and by RACE, three 668, 835 and 1008 bp cDNA sequences were obtained, which encode putative translation products of 67-74 amino acids, each containing one copy of a peptide sequence that in its processed form has the sequence of QLTFSSGW-amide (Spofr-AKH 3). Another cDNA sequence of 634 bp encodes a putative translation product of 40 amino acids, potentially leading to one copy of an elongated, non-amidated Helze-HrTH (pQLTFSSGWGNCTS-OH; Spofr-AKH 4). Q-RT-PCR analysis showed that the Spofr-AKH mRNAs are expressed in 2d-old female brain/corpora cardiaca complexes, but also in ovaries, midgut, fat body, accessory glands and muscle tissues. Expression was also found in the ovaries of 4d-old females. Whole-mount in situ RT-PCR analysis with ovaries from 2d-old females showed that the Spofr-AKH 2 and Spofr-AKH 4 were mainly localized in the germarium (phase 3), whereas the Spofr-AKH 1, and the three mRNA isoforms of Spofr-AKH 3 were localized at the end of the vitellarium and in the fully developed oocytes (phase 1 and 2). The results suggest that Spofr-AKH genes play a role in the regulation of oocyte maturation in S. frugiperda.

  5. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    1 Real - time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei Vipin K. Rastogi1, Tu-chen Cheng1, Lisa Collins1 and Jennifer Bagley2 1...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real - time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B.pseudomallei 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...risk. There is currently no real - time PCR assay for detection of both of these pathogens. Primers and probes corresponding to specific genomic regions

  6. Tissue-specific selection of optimal reference genes for expression analysis of anti-cancer drug-related genes in tumor samples using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijuan; Yang, Bobo; Geng, Tingting; Li, Bin; Dai, Penggao; Chen, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Gene transcription analysis in clinical tumor samples can help with diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancers. We aimed to identify the optimal reference genes for reliable expression analysis in various tumor samples by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Using a one-step TaqMan-based qRT-PCR, 5 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, RPLPO, GUSB, and TFRC) and 10 anticancer drug-related genes (TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1, TOP2A, EGFR, VEGFR2, HER2, ERCC1, and BRCA1) were analyzed in 327 tissue samples from lung, rectal, colon, gastric, esophageal, and breast tumors. According to the expression stability assessments obtained by using three programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) and a comprehensive ranking method, the optimal reference genes for lung, gastric, esophageal, and breast tumors were RPLPO, GAPDH, ACTB, and ACTB, respectively. For rectal tumors, a combination of the 3 most stable genes (GUSB, ACTB, and RPLPO) was suitable for qRT-PCR, whereas for colon tumors, a combination of the 4 most stable genes (GAPDH, ACTB, GUSB, and RPLPO) was optimal for qRT-PCR. Based on the expression data of target genes normalized against selected reference genes, the principal component analysis revealed 4 expression patterns in 6 different tissues. One pattern was observed in gastric, rectal, and colon tumor tissues, which are gastrointestinal tumors. Expressions in the breast, lung, and esophageal tissues were separately represented as one pattern. Our results could facilitate the practice of personalized cancer medicine based on the gene expression profile of the patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Zika virus by SYBR green one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Yue; Liu, Si-Qing; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Zhang, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has rapidly spread to new areas of Americas, which were the first transmissions outside its traditional endemic areas in Africa and Asia. Due to the link with newborn defects and neurological disorder, numerous infected cases throughout the world and various mosquito vectors, the virus has been considered to be an international public health emergency. In the present study, we developed a SYBR Green based one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of ZIKV. Our results revealed that the real-time assay is highly specific and sensitive in detection of ZIKV in cell samples. Importantly, the replication of ZIKV at different time points in infected cells could be rapidly monitored by the real-time RT-PCR assay. Specifically, the real-time RT-PCR showed acceptable performance in measurement of infectious ZIKV RNA. This assay could detect ZIKV at a titer as low as 1PFU/mL. The real-time RT-PCR assay could be a useful tool for further virology surveillance and diagnosis of ZIKV.

  8. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su-Hua; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hong; Tsai, I.-Shou; Lu, Huang-Chih; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2008-10-01

    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples.

  9. Real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For universal detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains by real time RT-PCR, a protocol was developed based on a set of primers and a Cy5-labeled TaqMan probe. This test included primers and a TET-labeled TaqMan probe selected on the mitochondrial nad5 gene for the simultaneous detection of ...

  10. Comparison of the conventional multiplex RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR and Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay for the detection of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manohar L; Anand, Siddharth P; Tikhe, Shamal A; Walimbe, Atul M; Potdar, Varsha A; Chadha, Mandeep S; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2016-01-01

    Detection of respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive, specific and cost effective, having huge potential for patient management. In this study, the performance of an in-house developed conventional multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR), real time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) and Luminex xTAG(®) RVP fast assay (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) for the detection of respiratory viruses was compared. A total 310 respiratory clinical specimens predominantly from pediatric patients, referred for diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 from August 2009 to March 2011 were tested to determine performance characteristic of the three methods. A total 193 (62.2%) samples were detected positive for one or more viruses by mRT-PCR, 175 (56.4%) samples by real time monoplex RT-PCR, and 138 (44.5%) samples by xTAG(®) RVP fast assay. The overall sensitivity of mRT-PCR was 96.9% (95% CI: 93.5, 98.8), rtRT-PCR 87.9% (95% CI: 82.5, 92.1) and xTAG(®) RVP fast was 68.3% (95% CI: 61.4, 74.6). Rhinovirus was detected most commonly followed by respiratory syncytial virus group B and influenza A/H1N1pdm09. The monoplex real time RT-PCR and in-house developed mRT-PCR are more sensitive, specific and cost effective than the xTAG(®) RVP fast assay.

  11. Development of a real-time quantitative RT-PCR to detect REV contamination in live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luan, Huaibiao; Wang, Yixin; Li, Yang; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Based on the published Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) whole genome sequence, primers and TaqMan probes were designed and synthesized, and the TaqMan probe fluorescence real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detecting the REV pol gene was established by optimizing the reaction conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed that the qRT-PCR method had a sensitivity that was 1,000-fold higher than conventional PCR. Additionally, no amplification signals were obtained when we attempted to detect DNA or cDNA of ALV-A/B/J, MDV, CIAV, IBDV, ARV, NDV, AIV, or other viruses, suggesting a high specificity for our method. Various titers of REV were artificially "spiked" into the FPV and MDV vaccines to simulate REV contamination in attenuated vaccines to validate this qRT-PCR method. Our findings indicated that this qRT-PCR method could detect REV contamination at a dose of 1 TCID50/1,000 feathers, which was 10,000-fold more sensitive than the regular RT-PCR detection (10(4) TCID50/1000 feathers). © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Diagnosis of Kyasanur forest disease by nested RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and IgM capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Mehla, Rajeev; Barde, Pradip V; Yergolkar, Prasanna N; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Thakare, Jyotsna P; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2012-12-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by infection by a Flavivirus, a member of the family Flaviviridae. KFD is a public health concern in the Karnataka State in southern India. Available conventional diagnostic tests such as virus isolation and serological tests, such as haemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests are time consuming. This study reports the development of a nested RT-PCR [nRT-PCR] and a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR and IgM antibodies capture ELISA [MAC-ELISA] for rapid and accurate diagnosis of suspected KFD cases. The nRT-PCR and the TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR assays were developed using gene sequences of the NS-5/non-coding region. Both the assays detected KFD viral RNA in acute phase human serum samples and can provide early diagnosis of infection. Real-time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than nRT-PCR, which could detect 38 copies of KFDV RNA. MAC-ELISA was developed for the detection of recent infections. Although real-time RT-PCR and nRT-PCR require expensive reagents, expensive equipment and trained personnel, the developed MAC-ELISA can be used easily in the affected areas. These tests add to the existing diagnosis arsenal against haemorrhagic viruses that are prevalent in India. These assays will also help to extend our knowledge of the pathology of KFD virus and its associated clinical features, by measuring the viral titre during infection and at the time of seroconversion. Information, which is not available currently because of the lack of appropriate diagnostic methods. In addition, early laboratory diagnosis of KFDV infection will help in the application of appropriate control measures and management of KFD cases.

  13. Seasonal variation in transcript abundance in cork tissue analyzed by real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Serra, Olga; Molinas, Marisa; García-Berthou, Emili; Caritat, Antònia; Figueras, Mercè

    2008-05-01

    The molecular processes underlying cork biosynthesis and differentiation are mostly unknown. Recently, a list of candidate genes for cork biosynthesis and regulation was made available opening new possibilities for molecular studies in cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Based on this list, we analyzed the seasonal variation in mRNA abundance in cork tissue of selected genes by real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Relative transcript abundance was evaluated by principal component analysis and genes were clustered in several functional subgroups. Structural genes of suberin pathways such as CYP86A1, GPAT and HCBT, and regulatory genes of the NAM and WRKY families showed highest transcript accumulation in June, a crucial month for cork development. Other cork structural genes, such as FAT and F5H, were significantly correlated with temperature and relative humidity. The stress genes HSP17.4 and ANN were strongly positively correlated to temperature, in accord with their protective role.

  14. Direct sample preparation methods for the detection of Plum pox virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Capote, Nieves; Bertolini, Edson; Olmos, Antonio; Vidal, Eduardo; Martínez, Maria Carmen; Cambra, Mariano

    2009-03-01

    Direct systems to process plant materials allowed high-throughput testing of Plum pox virus (PPV) by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR without nucleic acids purification. Crude plant extracts were diluted in buffer or spotted on membranes to be used as templates. Alternatively, immobilized PPV targets were amplified from fresh sections of plant tissues printed or squashed onto the same supports, without extract preparation. Spot real-time RT-PCR was validated as a PPV diagnostic method in samples collected during the dormancy period and showed high sensitivity (93.6%), specificity (98.0%), and post-test probability (97.9%) towards sharka disease. In an analysis of 2919 Prunus samples by spot real-time RT-PCR and DASI-ELISA 90.8% of the results coincided, demonstrating high agreement (k = 0.77 +/- 0.01) between the two techniques. These results validate the use of immobilized PPV targets and spot real-time RT-PCR as screening method for largescale analyses.

  15. [Investigation of West Nile virus RNA in blood donors by real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih; Avcı, Ismail Yaşar; Bedir, Orhan; Koru, Ozgür; Sener, Kenan; Yapar, Mehmet; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of Flaviviridae family, is an enveloped, icosahedral symmetric RNA virus. Primary reservoir hosts of WNV are birds, but the virus can cause various infections in humans and other mammals. The most common and natural transmission way of WNV infections is mosquito bites, however, humans can be infected by different routes. The most important non-mosquito transmission route is contaminated blood and blood products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of WNV transmission through blood and blood products in Ankara, Turkey. The presence of WNV RNA was investigated by in house real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in serum samples obtained from 729 healthy blood donors (mean age: 27.7 years; 711 were male), regardless of the donor's seropositivity status since the virus can be transmitted at the early stages of infection when seroconversion has not yet developed. Serum samples were collected in August-September 2009, the period when these infections are more frequent due to mosquito activity. The vast majority of donors (n= 702, 96.3%) have been inhabiting in Ankara and 569 (78%) of donors have had risk factors for arboviral infections (e.g. outdoor activity, mosquito and tick bites). WNV RNA was not detected by real-time RT-PCR analysis in any serum sample included in this study. According to the results of our study, it can be said that the risk of WNV transmission through blood and blood products is low in Ankara. However, WNV seropositivity was detected within the range of 0.56 to 2.4% among blood donors in previous studies and probable and confirmed WNV infections have been reported in our region. In addition, WNV outbreaks have emerged in some countries neighbouring Turkey recently. Thus, the risk of WNV transmission through blood and blood products should not be ignored and blood donor questionnaires should be evaluated in detail.

  16. [Development and comparison of real-time and conventional RT-PCR assay for detection of human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1].

    PubMed

    Lu, Rou-jian; Zhang, Ling-lin; Tan, Wen-jie; Zhou, Wei-min; Wang, Zhong; Peng, Kun; Ruan, Li

    2008-07-01

    We designed specific primers and fluorescence-labeled probes to develop real-time and conventional RT-PCR assays for detection of human coronavirus NL63 or HKU1. Subsequently, experiments were undertaken to assess diagnostic criteria such as specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility. The detection limit of the real-time RT-PCR assays was 10 RNA copies per reaction mixture. No cross-reactivity was observed between RNA samples derived from designed HCoV and other HCoV or human metapneumovirus. A total of 158 nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from adult patients with acute respiratory tract infection in Beijing were screened for the presence of human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1 by using real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR method. The fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method detected six specimens positive for human coronavirus NL63, five specimens positive for human coronavirus HKU1; and conventional RT-PCR method detected three HCoV-NL63 positive and three HCoV-HKU1 positive, respectively. The convention RT-PCR products of positive samples were obtained and sequence analysis confirmed the reliability of the above methods. In summary, the real-time RT-PCR assay for HCoV- NL63 or HKU1 was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and with less time (less than 4 hours) for completion. It may be suitable for molecular epidemiological surveillance and clinical diagnosis for human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1.

  17. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang Geng; Wang, Xian Li; Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2013-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been used frequently to study gene expression related to fish immunology. In such studies, a stable reference gene should be selected to correct the expression of the target gene. In this study, seven candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCE), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), tubulin alpha chain-like (TUBA) and beta actin (ACTB)), were selected to analyze their stability and normalization in seven tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, muscle and intestine) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae or Streptococcus iniae, respectively. The results showed that all the candidate reference genes exhibited tissue-dependent transcriptional variations. With PBS injection as a control, UBCE was the most stable and suitable single reference gene in the intestine, liver, brain, kidney, and spleen after S. iniae infection, and in the liver, kidney, and spleen after S. agalactiae infection. EF1A was the most suitable in heart and muscle after S. iniae or S. agalactiae infection. GADPH was the most suitable gene in intestine and brain after S. agalactiae infection. In normal conditions, UBCE and 18S rRNA were the most stably expressed genes across the various tissues. These results showed that for RT-qPCR analysis of tilapia, selecting two or more reference genes may be more suitable for cross-tissue analysis of gene expression.

  18. Detection of Schmallenberg virus in different Culicoides spp. by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    De Regge, N; Deblauwe, I; De Deken, R; Vantieghem, P; Madder, M; Geysen, D; Smeets, F; Losson, B; van den Berg, T; Cay, A B

    2012-12-01

    To identify possible vectors of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we tested pools containing heads of biting midges (Culicoides) that were caught during the summer and early autumn of 2011 at several places in Belgium by real-time RT-PCR. Pools of heads originating from following species: C. obsoletus complex, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus were found positive, strongly indicating that these species are relevant vectors for SBV.

  19. Simultaneous detection of three fish rhabdoviruses using multiplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongxiao; Teng, Yong; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yulin; Xie, Xiayang; Li, Huifang; Lv, Jiangqiang; Gao, Longying; He, Junqiang; Shi, Xiujie; Tian, Feiyan; Yang, Jingshun; Xie, Congxin

    2008-04-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are three important fish rhabdoviruses, causing serious Office International des Epizooties (OIE) classified diseases in wild and farmed fish. Here, a new multiplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR (mqRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection, identification and quantification of these three rhabdoviruses. The sets of primers and probes were targeted to conserved regions of glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV, nucleoprotein (N) gene of IHNV and G gene of VHSV and used to amplify. The sensitivity, specificity and interference test of mqRT-PCR assay was analyzed. It was shown that the detection levels of 100 copies of SVCV, 220 copies of IHNV and 140 copies of VHSV were achieved, and there was no non-specific amplification and cross-reactivity using RNA of pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and grass carp reovirus (GCRV). A total of 80 clinical fish samples were tested using the mqRT-PCR assay and the results were confirmed by antigen-capture ELISA and cell culture assay. This assay has the potential to be used for both research applications and diagnosis.

  20. Recent sequence variation in probe binding site affected detection of respiratory syncytial virus group B by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kamau, Everlyn; Agoti, Charles N; Lewa, Clement S; Oketch, John; Owor, Betty E; Otieno, Grieven P; Bett, Anne; Cane, Patricia A; Nokes, D James

    2017-03-01

    Direct immuno-fluorescence test (IFAT) and multiplex real-time RT-PCR have been central to RSV diagnosis in Kilifi, Kenya. Recently, these two methods showed discrepancies with an increasing number of PCR undetectable RSV-B viruses. Establish if mismatches in the primer and probe binding sites could have reduced real-time RT-PCR sensitivity. Nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes were sequenced for real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples. Primer and probe binding regions in N gene were checked for mismatches and phylogenetic analyses done to determine molecular epidemiology of these viruses. New primers and probe were designed and tested on the previously real-time RT-PCR negative samples. N gene sequences revealed 3 different mismatches in the probe target site of PCR negative, IFAT positive viruses. The primers target sites had no mismatches. Phylogenetic analysis of N and G genes showed that real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples fell into distinct clades. Newly designed primers-probe pair improved detection and recovered previous PCR undetectable viruses. An emerging RSV-B variant is undetectable by a quite widely used real-time RT-PCR assay due to polymorphisms that influence probe hybridization affecting PCR accuracy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in Switzerland using real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Camenisch, Glauco; Bandli, Risch; Hoop, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoir of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV; avian paramyxovirus-1) causing New-castle disease, and are often suspected to be involved in outbreaks in domesticated birds. To assess the epidemiologic status of wild birds living, or overwintering, in Switzerland, 3,049 cloacal swabs covering the period 2003-2006 were screened for NDV, using real time RT-PCR. All samples were negative. This result seems in contrast with previously performed serologic screenings of wild birds.

  2. Comparative detection of rotavirus RNA by conventional RT-PCR, TaqMan RT-PCR and real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qiu-Hua; Wang, Hai-Bo; Tan, Hua; Wu, Bi-Mei; Feng, Zi-Li; Wang, Qi; Lin, Ji-Can; Yang, Ze

    2015-03-01

    Rotavirus is one of the major viral pathogens leading to diarrhea. Diagnosis has been conducted by either traditional cultural, serological methods or molecular biology techniques, which include RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). However, their differences regarding accuracy and sensitivity remain unknown. In this study, an in-house conventional RT-PCR assay and more importantly, an in-house real-time NASBA (RT-NASBA) were established, and compared with a commercial TaqMan RT-PCR assay. The results showed that all of these methods were able to detect and distinguish rotavirus from other diarrhea viruses with a 100% concordance rate during the course of an evaluation on 20 clinical stool samples. However, RT-NASBA was much quicker than the other two methods. More importantly, the limit of detection of RT-NASBA could reach seven copies per reaction and was one to two logs lower than that of conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-PCR. These results indicate that this in-house assay was more sensitive, and thus could be used as an efficient diagnosis tool for rotavirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct comparison among three different assays for the detection of rotavirus. These findings would provide implication for the rational selection of diagnosis tool for rotavirus.

  3. A novel real-time RT-PCR assay for influenza C tested in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Howard, Leigh M; Johnson, Monika; Gil, Ana I; Pekosz, Andrew; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Lanata, Claudio F; Grijalva, Carlos G; Williams, John V

    2017-09-01

    Influenza C virus (ICV) is associated with acute respiratory illness. Yet ICV remains under recognized, with most previous studies using only culture to identify cases. To develop a sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assay for ICV that allows for rapid and accurate detection in a clinical or research setting. Multiple ICV sequences obtained from GenBank were analyzed, including 141 hemagglutinin-esterase (HE), 106 matrix (M), and 97 nucleoprotein (NP) sequences. Primers and probes were designed based on conserved regions. Multiple primer-probe sets were tested against multiple ICV strains. The ICV M and NP genes offered the most conserved sequence regions. Primers and probes based on newer sequence data offered enhanced detection of ICV, especially for low titer specimens. An NP-targeted assay yielded the best performance and was capable of detecting 10-100 RNA copies per reaction. The NP assay detected multiple clinical isolates of ICV collected in a field epidemiology study conducted in Peru. We report a new real-time RT-PCR assay for ICV with high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR): A New Patent to Diagnostic Purposes for Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Silva, Fabiana; Gomes, Luciana I; Gracielle-Melo, Cidiane; Goes, Alfredo M; Caligiorne, Rachel B

    2017-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. It is prevalent in Latin American, mainly in Brazil. Therefore, PCM has fundamental impact on the Brazilian global economy, especially in public health system, since it is affecting economical active population in different country regions. The present study aimed to standardize the Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) for an efficient and safe PCM diagnosis amplifying the recombinant protein PB27 gene, only expressed by specimens of Paracoccidioides genus. To standardize a methodology of rt-PCR using species-specific primers and probe designed for annealing in this specific region of the fungi´s genome, amplifying the recombinant protein PB27 gene, only expressed by specimens of Paracoccidioides genus. Followed by design in silico, experiments were performed in vitro to determine rt-PCR specificity, efficiency and genome detection limit. The primers and probe sequences were deposited in Brazilian Coordination of Technological Innovation and Transfer (CTIT), under patent reference number BR1020160078830. The present study demonstrated the rt-PCR applicability for support on diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis, presenting low cost, which makes it affordable for public health services in developing countries as Brazil. It is noteworthy that it is necessary to validate this methodology using clinical samples before to use as a safe method of diagnosis. A review of all patents related to this topic was performed and it was shown that, to date, there are no records of patent on kits for paracoccidioidomycosis´s diagnostic. Indeed, there is still a lot to go to reach this goal. The reaction developed was standardized and patented, opening perspectives to molecular diagnosis development for paracoccidioidomycosis, since rt-PCR can be applied to a broad spectrum of infectious diseases. It would need to be tested in biological

  5. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative RT-PCR studies in Talaromyces marneffei.

    PubMed

    Dankai, Wiyada; Pongpom, Monsicha; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-11-01

    Talaromyces marneffei (or Penicillium marneffei) is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, especially in Southeast Asia. T. marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus. Typically, T. marneffei has an adaptive morphology. It grows in a filamentous form (mould) at 25°C and can differentiate to produce asexual spores (conidia). In contrast, at 37°C, it grows as yeast cells that divide by fission. This study aimed to validate a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for gene expression analysis in T. marneffei. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of data using a proper reference gene. However, suitable reference genes have not been identified in gene expression studies across different cell types or under different experimental conditions in T. marneffei. In this study, four housekeeping genes were selected for analysis: β-actin (act); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh); β-tubulin (benA) and 18S rRNA. Two analysis programs; BestKeeper and geNorm software tools were used to validate the expression of the candidate normalized genes. The results indicated that the actin gene was the one which was most stably expressed and was recommended for use as the endogenous control for gene expression analysis of all growth forms in T. marneffei by qRT-PCR under normal and stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of dermcidin for sweat identification by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Koichi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Fukushima, Hisayo; Watanabe, Ken; Yoshino, Mineo

    2010-01-30

    We evaluated the performance of real-time RT-PCR and ELISA assays for detection of dermcidin (DCD) in sweat and body-fluid stains. DCD, a small antibiotic peptide secreted into human sweat, was detected by real-time RT-PCR in 7-day-old stains containing as small as 10 microL of sweat, and the assay showed high specificity when testing 7-day-old stains containing 30 microL of other body-fluid. ELISA using anti-human dermcidin mouse monoclonal antibody detected DCD sweat diluted up to approximately 10,000-fold and could specifically detect DCD in 10 microL of body-fluid stains. The performance of the two assays was tested during winter on samples that simulated forensic case samples: an undershirt and a sock worn for 20 h, a handkerchief used to wipe the brow several times within 12h, a cap and a cotton glove worn for 4h, and a white robe worn at intervals for 2 years. The result showed that the former assay detected DCD in all sites of the undershirt examined (armpit, back, and breast), and the latter gave a relatively high OD value in the armpit among the three sites. For the socks, although the latter assay gave very high OD values in both the center and toe of the foot sole, the former could not detect DCD in both of them. These results indicate that highly damp conditions, such as inside a shoe, might promote the degradation of mRNA in samples such as socks. In the other case samples, sweat was adequately detected by both assays. This study is the first demonstration of the use of real-time RT-PCR to sensitively identify sweat among body-fluid stains, and it confirmed that dermcidin was an excellent marker for sweat identification. In addition, the usefulness of ELISA was also verified. Positive sweat identification using these assays is expected to assist forensic practice. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of disinfectants against Puumala hantavirus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Li, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jannick; Keyaerts, Els; Clement, Jan; Van Ranst, Marc

    2007-04-01

    Puumala virus, a hantavirus belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, causes a human disease known as nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The implementation of effective decontamination procedures is critical in hantavirus research to minimize the risk of personnel exposure. This study investigated the efficacy of Clidox((R)), Dettol((R)), ethanol, Halamid-d((R)), peracetic acid, sodium hypochloride and Virkon((R))S for inactivating Puumala virus. A real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify Puumala virus before and after treatment with these products. Inactivation of Puumala virus was effective after 10min with all products except ethanol. Inactivation with absolute ethanol was effective only after 30min. Using the qRT-PCR method, this study has shown that the commercially available products Clidox((R)), Halamid-d((R)) and Virkon((R))S in particular represent a rapid and safe way to decontaminate surfaces with possible Puumala virus contamination. These products can be used in solutions of 1-2%, with contact times greater than 10min, for inactivating effectively Puumala virus.

  8. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Volvox carteri using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for analysis of gene expression under a wide diversity of biological conditions. However, the identification of suitable reference genes is a critical factor for analysis of gene expression data. To determine potential reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in the green alga Volvox carteri, the transcript levels of ten candidate reference genes were measured by qRT-PCR in three experimental sample pools containing different developmental stages, cell types and stress treatments. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was then calculated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The genes for 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α2 (eef1) turned out to have the most stable expression levels among the samples both from different developmental stages and different stress treatments. The genes for the ribosomal protein L23 (rpl23) and the TATA-box binding protein (tbpA) showed equivalent transcript levels in the comparison of different cell types, and therefore, can be used as reference genes for cell-type specific gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that more than one reference gene is required for accurate normalization of qRT-PCRs in V. carteri. The reference genes in our study show a much better performance than the housekeeping genes used as a reference in previous studies.

  9. Validation and comparison of different end point and real time RT-PCR assays for detection and genotyping of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Michele; Franzo, Giovanni; Belfanti, Ilaria; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Ceglie, Letizia

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy and rapid diagnosis of PRRSV infection is a major prerequisite for every control and/or eradication strategy. In this study two real time RT-PCR based on different chemistry analysis (TaqMan Probes and SYBR Green) have been developed and validated before comparison to an end point two-step RT-PCR validated previously. All assays were aimed at discrimination between PRRSV genotypes. Furthermore, an exogenous internal control (IC) system had also been implemented in qRT-PCR. A rigorous analytical validation, executed on infected cell cultures and serum, demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability. In particular RT-PCR was exceptionally sensitive and could detect a viral titre in the order of a magnitude of 1 copies/μL, 10-fold lower than other qRT-PCR described in this study. Optimal diagnostic performances have been demonstrated analyzing samples retrieved from an experimental infection, with RT-PCR again outperforming real time RT-PCR assays. All tests, showing substantial agreement between them, were able to detect early stages of viraemia (1 DPI) and some animals were classified as positive until the end of the study (76 DPI). Therefore, this supports the assays usefulness in animals with different clinical conditions and in a broad range of epidemiological scenarios. The benefits and disadvantages of different assays were also considered and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays for rapid detection and quantification of viable yeasts and molds contaminating yogurts and pasteurized food products.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Gianluca; Rizzotti, Lucia; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR assays have been used to detect and quantify actin mRNA from yeasts and molds. Universal primers were designed based on the available fungal actin sequences, and by RT-PCR they amplified a specific 353-bp fragment from fungal species involved in food spoilage. From experiments on heat-treated cells, actin mRNA was a good indicator of cell viability: viable cells and cells in a nonculturable state were detected, while no signal was observed from dead cells. The optimized RT-PCR assay was able to detect 10 CFU of fungi ml(-1) in pure culture and 10(3) and 10(2) CFU ml(-1) in artificially contaminated yogurts and pasteurized fruit-derived products, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR, performed on a range of spoiled commercial food products, validated the suitability of actin mRNA detection for the quantification of naturally contaminating fungi. The specificity and sensitivity of the procedure, combined with its speed, its reliability, and the potential automation of the technique, offer several advantages to routine analysis programs that assess the presence and viability of fungi in food commodities.

  11. Development of Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR and Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for Rapid Detection and Quantification of Viable Yeasts and Molds Contaminating Yogurts and Pasteurized Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Gianluca; Rizzotti, Lucia; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR assays have been used to detect and quantify actin mRNA from yeasts and molds. Universal primers were designed based on the available fungal actin sequences, and by RT-PCR they amplified a specific 353-bp fragment from fungal species involved in food spoilage. From experiments on heat-treated cells, actin mRNA was a good indicator of cell viability: viable cells and cells in a nonculturable state were detected, while no signal was observed from dead cells. The optimized RT-PCR assay was able to detect 10 CFU of fungi ml−1 in pure culture and 103 and 102 CFU ml−1 in artificially contaminated yogurts and pasteurized fruit-derived products, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR, performed on a range of spoiled commercial food products, validated the suitability of actin mRNA detection for the quantification of naturally contaminating fungi. The specificity and sensitivity of the procedure, combined with its speed, its reliability, and the potential automation of the technique, offer several advantages to routine analysis programs that assess the presence and viability of fungi in food commodities. PMID:12839789

  12. Detection of Langat virus by TaqMan real-time one-step qRT-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Radzi, Siti Fatimah; Rückert, Claudia; Sam, Sing-Sin; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Jee, Pui-Fong; Phoon, Wai-Hong; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Langat virus (LGTV), one of the members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) complex, was firstly isolated from Ixodes granulatus ticks in Malaysia. However, the prevalence of LGTV in ticks in the region remains unknown. Surveillance for LGTV is therefore important and thus a tool for specific detection of LGTV is needed. In the present study, we developed a real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for rapid detection of LGTV. Our findings showed that the developed qRT-PCR could detect LGTV at a titre as low as 0.1 FFU/ml. The detection limit of the qRT-PCR assay at 95% probability was 0.28 FFU/ml as determined by probit analysis (p ≤ 0.05). Besides, the designed primers and probe did not amplify ORF of the E genes for some closely related and more pathogenic viruses including TBEV, Louping ill virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Alkhurma virus (ALKV), Kyasanur Forest Disease virus (KFDV) and Powassan virus (POWV) which showed the acceptable specificity of the developed assay. The sensitivity of the developed method also has been confirmed by determining the LGTV in infected tick cell line as well as LGTV- spiked tick tissues. PMID:26360297

  13. Selection of internal control genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies during tomato development process

    PubMed Central

    Expósito-Rodríguez, Marino; Borges, Andrés A; Borges-Pérez, Andrés; Pérez, José A

    2008-01-01

    Background The elucidation of gene expression patterns leads to a better understanding of biological processes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR has become the standard method for in-depth studies of gene expression. A biologically meaningful reporting of target mRNA quantities requires accurate and reliable normalization in order to identify real gene-specific variation. The purpose of normalization is to control several variables such as different amounts and quality of starting material, variable enzymatic efficiencies of retrotranscription from RNA to cDNA, or differences between tissues or cells in overall transcriptional activity. The validity of a housekeeping gene as endogenous control relies on the stability of its expression level across the sample panel being analysed. In the present report we describe the first systematic evaluation of potential internal controls during tomato development process to identify which are the most reliable for transcript quantification by real-time RT-PCR. Results In this study, we assess the expression stability of 7 traditional and 4 novel housekeeping genes in a set of 27 samples representing different tissues and organs of tomato plants at different developmental stages. First, we designed, tested and optimized amplification primers for real-time RT-PCR. Then, expression data from each candidate gene were evaluated with three complementary approaches based on different statistical procedures. Our analysis suggests that SGN-U314153 (CAC), SGN-U321250 (TIP41), SGN-U346908 ("Expressed") and SGN-U316474 (SAND) genes provide superior transcript normalization in tomato development studies. We recommend different combinations of these exceptionally stable housekeeping genes for suited normalization of different developmental series, including the complete tomato development process. Conclusion This work constitutes the first effort for the selection of optimal endogenous controls for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies of gene

  14. Characterization of two novel pacifastin-like peptide precursor isoforms in the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria): cDNA cloning, functional analysis and real-time RT-PCR gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Simonet, Gert; Breugelmans, Bert; Proost, Paul; Claeys, Ilse; Van Damme, Jozef; De Loof, Arnold; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2005-05-15

    In the last decade, a new serine protease inhibitor family has been described in arthropods. Eight members of the family were purified from locusts and share a conserved cysteine array (Cys-Xaa(9-12)-Cys-Asn-Xaa-Cys-Xaa-Cys-Xaa(2-3)-Gly-Xaa(3-6)-Cys-Thr-Xaa3-Cys) with nine inhibitory domains of the light chain of the crayfish protease inhibitor, pacifastin (PLDs; pacifastin light chain domains). Using cDNA cloning, several pacifastin-related precursors have been identified, encoding additional PLD-related peptides in different insect species. In the present study, two isoforms of a novel pacifastin-related precursor (SGPP-4) have been identified in the desert locust, predicting the previously identified SGPI-5 (Schistocerca gregaria PLD-related inhibitor-5) peptide and two novel PLD-related peptide sequences. One novel peptide (SGPI-5A) was synthesized chemically, and its inhibitory activity was assessed in vitro. Although proteases from a locust midgut extract were very sensitive to SGPI-5A, the same peptide proved to be a relatively poor inhibitor of bovine trypsin. By an in silico datamining approach, a novel pacifastin-related precursor with seven PLD-related domains was identified in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As in other insect pacifastin-related precursors, the Aedes precursor showed a particular domain architecture that is not encountered in other serine protease inhibitor families. Finally, a comparative real-time RT-PCR analysis of SGPP-4 transcripts in different tissues of isolated- (solitarious) and crowded-reared (gregarious) locusts was performed. This showed that SGPP-4 mRNA levels are higher in the brain, testes and fat body of gregarious males than of solitarious males. These results have been compared with data from a similar study on SGPP-1-3 transcripts and discussed with respect to a differential regulation of serine-protease-dependent pathways as a possible mechanism underlying locust phase polymorphism.

  15. Improved Serotype-Specific Dengue Virus Detection in Trinidad and Tobago using a Multiplex, Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Sahadeo, Nikita S. D.; Brown, Arianne; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Hadley, Dexter; Carrington, Leslie; Carrington, Christine V. F.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) transmission occurs throughout the Caribbean, though laboratory confirmation and epidemiologic surveillance is limited by the availability of serotype-specific molecular diagnostics. In this study, we show that a serotype-specific DENV multiplex, real-time RT-PCR detected DENV RNA in significantly more samples (82/182) than a reference hemi-nested RT-PCR (57/182; p=0.01). PMID:25533614

  16. Evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assays for detection and quantification of norovirus genogroups I and II.

    PubMed

    Rupprom, Kitwadee; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Diraphat, Pornphan; Kittigul, Leera

    2017-02-20

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) is a promising molecular method for the detection of noroviruses. In this study, the performance of three TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays was assessed, which were one commercially available real-time RT-PCR kit (assay A: Norovirus Real Time RT-PCR kit) and two in-house real-time RT-PCR assays (assay B: LightCycler RNA Master Hybprobe and assay C: RealTime ready RNA Virus Master). Assays A and B showed higher sensitivity than assay C for norovirus GI, while they all had the same sensitivity (10(3) DNA copies/mL) for GII DNA standard controls. Assay B had the highest efficiency for both genogroups. No cross-reactivity was observed among GI and GII noroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and poliovirus. The detection rates of these assays in GI and GII norovirus-positive fecal samples were not significantly different. However, the mean quantification cycle (Cq) value of assay B for GII was lower than assays A and C with statistical significance (P-value, 0.000). All three real-time RT-PCR assays could detect a variety of noroviruses including GI.2, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.17, and GII.21. This study suggests assay B as a suitable assay for the detection and quantification of noroviruses GI and GII due to good analytical sensitivity and higher performance to amplify norovirus on DNA standard controls and clinical samples.

  17. Preamplification techniques for real-time RT-PCR analyses of endomyocardial biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Noutsias, Michel; Rohde, Maria; Block, Andrea; Klippert, Katrin; Lettau, Olga; Blunert, Katja; Hummel, Michael; Kühl, Uwe; Lehmkuhl, Hans; Hetzer, Roland; Rauch, Ursula; Poller, Wolfgang; Pauschinger, Matthias; Schultheiss, Heinz P; Volk, Hans D; Kotsch, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Background Due to the limited RNA amounts from endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) and low expression levels of certain genes, gene expression analyses by conventional real-time RT-PCR are restrained in EMBs. We applied two preamplification techniques, the TaqMan® PreAmp Master Mix (T-PreAmp) and a multiplex preamplification following a sequence specific reverse transcription (SSRT-PreAmp). Results T-PreAmp encompassing 92 gene assays with 14 cycles resulted in a mean improvement of 7.24 ± 0.33 Ct values. The coefficients for inter- (1.89 ± 0.48%) and intra-assay variation (0.85 ± 0.45%) were low for all gene assays tested (<4%). The PreAmp uniformity values related to the reference gene CDKN1B for 91 of the investigated gene assays (except for CD56) were -0.38 ± 0.33, without significant differences between self-designed and ABI inventoried Taqman® gene assays. Only two of the tested Taqman® ABI inventoried gene assays (HPRT-ABI and CD56) did not maintain PreAmp uniformity levels between -1.5 and +1.5. In comparison, the SSRT-PreAmp tested on 8 self-designed gene assays yielded higher Ct improvement (9.76 ± 2.45), however was not as robust regarding the maintenance of PreAmp uniformity related to HPRT-CCM (-3.29 ± 2.40; p < 0.0001), and demonstrated comparable intra-assay CVs (1.47 ± 0.74), albeit higher inter-assay CVs (5.38 ± 2.06; p = 0.01). Comparing EMBs from each 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi), T-PreAmp real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed differential regulation regarding 27 (30%) of the investigated 90 genes related to both HPRT-CCM and CDKN1B. Ct values of HPRT and CDKN1B did not differ in equal RNA amounts from explanted DCM and donor hearts. Conclusion In comparison to the SSRT-PreAmp, T-PreAmp enables a relatively simple workflow, and results in a robust PreAmp of multiple target genes (at least 92 gene assays as tested here) by a mean Ct improvement around 7 cycles, and in a lower inter

  18. TaqMan real time RT-PCR assays for detecting ferret innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Louise A; Butler, Jeff; Rockman, Steve; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Hurt, Aeron C; Reading, Patrick; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian; Laurie, Karen L

    2014-09-01

    The ferret is an excellent model for many human infectious diseases including influenza, SARS-CoV, henipavirus and pneumococcal infections. The ferret is also used to study cystic fibrosis and various cancers, as well as reproductive biology and physiology. However, the range of reagents available to measure the ferret immune response is very limited. To address this deficiency, high-throughput real time RT-PCR TaqMan assays were developed to measure the expression of fifteen immune mediators associated with the innate and adaptive immune responses (IFNα, IFNβ, IFNγ, IL1α, IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12p40, IL17, Granzyme A, MCP1, TNFα), as well as four endogenous housekeeping genes (ATF4, HPRT, GAPDH, L32). These assays have been optimized to maximize reaction efficiency, reduce the amount of sample required (down to 1ng RNA per real time RT-PCR reaction) and to select the most appropriate housekeeping genes. Using these assays, the expression of each of the tested genes could be detected in ferret lymph node cells stimulated with mitogens or infected with influenza virus in vitro. These new tools will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the ferret immune responses following infection or in other disease states.

  19. Rapid molecular haemagglutinin subtyping of avian influenza isolates by specific real-time RT-PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Elizalde, Maia; Agüero, Montserrat; Buitrago, Dolores; Yuste, María; Arias, María Luisa; Muñoz, María Jesús; Lelli, Davide; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Moreno-Martin, Ana María; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita

    2014-02-01

    Sixteen haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been described to date. Rapid subtype identification of any AIV is of major interest because of the possible serious consequences for the poultry industry and even public health. Molecular techniques currently allow immediate accurate subtype characterisation prior to virus isolation. In this study, a set of fourteen specific real-time RT-PCR methods were developed and evaluated for AIV HA subtyping (H1-H4, H6-H8, H10-H16), H5 and H9 being excluded on the basis of the current validity of the European Union (EU) recommended specific assays. Specific primers and probes sets for each HA-subtype were designed to hybridise the largest isolates range within each single subtype, considering the Eurasian lineage as a major target. The robustness and general application of the 14 HA-subtype methods were verified by the analysis of 110 AIV isolates belonging to all 16 HA-subtypes, performed in different laboratories. The developed real-time RT-PCR assays proved to be highly specific and revealed suitable sensitivity, allowing direct HA-subtyping of clinical material. In summary, this study provides for the first time a panel of molecular tests using specific hydrolysis probes for rapid and complete AIV HA-subtype identification.

  20. Evaluation of a broad range real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of septic synovitis in horses.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Colette R; Koenig, Judith B; Bienzle, Dorothee; Cribb, Nicola C; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Coté, Nathalie M; Weese, J Scott

    2013-07-01

    Septic synovitis is a potentially debilitating and life-threatening disorder in horses. We hypothesized that a universal bacterial real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay would have improved sensitivity and decreased turn-around time for detection of bacteria in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Forty-eight SF samples were collected from 36 horses that presented to two referral institutions with suspected septic synovitis. Universal RT-PCR, bacterial culture and SF analysis were performed on all samples, and an interpretation on the sample being septic or not was derived by three board certified specialists from the history, clinical assessment and SF characteristics. RT-PCR results were compared to a composite standard comprised of positive culture and interpretation by all three specialists of samples as "septic". For 41 of 48 samples (85%), culture and RT-PCR results were concordant. Compared to the composite standard, 83% of samples were correctly classified by RT-PCR (turn-around time of approximately 4 hours). Relative sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR were 87% and 72% respectively, and 56% and 86% for culture. Hence, universal RT-PCR was a rapid and highly sensitive test, which may accelerate diagnosis and improve outcome for horses with septic synovitis.

  1. Assessment of HER-2 gene overexpression in Isfahan province breast cancer patients using Real Time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaeian, Hosein; Hojati, Zohreh

    2013-11-15

    Overexpression of proto-oncogene HER-2 is one of the main molecular markers of breast cancer involved in prognosis and diagnosis and also in trastuzumab therapy. Thus, a request for the evaluation of HER-2 status in breast cancer has been increasing. The aim of our study was assessment of HER-2 overexpression in malignant and benign breast cancer specimens by Real Time RT-PCR technique and comparison of its results with IHC outcomes. Twenty benign and sixty malignant breast cancers in addition to fifteen normal breast tissue specimens were analyzed by Real Time RT-PCR method. Fresh tissue samples were disrupted by mortar and pestle. A syringe and a needle were used for complete homogenization of the tissues. The RNA was then isolated from the samples and converted to cDNA. A standard curve was initially plotted using BioEasy SYBR Green I and then all 95 specimens were studied by Real Time RT-PCR using 2(-ΔΔCt) method. 23.3% of 60 malignant specimens showed HER-2 overexpression, while all of the benign samples represented the normal expression level of HER-2 gene. The concordance rate between the results of Real Time RT-PCR and IHC was 86.6%. Real Time RT-PCR method is an almost reliable technique and at least can be used as a complementary method for confirming IHC results. This is emanated from relatively high rate of concordance between outcomes of IHC test, as a routine method of detecting the HER-2 gene expression status, and Real Time RT-PCR technique. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses by a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Wong, Anita A; Tellier, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Detection of all enteroviruses while excluding cross-detection of rhinoviruses is challenging because of sequence similarities in the commonly used conserved targets for molecular assays. In addition, simultaneous detection and differentiation of enteroviruses and parechoviruses would be beneficial because of a similar clinical picture presented by these viruses. A sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR protocol that can address these clinical needs would be valuable to molecular diagnostic laboratories. Here we report a multiplex nucleic acid based assay using hydrolysis probes targeting the 5' non-translated region for the detection and differentiation of enteroviruses and parechoviruses without cross-detection of rhinoviruses. This assay has been shown to detect enteroviruses belonging to the different species in a variety of specimen types without detecting the different species of rhinoviruses. Laboratory validation shows the assay to be sensitive, specific, reproducible, easy to set up and uses generic cycling conditions. This assay can be implemented for diagnostic testing of patient samples in a high throughput fashion.

  3. Meloidogyne javanica Chorismate Mutase Transcript Expression Profile Using Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Painter, Janet E; Lambert, Kris N

    2003-03-01

    A developmental expression profile of the Meloidodgyne javanica esophageal gland gene chorismate mutase-1 (Mj-cm-1) could suggest when in the lifecycle of the nematode the Mj-cm-1 product is functional. This study used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to examine the variation in Mj-cm-1 transcript levels over six timepoints in the nematode lifecycle: egg, infective second-stage juveniles (Inf-J2), 2-day post-inoculation (pi), 7-day pi, 14-day pi, and adult. The Mj-cm-1 mRNA levels peaked at 2-day pi, about 100-fold above levels expressed at the egg and Inf-J2 stages. Some expression of Mj-cm-1 remained during the 7-day pi, 14-day pi, and adult stages. High transcript levels of the beta-actin control gene M. javanica Beta-actin-1 (Mj-ba-1) demonstrated the presence of cDNA at all timepoints. The peak in Mj-cm-1 transcript expression at 2-day pi as well as the previously shown esophageal gland localization of Mj-cm-1 mRNA suggest that the product of this gene may be involved early in the establishment of parasitism.

  4. Real Time RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Typing of African Horse Sickness Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Maan, Sushila; Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Manning, Nicola M.; Maan, Narender Singh; Potgieter, Abraham C.; Di Nardo, Antonello; Sutton, Geoff; Batten, Carrie; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Although African horse sickness (AHS) can cause up to 95% mortality in horses, naïve animals can be protected by vaccination against the homologous AHSV serotype. Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer capsid protein VP2, the most variable of the AHSV proteins. VP2 is also a primary target for AHSV specific neutralising antibodies, and consequently determines the identity of the nine AHSV serotypes. In contrast VP1 (the viral polymerase) and VP3 (the sub-core shell protein), encoded by Seg-1 and Seg-3 respectively, are highly conserved, representing virus species/orbivirus-serogroup-specific antigens. We report development and evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assays targeting AHSV Seg-1 or Seg-3, that can detect any AHSV type (virus species/serogroup-specific assays), as well as type-specific assays targeting Seg-2 of the nine AHSV serotypes. These assays were evaluated using isolates of different AHSV serotypes and other closely related orbiviruses, from the ‘Orbivirus Reference Collection’ (ORC) at The Pirbright Institute. The assays were shown to be AHSV virus-species-specific, or type-specific (as designed) and can be used for rapid, sensitive and reliable detection and identification (typing) of AHSV RNA in infected blood, tissue samples, homogenised Culicoides, or tissue culture supernatant. None of the assays amplified cDNAs from closely related heterologous orbiviruses, or from uninfected host animals or cell cultures. PMID:24721971

  5. Quantifying Aotus monkey cytokines by real-time quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Pico de Coaña, Yago; Barrero, Carlos; Cajiao, Isabela; Mosquera, Catalina; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    Aotus spp. monkeys are considered the ideal model for studying the progress of malarial infection and the immune response it elicits. We describe the use of a recently developed technique, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, to quantify several Aotus monkey cytokine mRNAs involved in Th1/Th2 responses (IL-4, IL-10, TNF-beta and IFN-gamma). Specific primers were designed for each cytokine and standard curves were constructed using serial dilutions of pDNA containing each target sequence. Results were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene expression levels. Standard curves showed high correlation coefficients and were linear over a wide range of copy numbers. Quantification of Aotus samples showed little intra- and inter-experiment variation, thus, the technique has proven to be highly reproducible and sensitive allowing us to detect as little as 25 copies/microl of target DNA. This technique will allow studying Th1 and Th2 cytokine patterns elicited in response to infection for prospectively evaluating the efficacy of malarial vaccines.

  6. Microdroplet Sandwich Real-Time RT-PCR for Detection of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Angione, Stephanie L.; Inde, Zintis; Beck, Christina M.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-01-01

    As demonstrated by the recent 2012/2013 flu epidemic, the continual emergence of new viral strains highlights the need for accurate medical diagnostics in multiple community settings. If rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostics for influenza subtyping were available, it would help identify epidemics, facilitate appropriate antiviral usage, decrease inappropriate antibiotic usage, and eliminate the extra cost of unnecessary laboratory testing and treatment. Here, we describe a droplet sandwich platform that can detect influenza subtypes using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Using clinical samples collected during the 2010/11 season, we effectively differentiate between H1N1p (swine pandemic), H1N1s (seasonal), and H3N2 with an overall assay sensitivity was 96%, with 100% specificity for each subtype. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect viral loads as low as 104 copies/mL, which is two orders of magnitude lower than viral loads in typical infected patients. This platform performs diagnostics in a miniaturized format without sacrificing any sensitivity, and can thus be easily developed into devices which are ideal for small clinics and pharmacies. PMID:24066051

  7. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Cirone, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Di Trani, Livia; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2006-09-01

    Canine distemper virus is the etiological agent of a severe disease in dogs and many other carnivores. Clinical diagnosis of canine distemper is difficult due to the broad spectrum of signs that may be confounded with other respiratory and enteric diseases of dogs. Accordingly, a laboratory confirmation is required for suspected cases. In this study a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for detection and quantitation of canine distemper virus. The assay exhibited high specificity as all the negative controls (no-template-controls and samples from healthy sero-negative dogs) and other canine pathogens were not misdetected. Up to 1 x 10(2) copies of RNA were detected by the TaqMan assay, thus revealing a high sensitivity. Quantitative TaqMan was validated on clinical samples, including various tissues and organs collected from dogs naturally infected by canine distemper virus. Urines, tonsil, conjunctival swabs and whole blood were found to contain high virus loads and therefore proved to be suitable targets for detection of canine distemper virus RNA.

  8. RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR methods for the detection of potato virus Y in potato leaves and tubers.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Tyler D B; Nie, Xianzhou; Singh, Mathuresh

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major threat to potato crops around the world. It is an RNA virus of the family Potyviridae, exhibiting many different strains that cause a range of symptoms in potato. ELISA detection of viral proteins has traditionally been used to quantify virus incidence in a crop or seed lot. ELISA, however, cannot reliably detect the virus directly in dormant tubers, requiring several weeks of sprouting tubers to produce detectable levels of virus. Nor can ELISA fully discriminate between the wide range of strains of the virus. Several techniques for directly detecting the viral RNA have been developed which allow rapid detection of PVY in leaf or tuber tissue, and that can be used to easily distinguish between different strains of the virus. Described in this chapter are several protocols for the extraction of RNA from leaf and tuber tissues, and three detection methods based upon reverse-transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). First described is a traditional two-step protocol with separate reverse transcription of viral RNA into cDNA, then PCR to amplify the viral cDNA fragment. Second described is a one-step RT-PCR protocol combining the cDNA production and PCR in one tube and one step, which greatly reduces material and labor costs for PVY detection. The third protocol is a real-time RT-PCR procedure which not only saves on labor but also allows for more precise quantification of PVY titre. The three protocols are described in detail, and accompanied with a discussion of their relative advantages, costs, and possibilities for cost-saving modifications. While these techniques have primarily been developed for large-scale screening of many samples for determining viral incidence in commercial fields or seed lots, they are also amenable to use in smaller-scale research applications.

  9. Development of a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingtian; Yang, Zengqi; Hao, Huafang; Cheng, Shenli; Fan, Wentao; Du, Enqi; Xiao, Sa; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia

    2014-09-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) causes epidemic diseases in poultry worldwide. A SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for the rapid detection and quantitation of AEV in this study. A pair of specific primers was designed in the highly conserved VP1 gene of this virus. When comparing this assay with conventional RT-PCR, the rRT-PCR assay was 100 times more sensitive and could detect levels as low as 10 standard DNA copies of the AEV SX strain. The specificity of this technique was evaluated in five other avian pathogens. The AEV RNA was detected as early as three days post-infection in chicken embryos. All 18 clinical chicken brains collected from an AEV outbreak in Northwestern China were detected to be positive (100%) using the rRT-PCR assay. However, only 5 of the 18 samples were positive (28%) using the conventional RT-PCR. The results were confirmed by virus isolation in chicken embryos. This high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity of the SYBR Green rRT-PCR approach can be a more effective method than the conventional one for AEV diagnosis and surveillance.

  10. Comparison and evaluation of conventional RT-PCR, SYBR green I and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinrong; Zhang, Tiansheng; Song, Deping; Huang, Tao; Peng, Qi; Chen, Yanjun; Li, Anqi; Zhang, Fanfan; Wu, Qiong; Ye, Yu; Tang, Yuxin

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious intestinal disease, resulting in substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, three assays, namely a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved M gene of PEDV, were developed and evaluated. Then, the analytical specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of these assays were determined and compared. The TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 100-fold and 10,000-fold more sensitive than that of the SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and the conventional RT-PCR, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 10 copies/μl of target gene and no cross amplification with other viruses tested was observed. With the features of high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR established in this study could be a useful tool for clinical diagnosis, epidemiological surveys and outbreak investigations of PED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Norovirus Infection in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis by Rapid Immunochromatographic Test, RT-PCR and Real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kumthip, Kattareeya; Khamrin, Pattara; Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Supadej, Kanittapon; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2017-03-02

    Immunochromatographic (IC) test for norovirus detection is a rapid and simple detection method. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of a recent version of R-Biopharm RIDA®QUICK Norovirus IC assay for norovirus detection in fecal specimens from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Fecal specimens were tested by IC kit in comparison with gold standard reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. The IC kit showed high sensitivity and specificity comparable with PCR-based methods. None of false positive and false negative was found and the assay did not cross-react with other gastroenteritis viruses. The IC assay could detect genogroup I.5 (GI.5) and a wide range of genotypes in the GII noroviruses including GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.14, GII.15, GII.21, and also newly emerging GII.17 norovirus. In conclusion, this norovirus IC kit could be an alternative choice for rapid screening or a quick diagnostic tool for norovirus detection in fecal specimens of acute gastroenteritis patients.

  12. Real-time multiplex RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of the five main grapevine viruses.

    PubMed

    López-Fabuel, Irene; Wetzel, Thierry; Bertolini, Edson; Bassler, Alexandra; Vidal, Eduardo; Torres, Luis B; Yuste, Alberto; Olmos, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    A real-time multiplex RT-PCR has been developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of the major RNA viruses that infect grapevines (Grapevine fanleaf virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and Grapevine fleck virus). Serial dilutions of infected plant extracts were tested using the new method, and the results were compared with those obtained using a commercially available ELISA and real-time singleplex RT-PCR. The two real-time RT-PCR versions detected up to the same level of dilution and were at least 10,000 times more sensitive than the ELISA. In addition, 158 grapevine plants collected in a survey of the Protected Designation of Origin in Alicante, Spain were compared using the three methods. The results of the molecular methods were very similar, with only four discordant results, and both were able to detect many more infected plants than the ELISA. The high prevalence of Grapevine fleck virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and Grapevine fanleaf virus suggests that the main pathways of viral introduction are infected plant material that has escaped controls and/or uncontrolled traffic of propagating plant material. Real-time multiplex RT-PCR could be used to facilitate a better control of grapevine viruses.

  13. Characterization of cytokine expression induced by avian influenza virus infection with real-time RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of how birds react to infection from avian influenza virus is critical to understanding disease pathogenesis and host response. The use of real-time (R), reverse-transcriptase (RT), PCR to measure innate immunity, including cytokine and interferon gene expression, has become a standard tec...

  14. Identification of nasal blood by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Koichi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Yoshino, Mineo

    2012-07-01

    A new approach for the identification of body fluid stains by comparing specific mRNA expression levels has been extensively studied in recent years. Here, we examine whether nasal blood, which is regarded as one of the most difficult types of blood to identify, can be identified by comparing mRNA expression levels of target genes specific to saliva, nasal secretion, and blood. The saliva-specific statherin gene (STATH) was found to be expressed at high levels in not only saliva (dCt value: 1.32±1.39, n=5), but also nasal secretions (dCt value: 0.90±1.14, n=5), while the histatin gene (HTN3) was only expressed at high levels in saliva (dCt value: 1.08±2.35, n=5). We also confirmed that the hemoglobin-beta gene (HBB) showed high expression levels in blood (dCt value: -9.51±0.40, n=5). Four nasal blood stains were found to highly express STATH (dCt value: 5.65±3.98) and HBB (dCt value: -8.79±1.67) but not HTN3, suggesting that the stain samples contained both nasal secretions and blood and can therefore be identified as nasal blood stains. Although menstrual blood showed the same expression pattern as nasal blood, the menstrual blood-specific protein matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) was not expressed in all nasal blood stain samples. Therefore, its expression levels could be used to discriminate between nasal and menstrual blood. In conclusion, real-time RT-PCR was able to identify nasal blood, although the stability of gene expression in nasal blood stains was low over time, suggesting that this assay may not be effective for older stains. Future work should examine the usefulness of this assay under various environmental conditions.

  15. Development of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of low concentrations of Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Maquart, Marianne; Temmam, Sarah; Héraud, Jean-Michel; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Dellagi, Koussay; Cardinale, Eric; Pascalis, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been affected by epidemics of Rift Valley fever (RVF), however detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in zebu, sheep and goats during the post epidemic periods was frequently unsuccessful. Thus, a highly sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of RVFV at low viral loads. A new RVF SYBR Green RT-PCR targeting the M segment was tested on serum from different RVF seronegative ruminant species collected from May 2010 to August 2011 in Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago and compared with a RVF specific quantitative real time RT-PCR technique, which is considered as the reference technique. The specificity was tested on a wide range of arboviruses or other viruses giving RVF similar clinical signs. A total of 38 out of 2756 serum samples tested positive with the new RT-PCR, whereas the reference technique only detected 5 out of the 2756. The described RT-PCR is an efficient diagnostic tool for the investigation of enzootic circulation of the RVF virus. It allows the detection of low viral RNA loads adapted for the investigations of reservoirs or specific epidemiological situations such as inter-epizootic periods.

  16. Development of a one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara and Rio Mamore hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alex Martins; de Souza, William Marciel; de Pádua, Michelly; da Silva Rodrigues Machado, Aline Rafaela; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-09-19

    Hantaviruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are an emerging cause of disease worldwide with high lethality in the Americas. In Brazil, the diagnosis for hantaviruses is based on immunologic techniques associated with conventional RT-PCR. A novel one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR was developed for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara (ARAV) and Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). The detection limit of assay was 10 copies/μL of RNA in vitro transcribed of segment S. The specificity of assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the Araraquara virus amplified product generated a melt peak at 80.83 ± 0.89 °C without generating primer-dimers or non-specific products. The assay was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and we detected two samples undetected by conventional RT-PCR. The one-step SYBR Green real-time quantitative RT-PCR is specific, sensible and reproducible, which makes it a powerful tool in both diagnostic applications and general research of ARAV and RIOMV and possibly other Brazilian hantaviruses.

  17. Real-time TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of maize chlorotic mottle virus in maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjiang; Zhao, Wenjun; Li, Mingfu; Chen, Hongjun; Zhu, Shuifang; Fan, Zaifeng

    2011-01-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) causes corn lethal necrosis disease, and can be transmitted through infected maize seeds. It remains a challenge to detect this virus in the seeds to prevent its introduction and infection. For this purpose, a real-time TaqMan RT-PCR procedure for efficient detection of MCMV was developed. The sensitivity of the method was 4 fg of total RNA or 25 copies of RNA transcripts, which was approximately ten-fold higher than conventional RT-PCR gel electrophoresis method. The successful detection of MCMV in maize seeds suggested the feasibility of this procedure for routine testing.

  18. Processing of gene expression data generated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Muller, Patrick Y; Janovjak, Harald; Miserez, André R; Dobbie, Zuzana

    2002-06-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR represents a highly sensitive and powerful technique for the quantitation of nucleic acids. It has a tremendous potential for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression in research and routine diagnostics. However, the major hurdle is not the practical performance of the experiments themselves but rather the efficient evaluation and the mathematical and statistical analysis of the enormous amount of data gained by this technology, as these functions are not included in the software provided by the manufacturers of the detection systems. In this work, we focus on the mathematical evaluation and analysis of the data generated by quantitative real-time PCR, the calculation of the final results, the propagation of experimental variation of the measured values to the final results, and the statistical analysis. We developed a Microsoft Excel-based software application coded in Visual Basic for Applications, called Q-Gene, which addresses these points. Q-Gene manages and expedites the planning, performance, and evaluation of quantitative real-time PCR experiments, as well as the mathematical and statistical analysis, storage, and graphical presentation of the data. The Q-Gene software application is a tool to cope with complex quantitative real-time PCR experiments at a high-throughput scale and considerably expedites and rationalizes the experimental setup, data analysis, and data management while ensuring highest reproducibility.

  19. Single-Reaction, Multiplex, Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection, Quantitation, and Serotyping of Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Abeynayake, Janaki; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Gresh, Lionel; Tellez, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Karla; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Pierro, Anna M.; Gaibani, Paolo; Guo, Frances P.; Sambri, Vittorio; Balmaseda, Angel; Karunaratne, Kumudu; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue fever results from infection with one or more of four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Despite the widespread nature of this infection, available molecular diagnostics have significant limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection, quantitation, and serotyping of dengue viruses in a single reaction. Methodology/Principal Findings An rRT-PCR assay targeting the 5′ untranslated region and capsid gene of the DENV genome was designed using molecular beacons to provide serotype specificity. Using reference DENV strains, the assay was linear from 7.0 to 1.0 log10 cDNA equivalents/µL for each serotype. The lower limit of detection using genomic RNA was 0.3, 13.8, 0.8, and 12.4 cDNA equivalents/µL for serotypes 1–4, respectively, which was 6- to 275-fold more analytically sensitive than a widely used hemi-nested RT-PCR. Using samples from Nicaragua collected within the first five days of illness, the multiplex rRT-PCR was positive in 100% (69/69) of specimens that were positive by the hemi-nested assay, with full serotype agreement. Furthermore, the multiplex rRT-PCR detected DENV RNA in 97.2% (35/36) of specimens from Sri Lanka positive for anti-DENV IgM antibodies compared to just 44.4% (16/36) by the hemi-nested RT-PCR. No amplification was observed in 80 clinical samples sent for routine quantitative hepatitis C virus testing or when genomic RNA from other flaviviruses was tested. Conclusions/Significance This single-reaction, quantitative, multiplex rRT-PCR for DENV serotyping demonstrates superior analytical and clinical performance, as well as simpler workflow compared to the hemi-nested RT-PCR reference. In particular, this multiplex rRT-PCR detects viral RNA and provides serotype information in specimens collected more than five days after fever onset and from patients who had already developed anti-DENV IgM antibodies. The implementation of this

  20. Survey of Canadian retail pork chops and pork livers for detection of hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus using real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Houde, Alain; Brassard, Julie; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Plante, Daniel; Bellon-Gagnon, Pascale; Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria; Janecko, Nicol; Avery, Brent; Rajić, Andrijana; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-08-18

    Over the past 15 years, hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) have been hypothesized to be potentially zoonotic; swine and pork have been suggested as possible human infection sources for all 3 viruses. Our objective was to estimate HEV, NoV, and RV prevalence and load on Canadian retail pork chops and livers. Using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) sampling platform, pork livers (n=283) and chops (n=599) were collected, processed, and assayed for the 3 viruses by four collaborating federal laboratories using validated real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR). Follow-up qRT-PCR estimating viral load in genomic copies/g was followed by nested classical RT-PCR and isolate sequencing of a partial segment of the ORF2 gene. Local alignments were performed using MUSCLE (Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation); a phylogenetic tree was created. Twenty-five livers and 6 chops were classified 'positive' (thresholds for viral RNA detected in both replicates of the assay) or 'suspect' (thresholds detected in one of two replicates) for HEV. Follow-up qRT-PCR detected HEV on 16 livers, 0 chops, and nested classical RT-PCR, on 14 livers and 0 chops. Initial qRT-PCR classified 12 chops 'suspect' for NoV. Follow-up qRT-PCR detected viral RNA on only one sample with thresholds greater than 40 in both replicates. No amplicon was yielded, and therefore no isolate was sequenced from this sample. Partial ORF2 genes from 14 HEV isolates were sequenced, and compared via sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis with selected human case isolates listed in NCBI-GenBank. Overall, HEV prevalence on retail pork was comparable with other published reports. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Duplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for the Detection and Typing of Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Viarouge, Cyril; Breard, Emmanuel; Zientara, Stephan; Vitour, Damien; Sailleau, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) may cause severe clinical episodes in some species of deer and sometimes in cattle. Laboratory diagnosis provides a basis for the design and timely implementation of disease control measures. There are seven distinct EHDV serotypes, VP2 coding segment 2 being the target for serotype specificity. This paper reports the development and validation of eight duplex real-time RT-PCR assays to simultaneously amplify the EHDV target (S9 for the pan-EHDV real-time RT-PCR assay and S2 for the serotyping assays) and endogenous control gene Beta-actin. Analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, inter- and intra-assay variation and efficiency were evaluated for each assay. All were shown to be highly specific and sensitive. PMID:26161784

  2. Rapid detection of lineage IV peste des petits ruminants virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaodong; Liu, Fuxiao; Wang, Zhiliang; Liu, Chunju; Wang, Qinghua; Bao, Jingyue

    2016-09-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the cause agent of peste des petitis ruminants (PPR). A novel lineage IV PPRV has reemerged in China in 2013 and 2014. Mass vaccination was implemented in most provinces in China. In order to detect lineage IV PPRV in clinical samples and to distinguish rapidly it from the other lineages PPRVs, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed. This assay showed high sensitivity, specificity and efficiency in differentiating the lineage IV PPRV from others. The performance of this assay was evaluated by positive clinical samples of lineage IV viruses. This new real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate epidemiological investigations and rapid differentiatial diagnosis in areas where lineage IV viruses are circulating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sequence Optimized Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-21

    characterization of highly pathogenic viruses : application during Crimean-Congo 313 haemorrhagic fever virus outbreaks in Eastern Europe and the Middle East...1 Sequence optimized real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever 1 virus 2 3 JW Koehler1, KL Delp1, AT Hall1, SP...Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter 9 Street, Fort Detrick, MD, 21702 USA 10 11 12 Abstract 13 14 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

  4. Single step multiplex real-time RT-PCR for H5N1 influenza A virus detection.

    PubMed

    Payungporn, Sunchai; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Chaisingh, Arunee; Damrongwantanapokin, Sudarat; Buranathai, Chantanee; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    H5N1 influenza A virus causes a rapidly fatal systemic disease in domestic poultry and spreads directly from poultry to mammalian species such as leopards, tigers and humans. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection of H5N1 influenza A virus. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan MGB reporter probes corresponding to M, H5 and N1 were used in a single step multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. In order to validate the method, 75 clinical specimens infected with H5N1 isolated from both poultry and mammals, as well as various specimens of other subtypes and RNA from other viral pathogens of poultry and human were tested. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays can be applied to detect virus suspensions of H5N1 influenza A virus from a wide host range and demonstrated the sensitivity of the assay amounted to approximately 10(2)-10(3)copies/mul. In conclusion, the highlights of this particular method lie in its rapidity, specificity and sensitivity thus rendering it feasible and effective for large-scale screening at times of H5N1 influenza A virus outbreaks.

  5. Development of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection, quantitation and diagnosis of unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ik; Park, Da-Hae; Saif, Linda J; Jeong, Young-Ju; Shin, Dong-Jun; Chun, Young-Hyun; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Hosmillo, Myra; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2009-07-01

    Unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus (BECV) is a newly recognized bovine enteric calicivirus that differs from bovine norovirus, and which causes diarrhea in the small intestines of calves. To date, methods such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have not been developed for the rapid detection, quantitation and diagnosis of BECV. Presently, a BECV-specific SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was evaluated and optimized. Diarrheic specimens (n=118) collected from 2004 to 2005 were subjected to RT-PCR, nested PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. By conventional RT-PCR and nested PCR, 9 (7.6%) and 59 (50%) samples tested positive, respectively, whereas the SYBR Green assay detected BECV in 91 (77.1%) samples. Using BECV RNA standards generated by in vitro transcription, the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay sensitively detected BECV RNA to 1.1 x 10(0)copies/microl (correlation coefficiency=0.98). The detection limits of the RT-PCR and nested PCR were 1.1 x 10(5) and 1.1 x 10(2)copies/microl, respectively. These results indicate that the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay is more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and nested PCR assays, and has potential as a reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive and rapid tool for the detection, quantitation and diagnosis of unclassified BECV.

  6. Development and evaluation of a fluorogenic real-time RT-PCR for the detection of dengue 3 virus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Irene L; Dimamay, Mark Pierre S; Buerano, Corazon C; Alfon, Jhoe Anthony R; Tanig, Carol Z; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F

    2010-12-01

    A dengue-3-specific real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed using the novel Light Upon eXtension (LUX™) fluorogenic technology. A labeled forward primer and a standard reverse primer that target a conserved region within the non-structural 1 (NS1) gene of dengue 3 strains were designed. The dengue-3-specific assay did not recognize other dengue serotypes and related flaviviruses. Using a tenfold serial dilution of plasmid DNA containing the dengue 3 NS1 gene as standards, the range of dengue virus detection was determined to be from 10(3) to 10(9) copies/ml or from 80 to 8 × 10(7) copies/reaction with an average correlation coefficient of ≥ 0.99. The mean intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) at 2.01% and the mean inter-assay CV at 2.68% suggest the repeatability of the procedure. Moreover, the fluorogenic assay was evaluated by using clinical specimens and comparing test results with historical data obtained from conventional RT-PCR, which served as the criterion standard. Using patient sera as test samples, the assay demonstrated 95.45% sensitivity and 100% specificity, respectively. These results reveal that the real-time RT-PCR assay may be utilized as a rapid, convenient, and sensitive tool for the detection of dengue 3 in clinical and laboratory specimens.

  7. Development of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of dengue and chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Cecilia, D; Kakade, M; Alagarasu, K; Patil, J; Salunke, A; Parashar, D; Shah, P S

    2015-01-01

    Dengue and chikungunya viruses co-circulate and cause infections that start with similar symptoms but progress to radically different outcomes. Therefore, an early diagnostic test that can differentiate between the two is needed. A single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously detect and quantitate RNA of all dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The sensitivity was 100 % for DENV and 95.8 % for CHIKV, whilst the specificity was 100 % for both viruses when compared with conventional RT-PCR. The detection limit ranged from 1 to 50 plaque-forming units. The assay was successfully used for differential diagnosis of dengue and chikungunya in Pune, where the viruses co-circulate.

  8. Development and implementation of the quality control panel of RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for avian influenza A (H5N1) surveillance network in mainland China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) have been indispensable methods for influenza surveillance, especially for determination of avian influenza. The movement of testing beyond reference lab introduced the need of quality control, including the implementation of an evaluation system for validating personal training and sample proficiency testing. Methods We developed a panel with lysates of seasonal influenza virus (H1N1, H3N2 and B), serials of diluted H5N1 virus lysates, and in-vitro transcribed H5 hemaglutinin (HA) and an artificial gene RNAs for RT-PCR and rRT-PCR quality control assessment. The validations of stability and reproducibility were performed on the panel. Additionally, the panel was implemented to assess the detection capability of Chinese human avian influenza networks. Results The panel has relatively high stability and good reproducibility demonstrated by kappa's tests. In the implementation of panel on Chinese human avian influenza networks, the results suggested that there were a relatively low number of discrepancies for both concise and reproducibility in Chinese avian influenza virus net works. Conclusions A quality control panel of RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for avian influenza A (H5N1) surveillance network was developed. An availably statistical data, which are used to assess the detection capability of networks on avian influenza virus (H5N1), can be obtained relatively easily through implementation of the panel on networks. PMID:21406119

  9. Discrimination of infectious hepatitis A viruses by propidium monoazide real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Gloria; Elizaquível, Patricia; Aznar, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    The discrimination of infectious and inactivated viruses remains a key obstacle when using quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify enteric viruses. In this study, propidium monoazide (PMA) and RNase pretreatments were evaluated for the detection and quantification of infectious hepatitis A virus (HAV). For thermally inactivated HAV, PMA treatment was more effective than RNase treatment for differentiating infectious and inactivated viruses, with HAV titers reduced by more than 2.4 log(10) units. Results showed that combining 50 μM of PMA and RT-qPCR selectively quantify infectious HAV in media suspensions. Therefore, PMA treatment previous to RT-qPCR detection is a promising alternative to assess HAV infectivity.

  10. First generic one step real-time Taqman RT-PCR targeting the RNA1 of betanodaviruses.

    PubMed

    Baud, M; Cabon, J; Salomoni, A; Toffan, A; Panzarin, V; Bigarré, L

    2015-01-01

    The detection of betanodavirus genomic components is a major issue for diagnostics and control of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease affecting fish worldwide. Despite a number of published molecular-based tests, most of them targeting the RNA2 molecule of the virus, diagnostics is still a challenge due to the high genetic diversity within this genus. In the present study, a new one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR), targeting RNA1 of most genotypes of betanodaviruses, was proposed and validated. The test detected successfully various isolates of betanodavirus representatives of the four species RGNNV, SJNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV, either produced on cell culture or from clinical samples. It was specific as shown by the absence of signal on samples from healthy sea bass or from field samples of six other fish species without clinical signs of VNN. The assay detected reliably 50-100 copies of plasmids containing the targeted cloned RNA1 region, as well as an infectious dose of virus of 10(2.5)-10(2.85) TCID50/ml. A set of samples was tested by two different laboratories, with similar results, demonstrating the robustness of the test. This is the first one step generic rRT-PCR method for betanodaviruses. It is simple to perform and may be used for first intention diagnostics as well as for confirmation in case of doubtful results obtained with other published tests targeting RNA2.

  11. Real-time RT-PCR assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rebecca J; Banyard, Ashley C; Barrett, Tom; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Romero, Carlos H

    2009-03-01

    Real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays for identifying and differentiating infections caused by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) were developed by targeting the hypervariable C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Total DMV and PMV RNA extracted from infected Vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) produced positive cycle threshold (C(T)) values after the 17th and 25th cycles, respectively. The assays were then validated using infected cetacean tissue RNA. The assays were specific for either DMV or PMV and did not cross-react with canine distemper virus (CDV), phocid distemper virus (PDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and measles virus (MV). The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was targeted as control for RNA quality, and a consensus GAPDH probe that reacted with 11 different marine mammal species, generating positive C(T) values ranging from the 21st to the 37th cycle was used. The rtRT-PCR assays have advantages over conventional assays in that they are rapid, easier to scale up, and are less prone to cross-contamination and have improved the limit of detection and specificity.

  12. Development of a real-time RT-PCR method for detection of porcine rubulavirus (PoRV-LPMV).

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Alvarado, Arcelia; Hernández-Jauregui, Pablo; Rivera-Benitez, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Berg, Mikael

    2013-04-01

    In order to provide a rapid and sensitive method for detection of the Porcine rubulavirus La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico Virus (PoRV-LPMV), we have developed a specific real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. The detection of PoRV-LPMV, represents a diagnostic challenge due to the viral RNA being present in very small amounts in tissue samples. In this study, a TaqMan(®) real-time PCR assay was designed based on the phosphoprotein gene of PoRV-LPMV, to allow specific amplification and detection of viral RNA in clinical samples. Assay conditions for the primers and probe were optimized using infected PK15 cells and ten-fold serial dilutions of a plasmid containing the whole P-gene. The sensitivity of the developed TaqMan(®) assay was approximately 10 plasmid copies per reaction, and was shown to be 1000 fold better than a conventional nested RT-PCR. The performance of this real-time RT-PCR method enables studies of various aspects of PoRV-LPMV infection. Finally, the assay detects all current known variants of the virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay for the detection of H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Ben Shabat, M; Meir, R; Haddas, R; Lapin, E; Shkoda, I; Raibstein, I; Perk, S; Davidson, I

    2010-09-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of the H9N2 subtype are a major economic problem in the poultry industry in Israel. Most field isolates from the last decade differ significantly from H9N2 isolates from Europe and the USA, rendering published detection methods inadequate. This study aimed to develop a real-time TaqMan((R)) RT-PCR assay, based on a conserved region in the HA9 gene. The assay was validated with viruses representing different genetic subtypes and other common avian pathogens, and was found specific to H9N2. The real-time RT-PCR assay was compared to RT-PCR, which is in routine diagnostic use. Real-time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than RT-PCR by 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude when testing tracheal swabs directly and by 2-3 orders of magnitude allantoic fluid after AIV propagation in embryonated eggs. Sensitivity was quantified by using 10-fold dilutions of the H9-gene amplification fragment, and real-time RT-PCR was found to be 10(4)-fold more sensitive than RT-PCR. Clinical samples, which included tracheal and cloacal swabs, as well as allantoic fluid, were tested by both methods. By real-time RT-PCR 20% more positive H9N2 samples were detected than by RT-PCR. The real-time RT-PCR assay was found suitable for detection and epidemiological survey not only of Israeli H9N2 viruses, but also for isolates from other parts of the world.

  14. Development of a One-Step Immunocapture Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Guang; Wang, Feng-Long; Chen, De-Xin; Shen, Li-Li; Qian, Yu-Mei; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wen-Chang; Yan, Tai-He

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) causes significant losses in many economically important crops. Contaminated soils may play roles as reservoirs and sources of transmission for TMV. In this study we report the development of an immunocapture real-time RT-PCR (IC-real-time RT-PCR) assay for direct detection of TMV in soils without RNA isolation. A series of TMV infected leaf sap dilutions of 1:101, 1:102, 1:103, 1:104, 1:105 and 1:106 (w/v, g/mL) were added to one gram of soil. The reactivity of DAS-ELISA and conventional RT-PCR was in the range of 1:102 and 1:103 dilution in TMV-infested soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the detection limit of IC-real-time RT-PCR sensitivity was up to 1:106 dilution. However, in plant sap infected by TMV, both IC-real-time RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR were up to 1:106 dilution, DAS-ELISA could detect at least 1:103 dilution. IC-real-time RT-PCR method can use either plant sample extracts or cultivated soils, and show higher sensitivity than RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA for detection of TMV in soils. Therefore, the proposed IC-real-time RT-PCR assay provides an alternative for quick and very sensitive detection of TMV in soils, with the advantage of not requiring a concentration or RNA purification steps while still allowing detection of TMV for disease control. PMID:23211755

  15. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and quantification of GI, GII and GIV noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor; Singh, Amy; Le Guyader, Françoise S; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Saif, Linda; McNeal, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis and are classified into six genogroups with GI, GII and GIV containing human pathogens. This high genetic diversity represents a significant challenge for diagnostic assay development. Genogroup specific monoplex and multiplex real time RT-PCR assays are widely used for the detection of GI and GII noroviruses. On the other hand, GIV norovirus detection is not part of routine laboratory diagnosis. This study describes the development and evaluation of a one tube, real time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of GI, GII and GIV noroviruses, including both GIV.1 (human) and GIV.2 (animal) strains. Assay performance was evaluated on a panel of norovirus positive clinical samples by comparison of monoplex and multiplex standard curves and Ct values. The multiplex assay demonstrated equal sensitivity and specificity to the monoplex assays and was able to detect all GI, GII and GIV noroviruses with Ct values equal to that of the monoplex assays. The multiplex assay described in this study will be instrumental for the better understanding of GIV norovirus epidemiology, including their possible zoonotic nature.

  16. Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Sugarcane by Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly used real time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for gene expression analysis requires one or several reference gene(s) acting as normalization factor(s). In order to facilitate gene expression studies in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), a non-model plant with limited genome information, the stability of 13 candidate reference genes was evaluated. The geNorm, NormFinder and deltaCt methods were used for selecting stably expressed internal controls across different tissues and under various experimental treatments. These results revealed that, among these 13 candidate reference genes, GAPDH, eEF-1a and eIF-4α were the most stable and suitable for use as normalization factors across all various experimental samples. In addition, APRT could be a candidate for examining the relationship between gene copy number and transcript levels in sugarcane tissue samples. According to the results evaluated by geNorm, combining CUL and eEF-1α in hormone treatment experiments; CAC and CUL in abiotic stress tests; GAPDH, eEF-1a and CUL in all treatment samples plus CAC, CUL, APRT and TIPS-41 in cultivar tissues as groups for normalization would lead to more accurate and reliable expression quantification in sugarcane. This is the first systematic validation of reference genes for quantification of transcript expression profiles in sugarcane. This study should provide useful information for selecting reference genes for more accurate quantification of gene expression in sugarcane and other plant species. PMID:24823940

  17. Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR studies in the non-model species Delomys sublineatus, an endemic Brazilian rodent.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Alexandra; Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2010-02-05

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis. A critical factor for creating reliable data in relative quantification is the normalization of the expression data of genes of interest. Therefore the needed normalization factor is calculated out of the expression data of co-amplified genes that are stable expressed in the certain sample material, the so-called reference genes. In this study, we demonstrate the important process of validating potential reference genes using a non-model species. As there are almost no sequences known of the Pallid Atlantic Forest Rat (Delomys sublineatus), a rodent used as indicator species in conservation studies of the endangered Brazilian rainforest, suitable primer sets are more problematic to find than in model species. Out of nine tested primer sets designed for the fully sequenced Mus musculus, five could be used for the establishment of a proper running SYBR-Green assay and validation of their constant expression. qRT-PCR results of 12 cDNAs of Delomys livers were analyzed with three different validation software programs: BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. Our approach showed that out of the five (Sdha, Canx, Pgk1, Actb and Actg1) potential reference genes, the first four should be used for accurate normalization in further relative quantification analyses. Transferring data from close-by model organisms makes high sensitive real-time RT-PCR applicable even to free-ranging non-model organisms. Our approach might be suitable for other non-model organisms. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a duplex real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and rat theilovirus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Fengjiao; Huang, Bihong; Lian, Yuexiao; Rao, Dan; Yin, Xueqin; Wu, Miaoli; Zhu, Yujun; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ren; Guo, Pengju

    2016-10-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and rat theilovirus (RTV), the member of the genus Cardiovirus, are widespread in laboratory mice and rats, and are potential contaminants of biological materials. Cardioviruses infection may cause serious complications in biomedical research. To improve the efficiency of routine screening for Cardioviruses infection, a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of TMEV and RTV. The duplex assay was specific for reference strains of TMEV and RTV, and no cross-reaction was found with seven other rodent viruses. The limits of detection of both TMEV and RTV were 4×10(1) copies RNA/reaction. Reproducibility was estimated using standard dilutions, with coefficients of variation <3.1%. 439 clinical samples were evaluated by both duplex real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. For 439 clinical samples,95 samples were positive for TMEV and 72 samples were positive for RTV using duplex real-time RT-PCR approach, whereas only 77 samples were positive for TMEV and 66 samples were positive for RTV when conventional RT-PCR was applied. Mixed infections were found in 20 samples when analyzed by conventional RT-PCR whereas 30 samples were found to be mixed infection when duplex real-time RT-PCR was applied. This duplex assay provides a useful tool for routine health monitoring and screening of contaminated biological materials of these two viruses.

  19. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients Using Cytokeratin-19 Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Seok; Han, Hyun Ju; Lee, Soohyeon; Kim, Gun Min; Park, Seho; Choi, Yeon A; Lee, Jeong Dong; Kim, Gi Moon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The roles of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as predictive and prognostic factors, as well as key mediators in the metastatic cascade, have been investigated. This study aimed to validate a method to quantify CTCs in peripheral blood using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for cytokeratin (CK)-19 and to evaluate the utility of this assay in detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods Real-time monitoring PCR of fluorescently labeled specific hybridization probes for CK-19 mRNA was established. Peripheral blood samples from 30 healthy donors, 69 patients with early breast cancer, 47 patients with locally advanced breast cancer, and 126 patients with metastatic breast cancer were prospectively obtained and analyzed for CTC detection. Results CK-19 mRNA was not detectable in healthy subjects using the real-time RT-PCR method. The detection rates of CK-19 mRNA in breast cancer patients were 47.8% for early breast cancer (33/69), 46.8% for locally advanced breast cancer (22/47), and 61.1% for metastatic breast cancer (77/129). The detection rate of CK-19-positive CTCs in metastatic disease was slightly higher than early or locally advanced breast cancer; however, the detection rate according to disease burden was not statistically different (p=0.097). The detection rate was higher in patients with pleural metastasis (p=0.045). CTC detection was associated with poor survival (p=0.014). Conclusion A highly specific and sensitive CK-19 mRNA-based method to detect CTCs in peripheral blood in breast cancer patients can be used in further prospective studies to evaluate the predictive and prognostic importance of CTCs. PMID:27873491

  20. Comparison of electron microscopy, ELISA, real time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR for the detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA) in feces of different animal species.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    There is no gold standard for detection of Rotavirus Group A (RVA), one of the main causes of diarrhea in neonatal animals. Sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays are available for RVA but require submission of the clinical samples to diagnostic laboratories. Patient-side immunoassays for RVA protein detection have shown variable results, particularly with samples from unintended species. A sensitive and specific test for detection of RVA on the farm would facilitate rapid management decisions. The insulated isothermal RT-PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay works in a portable machine to allow sensitive and specific on-site testing. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a commercially available RT-iiPCR assay for RVA detection in feces from different animal species. This assay was compared to an in-house rtRT-PCR assay and a commercially available rtRT-PCR kit, as well as an ELISA and EM for RVA detection. All three PCR assays targeted the well-conserved NSP5 gene. Clinical fecal samples from 108 diarrheic animals (mainly cattle and horses) were tested. The percentage of positive samples by ELISA, EM, in-house rtRT-PCR, commercial rtRT-PCR, and RT-iiPCR was 29.4%, 31%, 36.7%, 51.4%, 56.9%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was high (81.3-100%) in samples containing high viral loads. The sensitivity of the RT-iiPCR assay appeared to be higher than the commercially available rtRT-PCR assay, with a limit of detection (95% confidence index) of 3-4 copies of in vitro transcribed dsRNA. In conclusion, the user-friendly, field-deployable RT-iiPCR system holds substantial promise for on-site detection of RVA.

  1. Development and validation of sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay for broad detection of rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Faye, Martin; Dacheux, Laurent; Weidmann, Manfred; Diop, Sylvie Audrey; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bourhy, Hervé; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Faye, Ousmane

    2017-05-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) remains one of the most important global zoonotic pathogens. RABV causes rabies, an acute encephalomyelitis associated with a high rate of mortality in humans and animals and affecting different parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Confirmation of rabies diagnosis relies on laboratory diagnosis, in which molecular techniques such as detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are increasingly being used. In this study, two real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were developed for large-spectrum detection of RABV, with a focus on African isolates. The primer and probe sets were targeted highly conserved regions of the nucleoprotein (N) and polymerase (L) genes. The results indicated the absence of non-specific amplification and cross-reaction with a range of other viruses belonging to the same taxonomic family, i.e. Rhabdoviridae, as well as negative brain tissues from various host species. Analytical sensitivity ranged between 100 to 10 standard RNA copies detected per reaction for N-gene and L-gene assays, respectively. Effective detection and high sensitivity of these assays on African isolates showed that they can be successfully applied in general research and used in diagnostic process and epizootic surveillance in Africa using a double-check strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a New Real-Time RT-PCR Assay For Detection of Peste des petits Ruminants Virus Genome.

    PubMed

    Polci, A; Cosseddu, G M; Ancora, M; Pinoni, C; El Harrak, M; Sebhatu, T T; Ghebremeskel, E; Sghaier, S; Lelli, R; Monaco, F

    2015-06-01

    A duplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed for a simple and rapid diagnosis of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). qRT-PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed on a conserved region of nucleocapsid protein (Np) of PPR virus (PPRV) genome. An in vitro transcript of the target region was constructed and tested to determine analytical sensitivity. Commercial heterologous Armored RNA(®) was used as an internal positive control (IPC) for either RNA isolation or RT-PCR steps. The detection limit of the newly designed duplex real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR PPR_Np) was approximately 20 copies/μl with a 95% probability. No amplification signals were recorded when the qRT-PCR PPR_Np was applied to viruses closely related or clinically similar to PPRV- or to PPR-negative blood samples. A preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic performance was carried out by testing a group of 43 clinical specimens collected from distinct geographic areas of Africa and Middle East. qRT-PCR PPR_Np showed higher sensitivity than the conventional gel-based RT-PCR assays, which have been used as reference standards. Internal positive control made it possible to identify the occurrence of 5 false-negative results caused by the amplification failure, thus improving the accuracy of PPRV detection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Validation of reference genes in Penicillium echinulatum to enable gene expression study using real-time quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Denise; Nora, Luísa C; Basso, Vanessa; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a methodology that facilitates the quantification of mRNA expression in a given sample. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of the data using a reference gene that is expressed at a similar level in all evaluated conditions. Determining an internal control gene is essential for gene expression studies. Gene expression studies in filamentous fungi frequently use the β-actin gene (actb), β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as reference genes because they are known to have consistent expression levels. Until now, no study has been performed to select an internal control gene for the filamentous fungal species Penicillium echinulatum. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate internal control genes to enable the study of gene expression in P. echinulatum using qRT-PCR. P. echinulatum strain S1M29 was grown in conditions to either induce (cellulose and sugar cane bagasse) or repress (glucose) gene expression to analyze 23 candidate normalization genes for stable expression. Two software programs, BestKeeper and geNorm, were used to assess the expression of the candidate normalization genes. The results indicate that the actb reference gene is more stably expressed in P. echinulatum. This is the first report in the literature that determines a normalization gene for this fungus. From the results obtained, we recommend the use of the P. echinulatum actb gene as an endogenous control for gene expression studies of cellulases and hemicellulases by qRT-PCR.

  4. Development of universal SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR for the rapid detection and quantitation of bovine and porcine toroviruses.

    PubMed

    Hosmillo, Myra D T; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Collantes, Therese Marie; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Park, Jun-Gyu; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Su-Jin; Kang, Mun-Il; Park, Sang-Ik; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2010-09-01

    Toroviruses (ToVs) are a group of emerging viruses that cause gastroenteritis in domestic animals and humans. Currently, methods such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) have not yet been developed for the rapid detection and quantitation of bovine (BToV) and porcine (PToV) toroviruses. Using BToV and PToV RNA standards generated by in vitro transcription, the detection limit of the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was 2.54 x 10(2) BToV and 2.17 x 10(3) PToV copies/reaction (correlation coefficiency=0.99 and 0.97, respectively), whereas those of RT-PCR and nested PCR were 2.54 x 10(5) and 2.54 x 10(4) (BToV) and 2.17 x 10(7) and 2.17 x 10(5) (PToV) cRNA viral copies/reaction, respectively. Archived diarrhea specimens of calves (n=121) and piglets (n=86) were subjected to RT-PCR, nested PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. By conventional RT-PCR, 1 (0.8%) bovine and 7 (8.1%) porcine samples tested positive to BToV and PToV, respectively. With nested PCR, 13 (10.7%) bovine and 17 (19.8%) porcine samples tested positive. SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay detected BToV and PToV in 22 of 121 (18.2%) bovine and 31 of 86 (36.0%) porcine samples. These results indicate that SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR (P<0.05) is a more sensitive assay, which can be reproduced as a reliable, sensitive, and rapid tool for the detection and quantitation of toroviruses.

  5. Expression patterns of Doppel in differential ovine PRNP genotypes: quantification using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Zhao, C-L; Liu, L; Wu, R; Zhang, X-L

    2015-10-09

    Doppel is a homologue of cellular prion protein (PrP)-like protein (PrPC). Different tissue samples were collected from the central nervous system plus four regions of lymphoid system, eleven regions of digestive tract and two reproductive organs from four ARR/ARQ and four ARH/ARQ sheep, genotypes of the PrP gene. Total RNA was isolated from these samples, and Doppel mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green. Doppel mRNA expression was higher in the ovary, hypothalamus and brain than in other tissues, and it significantly differed between the two genotypes in brain, ileum, cecum, rectum, colon, and uterus. This study demonstrated that Doppel mRNA expression in sheep with ARR/ARQ or ARH/ARQ genotypes was very different. These findings could be helpful in future studies of the relationship between PrP and Doppel.

  6. Comparison of SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR with conventional agarose gel-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of infectious bronchitis virus infection in chickens in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Siham; El Harrak, Mehdi; Kuhn, Jens H; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Bouaiti, El Arbi; Khataby, Khadija; Fihri, Ouafae Fassi; El Houadfi, Mohammed; Ennaji, My Mustapha

    2016-04-22

    A rapid, sensitive, and specific molecular method for the diagnosis of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is important in curbing infectious bronchitis outbreaks in Morocco and other countries. In this study, an easy-to-perform SYBR green I real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the nucleocapsid gene of IBV was developed and compared with conventional agarose gel-based RT-PCR for the detection of IBV infection. We found that the SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR was at least 10 times more sensitive than the agarose gel electrophoresis detection method. The assay exhibited high specificity for IBV infection. All negative controls, such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian influenza virus, were not detected. The SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR test described herein can be used to rapidly distinguish IBV from other respiratory pathogens, which is important for diagnosis and control of infectious bronchitis outbreaks in Morocco. The test is a valuable and useful method as a routine assay for diagnosis of clinical IBV infection in commercial chickens.

  7. Selection of normalization factors for quantitative real time RT-PCR studies in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under conditions of viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang; Xiao, Zhi-zhong; Sun, Li

    2013-04-15

    Disease outbreaks caused by iridoviruses are known to affect farmed flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). To facilitate quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of gene expression in flounder and turbot during viral infection, we in this study examined the potentials of 9 housekeeping genes of flounder and turbot as internal references for qRT-PCR under conditions of experimental infection with megalocytivirus, a member of the Iridoviridae family. The mRNA levels of the 9 housekeeping genes in the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of flounder and turbot were determined by qRT-PCR at 24h and 72h post-viral infection, and the expression stabilities of the genes were determined with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that (i) viral infection induced significant changes in the mRNA levels of the all the examined genes in a manner that was dependent on both tissue type and infection stage; (ii) for a given time point of infection, stability predictions made by the two algorisms were highly consistent for most tissues; (iii) the optimum reference genes differed at different infection time points at least in some tissues; (iv) at both examined time points, no common reference genes were identified across all tissue types. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in flounder and turbot in relation to viral infection, different internal references may have to be used not only for different tissues but also for different infection stages.

  8. Development of duplex real-time RT-PCR based on Taqman technology for detecting simultaneously the genome of pan-enterovirus and enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seoyeon; Kang, Byunghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Kim, Ahyoun; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Kisang; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2013-07-01

    Human enterovirus (EV) 71 is the main etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). It is associated with neurological complications, and caused fatalities during recent outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region. Infections caused by EV71 could lead to many complications, ranging from brainstem encephalitis to pulmonary oedema, resulting in high mortality. In this study, a duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed in order to simultaneously detect pan-EV and EV71. EV71-specific primers and probes were designed based on the highly conserved VP1 region of EV71. Five EV71 strains were detected as positive, and no positive fluorescence signal was observed in the duplex real-time RT-PCR for other viral RNA, which showed 100% specificity for the selected panel, and no cross-reactions were observed in this duplex real-time RT-PCR. The EV71-specific duplex real-time RT-PCR was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and detected viral titers that were 10-fold lower than those measured by the latter. Of the 381 HFMD clinical specimens, 196 (51.4%) cases were pan-EV-positive, of which 170 (86.7%) were EV71-positive when tested by pan-EV and EV71-specific duplex real-time RT-PCR. EV71-specific duplex real-time RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive method to detect EV71 from clinical specimens, and will allow quarantine measures to be taken more effectively during outbreaks.

  9. Detection of influenza by real time RT-PCR is not affected by delays in respiratory specimen processing.

    PubMed

    Dare, Ryan; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, John V; Griffin, Marie; Talbot, H Keipp

    2016-11-01

    Sample processing for real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) based diagnostic assays requires stabilizing sample ribonucleic acid (RNA) in lysis buffer prior to testing. The stability of viral RNA prior to processing is difficult to assure. It is unknown whether clinical sample integrity is compromised by delays in processing, as may occur due to weekends and holidays. We sought to examine the integrity of respiratory specimens with variable processing times. Upper respiratory specimens were collected during three influenza seasons 2009-2012 and tested for influenza virus and internal control human RNase P (RNP) RNA by rRT-PCR. Time to processing was measured in hours from specimen collection to placement in lysis buffer. Six hundred thirty-five (11.4%) of 5,583 samples were influenza positive. Mean and median times to processing were 11.5 hr and 6.0 hr, respectively (min 0.1 hr, max 105.2 hr). There were no significant associations between time to processing and presence of RNP (OR = 1.0, P = 0.740), or detection of influenza (OR = 1.0, P = 0.060). Longer duration of illness was associated with a lower likelihood of influenza detection (OR = 0.92, P < 0.001) and with increased influenza A cycle threshold (Ct) values (P < 0.001), while older age was associated with increased influenza B Ct values (P = 0.001), indicating the presence of less amplifiable RNA. Delays in time to processing of upper respiratory specimens up to 105 hr were not associated with decreased detection of amplifiable RNA, suggesting specimen integrity is not compromised by such delays. J. Med. Virol. 88:1891-1895, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A broadly reactive one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Ken-Ichi; Ike, Fumio; Kajita, Ayako; Yasuno, Wataru; Yanagiba, Misato; Goto, Motoki; Sakai, Kouji; Ami, Yasushi; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    A one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of a broad range of murine noroviruses (MNVs). The primer design was based on the multiple sequence alignments of 101 sequences of the open reading frame (ORF)1-ORF2 junction of MNV. The broad reactivity and quantitative capacity of the assay were validated using 7 MNV plasmids. The assay was completed within 1 h, and the reliable detection limit was 10 copies of MNV plasmid or 0.063 median tissue culture infective doses per milliliter of RAW264 cell culture-propagated viruses. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated using 158 mouse fecal samples, 91 of which were confirmed to be positive. The melting curve analysis demonstrated the diversity of MNV in the samples. This is the first report of a broadly reactive one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting of MNVs. The rapid and sensitive performance of this assay makes it a powerful tool for diagnostic applications.

  11. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1, type 2 and HoBi-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples.

  12. Evaluation of viral extraction methods on a broad range of Ready-To-Eat foods with conventional and real-time RT-PCR for Norovirus GII detection.

    PubMed

    Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2008-03-31

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In spite of that, no standard viral detection method is available for food products. Therefore, three viral elution-concentration methods and one direct RNA isolation method were evaluated on a broad range of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) food products (mixed lettuce, fruit salad, raspberries and two RTE dishes) artificially seeded with a diluted stool sample contaminated with NoV genogroup II. These seeding experiments revealed two categories of RTE products, fruits and vegetables grouped together and RTE dishes (penne and tagliatelle salads) which are rich in proteins and fat formed another category. The RNA extracts were amplified and detected with two conventional RT-PCR systems (Booster and Semi-nested GII) and one real-time RT-PCR (Real-time GII) assay. A fast direct RNA isolation method detected 10(2) RT-PCRU on 10 g penne and tagliatelle salads with the conventional RT-PCR assays. However real-time RT-PCR was less sensitive for penne salad. A viral elution-concentration method, including a buffer solution for the elution step and one polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation step, was able to detect 10(2) RT-PCRU on 50 g frozen raspberries with conventional and real-time RT-PCR assays. Moreover the latter extraction method used no environmental hazardous chemical reagents and was easy to perform.

  13. A validation study comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the new Dr. KSU H1N1 RT-PCR kit with real-time RT-PCR for diagnosing influenza A (H1N1)

    PubMed Central

    BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Mandil, Ahmed M. A.; Shaikh, Shaffi A.; Qureshi, Riaz; Al-Khattaf, Abdulaziz S.; Habib, Hanan A.; Alam, Awatif A.; Al-Ansary, Lubna A.; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A new test (Dr. KSU H1N1 RT-PCR kit) was recently developed to provide a less expensive alternative to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We report the findings of a validation study designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy, including sensitivity and specificity, of the new kit, as compared to real-time RT-PCR. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional validation study conducted from 18-22 November 2009 at a primary care clinic for H1N1 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swab samples and data on socio-demographic characteristics and symptoms were collected from 186 patients. Swab samples were sent to the laboratory for testing with both real-time RT-PCR and the new Dr. KSU H1N1 RT-PCR kit. We measured the sensitivity and specificity of the new test across the entire sample size and investigated how these values were affected by patient socio-demographic characteristics and symptoms. RESULTS: The outcomes of the two tests were highly correlated (kappa=0.85; P<.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of the new test were 99.11% and 83.78%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new test was affected only minimally (96%-100%) by patient characteristics and number of symptoms. On the other hand, the specificity of the new test varied depending on how soon patients were tested after onset of symptoms (100% specificity when swabs were taken on the first day of the symptoms, decreasing to 75% when swabs were taken on or after the third day). The specificity of the new test also increased with increasing body temperature. CONCLUSION: The new test seems to provide a cost-effective alternative to real-time RT-PCR for diagnosing H1N1 influenza. However, further testing may be needed to verify the efficacy of the test in different settings and communities. PMID:21808109

  14. Development of a two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay for detecting and quantifying peste des petits ruminants virus in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Abera, Tsegalem; Thangavelu, Ardhanary

    2014-12-01

    A two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR targeting the matrix (M) gene of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was developed. The specificity of the assay was assessed against viral nucleic acid extracted from a range of animal viruses of clinical and structural similarities to PPRV including canine distemper virus, measles virus, bluetongue virus and Newcastle disease virus. But none of the viruses and no template control showed an amplification signal. Sensitivity of the same assay was assessed based on plasmid DNA copy number and with respect to infectivity titre. The lower detection limit achieved was 2.88 plasmid DNA copies/μl with corresponding Ct value of 35.93. Based on tissue culture infectivity titre the lower detection limits were 0.0001TCID50/ml and 1TCID50/ml for the SYBR green I based real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR, respectively. The calculated coefficient of variations values for intra- and inter-assay variability were low, ranging from 0.21% to 1.83% and 0.44% to 1.97%, respectively. The performance of newly developed assay was evaluated on a total of 36 clinical samples suspected of PPR and compared with conventional RT-PCR. The SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay detected PPRV in 32 (88.8%) of clinical samples compared to 19 (52.7%) by conventional RT-PCR. Thus, the two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay targeting the M gene of PPRV reported in this study was highly sensitive, specific and reproducible for detection and quantitation of PPRV nucleic acids.

  15. A One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection and Quantitation of Sugarcane Streak Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Sheng-Ren; Fu, Hua-Ying; Chen, Ru-Kai; Su, Jin-Wei; Gao, San-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane mosaic disease is caused by the Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV; genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) which is common in some Asian countries. Here, we established a protocol of a one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) using the TaqMan probe for the detection of SCSMV in sugarcane. Primers and probes were designed within the conserved region of the SCSMV coat protein (CP) gene sequences. Standard single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) generated by PCR-based gene transcripts of recombinant pGEM-CP plasmid in vitro and total RNA extracted from SCSMV-infected sugarcane were used as templates of qRT-PCR. We further performed a sensitivity assay to show that the detection limit of the assay was 100 copies of ssRNA and 2 pg of total RNA with good reproducibility. The values obtained were approximately 100-fold more sensitive than those of the conventional RT-PCR. A higher incidence (68.6%) of SCSMV infection was detected by qRT-PCR than that (48.6%) with conventional RT-PCR in samples showing mosaic symptoms. SCSMV-free samples were verified by infection with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) or a combination of both. The developed qRT-PCR assay may become an alternative molecular tool for an economical, rapid, and efficient detection and quantification of SCSMV.

  16. [Rapid detection of novel avian influenza virus subtype H7N9 by multiplex real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Luo, Bao-Zheng; Mo, Qiu-Hua; Li, Ru-Shu; Bo, Qing-Ru; Xu, Hai-Nie; Sha, Cai-Hua; Liao, Xiu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a rapid detection kit for novel avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7N9, two sets of specific primers and probes were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen (NA) of novel H7N9 virus (2013) available in GenBank to establish the method of TaqMan probe-based multiplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection of AIV subtype H7N9. The primer and probe of HA were for all H7 subtype AIVs, while the primer and probe of NA were only for novel N9 subtype AIVs. The results showed that this method had high sensitivity and specificity. This method was applicable to the testing of positive standard sample with a minimum concentration of 10 copies/microL; it not only distinguished H7 subtype from H1, H3, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, but also distinguished novel N9 subtype from traditional N9 subtype. A total of 2700 samples from Zhuhai, China were tested by this method, and the results were as expected. For the advantages of sensitivity and specificity, the method holds promise for wide application.

  17. A real time RT-PCR assay for the specific detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Batten, Carrie A; Banyard, Ashley C; King, Donald P; Henstock, Mark R; Edwards, Lorraine; Sanders, Anna; Buczkowski, Hubert; Oura, Chris C L; Barrett, Tom

    2011-02-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a devastating disease of small ruminants present across much of Africa and Asia. Recent surveillance activities and phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the virus is an emerging problem as it is now being detected in areas previously free of the disease. As such, the virus not only is threatening small ruminant production and agricultural stability in the developing world, but also poses an economic threat to livestock in the European Union (EU) through introduction from European Turkey and North Africa. This report describes the development of a high throughput, rapid, real time RT-PCR method for the sensitive and specific detection of PPRV using robotic RNA extraction. This assay targets the nucleocapsid (N) gene of PPRV and has been shown to detect all four genetic lineages of PPRV in tissues, ocular and nasal swabs and blood samples collected in the field. The lowest detection limit achieved was approximately 10 genome copies/reaction, making this assay an ideal tool for the sensitive and rapid detection of PPRV in diagnostic laboratories.

  18. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of California serogroup and Cache Valley viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Nattanmai, Seela; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.; Tavakoli, Norma P.

    2009-01-01

    A duplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of California (CAL) serogroup viruses and Cache Valley virus (CVV), for use in human surveillance. The targets selected for the assay were the sequences encoding the nucleocapsid protein of CAL and the G1 glycoprotein of CVV. Conserved regions were selected by aligning genetic sequences from various strains available in the GenBank database. Primers and probes were selected in conserved regions. The assay sensitivity was 75 gene copies (gc)/reaction for CAL serogroup viruses and 30 gc/reaction for CVV. The performance of the assay was linear over at least 6 log10 gc. The assay was specific, given that it did not cross-react with a variety of pathogens. It did however, detect 11 viruses within the CAL serogroup, and 12 CVV isolates. The use of an internal control ensured that possible inefficiency in nucleic acid extraction or PCR inhibition would be detected. PMID:19748425

  19. Detection and quantitation of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 mRNA species by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Green, Patrick L

    2007-06-01

    HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are highly related delta-retroviruses that infect and transform T-lymphocytes, but have distinct pathogenic properties. HTLV replication and survival requires the expression of multiple gene products from an unspliced and a series of highly related alternatively spliced mRNA species. To date, the comparative levels of all known HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 viral mRNAs in different transformed cell lines and at different stages of virus infection have not been assessed. In this study, we compiled a series of oligonucleotide primer pairs and probes to quantify both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 mRNA species using real-time RT-PCR. The optimized reaction for detection of each mRNA had amplification efficiency greater than 90% with a linear range spanning 25-2.5 x 10(7) copies. The R(2)'s of all standard curves were greater than 0.97. Quantitation of HTLV mRNAs between different cell lines showed variability (gag/pol>or=tax/rex>env>or=accessory proteins), but the overall levels of each mRNA relative to each other within a cell line were similar. These results provide a method to quantify all specific mRNAs from both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, which can be used to evaluate further viral gene expression and correlate transcript levels to key stages of the virus life cycle and ultimately, pathogenesis.

  20. Pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus detection by real time RT-PCR: is viral quantification useful?

    PubMed

    Duchamp, M Bouscambert; Casalegno, J S; Gillet, Y; Frobert, E; Bernard, E; Escuret, V; Billaud, G; Valette, M; Javouhey, E; Lina, B; Floret, D; Morfin, F

    2010-04-01

    The emergence of the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus prompted the development of sensitive RT-PCR detection methods. Most are real time RT-PCRs which can provide viral quantification. In this manuscript, we describe a universal influenza A RT-PCR targeting the matrix (M) gene, combined with an RNaseP RT-PCR. These PCRs allow the detection of all influenza A virus subtypes, including A(H1N1)2009, together with a real-time assessment of the quality of the specimens tested. These PCR procedures were evaluated on 209 samples collected from paediatric patients. Viral loads determined through Ct values were corrected according to the RNaseP Ct value. The mean viral load in the collected samples was estimated to be 6.84 log RNA copies/mL. For poor quality samples (RNaseP Ct > 27), corrections resulted in +3 to +8 Ct values for the M gene RT-PCR. Corrected influenza Ct values were lower in late samples. No correlation was established between viral loads and clinical severity or duration of disease.This study shows that real time RT-PCR targeting the matrix gene is a reliable tool for quantification of type A influenza virus but emphasises the need for sample quality control assessment through cellular gene quantification for reliable estimation of the viral load. This method would be useful for disease management when repeated specimens are collected from an infected individual.

  1. Identification of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis in Yesso Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liying; Yu, Qian; Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Wang, Jing; Zou, Jiajun; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Bivalves comprise around 30,000 extant species and have received much attention for their importance in ecosystems, aquaculture and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing application of real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in gene expression studies on bivalve species, little research has been conducted on reference gene selection which is critical for reliable and accurate qRT-PCR analysis. For scallops, systematic evaluation of reference genes that can be used among tissues or embryo/larva stages is lacking, and β-actin (ACT) is most frequently used as qRT-PCR reference gene without validation. Results In this study, 12 commonly used candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome data of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) for suitable qRT-PCR reference genes identification. The expression of these genes in 36 tissue samples and 15 embryo/larva samples under normal physiological conditions was examined by qRT-PCR, and their expression stabilities were evaluated using three statistic algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and comparative ∆Ct method. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and the least stably expressed genes. Final comprehensive ranking for the 12 genes combing the results from the three programs showed that, for different tissues, DEAD-box RNA helicase (HELI), ubiquitin (UBQ), and 60S ribosomal protein L16 (RPL16) were the optimal reference genes combination, while for different embryo/larva stages, gene set containing Cytochrome B (CB), Cytochrome C (CC), Histone H3.3 (His3.3), and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were recommended for qRT-PCR normalization. ACT was among the least stable genes for both adult tissues and embryos/larvae. Conclusions This work constitutes the first systematic analysis on reference genes selection for qRT-PCR normalization in scallop under normal conditions. The suitable reference genes we recommended will be useful for

  2. Pandemic preparedness in Hawaii: a multicenter verification of real-time RT-PCR for the direct detection of influenza virus types A and B.

    PubMed

    Whelen, A Christian; Bankowski, Matthew J; Furuya, Glenn; Honda, Stacey; Ueki, Robert; Chan, Amelia; Higa, Karen; Kumashiro, Diane; Moore, Nathaniel; Lee, Roland; Koyamatsu, Terrie; Effler, Paul V

    2010-01-01

    We integrated multicenter, real-time (RTi) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) screening into a statewide laboratory algorithm for influenza surveillance and response. Each of three sites developed its own testing strategy and was challenged with one randomized and blinded panel of 50 specimens previously tested for respiratory viruses. Following testing, each participating laboratory reported its results to the Hawaii State Department of Health, State Laboratories Division for evaluation and possible discrepant analysis. Two of three laboratories reported a 100% sensitivity and specificity, resulting in a 100% positive predictive value and a 100% negative predictive value (NPV) for influenza type A. The third laboratory showed a 71% sensitivity for influenza type A (83% NPV) with 100% specificity. All three laboratories were 100% sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza type B. Discrepant analysis indicated that the lack of sensitivity experienced by the third laboratory may have been due to the analyte-specific reagent probe used by that laboratory. Use of a newer version of the product with a secondary panel of 20 specimens resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. All three laboratories successfully verified their ability to conduct clinical testing for influenza using diverse nucleic acid extraction and RTi RT-PCR platforms. Successful completion of the verification by all collaborating laboratories paved the way for the integration of those facilities into a statewide laboratory algorithm for influenza surveillance and response.

  3. A real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and absolute quantitation of Citrus tristeza virus in different plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José; Ambrós, Silvia

    2007-11-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay using SYBR Green was developed for specific and reliable quantitative detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in infected plants. A general primer set designed from conserved sequences in ORFs 1b and 2 enabled amplification of the genomic RNA (gRNA) while excluding most subgenomic and defective RNAs. Single RT-PCR products of 204 bp (isolate T36) or 186 bp (other isolates) were obtained with no primer-dimer or non-specific amplifications detected. Melting curve analysis revealed distinct melting temperature peaks (T(m)) for severe and mild isolates. External standard curves using RNA transcripts of the selected target allowed a reproducible quantitative assay, with a wide dynamic range of detection starting with 10(2) gRNA copies and with very low variation coefficient values. This protocol enabled reliable assessments of CTV accumulation in different tissues and from different citrus species, grown in the greenhouse or under field conditions, and infected with CTV isolates differing in their pathogenicity. CTV accumulation was higher in bark and fruits than in roots or leaves and showed minimal differences among several susceptible citrus species, but it was significantly lower in sour orange. This quantitative detection assay will be a valuable tool for diagnosis and molecular studies on CTV biology.

  4. Real-time RT-PCR for detection of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus and characterizing synergistic interactions in mixed infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two TaqMan-based real-time One-Step RT-PCR assays were developed for the rapid and efficient detection of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) and Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV), two of the most common raspberry viruses in North America and Europe. The primers and probes were designed from conser...

  5. Strand-specific real-time RT-PCR quantitation of Maize fine streak virus genomic and positive-sense RNAs using high temperature reverse transcription

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efforts to analyze the replicative RNA produced by Maize fine streak virus (MVSF) within maize tissue was complicated by the lack of specificity during cDNA generation using standard reverse transcriptase protocols. Real-time qRT-PCR using cDNA generated by priming with random hexamers does not dist...

  6. Strand-specific real-time RT-PCR quantitation of Maize fine streak virus genomic and positive-sense RNAs using high temperature reverse transcription

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efforts to analyze the replicative RNA produced by Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) within maize tissue was complicated by the lack of specificity during cDNA generation using standard reverse transcriptase protocols. Real-time qRT-PCR using cDNA generated by priming with random hexamers does not dist...

  7. Analytical validation of a real-time RT-PCR test for Pan-American lineage H7 subtype avian influenza viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid detection of avian influenza virus and identification of the H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes some of which are associated with high pathogenicity in poultry is critical for clinical diagnosis and wild bird monitoring programs. A real-time RT-PCR test for identification of the H7 subtype in N...

  8. Development and Evaluation of Real Time RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Typing of Bluetongue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Narender Singh; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Potgieter, Abraham C.; Kumar, Vinay; Batra, Kanisht; Wright, Isabel M.; Kirkland, Peter D.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Bluetongue viruses (BTV) are transmitted between their vertebrate hosts primarily by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) in which they also replicate. Consequently BTV distribution is dependent on the activity, geographic distribution, and seasonal abundance of Culicoides spp. The virus can also be transmitted vertically in vertebrate hosts, and some strains/serotypes can be transmitted horizontally in the absence of insect vectors. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded (ds) RNA, numbered in order of decreasing size (Seg-1 to Seg-10). Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer-capsid protein VP2, the most variable BTV protein and the primary target for neutralising antibodies. Consequently VP2 (and Seg-2) determine the identity of the twenty seven serotypes and two additional putative BTV serotypes that have been recognised so far. Current BTV vaccines are serotype specific and typing of outbreak strains is required in order to deploy appropriate vaccines. We report development and evaluation of multiple ‘TaqMan’ fluorescence-probe based quantitative real-time type-specific RT-PCR assays targeting Seg-2 of the 27+1 BTV types. The assays were evaluated using orbivirus isolates from the ‘Orbivirus Reference Collection’ (ORC) held at The Pirbright Institute. The assays are BTV-type specific and can be used for rapid, sensitive and reliable detection / identification (typing) of BTV RNA from samples of infected blood, tissues, homogenised Culicoides, or tissue culture supernatants. None of the assays amplified cDNAs from closely related but heterologous orbiviruses, or from uninfected host animals or cell cultures. PMID:27661614

  9. Validation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu A real time RT-PCR detection panel for emergency use authorization.

    PubMed

    Sambol, Anthony R; Iwen, Peter C; Pieretti, Maura; Basu, Samik; Levi, Michael H; Gilonske, Kimberly D; Moses, Kimberly D; Marola, Jamie L; Ramamoorthy, Preveen

    2010-08-01

    In April 2009, the United States Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services declared a public health emergency concerning the 2009 influenza H1N1 outbreak. This declaration allowed the FDA to issue Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of approved in vitro diagnostics to detect the 2009 influenza H1N1 in clinical specimens. This report outlines the validation testing of the Cepheid Xpert Flu A Panel for the qualitative detection of 2009 H1N1 viral RNA. This study was a multi-site, dual-method clinical evaluation comparing the results of testing between the Xpert Panel assay to the FDA-cleared Luminex Molecular Diagnostics xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel (Luminex RVP) assay and the EUA-granted Focus Diagnostics Influenza A/H1N1 (2009) Real Time RT-PCR (Focus H1N1) assay. When compared to Luminex RVP (n=300) for influenza A detection, the Xpert Panel had a sensitivity of 91.2% (95% CI: 85.1-95.4), specificity of 99.4% (95% CI: 96.7-100), positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.2% (95% CI: 95.6-100), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.1% (95% CI: 88.3-96.4). When compared to the Focus H1N1 (n=258) for detection of H1N1, the Xpert Panel had a sensitivity of 92.1% (95% CI: 82.4-97.4), specificity of 100% (95% CI: 98.5-100), PPV of 100% (95% CI: 95.0-100), and a NPV of 97.5% (95% CI: 94.3-99.2). The results show the Cepheid Xpert Flu A Panel to be comparable to both the Luminex RVP and the Focus H1N1 assays. The Cepheid Xpert Panel was granted an EUA on 24 Dec 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Development and validation of a novel Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR assay suitable for demonstrating freedom from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Jonstrup, S P; Kahns, S; Skall, H F; Boutrup, T S; Olesen, N J

    2013-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a serious disease in several fish species. VHS is caused by the rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). To prevent spreading of the pathogen, it is important to use a fast, robust, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool to identify the infected fish. Traditional diagnosis based on isolation in cell culture followed by identification using, for example, ELISA is sensitive and specific but slow. By switching to RT-PCR for surveillance and diagnosis of VHS the time needed before a correct diagnosis can be given will be considerably shortened and the need for maintaining expensive cell culture facilities reduced. Here we present the validation, according to OIE guidelines, of a sensitive and specific Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR. The assay detects all isolates in a panel of 79 VHSV isolates covering all known genotypes and subtypes, with amplification efficiencies of approximately 100%. The analytical and diagnostic specificity of the real-time RT-PCR is close to 1, and the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity is comparable with traditional cell-based methods. In conclusion, the presented real-time RT-PCR assay has the necessary qualities to be used as a VHSV surveillance tool on par with cell culture assays. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Development and evaluation of a SYBR green-based real time RT-PCR assay for detection of the emerging avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zheng; Fan, Huan; Qi, Xian; Qi, Yuhua; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Cui, Lunbiao; Zhou, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    Most recently a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China and has been associated with lots of human infection and fatal cases. Genetic analysis of the viral genome revealed that this reassortant virus might be better adapted to humans than other avian influenza viruses. Molecular diagnostic methods are thus urgently needed in public health laboratories. In this study, a SYBR green-based one-step real time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect the novel H7N9 virus. The primer pairs on the basis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequences of H7N9 viruses amplified subtype-specific fragments with Tm values of 80.77±0.06°C for H7 and 81.20±0.17°C for N9 respectively. The standard curves showed a dynamic linear range across 6 log units of RNA copy number (10(6) to 10(1) copies/ µl) with a detection limit of 10 copies per reaction for both H7 and N9 assays by using serial ten-fold diluted in-vitro transcribed viral RNA. In addition, no cross-reactivity was observed with seasonal H1N1, H1N1 pdm09, H3N2, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses as well as other human respiratory viruses. When the assay was further evaluated in H7N9 virus infected clinical samples, positive amplification signals were obtained in all of the specimens with the accordance between H7 and N9 assays. Therefore, the established SYBR green-based real time RT-PCR assay could provide a rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative approach with lower costs for high throughput screening of suspected samples from humans, animals and environments in first line public health laboratories.

  12. Development and Evaluation of a SYBR Green-Based Real Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of the Emerging Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Fan, Huan; Qi, Xian; Qi, Yuhua; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Cui, Lunbiao; Zhou, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    Most recently a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China and has been associated with lots of human infection and fatal cases. Genetic analysis of the viral genome revealed that this reassortant virus might be better adapted to humans than other avian influenza viruses. Molecular diagnostic methods are thus urgently needed in public health laboratories. In this study, a SYBR green-based one-step real time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect the novel H7N9 virus. The primer pairs on the basis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequences of H7N9 viruses amplified subtype-specific fragments with Tm values of 80.77±0.06°C for H7 and 81.20±0.17°C for N9 respectively. The standard curves showed a dynamic linear range across 6 log units of RNA copy number (106 to 101 copies/ µl) with a detection limit of 10 copies per reaction for both H7 and N9 assays by using serial ten-fold diluted in-vitro transcribed viral RNA. In addition, no cross-reactivity was observed with seasonal H1N1, H1N1 pdm09, H3N2, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses as well as other human respiratory viruses. When the assay was further evaluated in H7N9 virus infected clinical samples, positive amplification signals were obtained in all of the specimens with the accordance between H7 and N9 assays. Therefore, the established SYBR green-based real time RT-PCR assay could provide a rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative approach with lower costs for high throughput screening of suspected samples from humans, animals and environments in first line public health laboratories. PMID:24278234

  13. Detection of rabies viral RNA by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR using non-neural specimens from dogs infected with rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Tepsumethanon, Veera; Supavonwong, Pornpun; Kaewpom, Thongchai; Intarut, Nirun; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2012-09-01

    To determine the burden of rabies in developing countries, a reliable and accurate diagnostic test for the examination of the brains of animals is needed. Recently, the number of samples and carcasses submitted to rabies diagnostic units has been declining. Methods for obtaining tissues from different regions of the brain are even more difficult, and direct florescent antibody examination may fail if the samples decomposed. The spread of rabies virus to peripheral non-nervous tissues starts early during the pre-clinical phase. It has been shown that saliva and skin biopsies taken at the neck and containing hair follicles can be used in the ante-mortem diagnosis of rabies in humans. Obtaining oral swab samples, whisker or hair follicles from the heads of canines is easy and practical and can be performed without special equipment. The objective of this study was to determine whether these non-neural specimens can be used for the detection of rabies viral RNA. The RNAs extracted from these specimens were tested using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sensitivity of the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR analysis using samples from dogs confirmed to be infected with rabies virus was 84.6% (55/65), 81.8% (54/66) and 66.7% (44/66) when using oral swab samples, extracted whisker follicles and extracted hair follicles; the specificity of all specimen types was 100%. The negative predictive values were 77.8%, 74.4% and 61.4%, respectively. Although the rate of positivity when combining the three non-neural specimen types was increased to 86.4%, this level of sensitivity was not sufficient to help physicians whether to administer post exposure prophylaxis. However, these oral swab and whisker specimens may serve to enhance epidemiological surveillance; such data will contribute in the planning of rabies control programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Strand-specific, real-time RT-PCR assays for quantification of genomic and positive-sense RNAs of the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Hart, S. Alexandra; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), is an important pathogen of salmonids. Cell culture assays have traditionally been used to quantify levels of IHNV in samples; however, real-time or quantitative RT-PCR assays have been proposed as a rapid alternative. For viruses having a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome, standard qRT-PCR assays do not distinguish between the negative-sense genome and positive-sense RNA species including mRNA and anti-genome. Thus, these methods do not determine viral genome copy number. This study reports development of strand-specific, qRT-PCR assays that use tagged primers for enhancing strand specificity during cDNA synthesis and quantitative PCR. Protocols were developed for positive-strand specific (pss-qRT-PCR) and negative-strand specific (nss-qRT-PCR) assays for IHNV glycoprotein (G) gene sequences. Validation with synthetic RNA transcripts demonstrated the assays could discriminate the correct strand with greater than 1000-fold fidelity. The number of genome copies in livers of IHNV-infected fish determined by nss-qRT-PCR was, on average, 8000-fold greater than the number of infectious units as determined by plaque assay. We also compared the number of genome copies with the quantity of positive-sense RNA and determined that the ratio of positive-sense molecules to negative-sense genome copies was, on average, 2.7:1. Potential future applications of these IHNV strand-specific qRT-PCR assays are discussed.

  15. Analytical and clinical performance of the CDC real time RT-PCR assay for detection and typing of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Gilberto A; Vergne, Edgardo; Quiles, Yashira; Cosme, Joan; Vazquez, Jesus; Medina, Juan F; Medina, Freddy; Colón, Candimar; Margolis, Harold; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an acute illness caused by the positive-strand RNA dengue virus (DENV). There are four genetically distinct DENVs (DENV-1-4) that cause disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms; therefore, RT-PCR has been increasingly used in dengue diagnosis. The CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay has been developed as an in-vitro diagnostic platform and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for detection of dengue in patients with signs or symptoms of mild or severe dengue. The primers and probes of this test have been designed to detect currently circulating strains of DENV-1-4 from around the world at comparable sensitivity. In a retrospective study with 102 dengue cases confirmed by IgM anti-DENV seroconversion in the convalescent sample, the RT-PCR Assay detected DENV RNA in 98.04% of the paired acute samples. Using sequencing as a positive indicator, the RT-PCR Assay had a 97.92% positive agreement in 86 suspected dengue patients with a single acute serum sample. After extensive validations, the RT-PCR Assay performance was highly reproducible when evaluated across three independent testing sites, did not produce false positive results for etiologic agents of other febrile illnesses, and was not affected by pathological levels of potentially interfering biomolecules. These results indicate that the CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay provides a reliable diagnostic platform capable for confirming dengue in suspected cases.

  16. Analytical and Clinical Performance of the CDC Real Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Typing of Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Gilberto A.; Vergne, Edgardo; Quiles, Yashira; Cosme, Joan; Vazquez, Jesus; Medina, Juan F.; Medina, Freddy; Colón, Candimar; Margolis, Harold; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an acute illness caused by the positive-strand RNA dengue virus (DENV). There are four genetically distinct DENVs (DENV-1–4) that cause disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms; therefore, RT-PCR has been increasingly used in dengue diagnosis. The CDC DENV-1–4 RT-PCR Assay has been developed as an in-vitro diagnostic platform and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for detection of dengue in patients with signs or symptoms of mild or severe dengue. The primers and probes of this test have been designed to detect currently circulating strains of DENV-1–4 from around the world at comparable sensitivity. In a retrospective study with 102 dengue cases confirmed by IgM anti-DENV seroconversion in the convalescent sample, the RT-PCR Assay detected DENV RNA in 98.04% of the paired acute samples. Using sequencing as a positive indicator, the RT-PCR Assay had a 97.92% positive agreement in 86 suspected dengue patients with a single acute serum sample. After extensive validations, the RT-PCR Assay performance was highly reproducible when evaluated across three independent testing sites, did not produce false positive results for etiologic agents of other febrile illnesses, and was not affected by pathological levels of potentially interfering biomolecules. These results indicate that the CDC DENV-1–4 RT-PCR Assay provides a reliable diagnostic platform capable for confirming dengue in suspected cases. PMID:23875046

  17. Development of a sensitive and controlled real-time RT-PCR assay for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Matejusova, Iveta; McKay, Paul; McBeath, Alastair J A; Collet, Bertrand; Snow, Michael

    2008-07-07

    A survey was undertaken to determine the potential distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine cage-based salmonid farms in Scotland. A rapid, accurate and sensitive quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, targeting a conserved region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene of the virus. The qRT-PCR assay was shown to be more sensitive than the conventional VHSV RT-PCR. A validation protocol included several different virus isolates as the target and confirmed that the assay could detect all European VHSV genotypes (I, II and III). Both endogenous and exogenous controls were designed to control for integrity of template and distinguish between true VHSV positives and contamination with the positive control material. In total, the universal European VHSV qRT-PCR assay with exogenous positive control was applied to screen 2040 individual Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and 150 individual rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. No evidence of the presence of VHSV in association with either salmonid species in Scottish marine farms was detected. However, both marine Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are still considered possible carriers of VHSV, which remains a potential threat to freshwater farming. Therefore, a continued surveillance of these species in marine environment is recommended.

  18. Comparison of Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay and real time RT-PCR for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Vivian; Prades, Yara; Ruiz, Mauricio; Pizarro, Rolando; Rossi, Patricio; Lizama, Luis; Garmendia, María Luisa; Meza, Angela; Larrañaga, Carmen; Avendaño, Luis F

    2016-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third cause of death worldwide. Viruses are frequently detected in adult CAP. Highly sensitive diagnostic techniques should be used due to poor viral shedding. Different sampling methods can affect viral detection, being necessary to establish the optimal type of sample for identifying respiratory viruses in adults. The detection rates of respiratory viruses by Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay, real time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) (Sacace®), and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in adult CAP were performed in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and aspirates (NPA) from 179 hospitalized adults. Positivity was 47.5% for Luminex®, 42.5% for rtRT-PCR (P = 0.3), and 2.7% for IFA (2.7%) (P < 0.0). The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa coefficient of xTAG® RVP compared with rtRT-PCR were 84.2%, 79.6%, and 0.62%, respectively. Luminex® and rtRT-PCR detected 65 (58.0%) and 57 (50.9%) viruses in 112 NPA and 35 (34.3%) and 31 (30.4%) in 102 NPS, respectively (P < 0.01). xTAG® RVP is appropriate for detecting respiratory viruses in CAP adults. Both molecular techniques yielded better results with nasopharyngeal aspirate than swabs.

  19. Factors Affecting Detection of Hepatitis E Virus on Canadian Retail Pork Chops and Pork Livers Assayed Using Real-Time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, B J; Leblanc, D; Avery, B; Pearl, D L; Houde, A; Rajić, A; McEwen, S A

    2016-03-01

    We collected 599 Canadian retail pork chops and 283 pork livers routinely (usually weekly) from April 2011 to March 2012 using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) retail sampling platform. Samples were assayed using validated real-time (q) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested classical RT-PCR for the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV), porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) and rotavirus (RV). The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was measured on a subset of our samples. Exact logistic regression models were fitted for predictors for HEV detection, for each assay. For both assays, sample type (pork chop versus liver) was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection. For nested classical RT-PCR but not qRT-PCR, region of sample collection was a significant predictor (P = 0.008) of HEV detection. Odds of HEV detection were greatest in spring relative to other seasons. E. coli was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection using the qRT-PCR (P = 0.03). Overall, the prevalence of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was significantly greater than HEV, PEC or RV on our retail pork samples. Our sparse data set for the detection of PEC and RV precluded modelling of risk factors for the detection of these viruses. © 2015 Zoonoses and Public Health © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  20. New quick method for isolating RNA from laser captured cells stained by immunofluorescent immunohistochemistry; RNA suitable for direct use in fluorogenic TaqMan one-step real-time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Kenji; Lucero, Ginger; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach for reliably isolating one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR-quality RNA from laser captured cells retrieved from frozen sections previously subjected to immunofluorescent immunohistochemistry (IF-IHC) and subsequently subjected to fluorogenic one-step real-time RT-PCR analysis without the need for costly, time-consuming linear amplification. One cell’s worth of RNA can now be interrogated with confidence. This approach represents an amalgam of technologies already offered commercially by Applied Biosystems, Arcturus and Invitrogen. It is the primary focus of this communication to expose the details and execution of an important new LCM RNA isolation technique, but also provide a detailed account of the IF-IHC procedure preceding RNA isolation, and provide information regarding our approach to fluorogenic one-step real-time RT-PCR in general. Experimental results shown here are meant to supplement the primary aim and are not intended to represent a complete scientific study. It is important to mention, that since LCM-RT-PCR is still far less expensive than micro-array analysis, we feel this approach to isolating RNA from LCM samples will be of continuing use to many researchers with limited budgets in the years ahead. PMID:16136226

  1. Development and validation of one-step SYBR green real-time RT-PCR for the rapid detection of newly emerged duck Tembusu virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongliang; Fu, Yuguang; Ji, Yanhong; Wei, Jianzhong; Cai, Xuepeng; Zhu, Qiyun

    2013-09-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes disease to emerge in duck flocks and results in huge economic losses to the duck industry. However, no vaccines and control measures are available in China to date. Development of reliable and fast detection methods is necessary to prevent and control this disease. Therefore, a one-step SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method is established here for DTMUV detection. The results show that the method can specifically detect DTMUV without cross-reactions with selected avian pathogens. The sensitivity of the assay was 1000 times greater than that of a conventional RT-PCR and able to test as few as 20 copies from RNA standard samples. The coefficients of variations of inter- and intra-assay values ranged from 0.09% to 0.36% and 0.1% to 0.23%, respectively. Testing 168 field samples and 96 experimentally infected samples by conventional RT-PCR and the one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, the positive rates were 35.1% and 73.8% from field samples and 30.2% and 64.6% from infected samples. The one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR developed in this study was shown to be a sensitive, specific, high-throughput, cost-effective, and simple diagnostic tool for the rapid detection and epidemiological surveillance of the emerging DTMUV infection.

  2. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay with TaqMan probe for specific detection of acute bee paralysis virus.

    PubMed

    Jamnikar Ciglenečki, Urška; Toplak, Ivan

    2012-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) is an accurate, rapid and reliable method that can be used for the detection and also for the quantitation of specific DNA molecules. It can be non-specific, with intercalating dyes (SYBR Green I dye) able to bind to any dsDNA, or specific with a probe (TaqMan), whereby the probe is designed to bind within the amplified PCR fragment. A new real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) assay with TaqMan probe for specific detection of acute bee paralysis virus was designed. The assay was optimized to be highly sensitive and analytically specific and tested with a selection of genetically diverse ABPV strains originating from Slovenia, the United Kingdom (UK), Hungary and Germany. The detection limit of the assay and sensitivity comparisons with conventional RT-PCR were analyzed and this assay can detect a minimum of 44 copies of ABPV/reaction and is 230 times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. In addition, the assay is highly reproducible, with an average slope of standard curve made of ten-fold dilutions of standard copies/reaction -3.479±0.19 and an average slope of standard curve made of ten-fold dilutions of RNA -3.409±0.18.

  3. Development of a real-time RT-PCR method for enumeration of viable Bifidobacterium longum cells in different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sebastian; Grattepanche, Franck; Rezzonico, Enea; Lacroix, Christophe

    2010-04-01

    Viability of probiotic bacteria is traditionally assessed by plate counting which has several limitations, including underestimation of cells in aggregates or chains morphology. We describe a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based method for an accurate enumeration of viable cells of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 exhibiting different morphologies by measuring the mRNA levels of cysB and purB, two constitutively expressed housekeeping genes. Three primer-sets targeting short fragments of 57-bp of cysS and purB and one 400-bp fragment of purB were used. Cell quantification of serially diluted samples showed a good correlation coefficient of R(2) 0.984 +/- 0.003 between plate counts and qRT-PCR for all tested primer sets. Loss of viable cells exposed to a lethal heat stress (56 degrees C, 10, 20 and 30 min) was estimated by qRT-PCR and plate counts. No significant difference was observed using qRT-PCR targeting the 400-bp fragment of purB compared to plate counts indicating that this fragment is a suitable marker of cell viability. In contrast, the use of the 57-bp fragments led to a significant overestimation of viable cell counts (18 +/- 3 and 7 +/- 2 fold for cysB and purB, respectively). Decay of the mRNA fragments was studied by treatment of growing cells with rifampicin prior qRT-PCR. The 400-bp fragment of purB was faster degraded than the 57-bp fragments of cysB and purB. The 400-bp fragment of purB was further used to enumerate viable cells in aggregate state. Cell counts were more than 2 log(10) higher using the qRT-PCR method compared to plate counts. Growing interest in probiotic characteristics of aggregating bacteria cells make this technique a valuable tool to accurately quantify viable probiotic bacteria exhibiting heterogeneous morphology.

  4. The establishment of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of CD44v6 in pancreatic cancer patients and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Chiu, David; Qin, Dajiang; Niu, Lizhi; Cai, Jinlei; He, Lihua; Huang, Wenhao; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecule CD44v6 has been found to be associated with the progression and metastasis of numerous cancers. In this study, a novel duplex real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to quantitatively detect the CD44v6 gene expression in pancreatic cancer patients. The primers and probes of CD44v6 and β-actin genes were designed and standard curve of the duplex qRT-PCR was constructed by optimizing the reaction conditions. The specificity and reproducibility of this assay were satisfactory and the detection limit was 100 copies, which was 10 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay. This assay was also used to detect the expression levels of CD44v6 messenger RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell in 37 pancreatic cancer patients and 12 healthy people. The results showed that 37 clinical samples were tested positive by the duplex qRT-PCR compared with only 30 by the conventional RT-PCR. The levels of CD44v6 expression showed significant correlation with sex, tumor size, tumor differentiation, clinical stage, lymph node, and liver metastasis (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, CD44v6 levels in patients prior and 10 days post cryosurgery were significantly increased (P < 0.05) but had no significant change in those 1 month post cryosurgery (P > 0.05). The duplex qRT-PCR assay may provide a useful tool for the evaluation of prognosis and curative effect of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Whole genome alignment based one-step real-time RT-PCR for universal detection of avian orthoreoviruses of chicken, pheasant and turkey origins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Lu, Huaguang

    2016-04-01

    Newly emerging avian orthoreovirus (ARV) variants have been continuously detected in Pennsylvania poultry since 2011. In this paper, we report our recent diagnostic assay development of one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the rapid and universal detection of all ARVs or reference strains of chicken, pheasant and turkey origins and six σC genotypes of the newly emerging field ARV variants in Pennsylvania (PA) poultry. Primers and probes for the rRT-PCR were designed from the conserved region of the M1 genome segment 5' end based on the whole-genome alignment of various ARV strains, including six field variants or novel strains obtained in PA poultry. The detection limit of the newly developed rRT-PCR for ARV was as low as 10 copies/reaction of viral RNA, and 10(0.50)-10(0.88) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/100 μL of viruses. This new rRT-PCR detected all six σC genotypes from the 66 ARV field variant strains and reference strains tested in this study. There were no cross-reactions with other avian viruses. Reproducibility of the assay was confirmed by intra- and inter-assay tests with variability from 0.12% to 2.19%. Sensitivity and specificity of this new rRT-PCR for ARV were achieved at 100% and 88%, respectively, in comparison with virus isolation as the "gold standard" in testing poultry tissue specimen.

  6. Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3'-UTR region.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joe; Khan, Subuhi; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I

    2014-06-01

    A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. Primers and a probe were designed based on the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences of ToRSV, to amplify a 182bp fragment of this region of RNA-1 and RNA-2. The assay was demonstrated to reliably amplify all ToRSV isolates tested. The detection limit was estimated to be about 12 copies of the ToRSV target region. No amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepoviruses or healthy host species. A comparison with a published conventional RT-PCR and a SYBR-based qRT-PCR indicated that both of the published assays lacked reliability and sensitivity, as neither were able to amplify all ToRSV isolates tested, and both were approximately 1000 times less sensitive than the novel TaqMan real-time assay. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts.

  7. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Condori Condori, Rene Edgar; Gigante, Crystal M; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Xiaoyue; Ellison, James A; Greenberg, Lauren; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Orciari, Lillian; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N) coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses, its high

  8. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Condori Condori, Rene Edgar; Gigante, Crystal M.; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Xiaoyue; Ellison, James A.; Greenberg, Lauren; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Orciari, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N) coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses, its high

  9. Detection, discrimination and quantitation of 22 bluetongue virus serotypes using real-time RT-PCR with TaqMan MGB probes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yufei; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Li, Junping; Lv, Shuang; Wang, Haixiu; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jikai; Wu, Donglai

    2015-09-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the etiological agent of bluetongue (BT) disease, a noncontagious insect-transmitted disease of international importance. To date, 26 BTV serotypes have been recognized worldwide. Methods to discriminate BTV serotypes in clinical samples are essential to epidemiological surveillance efforts and BTV vaccination programs. The BTV VP2 major outer capsid protein, encoded by genomic segment 2 (Seg-2), is the most highly variable BTV protein and is the primary determinant of the virus serotype. Here, we report the development of rapid and reliable real-time RT-PCR assays to detect and discriminate 22 BTV serotypes on the basis of VP2-encoding genomic sequences. Serotype-specific primers and probes detected only the targeted BTV serotype and displayed no cross-amplification of off-target BTV serotypes or other closely related Reoviridae and Bunyaviridae family members. The real-time RT-PCR assays developed were highly sensitive, and the majority of serotype-specific reactions could detect template when present at ≥10 copies. These BTV serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays represent a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method for the identification, differentiation and quantification of 22 BTV serotypes.

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Studies in Tomato Fruit of the Genotype MT-Rg1

    PubMed Central

    González-Aguilera, Karla L.; Saad, Carolina F.; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A.; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; de Folter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful. Tomato is the model of choice to study fleshy fruit development. The miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is considered a model system for tomato genetics and functional genomics. A new genotype, containing the Rg1 allele, improves tomato in vitro regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the expression stability of four tomato reference genes, namely CAC, SAND, Expressed, and ACTIN2. We showed that the genes CAC and Exp are the best reference genes of the four we tested during fruit development in the MT-Rg1 genotype. Furthermore, we validated the reference genes by showing that the expression profiles of the transcription factors FRUITFULL1 and APETALA2c during fruit development are comparable to previous reports using other tomato cultivars. PMID:27679646

  11. Detection and clinical significance of CD44v6 and integrin-β1 in pancreatic cancer patients using a triplex real-time RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Chiu, David; Qin, Dajiang; Niu, Lizhi; Cai, Jinlei; He, Lihua; Huang, Wenhao; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-08-01

    The cell adhesion molecules CD44v6 and integrin-β1 are associated with the progression and metastasis of cancer. A novel triplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to quantify CD44v6 and integrin-β1 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 pancreatic cancer (PC) patients and 12 healthy individuals. The standard curve of the triplex qRT-PCR was constructed by optimizing the reaction condition and the amplification efficiency was 102.5, 101.1, and 100.6 % for CD44v6, integrin-β1 and endogenous gene (β-actin) amplification. Nonspecific bands were not observed from the triplex qRT-PCR amplification and the detection limit of this assay was 100 copies. Expression levels of CD44v6 and integrin-β1 gene were significantly lower in healthy individuals than PC patients (P<0.05). CD44v6 and integrin-β1 gene expression were not associated with the sex, age, and tumor position in PC (P>0.05). CD44v6 gene expression was significantly associated with clinical stage, liver metastasis, and tumor size (P<0.05). Integrin-β1 gene expression was significantly associated with clinical stage and liver metastasis (P<0.05). This triplex qRT-PCR assay may provide a useful tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic evaluation in PC.

  12. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Studies in Tomato Fruit of the Genotype MT-Rg1.

    PubMed

    González-Aguilera, Karla L; Saad, Carolina F; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; de Folter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful. Tomato is the model of choice to study fleshy fruit development. The miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is considered a model system for tomato genetics and functional genomics. A new genotype, containing the Rg1 allele, improves tomato in vitro regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the expression stability of four tomato reference genes, namely CAC, SAND, Expressed, and ACTIN2. We showed that the genes CAC and Exp are the best reference genes of the four we tested during fruit development in the MT-Rg1 genotype. Furthermore, we validated the reference genes by showing that the expression profiles of the transcription factors FRUITFULL1 and APETALA2c during fruit development are comparable to previous reports using other tomato cultivars.

  13. Development of a novel real-time RT-PCR assay to detect Seneca Valley virus associated with emerging cases of vesicular disease in pigs.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Veronica L; Ransburgh, Russell H; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Wadsworth, Jemma; King, Donald P; Mioulet, Valerie; Knowles, Nick J; Williamson, Susanna; Liu, Xuming; Anderson, Gary A; Fang, Ying; Bai, Jianfa

    2016-10-29

    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV. This new assay detected all historical and contemporary SVV-1 isolates examined (n=8), while no cross-reactivity was observed with nucleic acid template prepared from other vesicular disease viruses or common swine pathogens. The analytical sensitivity of the rRT-PCR was 0.79 TCID50/ml and the limit of detect was equivalent using two different RT-PCR master-mixes. The performance of the test was further evaluated using pig nasal (n=25) and rectal swab samples (n=25), where concordant results compared to virus sequencing were generated for 43/50 samples. The availability of this assay, will enable laboratories to rapidly detect SVV in cases of vesicular disease in pigs, negated for notifiable diseases, and could enable existing knowledge gaps to be investigated surrounding the natural epidemiology of SVV.

  14. Development of a novel real-time RT-PCR assay to detect Seneca Valley virus-1 associated with emerging cases of vesicular disease in pigs.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Veronica L; Ransburgh, Russell H; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Wadsworth, Jemma; King, Donald P; Mioulet, Valerie; Knowles, Nick J; Williamson, Susanna; Liu, Xuming; Anderson, Gary A; Fang, Ying; Bai, Jianfa

    2017-01-01

    Seneca Valley virus 1 (SVV-1) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-1-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time (r) reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV-1. This new assay detected all historical and contemporary SVV-1 isolates examined (n=8), while no cross-reactivity was observed with nucleic acid templates prepared from other vesicular disease viruses or common swine pathogens. The analytical sensitivity of the rRT-PCR was 0.79 TCID50/ml and the limit of detection was equivalent using two different rRT-PCR master-mixes. The performance of the test was further evaluated using pig nasal (n=25) and rectal swab samples (n=25), where concordant results compared to virus sequencing were generated for 43/50 samples. The availability of this assay, will enable laboratories to rapidly detect SVV-1 in cases of vesicular disease in pigs, negated for notifiable diseases, and could enable existing knowledge gaps to be investigated surrounding the natural epidemiology of SVV-1.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Method Based on a New Primer Design Strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lida; Li, Wenli; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Tian; Hao, Mingju; Jia, Tingting; Sun, Yu; Lin, Guigao; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Viral nucleic acids are unstable when improperly collected, handled, and stored, resulting in decreased sensitivity of currently available commercial quantitative nucleic acid testing kits. Using known unstable hepatitis C virus RNA, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR method based on a new primer design strategy to reduce the impact of nucleic acid instability on nucleic acid testing. The performance of the method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection, precision, specificity, and agreement with commercial hepatitis C virus assays. Its clinical application was compared to that of two commercial kits--Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Kehua. The quantitative RT-PCR method delivered a good performance, with a linearity of R(2) = 0.99, a total limit of detection (genotypes 1 to 6) of 42.6 IU/mL (95% CI, 32.84 to 67.76 IU/mL), a CV of 1.06% to 3.34%, a specificity of 100%, and a high concordance with the CAP/CTM assay (R(2) = 0.97), with a means ± SD value of -0.06 ± 1.96 log IU/mL (range, -0.38 to 0.25 log IU/mL). The method was superior to commercial assays in detecting unstable hepatitis C virus RNA (P < 0.05). This quantitative RT-PCR method can effectively eliminate the influence of RNA instability on nucleic acid testing. The principle of primer design strategy may be applied to the detection of other RNA or DNA viruses. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Application of real time RT-PCR for the genetic homogeneity and stability tests of the seed candidates for live attenuated influenza vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Shcherbik, Svetlana; Sergent, Sheila B; Davis, William G; Shu, Bo; Barnes, John; Kiseleva, Irina; Larionova, Natalie; Klimov, Alexander; Bousse, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Development and improvement of quality control tests for live attenuated vaccines are a high priority because of safety concerns. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) viruses are 6:2 reassortants containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from circulating influenza viruses to induce protective immune responses, and the six internal gene segments from a cold-adapted Master Donor Virus (MDV). LAIV candidate viruses for the 2012-2013 seasons, A/Victoria/361/2011-CDC-LV1 (LV1) and B/Texas/06/2011-CDC-LV2B (LV2B), were created by classical reassortment of A/Victoria/361/2011 and MDV-A A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) or B/Texas/06/2011 and MDV-B B/USSR/60/69. In an attempt to provide better identity and stability testing for quality control of LV1 and LV2B, sensitive real-time RT-PCR assays (rRT-PCR) were developed to detect the presence of undesired gene segments (HA and NA from MDV and the six internal genes from the seasonal influenza viruses). The sensitivity of rRT-PCR assays designed for each gene segment ranged from 0.08 to 0.8EID50 (50% of Egg Infectious Dose) per reaction for the detection of undesired genes in LV1 and from 0.1 to 1EID50 per reaction for the detection of undesired genes in LV2B. No undesired genes were detected either before or after five passages of LV1 or LV2B in eggs. The complete genome sequencing of LV1 and LV2B confirmed the results of rRT-PCR, demonstrating the utility of the new rRT-PCR assays to provide the evidence for the homogeneity of the prepared vaccine candidate. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression by Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR in Stem Segments Spanning Primary to Secondary Growth in Populus tomentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yajuan; Ding, Liping; Zhang, Jiewei; Wei, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    The vertical segments of Populus stems are an ideal experimental system for analyzing the gene expression patterns involved in primary and secondary growth during wood formation. Suitable internal control genes are indispensable to quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays of gene expression. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was evaluated in a series of vertical stem segments of Populus tomentosa. Analysis through software packages geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper showed that genes ribosomal protein (RP) and tubulin beta (TUBB) were the most unstable across the developmental stages of P. tomentosa stems, and the combination of the three reference genes, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), Actin (ACT6) and elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-beta) can provide accurate and reliable normalization of qRT–PCR analysis for target gene expression in stem segments undergoing primary and secondary growth in P. tomentosa. These results provide crucial information for transcriptional analysis in the P. tomentosa stem, which may help to improve the quality of gene expression data in these vertical stem segments, which constitute an excellent plant system for the study of wood formation. PMID:27300480

  19. Detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Bletchly, Cheryl; Faux, Cassandra E; Harrower, Bruce; Gould, Allan R; Lambert, Stephen B; Nimmo, Graeme R; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P

    2009-07-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection is critical for minimising further spread through timely implementation of antiviral treatment and other public health based measures. In this study we developed two TaqMan-based reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods for the detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus targeting the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. The assays were validated using 152 clinical respiratory samples, including 61 Influenza A positive samples, collected in Queenland, Australia during the years 2008 to 2009 and a further 12 seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A isolates collected from years 2000 to 2002. A wildtype swine H1N1 isolate was also tested. RNA from an influenza A(H1N1) virus isolate (Auckland, 2009) was used as a positive control. Overall, the results showed that the RT-PCR methods were suitable for sensitive and specific detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) RNA in human samples.

  20. Real-time RT-PCR assay to differentiate clades of H5N1 avian influenza viruses circulating in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kis, Z; Jones, J; Creanga, A; Ferdinand, K; Inui, K; Gerloff, N; Davis, C T; Nguyen, T; Donis, R O

    2013-11-01

    Continued circulation and geographical expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus have led to the emergence of numerous clades in Vietnam. Although viral RNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis are the gold standard for H5N1 HA clade designation, limited sequencing capacity in many laboratories precludes rapid H5N1 clade identification and detection of novel viruses. Therefore, a Taqman real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid differentiation of the four major H5N1 clades detected in Vietnam was developed. Using HA sequence alignments of clades 1.1, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.4, and 7 viruses, primers and FAM-labeled probes were designed to target conserved regions characteristic of each clade. The assay was optimized and evaluated using circulating clades of H5N1 collected in Vietnam from 2007 to 2012 and shown to be both sensitive and specific for the differentiation of the four H5N1 clades. The assay provides a useful tool for screening of large specimen collections for HA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis and for the rapid identification of molecular clade signatures to support outbreak investigations and surveillance activities. Finally, this assay may be useful to monitor for the emergence of novel or variant clades of H5N1 in Vietnam in the future or in other countries where these particular clades may circulate.

  1. Strand-specific real-time RT-PCR for distinguishing influenza vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Eiryo; Watanabe, Tokiko; Fujii, Ken; Goto, Hideo; Watanabe, Shinji; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-04-01

    Real-time RT-PCR is used to quantify individual influenza viral RNAs. However, conventional real-time RT-PCR, using strand-specific primers, has been shown to produce not only the anticipated strand-specific products, but also substantial amounts of non-strand-specific products, indicating lack of specificity. Therefore, in this study, a novel strand-specific real-time RT-PCR method was established to quantify the three types of influenza viral RNA (vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA) separately. This method is based on reverse transcription using tagged primers to add a 'tag' sequence at the 5' end and the hot-start method. Real-time PCR using the 'tag' portion as the forward primer and a segment-specific reverse primer ensured the specificity for quantifying the three types of RNA. Using this method, specific target RNA was detected at 100-100,000-folds higher level than other types of RNA. This method was also used to evaluate the vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA levels of segments 5 and 6 in MDCK cells infected with influenza A virus at different time point post-infections. The cRNA level was 1/10 to 1/100 lower than that of the vRNA and mRNA. Moreover, different dynamics of vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA synthesis were observed; the copy number of the vRNA gradually increased throughout the infection, the cRNA increased and then plateaued, while the mRNA increased and then decreased. This novel method thus provides data critical for understanding the influenza virus life cycle, including transcription, replication, and genome incorporation into virions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Strand-specific real-time RT-PCR for distinguishing influenza vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Eiryo; Watanabe, Tokiko; Fujii, Ken; Goto, Hideo; Watanabe, Shinji; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Real-time RT-PCR is used to quantify individual influenza viral RNAs. However, conventional real-time RT-PCR, using strand-specific primers, has been shown to produce not only the anticipated strand-specific products, but also substantial amounts of non-strand-specific products, indicating lack of specificity. Therefore, in this study, a novel strand-specific real-time RT-PCR method was established to quantify the three types of influenza viral RNA (vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA) separately. This method is based on reverse transcription using tagged primers to add a tag sequence at the 5 end and the hot-start method. Real-time PCR using the tag portion as the forward primer and a segment-specific reverse primer ensured the specificity for quantifying the three types of RNA. Using this method, specific target RNA was detected at 100 – 100,000 folds higher level than other types of RNA. This method was also used to evaluate the vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA levels of segments 5 and 6 in MDCK cells infected with influenza A virus at different time points post-infection. The cRNA level was 1/10 to 1/100 lower than that of the vRNA and mRNA. Moreover, different dynamics of vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA synthesis were observed; the copy number of the vRNA gradually increased throughout infection, the cRNA increased and then plateaued, while the mRNA increased and then decreased. This novel method thus provides data critical for understanding the influenza virus life cycle, including transcription, replication, and genome incorporation into virions. PMID:21185869

  3. SYBR Green based real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and genotype prediction of bovine noroviruses and assessment of clinical significance in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jor, Evert; Myrmel, Mette; Jonassen, Christine M

    2010-10-01

    A novel SYBR Green based real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of genogroup III bovine noroviruses (BoNoV) was developed and the assay applied to 419 faecal samples from calves with and without diarrhoea. The samples were obtained from 190 Norwegian dairy and beef herds. BoNoV was detected in 49.6% of the samples from 61.1% of the herds indicating that BoNoV is ubiquitous in Norway. The overall prevalence was not significantly different in diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea samples. Analyses of polymerase gene sequences revealed both genotype III/1 and III/2 with genotype III/2 (Newbury2-like) being the most prevalent. Detected capsid sequences were restricted to Newbury2-like and the chimeric Bo/Thirsk10/00/UK strain. The RNA polymerase genotypes of the circulating BoNoVs in Norway were predicted by melting temperature analysis. Additional data from a challenge experiment suggest that a high proportion of young calves are shedding low levels of BoNoV for a prolonged time after recovering from the associated diarrhoea. The findings may explain some of the discrepancies in detection rates from previous studies and explain why some studies have failed to detect significant prevalence differences between calves with and without diarrhoea. It may also shed new light on some epidemiological aspects of norovirus infections.

  4. Development and evaluation of a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for universal detection of influenza A viruses from avian and mammal species.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alexander; Vostinakova, Veronika; Pirchanova, Zuzana; Cernikova, Lenka; Dirbakova, Zuzana; Mojzis, Miroslav; Jirincova, Helena; Havlickova, Martina; Dan, Adam; Ursu, Krisztina; Vilcek, Stefan; Hornickova, Jitka

    2010-05-01

    The objective of our study was to develop and evaluate a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) assay for universal detection of influenza A (IA) viruses. The primers and LNA-modified octanucleotide probe were selected to correspond to extremely conserved regions of the membrane protein (MP) segment identified by a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis including 10,405 IA viruses MP sequences, i.e., all of the sequences of the Influenza Virus Sequence database collected as of August 20, 2009. The RRT-PCR has a detection limit of approximately five copies of target RNA/reaction and excellent reaction parameters tested in four IA viruses reference laboratories. The inclusivity of the assay was estimated at both the bioinformatic and the experimental level. Our results predicted that this RRT-PCR assay was able to detect 99.5% of known human IA virus strains, 99.84% of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) strains, 99.75% of avian strains, 98.89% of swine strains, 98.15% of equine strains, and 100% of influenza A viruses of other origin.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a SYBR Green-Based Real-Time Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Serotyping of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huixin; Parimelalagan, Mariya; Lai, Yee Ling; Lee, Kim Sung; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C; Ng, Lee Ching; Ho, Phui San; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) have emerged as the two most important arbovirus diseases of global health significance. Similar clinical manifestations, transmission vectors, geographical distribution, and seasonal correlation often result in misdiagnosis of chikungunya infections as dengue cases and vice versa. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify, and differentiate DENV serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and CHIKV. This SYBR Green I-based one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay is highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV and DENV. Melting temperature analysis of PCR amplicons was used to serotype DENV and to differentiate from CHIKV. The detection limit of the assay was 20, 10, 50, 5, and 10 RNA copies/reaction for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, and CHIKV, respectively. Our assay did not cross-react with a panel of viruses that included other flaviviruses, alphaviruses, influenza viruses, human enteroviruses, and human coronaviruses. The feasibility of using this assay for clinical diagnosis was evaluated in DENV- and CHIKV-positive patient sera. Accordingly, the assay sensitivity for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, and CHIKV was 89.66%, 96.67%, 96.67%, 94.12%, and 95.74%, respectively, with 100% specificity. These findings confirmed the potential of our assay to be used as a rapid test for simultaneous detection and serotyping of DENV and CHIKV in clinical samples.

  6. Evaluation of potential internal references for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization of gene expression in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively for studying gene expression in diverse organisms including fish. In this study, with an aim to identify reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an economic fish species, we determined the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in healthy and bacterium-infected red drum. Each of the selected candidate genes was amplified by qRT-PCR from the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of red drum infected with or without a bacterial pathogen for 12 and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the genes were analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that in the absence of bacterial infection, translation initiation factor 3, NADH dehydrogenase 1, and QM-like protein may be used together as internal references across the eight examined tissues. Bacterial infection caused variations in the rankings of the most stable genes in a tissue-dependent manner. For all tissues, two genes sufficed for reliable normalization at both 12 and 48 h post-infection. However, the optimal gene pairs differed among tissues and, for four of the examined eight tissues, between infection points. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in red drum under conditions of bacterial infection, the optimal reference genes should be selected on the basis of tissue type and, for accurate normalization, infection stage.

  7. Application of a spotting sample preparation technique for the detection of pathogens in woody plants by RT-PCR and real-time PCR (TaqMan).

    PubMed

    Osman, Fatima; Rowhani, Adib

    2006-05-01

    An extraction technique for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detection of plant pathogens including viruses, bacteria and phytoplasma is described. The total nucleic acid of these plant pathogens was obtained by direct spotting of crude sap derived from infected leaf, petiole or cambial tissue onto two different types of membranes, positively charged Hybond N(+) Nylon and FTA membranes, and processed for use in PCR. Thirteen different plant viruses, Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of Pierce's disease) and phytoplasmas were included in the experiment. A thermal treatment (95 degrees C for 10 min) of the Hybond N(+) Nylon discs in a buffered solution improved the detection, but for FTA membrane discs the thermal treatment was not required and the discs were directly placed in the PCR reaction cocktail. Specific amplification of genomic or ribosomal RNA fragments of these pathogens was obtained by one-step RT-PCR except for X. fastidiosa in which a fragment of the genomic DNA was used for amplification. The same sample preparation methods also worked well for real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan). The sample preparation techniques reported here could be used to store samples for future PCR test or for long distance shipment to a detection laboratory.

  8. Development and evaluation of a real-time Taqman RT-PCR assay for the detection of infectious bronchitis virus from infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Callison, Scott A; Hilt, Deborah A; Boynton, Tye O; Sample, Brenda F; Robison, Robert; Swayne, David E; Jackwood, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    It is important to rapidly differentiate infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from disease agents like highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and exotic Newcastle disease virus, which can be extremely similar in the early stages of their pathogenesis. In this study, we report the development and testing of a real-time RT-PCR assay using a Taqman-labeled probe for early and rapid detection of IBV. The assay amplifies a 143-bp product in the 5'-UTR of the IBV genome and has a limit of detection and quantification of 100 template copies per reaction. All 15 strains of IBV tested as well as two Turkey coronavirus strains were amplified, whereas none of the other pathogens examined, tested positive. Evaluation of the assay was completed with 1329 tracheal swab samples. A total of 680 samples collected from IBV antibody negative birds were negative for IBV by the real-time RT-PCR assay. We tested 229 tracheal swabs submitted to two different diagnostic laboratories and found 79.04% of the tracheal swabs positive for IBV by real-time RT-PCR, whereas only 27.51% of the samples were positive by virus isolation, which is the reference standard test. We also collected a total of 120 tracheal swabs at six different time points from birds experimentally infected with different dosages of IBV and found that, independent of the dose given, the viral load in the trachea plateau at 5 days post-inoculation. In addition, an inverse relationship between the dose of virus given and the viral load at 14 days post-inoculation was observed. Finally, we tested 300 total tracheal swab samples, from a flock of commercial broilers spray vaccinated for IBV in the field. The percentage of birds infected with the IBV vaccine at 3, 7, and 14 days post-vaccination was 58%, 65%, and 83%, respectively, indicating that only slightly more than half the birds were initially infected then the vaccine was subsequently transmitted to other birds in the flock. This observation is significant because

  9. Lesch-Nyhan variant syndrome: real-time rt-PCR for mRNA quantification in variable presentation in three affected family members.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khue Vu; Naviaux, Robert K; Paik, Kacie K; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Nyhan, William L

    2012-01-01

    Inherited mutations of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) give rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) or variants (LNV). We report molecular insights from real-time RT-PCR for HPRT mRNA quantification into the mechanism by which a single mutation located in exon 7 of the HPRT gene: c.500G>T, p.R167M, led to different clinical phenotypes from three male LNV-affected patients in the same family manifesting parallel differences in enzymatic activities. This approach can be applied for understanding genotype-phenotype correlations for other human genetic diseases.

  10. A SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR assay for simple and rapid detection and differentiation of highly pathogenic and classical type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus circulating in China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zheng; Ma, Wenjun; Fu, Fang; Lang, Yuekun; Wang, Wei; Tong, Guangzhi; Liu, Qinfang; Cai, Xuehui; Li, Xi

    2013-02-01

    SYBR Green coupled to melting curve analysis has been suggested to detect RNA viruses showing high genomic variability. Here, a SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) and classical type 2 PRRSV (C-PRRSV). The different strains were identified by their distinctive melting temperatures: 82.98 ± 0.25 °C and 85.95 ± 0.24 °C for HP-PRRSVs or 82.74 ± 0.26 °C for C-PRRSVs. Specificity was tested using nine other viral and bacterial pathogens of swine. The detection limit was 1 TCID(50) for HP- or C-PRRSV. Furthermore, the detection results for samples from an animal trial with HP- or C-PRRSV infections showed that the SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR was more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR. Additionally, an analysis of 319 field samples from North China, Central China and Northeast China showed that HP- and C-PRRSVs co-circulated in pig herds. Thus, the SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR, which can be performed within one hour, is a rapid, sensitive and low-cost diagnostic tool for rapid differential detection and routine surveillance of HP- and classical type 2 PRRSVs in China.

  11. A new fluorogenic real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of lineage 1 and lineage 2 West Nile viruses.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Agüero, Montserrat; Rojo, Gema; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción

    2006-09-01

    West Nile virus represents an emerging threat for animal and human health worldwide. This virus exhibits a marked genetic variation, with at least 2 distinct evolutionary lineages. Lineage 1 has been recognized in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and more recently in the Americas, whereas lineage 2 is restricted to Africa. Perhaps for this reason, the available real-time RT-PCR methods for detecting West Nile virus genome have mainly focused on lineage 1. However, both viruses may potentially be spread beyond their endemic areas by migratory birds. This report describes a new real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method based on a 5'-Taq nuclease-3' minor groove binder DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) that allows the detection of a wide range of West Nile virus isolates, including both lineages 1 and 2. This method was able to detect West Nile viruses from different origins (North and Central Africa, Middle East, Europe, and North America), whereas other flaviviruses (Usutu, Dengue, Yellow fever) analyzed in parallel remained negative. The sensitivity achieved by this assay was 10(-2)-10(-3) pfu/tube. This method, which can be performed in 96-well format, could be suitable for the large-scale surveillance of West Nile virus in areas where both lineages can potentially spread.

  12. Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A, B, and swine origin influenza A using multiplex one-step real-time RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Monavari, S H R; Mollaie, H R; Fazlalipour, M

    2014-01-01

    Every year, seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses are causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Also infrequent novel and rearranged strains of influenza viruses have caused quick, acute universal pandemics resulting in millions of mortalities. The usage of efficient and accurate detection is superior for infection control, effective treatment, and epidemiological supervision. Therefore, evaluation of useful real-time PCR molecular tests for the detection of pandemic viruses is important before the next wave of the pandemic. A novel quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers was used successfully for detection and monitoring of the influenza A, B, and swine influenza. The newly designed primers target highly conserved regions in influenza viruses. Our qRT-PCR assay is highly specific for detecting influenza A, B, and swine influenza viruses. The cutoff CT value was determined <38 for domestic human diagnostic test, under conditions of FDA emergency, and the reaction efficiency of the InfA, swInfA, and InfB assays were thereby estimated to be 97.9 % (R2 = 0.998), 98.3 % (R2 = 0.986), and 99.5 % (R2 = 0.995), respectively. Interestingly, based on our finding, there is no cross reactivity of detecting other viruses.

  13. Cross-platform evaluation of commercial real-time SYBR green RT-PCR kits for sensitive and rapid detection of European bat Lyssavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Schereffer, Jean Luc; Marchal, Clotilde; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R (2) values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  14. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zeynalova, Shalala; Guliyev, Fizuli; Vatani, Mahira; Abbasov, Bahruz

    2015-01-01

    The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS) has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal, and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in

  15. Distinction between persistent and transient infection in a bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) control programme: appropriate interpretation of real-time RT-PCR and antigen-ELISA test results.

    PubMed

    Hanon, J-B; Van der Stede, Y; Antonissen, A; Mullender, C; Tignon, M; van den Berg, T; Caij, B

    2014-04-01

    Control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Belgium is currently implemented on a voluntary basis at herd level and mainly relies on detection and culling of persistently infected (PI) animals. The present field study was conducted during the winter of 2010/2011 to assess the performances of diagnostic assays used in the testing scheme for BVD as proposed by the two Belgian regional laboratories. Individual blood samples were collected from 4972 animals, and individual samples from the same herd were pooled (maximum of 30 individual samples per pool) and screened for the presence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)-specific RNA using a commercial real-time RT-PCR test (ADIAGENE). Individual samples from positive pools were then tested in parallel with the same RT-PCR test and with an antigen-capture ELISA test (IDEXX) to detect viremic animals. This study demonstrated that individual results differed according to the type of assay used (P < 0.001): 140 animals (2.8%) were positive by RT-PCR and 72 (1.4%) by antigen-ELISA. A second blood sample was taken 40 days later from 74 PCR positive animals to detect persistent viremia: 17 (23%) of these were still PCR positive and considered to be PI and the 57 that no longer tested positive were assumed to be transiently infected (TI) animals. All PI animals were positive also by antigen-ELISA at both time points. Among TI animals, 10 (16%) were positive by antigen-ELISA at the first but none at the second sampling. A highly significant difference in cycle threshold (Ct ) values obtained by RT-PCR was observed between PI and TI animals. ROC analysis was performed to establish thresholds to confirm with high probability that an animal is PI, based on the result of RT-PCR test performed on a single individual blood sample.

  16. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of estrogen receptor gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Walton, Thomas J; Li, Geng; McCulloch, Thomas A; Seth, Rashmi; Powe, Desmond G; Bishop, Michael C; Rees, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected tissue is considered the most accurate technique for determining tissue gene expression. The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has focussed renewed interest on the role of estrogen receptors in prostate cancer, yet few studies have utilized the technique to analyze estrogen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer. Fresh tissue was obtained from 11 radical prostatectomy specimens and from 6 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Pure populations of benign and malignant prostate epithelium were laser microdissected, followed by RNA isolation and electrophoresis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PGR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with normalization to two housekeeping genes. Differences in gene expression were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation coefficients were analyzed using Spearman's test. Significant positive correlations were seen when AR and AR-dependent PSA, and ERalpha and ERalpha-dependent PGR were compared, indicating a representative population of RNA transcripts. ERbeta gene expression was significantly over-expressed in the cancer group compared with benign controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, PGR expression was significantly down-regulated in the cancer group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in AR, ERalpha or PSA expression between the groups. This study represents the first to show an upregulation of ERbeta gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer specimens. In concert with recent studies the findings suggest differential production of ERbeta splice variants, which may play important roles in the genesis of prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for research studies on enterovirus infections in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Volle, Romain; Nourrisson, Céline; Mirand, Audrey; Regagnon, Christel; Chambon, Martine; Henquell, Cécile; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Archimbaud, Christine

    2012-10-01

    Human enteroviruses are the most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis and are involved in other neurological infections. Qualitative detection of enterovirus genomes in cerebrospinal fluid is a prerequisite in diagnosing neurological diseases. The pathogenesis of these infections is not well understood and research in this domain would benefit from the availability of a quantitative technique to determine viral load in clinical specimens. This study describes the development of a real-time RT-qPCR assay using hydrolysis TaqMan probe and a competitive RNA internal control. The assay has high specificity and can be used for a large sample of distinct enterovirus strains and serotypes. The reproducible limit of detection was estimated at 1875 copies/ml of quantitative standards composed of RNA transcripts obtained from a cloned echovirus 30 genome. Technical performance was unaffected by the introduction of a competitive RNA internal control before RNA extraction. The mean enterovirus RNA concentration in an evaluation series of 15 archived cerebrospinal fluid specimens was determined at 4.78 log(10)copies/ml for the overall sample. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the real time RT-qPCR assay used in combination with the internal control to monitor the overall specimen process make it a valuable tool with applied research into enterovirus infections.

  18. Design and validation of a real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, María; Calvo, Cristina; Rabella, Nuria; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; del Amo, Eva; Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Trallero, Gloria

    2014-11-01

    Human enteroviruses (EVs) and parechoviruses (HPeVs) are important etiological agents causing infections such as meningitis, encephalitis and sepsis-like disease in neonates and young children. We have developed a real-time RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of EV and HPeV in clinical samples. Primers and probe sets were designed from the conserved 5'-noncoding region of the genomes. The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the technique were measured using a set of 25 EV and 6 HPeV types. All EVs but no HPeVs were detected with the EV primers-probe set. The HPeV primers-probe set detected only the 6 HPeV types. The lower detection limit was found to be 4 and 40CCID50/ml for HPeV and EV respectively, demonstrating high sensitivity of the technique for both viruses. The threshold cycle values were highly reproducible on repeat testing of positive controls among assay runs. The assay was evaluated in 53 clinical samples of suspected meningitis, sepsis or febrile syndromes from children under 3 years. In 11 of these (21%) EVs were detected, while 4, i.e. 7.5%, were HPeV positive. Molecular typing was carried out for 73% of the viruses. In summary, the RT-PCR method developed demonstrated effectively both EV and HPeV detection, which can cause similar clinical symptoms in infants.

  19. Evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay using minor groove binding probe for specific detection of Chinese wild-type classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guoyuan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Luo, Qingping; Liao, Yonghong; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Rongrong; Wang, Hongling; Ai, Diyun; Luo, Ling; Song, Nianhua; Shao, Huabin

    2011-09-01

    A one-step real-time RT-PCR assay using a minor groove binding probe was developed for the specific detection of Chinese wild-type classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The assay detected wild-type CSFV strains representing different genotypes, but did not amplify viral RNA from the Hog Cholera Lipinized Virus (HCLV) vaccine-strain and other porcine viruses. The assay had a detection limit of 10 copies/reaction or 3.0 median tissue culture infective dose/reaction. In comparison to the sequencing nested RT-PCR assay, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 98.3% and 94.3%, respectively, when testing 515 veterinary samples. Wild-type CSFV RNA was detected in nasal swabs 2-4 days before detection in serum samples from pigs exposed to infection by contact, and 2-4 days prior to the onset of clinical disease. HCLV RNA remained undetectable in nasal swabs and serum samples from vaccinated pigs. In conclusion, the novel assay described in this study provides a rapid and sensitive method for differentiating between wild-type and the HCLV-strain of CSFV. It could be used for monitoring in CSF outbreak areas or as a screening method for CSFV eradication strategies.

  20. Detection and Typing of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Dauber, Malte; Lange, Elke; Schirrmeier, Horst; Beer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV) are classified into the two distinct genotypes “North American (NA, type 2)” and “European (EU, type 1)”. In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV. PMID:22768042

  1. Comparison of two real-time RT-PCR assays for differentiation of C-strain vaccinated from classical swine fever infected pigs and wild boars.

    PubMed

    Widén, F; Everett, H; Blome, S; Fernandez Pinero, J; Uttenthal, A; Cortey, M; von Rosen, T; Tignon, M; Liu, L

    2014-10-01

    Classical swine fever is one of the most important infectious diseases for the pig industry worldwide due to its economic impact. Vaccination is an effective means to control disease, however within the EU its regular use is banned owing to the inability to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals, the so called DIVA principle. This inability complicates monitoring of disease and stops international trade thereby limiting use of the vaccine in many regions. The C-strain vaccine is safe to use and gives good protection. It is licensed for emergency vaccination in the EU in event of an outbreak. Two genetic assays that can distinguish between wild type virus and C-strain vaccines have recently been developed. Here the results from a comparison of these two real-time RT-PCR assays in an interlaboratory exercise are presented. Both assays showed similar performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a rapid, sensitive TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Rose rosette virus using multiple gene targets.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Jones, Debra; Schubert, Timothy S; Baker, Carlye; Washburn, Brian K; Miller, Steven H; Poduch, Kristina; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Paret, Mathews L

    2016-09-01

    Rose rosette virus (RRV), belonging to the genus Emaravirus, is a highly destructive pathogen that causes rose rosette disease. The disease is a major concern for the rose industry in the U.S. due to the lack of highly sensitive methods for early detection of RRV. This is critical, as early identification of the infected plants and eradication is necessary in minimizing the risks associated with the spread of the disease. A highly reliable, specific and sensitive detection assay is thus required to test and confirm the presence of RRV in suspected plant samples. In this study a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of RRV from infected roses, utilizing multiple gene targets. Four pairs of primers and probes; two of them (RRV_2-1 and RRV_2-2) based on the consensus sequences of the glycoprotein gene (RNA2) and the other two (RRV_3-2 and RRV_3-5) based on the nucleocapsid gene (RNA3) were designed. The specificity of the primers and probes was evaluated against other representative viruses infecting roses, belonging to the genera Alfamovirus, Cucumovirus, Ilarvirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, and Tospovirus and one Emaravirus (Wheat mosaic virus). Dilution assays using the in vitro transcripts (spiked with total RNA from healthy plants, and non-spiked) showed that all the primers and probes are highly sensitive in consistently detecting RRV with a detection limit of 1 fg. Testing of the infected plants over a period of time (three times in monthly intervals) indicated high reproducibility, with the primer/probe RRV_3-5 showing 100% positive detection, while RRV_2-1, RRV_2-2 and RRV_3-2 showed 90% positive detection. The developed real-time RT-PCR assay is reliable, highly sensitive, and can be easily used in diagnostic laboratories for testing and confirmation of RRV.

  3. Typing (A/B) and subtyping (H1/H3/H5) of influenza A viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Suwannakarn, Kamol; Payungporn, Sunchai; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Songserm, Thaweesak; Chaisingh, Arunee; Chamnanpood, Pornchai; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2008-09-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR was developed in two assays by using primers and a number of specific locked nucleic acid (LNA)-mediated TaqMan probes which increase the thermal stability of oligonucleotides. The first assay consisted of primers and probes specific to the matrix (M1) gene of influenza A virus, matrix (M1) gene of influenza B virus and GAPDH gene of host cells for typing of influenza virus and verification by an internal control, respectively. The other assay employed primers and probes specific to the hemagglutinin gene of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes in order to identify the three most prominent subtypes of influenza A capable of infecting humans. The specificity results did not produce any cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses or other subtypes of influenza A viruses (H2, H4 and H6-H15), indicating the high specificity of the primers and probes used. The sensitivity of the assays which depend on the type or subtype being detected was approximately 10 to 10(3)copies/microl that depended on the types or subtypes being detected. Furthermore, the assays demonstrated 100% concordance with 35 specimens infected with influenza A viruses and 34 specimens infected with other respiratory viruses, which were identified by direct nucleotide sequencing. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays have proven advantageous in terms of rapidity, specificity and sensitivity for human specimens and thus present a feasible and attractive method for large-scale detection aimed at controlling influenza outbreaks.

  4. Development and evaluation of one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Zika virus and Chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Qing; Li, Xiao; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Bo

    2017-10-05

    Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens and mosquito-borne arboviruses, which have resembling history, common vectors, circulating regions, and indistinguishable clinical symptoms. Wide geographical range that is suitable for ZIKV and CHIKV transmission underlines the concern about the impact of epidemic and endemic infections on burden of public health. In the present study, a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed and evaluated for simultaneous detection and quantification of ZIKV and CHIKV. The single reaction assay employs two pairs of primers and two TaqMan probes that differentiate ZIKV and CHIKV infections. The entire viral genomic RNA in vitro transcribed from full-length infectious clones were used to generate the standard curves for absolute quantification in subsequent tests. The detection limit of the one-step multiplex assay was 1 and 0.5 PFU for infectious ZIKV and CHIKV, respectively. The assessment of specificity indicated this assay is highly specific to targeted viruses showing no amplification of a variety of other flaviviruses. Our assay was able to detect geographically separated and phylogenetically diverse strains of ZIKV and CHIKV. On the applicability of monitoring viral multiplication in cells and testing clinical samples, the one-step multiplex assay provided efficient and accurate determination. The one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay offers a valuable tool for detection of ZIKV and CHIKV and potentially contributes to general surveillance and clinical treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Suarez, D L; Spackman, E; Senne, D A; Bulaga, L; Welsch, A C; Froberg, K

    2003-01-01

    An avian influenza (AI) real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) test was previously shown to be a rapid and sensitive method to identify AI virus-infected birds in live-bird markets (LBMs). The test can also be used to identify avian influenza virus (AIV) from environmental samples. Consequently, the use of RRT-PCR was being considered as a component of the influenza eradication program in the LBMs to assure that each market was properly cleaned and disinfected before allowing the markets to be restocked. However, the RRT-PCR test cannot differentiate between live and inactivated virus, particularly in environmental samples where the RRT-PCR test potentially could amplify virus that had been inactivated by commonly used disinfectants, resulting in a false positive test result. To determine whether this is a valid concern, a study was conducted in three New Jersey LBMs that were previously shown to be positive for the H7N2 AIV. Environmental samples were collected from all three markets following thorough cleaning and disinfection with a phenolic disinfectant. Influenza virus RNA was detected in at least one environmental sample from two of the three markets when tested by RRT-PCR; however, all samples were negative by virus isolation using the standard egg inoculation procedure. As a result of these findings, laboratory experiments were designed to evaluate several commonly used disinfectants for their ability to inactivate influenza as well as disrupt the RNA so that it could not be detected by the RRT-PCR test. Five disinfectants were tested: phenolic disinfectants (Tek-trol and one-stroke environ), a quaternary ammonia compound (Lysol no-rinse sanitizer), a peroxygen compound (Virkon-S), and sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). All five disinfectants were effective at inactivating AIV at the recommended concentrations, but AIV RNA in samples inactivated with phenolic and quaternary ammonia compounds could still be detected by RRT

  6. Quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis of laser microdissected tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Heidi S.; Albert, Paul S.; Gillespie, John W.; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Linehan, W. Marston; Pinto, Peter A.; Chuaqui, Rodrigo F.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a valuable tool for measuring gene expression in biological samples. However, unique challenges are encountered when studies are performed on cells microdissected from tissues derived from animal models or the clinic, including specimen related issues, variability of RNA template quality and quantity, and normalization. qRT-PCR using small amounts of mRNA derived from dissected cell populations requires adaptation of standard methods to allow meaningful comparisons across sample sets. The protocol described here presents the rationale, technical steps, normalization strategy, and data analysis necessary to generate reliable gene expression measurements of transcripts from dissected samples. The entire protocol from tissue microdissection through qRT-PCR analysis requires approximately 16 hours. PMID:19478806

  7. The use of relative quantitative RT-PCR for expression analysis in azalea flower color sports.

    PubMed

    De Keyser, E; De Riek, J; Van Bockstaele, E

    2003-01-01

    The fastest way to create new azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) cultivars is by making use of flower colour sports, which appear spontaneously on azalea plants. Unfortunately, there is still very little known on how bud sport induction occurs. Therefore, genes coding for two key enzymes of the azalea flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, chalcon synthase (chs) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (dfr) that were reported before to be apt for modification by the action of bud sporting, were isolated and characterized. The expression of these two flower colour genes in the petals of azalea flowers will be compared between all 'Hellmut Vogel' flower colour sports. To measure the expression levels of both genes, relative quantitative RT-PCR analysis will be worked out on a real-time PCR machine. The expression of housekeeping genes, which is expected to be the same for all sports, will be used to calculate the relative expression level of the two genes of interest. The optimisation of this technique will be discussed.

  8. RT-PCR-based analysis of microRNA (miR-1 and -124) expression in mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Takuya; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Takizawa, Takami; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2007-02-02

    More than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs) have been cloned, and the functions of these molecules in developmental timing, cell proliferation, and cancer have been investigated widely. MiRNAs are analyzed with Northern blot and sequential colony evaluation; however, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based miRNA assay remains to be developed. In this report, we describe improved real-time RT-PCR methods using specific or non-specific RT primer for the semi-quantitative analysis of miRNA expression. The use of the new methods in a model study revealed differential expression of miRNA-1 (miR-1) and miR-124 in mouse organs. Specifically, our methods revealed that miR-124 concentrations in the mouse central nervous system (CNS; cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and spinal cord) were more than 100 times those in other organs. By contrast, miR-1 expression in the CNS was 100-1000 times lower than that in skeletal muscle and heart. Furthermore, we revealed anatomically regional differences in miR-124 expression within the CNS: expression ratios versus the cerebral cortex were 60.7% for the cerebellum and 35.4% for the spinal cord. These results suggest that our RT-PCR-based methods would be a powerful tool for studies of miRNA expression that is associated with various neural events.

  9. Development of a Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of MAGE-A3-Positive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gruselle, Olivier; Coche, Thierry; Louahed, Jamila

    2015-07-01

    Melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) is a member of the MAGE family of tumor antigens and a relevant candidate for use in cancer immunotherapy. However, not all tumors express MAGE-A3, and closely related members of the MAGE family can be co-expressed with MAGE-A3 in the same tumor. Therefore, in the frame of MAGE-A3 clinical trials, it appeared necessary to evaluate tumors for MAGE-A3 expression with a highly specific quantitative assay to select patients who are eligible for anti-MAGE-A3 immunotherapy treatment. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for the determination of MAGEA3 gene expression in tumor tissues. In the early phases of development, the designed primers and probe were not able to distinguish between MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A6. To ensure the specificity for MAGE-A3 over MAGE-A6, our strategy was to use a 5'-nuclease probe (or hydrolysis probe). The final assay was shown to be specific and linear within the analytical range, with an acceptable CV for repeatability and intermediate precision. When compared with a reference semiquantitative RT-PCR assay, the two methods were in good agreement, with only 4.23% of the samples giving discordant results. In conclusion, we have developed a MAGE-A3-specific RT-qPCR assay, compatible with a high-throughput setting for the estimation of MAGEA3 gene expression in present and future clinical trials.

  10. Development and validation of a multiplex, real-time RT PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of classical and African swine fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Haines, Felicity J; Hofmann, Martin A; King, Donald P; Drew, Trevor W; Crooke, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    A single-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the simultaneous and differential laboratory diagnosis of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) alongside an exogenous internal control RNA (IC-RNA). Combining a single extraction methodology and primer and probe sets for detection of the three target nucleic acids CSFV, ASFV and IC-RNA, had no effect on the analytical sensitivity of the assay and the new triplex RT-PCR was comparable to standard PCR techniques for CSFV and ASFV diagnosis. After optimisation the assay had a detection limit of 5 CSFV genome copies and 22 ASFV genome copies. Analytical specificity of the triplex assay was validated using a panel of viruses representing 9 of the 11 CSFV subgenotypes, at least 8 of the 22 ASFV genotypes as well as non-CSFV pestiviruses. Positive and negative clinical samples from animals infected experimentally, due to field exposure or collected from the UK which is free from both swine diseases, were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for detection of both viruses. The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for both viruses whilst diagnostic specificity estimates were 100% for CSFV detection and 97.3% for ASFV detection. The inclusion of a heterologous internal control allowed identification of false negative results, which occurred at a higher level than expected. The triplex assay described here offers a valuable new tool for the differential detection of the causative viruses of two clinically indistinguishable porcine diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping.

  11. Development and Validation of a Multiplex, Real-Time RT PCR Assay for the Simultaneous Detection of Classical and African Swine Fever Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Felicity J.; Hofmann, Martin A.; King, Donald P.; Drew, Trevor W.; Crooke, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    A single-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the simultaneous and differential laboratory diagnosis of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) alongside an exogenous internal control RNA (IC-RNA). Combining a single extraction methodology and primer and probe sets for detection of the three target nucleic acids CSFV, ASFV and IC-RNA, had no effect on the analytical sensitivity of the assay and the new triplex RT-PCR was comparable to standard PCR techniques for CSFV and ASFV diagnosis. After optimisation the assay had a detection limit of 5 CSFV genome copies and 22 ASFV genome copies. Analytical specificity of the triplex assay was validated using a panel of viruses representing 9 of the 11 CSFV subgenotypes, at least 8 of the 22 ASFV genotypes as well as non-CSFV pestiviruses. Positive and negative clinical samples from animals infected experimentally, due to field exposure or collected from the UK which is free from both swine diseases, were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for detection of both viruses. The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for both viruses whilst diagnostic specificity estimates were 100% for CSFV detection and 97.3% for ASFV detection. The inclusion of a heterologous internal control allowed identification of false negative results, which occurred at a higher level than expected. The triplex assay described here offers a valuable new tool for the differential detection of the causative viruses of two clinically indistinguishable porcine diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping. PMID:23923045

  12. Real-time RT-PCR for detection, identification and absolute quantification of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus using different types of standards.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vazquez, C; Bandín, I; Dopazo, C P

    2015-05-21

    In the present study, 2 systems of real-time RT-PCR-one based on SYBR Green and the other on TaqMan-were designed to detect strains from any genotype of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), with high sensitivity and repeatability/reproducibility. In addition, the method was optimized for quantitative purposes (qRT-PCR), and standard curves with different types of reference templates were constructed and compared. Specificity was tested against 26 isolates from 4 genotypes. The sensitivity of the procedures was first tested against cell culture isolation, obtaining a limit of detection (LD) of 100 TCID50 ml-1 (100-fold below the LD using cell culture), at a threshold cycle value (Ct) of 36. Sensitivity was also evaluated using RNA from crude (LD = 1 fg; 160 genome copies) and purified virus (100 ag; 16 copies), plasmid DNA (2 copies) and RNA transcript (15 copies). No differences between both chemistries were observed in sensitivity and dynamic range. To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility, all experiments were performed in triplicate and on 3 different days, by workers with different levels of experience, obtaining Ct values with coefficients of variation always <5. This fact, together with the high efficiency and R2 values of the standard curves, encouraged us to analyse the reliability of the method for viral quantification. The results not only demonstrated that the procedure can be used for detection, identification and quantification of this virus, but also demonstrated a clear correlation between the regression lines obtained with different standards, which will help scientists to compare sensitivity results between different studies.

  13. Multicenter evaluation of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Sylvie; Billaud, Geneviève; Omar, Shabir; Lina, Bruno; Pozzetto, Bruno; Schuffenecker, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The rapid molecular diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis has been shown important for an adequate management of the patients. A new CE-marked real-time RT-PCR assay (ENTEROVIRUS R-gene, Argene) was evaluated in two university hospital virology laboratories. Reactivity, analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using 54 prototype and 173 clinical human enterovirus (HEV) strains, a 12-sample HEV proficiency panel, and 30 non-HEV microorganisms. The clinical performance of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay was evaluated by testing 197 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 103 respiratory specimens, comparatively to the routinely used diagnostic techniques. Sixty-four out of the 65 HEV serotypes tested were detected. The analytical sensitivity ranged between 10(-2.64) and 10(2.39)TCID(50)/50 microl. Cross-reactivity was observed with four human rhinoviruses. On 59 CSF specimens analyzed prospectively, the results of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay showed a 94.8% concordance with those of the Smart enterovirus (EV) assay (Cepheid). On 138 CSF specimens tested retrospectively, the results of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay showed a 97.1% concordance with those of either the GeneXpert EV assay (Cepheid) or the in-house RT-PCR HEV assays used at the time of specimen collection. On 103 respiratory specimens, the concordance between the results of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay and those of the routine RT-PCRs or viral culture was 90.2% and 96.1% before and after retest, respectively. The new test was found able to detect a large panel of enterovirus serotypes; it was sensitive when used on clinical specimens; and, easy and rapid to perform on a routine basis. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for determining expression profiles of types I and III interferon subtypes.

    PubMed

    Renn, Lynnsey A; Theisen, Terence C; Navarro, Maria B; Mane, Viraj P; Schramm, Lynnsie M; Kirschman, Kevin D; Fabozzi, Giulia; Hillyer, Philippa; Puig, Montserrat; Verthelyi, Daniela; Rabin, Ronald L

    2015-03-24

    Described in this report is a qRT-PCR assay for the analysis of seventeen human IFN subtypes in a 384-well plate format that incorporates highly specific locked nucleic acid (LNA) and molecular beacon (MB) probes, transcript standards, automated multichannel pipetting, and plate drying. Determining expression among the type I interferons (IFN), especially the twelve IFN-α subtypes, is limited by their shared sequence identity; likewise, the sequences of the type III IFN, especially IFN-λ2 and -λ3, are highly similar. This assay provides a reliable, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive means to analyze the expression of the seventeen interferon subtype transcripts.

  15. Use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR to investigate the correlation between viremia and viral shedding of canine distemper virus, and infection outcomes in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Ito, Toshihiro; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    We used real-time RT-PCR and virus titration to examine canine distemper virus (CDV) kinetics in peripheral blood and rectal and nasal secretions from 12 experimentally infected dogs. Real-time RT-PCR proved extremely sensitive, and the correlation between the two methods for rectal and nasal (r=0.78, 0.80) samples on the peak day of viral RNA was good. Although the dogs showed diverse symptoms, viral RNA kinetics were similar; the peak of viral RNA in the symptomatic dogs was consistent with the onset of symptoms. These results indicate that real-time RT-PCR is sufficiently sensitive to monitor CDV replication in experimentally infected dogs regardless of the degree of clinical manifestation and suggest that the peak of viral RNA reflects active CDV replication.

  16. Real-time RT-PCR for detection of equine influenza and evaluation using samples from horses infected with A/equine/Sydney/2007 (H3N8).

    PubMed

    Foord, Adam J; Selleck, Paul; Colling, Axel; Klippel, Jessica; Middleton, Deborah; Heine, Hans G

    2009-05-28

    Equine influenza (EI) virus (H3N8) was identified in the Australian horse population for the first time in August 2007. The principal molecular diagnostic tool used for detection was a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) assay specific for the matrix (MA) gene of influenza virus type A (IVA). As this assay is not specific for EI, we developed a new EI H3-specific TaqMan assay targeting the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of all recent EI H3 strains. The IVA and the EI H3 TaqMan assays were assessed using in vitro transcribed RNA template, virus culture, diagnostic samples from the outbreak and samples from experimentally infected horses. The EI H3 TaqMan assay had a higher diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) when compared to the IVA TaqMan assay and also when using a conventional PCR for EI H3 as a standard of comparison. The performance of both TaqMan assays was compared with an antigen detection ELISA and virus isolation using nasal swabs collected daily from horses experimentally infected with the outbreak strain A/equine/Sydney/2888-8/2007. The EI H3 TaqMan assay was the most sensitive of the assays, able to detect EI from day 1 or 2 post-challenge, as early as virus isolation, and before clinical signs of disease were observed.

  17. Rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus by high-speed real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    High sensitivity, minor risk of cross-contamination and in particular the rapid reaction time make quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays well suited for outbreak investigations as well as for monitoring epidemics of pathogens. In this study qPCR assays for three highly contagious animal diseases, namely foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD), influenza A (IA) and classical swine fever (CSF) have been developed. Furthermore, an amplification control targeting 18S ribosomal RNA was included. Each assay was validated with samples from infected animals using three different standard qPCR-machines in two thermal profiles: one standard and one high-speed approach, respectively. The high-speed PCR assays allowed the reliable diagnosis of FMD, influenza A and CSF in less than 28 min with an analytical sensitivity of at least 200 genome copies/μl in every case, with slight differences regarding reaction time and sensitivity for the individual PCR-cycler instruments. Therefore, the newly established rapid RT-PCR systems will be a valuable method for the monitoring and control of these three important viruses and will be a robust option for the development of novel molecular pen-side tests.

  18. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of St. Louis encephalitis and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Rene; Nattanmai, Seela; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.; Tavakoli, Norma P.

    2008-01-01

    A duplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), for use in human and vector surveillance. The respective targets selected for the assay were the conserved NS5 and E1 genes of the two viruses. Due to the insufficient number of NS5 sequences from SLEV strains in the GenBank database, we determined the sequence of an approximately 1-kb region for each of 25 strains of SLEV in order to select primers and probes in a conserved region. Our assay has a sensitivity of 5 gene copies/reaction for EEEV and 10 gene copies/reaction for SLEV, and it’s performance is linear over at least 6 log10 gene copies. The assay is specific and detected all strains of SLEV (69) and EEEV (12) that were tested. An internal control ensures detection of efficient nucleic acid extraction and possible PCR inhibition. PMID:18715737

  19. The quantification of tomato microRNAs response to viral infection by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junli; Wang, Kai; Liu, Xin; Chen, Shaoning; Chen, Jishuang

    2009-05-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are RNA molecules consisting of 20-24 nucleotides that play important roles in regulating plant's gene expression for growth and development, cell viability and stress responses. Viral infection often has a noticeable influence on host gene expression, which may result in a range of developmental abnormalities. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection, miRNA pathway and host gene expression, we report herein the application of the novel miRNAs quantification method in tomato, using a stem-loop reverse transcription followed by SYBR Green PCR assay. For the seven tested miRNAs of Solanum lycopersicum, which are related to the regulation of plant development, hormone response, and their own biogenesis, this quantification method showed high sensitivity, specificity, and wide dynamic range. Precise quantification could be achieved with as little as 0.01 ng of total RNAs for most cases. Additionally, their target mRNAs could be quantified from the same RNA sample simultaneously, by the conventional real-time RT-PCR assay. In comparison with mock inoculation, accumulation levels of the tested miRNAs and target mRNAs were found obviously altered in tomato seedlings, indicating that the miRNA pathway was interrupted by Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato aspermy virus infection.

  20. Liquid phase fluorescence in situ RT-PCR analysis for gene expression analysis in woody stems.

    PubMed

    Gray-Mitsumune, M; Abe, H; Takahashi, J; Sundberg, B; Mellerowicz, E J

    2004-01-01

    We explore a rapid in situ RT-PCR protocol for gene expression studies in woody stem tissues. In situ RT-PCR was performed using fluorescent dye-conjugated nucleic acid and the fluorescence signals derived from target RNAs were detected using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The signal to background ratio was greatly enhanced by performing two rounds of PCR reactions, first without the fluorescent dye and second with the dye. Using this protocol, we obtained strong gene-specific signals in secondary stem tissues. The signals were PCR-dependent, as shown by the lack of cytoplasmic signals in the tissue sections in which either DNA polymerase or primers were omitted from PCR reactions, and were RNA-dependent, as shown by great reduction of cytoplasmic signals when sections were treated with RNase before RT reactions. To verify our protocol, transcript localization of the rbcS gene was examined in secondary stems of hybrid aspen ( Populus tremula L. x tremuloides Michx.) and compared to the chlorophyll autofluorescence signal. The in situ RT-PCR signals form the rbcS gene and chlorophyll autofluorescence co-localized in the same cell types. The signal was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis of isolated RNA from the cambium and developing xylem, thus confirming the validity of the protocol. Some difficulties of in situ transcript localization and the interpretation of the signal distribution in the secondary tissues are discussed.

  1. Development and validation of a real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for investigation of wild poliovirus type 1-South Asian (SOAS) strain reintroduced into Israel, 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Hindiyeh, M Y; Moran-Gilad, J; Manor, Y; Ram, D; Shulman, L M; Sofer, D; Mendelson, E

    2014-02-20

    In February 2013, wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reintroduced into southern Israel and resulted in continuous silent circulation in the highly immune population. As a part of the public health emergency response, a novel real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, to allow for the sensitive and specific detection of the circulatingWPV1-South Asian (SOAS) strain. Specific primers and probes derived from the VP-1 region were designed, based on sequenced sewage isolates, and used to simultaneously amplify this WPV1-SOAS sequence together with bacteriophage MS-2 as internal control. High titre WPV1-SOAS stock virus was used for assay optimisation and 50 processed sewage samples collected from southern Israel and tested by reference culture based methods were used for analytical validation of the assay’s performance. The limit of detection of the multiplex qRT-PCR (SOAS/MS-2) assay was 0.1 plaque-forming unit (pfu)/reaction (20 pfu/mL) for WPV1-SOAS RNA with 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values when compared to the culture based method. The turnaround time was rapid, providing results for environmental samples within 24 to 48 hours from completion of sewage processing, instead of five to seven days by culture-based analysis. Direct sewage testing by qRT-PCR assay proved to be a useful tool for rapid detection and environmental surveillance of WPV1-SOAS circulating strain during emergency response. Application of the approach for detection of WPV1-SOAS in stool samples obtained during acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance or field surveys should be further evaluated.

  2. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 virus isolation (VI) assays. To conduct the study, OF was inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially 10-fold d...

  3. Development a of multiplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Asian prunus viruses, plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus, and peach latent mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian prunus viruses (APV 1, APV 2 and APV 3) and Plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus (PBNSPaV) are two recently described viruses infecting Prunus spp., and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a viroid that infects the same species. A single-tube multiplex, TaqMan real-time RT-PCR as...

  4. A quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay to detect genome segment 9 of all 26 bluetongue virus serotypes.

    PubMed

    Maan, Narender S; Maan, Sushila; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha; Pullinger, Gillian; Montes, Antonio J Arenas; Gasparini, Marcela R; Guimera, Marc; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Mertens, Peter P C

    2015-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an arboviral disease, which can often be fatal in naïve sheep and white tailed deer, but is usually less severe, or unapparent in other ruminants. Twenty-six bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognised so far, two of which (BTV-25 and BTV-26) were recently identified by phylogenetic comparisons of genome-segment/outer-capsid protein VP2 (subsequently confirmed by serological 'virus-neutralisation' assays). Rapid, sensitive, reliable and quantitative diagnostic-assays for detection and identification of BTV represent important components of effective surveillance and control strategies. The BTV genome comprises 10 linear segments of dsRNA. We describe a 'TaqMan' fluorescence-probe based quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, targeting the highly conserved genome-segment-9 (encoding the viral-helicase 'VP6' and NS4). The assay detected Seg-9 from isolates of all 26 BTV types, as well as from clinical samples derived from BTV-6w and BTV-8w outbreaks (in Europe), BTV-25 from Switzerland, BTV-26 from Kuwait, BTV-1w, BTV-4w and BTV-8w from Spain, BTV-4w, BTV-8, BTV-10 and BTV-16 from Brazil. Assay efficiency was evaluated with RNA derived from the reference strain of BTV-1w [RSArrrr/01] and was 99.6%, detecting down to 4 copies per reaction. Samples from uninfected insect or mammalian cell-cultures, hosts-species (uninfected sheep blood) or vector-insects, all gave negative results. The assay failed to detect RNA from heterologous but related Orbivirus species (including the nine African horse sickness virus [AHSV] and seven epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus [EHDV] serotypes). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Stipa grandis during Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Zou, Bo; Ren, Weibo; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Ruigang; Wang, Kai; Hou, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2) were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses. Four algorithms were used: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results showed that the most stable reference genes were different under different stress conditions: EF1beta and UBC15 during drought and salt stresses; ACT and GAPDH under heat stress; SKIP5 and UBC17 under cold stress; UBC15 and HERC2 under high pH stress; UBC2 and UBC15 under wounding stress; EF1beta and UBC17 under jasmonic acid treatment; UBC15 and CUL4 under abscisic acid treatment; and HERC2 and UBC17 under salicylic acid treatment. EF1beta and HERC2 were the most suitable genes for the global analysis of all samples. Furthermore, six target genes, SgPOD, SgPAL, SgLEA, SgLOX, SgHSP90 and SgPR1, were selected to validate the most and least stable reference genes under different treatments. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection for more accurate qRT-PCR quantification and will promote studies of gene expression in S. grandis subjected to environmental stress. PMID:28056110

  6. Identification of qRT-PCR reference genes for analysis of opioid gene expression in a hibernator.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Ackermann, Laynez W; Denning, Gerene M; Carey, Hannah V

    2010-04-01

    Previous work has suggested that central and peripheral opioid signaling are involved in regulating torpor behavior and tissue protection associated with the hibernation phenotype. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure mRNA levels of opioid peptide precursors and receptors in the brain and heart of summer ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and winter hibernating squirrels in the torpid or interbout arousal states. The use of appropriate reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR gene expression data can have profound effects on the analysis and interpretation of results. This may be particularly important when experimental subjects, such as hibernating animals, undergo significant morphological and/or functional changes during the study. Therefore, an additional goal of this study was to identify stable reference genes for use in qRT-PCR studies of the 13-lined ground squirrel. Expression levels of 10 potential reference genes were measured in the small intestine, liver, brain, and heart, and the optimal combinations of the most stable reference genes were identified by the GeNorm Excel applet. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations for reference genes to use in each tissue that would be suitable for comparative studies among different activity states. When appropriate normalization of mRNA levels was used, there were no changes in opioid-related genes in heart among the three activity states; in brain, DOR expression was highest during torpor, lowest in interbout arousal and intermediate in summer. The results support the idea that changes in DOR expression may regulate the level of neuronal activity in brain during the annual hibernation cycle and may contribute to hibernation-associated tissue protection.

  7. Detection of morbillivirus infection by RT-PCR RFLP analysis in cetaceans and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Verna, Federica; Giorda, Federica; Miceli, Ilaria; Rizzo, Giovanna; Pautasso, Alessandra; Romano, Angelo; Iulini, Barbara; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Mignone, Walter; Grattarola, Carla; Bozzetta, Elena; Varello, Katia; Dondo, Alessandro; Casalone, Cristina; Goria, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Morbillivirus genus comprises several members related to specific hosts, such as canine distemper virus (CDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) in which the dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) is included. Both CDV and DMV are able to cause serious outbreak associated with high morbidity and mortality representing an important conservation threat for terrestrial and aquatic mammalian species. This paper describes a new RT-PCR RFLP technique based on a RT-PCR with degenerate primers targeting a 287 bp fragment located on the conserved N terminus of the morbillivirus NP gene, followed by MseI RFLP, in order both to confirm the detection of the virus and to distinguish DMV from CDV. Both carnivores and cetaceans tissues (brain, lung and lymph node) presenting evidence of morbillivirus infection (MI) were analyzed. RT-PCR positive samples were typed by RFLP analysis and then sequenced to confirm the RFLP results. This method was applied during the last morbillivirus cetacean die-off occurred in the Mediterranean basin in 2013, when there was the urgent need of a rapid and economic method to investigate among causes of death on stranded cetaceans. This new technique has proved to be a valuable, reliable, simple and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool easily applicable also in limited-resource laboratories. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the β-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was β-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was α-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 α subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  9. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay combined with ethidium monoazide treatment for RNA viruses and its application to detect viral RNA after heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Katayama, H; Kitajima, M; Tohya, Y; Ohgaki, S

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for discriminating damaged viruses or naked viral RNA from intact viruses by ethidium monoazide (EMA) treatment before RT-PCR. The applied EMA treatment consisted of three steps: (1) EMA dose, (2) exposure to light, and (3) additional purification by spin-column gel filtration. Approximately 4-log reduction in viral RNA concentration was observed by adding a dose of 10 μg/mL-EMA with 300 s of light irradiation. Although residual EMA can be an inhibitor of RT-PCR, its effect was reduced by spin-column gel filtration or a QIAamp® Viral RNA Mini Kit. EMA-RT-PCR was applied to the thermally treated PV1. Results of EMA-RT-PCR were similar to the plaque assay when PV1 was thermally inactivated. Although this is a preliminary study investigating applicability of the EMA-RT-PCR method for RNA viruses, the results suggest that the method is potentially applicable for the selective detection of epidemiologically important enteric viruses in water such as enteroviruses and noroviruses.

  10. Evaluation of two singleplex reverse transcription-Insulated isothermal PCR tests and a duplex real-time RT-PCR test for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Yan; Chiang, Cheng-Jen; Shen, Yu-Han; Li, Fu-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) in multiple countries have caused significant economic losses and remain a serious challenge to the swine industry. Rapid diagnosis is critical for the implementation of efficient control strategies before and during PEDV and PDCoV outbreaks. Insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) on the portable POCKIT™ device is user friendly for on-site pathogen detection. In the present study, a singleplex PEDV RT-iiPCR, a singleplex PDCoV RT-iiPCR, and a duplex PEDV/PDCoV real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) commercial reagents targeting the M gene were compared to an N gene-based PEDV rRT-PCR and an M gene-based PDCoV rRT-PCR that were previously published and used as reference PCRs. All PCR assays were highly specific and did not cross react with other porcine enteric pathogens. Analytical sensitivities of the PEDV RT-iiPCR, PDCoV RT-iiPCR and duplex PEDV/PDCoV rRT-PCR were determined using in vitro transcribed RNA as well as viral RNA extracted from ten-fold serial dilutions of PEDV and PDCoV cell culture isolates. Performance of each PCR assay was further evaluated using 170 clinical samples (86 fecal swabs, 24 feces, 19 intestines, and 41 oral fluids). Compared to the reference PEDV rRT-PCR, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the PEDV RT-iiPCR were 97.73%, 98.78%, and 98.24%, respectively, and those of the duplex PEDV/PDCoV rRT-PCR were 98.86%, 96.34%, and 97.65%, respectively. Compared to the reference PDCoV rRT-PCR, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the PDCoV RT-iiPCR were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, and those of the PEDV/PDCoV duplex rRT-PCR were 96.34%, 100%, and 98.24%, respectively. Overall, all three new PCR assays were comparable to the reference rRT-PCRs for detection of PEDV and/or PDCoV. The PEDV and PDCoV RT-iiPCRs are potentially useful tools for on-site detection and the duplex PEDV/PDCoV rRT-PCR provides a convenient method to simultaneously detect

  11. A Guideline to Family-Wide Comparative State-of-the-Art Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis Exemplified with a Brassicaceae Cross-Species Seed Germination Case Study[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Graeber, Kai; Linkies, Ada; Wood, Andrew T.A.; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Comparative biology includes the comparison of transcriptome and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data sets in a range of species to detect evolutionarily conserved and divergent processes. Transcript abundance analysis of target genes by qRT-PCR requires a highly accurate and robust workflow. This includes reference genes with high expression stability (i.e., low intersample transcript abundance variation) for correct target gene normalization. Cross-species qRT-PCR for proper comparative transcript quantification requires reference genes suitable for different species. We addressed this issue using tissue-specific transcriptome data sets of germinating Lepidium sativum seeds to identify new candidate reference genes. We investigated their expression stability in germinating seeds of L. sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana by qRT-PCR, combined with in silico analysis of Arabidopsis and Brassica napus microarray data sets. This revealed that reference gene expression stability is higher for a given developmental process between distinct species than for distinct developmental processes within a given single species. The identified superior cross-species reference genes may be used for family-wide comparative qRT-PCR analysis of Brassicaceae seed germination. Furthermore, using germinating seeds, we exemplify optimization of the qRT-PCR workflow for challenging tissues regarding RNA quality, transcript stability, and tissue abundance. Our work therefore can serve as a guideline for moving beyond Arabidopsis by establishing high-quality cross-species qRT-PCR. PMID:21666000

  12. Removal of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) inhibitors associated with cloacal swab samples and tissues for improved diagnosis of avian influenza virus by RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) is routinely used for the rapid detection of Avian Influenza virus (AIV) in clinical samples. The usefulness of diagnostic RRT-PCR can be limited, in part, by the inhibitory substances present in some clinical specimens, which can ...

  13. Assessment of Preparation of Samples Under the Field Conditions and a Portable Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Rapid On-Site Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Benyeda, Z; Zohari, S; Yacoub, A; Isaksson, M; Leijon, M; LeBlanc, N; Benyeda, J; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (AMPV-1), is the causative agent of Newcastle disease affecting many species of birds and causing heavy losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Early, rapid and sensitive detection of the viruses or the viral nucleic acids is very important for disease diagnosis and control. This study aimed to evaluate sample preparation under field conditions and the application of a real-time RT-PCR method in the portable T-COR4 platform for the rapid, on-site detection of NDV on a farm. In the laboratory setting, the portable real-time RT-PCR assay had a similar performance compared with that obtained with a larger, stationary Rotor Gene real-time thermocycler. In the field conditions, viral nucleic acids were manually extracted just outside of animal units with minimal equipment and real-time RT-PCR detection was performed with the portable thermocycler T-COR4 placed in a nearby room. The portable assay at the farm detected viral RNA in 15 samples and reached an agreement of 83% (39/47) when the same RNA preparations were tested in the Rotor Gene thermocycler under the laboratory setting. The results demonstrated the feasibility of performing field detection but also the need to improve and further simplify sample preparation procedures. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Comparison of conventional RT-PCR, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR in the rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleotide in contaminated commercial bovine sera batches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Qin; Tan, Bin; Li, Peng; Wang, Feng-Xue; Guo, Li; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Wen, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2014-10-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can contaminate biological products produced in bovine or porcine cells or manufactured using bovine sera. A rapid, specific, sensitive, and practical method of detecting BVDV in bio-products is needed. The purpose of this study was to compare three assays with respect to their ability to accurately detect BVDV in biological samples, namely reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR, and conventional RT-PCR. All assays detected BVDV nucleotide and differentiated between BVDV-free and -contaminated bovine sera successfully. In addition, the results were specific to BVDV: the amplification of samples containing the closely related classical swine fever virus or other pathogenic bovine viruses yielded negative results. The lowest detection threshold, 10(1) copies, was displayed by the SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assay. This assay was also the most effective in the detection of BVDV contamination in a set of commercially available bovine sera. The field conditions suggest that RT-LAMP is specific and sensitive to detecting BVDV in biological samples and may be used for quality control of biomaterials.

  15. Real-time RT-PCR assays to differentiate wild-type group A rotavirus strains from Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccine strains in stool samples.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Rashi; Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Ian Tam, Ka; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Two live-attenuated RVA vaccines, Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) are recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for routine immunization of all infants. Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccines have substantially reduced RVA associated mortality but occasionally have been associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases identified in vaccinees and their contacts. High-throughput assays are needed to monitor the prevalence of vaccine strains in AGE cases and emergence of new vaccine-derived strains following RVA vaccine introduction. In this study, we have developed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays for detection of Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccine components in stool samples. Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for vaccine specific targets in the genomes of Rotarix(®) (NSP2, VP4) and RotaTeq(®) (VP6, VP3-WC3, VP3-human) and validated on sequence confirmed stool samples containing vaccine strains, wild-type RVA strains, and RVA-negative stools. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Rotarix(®) NSP2 and VP4 qRT-PCR assays exhibited 92-100% sensitivity, 99-100% specificity, 94-105% efficiency, and a limit of detection of 2-3 copies per reaction. RotaTeq(®) VP6, VP3-WC3, and VP3-human qRT-PCR assays displayed 100% sensitivity, 94-100% specificity, 91-102% efficiency and limits of detection of 1 copy, 2 copies, and 140 copies, respectively. These assays permit rapid identification of Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccine components in stool samples from clinical and surveillance studies and will be helpful in determining the frequency of vaccine strain-associated AGE.

  16. Isolation of RNA from cell lines and cervical cytology specimens stored in BD SurePath preservative fluid and downstream detection of housekeeping gene and HPV E6 expression using real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patricia G; Henderson, Dorian T; Adams, Melissa D; Horlick, Elizabeth A; Dixon, Eric P; King, Lorraine M; Avissar, Patricia L; Brown, Charlotte A; Fischer, Timothy J; Malinowski, Douglas P

    2009-03-01

    This study was performed to demonstrate that RNA isolated from cell lines and cervical cytology specimens stored in SurePath preservative fluid would be functional in real-time RT-PCR assays. RNA was isolated from cervical cell lines or cytology samples stored in SurePath preservative at room temperature for 2-5 weeks using five commercially available RNA purification kits, three of which contain proteinases. The quality of the RNA was assessed by real time RT-PCR amplification of GAPDH, GUSB, U1A, HPV 16 and 18 E6 mRNAs. RNA was isolated successfully from cells that were stored in SurePath preservative fluid with only the three protocols that contained proteinases. GAPDH was amplified in 98-100% of the samples, GUSB in 90-98%, and the least abundant transcript, U1A, was amplified in 81-96% of the samples. HPV 16 and 18 E6 transcripts were detected in 56% of high grade, 39% of low grade and 2% of normal samples, with a concordance between DNA genotype and E6 mRNA expression of 97%. We demonstrated that RNA can be extracted from cervical cell lines and cytology specimens stored in BD SurePath preservative fluid with three different procedures that all contain proteinases. This RNA is suitable for real-time RT-PCR applications.

  17. Development of a strand-specific real-time qRT-PCR for the accurate detection and quantitation of West Nile virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stephanie M; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E E

    2013-12-01

    Studying the tropism and replication kinetics of West Nile virus (WNV) in different cell types in vitro and in tissues in animal models is important for understanding its pathogenesis. As detection of the negative strand viral RNA is a more reliable indicator of active replication for single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses, the specificity of qRT-PCR assays currently used for the detection of WNV positive and negative strand RNA was reassessed. It was shown that self- and falsely-primed cDNA was generated during the reverse transcription step in an assay employing unmodified primers and several reverse transcriptases. As a result, a qRT-PCR assay using the thermostable rTth in combination with tagged primers was developed, which greatly improved strand specificity by circumventing the events of self- and false-priming. The reliability of the assay was then addressed in vitro using BV-2 microglia cells as well as in C57/BL6 mice. It was possible to follow the kinetics of positive and negative-strand RNA synthesis both in vitro and in vivo; however, the sensitivity of the assay will need to be optimized in order to detect and quantify negative-strand RNA synthesis in the very early stages of infection. Overall, the strand-specific qRT-PCR assay developed in this study is an effective tool to quantify WNV RNA, reassess viral replication, and study tropism of WNV in the context of WNV pathogenesis.

  18. The use of a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for the surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Patnayak, Devi P; Jiang, Yin; Goyal, Sagar M

    2012-12-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a highly contagious and pathogenic virus of fish. The virus infects more than 70 fish species worldwide, in both fresh and salt water. A new viral strain (VHSV-IVb) has proven both virulent and persistent, spreading throughout the Great Lakes of North America and to inland water bodies in the region. To better understand the geographic distribution of the virus, we used a modified real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for high-throughput testing of fish for VHSV. The assay was shown to be twice as sensitive as the gold standard, virus isolation, and did not cross react with other viruses found in fish. In addition, the diagnostic turnaround time was reduced from 28 to 30 d for virus isolation to 2-4 d for rRT-PCR. To demonstrate the usefulness of the rRT-PCR assay, 115 high-priority water bodies in Minnesota were tested by both methods from April 2010 to June 2011. All survey sites tested negative for VHSV by both methods. The survey results have informed fisheries managers on the absence of VHSV in Minnesota and have better prepared them for the eventual arrival of the disease. In addition, the results demonstrate the value of this rRT-PCR as a surveillance tool to rapidly identify an outbreak so that it can be controlled in a timely manner.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of MMP9 and TIMP1 mRNA in human non small cell lung cancers by multiplex real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Simi, Lisa; Andreani, Matteo; Davini, Federico; Janni, Alberto; Pazzagli, Mario; Serio, Mario; Orlando, Claudio

    2004-08-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs). Our study was focused on the simultaneous measurement of the expression profile of MMP9 mRNA and its principal inhibitor, TIMP-1, in 100 non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and in corresponding adjacent non malignant tissues. The measurement was performed with a multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay based on TaqMan assay, using two probes labelled with different fluorocromes. We found that both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in NSCLC (P < 0.0001) in comparison to corresponding controls as well as the MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio (P = 0.014). MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression was highly correlated in cancer samples (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001). The analysis in the two main histotypes revealed a significant increase of MMP9 mRNA in adenocarcinomas in comparison to normal tissues (P = 0.006) but not in squamous cell carcinomas, while TIMP-1 mRNA showed a significative increase both in adenocarcinomas and in squamous cell carcinoma samples (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly correlated to lymphnode invasion and cancer stage. Survival analysis revealed that high levels of expression of MMP9 mRNA, but not of TIMP-1, were significantly associated to an unfavourable outcome in NSCLC patients in toto (P = 0.017). In addition our results showed that high levels of MMP9 expression are of independent prognostic impact in operable NSCLC. Our data seem to demonstrate a simultaneous and coordinated up-regulation of MMP9 and TIMP-1 expression at the mRNA level in NSCLC, even if this phenomenon seems variable according to the histotype. In addition, the increase of MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio may reflect an unbalance of their production in affected tissues. The increased expression of the two mRNAs, even not necessarily equate their enzymatic activities, seems to

  20. Evaluation of reference genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize the viru...

  1. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for quantitative and differential detection of wild-type viruses and C-strain vaccine of Classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Jun; Cheng, Dan; Li, Na; Sun, Yuan; Shi, Zixue; Zhu, Qing-Hu; Tu, Changchun; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2008-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), one of OIE listed diseases. Most of the currently available detection methods do not allow discrimination between wild-type CSF viruses and the vaccine strains. This study was designed to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for the quantitative and differential detection of wild-type viruses and C-strain vaccine widely used in China. CSFV specific primers and two differently labeled TaqMan probes for the differentiation of wild-type viruses from C-strain vaccine were designed in the 5'-untranslated region of the viral genome of CSFV. The two TaqMan probes specifically hybridize wild-type viruses of different subgroups and C-strain vaccine, respectively, in the multiplex real-time RT-PCR, with no cross-reaction to a number of non-CSFV porcine viruses. The sensitivity of the assay for detecting wild-type and C-strain-type vaccine viruses was determined to be 41.8 and 81.5copies/microL viral RNA, respectively. Completely correct differentiation of wild-type viruses from C-strain vaccine was achieved when testing reference strains and characterized field isolates of CSFV in China. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR was able to detect the viral RNA in the whole blood samples of experimentally infected pigs as early as 2 days post-infection, 3 to 4 days prior to the onset of clinical signs in co-housed pigs. The agreements between the multiplex real-time RT-PCR and a multiplex RT-nested PCR for detection of wild-type and C-strain-type viruses were 96.9% and 100%, respectively, when detecting 106 different field samples. There is a positive correlation between the titers of C-strain vaccines titrated in rabbits and RNA copies quantitated by the multiplex real-time RT-PCR. The novel assay described here is rapid and sensitive, and is useful for differentiating field strains and C-strain of CSFV in China.

  2. Comparison of real-time RT-PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional cell culture for the detection of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    López Roa, Paula; Catalán, Pilar; Giannella, Maddalena; García de Viedma, Darío; Sandonis, Virginia; Bouza, Emilio

    2011-04-01

    The emergence of the pandemic influenza virus A H1N1 has made fast and accurate diagnosis essential. However, few well-validated diagnostic techniques exist. The real-time RT-PCR developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the recommended technique. Our objective was to compare the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay, shell vial (SV), and conventional cell culture [with Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and A549] for the detection of pandemic influenza A H1N1 in hospitalized patients. We performed a prospective study comparing the efficacy of 5 diagnostic techniques (RTPCR, SV in A549, SV in MDCK, conventional cell culture in A549, and conventional cell culture in MDCK) using nasopharyngeal swabs from patients ≥18 years of age hospitalized with clinical symptoms of influenza at our institution. Detection of the virus by conventional culture was considered the gold standard. An "extended gold standard" was also used to recalculate validity values. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values (NPVs) for the detection of influenza A H1N1, determined using conventional culture as the gold standard, were, respectively, as follows: RT-PCR: 95.6, 82.3, 78.3, 96.5%; SVA549: 91.2, 99.01, 98.4, 94.4%; SV-MDCK: 82.3, 100, 100, 89.4%; tube-A549: 94.12, 100, 100, 96.2%; tube-MDCK: 86.7, 100, 100, 91.9%. Sensitivities and NPVs using an extended gold standard were as follows: RT-PCR: 96.5%, 96.6%; SV-A549: 73.3%, 78.5%; SV-MDCK: 65.1%, 73.7%; tube-A549: 74.4%, 79.2%; tube-MDCK: 68.6%, 75.7%. The average time to detect pandemic influenza A H1N1 by RT-PCR, SV culture, and conventional culture was, respectively, 4 h, 48 h, and 7 days. Real-time RT-PCR displayed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of influenza A H1N1 in adult patients when compared with conventional techniques. In addition, the A549 cell line was not inferior to the MDCK line. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of Reference Genes for Robust qRT-PCR Gene Expression Analysis in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Che Omar, Sarena; Bentley, Michael A; Morieri, Giulia; Preston, Gail M; Gurr, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus causes significant annual harvest losses. It also serves as a genetically-tractable model to study fungal ingress. Whilst pathogenicity determinants have been unmasked and changes in global gene expression described, we know little about Magnaporthe oryzae cell wall remodelling. Our interests, in wall remodelling genes expressed during infection, vegetative growth and under exogenous wall stress, demand robust choice of reference genes for quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) data normalisation. We describe the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes profiled by qRT-PCR with cDNAs derived during asexual germling development, from sexual stage perithecia and from vegetative mycelium grown under various exogenous stressors. Our Minimum Information for Publication of qRT-PCR Experiments (MIQE) compliant analysis reveals a set of robust reference genes used to track changes in the expression of the cell wall remodelling gene MGG_Crh2 (MGG_00592). We ranked nine candidate reference genes by their expression stability (M) and report the best gene combination needed for reliable gene expression normalisation, when assayed in three tissue groups (Infective, Vegetative, and Global) frequently used in M. oryzae expression studies. We found that MGG_Actin (MGG_03982) and the 40S 27a ribosomal subunit MGG_40s (MGG_02872) proved to be robust reference genes for the Infection group and MGG_40s and MGG_Ef1 (Elongation Factor1-α) for both Vegetative and Global groups. Using the above validated reference genes, M. oryzae MGG_Crh2 expression was found to be significantly (p<0.05) elevated three-fold during vegetative growth as compared with dormant spores and two fold higher under cell wall stress (Congo Red) compared to growth under optimal conditions. We recommend the combinatorial use of two reference genes, belonging to the cytoskeleton and ribosomal synthesis functional groups, MGG_Actin, MGG_40s, MGG_S8 (Ribosomal subunit 40S S8) or MGG

  4. No Control Genes Required: Bayesian Analysis of qRT-PCR Data

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Mikhail V.; Wright, Rachel M.; Scott, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Model-based analysis of data from quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is potentially more powerful and versatile than traditional methods. Yet existing model-based approaches cannot properly deal with the higher sampling variances associated with low-abundant targets, nor do they provide a natural way to incorporate assumptions about the stability of control genes directly into the model-fitting process. Results In our method, raw qPCR data are represented as molecule counts, and described using generalized linear mixed models under Poisson-lognormal error. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to sample from the joint posterior distribution over all model parameters, thereby estimating the effects of all experimental factors on the expression of every gene. The Poisson-based model allows for the correct specification of the mean-variance relationship of the PCR amplification process, and can also glean information from instances of no amplification (zero counts). Our method is very flexible with respect to control genes: any prior knowledge about the expected degree of their stability can be directly incorporated into the model. Yet the method provides sensible answers without such assumptions, or even in the complete absence of control genes. We also present a natural Bayesian analogue of the “classic” analysis, which uses standard data pre-processing steps (logarithmic transformation and multi-gene normalization) but estimates all gene expression changes jointly within a single model. The new methods are considerably more flexible and powerful than the standard delta-delta Ct analysis based on pairwise t-tests. Conclusions Our methodology expands the applicability of the relative-quantification analysis protocol all the way to the lowest-abundance targets, and provides a novel opportunity to analyze qRT-PCR data without making any assumptions concerning target stability. These procedures have been implemented as the MCMC

  5. The development of a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay using TaqMan technology for the pan detection of bluetongue virus (BTV).

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Catherine; McMenamy, Michael J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Earley, Bernadette; Markey, Bryan; Cassidy, Joseph; Allan, Gordon; Welsh, Michael D; McKillen, John

    2017-03-23

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious, non-contagious viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is transmitted by adult females of certain Culicoides species. Since 2006, several serotypes including BTV-1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9 and 16, have spread from the Mediterranean basin into Northern Europe for the first time. BTV-8 in particular, caused a major epidemic in northern Europe. As a result, it is evident that most European countries are at risk of BTV infection. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay based on TaqMan technology for the detection of representative strains of all BTV serotypes. Primers and probes were based on genome segment 10 of the virus, the NS3 gene. The assay was tested for sensitivity, and specificity. The analytical sensitivity of the rRT-PCR assay was 200 copies of RNA per reaction. The assay did not amplify the closely related orbivirus epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) but successfully detected all BTV reference strains including clinical samples from animals experimentally infected with BTV-8. This real time RT-PCR assay offers a sensitive, specific and rapid alternative assay for the pan detection of BTV that could be used as part of a panel of diagnostic assays for the detection of all serotypes of BTV.

  6. A duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Massachusetts and non-Massachusetts serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Ana M; Perera, Carmen L; Vega, Armando; Ríos, Liliam; Coronado, Liani; Relova, Damarys; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José I; Pérez, Lester J

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and is considered one of the most economically important viral diseases of chickens. Control of IBV has been attempted using live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines of the Massachusetts (Mass.) serotype are the most commonly used for this purpose. Due to the continuous emergence of new variants of the infectious bronchitis virus, the identification of the type of IBV causing an outbreak in commercial poultry is important in the selection of the appropriate vaccine(s) capable of inducing a protective immune response. The present work was aimed at developing and evaluating a duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Mass. and non-Mass. serotypes of IBV. The duplex rRT-PCR yielded curves of amplification with two specific melting curves (Tm1 = 83 °C ± 0.5 °C and Tm2 = 87 °C ± 0.5 °C) and only one specific melting peak (Tm = 87 °C ± 0.5 °C) when the IBV Mass. serotype and IBV non-Mass. serotype strains were evaluated, respectively. The detection limit of the assay was 8.2 gene copies/μL based on in vitro transcribed RNA and 0.1 EID50/mL. The assay was able to detect all the IBV strains assessed and discriminated well among the IBV Mass. and the IBV non-Mass. serotypes strains. In addition, amplification curves were not obtained with any of the other viruses tested. From the 300 field samples tested, the duplex rRT-PCR yielded a total of 80 samples that were positive for IBV (26.67%), 73 samples identified as the IBV Mass. serotype and seven samples as identified as the IBV non-Mass. serotype. A comparison of the performance of test as assessed with field samples revealed that the duplex rRT-PCR detected a higher number of IBV-positive samples than when conventional RT-PCR or virus isolation tests were used. The duplex rRT-PCR presented here is a

  7. Application of real-time RT-PCR in vector surveillance and assessment of replication kinetics of an emerging novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ankita; Singh, Anil K; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Thakur, Ashish K; Gopalan, N; Parida, M M; Rao, P V L; Dash, Paban K

    2013-11-01

    Chikungunya has emerged as one of the most important arboviral infection of global significance. Expansion of Chikungunya virus endemic areas can be ascribed to naive population, increasing vector population and adaptability of virus to new vector. In this study, a SYBR Green I based quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed. The assay was found to be 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and no cross reactivity was observed with related alphaviruses and flaviviruses. The detection efficiency of the assay was impervious to mosquitoes of different pool sizes. Vector surveillance has resulted in detection of CHIKV RNA in Aedes aegypti, confirming its vectorial potential for CHIKV in northern India. The assessment of the assay was further carried out by studying the competence of Indian Ae. aegypti for CHIKV, which revealed 100% infection rate and dissemination rate with 60% transmission rate. The replication kinetics of CHIKV in different anatomical sites of Ae. aegypti revealed highest titre at day 6 post infection in midgut and at day 10 post infection in saliva, legs and wings. The implementation of the assay in detecting lower viral load makes it a remarkable tool for surveillance of virus activity in mosquitoes.

  8. Selection of housekeeping genes as internal controls for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa).

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Dang, Xin; He, Yuan-Qiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa is an important commercial shellfish in China and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become the standard method to study gene expression in R. venosa. For accurate and reliable gene expression results, qRT-PCR assays require housekeeping genes as internal controls, which display highly uniform expression in different tissues or stages of development. However, to date no studies have validated housekeeping genes in R. venosa for use as internal controls for qRT-PCR. In this study, we selected the following 13 candidate genes for suitability as internal controls: elongation factor-1α (EF-1α), α-actin (ACT), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1α subcomplex subunit 7 (NDUFA7), 60S ribosomal protein L5 (RL5), 60S ribosomal protein L28 (RL28), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-tubulin (TUBB), 40S ribosomal protein S25 (RS25), 40S ribosomal protein S8 (RS8), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBE2), histone H3 (HH3), and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA). We measured the expression levels of these 13 candidate internal controls in eight different tissues and twelve larvae developmental stages by qRT-PCR. Further analysis of the expression stability of the tested genes was performed using GeNorm and RefFinder algorithms. Of the 13 candidate genes tested, we found that EF-1α was the most stable internal control gene in almost all adult tissue samples investigated with RL5 and RL28 as secondary choices. For the normalization of a single specific tissue, we suggested that EF-1α and NDUFA7 are the best combination in gonad, as well as COX1 and RL28 for intestine, EF-1α and RL5 for kidney, EF-1α and COX1 for gill, EF-1α and RL28 for Leiblein and mantle, EF-1α, RL5, and NDUFA7 for liver, GAPDH, PPIA, and RL28 for hemocyte. From a developmental perspective, we found that RL28 was the most stable gene in all developmental stages measured

  9. Development of tailored real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection and differentiation of serotype O, A and Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus lineages circulating in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Reid, Scott M; Mioulet, Valerie; Knowles, Nick J; Shirazi, Nazeem; Belsham, Graham J; King, Donald P

    2014-10-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In countries where FMD is endemic, identification of the serotypes of the causative virus strains is important for vaccine selection and tracing the source of outbreaks. In this study, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays using primer/probe sets designed from the VP1 coding region of the virus genomes were developed for the specific detection of serotype O, A and Asia-1 FMD viruses (FMDVs) circulating in the Middle East. These assays were evaluated using representative field samples of serotype O strains belonging exclusively to the PanAsia-2 lineage, serotype A strains of the Iran-05 lineage and serotype Asia-1 viruses from three relevant sub-groups. When RNA extracted from archival and contemporary field strains was tested using one- or two-step rRT-PCR assays, all three primer/probe sets detected the RNA from homotypic viruses and no cross-reactivity was observed with heterotypic viruses. Similar results were obtained using both single- and multiplex assay formats. Using plasmid standards, the minimum detection level of these tests was found to be lower than two copies. The results illustrate the potential of tailored rRT-PCR tools for the detection and categorization of viruses circulating in the Middle East belonging to distinct subgroups of serotypes O, A and Asia-1. These assays can also overcome the problem of serotyping samples which are found positive by the generic rRT-PCR diagnostic assays but negative by virus isolation and antigen-detection ELISA which would otherwise have to be serotyped by nucleotide sequencing. A similar approach could be used to develop serotyping assays for FMDV strains circulating in other regions of the world.

  10. Selection of reference genes for normalisation of real-time RT-PCR in brain-stem death injury in Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Margaret; Nataatmadja, Maria; Fraser, John F

    2009-07-23

    Heart and lung transplantation is frequently the only therapeutic option for patients with end stage cardio respiratory disease. Organ donation post brain stem death (BSD) is a pre-requisite, yet BSD itself causes such severe damage that many organs offered for donation are unusable, with lung being the organ most affected by BSD. In Australia and New Zealand, less than 50% of lungs offered for donation post BSD are suitable for transplantation, as compared with over 90% of kidneys, resulting in patients dying for lack of suitable lungs. Our group has developed a novel 24 h sheep BSD model to mimic the physiological milieu of the typical human organ donor. Characterisation of the gene expression changes associated with BSD is critical and will assist in determining the aetiology of lung damage post BSD. Real-time PCR is a highly sensitive method involving multiple steps from extraction to processing RNA so the choice of housekeeping genes is important in obtaining reliable results. Little information however, is available on the expression stability of reference genes in the sheep pulmonary artery and lung. We aimed to establish a set of stably expressed reference genes for use as a standard for analysis of gene expression changes in BSD. We evaluated the expression stability of 6 candidate normalisation genes (ACTB, GAPDH, HGPRT, PGK1, PPIA and RPLP0) using real time quantitative PCR. There was a wide range of Ct-values within each tissue for pulmonary artery (15-24) and lung (16-25) but the expression pattern for each gene was similar across the two tissues. After geNorm analysis, ACTB and PPIA were shown to be the most stably expressed in the pulmonary artery and ACTB and PGK1 in the lung tissue of BSD sheep. Accurate normalisation is critical in obtaining reliable and reproducible results in gene expression studies. This study demonstrates tissue associated variability in the selection of these normalisation genes in BSD sheep and underlines the importance of

  11. Molecular analysis of dolphin morbillivirus: A new sensitive detection method based on nested RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Zanetti, Rossella; Zappulli, Valentina; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Mazzariol, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been identified as the most pathogenic virus for cetaceans. Over the past three decades, this RNA virus has caused several outbreaks of lethal disease in odontocetes and mysticetes worldwide. Isolation and identification of CeMV RNA is very challenging in whales because of the poor preservation status frequently shown by tissues from stranded animals. Nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) is used instead of conventional RT-PCR when it is necessary to increase the sensitivity and the specificity of the reaction. This study describes a new nested RT-PCR technique useful to amplify small amounts of the cDNA copy of Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) when it is present in scant quantity in whales' biological specimens. This technique was used to analyze different tissues (lung, brain, spleen and other lymphoid tissues) from one under human care seal and seven cetaceans stranded along the Italian coastline between October 2011 and September 2015. A well-characterized, 200 base pair (bp) fragment of the dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) haemagglutinin (H) gene, obtained by nested RT-PCR, was sequenced and used to confirm DMV positivity in all the eight marine mammals under study. In conclusion, this nested RT-PCR protocol can represent a sensitive detection method to identify CeMV-positive, poorly preserved tissue samples. Furthermore, this is also a rather inexpensive molecular technique, relatively easy to apply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus by RT-PCR and analysis of sequence variability.

    PubMed

    Thomson, K G; Dietzgen, R G; Gibbs, A J; Tang, Y C; Liesack, W; Teakle, D S; Stackebrandt, E

    1995-09-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used to identify Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in leaves of infected cucurbits. Oligonucleotide primers which annealed to regions in the nuclear inclusion body (NIb) and the coat protein (CP) genes, generated a 300-bp product from ZYMV and also from the closely related watermelon mosaic virus type 2 (WMV-2). However, no product was obtained from papaya ringspot potyvirus which also infects cucurbits. ZYMV and WMV-2 were differentiated using a third primer which was complementary to a sequence in the 3'-untranslated region; a 1186-bp amplified product was obtained for ZYMV only. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 300-bp fragments of Australian ZYMV and WMV-2 strains revealed 93.7-100% sequence identity between ZYMV strains. Multiple sequence alignments indicated that the nucleotide sequence which codes for the N-terminus of the CP was 74-100% identical for different isolates of ZYMV. The Australian isolate of WMV-2 was 43-46% identical to all isolates of ZYMV and was 84.6% identical to a Florida isolate of WMV-2.

  13. One-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting and genotyping wild-type group A rotavirus strains and vaccine strains (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) in stool samples

    PubMed Central

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Tam, Ka Ian; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group A rotavirus (RVA) infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® and Rotarix®, has dramatically reduced RVA associated AGE and mortality in developed as well as in many developing countries. High-throughput methods are needed to genotype rotavirus wild-type strains and to identify vaccine strains in stool samples. Quantitative RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) offer several advantages including increased sensitivity, higher throughput, and faster turnaround time. Methods. In this study, a one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect and genotype wild-type strains and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) rotavirus strains along with an internal processing control (Xeno or MS2 RNA). Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for VP7 (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G12) and VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay also included previously published NSP3 qRT-PCR for rotavirus detection and Rotarix® NSP2 and RotaTeq® VP6 qRT-PCRs for detection of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains respectively. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay was validated using 853 sequence confirmed stool samples and 24 lab cultured strains of different rotavirus genotypes. By using thermostable rTth polymerase enzyme, dsRNA denaturation, reverse transcription (RT) and amplification (PCR) steps were performed in single tube by uninterrupted thermocycling profile to reduce chances of sample cross contamination and for rapid generation of results. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Results. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8–100% sensitivity, 99.7–100% specificity, 85–95% efficiency and a limit of detection of 4–60 copies per singleplex reaction. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 81–92% efficiency and limit of detection of 150–600 copies in multiplex reactions. The VP4 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8

  14. Virological course of hepatitis A virus as determined by real time RT-PCR: Correlation with biochemical, immunological and genotypic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zahid; Das, Bhudev C; Husain, Syed A; Polipalli, Sunil K; Ahmed, Tanzeel; Begum, Nargis; Medhi, Subhash; Verghese, Alice; Raish, Mohammad; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong; Kar, Premashis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To undertake analysis of hepatitis A viral load, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and viral genotypes with duration of viremia, and to correlate these parameters with CD4+/ CD8+ lymphocyte populations that control cell-mediated immunity. METHODS: Cell counts were carried out using fresh whole blood collected in EDTA vials using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA was extracted from blood serum, reverse transcribed into cDNA and quantified by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction and was genotyped. RESULTS: Among 11 patients, 10 could be analyzed completely. Of these, 3 had severe acute hepatitis (s-AH) and the remainder had a self-limited acute hepatitis A (AHA), with one patient with fulminant disease (encephalopathy Grade IV) dying on the 4th d. The ALT level was significantly higher both in AHA (1070.9 ± 894.3; P = 0.0014) and s-AH (1713.9 ± 886.3; P = 0.001) compared to normal controls (23.6 ± 7.2). The prothrombin time in s-AH patients (21.0 ± 2.0; P = 0.02) was significantly higher than in AHA (14.3 ± 1.1; P = 0.44). The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in AHA patients (1.17 ± 0.11; P = 0.22) and s-AH (0.83 ± 0.12; P = 0.0002) were lower than seen in normal healthy controls (1.52). Self-limited cases had peak viral load at the beginning of analysis while in s-AH patients this occurred at the 15th or 30th d. In acute and severe groups, one patient each belonged to genotype IA, with the remaining 8 cases belonging to genotype IIIA. The only fulminant hepatic failure case belonged to genotype IA. HAV viral load and ALT values collected during the entire course of the self-limited infection were directly correlated but this was not the case for s-AH patients. CONCLUSION: Based on a small-scale study, the persistently higher viral load of s-AH might be due to diminished cellular immunity and hemolysis. The duration of viremia was dependent on the host, as the viral genotype had no apparent role in clinical outcome of AVH and s-AH cases. PMID

  15. Identification and evaluation of new reference genes in Gossypium hirsutum for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normalizing through reference genes, or housekeeping genes, can make more accurate and reliable results from reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Recent studies have shown that no single housekeeping gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, suitable reference genes should be the first step of any qPCR analysis. Only a few studies on the identification of housekeeping gene have been carried on plants. Therefore qPCR studies on important crops such as cotton has been hampered by the lack of suitable reference genes. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, implemented by geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed the gene expression of nine candidate reference genes in cotton: GhACT4, GhEF1α5, GhFBX6, GhPP2A1, GhMZA, GhPTB, GhGAPC2, GhβTUB3 and GhUBQ14. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in 23 experimental samples consisting of six distinct plant organs, eight stages of flower development, four stages of fruit development and in flower verticils. The expression of GhPP2A1 and GhUBQ14 genes were the most stable across all samples and also when distinct plants organs are examined. GhACT4 and GhUBQ14 present more stable expression during flower development, GhACT4 and GhFBX6 in the floral verticils and GhMZA and GhPTB during fruit development. Our analysis provided the most suitable combination of reference genes for each experimental set tested as internal control for reliable qPCR data normalization. In addition, to illustrate the use of cotton reference genes we checked the expression of two cotton MADS-box genes in distinct plant and floral organs and also during flower development. Conclusion We have tested the expression stabilities of nine candidate genes in a set of 23 tissue samples from cotton plants divided into five different experimental sets. As a result of this evaluation, we recommend the use of GhUBQ14 and GhPP2A1 housekeeping genes as superior references for normalization of gene

  16. Detection of West Nile virus using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues in crows and horses: quantification of viral transcripts by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Deepanker; Kim, Hyun; Feria, Willard; Russo, Brigite; Acland, Helen

    2004-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) RNA was quantified in WNV infected crows and horses with the help of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. A 5' nuclease assay, based on NS5 gene detection with a fluorescent probe was used for quantifying WNV RNA using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue specimens. Quantitative detection of WNV RNA showed the presence of a higher amount of the viral RNA in crow tissues compared to equine tissues and these results correlated well with the detection of WNV antigen by immunostaining. In crows, the highest amount of virus was seen in the intestine and in horses in the brain.

  17. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    PubMed

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity.

  18. Investigation of Reference Genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue-Jiao; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Yong; Pan, Ying-Jie; Hwang, Cheng-An; Wu, Vivian C H

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize its virulence factors and understand the effect of environmental conditions on its pathogenicity. However, there is not a stable gene in V. parahaemolyticus that has been identified for use as a reference gene for qRT-PCR. This study evaluated the stability of 6 reference genes (16S rRNA, recA, rpoS, pvsA, pvuA, and gapdh) in 5 V. parahaemolyticus strains (O3:K6-clinical strain-tdh+, ATCC33846-tdh+, ATCC33847-tdh+, ATCC17802-trh+, and F13-environmental strain-tdh+) cultured at 4 different temperatures (15, 25, 37 and 42°C). Stability values were calculated using GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and Delta CT algorithms. The results indicated that recA was the most stably expressed gene in the V. parahaemolyticus strains cultured at different temperatures. This study examined multiple V. parahaemolyticus strains and growth temperatures, hence the finding provided stronger evidence that recA can be used as a reference gene for gene expression studies in V. parahaemolyticus.

  19. Investigation of Reference Genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue-jiao; Sun, Xiao-hong; Xu, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Yong; Pan, Ying-jie; Hwang, Cheng-An; Wu, Vivian C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize its virulence factors and understand the effect of environmental conditions on its pathogenicity. However, there is not a stable gene in V. parahaemolyticus that has been identified for use as a reference gene for qRT-PCR. This study evaluated the stability of 6 reference genes (16S rRNA, recA, rpoS, pvsA, pvuA, and gapdh) in 5 V. parahaemolyticus strains (O3:K6-clinical strain-tdh+, ATCC33846-tdh+, ATCC33847-tdh+, ATCC17802-trh+, and F13-environmental strain-tdh+) cultured at 4 different temperatures (15, 25, 37 and 42°C). Stability values were calculated using GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and Delta CT algorithms. The results indicated that recA was the most stably expressed gene in the V. parahaemolyticus strains cultured at different temperatures. This study examined multiple V. parahaemolyticus strains and growth temperatures, hence the finding provided stronger evidence that recA can be used as a reference gene for gene expression studies in V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:26659406

  20. Evaluation of potential reference genes for real time RT-PCR studies in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.); during development, in tissues of healthy and NNV-injected fish, and in anterior kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Nerland, Audun Helge; Patel, Sonal

    2010-05-11

    Real time RT-PCR has become an important tool for analyzing gene expression in fish. Although several housekeeping genes have been evaluated in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.), appropriate reference genes for low copy mRNA transcripts at the earliest developmental stages have not been identified. No attempts have been reported to identify suitable reference genes in halibut infected with NNV or in stimulated halibut leucocytes. In this study, beta-actin1 (ACTB1), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A1), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), ribosomal protein L7 (RPL7), tubulin beta 2C (Tubb2C), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UbcE) were evaluated as reference genes for normalization of real time RT-PCR data during Atlantic halibut development, in tissue of healthy and NNV-infected fish, and in in vivo and in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes. The expression of all six genes was relatively stable from the unfertilized egg until 12 day degrees post fertilization (ddpf). However, none of the selected genes were found to be stably expressed throughout halibut development. The mRNA levels of the six genes increased from 18 ddpf, when zygotic transcription is likely to be activated, and stabilized at different time points. The Excel-based software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder ranked EF1A1 and UbcE as the best candidate reference genes before activation of zygotic transcription, and RPL7 and EF1A1 as the best candidates after hatching. EF1A1 and RPL7 were also listed as the best reference genes when exploring the expression levels of the six genes in various halibut organs, both in non-injected fish and in mock- and NNV-injected fish. None of the reference genes were found optimal for normalization of real time RT-PCR data from in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes. Generally, it was found that EF1A1 and RPL7 were the genes that showed least variation, with HPRT1 and UbcE as intermediate genes, and ACTB1

  1. Evaluation of potential reference genes for real time RT-PCR studies in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.); during development, in tissues of healthy and NNV-injected fish, and in anterior kidney leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Real time RT-PCR has become an important tool for analyzing gene expression in fish. Although several housekeeping genes have been evaluated in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.), appropriate reference genes for low copy mRNA transcripts at the earliest developmental stages have not been identified. No attempts have been reported to identify suitable reference genes in halibut infected with NNV or in stimulated halibut leucocytes. In this study, β-actin1 (ACTB1), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A1), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), ribosomal protein L7 (RPL7), tubulin beta 2C (Tubb2C), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UbcE) were evaluated as reference genes for normalization of real time RT-PCR data during Atlantic halibut development, in tissue of healthy and NNV-infected fish, and in in vivo and in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes. Results The expression of all six genes was relatively stable from the unfertilized egg until 12 day degrees post fertilization (ddpf). However, none of the selected genes were found to be stably expressed throughout halibut development. The mRNA levels of the six genes increased from 18 ddpf, when zygotic transcription is likely to be activated, and stabilized at different time points. The Excel-based software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder ranked EF1A1 and UbcE as the best candidate reference genes before activation of zygotic transcription, and RPL7 and EF1A1 as the best candidates after hatching. EF1A1 and RPL7 were also listed as the best reference genes when exploring the expression levels of the six genes in various halibut organs, both in non-injected fish and in mock- and NNV-injected fish. None of the reference genes were found optimal for normalization of real time RT-PCR data from in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes. Conclusion Generally, it was found that EF1A1 and RPL7 were the genes that showed least variation, with HPRT1 and UbcE as

  2. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization in Iris. lactea var. chinensis roots under cadmium, lead, and salt stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-qin; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Yan-hai; Zhu, Xu-dong; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an accurate and sensitive method to measure the gene expression. However, obtaining reliable result depends on the selection of reference genes which normalize differences among samples. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of seven reference genes, namely, ubiquitin-protein ligase UBC9 (UBC), tubulin alpha-5 (TUBLIN), eukaryotic translation initiation factor (EIF-5A), translation elongation factor EF1A (EF1 α ), translation elongation factor EF1B (EF1b), actin11 (ACTIN), and histone H3 (HIS), in Iris. lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) root when the plants were subjected to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and salt stress conditions. All seven reference genes showed a relatively wide range of threshold cycles (C t ) values in different samples. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the suitable reference genes. The results from the two software units showed that EIF-5A and UBC were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested samples, while TUBLIN was unsuitable as internal controls. I. lactea var. chinensis is tolerant to Cd, Pb, and salt. Our results will benefit future research on gene expression in response to the three abiotic stresses.

  3. [Validation of a real time RT-PCR assay to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus and assessment of its performance in acute infection].

    PubMed

    Fondevila, Norberto; Compaired, Diego; Maradei, Eduardo; Duffy, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A specific real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCRrt) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus was validated using the LightCycler thermocycler 2.0 and its reagents as recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health and was assessed for the detection of the virus in acute infection of cattle experimentally vaccinated and challenged with virus A Argentina/2001 or A24 Cruzeiro. The technique proved to be robust, showing coefficients of variation lower than 4% for different ARN extractions, days or repetitions and was able to detect up to 0,4 TCID 50%, and/or up to 100 RNA molecules. In probang samples, diagnostic sensitivity was 93.1 (95% CI 86.5-96.6) and diagnostic specificity 100 (95% CI 96.3-100). The results of the challenge in vaccinated or multivaccinated bovines showed that although there were high levels of clinical protection in the vaccinated group, FMDV could be detected in all challenged groups. However, detection was 100 times lower in immunized animals.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-03-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed.

  5. Quantification of Pea enation mosaic virus 1 and 2 during infection of Pisum sativum by one step real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Sheber, Melissa; Bonning, Bryony C; Miller, W Allen

    2017-02-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) are two viruses in an obligate symbiosis that cause pea enation mosaic disease mainly in plants in the Fabaceae family. This virus system is a valuable model to investigate plant virus replication, movement and vector transmission. Thus, here we describe growth conditions, virus detection methods, and virus accumulation behavior. To measure the accumulation and movement of PEMV1 and PEMV2 in plants during the course of infection, we developed a quantitative real-time one-step reverse transcription PCR procedure using the SYBR-green(®) technology. Viral primers were designed that anneal to conserved but distinct regions in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of each virus. Moreover, the normalization of viral accumulation was performed to correct for sample-to-sample variation by designing primers to two different Pisum sativum housekeeping genes: actin and β-tubulin. Transcript levels for these housekeeping genes did not change significantly in response to PEMV infection. Conditions were established for maximum PCR efficiency for each gene, and quantification using QuBit(®) technology. Both viruses reached maximum accumulation around 21days post-inoculation of pea plants. These results provide valuable tools and knowledge to allow reproducible studies of this emerging model virus system virus complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and evaluation of a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for evaluation of cytokine gene expression in horse.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Kukielka, D; De las Heras, A I; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine secretion is one of the main mechanisms by which the immune system is regulated in response to pathogens. Therefore, the measurement of cytokine expression is fundamental to characterizing the immune response to infections. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used to measure cytokine mRNA levels, but assay conditions should be properly evaluated before analyzing important equine infections through relative quantification of gene expression. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a set of RT-qPCR assays for a panel of the most common cytokines in horses involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Eight cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, IFNβ and IFNγ) and a housekeeping gene (β-actin) were detected and amplified with the same annealing temperature in a SYBR Green RT-qPCR assay of samples of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy horse and whole blood from a horse infected with African horse sickness virus. The method gave good efficiency for all genes tested, allowing quantification of relative expression levels. These SYBR Green RT-qPCR assays may be useful for examining cytokine gene expression in horses in response to exposure to economically important pathogens.

  7. Role of real-time RT-PCR platform technology in the diagnosis and management of notifiable avian influenza outbreaks: experiences in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Slomka, M J; Irvine, R M; Pavlidis, T; Banks, J; Brown, I H

    2010-03-01

    Diagnosis and management of avian influenza outbreaks now include the use of validated real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) methods in many countries, including all member states of the European Union. Two outbreaks in poultry of notifiable avian influenza (H5 and H7 subtypes) that occurred in Great Britain during 2007 will serve as examples in which RRT-PCR demonstrated its value in 1) rapid diagnosis and confirmation of disease by sensitive and specific laboratory testing of samples derived from the index cases and 2) high-volume, rapid testing of surveillance samples. The two poultry outbreaks followed the incursion of a H7N2 low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) virus (May-June 2007) and a Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI) virus (November 2007). Coupled with the use of high-throughput, robotic RNA extraction methods, a total of approximately 9300 and 20,300 field samples were tested by appropriate, validated RRT-PCR assays during the 4- and 5-wk duration of the H7N2 LPNAI and H5N1 HPNAI outbreaks, respectively. Fundamental features of the validated RRT-PCR assays used included their high degree of sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity, attributes that were invaluable in providing timely and accurate information for notifiable AI outbreak management.

  8. A Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Utilizing a Universal Alphavirus Control RNA.

    PubMed

    Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Eiden, Martin; Keller, Markus; Hinrichs, Winfried; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus from the family Togaviridae that causes epizootic outbreaks in equids and humans in Central and South America. So far, most studies use conventional reverse transcriptase PCR assays for the detection of the different VEEV subtypes. Here we describe the development of a TaqMan quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for the specific detection and quantitation of all VEEV subtypes which uses in parallel a universal equine encephalitis virus control RNA carrying target sequences of the three equine encephalitis viruses. The control RNA was used to generate standard curves for the calculation of copy numbers of viral genome of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and VEEV. The new assay provides a reliable high-throughput method for the detection and quantitation of VEEV RNA in clinical and field samples and allows a rapid differentiation from potentially cocirculating EEEV and WEEV strains. The capability to detect all known VEEV variants was experimentally demonstrated and makes this assay suitable especially for the surveillance of VEEV.

  9. A Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Utilizing a Universal Alphavirus Control RNA

    PubMed Central

    Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Eiden, Martin; Keller, Markus; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus from the family Togaviridae that causes epizootic outbreaks in equids and humans in Central and South America. So far, most studies use conventional reverse transcriptase PCR assays for the detection of the different VEEV subtypes. Here we describe the development of a TaqMan quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for the specific detection and quantitation of all VEEV subtypes which uses in parallel a universal equine encephalitis virus control RNA carrying target sequences of the three equine encephalitis viruses. The control RNA was used to generate standard curves for the calculation of copy numbers of viral genome of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and VEEV. The new assay provides a reliable high-throughput method for the detection and quantitation of VEEV RNA in clinical and field samples and allows a rapid differentiation from potentially cocirculating EEEV and WEEV strains. The capability to detect all known VEEV variants was experimentally demonstrated and makes this assay suitable especially for the surveillance of VEEV. PMID:28042576

  10. Evaluation of the Xpert Flu test and comparison with in-house real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of influenza virus from 2008 to 2011 in Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Salez, N; Ninove, L; Thirion, L; Gazin, C; Zandotti, C; de Lamballerie, X; Charrel, R N

    2012-04-01

    Rapid documentation of respiratory specimens can have an impact on the management of patients and their relatives in terms of preventive and curative measures. We compared the results of the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid) with three real-time RT-PCR assays using 127 nasopharyngeal samples, of which 75 were positive for influenza A (with 52 identified as A/H1N1-2009) and 52 were positive for influenza B. The Xpert(®) Flu assay presented a quasi-absence of non-interpretable tests, and showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 100% for Flu A, 98.4% and 100% for A/H1N1-2009, and 80.7% and 100% for Flu B.

  11. A Theiler's virus BeAn strain shows a persistent profile of BHK-21 cell infection as determined by genome detection using real-time RT-PCR and expression of L* protein.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Alvaro Jorge; da Silva Junior, Haroldo Cid; Santos, Eneida Almeida; Baroni, Eliane Barbosa; de Moraes, Marcia Terezinha Baroni

    2012-12-01

    Cells from various tissues and species are able to bind to Theiler's virus strain DA and allow it to replicate to some extent. Meanwhile, permissiveness in vitro to BeAn strains has not been well investigated. In this paper, the BeAn 8386 virus was subjected to five passages in BHK-21 cells and showed a persistent profile. In order to follow the in vitro infection, real-time RT-PCR to detect the IRES, L* and 3A3B regions of the Theiler's virus genome was carried out in the first and last passages. In addition, the expression of L* protein was detected. These findings confirm the persistence of the virus in vitro, even in the absence of cytopathic effect (CPE).

  12. Detection and quantification by real-time RT-PCR of hepatitis A virus from inoculated tap waters, salad vegetables, and soft fruits: characterization of the method performances.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Eric; Hennechart, Catherine; Merle, Ghislaine; Burger, Christian; Hmila, Nadia; Ruelle, Stéphanie; Perelle, Sylvie; Ferré, Virginie

    2007-06-30

    Water, salad vegetables and fruits exposed to fecal contamination may cause outbreaks of hepatitis A. A protocol of viral concentration by filtration on electronegative membrane filter and a protocol based on a viral elution in Tris-glycine buffer, pH 9.5 with concentration by polyethylene glycol precipitation were associated with real-time, reverse transcriptase-PCR to detect hepatitis A virus (HAV) artificially inoculated in 2 l of tap water, or on 25 g of fruits or salad vegetables. These methods were characterized by an intra-laboratory study using the international standard ISO 16140 on five types of tap water, six types of fruit and five types of salad vegetable. Linear regression models describing the quantitative reactions were good fits to data, and the variances of results were constant in the whole range of viral concentrations tested, which was from about 1.7 to 5.7 log plaque-forming units (PFU) per 2 l of tap water, from about 2.0 to 4.5 log PFU/25 g of fruits, and from 1.5 to 3.5 log PFU/25 g of salad vegetables. Fractions of inoculated viruses recovered were estimated to be about 20% for tap water, about 16% for salad vegetables, and about 7% for fruits. The probability of detecting positive samples was 50% (the critical level of detection) when 2 l samples of tap water were inoculated with 0.7 log PFU of HAV, 25 g samples of iceberg lettuce were inoculated with 1.0 log PFU of HAV, and 25 g samples of fresh and frozen raspberries were inoculated with 1.0 and 1.5 log PFU of HAV, respectively.

  13. The Optimization of TaqMan Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Transcriptional Profiling of GABA-A Receptor Subunit Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2009-01-01

    The GABA-A receptor plays a critical role in inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Quantitation of GABA-A receptor subunits in various brain regions is essential to understand their role in plasticity and brain disorders. However, conventional RNA assays are tedious and less sensitive for use in studies of subunit plasticity. Here we describe optimization of a sensitive assay of GABA-A receptor subunit gene expression by TaqMan real-time PCR. For each subunit gene, a set of primers and TaqMan fluorogenic probe were designed to specifically amplify the target template. The TaqMan methodology was optimized for quantification of mouse GABA-A receptor subunits (α1–6, β1–3, γ2, and δ) and GAPDH. The TaqMan reaction detected very low levels of gene expression (~100 template copies of cDNA). A standard curve for GAPDH and one of the target genes, constructed using the cDNA, revealed slopes around −3.4 (r2=0.990), reflecting similar optimum PCR efficiencies. The methodology was utilized for quantification of the GABA-A receptor α4 subunit, which is known to upregulate following withdrawal from chronic progesterone or neurosteroids. Our results show that the α4-subunit expression increased threefold in the hippocampus following neurosteroid withdrawal in mice. The TaqMan PCR assay allows sensitive, high-throughput transcriptional profiling of complete GABA-A receptor subunit family, and thus provides specific tool for studies of GABA-A receptor subunit plasticity in neurological and psychiatric animal models. PMID:19406150

  14. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in the Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) at Different Developmental Stages, in Various Tissue Types and on Exposure to Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Conghui; Xin, Nian; Zhai, Yi; Jiang, Liming; Zhai, Jieming; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time RT-PCR has been described as the most sensitive method for the detection of low abundance mRNA. To date, no reference genes have been screened in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The aim of this study was to select the most stable genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Eight housekeeping genes (18S, TUBA, B2M, ACTB, EF1A, GAPDH, RPL17 and UBCE) were tested at different developmental stages, in different tissues, and following exposure to the drug SB-431542. Using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder software, GAPDH/B2M, GAPDH/18S and UBCE/GAPDH were identified as the most suitable genes from samples taken of different developmental stages while 18S/RPL17 were consistently ranked as the best reference genes for different tissue types. Furthermore, TUBA/B2M, TUBA/UBCE and B2M/TUBA were found to be the most suitable genes in samples treated with the drug, SB-431542 by geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder respectively. Across both different developmental stages and tissue types, the combination of 18S and GAPDH was the most stable reference gene analyzed by Ref-Finder. To test and verify the screened reference genes, the expression profiles of LEFTY-normalized to the combination of GAPDH/18S and ACTB were presented. These results will be useful for future gene-expression studies in the half-smooth tongue sole. PMID:24667563

  15. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT-PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1α and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT-PCR analyses involving watermelon.

  16. Expression of human membrane skeleton protein genes for protein 4.1 and betaIISigma2-spectrin assayed by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Harris, Pamela M; Felkin, Leanne E; Birks, Emma J; Franklin, Rodney C G; Yacoub, Magdi H; Baines, Anthony J; Barton, Paul J R; Pinder, Jennifer C

    2005-01-01

    The proteins, spectrin and 4.1 confer support and resilience to animal cell membranes, and promote assembly of multimeric, membrane-bound signalling complexes. Protein 4.1 also plays important roles in tumour suppression and the regulation of cell proliferation. To assess relative tissue expression of the four genes encoding human protein 4.1, we measured mRNA levels using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We compared 4.1 expression with that of a major splice variant of spectrin, betaIISigma2 that has a shortened C-terminus lacking a pleckstrin homology domain. mRNA for 4.1R is four-fold higher in bone marrow than in tissues with the next highest prevalence: cerebellum, lung, testis and thymus. 4.1G mRNA is highly expressed in brain, spinal cord and testis; 4.1N in brain, spinal cord and adrenal gland; 4.1B in testis, brain, spinal cord, and kidney. Thus, 4.1N, 4.1B and 4.1G all show high accumulation in nervous tissues. mRNA for betaIISigma2-spectrin is ubiquitous, but most abundant in cardiac and nervous tissues. Comparative transcript abundance was analysed in heart and brain. betaIISigma2-spectrin was the most abundant transcript in heart with levels 5 fold greater than 4.1G or 4.1N and at least 9 fold greater than 4.1B. In brain, 4.1N was the most abundant transcript, with levels 2.4 fold greater than 4.1B and at least 4 fold greater than 4.1G or betaIISigma2-spectrin. 4.1R abundance was very low in both tissues. Whilst we expected that 4.1 mRNAs would feature highly in muscle and nerve, we note their high abundance in testis, indicating previously unsuspected functions in reproduction.

  17. Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection among 2009 Hajj Pilgrims from Southern Iran: a real-time RT-PCR-based study.

    PubMed

    Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Jamalidoust, Marziyeh; Moeini, Mahsa; Pouladfar, Gholam R; Pourabbas, Bahman; Namayandeh, Mandana; Moghadami, Mohsen; Bagheri-Lankarani, Kamran; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2012-11-01

    Hajj is a mass gathering undertaken annually in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The 2009 Hajj coincided with both the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 (A(H1N1)pdm09) and seasonal types of influenza A viruses. The interaction between pandemic influenza and Hajj could cause both a high level of mortality among the pilgrims and the spread of infection in their respective countries upon their return home. The present study attempted to determine the point prevalence of A(H1N1)pdm09 among returning Iranian pilgrims, most of whom had been vaccinated for seasonal influenza but not A(H1N1)pdm09. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 305 pilgrims arriving at the airport in Shiraz, Iran. RNA was extracted from the samples and A(H1N1)pdm09 and other seasonal influenza A viruses were detected using TaqMan real-time PCR. For A(H1N1)pdm09-positive samples, the sensitivity to oseltamivir was also evaluated. Subjects included 132 (43.3%) men and 173 (56.7%) women, ranging in age from 24 to 65 years. The A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was detected in five (1.6%) pilgrims and other influenza A viruses in eight (2.6%). All the A(H1N1)pdm09 were sensitive to oseltamivir. Only five cases were found to be positive for A(H1N1)pdm09, and it seems unlikely that the arrival of infected pilgrims to their homelands would cause an outbreak of a new wave of infection there. Thus, the low morbidity and mortality rates among the pilgrims could be attributed to the characteristics of A(H1N1)pdm09, which causes morbidity and mortality in a way similar to the seasonal influenza infections, absence of high-risk individuals among the Iranian pilgrims, and the instructions given to them about contact and hand hygiene, and respiratory etiquette. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Endometrial cancer cells can express fibrinogen: Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Uccella, S; Cromi, A; Vigetti, D; Cimetti, L; Deleonibus, S; Casarin, J; Passi, A; Riva, C; Ghezzi, F

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether endometrial cancer (EC) cells can express fibrinogen. Consecutive patients treated for EC were enrolled (cases). A control group of women who had hysterectomy for benign conditions was identified in a case:control ratio of 4:1. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to identify the presence of fibrinogen and the mRNA of its three chains (α, β, γ) in the tissue specimens from both cases and controls. Sixteen EC cases and 4 benign controls were included. Immunohistochemistry failed in one case of EC. In 12/15 (80%) cases versus 0 controls, a moderate-to-intense positivity for fibrinogen was observed (p = 0.09; OR: 32.1; 95%CI: 1.4-752.9). Six (37.5%) women among the cases versus 0 controls expressed RNA for at least one chain of fibrinogen (p = 0.25). All the cases (6/6, 100%) with positive RT-PCR had moderate-to-intense positive immunohistochemistry. Molecular and immunohistochemistry show that some cases of EC have the capability to express fibrinogen and the mRNA of at least one of its chains.

  19. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for the Normalization of Gene Expression Data in qRT-PCR Analysis in Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Kang-Sheng; Li, Fen; Liang, Ping-Zhuo; Chen, Xue-Wei; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    To obtain accurate and reliable results from quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, it is necessary to select suitable reference genes as standards for normalizing target gene expression data. QRT-PCR is a popular analytical methodology for studying gene expression and it has been used widely in studies of Aphis gossypii Glover in recent years. However, there is absence of study on the stability of the expression of reference genes in A. gossypii. In this study, eight commonly used candidate reference genes, including 18S, 28S, β-ACT, GAPDH, EF1α, RPL7, α-TUB, and TBP, were evaluated under various experimental conditions to assess their suitability for use in the normalization of qRT-PCR data. The optimal number of reference genes was determined using the geNorm program, and the suitability of particular reference genes was empirically validated by performing normalizations of expression data for the HSP70 gene. The results showed the most suitable combinations of reference genes for the different experimental conditions. For experiments based on divergent developmental stages, EF1α, β-ACT, and RPL7 are the optimal reference gene combination, both EF1α and β-ACT are the optimal combination used in the experiments of different geographical populations, whereas for experiments of the temperature changes, the combination of GAPDH and RPL7 is optimal, both 18S and β-ACT are an optimal combination for feeding assay experiments. These research results should be useful for the selection of the suitable reference genes to obtain reliable qRT-PCR data in the gene expression study of A. gossypii.

  20. RT-PCR Analysis of RNA Extracted from Bouin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gloghini, Annunziata; Canal, Barbara; Klein, Ulf; Dal Maso, Luigino; Perin, Tiziana; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Carbone, Antonino

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated whether RNA can be efficiently isolated from Bouin-fixed or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissue specimens. To this aim, we applied a new and simple method that includes the combination of proteinase K digestion and column purification. By this method, we demonstrated that the amplification of long fragments could be accomplished after a pre-heating step before cDNA synthesis associated with the use of enzymes that work at high temperature. By means of PCR using different primers for two examined genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]- and CD40), we amplified segments of cDNA obtained by reverse transcription of the isolated RNA extracted from Bouin-fixed or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Amplified fragments of the expected sizes were obtained for both genes tested indicating that this method is suitable for the isolation of high-quality RNA. To explore the possibility for giving accurate real time quantitative RT-PCR results, cDNA obtained from matched frozen, Bouin-fixed and formalin-fixed neoplastic samples (two diffuse large cell lymphomas, one plasmacytoma) was tested for the following target genes: CD40, Aquaporin-3, BLIMP1, IRF4, Syndecan-1. Delta threshold cycle (ΔCT) values for Bouin-fixed and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their correlation with those for frozen samples showed an extremely high correlation (r > 0.90) for all of the tested genes. These results show that the method of RNA extraction we propose is suitable for giving accurate real time quantitative RT-PCR results. PMID:15507667

  1. Quality Control of RNA Preservation and Extraction from Paraffin-Embedded Tissue: Implications for RT-PCR and Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Martin; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of RNA isolated from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is widely used in biomedical research and molecular pathological diagnostics. We have performed a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the impact of factors in the pre-analytical workflow, such as different fixatives, fixation time, RNA extraction method and storage of tissues in paraffin blocks, on several downstream reactions including complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. We compared the effects of routine formalin fixation with the non-crosslinking, alcohol-based Tissue Tek Xpress Molecular Fixative (TTXMF, Sakura Finetek), and cryopreservation as gold standard for molecular analyses. Formalin fixation introduced major changes into microarray gene expression data and led to marked gene-to-gene variations in delta-ct values of qRT-PCR. We found that qRT-PCR efficiency and gene-to-gene variations were mainly attributed to differences in the efficiency of cDNA synthesis as the most sensitive step. These differences could not be reliably detected by quality assessment of total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tissues by electrophoresis or spectrophotometry. Although RNA from TTXMF fixed samples was as fragmented as RNA from formalin fixed samples, much higher cDNA yield and lower ct-values were obtained in qRT-PCR underlining the negative impact of crosslinking by formalin. In order to better estimate the impact of pre-analytical procedures such as fixation on the reliability of downstream analysis, we applied a qRT-PCR-based assay using amplicons of different length and an assay measuring the efficiency of cDNA generation. Together these two assays allowed better quality assessment of RNA extracted from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and should be used to supplement quality scores derived from automated electrophoresis. A better standardization of the pre-analytical workflow, application

  2. Quality control of RNA preservation and extraction from paraffin-embedded tissue: implications for RT-PCR and microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Kashofer, Karl; Viertler, Christian; Pichler, Martin; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of RNA isolated from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is widely used in biomedical research and molecular pathological diagnostics. We have performed a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the impact of factors in the pre-analytical workflow, such as different fixatives, fixation time, RNA extraction method and storage of tissues in paraffin blocks, on several downstream reactions including complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. We compared the effects of routine formalin fixation with the non-crosslinking, alcohol-based Tissue Tek Xpress Molecular Fixative (TTXMF, Sakura Finetek), and cryopreservation as gold standard for molecular analyses. Formalin fixation introduced major changes into microarray gene expression data and led to marked gene-to-gene variations in delta-ct values of qRT-PCR. We found that qRT-PCR efficiency and gene-to-gene variations were mainly attributed to differences in the efficiency of cDNA synthesis as the most sensitive step. These differences could not be reliably detected by quality assessment of total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tissues by electrophoresis or spectrophotometry. Although RNA from TTXMF fixed samples was as fragmented as RNA from formalin fixed samples, much higher cDNA yield and lower ct-values were obtained in qRT-PCR underlining the negative impact of crosslinking by formalin. In order to better estimate the impact of pre-analytical procedures such as fixation on the reliability of downstream analysis, we applied a qRT-PCR-based assay using amplicons of different length and an assay measuring the efficiency of cDNA generation. Together these two assays allowed better quality assessment of RNA extracted from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and should be used to supplement quality scores derived from automated electrophoresis. A better standardization of the pre-analytical workflow, application

  3. Application of qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analysis for the identification of housekeeping genes useful for normalization of gene expression values during Striga hermonthica development.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aparicio, M; Huang, K; Wafula, E K; Honaas, L A; Wickett, N J; Timko, M P; Depamphilis, C W; Yoder, J I; Westwood, J H

    2013-04-01

    Striga is a root parasitic weed that attacks many of the staple crops in Africa, India and Southeast Asia, inflicting tremendous losses in yield and for which there are few effective control measures. Studies of parasitic plant virulence and host resistance will be greatly facilitated by the recent emergence of genomic resources that include extensive transcriptome sequence datasets spanning all life stages of S. hermonthica. Functional characterization of Striga genes will require detailed analyses of gene expression patterns. Quantitative real-time PCR is a powerful tool for quantifying gene expression, but correct normalization of expression levels requires identification of control genes that have stable expression across tissues and life stages. Since no S. hermonthica housekeeping genes have been established for this purpose, we evaluated the suitability of six candidate housekeeping genes across key life stages of S. hermonthica from seed conditioning to flower initiation using qRT-PCR and high-throughput cDNA sequencing. Based on gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq across heterogeneous Striga life stages, we determined that using the combination of three genes, UBQ1, PP2A and TUB1 provides the best normalization for gene expression throughout the parasitic life cycle. The housekeeping genes characterized here provide robust standards that will facilitate powerful descriptions of parasite gene expression patterns.

  4. Reference Gene Selection for qRT-PCR Analysis in the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rumei; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhou, Xiaomao; Bai, Lianyang; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of gene expression requires normalization relative to the expression of reliable reference genes. Expression levels of “classical” reference genes can differ, however, across experimental conditions. Although quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively to decipher gene function in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a world-wide pest in many agricultural systems, the stability of its reference genes has rarely been validated. Results In this study, 15 candidate reference genes from B. tabaci were evaluated using two Excel-based algorithms geNorm and Normfinder under a diverse set of biotic and abiotic conditions. At least two reference genes were selected to normalize gene expressions in B. tabaci under experimental conditions. Specifically, for biotic conditions including host plant, acquisition of a plant virus, developmental stage, tissue (body region of the adult), and whitefly biotype, ribosomal protein L29 was the most stable reference gene. In contrast, the expression of elongation factor 1 alpha, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and heat shock protein 40 were consistently stable across various abiotic conditions including photoperiod, temperature, and insecticide susceptibility. Conclusion Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized quantitative real-time PCR procedure following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guideline in an agriculturally important insect pest, and provides a solid foundation for future RNA interference based functional study in B. tabaci. PMID:23308130

  5. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR analysis in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Rumei; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhou, Xiaomao; Bai, Lianyang; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of gene expression requires normalization relative to the expression of reliable reference genes. Expression levels of "classical" reference genes can differ, however, across experimental conditions. Although quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively to decipher gene function in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a world-wide pest in many agricultural systems, the stability of its reference genes has rarely been validated. In this study, 15 candidate reference genes from B. tabaci were evaluated using two Excel-based algorithms geNorm and Normfinder under a diverse set of biotic and abiotic conditions. At least two reference genes were selected to normalize gene expressions in B. tabaci under experimental conditions. Specifically, for biotic conditions including host plant, acquisition of a plant virus, developmental stage, tissue (body region of the adult), and whitefly biotype, ribosomal protein L29 was the most stable reference gene. In contrast, the expression of elongation factor 1 alpha, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and heat shock protein 40 were consistently stable across various abiotic conditions including photoperiod, temperature, and insecticide susceptibility. Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized quantitative real-time PCR procedure following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guideline in an agriculturally important insect pest, and provides a solid foundation for future RNA interference based functional study in B. tabaci.

  6. Development of a molecular-beacon-based multi-allelic real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of human coronavirus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV): a general methodology for detecting rapidly mutating viruses.

    PubMed

    Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Farcas, Gabriella A; Demetriou, Victoria L; Mazzulli, Tony; Poutanen, Susan M; Willey, Barbara M; Low, Donald E; Butany, Jagdish; Asa, Sylvia L; Kain, Kevin C; Kostrikis, Leondios G

    2011-04-01

    Emerging infectious diseases have caused a global effort for development of fast and accurate detection techniques. The rapidly mutating nature of viruses presents a major difficulty, highlighting the need for specific detection of genetically diverse strains. One such infectious agent is SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged in 2003. This study aimed to develop a real-time RT-PCR detection assay specific for SARS-CoV, taking into account its intrinsic polymorphic nature due to genetic drift and recombination and the possibility of continuous and multiple introductions of genetically non-identical strains into the human population, by using mismatch-tolerant molecular beacons designed to specifically detect the SARS-CoV S, E, M and N genes. These were applied in simple, reproducible duplex and multiplex real-time PCR assays on 25 post-mortem samples and constructed RNA controls, and they demonstrated high target detection ability and specificity. This assay can readily be adapted for detection of other emerging and rapidly mutating pathogens.

  7. RT-PCR analysis of dystrophin mRNA in DND/BMD patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ciafaloni, E.; Silva, H.A.R. de; Roses, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD, BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin (dys) gene. The majority of these mutations are intragenic deletions of duplications routinely detected by Southern biots and multiplex PCR. The remainder are very likely, smaller mutations, mostly point-mutations. Detection of these mutations is very difficult due to the size and complexity of the dys gene. We applied RT-PCR to analyse the entire dys mRNA of three DMD patients with no detectable genomic defect. In two unrelated patients, a duplication of the 62 bp exon 2 was identified. This causes a frameshift sufficient to explain the DMD phenotype. In the third patient, who had congenital DMD and severe mental retardation, a complex pattern of aberrant splicing at the 3-prime exons 67-79 was observed. Sural nerve biopsy in this patient showed the complete absence of Dp116. PCR-SSCP studies are presently in progress to identify the mutations responsible for the aberrant splicing patterns.

  8. Direct RT-PCR from serum enables fast and cost-effective phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Willoughby, Kim; Zadoks, Ruth; Burr, Paul; Mellor, Dominic; Russell, George C

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the molecular epidemiology of viral diseases are dependent on the analysis of large numbers of samples from infected individuals, and the assembly of relevant sequence databases are a prerequisite to investigate chains of infection. As part of research in support of the Scottish BVDV eradication campaign, we have established a direct RT-PCR method for the high throughput amplification and analysis of the informative 5'-untranslated region of the BVDV genome. Heat-treatment followed by a one-step RT-PCR, performed in 96-well plates, produced sufficient material for sequence analysis from 0.5 μl of serum or plasma. Of 93 samples assayed, only five failed to give full sequence data for the region amplified and these were subsequently successfully analysed in single tube format reactions. This approach improved the speed of analysis, reduced costs, operator time and the potential for contamination, and may allow analysis of samples for which volumes are too low for conventional RNA isolation. It also has the potential for wider application in both human and animal disease research in which high throughput and low cost would increase the size of datasets that can be obtained.

  9. Proteomic Analysis and qRT-PCR Verification of Temperature Response to Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    PubMed Central

    Huili, Wang; Xiaokai, Zhao; Meili, Lin; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Wei, Chen; Jaiopeng, Zhou; Chengyang, Xu; Chunlei, Jin; Yi, Xu; Xuedong, Wang; Li, Ding; Qiyu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (ASP) is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C) using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328). The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones), energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport), translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis) and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and translation levels. The

  10. Detection of D151G/N mutations in the neuraminidase gene of influenza A (H3N2) viruses by real-time RT-PCR allelic discrimination assay.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Vahid Rajabali; Jagadesh, Anitha; Krishnan, Anjana; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2017-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at D151 position of neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza A (H3N2) virus has been associated with drug resistance and increased binding affinity. NA-D151G/N-substitutions of influenza A (H3N2) viruses are frequently induced and selected by culturing in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines. It is important to consider and exclude D151G/N mutants after isolation of influenza virus in MDCK cell line; since, the substitutions can highly influence the results of experimental research. The study aims to develop an allelic discrimination real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the screening of D151G/N mutants. Thirty-six influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates were included and screened for D151G/N mutants using allelic discrimination assay. Out of the 36 isolates, 11 isolates (30.5%) were detected as heterozygous for D and G/N substitutions. Twenty-one (58.3%) isolates were identified as homozygous wild type and four isolates (11.1%) were undetermined. Isolates with substitutions at D151 position were sequenced by Sanger sequencing method. The present study demonstrates a rapid and convenient method for primary screening of the mutation after culturing of the influenza virus in MDCK cell lines in order to avoid potential misinterpretations of results and improve the quality of experimental research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development and validation of a harmonized TaqMan-based triplex real-time RT-PCR protocol for the quantitative detection of normalized gene expression profiles of seven porcine cytokines.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anja; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of cytokine responses plays a major role in the pathogenesis of severe and life-threatening infectious diseases like septicemia or viral hemorrhagic fevers. In pigs, diseases like African and classical swine fever are known to show exaggerated cytokine releases. To study these responses and their impact on disease severity and outcome in detail, reliable, highly specific and sensitive methods are needed. For cytokine research on the molecular level, real-time RT-PCRs have been proven to be suitable. Yet, the currently available and most commonly used SYBR Green I assays or heterogeneous gel-based RT-PCRs for swine show a significant lack of specificity and sensitivity. The latter is however absolutely essential for an accurate quantification of rare cytokine transcripts as well as for detection of small changes in gene expressions. For this reason, a harmonized TaqMan-based triplex real-time RT-PCR protocol for the quantitative detection of normalized gene expression profiles of seven porcine cytokines was designed and validated within the presented study. Cytokines were chosen to represent different immunological pathways and targets known to be involved in the pathogenesis of the above mentioned porcine diseases, namely interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-α. Beta-Actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) served as reference genes for normalization. For absolute quantification a synthetic standard plasmid was constructed comprising all target cytokines and reference genes within a single molecule allowing the generation of positive control RNA. The standard as well as positive RNAs from samples, and additionally more than 400 clinical samples, which were collected from animal trials, were included in the validation process to assess analytical sensitivity and applicability under routine conditions. The resulting assay allows the reliable assessment of gene expression

  12. Development and Validation of a Harmonized TaqMan-Based Triplex Real-Time RT-PCR Protocol for the Quantitative Detection of Normalized Gene Expression Profiles of Seven Porcine Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anja; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of cytokine responses plays a major role in the pathogenesis of severe and life-threatening infectious diseases like septicemia or viral hemorrhagic fevers. In pigs, diseases like African and classical swine fever are known to show exaggerated cytokine releases. To study these responses and their impact on disease severity and outcome in detail, reliable, highly specific and sensitive methods are needed. For cytokine research on the molecular level, real-time RT-PCRs have been proven to be suitable. Yet, the currently available and most commonly used SYBR Green I assays or heterogeneous gel-based RT-PCRs for swine show a significant lack of specificity and sensitivity. The latter is however absolutely essential for an accurate quantification of rare cytokine transcripts as well as for detection of small changes in gene expressions. For this reason, a harmonized TaqMan-based triplex real-time RT-PCR protocol for the quantitative detection of normalized gene expression profiles of seven porcine cytokines was designed and validated within the presented study. Cytokines were chosen to represent different immunological pathways and targets known to be involved in the pathogenesis of the above mentioned porcine diseases, namely interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-α. Beta-Actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) served as reference genes for normalization. For absolute quantification a synthetic standard plasmid was constructed comprising all target cytokines and reference genes within a single molecule allowing the generation of positive control RNA. The standard as well as positive RNAs from samples, and additionally more than 400 clinical samples, which were collected from animal trials, were included in the validation process to assess analytical sensitivity and applicability under routine conditions. The resulting assay allows the reliable assessment of gene expression

  13. Validation and utilization of an internally controlled multiplex Real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of enteroviruses and enterovirus A71 associated with hand foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran Tan; Anh, Nguyen To; Tham, Nguyen Thi; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Qui, Phan Tu; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Tran Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Thanh, Le Thi My; Chai, Ong Kien; Perera, David; Viet, Do Chau; Khanh, Truong Huu; Ha, Do Quang; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier; Van Tan, Le

    2015-06-09

    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease of public health importance across the Asia-Pacific region. The disease is caused by enteroviruses (EVs), in particular enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). In EV-A71-associated HFMD, the infection is sometimes associated with severe manifestations including neurological involvement and fatal outcome. The availability of a robust diagnostic assay to distinguish EV-A71 from other EVs is important for patient management and outbreak response. We developed and validated an internally controlled one-step single-tube real-time RT-PCR in terms of sensitivity, linearity, precision, and specificity for simultaneous detection of EVs and EV-A71. Subsequently, the assay was then applied on throat and rectal swabs sampled from 434 HFMD patients. The assay was evaluated using both plasmid DNA and viral RNA and has shown to be reproducible with a maximum assay variation of 4.41 % and sensitive with a limit of detection less than 10 copies of target template per reaction, while cross-reactivity with other EV serotypes was not observed. When compared against a published VP1 nested RT-PCR using 112 diagnostic throat and rectal swabs from 112 children with a clinical diagnosis of HFMD during 2014, the multiplex assay had a higher sensitivity and 100 % concordance with sequencing results which showed EVs in 77/112 (68.8 %) and EV-A71 in 7/112 (6.3 %). When applied to clinical diagnostics for 322 children, the assay detected EVs in throat swabs of 257/322 (79.8 %) of which EV-A71 was detected in 36/322 (11.2 %) children. The detection rate increased to 93.5 % (301/322) and 13.4 % (43/322) for EVs and EV-A71, respectively, when rectal swabs from 65 throat-negative children were further analyzed. We have successfully developed and validated a sensitive internally controlled multiplex assay for rapid detection of EVs and EV-A71, which is useful for clinical management and outbreak control of HFMD.

  14. Real time analysis under EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    The analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis.

  15. Real time analysis under EDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  16. Real-time analysis keratometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  17. A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR method for neuraminidase type 1 (N1) gene detection of H5N1 Eurasian strains of avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Montserrat; Sánchez, Azucena; San Miguel, Elena; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2007-03-01

    This work describes the development of a real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) procedure for detection of the N1 gene from avian influenza virus (AIV), based on the use of specific primers and a TaqMan-MGB (minor groove binder) probe. Nucleotide sequences of the neuraminidase type 1 gene from a collection of H5N1 Eurasian strains of AIV were aligned using ClustalW software. Conserved regions were located and used to design specific primers and a TaqMan-MGB probe using Primer Express software. A one-step RRT-PCR method was optimized using RNA from the Turkey 2005 H5N1 strain of AIV and can be completed in about 2 hr once the RNA is extracted from the sample. The specificity of the assay was assessed with non-N1 AIV strains, another related avian virus, and different avian tissue samples from healthy animals. Sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions of the H5N1 Turkey 2005 strain and was compared with the generic RRT-PCR detection method, targeted at the matrix protein gene of AIV, commonly used at the Spanish AIV National Reference Laboratory. The N1 detection method proved to be even more sensitive than the generic (matrix-based) method, allowing a very quick confirmation (or discarding) of any Eurasian N1 strain when a positive result was obtained with the matrix RRT-PCR assay. Combined with RRT-PCR tests for general detection of AIV and H5 typing in use at the NRL, the procedure here described allows characterizing of any H5N1 Eurasian AIV strain in a field sample within a working day.

  18. Evaluation of a real-time two-step RT-PCR assay for quantitation of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in experimentally-infected bee tissues and in life stages of a symptomatic colony.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Philippe; Ribière, Magali; Celle, Olivier; Lallemand, Perrine; Schurr, Frank; Olivier, Violaine; Iscache, Anne Laure; Faucon, Jean Paul

    2007-04-01

    A two-step real-time RT-PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology using a fluorescent probe (FAM-TAMRA) was developed to quantify Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in bee samples. Standard curves obtained from a CBPV control RNA and from a plasmid containing a partial sequence of CBPV showed that this assay provided linear detection over a 7-log range (R(2)>0.99) with a limit of detection of 100 copies, and reliable inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility. Standardisation including RNA purification and cDNAs synthesis was also validated. The CBPV TaqMan methodology was first evaluated by quantifying the CBPV genomic load in bee samples from an experimental infection obtained by topical application. Up to 1.9 x 10(10) CBPV copies per segment of insect body (head, thorax and abdomen) were revealed whereas a lower CBPV genomic load was detected in dissected organs such as mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, brain and alimentary canal (up to 7.2 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The CBPV genomic loads in different categories of bees from a hive presenting the trembling symptoms typical of Chronic paralysis were then quantified. Significantly higher CBPV loads were found in guard, symptomatic and dead bees (up to 1.9 x 10(13) CBPV copies) than in forager, drones and house bees (up to 3.4 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The results obtained for symptomatic or dead bees support the correlation between high CBPV genomic load and pathology expression. Moreover, the high CBPV genomic load revealed in guard bees highlights the possible pivotal role played by this category of bees in CBPV infection.

  19. mRNA expression profiles for corticotrophin-releasing hormone, urocortin, CRH-binding protein and CRH receptors in human term gestational tissues determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sehringer, B; Zahradnik, H P; Simon, M; Ziegler, R; Noethling, C; Schaefer, W R

    2004-04-01

    Increasing maternal plasma levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) during the last weeks of pregnancy suggest that this stress hormone plays an important role in the control of human parturition. Little is known about the quantitative contribution of gestational tissues (other than placenta) to intrauterine formation of CRH, urocortin and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), or about the distribution of CRH receptors within the uterus. We have investigated the mRNA expression of CRH, urocortin, CRH-BP and CRH receptors 1 and 2 (CRH-R1 and -R2) in gestational tissues by real-time RT-PCR. Placenta, myometrium and choriodecidua were collected after uncomplicated pregnancies at term, before the onset of labour. Distribution of CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 protein was also investigated by immunostaining with receptor subtype-specific antibodies. The placenta was identified as the main site of CRH and CRH-BP mRNA expression, displaying mRNA levels >1000 and >20 times higher than those found in the myometrium and choriodecidua respectively (P<0.05 in each case). mRNA expression of urocortin was low in all tissues investigated. Myometrium and choriodecidua expressed relevant amounts of both receptor subtypes, whereas the CRH receptor population in placenta consisted mainly of CRH-R2. The high expression of CRH in placenta and the substantial expression of CRH receptors in choriodecidua and myometrium suggested that CRH derived from placenta exerts direct or indirect actions on these tissues. Neither CRH produced by myometrium or choriodecidua nor urocortin from other intrauterine sources seem to play a major role in the control of labour.

  20. Nucleic acid extraction from polluted estuarine water for detection of viruses and bacteria by PCR and RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Craquelin, S; Guespin-Michel, J; Buffet-Janvresse, C

    1999-03-01

    We describe an extraction protocol for genomic DNA and RNA of both viruses and bacteria from polluted estuary water. This procedure was adapted to the molecular study of microflora of estuarine water where bacteria and viruses are found free, forming low-density biofilms, or intimately associated with organo-mineral particles. The sensitivity of the method was determined with seeded samples for RT-PCR and PCR analysis of viruses (10 virions/mL), and bacteria (1 colony-forming unit mL). We report an example of molecular detection of both poliovirus and Salmonella in the Seine estuary (France) and an approach to studying their association with organo-mineral particles.

  1. Real-time RT-PCR quantification of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A mRNA abundance in bovine granulosa and theca cells: effects of hormones in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aad, Pauline Y; Voge, Justin L; Santiago, Consuelo A; Malayer, Jerry R; Spicer, Leon J

    2006-11-01

    Ovarian follicular growth and dominance are controlled by a series of hormonal and intraovarian events including a decrease in intrafollicular IGF-binding proteins -2, -4 and -5 levels. Proteolytic enzymes such as pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) degrade IGFBPs and increase bioavailability of IGF-I and -II during follicular development. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of IGF-I, IGF-II, insulin (INS), LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), leptin or cortisol on ovarian PAPP-A mRNA levels. Granulosa (GC) from small (SM) (1-5 mm) and large (LG) (8-22 mm) follicles as well as theca cells (TC) from LG follicles were collected from bovine ovaries and cultured for 48 h in medium containing 10% FCS and then treated with various hormones in serum-free medium for an additional 24 h. Cells were treated with various concentrations (3-500 ng/ml) and combinations of IGF-I, IGF-II, FSH, LH, E2, INS, leptin and (or) cortisol for 24 h (Experiments 1-10). PAPP-A mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In SM-GC and LG-GC, none of the treatments significantly affected (P>0.10) PAPP-A mRNA abundance. In LG-TC, IGF-I, LH or cortisol did not affect (P>0.10) PAPP-A mRNA levels, whereas INS with or without LH decreased (P<0.05) PAPP-A mRNA. E2 alone decreased PAPP-A mRNA levels in LG-TC, and E2 amplified the insulin-induced inhibition of PAPP-A mRNA abundance in LG-TC. We conclude that control of PAPP-A mRNA abundance in granulosa and theca cells differs, and that E2 may be part of an intraovarian negative feedback system which may reduce the bioavailable IGFs in the theca layer during growth and selection of follicles.

  2. Analysis of myosin heavy chain mRNA expression by RT-PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    An assay was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle. Only 2 microg of total RNA were necessary for the simultaneous analysis of relative mRNA expression of six different MHC genes. We designed synthetic DNA fragments as internal standards, which contained the relevant primer sequences for the adult MHC mRNAs type I, IIa, IIx, IIb as well as the embryonic and neonatal MHC mRNAs. A known amount of the synthetic fragment was added to each polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and yielded a product of different size than the amplified MHC mRNA fragment. The ratio of amplified MHC fragment to synthetic fragment allowed us to calculate percentages of the gene expression of the different MHC genes in a given muscle sample. Comparison with the traditional Northern blot analysis demonstrated that our reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assay was reliable, fast, and quantitative over a wide range of relative MHC mRNA expression in a spectrum of adult and neonatal rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the assay made it very useful when only small quantities of tissue were available. Statistical analysis of the signals for each MHC isoform across the analyzed samples showed a highly significant correlation between the PCR and the Northern signals as Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.77 and 0.96 (P < 0.005). This assay has potential use in analyzing small muscle samples such as biopsies and samples from pre- and/or neonatal stages of development.

  3. Analysis of myosin heavy chain mRNA expression by RT-PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    An assay was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle. Only 2 microg of total RNA were necessary for the simultaneous analysis of relative mRNA expression of six different MHC genes. We designed synthetic DNA fragments as internal standards, which contained the relevant primer sequences for the adult MHC mRNAs type I, IIa, IIx, IIb as well as the embryonic and neonatal MHC mRNAs. A known amount of the synthetic fragment was added to each polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and yielded a product of different size than the amplified MHC mRNA fragment. The ratio of amplified MHC fragment to synthetic fragment allowed us to calculate percentages of the gene expression of the different MHC genes in a given muscle sample. Comparison with the traditional Northern blot analysis demonstrated that our reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assay was reliable, fast, and quantitative over a wide range of relative MHC mRNA expression in a spectrum of adult and neonatal rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the assay made it very useful when only small quantities of tissue were available. Statistical analysis of the signals for each MHC isoform across the analyzed samples showed a highly significant correlation between the PCR and the Northern signals as Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.77 and 0.96 (P < 0.005). This assay has potential use in analyzing small muscle samples such as biopsies and samples from pre- and/or neonatal stages of development.

  4. Isotype analysis of gerbil-mouse heterohybridomas by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Takao; Kai, Osamu

    2012-12-14

    We designed primer sets specific to the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain constant region (IGHC) genes in Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) to amplify five gerbil IGHC cDNA sequences, Cμ, Cγ1, Cγ2, Cε, and Cα. Five gerbil-mouse heterohybridomas B11D2(C2), B11E2(D5).M, B5-3, D5, and C11 respectively expressed Cγ1, Cμ, Cγ2, Cγ2, and Cγ1. In contrast, a commercial isotyping kit for mouse Igs identified Cγ1, Cμ, Cγ3, Cγ3, and Cγ1, respectively, misidentifying gerbil IgG2 as IgG3 by cross-reactivity with anti-mouse IgG3 polyclonal antibody. These primer sets will allow the accurate estimation of gerbil Ig classes and IgG subclasses. These results from three gerbil strains indicate that the primer sets can be used for isotype analysis of gerbil mAbs and for evaluation of humoral immunity.

  5. Enhancement of fengycin production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by genome shuffling and relative gene expression analysis using RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Jing; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2016-05-01

    Genome shuffling is an efficient approach for the rapid engineering of microbial strains with desirable industrial phenotypes. In this study, we used genome shuffling in an attempt to improve fengycin production of the wild-type strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2-4. After 2 rounds of genome shuffling, a high-yield recombinant F2-72 (FMB72) strain that exhibited 8.30-fold increases in fengycin production was obtained. Comparative analysis of synthetase gene (fenA) expression was conducted between the initial and shuffled strains using fluorescent quantitation RT-PCR. Delta CT (threshold cycle) relative quantitation analysis revealed that fengycin synthetase gene (fenA) expression at the transcriptional level in the FMB72 strain was 12.77-fold greater than in the ES-2-4 wild type. The shuffled strain has a potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries. At the same time, the analysis of improved phenotypes will provide more valuable data for inverse metabolic engineering.

  6. RT-PCR and sequence analysis of the full-length fusion protein of Canine Distemper Virus from domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Romanutti, Carina; Gallo Calderón, Marina; Keller, Leticia; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, José

    2016-02-01

    During 2007-2014, 84 out of 236 (35.6%) samples from domestic dogs submitted to our laboratory for diagnostic purposes were positive for Canine Distemper Virus (CDV), as analyzed by RT-PCR amplification of a fragment of the nucleoprotein gene. Fifty-nine of them (70.2%) were from dogs that had been vaccinated against CDV. The full-length gene encoding the Fusion (F) protein of fifteen isolates was sequenced and compared with that of those of other CDVs, including wild-type and vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis using the F gene full-length sequences grouped all the Argentinean CDV strains in the SA2 clade. Sequence identity with the Onderstepoort vaccine strain was 89.0-90.6%, and the highest divergence was found in the 135 amino acids corresponding to the F protein signal-peptide, Fsp (64.4-66.7% identity). In contrast, this region was highly conserved among the local strains (94.1-100% identity). One extra putative N-glycosylation site was identified in the F gene of CDV Argentinean strains with respect to the vaccine strain. The present report is the first to analyze full-length F protein sequences of CDV strains circulating in Argentina, and contributes to the knowledge of molecular epidemiology of CDV, which may help in understanding future disease outbreaks.

  7. Real Time Data Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberberg, George G.

    1983-03-01

    By the early 1970s, classical photo-optical range instrumentation technology (as a means of gathering weapons' system performance data) had become a costly and inefficient process. Film costs were increasing due to soaring silver prices. Time required to process, read, and produce optical data was becoming unacceptable as a means of supporting weapon system development programs. NWC investigated the feasibility of utilizing Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) technology as an alternative solution for providing optical data. In 1978 a program entitled Metric Video (measurements from video images) was formulated at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. The purpose of this program was to provide timely data, to reduce the number of operating personnel, and to lower data acquisition costs. Some of the task elements for this program included a near real-time vector miss-distance system, a weapons scoring system, a velocity measuring system, a time-space position system, and a system to replace film cameras for gathering real-time engineering sequential data. These task elements and the development of special hardware and techniques to achieve real-time data will be discussed briefly in this paper.

  8. Identification and validation of reference genes for normalization of gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songdou; An, Shiheng; Li, Zhen; Wu, Fengming; Yang, Qingpo; Liu, Yichen; Cao, Jinjun; Zhang, Huaijiang; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-25

    Recent studies have focused on determining functional genes and microRNAs in the pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Most of these studies used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Suitable reference genes are necessary to normalize gene expression data of qRT-PCR. However, a comprehensive study on the reference genes in H. armigera remains lacking. Twelve candidate reference genes of H. armigera were selected and evaluated for their expression stability under different biotic and abiotic conditions. The comprehensive stability ranking of candidate reference genes was recommended by RefFinder and the optimal number of reference genes was calculated by geNorm. Two target genes, thioredoxin (TRX) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), were used to validate the selection of reference genes. Results showed that the most suitable candidate combinations of reference genes were as follows: 28S and RPS15 for developmental stages; RPS15 and RPL13 for larvae tissues; EF and RPL27 for adult tissues; GAPDH, RPL27, and β-TUB for nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection; RPS15 and RPL32 for insecticide treatment; RPS15 and RPL27 for temperature treatment; and RPL32, RPS15, and RPL27 for all samples. This study not only establishes an accurate method for normalizing qRT-PCR data in H. armigera but also serve as a reference for further study on gene transcription in H. armigera and other insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and PCR assays for a novel European field isolate of equine infectious anaemia virus based on sequence determination of the gag gene.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, M; Cook, R F; Cullinane, A

    2007-05-05

    In 2006, an outbreak of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) occurred in Ireland. The initial source of the outbreak is believed to have been contaminated plasma imported from Italy. This paper presents the nucleotide sequence of the gag gene of the virus identified in Ireland (EIAV(Ire)), the first for a European strain of EIAV. Comparison of the gag gene with North American and Asian strains of the virus showed that the gag gene is less well conserved than previously believed, and that EIAV strains can have similar phenotypes despite considerable variations in genotype. On the basis of the deduced sequence of the EIAV(Ire) gag gene, highly sensitive, specific and quantitative RT-PCR and PCR assays were developed, and used to quantify the EIAV nucleic acid in postmortem tissues, plasma and secretions of infected horses. This is the first report of the detection and quantification of EIAV in nasal, buccal and genital swabs by RT-PCR.

  10. Real-time flutter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  11. Comparison of protocols for the analysis of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR using oral fluids.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard; Mateu, Enric

    2017-05-01

    The detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OF) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is gaining increasing popularity. However, the different steps leading to a result have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on the performance of qRT-PCR with different sampling materials, conditions of storage of the OF, the need for centrifuging OF, as well as to compare RNA extraction methods and PCR mixes. For the assays, pen-based oral fluids were used, which were pooled and spiked in a serial dilution (up to genotype 10(0) TCID50/mL) of type 1 PRRSV isolate 3267. Centrifugation at 15,000g for 15min resulted in an increase in sensitivity (1-2 PCR cycles) that was significant (P<0.05) at the lowest dilution tested. The TRIzol and MagMAX RNA extraction methods gave the maximum sensitivity, lowest threshold cycle (Ct), at equivalent virus concentrations. The AgPath-ID One-Step RT-PCR Kit PCR mix reagents were more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV using a purified plasmid as standard, but LSI VetMAX PRRSV EU/NA PRRSV reagents resulted in a slightly better sensitivity with OF (p<0.05). The present results may be useful to standardize protocols for optimizing detection of type 1 PRRSV in OF by qRT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of proteolytic enzymes in cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baginski, Leonie; Tachon, Gaëlle; Falson, Françoise; Patton, John S; Bakowsky, Udo; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2011-04-01

    Pancreatic proteolytic digestive enzymes are a major extracellular barrier to the sucessful systemic delivery of biopharmaceuticals via the oral route, whereas in health in the lungs these powerful proteases are virtually absent from the extracellular fluids. Despite this, the absorption of some (but not all) natural peptides and proteins from the lungs may be poor, and one has to acknowledge that information on the activity and spatial distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the human lung is scarce. Here, we investigated expression patterns of a series of proteolytic enzymes in several human respiratory cell types on mRNA level in an attempt to better understand the fate of inhaled biopharmaceuticals. The mRNA expression of proteolytic enzymes (i.e., carboxypeptidases: CPA1, CPA2, CPB, CPM; gamma-glutamyltransferases: GGT1, GGT2; angiotensin-converting enzymes: ACE, ACE2; aminopeptidases: APA, APB, APN, APP1, APP2, APP3; endopeptidases: 24.11 (neprilysin), 24.15 (thimet oligopeptidase), 24.18 (meprin A); enteropeptidase; trypsin 1, trypsin 2; neutrophilic elastase; dipeptidyl peptidase 4; gamma-glutamylhydrolase) was investigated by semiquantitative RT-PCR in human bronchial (hBEpC, Calu-3, 16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cells, respectively. Gastrointestinal Caco-2 cells were used as comparison. Obvious differences were observed in proteinases' expression pattern between the investigated cell types. Although considered to be of bronchial epithelial phenotype, neither Calu-3 nor 16HBE14o- cells matched the mRNA expression pattern of hBEpC in primary culture. Of all investigated cell lines, Caco-2 expresses the highest number of proteases and peptidases. Although mRNA expression does not necessarily signify enzyme functionality, our results provide the first comprehensive analysis of peptidase and protease expression and distribution in human lung epithelial cells and are the basis for further investigations.

  13. Metabolic regulation analysis of an ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain based on RT-PCR and enzymatic activities

    PubMed Central

    Orencio-Trejo, Montserrat; Flores, Noemí; Escalante, Adelfo; Hernández-Chávez, Georgina; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo; Martinez, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Background A metabolic regulation study was performed, based upon measurements of enzymatic activities, fermentation performance, and RT-PCR analysis of pathways related to central carbon metabolism, in an ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain (CCE14) derived from lineage C. In comparison with previous engineered strains, this E coli derivative has a higher ethanol production rate in mineral medium, as a result of the elevated heterologous expression of the chromosomally integrated genes encoding PDCZm and ADHZm (pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis). It is suggested that this behavior might be due to lineage differences between E. coli W and C. Results This study demonstrated that the glycolytic flux is controlled, in this case, by reactions outside glycolysis, i.e., the fermentative pathways. Changes in ethanol production rate in this ethanologenic strain result in low organic acid production rates, and high glycolytic and ethanologenic fluxes, that correlate with enhanced transcription and enzymatic activity levels of PDCZm and ADHZm. Furthermore, a higher ethanol yield (90% of the theoretical) in glucose-mineral media was obtained with CCE14 in comparison with previous engineered E. coli strains, such as KO11, that produces a 70% yield under the same conditions. Conclusion Results suggest that a higher ethanol formation rate, caused by ahigher PDCZm and ADHZm activities induces a metabolic state that cells compensate through enhanced glucose transport, ATP synthesis, and NAD-NADH+H turnover rates. These results show that glycolytic enzymatic activities, present in E. coli W and C under fermentative conditions, are sufficient to contend with increases in glucose consumption and product formation rates. PMID:18471274

  14. Field evaluation of an open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor quantitative RT-PCR assay for HIV-1 viral load monitoring in comparison to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Guichet, Emilande; Aghokeng, Avelin; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Vidal, Nicole; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Ciaffi, Laura; Peeters, Martine

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing demand of HIV viral load (VL) tests in resource-limited countries (RLCs) there is a need for assays at affordable cost and able to quantify all known HIV-1 variants. VLs obtained with a recently developed open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor RT-qPCR were compared to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay in Cameroon. On 474 plasma samples, characterized by a wide range of VLs and a broad HIV-1 group M genetic diversity, 97.5% concordance was observed when using the lower detection limit of each assay. When using the threshold of 3.00 log10 copies/mL, according to WHO guidelines to define virological failure (VF) in RLCs, the concordance was 94.7%, 360/474 versus 339/474 patients were identified with VF with the new assay and Abbott RealTime HIV-1, respectively. Higher VLs were measured with the new assay, +0.47 log10 copies/mL (95% CI; 0.42-0.52) as shown with Bland-Altman analysis. Eleven samples from patients on VF with drug resistance were not detected by Abbott RealTime HIV-1 versus two only with the new assay. Overall, our study showed that the new assay can be easily implemented in a laboratory in RLCs with VL experience and showed good performance on a wide diversity of HIV-1 group M variants.

  15. Rapid detection of equine influenza virus H3N8 subtype by insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay using the POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tiwari, Ashish; Skillman, Ashley; Nam, Bora; Chambers, Thomas M; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Yang, Pai-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of equids. Currently, equine influenza virus (EIV) subtype H3N8 continues to be the most important respiratory pathogen of horses in many countries around the world. The need to achieve a rapid diagnosis and to implement effective quarantine and movement restrictions is critical in controlling the spread of EIV. In this study, a novel, inexpensive and user-friendly assay based on an insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) method on the POCKIT™, a field-deployable device, was described and validated for point-of-need detection of EIV-H3N8 in clinical samples. The newly established iiRT-PCR assay targeting the EIV HA3 gene was evaluated for its sensitivity using in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA, as well as ten-fold serial dilutions of RNA extracted from the prototype H3N8 strain A/equine/Miami/1/63. Inclusivity and exclusivity panels were tested for specificity evaluation. Published real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays targeting the NP and HA3 genes were used as the reference standards for comparison of RNA extracted from field strains and from nasal swab samples collected from experimentally infected horses, respectively. Limit of detection with a 95% probability (LoD95%) was estimated to be 11copies of IVT RNA. Clinical sensitivity analysis using RNA prepared from serial dilutions of a prototype EIV (Miami 1/63/H3N8) showed that the iiRT-PCR assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than the rRT-PCR assay targeting the NP gene of EIV subtype H3N8. The iiRT-PCR assay identified accurately fifteen EIV H3N8 strains and two canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 strains, and did not cross-react with H6N2, H7N7, H1N1 subtypes or any other equine respiratory viral pathogens. Finally, 100% agreement was found between the iiRT-PCR assay and the universal influenza virus type A rRT-PCR assay in detecting the EIV A/equine/Kentucky/7/07 strain in 56 nasal swab samples collected from experimentally inoculated

  16. Avoiding pitfalls of internal controls: validation of reference genes for analysis by qRT-PCR and Western blot throughout rat retinal development.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Martins, Maurício; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S

    2012-01-01

    Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as reference to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of reference genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. We applied statistical tools on combinations of retinal developmental stages to assess the most stable internal controls for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The stability of expression of seven putative reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mapk1, Ppia and Rn18s) was analyzed using geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder software. In addition, several housekeeping genes were tested as loading controls for Western blot in the same sample panel, using Image J. Overall, for qRT-PCR the combination of Gapdh and Mapk1 showed the highest stability for most experimental sets. Actb was downregulated in more mature stages, while Rn18s and Hprt1 showed the highest variability. We normalized the expression of cyclin D1 using various reference genes and demonstrated that spurious results may result from blind selection of internal controls. For Western blot significant variation could be seen among four putative internal controls (β-actin, cyclophilin b, α-tubulin and lamin A/C), while MAPK1 was stably expressed. Putative housekeeping genes exhibit significant variation in both mRNA and protein content during retinal development. Our results showed that distinct combinations of internal controls fit for each experimental set in the case of qRT-PCR and that MAPK1 is a reliable loading control for Western blot. The results indicate that biased study outcomes may follow the use of reference genes without prior validation for qRT-PCR and Western blot.

  17. Avoiding Pitfalls of Internal Controls: Validation of Reference Genes for Analysis by qRT-PCR and Western Blot throughout Rat Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Martins, Maurício; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as reference to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of reference genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied statistical tools on combinations of retinal developmental stages to assess the most stable internal controls for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The stability of expression of seven putative reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mapk1, Ppia and Rn18s) was analyzed using geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder software. In addition, several housekeeping genes were tested as loading controls for Western blot in the same sample panel, using Image J. Overall, for qRT-PCR the combination of Gapdh and Mapk1 showed the highest stability for most experimental sets. Actb was downregulated in more mature stages, while Rn18s and Hprt1 showed the highest variability. We normalized the expression of cyclin D1 using various reference genes and demonstrated that spurious results may result from blind selection of internal controls. For Western blot significant variation could be seen among four putative internal controls (β-actin, cyclophilin b, α-tubulin and lamin A/C), while MAPK1 was stably expressed. Conclusion Putative housekeeping genes exhibit significant variation in both mRNA and protein content during retinal development. Our results showed that distinct combinations of internal controls fit for each experimental set in the case of qRT-PCR and that MAPK1 is a reliable loading control for Western blot. The results indicate that biased study outcomes may follow the use of reference genes without prior validation for qRT-PCR and Western blot. PMID:22916200

  18. Differentiation of citrus Hop stunt viroid variants by real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viroids are small, infectious, single-stranded RNA molecules that cause several important citrus diseases. Viroids are transmitted primarily in budwood, however, spread can also occur mechanically on pruning equipment, budding knives, hedging and topping equipment. Exocortis and cachexia are two we...

  19. Molecular Properties of Poliovirus Isolates: Nucleotide Sequence Analysis, Typing by PCR and Real-Time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Burns, Cara C; Kilpatrick, David R; Iber, Jane C; Chen, Qi; Kew, Olen M

    2016-01-01

    Virologic surveillance is essential to the success of the World Health Organization initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis. Molecular methods have been used to detect polioviruses in tissue culture isolates derived from stool samples obtained through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis. This chapter describes the use of realtime PCR assays to identify and serotype polioviruses. In particular, a degenerate, inosine-containing, panpoliovirus (panPV) PCR primer set is used to distinguish polioviruses from NPEVs. The high degree of nucleotide sequence diversity among polioviruses presents a challenge to the systematic design of nucleic acid-based reagents. To accommodate the wide variability and rapid evolution of poliovirus genomes, degenerate codon positions on the template were matched to mixed-base or deoxyinosine residues on both the primers and the TaqMan™ probes. Additional assays distinguish between Sabin vaccine strains and non-Sabin strains. This chapter also describes the use of generic poliovirus specific primers, along with degenerate and inosine-containing primers, for routine VP1 sequencing of poliovirus isolates. These primers, along with nondegenerate serotype-specific Sabin primers, can also be used to sequence individual polioviruses in mixtures.

  20. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  1. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  2. Analysis of Mitochondrial RNA-Processing Defects in Patient-Derived Tissues by qRT-PCR and RNAseq.

    PubMed

    Kopajtich, Robert; Mayr, Johannes A; Prokisch, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Transcription of the mitochondrial genome yields three large polycistronic transcripts that undergo multiple endonucleolytic processing steps, before resulting in functional mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Cleavage of the large precursor transcripts is mainly performed by the RNase P complex and RNase Z that cleave mitochondrial pre-tRNAs at their 5' and 3' ends respectively. Most likely there are additional enzymes involved that still await identification and characterization. Defects in mitochondrial RNA processing have been associated with human disease. There are published cases of patients carrying mutations in either HSD17B10/MRPP2 (encoding a subunit of RNase P complex) or ELAC2 (coding for RNase Z). In addition, several mtDNA mutations within tRNA genes have been shown to affect RNA processing. Here, we describe detailed protocols for analyzing RNA processing of mitochondrial tRNAs, in particular their 3'-ends that are processed by RNase Z. These protocols should serve as a guide to extract RNA for quantitative real-time PCR and RNAseq analysis.

  3. Estimation of two real-time RT-PCR assays for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA during PEG-IFN plus ribavirin therapy by HCV genotypes and IL28B genotype.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yugo; Nomura, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Nobuyuki; Tanimoto, Hironori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Masaki, Naohiko; Mizokami, Masashi; Shibuya, Tsunefumi

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA values measured with two real-time PCR methods (Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan, CAP/CTM, and the Abbott real-time PCR test, ART) vary among patients with genotype 1. We investigated HCV RNA values measured by two real-time PCR assays during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) therapy. We evaluated 185 cases of chronic hepatitis C patients, among which 97 patients received the PEG-IFN/RBV therapy. HCV RNA values of CAP/CTM for genotype 1 were significantly higher than those of ART (p < 0.05) The difference in HCV RNA values (CAP/CTM minus ART) of genotype 1 was significantly higher than those in genotype 2 (p < 0.0001). The positive rate (>0) of the difference of HCV RNA values in genotype 1 was 100 % (55/55), which was significantly higher than the 78.6 % (33/42) of genotype 2 (p < 0.001). There was no difference between TT and TG/GG genotype groups in terms of difference of HCV RNA values (CAP/CTM minus ART). After PEG-IFN/RBV therapy was administered, reduction of HCV measurements was observed from day 1 for both assays regardless of genotype. The HCV value of CAP/CTM during PEG-IFN/RBV therapy was consistently higher than the value of ART, although the difference in these two values gradually became smaller during the course of therapy, and eventually no significant difference was observed near the detection level. No correlation was observed between the sustained virological response (SVR) rate and the difference between the CAP/CTM HCV values and the ART HCV value before treatment.

  4. Identification of Commonly Dysregulated Genes in Non-small-cell Lung Cancer by Integrated Analysis of Microarray Data and qRT-PCR Validation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zhen-Hua; Wen, Shi-Wang; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Yong; Cheng, Jing-Ge; Wang, Gui-Ying

    2015-08-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common lung cancer, leads to the largest number of cancer-related deaths worldwide. There are many studies to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between NSCLC and normal control (NC) tissues by means of microarray technology. Because of the inconsistency of the microarray data sets, we performed an integrated analysis to identify DEGs and analyzed their biological function. We combined 15 microarray data sets and identified 1063 DEGs between NSCLC and NC tissues; in addition, we found that the DEGs were enriched in regulation of cell proliferation process and focal adhesion signaling pathway. The protein-protein interaction network analysis for the top 20 significantly DEGs revealed that CAV1, COL1A1, and ADRB2 were the significant hub proteins. Finally, we employed qRT-PCR to validate the meta-analysis approach by determining the expression of the top 10 most significantly DEGs and found that the expression of these genes were significantly different between tumor and NC tissues, in accordance with the results of meta-analysis. qRT-PCR results indicated that the meta-analysis approach in our study was acceptable. Our data suggested that some of the DEGs, including MMP12, COL11A1, THBS2, FAP, and CAV1, may participate in the pathology of NSCLC and could be applied as potential markers or therapeutic targets for NSCLC.

  5. RT-PCR and pharmacological analysis of L-and T-type calcium channels in rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A I; Gonzalez-Obeso, E; Gonzalez, C; Rocher, A

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells O(2)-sensing and responses are not fully understood. So far, it is known that hypoxia depolarizes chemoreceptor cells via O(2)-sensitive K(+)-channel inhibition; calcium influx via voltage-gated channels and neurotransmitter secretion follow. Presence of high voltage activated (HVA) calcium channels in rat CB chemoreceptor cells is well documented, but the presence of low voltage activated (LVH) or T-type calcium channels has not been reported to date. The fact that O(2)-sensitive PC12 cells express T-type channels and that they are inducible by chronic hypoxia (CH) lead us to hypothesize they could be present and play a role in the genesis of the hypoxic response in rat CB chemoreceptor cells. We have analyzed the expression of the three isoforms of T-type calcium channels (alpha1G, alpha1H and alpha1I) and the isoforms alpha1C and alpha1D of L-type calcium channels in rat CB by RT-PCR. We found that rat CB expresses alpha1G and alpha1C subunits. After chronic hypoxic treatment of adult rats (10 degrees O(2), 8 days), expression of alpha1G seems to be down-regulated whereas alpha1C expression is up-regulated. Functionally, it was found that the release of catecholamine induced by hypoxia and high external K({+}) from CB chemoreceptor cells was fully sensitive to L-type channel inhibition (nisoldipine, 2 microM), while specific inhibition of T-channels (mibefradil, 2 microM) inhibited exclusively hypoxia-induced release (50 degrees ). As a whole, present findings demonstrate the presence of T-type as well as L-type calcium channels in rat CB and suggest a selective participation of the T-type channels in the hypoxic activation of chemoreceptor cells.

  6. Real-time analysis of telemetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Simon A.; Laffey, Thomas J.; Schmidt, James L.; Read, Jackson Y.; Dunham, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper descibes a knowledge-based system for performing real-time monitoring and analysis of telemetry data from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In order to handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time the system consists of three or more separate processes, which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The data management process gathers, compresses, and scales the incoming telemetry data befoe sending it to the other tasks. The inferencing process uses the incoming data to perform a real-time analysis of the state and health of the Space Telescope. The I/O process receives telemetry monitors from the data management process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The three processes may run on the same or different computers. This system is currently under development and is being used to monitor testcases produced by the Bass Telemetry System in the Hardware/Software Integration Facility at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. in Sunnyvale, California.

  7. Tradeoffs for real-time hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Edwin M.; Schlangen, Michael J.; Hill, Anthony B.; Simi, Christopher G.; Winter, Michael E.

    2002-08-01

    There has been considerable interest in the application of real-time processing techniques to the problem of hyperspectral scene analysis. Recent satellite and aircraft systems can produce data at a rate far faster than the data can be analyzed by interactive computer procedures. Automated and fast procedures for preparing the data for analyst inspection are required for even laboratory use of the large quantities of data. In addition, there are several real-time applications where the data must be processed as it is being acquired. A typical application is a computing system on-board an airplane for operator analysis of the scene as the hyperspectral sensor collects data. In this paper the possible tradeoffs fore rapid analysis are discussed, including choice of algorithm, possible dimensionality reduction, and reduced display level. A real time anomaly detection processing system based on the N- FINDR algorithm has been designed and implemented for the Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS). The N-FINDR algorithm is a linear unmixing based algorithm that automatically finds spectral endmembers. The algorithm works by inflating a simplex inside the data, beginning with a random set of pixels. Once these endmember spectra have been found, the image cube can be unmixed using a least-squares approach into a map of fractional abundances of each endmember material in each pixel. In addition to the N-FINDR algorithm, the real-time processing system performs calibration, bad pixel removal, and display of selected fraction planes. The real-time processor is implemented in a commercial Pentium IV computer.

  8. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Ebola virus (Zaire) during an Ebola outbreak in Guinea in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Dedkov, V G; Magassouba, N' F; Safonova, M V; Deviatkin, A A; Dolgova, A S; Pyankov, O V; Sergeev, A A; Utkin, D V; Odinokov, G N; Safronov, V A; Agafonov, A P; Maleev, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2016-02-01

    In early February 2014, an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease caused by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) occurred in Guinea; cases were also recorded in other West African countries with a combined population of approximately 25 million. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detecting EBOV is needed to effectively control such outbreak. Here, we report a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for Z. ebolavirus detection used by the Specialized Anti-epidemic Team of the Russian Federation during the Ebola virus disease prevention mission in the Republic of Guinea. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 5 × 10(2) viral particles per ml, and high specificity is demonstrated using representative sampling of viral, bacterial and human nucleic acids. This assay can be applied successfully for detecting the West African strains of Z. ebolavirus as well as on strains isolated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014.

  9. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes in Quercus suber in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi infection.

    PubMed

    Ebadzad, Ghazal; Cravador, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    cDNA-AFLP methodology was used to gain insight into gene fragments differentially present in the mRNA profiles of Quercus suber roots infected with zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi at different post challenge time points. Fifty-three transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and sequenced. Six candidate genes were selected based on their expression patterns and homology to genes known to play a role in defence. They encode a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase2 (QsCAD2), a protein disulphide isomerase (QsPDI), a CC-NBS-LRR resistance protein (QsRPc), a thaumatin-like protein (QsTLP), a chitinase (QsCHI) and a 1,3-β-glucanase (QsGlu). Evaluation of the expression of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that transcript levels of QsRPc, QsCHI, QsCAD2 and QsPDI increased during the first 24 h post-inoculation, while those of thaumatin-like protein decreased. No differential expression was observed for 1,3-β-glucanase (QsGlu). Four candidate reference genes, polymerase II (QsRPII), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (QsEIF-5A), β-tubulin (QsTUB) and a medium subunit family protein of clathrin adaptor complexes (QsCACs) were assessed to determine the most stable internal references for qRT-PCR normalization in the Phytophthora-Q. suber pathosystem in root tissues. Those found to be more stable, QsRPII and QsCACs, were used as internal reference in the present work. Knowledge on the Quercus defence mechanisms against biotic stress is scarce. This study provides an insight into the gene profiling of a few important genes of Q. suber in response to P. cinnamomi infection contributing to the knowledge of the molecular interactions involving Quercus and root pathogens that can be useful in the future to understand the mechanisms underlying oak resistance to soil-borne oomycetes.

  10. European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples: The method of extraction is critical for SBV RNA detection in semen.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; van der Poel, Wim H M; Ponsart, Claire; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Steinbach, Falko; Zientara, Stéphan; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Molecular methods for the detection of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) RNA were rapidly developed after the emergence of this novel orthobunyavirus in Europe. The SBV epizootic wave has declined, but infectious SBV in SBV RNA-positive semen remains a possible risk for the distribution of SBV. However, the abilities of SBV molecular detection methods used at European laboratories have not yet been assessed, to our knowledge. The performances of extraction and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) methods used at 27 German and 17 other European laboratories for SBV RNA detection in the matrices of whole blood, serum, tissue homogenate, RNA eluates, and bovine semen were evaluated in 2 interlaboratory trials with special emphasis on semen extraction methods. For reliable detection of viral genome in bovine semen samples, highly effective extraction methods are essential to cope with the potential inhibitory effects of semen components on PCR results. All methods used by the 44 laboratories were sufficiently robust to detect SBV RNA with high diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95.8%) in all matrices, except semen. The trials demonstrated that the published recommended semen extraction methods (Hoffmann et al. 2013) and a combination of TRIzol LS with an alternative extraction kit have a considerably higher diagnostic sensitivity to detect SBV RNA in semen up to a detection limit of Cq ≤35 compared to other extraction methods used. A thorough validation of extraction methods with standardized semen batches is essential before their use for SBV RNA detection in bovine semen.

  11. Trueness and precision of the real-time RT-PCR method for quantifying the chronic bee paralysis virus genome in bee homogenates evaluated by a comparative inter-laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Frank; Cougoule, Nicolas; Rivière, Marie-Pierre; Ribière-Chabert, Magali; Achour, Hamid; Ádám, Dán; Castillo, Carlos; de Graaf, Dirk C; Forsgren, Eva; Granato, Anna; Heinikainen, Sirpa; Jurovčíková, Júlia; Kryger, Per; Manson, Christine; Ménard, Marie-Françoise; Perennes, Stéphane; Schäfer, Marc O; Ibañez, Elena San Miguel; Silva, João; Gajger, Ivana Tlak; Tomkies, Victoria; Toplak, Ivan; Viry, Alain; Zdańska, Dagmara; Dubois, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is the aetiological agent of chronic bee paralysis, a contagious disease associated with nervous disorders in adult honeybees leading to massive mortalities in front of the hives. Some of the clinical signs frequently reported, such as trembling, may be confused with intoxication syndromes. Therefore, laboratory diagnosis using real-time PCR to quantify CBPV loads is used to confirm disease. Clinical signs of chronic paralysis are usually associated with viral loads higher than 10(8) copies of CBPV genome copies per bee (8 log10 CBPV/bee). This threshold is used by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Bee Health to diagnose the disease. In 2015, the accuracy of measurements of three CBPV loads (5, 8 and 9 log10 CBPV/bee) was assessed through an inter-laboratory study. Twenty-one participants, including 16 European National Reference Laboratories, received 13 homogenates of CBPV-infected bees adjusted to the three loads. Participants were requested to use the method usually employed for routine diagnosis. The quantitative results (n=270) were analysed according to international standards NF ISO 13528 (2015) and NF ISO 5725-2 (1994). The standard deviations of measurement reproducibility (SR) were 0.83, 1.06 and 1.16 at viral loads 5, 8 and 9 log10 CBPV/bee, respectively. The inter-laboratory confidence of viral quantification (+/- 1.96SR) at the diagnostic threshold (8 log10 CBPV/bee) was+/- 2.08 log10 CBPV/bee. These results highlight the need to take into account the confidence of measurements in epidemiological studies using results from different laboratories. Considering this confidence, viral loads over 6 log10 CBPV/bee may be considered to indicate probable cases of chronic paralysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus casei on gtfB, gtfC, and ftf gene expression level in S. mutans by real-time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Savabi, Omid; Kazemi, Mohammad; Kamali, Sara; Salehi, Ahmad Reza; Eslami, Gilda; Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Salehi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Streptococci are the pioneer strains in plaque formation and Streptococcus mutans are the main etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. In general, biofilm formation is a step-wise process, which begins by adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. Evidences show that expression of glucosyltransferase B and C (gtfB and gtfC) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play critical role in initial adhesion of S. mutans to the tooth surface which results in formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biosurfactants produced by a probiotic strain; Lactobacillus casei (ATCC39392) on gene expression profile of gftB/C and tft of S. mutans (ATCC35668) using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The application of the prepared biosurfactant caused dramatic down regulation of all the three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically highly significant (for gtfB, P > 0.0002; for gtfC, P > 0.0063, and for ftf, P > 0.0057). Conclusion: Considerable downregulation of all three genes in the presence of the prepared biosurfactant comparing to untreated controls is indicative of successful inhibition of influential genes in bacterial adhesion phenomena. In view of the importance of glucosyltransferase gene products for S.mutans attachment to the tooth surface which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, further research in this field may lead to an applicable alternative for successful with least adverse side effects in dental caries prevention. PMID:25538917

  13. Simultaneous detection and differentiation by multiplex real time RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 classic (clade 2.2.1 proper) and escape mutant (clade 2.2.1 variant) lineages in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The endemic status of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 in Egypt continues to devastate the local poultry industry and poses a permanent threat for human health. Several genetically and antigenically distinct H5N1 lineages co-circulate in Egypt: Strains of clade 2.2.1 proper replicate mainly in backyard birds causing the bulk of human infections, while a variant lineage within 2.2.1 (2.2.1v) appears to be perpetuated mainly in commercial poultry farms in Egypt. Viruses of the 2.2.1v lineage represent drift variants escaping from conventional vaccine-induced immunity and some of these strains also escaped detection by commercial real time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) protocols due to mismatches in the primers/probe binding sites. Results We developed therefore a versatile, sensitive and lineage-specific multiplex RT-qPCR for detection and typing of H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Analytical characterization was carried out using 50 Egyptian HPAIV H5N1 strains isolated since 2006 and 45 other avian influenza viruses (AIV). A detection limit of 400 cRNA copies per ml sample matrix was found. Higher diagnostic sensitivity of the multiplex assay in comparison to other generic H5 or M-gene based RT-qPCR assays were found by examination of 63 swab samples from experimentally infected chickens and 50 AIV-positive swab samples from different host species in the field in Egypt. Conclusions The new multiplex RT-qPCR assay could be useful for rapid high-throughput monitoring for the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry in Egypt. It may also aid in prospective epidemiological studies to further delineate and better control spread of HPAIV H5N1 in Egypt. PMID:20929539

  14. Comparison of the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay and Real-Time RT-PCR in the Detection of p53 Isoform mRNA Expression in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues- A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Morten, Brianna C.; Scott, Rodney J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    p53 is expressed as multiple smaller isoforms whose functions in cancer are not well understood. The p53 isoforms demonstrate abnormal expression in different cancers, suggesting they are important in modulating the function of full-length p53 (FLp53). The quantification of relative mRNA expression has routinely been performed using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, there are serious limitations when detecting p53 isoforms using this method, particularly for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The use of FFPE tumours would be advantageous to correlate expression of p53 isoforms with important clinical features of cancer. One alternative method of RNA detection is the hybridization-based QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, which has been shown to be advantageous for the detection of RNA from FFPE tissues. In this pilot study, we compared the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay to qPCR for the detection of FLp53 and its isoform Δ40p53 in matched fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE breast tumours. FLp53 mRNA expression was detected using qPCR in FF and FFPE tissues, but Δ40p53 mRNA was only detectable in FF tissues. Similar results were obtained for the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay. FLp53 relative mRNA expression was shown to be strongly correlated between the two methods (R2 = 0.9927, p = 0.0031) in FF tissues, however Δ40p53 was not (R2 = 0.4429, p = 0.3345). When comparing the different methods for the detection of FLp53 mRNA from FFPE and FF samples, no correlation (R2 = 0.0002, p = 0.9863) was shown using the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, and in contrast, the level of expression was highly correlated between the two tissues using qPCR (R2 = 0.8753, p = 0.0644). These results suggest that both the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay and qPCR methods are inadequate for the quantification of Δ40p53 mRNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, alternative methods of RNA detection and quantification are required to study the relative expression of Δ40p53 in FFPE samples. PMID:27832134

  15. Development and Characterization of Probe-Based Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Serotyping of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulating in West Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Syed M; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. Ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. Due to the heterogeneity of FMD viruses (FMDVs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. In this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays were developed for specific detection and serotyping of the FMDVs currently circulating in West Eurasia. These assays were evaluated, in parallel with pan-FMDV diagnostic assays and earlier serotype-specific assays, using field samples originating from Pakistan and Afghanistan containing FMD viruses belonging to different sublineages of O-PanAsia, A-Iran05 and Asia-1 (Group-II and Group-VII (Sindh-08)). In addition, field samples from Iran and Bulgaria, containing FMDVs belonging to the O-PanAsiaANT-10 sublineage were also tested. Each of the three primer/probe sets was designed to be specific for just one of the serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of FMDV and detected the RNA from the target viruses with cycle threshold (CT) values comparable with those obtained with the serotype-independent pan-FMDV diagnostic assays. No cross-reactivity was observed in these assays between the heterotypic viruses circulating in the region. The assays reported here have higher diagnostic sensitivity (100% each for serotypes O and Asia-1, and 92% [95% CI = 81.4-100%] for serotype A positive samples) and specificity (100% each for serotypes O, A and Asia-1 positive samples) for the viruses currently circulating in West Eurasia compared to the serotyping assays reported earlier. Comparisons of the sequences of the primers and probes used in these assays and the corresponding regions of the circulating viruses provided explanations for the poor

  16. Real time analysis of voiced sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency, (f sub 0) of the signal and successive harmonics (h sub 1 through h sub n) of the fundamental frequency. The analysis also includes measuring the quadrature power and phase of each frequency tracked, differentiating the power measurements of the harmonics in adjacent pairs, and analyzing successive differentials to determine peak power points in the power spectrum for display or use in analysis of voiced sound, such as for voice recognition.

  17. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  18. Pathway and network-based analysis of genome-wide association studies and RT-PCR validation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haoran; Liang, Zhou; Zheng, Saihua; Li, Xuelian

    2017-09-20

    The purpose of this study was to identify promising candidate genes and pathways in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Microarray dataset GSE345269 obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database includes 7 granulosa cell samples from PCOS patients, and 3 normal granulosa cell samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened between PCOS and normal samples. Pathway enrichment analysis was conducted for DEGs using ClueGO and CluePedia plugin of Cytoscape. A Reactome functional interaction (FI) network of the DEGs was built using ReactomeFIViz, and then network modules were extracted, followed by pathway enrichment analysis for the modules. Expression of DEGs in granulosa cell samples was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 674 DEGs were retained, which were significantly enriched with inflammation and immune-related pathways. Eight modules were extracted from the Reactome FI network. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed significant pathways of each module: module 0, Regulation of RhoA activity and Signaling by Rho GTPases pathways shared ARHGAP4 and ARHGAP9; module 2, GlycoProtein VI-mediated activation cascade pathway was enriched with RHOG; module 3, Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, Chemokine signaling pathway, CXCR4-mediated signaling events pathways were enriched with LYN, the hub gene of module 3. Results of RT-PCR confirmed the finding of the bioinformatic analysis that ARHGAP4, ARHGAP9, RHOG and LYN were significantly upregulated in PCOS. RhoA-related pathways, GlycoProtein VI-mediated activation cascade pathway, ARHGAP4, ARHGAP9, RHOG and LYN may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  19. Primary synovial sarcoma of the heart: a cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis combining RT-PCR and COBRA-FISH of a case with a complex karyotype.

    PubMed

    Hazelbag, Hans Martin; Szuhai, Károly; Tanke, Hans J; Rosenberg, Carla; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W

    2004-11-01

    Synovial sarcomas usually occur in the soft tissues of the extremities of adolescents and middle-aged patients, in the vicinity of large joints. We present a patient with a synovial sarcoma of the left atrium and ventricle, which is an extremely rare location. Diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showing the t(X;18) fusion transcript. With a multicolor COmbined Binary RAtio labeling Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (COBRA-FISH) technique, a complex karyotype evolved with identification of derivative chromosomes with multiplex rearrangements. This underscores the importance of molecular analysis of spindle cell tumors in unusual locations. Moreover, it shows that the presumed diagnostic translocation t(X;18) can be embedded in a sequence of other chromosomal rearrangements of which the function is as yet unknown.

  20. Visualisation and quantitative analysis of the rodent malaria liver stage by real time imaging.

    PubMed

    Ploemen, Ivo H J; Prudêncio, Miguel; Douradinha, Bruno G; Ramesar, Jai; Fonager, Jannik; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Luty, Adrian J F; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W; Baptista, Fernanda G; Mota, Maria M; Waters, Andrew P; Que, Ivo; Lowik, Clemens W G M; Khan, Shahid M; Janse, Chris J; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M D

    2009-11-18

    The quantitative analysis of Plasmodium development in the liver in laboratory animals in cultured cells is hampered by low parasite infection rates and the complicated methods required to monitor intracellular development. As a consequence, this important phase of the parasite's life cycle has been poorly studied compared to blood stages, for example in screening anti-malarial drugs. Here we report the use of a transgenic P. berghei parasite, PbGFP-Luc(con), expressing the bioluminescent reporter protein luciferase to visualize and quantify parasite development in liver cells both in culture and in live mice using real-time luminescence imaging. The reporter-parasite based quantification in cultured hepatocytes by real-time imaging or using a microplate reader correlates very well with established quantitative RT-PCR methods. For the first time the liver stage of Plasmodium is visualized in whole bodies of live mice and we were able to discriminate as few as 1-5 infected hepatocytes per liver in mice using 2D-imaging and to identify individual infected hepatocytes by 3D-imaging. The analysis of liver infections by whole body imaging shows a good correlation with quantitative RT-PCR analysis of extracted livers. The luminescence-based analysis of the effects of various drugs on in vitro hepatocyte infection shows that this method can effectively be used for in vitro screening of compounds targeting Plasmodium liver stages. Furthermore, by analysing the effect of primaquine and tafenoquine in vivo we demonstrate the applicability of real time imaging to assess parasite drug sensitivity in the liver. The simplicity and speed of quantitative analysis of liver-stage development by real-time imaging compared to the PCR methodologies, as well as the possibility to analyse liver development in live mice without surgery, opens up new possibilities for research on Plasmodium liver infections and for validating the effect of drugs and vaccines on the liver stage of

  1. Visualisation and Quantitative Analysis of the Rodent Malaria Liver Stage by Real Time Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Douradinha, Bruno G.; Ramesar, Jai; Fonager, Jannik; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Baptista, Fernanda G.; Mota, Maria M.; Waters, Andrew P.; Que, Ivo; Lowik, Clemens W. G. M.; Khan, Shahid M.; Janse, Chris J.; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M. D.

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of Plasmodium development in the liver in laboratory animals in cultured cells is hampered by low parasite infection rates and the complicated methods required to monitor intracellular development. As a consequence, this important phase of the parasite's life cycle has been poorly studied compared to blood stages, for example in screening anti-malarial drugs. Here we report the use of a transgenic P. berghei parasite, PbGFP-Luccon, expressing the bioluminescent reporter protein luciferase to visualize and quantify parasite development in liver cells both in culture and in live mice using real-time luminescence imaging. The reporter-parasite based quantification in cultured hepatocytes by real-time imaging or using a microplate reader correlates very well with established quantitative RT-PCR methods. For the first time the liver stage of Plasmodium is visualized in whole bodies of live mice and we were able to discriminate as few as 1–5 infected hepatocytes per liver in mice using 2D-imaging and to identify individual infected hepatocytes by 3D-imaging. The analysis of liver infections by whole body imaging shows a good correlation with quantitative RT-PCR analysis of extracted livers. The luminescence-based analysis of the effects of various drugs on in vitro hepatocyte infection shows that this method can effectively be used for in vitro screening of compounds targeting Plasmodium liver stages. Furthermore, by analysing the effect of primaquine and tafenoquine in vivo we demonstrate the applicability of real time imaging to assess parasite drug sensitivity in the liver. The simplicity and speed of quantitative analysis of liver-stage development by real-time imaging compared to the PCR methodologies, as well as the possibility to analyse liver development in live mice without surgery, opens up new possibilities for research on Plasmodium liver infections and for validating the effect of drugs and vaccines on the liver stage of

  2. APPLICATION OF CDNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY TO IN VITRO TOXICOLOGY AND THE SELECTION OF GENES FOR A REAL TIME RT-PCR-BASED SCREEN FOR OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HEP-G2 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large-scale analysis of gene expression using cDNA microarrays promises the
    rapid detection of the mode of toxicity for drugs and other chemicals. cDNA
    microarrays were used to examine chemically-induced alterations of gene
    expression in HepG2 cells exposed to oxidative ...

  3. APPLICATION OF CDNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY TO IN VITRO TOXICOLOGY AND THE SELECTION OF GENES FOR A REAL TIME RT-PCR-BASED SCREEN FOR OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HEP-G2 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large-scale analysis of gene expression using cDNA microarrays promises the
    rapid detection of the mode of toxicity for drugs and other chemicals. cDNA
    microarrays were used to examine chemically-induced alterations of gene
    expression in HepG2 cells exposed to oxidative ...

  4. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in qRT-PCR Analysis in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT–PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT–PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1α and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT–PCR analyses involving watermelon. PMID:24587403

  5. On-Orbit Quantitative Real-Time Gene Expression Analysis Using the Wetlab-2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Tran, Luan; Schonfeld, Julie

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center's WetLab-2 Project enables on-orbit quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis without the need for sample return. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage of using non-toxic chemicals and does not require alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The project selected the Cepheid SmartCycler (TradeMark), a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, because of its advantages including rugged modular design, low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color multiplex detection. Single tube multiplex assays can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system can downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and uplink new thermal cycling programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR and generate results on-orbit is an important step towards utilizing the ISS as a National Laboratory facility. Specifically, the ability to get on-orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experimental parameters in real time without the need for sample return and re-flight. On orbit gene expression analysis can also eliminate the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples and provide on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. Finally, the system can also be used for analysis of

  6. [Detection of influenza virus (RT-PCR assay and others)].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Yoko

    2003-11-01

    Viral isolation is the conventional method for influenza virus diagnosis but it is less useful for immediate patient management. RT-PCR is the sensitive and rapid assay for the detection of respiratory viruses. Single step and multiplex RT-PCR is able to detect several viruses simultaneously in a single reaction. Real time PCR(TaqMan method) is able to detect the amplicon directly by release of a fluorescent reporter of the probe during the amplification reactions. This procedure can save time since it eliminates post-PCR processing steps. These RT-PCR methods should be useful for the accurate and rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infection, especially severe cases such as pneumonia and encephalopathy.

  7. Identification and evaluation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Xu, ZhiChao; Zhu, YingJie; Luo, HongMei; Qian, Jun; Ji, AiJia; Hu, YuanLei; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Song, JingYuan; Sun, Chao; Chen, ShiLin

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable technique for gene expression studies. The accuracy and reliability of qRT-PCR results depend on the stability of the reference genes used for gene normalization. Therefore, a systematic process of reference gene evaluation is needed. Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom in East Asia. In the current study, 10 potential reference genes were selected from the G. lucidum genomic data. The sequences of these genes were manually curated, and primers were designed following strict criteria. The experiment was conducted using qRT-PCR, and the stability of each candidate gene was assessed using four commonly used statistical programs-geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. According to our results, PP2A was expressed at the most stable levels under different fermentation conditions, and RPL4 was the most stably expressed gene in different tissues. RPL4, PP2A, and β-tubulin are the most commonly recommended reference genes for normalizing gene expression in the entire sample set. The current study provides a foundation for the further use of qRT-PCR in G. lucidum gene analysis.

  8. Near Real Time Quantitative Gas Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herget, William F.; Tromp, Marianne L.; Anderson, Charles R.

    1985-12-01

    A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) - based system has been developed and is undergoing evaluation for near real time multicomponent quantitative analysis of undiluted gaseous automotive exhaust emissions. The total system includes: (1) a gas conditioning system (GCS) for tracer gas injection, gas mixing, and temperature stabilization; and (2) an exhaust gas analyzer (EGA) consisting of a sample cell, an FT-IR system, and a computerized data processing system. Tests have shown that the system can monitor about 20 individual species (concentrations down to the 1-20 ppm range) with a time resolution of one second. Tests have been conducted on a chassis dynamometer system utilizing different autos, different fuels, and different driving cycles. Results were compared with those obtained using a standard constant volume sampling (CVS) system.

  9. Detection of 22 common leukemic fusion genes using a single-step multiplex qRT-PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, Lina; Chen, Zhenzhu; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Jieying; Fan, Ruihua; Song, Yongping

    2017-07-25

    Fusion genes generated from chromosomal translocation play an important role in hematological malignancies. Detection of fusion genes currently employ use of either conventional RT-PCR methods or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), where both methods involve tedious methodologies and require prior characterization of chromosomal translocation events as determined by cytogenetic analysis. In this study, we describe a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)-based multi-fusion gene screening method with the capacity to detect 22 fusion genes commonly found in leukemia. This method does not require pre-characterization of gene translocation events, thereby facilitating immediate diagnosis and therapeutic management. We performed fluorescent qRT-PCR (F-qRT-PCR) using a commercially-available multi-fusion gene detection kit on a patient cohort of 345 individuals comprising 108 cases diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for initial evaluation; remaining patients within the cohort were assayed for confirmatory diagnosis. Results obtained by F-qRT-PCR were compared alongside patient analysis by cytogenetic characterization. Gene translocations detected by F-qRT-PCR in AML cases were diagnosed in 69.4% of the patient cohort, which was comparatively similar to 68.5% as diagnosed by cytogenetic analysis, thereby demonstrating 99.1% concordance. Overall gene fusion was detected in 53.7% of the overall patient population by F-qRT-PCR, 52.9% by cytogenetic prediction in leukemia, and 9.1% in non-leukemia patients by both methods. The overall concordance rate was calculated to be 99.0%. Fusion genes were detected by F-qRT-PCR in 97.3% of patients with CML, followed by 69.4% with AML, 33.3% with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 9.1% with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and 0% with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We describe the use of a F-qRT-PCR-based multi-fusion gene screening method as an efficient one-step diagnostic procedure as an

  10. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative PCR analysis on ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuanyuan, Shan; Qin, Su; Rongrong, Xu; Yujing, Gao; Chengbin, Pei; Jianjun, Ma; Yanzhou, Yang; Xiuying, Pei

    2015-08-01

    To ensure the correct interpretation of the results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from ovarian tissue cryopreserved by vitrification, it is critical to normalize expression levels to a reference gene with stable messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the vitrified/warmed ovarian tissue. The aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis during ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification. GeNorm, NormFinder, comparative Delta-CT, and BestKeeper were used to analyze the expression and stability of the 14 reference genes GAPDH, ABL1, ACTB, CDKN1A, GPER, GUSB, HPRT1, HSP90AB1, IPO8, PPIA, RPL4, RPL30, TBP, and UPAR. Our results indicated that ACTB and RPL4 were relatively stable reference genes in vitrified/warmed ovaries.

  11. Genome shuffling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for improving antimicrobial lipopeptide production and an analysis of relative gene expression using FQ RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Yuanhong; Zhang, Chong; Yao, Zhengying; Zhang, Li; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2012-06-01

    Genome shuffling is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of the yield of secondary metabolites. This study was undertaken to enhance the yield of surfactin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2-4 using genome shuffling and to examine changes in SrfA expression of the improved phenotype at the transcriptional level. Six strains with subtle improvements in lipopeptide yield were obtained from populations generated by ultraviolet irradiation, nitrosoguanidine, and ion beam mutagenesis. These strains were then subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. A strain library that was likely to yield positive colonies was created by fusing the lethal protoplasts obtained from both ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatments. After two rounds of genome shuffling, a high-yield recombinant F2-38 strain that exhibited 3.5- and 10.3-fold increases in surfactin production in shake flask and fermenter respectively, was obtained. Comparative analysis of synthetase gene expression was conducted between the initial and shuffled strains using FQ (fluorescent quantitation) RT-PCR. Delta CT (threshold cycle) relative quantitation analysis revealed that surfactin synthetase gene (srfA) expression at the transcriptional level in the F2-38 strain was 15.7-fold greater than in the ES-2-4 wild-type. The shuffled strain has a potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries. At the same time, the analysis of improved phenotypes will provide more valuable data for inverse metabolic engineering.

  12. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  13. Semi-quantitative analysis of multiple cytokines in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by [correction of zby] a single tube RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, C; Rubio, J M; Moreno, J; Alvar, J

    2001-12-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the regulation of the immune system, but low circulating levels in plasma make routine measurement a difficult task. A new methodology based on single tube RT-PCR has been developed to determine the expression of multiple canine cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-18, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) using primers and protocols designed allow specific amplification of the mRNAs. The technique is performed in one tube in two consecutive steps, a specific transcription of the mRNA of a given cytokine and amplification of the corresponding gene by PCR. The technique was used to analyse the mRNA cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy dogs using two approaches: (i) analysis of PBMC isolated ex vivo; (ii) analysis of PBMC after in vitro cultures with or without the mitogen ConA. The samples were separated in agarose gels and the intensity of ethidium bromide signals quantified using standard video imaging equipment. Results were interpreted as the ratio of cytokine to GAPDH expression. The results obtained show that the method is easy to use and reproducible. Therefore, this method of monitoring the mRNA cytokine expression might be an useful tool for understanding the immune response in dogs.

  14. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  15. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  16. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), a primary tool in gene expression analysis, requires an appropriate normalization strategy to control for variation among samples. The best option is to compare the mRNA level of a target gene with that of reference gene(s) whose expression level is stable across various experimental conditions. In this study, expression profiles of eight candidate reference genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were evaluated under diverse experimental conditions. RefFinder, a web-based analysis tool, integrates four major computational programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method to comprehensively rank the tested candidate genes. Elongation factor 1 (EF1) was the most suited reference gene for the biotic factors (development stage, tissue, and strain). In contrast, although appropriate reference gene(s) do exist for several abiotic factors (temperature, photoperiod, insecticide, and mechanical injury), we were not able to identify a single universal reference gene. Nevertheless, a suite of candidate reference genes were specifically recommended for selected experimental conditions. Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis of this agriculturally important insect pest.

  17. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis during biological invasions: The thermal adaptability of Bemisia tabaci MED

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Zhi-Chuang; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2017-01-01

    The Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species has been rapidly invading to most parts of the world owing to its strong ecological adaptability, which is considered as a model insect for stress tolerance studies under rapidly changing environments. Selection of a suitable reference gene for quantitative stress-responsive gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR is critical for elaborating the molecular mechanisms of thermotolerance. To obtain accurate and reliable normalization data in MED, eight candidate reference genes (β-act, GAPDH, β-tub, EF1-α, GST, 18S, RPL13A and α-tub) were examined under various thermal stresses for varied time periods by using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, respectively. Our results revealed that β-tub and EF1-α were the best reference genes across all sample sets. On the other hand, 18S and GADPH showed the least stability for all the samples studied. β-act was proved to be highly stable only in case of short-term thermal stresses. To our knowledge this was the first comprehensive report on validation of reference genes under varying temperature stresses in MED. The study could expedite particular discovery of thermotolerance genes in MED. Further, the present results can form the basis of further research on suitable reference genes in this invasive insect and will facilitate transcript profiling in other invasive insects. PMID:28323834

  18. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis during biological invasions: The thermal adaptability of Bemisia tabaci MED.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tian-Mei; Lü, Zhi-Chuang; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2017-01-01

    The Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species has been rapidly invading to most parts of the world owing to its strong ecological adaptability, which is considered as a model insect for stress tolerance studies under rapidly changing environments. Selection of a suitable reference gene for quantitative stress-responsive gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR is critical for elaborating the molecular mechanisms of thermotolerance. To obtain accurate and reliable normalization data in MED, eight candidate reference genes (β-act, GAPDH, β-tub, EF1-α, GST, 18S, RPL13A and α-tub) were examined under various thermal stresses for varied time periods by using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, respectively. Our results revealed that β-tub and EF1-α were the best reference genes across all sample sets. On the other hand, 18S and GADPH showed the least stability for all the samples studied. β-act was proved to be highly stable only in case of short-term thermal stresses. To our knowledge this was the first comprehensive report on validation of reference genes under varying temperature stresses in MED. The study could expedite particular discovery of thermotolerance genes in MED. Further, the present results can form the basis of further research on suitable reference genes in this invasive insect and will facilitate transcript profiling in other invasive insects.

  19. Trends and advances in food analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Salihah, Nur Thaqifah; Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf; Lubis, Hamadah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Analyses to ensure food safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity and mobility of food. Food-contamination must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a rapid and inexpensive quantitative method to detect the presence of targeted DNA-segments in samples, helps in determining both accidental and intentional adulterations of foods by biological contaminants. This review presents recent developments in theory, techniques, and applications of RT-PCR in food analyses, RT-PCR addresses the limitations of traditional food analyses in terms of sensitivity, range of analytes, multiplexing ability, cost, time, and point-of-care applications. A range of targets, including species of plants or animals which are used as food ingredients, food-borne bacteria or viruses, genetically modified organisms, and allergens, even in highly processed foods can be identified by RT-PCR, even at very low concentrations. Microfluidic RT-PCR eliminates the separate sample-processing step to create opportunities for point-of-care analyses. We also cover the challenges related to using RT-PCR for food analyses, such as the need to further improve sample handling.

  20. Effect of Source of DNA on the Quantitative Analysis of Genetically Engineered Traits Using Digital PCR and Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Tigst; Malabanan, Jemima; Holigroski, Michelle; Eng, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Seven commercially available DNA extraction kits were compared with a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method to determine the suitability of the extracted DNA for RainDrop digital PCR (dPCR) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) quantification of OXY235 canola, FP967 flax, and DP305423 soybean (spiked at the 0.1% level). For the kits, the highest amount of DNA extracted from a 0.2 g sample was obtained using OmniPrep for Plant for flax and DNeasy mericon Food for canola and soybean. For canola, DNA extracted with the Fast ID Genomic DNA Extraction Kit, FastDNA Spin Kit, GM Quicker 2, NucleoSpin Food, and DNeasy mericon Food was suitable for dPCR and RT-PCR. For flax, DNA extracted with Fast ID, FastDNA Spin Kit, OmniPrep for Plant, and NucleoSpin Food was suitable for RT-PCR. However, only Fast ID yielded DNA suitable for dPCR. For soybean, DNA extracted with five and six of the seven DNA extraction kits was suitable for dPCR and RT-PCR, respectively. Overall, Fast ID provided reliable results regardless of species or analysis method used. Canola, flax, and soybean DNA extracted with the CTAB method and then purified were suitable for both dPCR and RT-PCR. This is the first report showing the effect of different DNA extraction methods on the absolute quantification of genetically engineered traits using dPCR.

  1. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-07-07

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga.

  2. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga. PMID:27399679

  3. PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR

    Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott

    Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

  4. PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR

    Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott

    Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

  5. A bacterial community analysis using reverse transcription (RT) PCR which detects the bacteria with high activity in a wastewater treatment reactor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to help detect active bacteria in a single-tank deammonification reactor combining partial nitritation and anammox. The single-tank aerobic deammonification reactor effectively removed the ammonia in anaerobically di...

  6. The lack of a systematic validation of reference genes: a serious pitfall undervalued in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in plants.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Laurent; Mauriat, Mélanie; Guénin, Stéphanie; Pelloux, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Louvet, Romain; Rusterucci, Christine; Moritz, Thomas; Guerineau, François; Bellini, Catherine; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier

    2008-08-01

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approaches have been used in a large proportion of transcriptome analyses published to date. The accuracy of the results obtained by this method strongly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed genes, known as references. Statistical algorithms have been developed recently to help validate reference genes, and most studies of gene expression in mammals, yeast and bacteria now include such validation. Surprisingly, this important approach is under-utilized in plant studies, where putative housekeeping genes tend to be used as references without any appropriate validation. Using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression stability of several genes commonly used as references was tested in various tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides). It was found that the expression of most of these genes was unstable, indicating that their use as references is inappropriate. The major impact of the use of such inappropriate references on the results obtained by RT-PCR is demonstrated in this study. Using aspen as a model, evidence is presented indicating that no gene can act as a universal reference, implying the need for a systematic validation of reference genes. For the first time, the extent to which the lack of a systematic validation of reference genes is a stumbling block to the reliability of results obtained by RT-PCR in plants is clearly shown.

  7. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  8. Non-Invasive Analysis of Recombinant mRNA Stability in Escherichia coli by a Combination of Transcriptional Inducer Wash-Out and qRT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kucharova, Veronika; Strand, Trine Aakvik; Almaas, Eivind; Naas, Adrian E.; Brautaset, Trygve; Valla, Svein

    2013-01-01

    mRNA stability is one among many parameters that can potentially affect the level of recombinant gene expression in bacteria. Blocking of the entire prokaryotic transcription machinery by addition of rifampicin is commonly used in protocols for analysis of mRNA stability. Here we show that such treatment can be effectively replaced by a simple, non-invasive method based on removal of the relevant transcriptional inducers and that the mRNA decay can then be followed by qRT-PCR. To establish the methodology we first used the m-toluate-inducible XylS/Pm expression cassette as a model system and analyzed several examples of DNA modifications causing gene expression stimulation in Escherichia coli. The new method allowed us to clearly discriminate whether an improvement in mRNA stability contributes to observed increases in transcript amounts for each individual case. To support the experimental data a simple mathematical fitting model was developed to calculate relative decay rates. We extended the relevance of the method by demonstrating its application also for an IPTG-inducible expression cassette (LacI/Ptac) and by analyzing features of the bacteriophage T7-based expression system. The results suggest that the methodology is useful in elucidating factors controlling mRNA stability as well as other specific features of inducible expression systems. Moreover, as expression systems based on diffusible inducers are almost universally available, the concept can be most likely used to measure mRNA decay for any gene in any cell type that is heavily used in molecular biology research. PMID:23840466

  9. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions.

    PubMed

    Svingen, Terje; Letting, Heidi; Hadrup, Niels; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    In biological research the analysis of gene expression levels in cells and tissues can be a powerful tool to gain insights into biological processes. For this, quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a popular method that often involve the use of constitutively expressed endogenous reference (or 'housekeeping') gene for normalization of data. Thus, it is essential to use reference genes that have been verified to be stably expressed within the specific experimental setting. Here, we have analysed the expression stability of 12 commonly used reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt, Pgk1, Rn18s, Rpl13a, Rps18, Rps29, Sdha, Tbp and Ubc) across several juvenile and adult rat tissues (liver, adrenal, prostate, fat pad, testis and ovaries), both under normal conditions and following exposure to various chemicals during development. Employing NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares, we found Hprt and Sdha to be amongst the most stable genes across normal and manipulated tissues, with several others also being suitable for most tissues. Tbp and B2m displayed highest variability in transcript levels between tissues and developmental stages. It was also observed that the reference genes were most unstable in liver and testis following toxicological exposure. For future studies, we propose the use of more than one verified reference gene and the continuous monitoring of their suitability under various experimental conditions, including toxicological studies, based on changes in threshold (Ct) values from cDNA samples having been reverse-transcribed from a constant input concentration of RNA.

  10. Long-term survival of New Zealand rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus RNA in wild rabbits, revealed by RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Forrester, N L; Boag, B; Moss, S R; Turner, S L; Trout, R C; White, P J; Hudson, P J; Gould, E A

    2003-11-01

    Because Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is highly pathogenic for rabbits, farmers illegally introduced it as a bio-control agent onto New Zealand farms in 1997. The virus was dispersed rapidly, initially causing high fatality rates in rabbits. Nevertheless, many survived and these surviving rabbits have been investigated for evidence of infection by RHDV. Livers from healthy rabbits contained RHDV-specific RNA, as shown by nested RT-PCR sequencing. The sequences of the viral capsids were related closely to the released Czech strain of RHDV, although the sequence from one rabbit was related most closely to a Spanish strain of RHDV. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid sequences of 38 samples implied that there have been at least two introductions of the Czech virus into New Zealand, probably corresponding firstly to the original illegal introduction by farmers and secondly to the introduction of the same virus under governmental control. Genomic length sequence of two samples was obtained, suggesting that they may have retained the potential to be infectious, although this has not yet been demonstrated. The detection of genomic-length RNA in the liver of healthy rabbits suggests that even though a highly virulent virus was introduced into New Zealand, it rapidly established persistent or latent infections in a proportion of rabbits. This might account for their ability to survive in the face of virulent released virus. Moreover, the co-circulation of other strains of RHDV in the same rabbit population, such as the Spanish strain, might also impact on their susceptibility to the bio-control agent.

  11. A robust standard for absolute mRNA quantification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by qRT-PCR using the universal RNA controls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently developed universal external RNA controls allow comparison of expression data generated from microarray and real time qRT-PCR, including SYBR Green and TaqMan-probe based chemistry. It provides reliable controls for data normalization and analysis. In this study, we further developed stra...

  12. Development of a Rapid Automated Influenza A, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus A/B Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assay and Its Use during the 2009 H1N1 Swine-Origin Influenza Virus Epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Eric T.; Jurgens, Lisa A.; Kehl, Sue C.; Bose, Michael E.; Patitucci, Teresa; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; Wilkinson, Kimberly; Witt, Lorraine M.; Fan, Jiang; He, Jie; Kumar, Swati; Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A infections (of all subtypes) from Flu B and RSV infections during the current S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI. The analytical limits of detection were 10−2 to 101 TCID50/ml depending on the platform and analyte and showed only one minor cross-reaction among 23 common respiratory pathogens (intermittent cross-reaction to adenovirus at >107 TCID50/ml). A total of 100 clinical samples were tested by tissue culture, both automated assays, and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ProFlu+ assay. Both the semiautomated and fully automated assays exhibited greater overall (Flu A, Flu B, and RSV combined) clinical sensitivities (93 and 96%, respectively) and individual Flu A sensitivities (100%) than the Food and Drug Administration-approved test (89% overall sensitivity and 93% Flu A sensitivity). All assays were 99% specific. During the S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, the fully automated assay was used to test 1232 samples in 2 weeks. Flu A was detected in 134 clinical samples (126 H1N1 S-OIV, 5 H1N1 [human], and 1 untyped) with 100% positive agreement compared with other “in-house” validated molecular assays, with only 2 false-positive results. Such accurate testing using automated high-throughput molecule systems should allow clinicians and public health officials to react quickly and effectively during viral outbreaks. PMID:19959800

  13. Development of a rapid automated influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay and its use during the 2009 H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eric T; Jurgens, Lisa A; Kehl, Sue C; Bose, Michael E; Patitucci, Teresa; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; Wilkinson, Kimberly; Witt, Lorraine M; Fan, Jiang; He, Jie; Kumar, Swati; Henrickson, Kelly J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A infections (of all subtypes) from Flu B and RSV infections during the current S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI. The analytical limits of detection were 10(-2) to 10(1) TCID(50)/ml depending on the platform and analyte and showed only one minor cross-reaction among 23 common respiratory pathogens (intermittent cross-reaction to adenovirus at >10(7) TCID(50)/ml). A total of 100 clinical samples were tested by tissue culture, both automated assays, and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ProFlu+ assay. Both the semiautomated and fully automated assays exhibited greater overall (Flu A, Flu B, and RSV combined) clinical sensitivities (93 and 96%, respectively) and individual Flu A sensitivities (100%) than the Food and Drug Administration-approved test (89% overall sensitivity and 93% Flu A sensitivity). All assays were 99% specific. During the S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, the fully automated assay was used to test 1232 samples in 2 weeks. Flu A was detected in 134 clinical samples (126 H1N1 S-OIV, 5 H1N1 [human], and 1 untyped) with 100% positive agreement compared with other "in-house" validated molecular assays, with only 2 false-positive results. Such accurate testing using automated high-throughput molecule systems should allow clinicians and public health officials to react quickly and effectively during viral outbreaks.

  14. Detection of siRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage activities in human cells by a novel stem-loop array RT-PCR analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Xu, Kai; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated target mRNA cleavage activity generates cleaved mRNA fragments with varied termini, which creates major technical challenges for the accurate and efficient detection and verification of cleavage sites on target mRNAs. Here we used a sensitive stem-loop array reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (SLA-RT-PCR) approach to detect and verify the siRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage sites by determining precise sequences at the 3′-termini of cleaved mRNA fragments in human cells under physiological conditions. Our results demonstrated the great potential and broad applications of using the SLA-RT-PCR as a sensitive, cost-efficient, and high-throughput tool to systematically detect siRNA-targeted mRNA cleavage sites and fragments in human cells. PMID:26949742

  15. In Situ Measurement of Fe(III) Reduction Activity of Geobacter pelophilus by Simultaneous in Situ RT-PCR and XPS Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-16

    expression, and mineral transformation by this organism. The gene fer A ( Geobacter sulfurreducens outer membrane Fe(III) reductase cytochrome c) was... Geobacter pelophilus is capable of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reduction on solid phase Fe(III)-oxides by means of surface attachment and direct electron...observed after IS-RT-PCR experiments, suggesting that G. pelophilus contains a cytochrome c sequence similar to fer A in G. sulfurreducens which is

  16. Identification and testing of reference genes for Sesame gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Libin; Miao, Hongmei; Zhao, Ruihong; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Tide; Zhang, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop. However, few sesame reference genes have been selected for quantitative real-time PCR until now. Screening and validating reference genes is a requisite for gene expression normalization in sesame functional genomics research. In this study, ten candidate reference genes, i.e., SiACT, SiUBQ6, SiTUB, Si18S rRNA, SiEF1α, SiCYP, SiHistone, SiDNAJ, SiAPT and SiGAPDH, were chosen and examined systematically in 32 sesame samples. Three qRT-PCR analysis methods, i.e., geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were evaluated systematically. Results indicated that all ten candidate reference genes could be used as reference genes in sesame. SiUBQ6 and SiAPT were the optimal reference genes for sesame plant development; SiTUB was suitable for sesame vegetative tissue development, SiDNAJ for pathogen treatment, SiHistone for abiotic stress, SiUBQ6 for bud development and SiACT for seed germination. As for hormone treatment and seed development, SiHistone, SiCYP, SiDNAJ or SiUBQ6, as well as SiACT, SiDNAJ, SiTUB or SiAPT, could be used as reference gene, respectively. To illustrate the suitability of these reference genes, we analyzed the expression variation of three functional sesame genes of SiSS, SiLEA and SiGH in different organs using the optimal qRT-PCR system for the first time. The stability levels of optimal and worst reference genes screened for seed development, anther sterility and plant development were validated in the qRT-PCR normalization. Our results provided a reference gene application guideline for sesame gene expression characterization using qRT-PCR system.

  17. Simultaneous diagnosis of Cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the Spanish Mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Melero, Mar; Rivera-Arroyo, Belén; Bellière, Edwige Nina; Crespo, Jose Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Esperón, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose Manuel

    2013-07-26

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) RT-PCR assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). In this assay, two PCR primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available Universal Probe Library (UPL) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. RT-PCR is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV), and the other set detects the least virulent and least common strain, pilot whale morbillivirus (PWMV). Sensitivity analysis using dilute samples containing purified DMV, PMV and PWMV showed that viral RNA detection limits in this UPL RT-PCR assay were lower than in a conventional RT-PCR assay. Our method gave no amplification signal with field samples positive for viruses related and unrelated to CeMV, such as phocine distemper virus (PDV). The reliability and robustness of the UPL RT-PCR assay were verified using tissue samples previously analyzed by conventional methods, as well as a panel of clinical samples suspected of containing CeMV. Using the UPL RT-PCR assay, we were able to associate DMV with a mass stranding of striped dolphins in the Spanish Mediterranean in 2011 with greater reliability than was possible with a conventional RT-PCR method. These results suggest that this UPL RT-PCR method is more sensitive and specific than the conventional approach, and that it may be an affordable and rapid test for routine diagnosis of three CeMV strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Group specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of methanogenic archaea in stored swine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consolidated storage of swine manure is associated with the production of a variety of odors and emissions which result from anaerobic digestion of materials present in the manure. Methanogenic archaea are a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms responsible for the production of methane. In th...

  19. Rapid differentiation of citrus Hop stunt viroid variants by use of real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The RNA genome of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) contains five to six nucleotides in a variable (V) domain, called the cachexia expression motif, which is associated with pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants in citrus. Current methods to differentiate HSVd variants rely on lengthy greenhouse biological i...

  20. Detection of siRNA Mediated Target mRNA Cleavage Activities in Human Cells by a Novel Stem-Loop Array RT-PCR Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    If the SLA-RT primers have no perfect match, on both the length and the base, to the sequence of the 3′ or 5′ end of the mRNA fragment the efficiency...termini. Thus, the priming efficiency by SLA-RT-primers is determined by the perfect match, mismatch, overhang, and gap presented in SLA-RT-primer...resultant SLA-RT-PCR amplicons were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis (Fig. 1C). As expected, the SLA-RT primer (Primer 1) with the perfect match

  1. Evaluation of the reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Fang-Hua; Tian, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-04-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae), is an important cosmopolitan pest. Real time qRT-PCR has been used for target gene expression analysis on M. persicae. Using real time qRT-PCR, the expression levels are normalized on the basis of the reliable reference genes. However, to date, the stability of available reference genes has been insufficient. In this study, we evaluated nine candidate reference genes from M. persicae under diverse experimental conditions. The tested candidate genes were comprehensively ranked based on five alternative methods (RefFinder, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and the comparative ΔCt method). 18s, Actin and ribosomal protein L27 (L27) were recommended as the most stable reference genes for M. persicae, whereas ribosomal protein L27 (L27) was found to be the least stable reference genes for abiotic studies (photoperiod, temperature and insecticide susceptibility). Our finding not only sheds light on establishing an accurate and reliable normalization of real time qRT-PCR data in M. persicae but also lays a solid foundation for further studies of M. persicae involving RNA interference and functional gene research. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Identification of suitable reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR analysis of hydrogen peroxide-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyi; Diao, Hongying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Yue; Zhang, Jichang; Liu, Ning; Yan, Youyou; Tian, Xin; Sun, Wei; Liu, Bin

    2017-04-05

    Oxidative stress can induce cell injury in vascular endothelial cells, which is the initial event in the development of atherosclerosis. Although quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been widely used in gene expression studies in oxidative stress injuries, using carefully validated reference genes has not received sufficient attention in related studies. The objective of this study, therefore, was to select a set of stably expressed reference genes for use in qRT-PCR normalization in oxidative stress injuries in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Using geNorm analysis, we found that five stably expressed reference genes were sufficient for normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in HUVECs treated with H2O2. Genes with the most stable expression according to geNorm were U6, TFRC, RPLP0, GAPDH, and ACTB, and according to NormFinder were ALAS1, TFRC, U6, GAPDH, and ACTB. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the expression stability of reference genes may differ according to the statistical program used. U6, TFRC, RPLP0, GAPDH, and ACTB was the optimal set of reference genes for studies on gene expression performed by qRT-PCR assays in HUVECs under oxidative stress study.

  3. Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and β-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (−8, −6, −4, −2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens. PMID:25585250

  4. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and β-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens.

  5. Development of duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR for detection and discrimination of grapevine viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A SYBR® Green-based real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay in combination with melt curve analysis (MCA) was developed for the detection of nine grapevine viruses. The detection limits for singleplex qRT-PCR for all nine grapevine viruses were determined to be in the range ...

  6. An RT-PCR analysis of mRNA for growth factor receptors in damaged and control sensory epithelia of rat utricles.

    PubMed

    Saffer, L D; Gu, R; Corwin, J T

    1996-05-01

    Sensory epithelia from normal rat utricles and those cultured with and without neomycin treatment were assayed for the presence of growth factor receptor mRNAs by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction). Both undamaged and damaged utricles showed mRNA for Insulin receptor, IGF-I receptor, FGF receptor 1, EGF receptor, and PDGF alpha receptor. Neomycin-damaged sensory epithelia showed less PDGF alpha receptor mRNA than undamaged epithelia, suggesting that this message by expressed at higher copy levels in hair cells than in supporting cells. Consistent with that hypothesis, immunohistochemistry revealed much stronger PDGF alpha receptor staining in the hair cells than in the supporting cells. Preliminary evidence suggests that IGF-I receptor message also may be lowered in neomycin-damaged epithelia.

  7. Analysis of β/α globin ratio by using relative qRT-PCR for diagnosis of beta-thalassemia carriers.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Reza; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Mobarhanfard, Arash; Aboualizadeh, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Mozhdeh; Moezzi, Leili; Golafshan, Habib Allah; Behzad-Behbahani, Abbas; Bagheri, Mandana; Sharifzadeh, Sedigheh

    2013-07-01

    Current routine tests for premarital screening of β-thalassemia carriers are not applicable for diagnosis of rare atypical minor β-thalassemia cases. A more specialized laboratory evaluation for them is the measurement of β/α chain synthesis ratio with the assistance of radioactive amino acids. This method is also no longer routinely accessible. Consequently it is required to establish a rapid, trouble-free, and reliable method that encompasses all the cases of β-thalassemia carriers. Therefore we have determined β/α-globin mRNA ratio by applying relative qRT-PCR in various β-thalassemia patients. Reticulocytes RNA extraction and subsequent cDNA synthesis were performed, followed by relative qRT-PCR for α- and β-globin chain genes and β-actin gene as an endogenous reference. β/α-Globin gene ratio was then evaluated with the Pfaffl method. The mean of β/α ratio was 0.99, 0.81, 0.69, and 0.69 for normal population, minor, intermediate, and major β-thalassemia, respectively. Approximately 6% of cases with minor thalassemia RBC index and normal HbA2 and having a decreased β/α ratio were located in the minor β-thalassemia group. The mean of β/α mRNA ratio in normal individuals and minor β-thalassemia was significantly different with all other groups (P-value < 0.05). Nevertheless, there was no such association between β/α mRNA ratio in major and intermediate β-thalassemia. According to the significant differences achieved, no overlapping between minor β-thalassemia and normal group, capability of diagnosing atypical minor β-thalassemia, and accessibility of this technique, we can declare that this method could be suggested as a routine premarital screening test for β-thalassemia carriers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Outbreak of hepatitis E virus infection in Darfur, Sudan: effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Mérens, Audrey; Guérin, Philippe Jean; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Nicand, Elisabeth

    2009-06-01

    Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed.

  9. High quality RNA extraction of the mammalian cochlea for qRT-PCR and transcriptome analyses.

    PubMed

    Vikhe Patil, Kim; Canlon, Barbara; Cederroth, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    Molecular investigations of the hearing organ, the cochlea, have been hampered due to the difficulty of isolating pure RNA and in quantities sufficient enough for quantitative real-time RT-PCR or microarray analysis. The complex architecture of the cochlea, the presence of liquids, bone and cartilage tissue, are a major hurdle in obtaining contamination-free RNA to a level that does not affect downstream applications. Here, we present a protocol to extract RNA from the mouse cochlea, with yields and quality suitable for real-time RT-PCR or Affymetrix labeling. In contrast to current methods, such as TRIZOL or column-based extraction, this protocol combines the two and, within 4 h, yields a 2 μg of total RNA from a single pair of adult mouse cochleae. This protocol allows the isolation of RNA molecules from the mammalian cochlea providing access to whole-transcript expression analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, F. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic analysis. A real time engine model was developed on the AD100 computer system. This model provides sufficient fidelity on the dynamics of major engine components and yet simplified enough to be executed in real time. The hardware-in-the-loop type simulation and analysis becomes necessary as NASA is continuously improving the SSME technology, some with significant changes in the dynamics of the engine. The many issues of interfaces between new components and the engine can be better understood and be resolved prior to the firing of the engine. In this paper, the SSME real time simulation Lab at the MSFC, the SSME real time model, SSME engine and control system stability analysis, both in real time and non-real time is presented.

  11. WetLab-2: Tools for Conducting On-Orbit Quantitative Real-Time Gene Expression Analysis on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Jung, Jimmy; Schonfeld, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a research platform capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR system, the Cepheid SmartCycler and will fly it in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid ramp times and the ability to detect up to four separate fluorescent channels at one time enabling multiplex assays that can be used for normalization and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The team is currently working with Cepheid to enable the downlink of data from the ISS to the ground and provide uplink capabilities for programming, commanding, monitoring, and instrument maintenance. The project has adapted commercial technology to design a module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use in qRT-PCR reactions while using a housekeeping gene to normalize RNA concentration and integrity. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing multiple sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The system can be used to validate terrestrial analyses of samples returned from ISS by providing on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. The ability to get on orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experiment parameters for subsequent trials based on the real-time data analysis without need for sample return and re-flight. Researchers will also be able to sample multigenerational changes in organisms. Finally, the system can be

  12. Gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR for floral tissues.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mariana; Jin, Jian; Casagran, Oriol; Nolan, Tania; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), is a powerful method for rapid and reliable quantification of mRNA abundance. Although it has not featured prominently in flower development research in the past, the availability of novel techniques for the synchronized induction of flower development, or for the isolation of cell-specific mRNA populations, suggests that detailed quantitative analyses of gene expression over time and in specific tissues and cell types by qRT-PCR will become more widely used. In this chapter, we discuss specific considerations for studying gene expression by using qRT-PCR, such as the identification of suitable reference genes for the experimental setup used. In addition, we provide protocols for performing qRT-PCR experiments in a multiwell plate format (with the LightCycler(®) 480 system, Roche) and with nanofluidic arrays (BioMark™ system, Fluidigm), which allow the automatic combination of sets of samples with sets of assays, and significantly reduce reaction volume and the number of liquid-handling steps performed during the experiment.

  13. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  14. Development of novel AllGlo-probe-based one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay for rapid identification of avian influenza virus H7N9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Mao, Haiyan; Yan, Juying; Wang, Xinying; Zhang, Lei; Guus, Koch; Li, Hui; Li, Zhen; Chen, Yin; Gong, Liming; Chen, Zhiping; Xia, Shichang

    2014-07-01

    Recently, human deaths have resulted from infection with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus H7N9 strains that have emerged recently in China. To strengthen H7N9 surveillance and outbreak control, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed. To develop a sensitive quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of H7N9 viral RNA, primers and AllGlo probes were designed to target the HA and NA genes of H7N9. Conserved sequences in the HA and NA genes were identified by phylogenic analysis and used as targets for H7N9 virus detection. The similarities of the targeted HA and NA gene sequences from different H7 and N9 influenza virus strains were 93.2-99.9 % and 96.0-99.6 %, respectively The specificity and sensitivity of the new multiplex real-time qRT-PCR was established. The test was used for the detection of viral RNA in human pharyngeal swabs and environmental samples. The detection limit of the multiplex qRT-PCR was estimated to be about 10(-1) TCID50/reaction. Finally, the diagnostic sensitivities of the multiplex qRT-PCR, virus isolation and TaqMan qRT-PCR were compared using pharyngeal swabs and environmental samples. These analyses yielded positive results in 46.7 %, 43.3 % and 20.0 % of the samples, respectively. The novel multiplex AllGlo qRT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method to identify H7N9 virus in clinical and environmental samples and can be used to facilitate studies on the epidemiology of H7N9 virus.

  15. OP32A COMBINED STRATEGY FOR THE DETECTION OF BRAF FUSIONS IN PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA USING RT-PCR AND FISH

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, C.; Shaw, A.; Wragg, C.; Greenslade, M.; Haynes, H.; Williams, H.; Lowis, S.; Williams, M.; Kurian, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pilocytic astrocytomas can show a wide morphological spectrum making definitive histological diagnosis challenging. The FISH test for KIAA1549-BRAF fusions is most commonly used, but this is difficult to interpret. We aimed to develop a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) test as a first-line screen for the three most common KIAA1549-BRAF fusion variants. METHOD: A RT-PCR method for detecting KIAA1549-BRAF fusions from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tumour tissues (pilocytic astrocytoma). The three most common fusion variants are detected using this assay: exon 16 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 9 of BRAF, exon 15 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 9 of BRAF and exon 16 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 11 of BRAF fusion. GAPDH expression was used as a control. RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay was initially validated on 12 samples previously tested by FISH or RT-PCR in a different laboratory. The RT-PCR assay had a sensitivity of 89% (8/9 - one sample tested positive by FISH but negative on RT-PCR) and a specificity of 100% (2/2). The failure rate was 8.3% (1/12). Sensitivity experiments showed that the fusion can be detected when present at a least 5% of the total cDNA content. 51 Neuropathology diagnostic FFPE samples from 42 pilocytic astrocytoma patients were then tested using the BRAF fusion RT-PCR assay. The overall pick-up rate was 54% (20/37 patients) Of the positive patients (20), 55% (11/20) had the 16-9 fusion and 45% (9/20) had the 15-9 fusion. Two patients had multiple fusions (2/20 positive patients, 10%) showing the 16-9 fusion and a low-level 16-11 fusion. No patients exclusively had the 16-11 fusion. CONCLUSION: We propose RTPCR first line for fusion analysis followed by FISH, for pilocytic astrocytoma.

  16. Development of automated system for real-time LIBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazalan, Elham; Ali, Jalil; Tufail, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib

    2017-03-01

    Recent developments in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation allow the acquisition of several spectra in a second. The dataset from a typical LIBS experiment can consist of a few thousands of spectra. To extract the useful information from that dataset is painstaking effort and time consuming process. Most of the currently available softwares for spectral data analysis are expensive and used for offline data analysis. LabVIEW software compatible with spectrometer (in this case Ocean Optics Maya pro spectrometer), can be used to for data acquisition and real time analysis. In the present work, a LabVIEW based automated system for real-time LIBS analysis integrated with spectrometer device is developed. This system is capable of performing real time analysis based on as-acquired LIBS spectra. Here, we have demonstrated the LIBS data acquisition and real time calculations of plasma temperature and electron density. Data plots and variations in spectral intensity in response to laser energy were observed on LabVIEW monitor interface. Routine laboratory samples of brass and calcine bone were utilized in this experiment. Developed program has shown impressive performance in real time data acquisition and analysis.

  17. Direct in situ rt-PCR.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; Gambino, Graziana; Salio, Chiara; Merighi, Adalberto

    2011-01-01

    In situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a histological technique that exploits the advantages of PCR for detection of mRNA directly in tissue sections. It somehow conjugates together PCR and in situ hybridization that is more traditionally employed for mRNA localization in cell organelles, intact cells, or tissue sections. This chapter describes the application of in situ PCR for neuropeptide mRNA localization. We provide here a detailed protocol for direct in situ reverse transcription (RT) PCR (RT-PCR) with nonradioactive probes after fixation and paraffin embedding or cryosectioning. Digoxigenin-labeled nucleotides (digoxigenin-11-dUTP) are incorporated in the PCR product after RT and subsequently detected with an anti-digoxigenin antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. The procedure can be modified for use with fluorescent probes and employed in combination with enzyme/fluorescence immunocytochemical labeling.

  18. Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Daniela; Cruz, Fernanda P; Espindola, Kauê; Mangeon, Amanda; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Corrêa, Régis L; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed proteins of Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ under salt-stress conditions by proteomics and qRT-PCR analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis as a representative species of cyanobacteria has been recognized and used worldwide as a source of protein in the food, which possesses some unusual and valuable physiological characteristics, such as alkali and salt tolerance. Based on complete genome sequencing of Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different salt-stress conditions (i.e. 0.02 M, 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively), using 2-D electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting, and retrieved 141 proteins showing significantly differential expression in response to salt-stress. Of the 141 proteins, 114 Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ proteins were found with significant homology to those found in Arthrospira (76 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 38 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328). The remaining 27 proteins belong to other bacteria. Subsequently, we determined the transcriptional level of 29 genes in vivo in response to NaCl treatments and verified them by qRT-PCR. We found that 12 genes keep consistency at both transcription and protein levels, and transcription of all of them but one were up-regulated. We classified the 141 differentially expressed proteins into 18 types of function categories using COG database, and linked them to their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. These proteins are involved in 31 metabolism pathways, such as photosynthesis, glucose metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, lysine synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism. Additionally, the SRPs, heat shock protein and ABC transporter proteins were identified, which probably render Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis’s resistance against high salt stress. PMID:23363438

  20. [Microarray analytic system for multiplex analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction with reagents immobilized in microreactors].

    PubMed

    Navolotskiĭ, D V; Perchik, A V; Mark'ianov, I A; Ganeev, A A; Sliadnev, M N

    2011-01-01

    A microarray analytic system that uses a silicon chip with immobilized in microreactor test-system for multiplex analysis of DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed and optimized. We suggested the method of immobilization of PCR-components of a test-system, chose the stabilizer, and conducted the optimization of the composition of reaction mixture to achieve permanent stability of a microarray. We conducted optimization of preparation of samples using magnetic sorbent and indicated that, with 2.6 x 10(4) copies/ml, 60 min are necessary to obtain positive identification including time for preparation of model probes. The abilities of the created system were demonstrated on the example of microarray analysis of samples with different content of DNA, low absolute limits of identification (20 DNA copies in microreactor), and high reproducibility of the analysis.

  1. DGGE and real-time PCR analysis of lactic acid bacteria in bacterial communities of the phyllosphere of lettuce.

    PubMed

    Zwielehner, Jutta; Handschur, Michael; Michaelsen, Astrid; Irez, Selen; Demel, Michael; Denner, Ewald B M; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2008-05-01

    Food associated indigenous microbial communities exert antagonistic effects on pathogens and may routinely deliver health relevant microorganisms to the GI tract. By using molecular, culture independent methods including PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA-coding regions and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) as well as BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting, microbial communities on lettuce were analyzed in samples from fields, from supermarkets and soil. Amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences (57.7%) could be assigned to species previously reported as typical for the phyllosphere including Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas flavescens, Moraxella spp., and Mycobacterium spp. 71.8% of the sequences obtained represented so far undescribed taxa. Principal component analysis of BIOLOG metabolic profiles indicated a seasonal variation in the lettuce phyllosphere microbial community structure. Various lactic acid bacteria were detected including several Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species in particular on lettuce from organic farming. By RT-PCR lactobacilli were found with a range of abundances from 1x10(4 )to 1x10(5 )copies/g lettuce. Considering the importance of salad in many diets lettuce may contribute to a constant supply with LAB.

  2. Evaluation of Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 reference genes in gene expression studies by qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanjuan; Tan, Yang; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaohua; Li, Fuli

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 is a promising platform organism for biofuel production from syngas. Gene expression analysis permits a better understanding of the important molecular biological characteristics of this organism, such as carbon fixation and solvent adaptation. Normalization is a prerequisite for accurate gene expression analysis, but until now, no valid reference genes have been proposed for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528. In this study, seven candidate reference genes (gyrA, rho, fotl, rpoA, gukl, recA, 16S rRNA) were selected for qRT-PCR quantification of their expression levels in various culture conditions that corresponded to different carbon sources and stresses. Two analytical programs, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate reference gene stability. The results showed that gyrA, rho and fotl exhibited the most stable expression levels across all tested samples and can be confidently used as reference genes to normalize the transcriptional data of target genes in qRT-PCR analyses of C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528. This study presents the first attempt to explore the validity of candidate reference genes and provide a set of valid reference genes for normalizing C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528 target gene expression and transcriptome analysis.

  3. Protocol for qRT-PCR analysis from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections from diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: Validation of the six-gene predictor score.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Nilgun; Omidvar, Nader; Morris, Tim Peter; Conget, Paulette; Bruna, Flavia; Timar, Botond; Gagyi, Eva; Basak, Ranjan; Naik, Omkar; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Sritana, Narongrit; Levy, Debora; Cerci, Juliano Julio; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Pereira, Juliana; Dimamay, Mark Pierre; Natividad, Filipinas; Chung, June-Key; Belder, Nevin; Kuzu, Isinsu; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio; Carr, Robert; Ozdag, Hilal; Padua, Rose Ann

    2016-12-13

    As a part of an international study on the molecular analysis of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), a robust protocol for gene expression analysis from RNA extraction to qRT-PCR using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded tissues was developed. Here a study was conducted to define a strategy to validate the previously reported 6-gene (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3 and BCL2) model as predictor of prognosis in DLBCL. To avoid variation, all samples were tested in a single centre and single platform. This study comprised 8 countries (Brazil, Chile, Hungary, India, Philippines, S. Korea, Thailand and Turkey). Using the Kaplan-Meier and log rank test on patients (n=162) and two mortality risk groups (with those above and below the mean representing high and low risk groups) confirmed that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with overall survival (OS, p<0.01) but not with event free survival (EFS, p=0.18). Adding the International Prognostic Index (IPI) shows that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with high IPI scores for OS (p<0.05), whereas those with low IPI scores show a trend not reaching significance (p=0.08). This study defined an effective and economical qRT-PCR strategy and validated the 6-gene score as a predictor of OS in an international setting.

  4. Protocol for qRT-PCR analysis from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections from diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: Validation of the six-gene predictor score

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Nilgun; Conget, Paulette; Bruna, Flavia; Timar, Botond; Gagyi, Eva; Basak, Ranjan; Naik, Omkar; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Sritana, Narongrit; Levy, Debora; Cerci, Juliano Julio; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Pereira, Juliana; Dimamay, Mark Pierre; Natividad, Filipinas; Chung, June-Key; Belder, Nevin; Kuzu, Isinsu; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio; Carr, Robert

    2016-01-01

    As a part of an international study on the molecular analysis of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), a robust protocol for gene expression analysis from RNA extraction to qRT-PCR using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded tissues was developed. Here a study was conducted to define a strategy to validate the previously reported 6-gene (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3 and BCL2) model as predictor of prognosis in DLBCL. To avoid variation, all samples were tested in a single centre and single platform. This study comprised 8 countries (Brazil, Chile, Hungary, India, Philippines, S. Korea, Thailand and Turkey). Using the Kaplan-Meier and log rank test on patients (n=162) and two mortality risk groups (with those above and below the mean representing high and low risk groups) confirmed that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with overall survival (OS, p<0.01) but not with event free survival (EFS, p=0.18). Adding the International Prognostic Index (IPI) shows that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with high IPI scores for OS (p<0.05), whereas those with low IPI scores show a trend not reaching significance (p=0.08). This study defined an effective and economical qRT-PCR strategy and validated the 6-gene score as a predictor of OS in an international setting. PMID:27825111

  5. Comparison of the Roche RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set with CDC A/H1N1pdm09 RT-PCR on samples from three hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Nguyen thi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Khanh, Trong Huu; Viet, Do Chau; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR can be considered the gold standard for detection of influenza viruses due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Roche has developed the RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set, consisting of a generic influenza virus A PCR targeting the M2 gene (M2 PCR) and a specific PCR targeting the HA of A/H1N1-pdm09 (HA PCR, 2009 H1N1), with the intention to make a reliable, rapid, and simple test to detect and quantify 2009 H1N1 in clinical samples. Methods We evaluated this kit against the USCDC/WHO real-time PCR for influenza virus using 419 nose and throat swabs from 210 patients collected in 3 large hospitals in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. Results In the per patient analysis, when compared to CDC PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the M2 PCR were 85.8 and 97.6%, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of HA PCR were 88.2 and 100%, respectively. In the per sample analysis, the sensitivity and specificity in nose swabs were higher than in throat swabs for both M2 and HA PCRs. The viral loads as determined with the M2 and HA PCRs correlated well with the Ct values of the CDC PCR. Conclusion Compared with the CDC PCR, the kit has a reasonable sensitivity and very good specificity for the detection and quantification of Influenza A virus and A/H1N1-pdm09. However, given the current status of 2009 H1N1, a kit that can detect all circulating seasonal influenza viruses would be preferable. PMID:22785431

  6. Prompt detection of influenza A and B viruses using the BD Veritor™ System Flu A+B, Quidel® Sofia® Influenza A+B FIA, and Alere BinaxNOW® Influenza A&B compared to real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jim; Obuekwe, Joy; Baun, Traci; Rogers, Justin; Patel, Twinkle; Snow, Linda

    2014-05-01

    The performance characteristics of rapid influenza diagnostic tests vary widely. This study evaluated the BD Veritor™ System Flu A+B (Veritor; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD, USA), Quidel® Sofia® Influenza A+B FIA (Sofia; Quidel Corp., San Diego, CA, USA), and Alere BinaxNOW® Influenza A&B (Binax; Alere Scarborough, Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA) compared to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of influenza viruses in nasal wash specimens from 240 pediatric patients. Positive percent agreements for influenza A and B virus detection were 93.8% and 94.2%, 95.8% and 98.1%, and 79.2% and 80.8% for Veritor, Sofia, and Binax, respectively. The Veritor and Binax tests demonstrated negative percent agreements >97.9% for detection of both influenza viruses, but the negative percent agreement of the Sofia test was 91.1% for influenza A and 70.7% for influenza B virus. Overall, the Veritor and Sofia tests were nearly as sensitive as RT-PCR and considerably more sensitive than Binax for detection of influenza viruses. However, the accuracy of the Sofia test was significantly lower than either Veritor or Binax.

  7. Salmonella detection from chicken rinsate with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and RT-PCR validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optical detection of bacteria has been approached in recent years as a bacteria detection method that can counter time restraints of traditional plating or the high reoccurring cost of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The goal of optical detection is to identify bacteria with spectral s...

  8. Toward Real Time Data Analysis for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian; Sharma, Poorva

    2012-11-10

    This paper describes the architecture and design of a novel system for supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components of the grid. As a result, the whole system becomes highly dynamic and requires constant adjusting based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMU) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can analyze this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in other cloud services, the data layer for smart grids has some unique design requirements. First, this layer must provide real time guarantees. Second, this layer must be scalable to allow a large number of applications to access the data from millions of sensors in real time. Third, reliability is critical and this layer must be able to continue to provide service in face of failures. Fourth, this layer must be secure. We address these challenges though a scalable system architecture that integrates the I/O and data processing capability in a devise set of devices. Data process operations can be placed anywhere from sensors, data storage devices, to control centers. We further employ compression to improve performance. We design a lightweight compression customized for power grid data. Our system can reduce end-to-end response time by reduce I/O overhead through compression and overlap compression operations with I/O. The initial prototype of our system was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and show that our system can provide real time guarantees to a diverse set of applications.

  9. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Spinsanti, Giacomo; Panti, Cristina; Lazzeri, Elisa; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Frati, Francesco; Fossi, Cristina Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers. Results Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs) were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) and S18 (RPS18) also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1) and β-2-microglobin (B2M) show variable expression among the studied

  10. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea. PMID:27314014

  11. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea.

  12. Real-Time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time GNSS networks are making a significant impact on our ability to forecast, assess, and mitigate the effects of geological hazards. I describe the activities of the Real-time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) working group. The group leverages 600+ real-time GPS stations in western North America operated by UNAVCO (PBO network), Central Washington University (PANGA), US Geological Survey & Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SCIGN project), UC Berkeley & US Geological Survey (BARD network), and the Pacific Geosciences Centre (WCDA project). Our goal is to demonstrate an earthquake and tsunami early warning system for western North America. Rapid response is particularly important for those coastal communities that are in the near-source region of large earthquakes and may have only minutes of warning time, and who today are not adequately covered by existing seismic and basin-wide ocean-buoy monitoring systems. The READI working group is performing comparisons of independent real time analyses of 1 Hz GPS data for station displacements and is participating in government-sponsored earthquake and tsunami exercises in the Western U.S. I describe a prototype seismogeodetic system using a cluster of southern California stations that includes GNSS tracking and collocation with MEMS accelerometers for real-time estimation of seismic velocity and displacement waveforms, which has advantages for improved earthquake early warning and tsunami forecasts compared to seismic-only or GPS-only methods. The READI working group's ultimate goal is to participate in an Indo-Pacific Tsunami early warning system that utilizes GNSS real-time displacements and ionospheric measurements along with seismic, near-shore buoys and ocean-bottom pressure sensors, where available, to rapidly estimate magnitude and finite fault slip models for large earthquakes, and then forecast tsunami source, energy scale, geographic extent, inundation and runup. This will require

  13. Real time analysis of multichannel data in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnands, T.; Parlange, F.; Couturier, B.; Moulin, D.

    1996-10-01

    Four different techniques for the fast analysis of multichannel data in plasma physics are discussed. All four of these techniques are general and sufficiently fast to be used in real time applications. Function parametrization, canonical correlation analysis and a neural network of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) type are compared with a unique linear mapping based on a singular value decomposition, which is used as a reference. Applications deal with the identification of the plasma boundary and some global plasma parameters in the DIII-D and the Tore Supra tokamaks by using magnetic measurements. The results of an MLP-1 neural network, employed for the real time plasma position determination in Tore Supra, are presented

  14. Differentiation of entC1 from entC2/entC3 with a single primer pair using simple and rapid SYBR Green-based RT-PCR melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Sowmya; Ramlal, Shylaja; Venkataswamachari, Bhavani Peddayelachagiri; Paul, Soumya; Kingston, Joseph; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2016-10-01

    In spite of their involvement in foodborne illness, the epidemiological relevance of staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) subtypes is poorly documented may be due to high sequence similarity. Among subtypes, SEC1, SEC2, and SEC3 exhibit more than 97 % homology because of which specific detection tools are seldom available to identify and differentiate them. In this study, a SYBR Green-based RT-PCR followed by melt curve analysis was developed for differentiation of entC1 from entC2/entC3 using a single primer pair. Nucleotide sequences of all three subtypes were analyzed using Clustal Omega program and the region with significant sequence variation/heterogeneity (where utmost SNPs were closely located and accessible for RT-PCR) was selected for amplification by designing a single primer pair that could amplify all three subtypes. In spite of same amplicon size, entC1 showed distinct melt peak at 76 °C. However, due to high similarity between entC2 and entC3, the developed format was deficient to discriminate between them and both showed melt peak at 82 °C. Reliability of developed RT-PCR was evaluated using various naturally contaminated samples and 91 food and clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates where satisfactory results were obtained in comparison with commercial immunoassay kit and conventional PCRs using validated primers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method being reported to differentiate entC1 from entC2/entC3 using single primer pair which is unachievable by conventional PCR due to same amplicon size. As benefits, the method is sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive with no requirement of fluorescent probes, multiple primers, and post-PCR procedures. Thus, the assay might find its utility as a detection tool in epidemiological survey of foodborne outbreaks for simultaneous identification and differentiation of entC1 from entC2/entC3.

  15. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. PMID:24999044

  16. Low-level processing for real-time image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskenazi, R.; Wilf, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A system that detects object outlines in television images in real time is described. A high-speed pipeline processor transforms the raw image into an edge map and a microprocessor, which is integrated into the system, clusters the edges, and represents them as chain codes. Image statistics, useful for higher level tasks such as pattern recognition, are computed by the microprocessor. Peak intensity and peak gradient values are extracted within a programmable window and are used for iris and focus control. The algorithms implemented in hardware and the pipeline processor architecture are described. The strategy for partitioning functions in the pipeline was chosen to make the implementation modular. The microprocessor interface allows flexible and adaptive control of the feature extraction process. The software algorithms for clustering edge segments, creating chain codes, and computing image statistics are also discussed. A strategy for real time image analysis that uses this system is given.

  17. Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mo; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analyses of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol articles have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

  18. Analysis of Three Real-Time Dst Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza-Fulmer, T. L.; Gannon, J. L.; Love, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Dst is commonly used to specify geomagnetic disturbance periods and characterize the resulting ring current enhancements from ground-based horizontal magnetic field intensity measurements. Real-time versions of the Dst index are produced for operational purposes, and are of interest to many users, including the US military, airline industry, and power companies. USGS Real time Dst, Kyoto Quicklook Dst, and Space Environment Corporation RDst use preliminary data and use a variety of contributing observatories and processing methods. Both USGS and RDst use a combined time-and-frequency domain method and Kyoto uses a time domain only method in creating the Dst index. We perform an analysis of these three real time Dst indices for the time period of October 1, 2009 to May 31, 2010. The USGS 3, using three observatories instead of the standard four, and the Kyoto Sym-H index, are introduced in the analysis for comparison of observatory location with the three main Dst indices. We present a statistical study of the differences due to algorithm, output time resolution, and location of contributing observatories. Higher time resolution shows higher frequency fluctuations during disturbances and more defined storm features. There were small differences in mid- to low-latitude observatories during quiet to moderate storm time periods. The average impact on the index due to the different algorithms used was approximately 9 nT, and greater for individual storms.

  19. Forensic Disaster Analysis in Near-real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Michael; Zschau, Jochen; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological and geophysical events are controlled by various factors including severity of the event (intensity, duration, spatial extent), amplification with other phenomena (multihazard or cascading effects), interdependencies of technical systems and infrastructure, preparedness and resilience of the society. The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) has adopted the comprehensive understanding of disasters and develops methodologies of near real-time FDA as a complementing component of the FORIN program of IRDR. The new research strategy 'Near Real-Time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA)' aims at scrutinizing disasters closely with a multi-disciplinary approach in order to assess the various aspects of disasters and to identify mechanisms most relevant for an extreme event to become a disaster (e.g., causal loss analysis). Recent technology developments - which have opened unprecedented opportunities for real-time hazard, vulnerability and loss assessment - are used for analyzing disasters and their impacts in combination with databases of historical events. The former covers modern empirical and analytical methods available in engineering and remote sensing for rapid impact assessments, rapid information extraction from crowd sourcing as well as rapid assessments of socio-economic impacts and economic losses. The event-driven science-based assessments of CEDIM are compiled based on interdisciplinary expertise and include the critical evaluation, assessment, validation, and quantification of an event. An important component of CEDIM's FDA is the near real-time approach which is expected to significantly speed up our understanding of natural disasters and be used to provide timely, relevant and valuable information to various user groups within their respective contexts. Currently, CEDIM has developed models and methodologies to assess different types of hazard. These approaches were applied to several

  20. Rapid and accurate typing of Bordetella pertussis targeting genes encoding acellular vaccine antigens using real time PCR and High Resolution Melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai-Fong; Maharjan, Ram P; Reeves, Peter R; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Lan, Ruiting

    2009-06-01

    Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) analyses were used for rapid typing of genes encoding components of the pertussis acellular vaccine, namely prn, ptxA, fhaB, fim2 and fim3. The length polymorphisms in prn were detected by RT-PCR followed by HRM; single nucleotide polymorphisms in prn and other genes were detected by hairpin primer RT-PCR. These rapid methods are suitable for large-scale studies of vaccine-driven evolution of Bordetella pertussis.

  1. Quantitative analysis of periodontal pathogens by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods enabling the accurate identification and enumeration of bacterial species colonizing the oral cavity has led to the identification of a small number of bacterial pathogens that are major factors in the etiology of periodontal disease. Further, these methods also underpin more recent epidemiological analyses of the impact of periodontal disease on general health. Given the complex milieu of over 700 species of microorganisms known to exist within the complex biofilms found in the oral cavity, the identification and enumeration of oral periodontopathogens has not been an easy task. In recent years however, some of the intrinsic limitations of the more traditional microbiological analyses previously used have been overcome with the advent of immunological and molecular analytical methods. Of the plethora of methodologies reported in the literature, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which combines the specificity of antibody with the sensitivity of simple enzyme assays and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been widely utilized in both laboratory and clinical applications. Although conventional PCR does not allow quantitation of the target organism, real-time PCR (rtPCR) has the ability to detect amplicons as they accumulate in "real time" allowing subsequent quantitation. These methods enable the accurate quantitation of as few as 10(2) (using rtPCR) to 10(4) (using ELISA) periodontopathogens in dental plaque samples.

  2. ISTAR: Intelligent System for Telemetry Analysis in Real-time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The intelligent system for telemetry analysis in real-time (ISTAR) is an advanced vehicle monitoring environment incorporating expert systems, analysis tools, and on-line hypermedia documentation. The system was developed for the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) in Los Angeles, California, in support of the inertial upper stage (IUS) booster vehicle. Over a five year period the system progressed from rapid prototype to operational system. ISTAR has been used to support five IUS missions and countless mission simulations. There were a significant number of lessons learned with respect to integrating an expert system capability into an existing ground system.

  3. Dating Concurrent Objects: Real-Time Modeling and Schedulability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Frank S.; Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi; Johnsen, Einar Broch

    In this paper we introduce a real-time extension of the concurrent object modeling language Creol which is based on duration statements indicating best and worst case execution times and deadlines. We show how to analyze schedulability of an abstraction of real-time concurrent objects in terms of timed automata. Further, we introduce techniques for testing the conformance between these behavioral abstractions and the executable semantics of Real-Time Creol in Real-Time Maude.

  4. Real Time Analysis: Does Navy Have a Plan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Information Dominance (ID) continues to rely on the collection of as much information as possible from the electromagnetic and cyber domains to conduct operations. However, with the increase in organic sensor data along with access to information that was currently outside Navy channels, data overload threatens the ability of the Navy to perform real time analysis. In the past three years the Navy ID community has chartered multiple roadmaps and vision documents nested within national policy to lead the way for decision superiority based on the information collected in the

  5. Near real-time seismic analysis using streaming software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Qin, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Bauer, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several decades we have seen increases in the amount and quality of data available for use in the identification and analysis of natural hazards. Concern for the early warning of natural hazards has also stimulated research and development of new technologies for high-speed processing of this data in real-time or near real-time. Remote sensing data are widely used, including seismic data recorded by regional seismograph networks, GPS data and satellite imagery collected and archived from a number of different sources. For the purposes of warning systems, this data must be considered from the perspective of three dimensions - volume, processing speed and data diversity. A stream processing data-centric programming model, where the data can be viewed as a stream of inputs and analyzed by algorithms structured into data flows and where processing elements are pipelined and parallelized, allows us to take all three dimensions into account. Here we develop innovative algorithm techniques for the near real-time analysis of seismic network data, based on the InfoSphere Streams stream processing environment from IBM running on a cloud computing platform, to produce automated ground-shaking maps for large events. The ground motion parameters selected for display in the ground-shaking maps include peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak velocity (PGV), pseudo acceleration (PSA) amplitude at periods of 0.1s, 0.3s and 1.0s, as well as instrumentally derived felt-intensity. Our work focuses on testing the process of acquiring seismic data from various networks around the world. We use synthetic catalogs that incorporate the quality and statistics of historic catalogs as well as seismic networks both from well-instrumented regions (California, Japan) and from areas with sparser, shorter data sets (Canada). The catalogs have been tested in order to quantify time, to produce estimates of earthquake magnitude and location, and to determine the optimal level of pipelining

  6. Computational balance in real-time cyclic spectral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.; Loomis, H.H. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Real-time cyclic spectral analysis is useful in many applications, but is difficult to achieve because of its computational complexity. This paper studies the distribution of complex multipliers in multiprocessor cyclic spectrum analyzers, with the objective of obtaining computational balance. Computationally balanced implementations efficiently use hardware so that computational bottlenecks are reduced and a smooth flow of data between computational sections of the analyzer is maintained. Tables are presented that give the number of complex multipliers required in each section of the analyzer to obtain computational balance.

  7. Real-time Stability Analysis for Disruption Avoidance in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Alexander; Kolemen, Egemen; Glasser, Alan

    2015-11-01

    ITER is intended to operate at plasma parameters approaching the frontier of achievable stability limits. And yet, plasma disruptions at ITER must be kept to a bare minimum to avoid damage to its plasma-facing structures. These competing goals necessitate real-time plasma stability analysis and feedback control at ITER. This work aims to develop a mechanism for real-time analysis of a large and virulent class of disruptions driven by the rapid growth of ideal MHD unstable modes in tokamak equilibria. Such modes will be identified by a parallelized, low-latency implementation of A.H. Glasser's well-tested DCON (Direct Criterion of Newcomb) code, which measures the energetics of modes in the bulk plasma fluid, as well as M.S. Chance's VACUUM code, which measures the same in the vacuum between the plasma and tokamak chamber wall. Parallelization of these codes is intended to achieve a time-savings of 40x, thereby reducing latency to a timescale of order 100ms and making the codes viable for ideal MHD stability control at ITER. The hardware used to achieve this parallelization will be an Intel Xeon Phi server with 77 cores (308 threads). Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Real time video analysis to monitor neonatal medical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Paydarfar, David; Indic, Premananda

    2017-05-01

    One in eight live births in the United States is premature and these infants have complications leading to life threatening events such as apnea (pauses in breathing), bradycardia (slowness of heart) and hypoxia (oxygen desaturation). Infant movement pattern has been hypothesized as an important predictive marker for these life threatening events. Thus estimation of movement along with behavioral states, as a precursor of life threatening events, can be useful for risk stratification of infants as well as for effective management of disease state. However, more important and challenging is the determination of the behavioral state of the infant. This information includes important cues such as sleep position and the status of the eyes, which are important markers for neonatal neurodevelopment state. This paper explores the feasibility of using real time video analysis to monitor the condition of premature infants. The image of the infant can be segmented into regions to localize and focus on specific areas of interest. Analysis of the segmented regions can be performed to identify different parts of the body including the face, arms, legs and torso. This is necessary due to real-time processing speed considerations. Such a monitoring system would be of great benefit as an aide to medical staff in neonatal hospital settings requiring constant surveillance. Any such system would have to satisfy extremely stringent reliability and accuracy requirements, before it can be deployed in a hospital care unit, due to obvious reasons. The effect of lighting conditions and interference will have to be mitigated to achieve such performance.

  9. Real-time Analysis of Lateral Root Organogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Marhavý, Peter; Benková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Plants maintain capacity to form new organs such as leaves, flowers, lateral shoots and roots throughout their postembryonic lifetime. Lateral roots (LRs) originate from a few pericycle cells that acquire attributes of founder cells (FCs), undergo series of anticlinal divisions, and give rise to a few short initial cells. After initiation, coordinated cell division and differentiation occur, giving rise to lateral root primordia (LRP). Primordia continue to grow, emerge through the cortex and epidermal layers of the primary root, and finally a new apical meristem is established taking over the responsibility for growth of mature lateral roots [for detailed description of the individual stages of lateral root organogenesis see Malamy and Benfey (1997)]. To examine this highly dynamic developmental process and to investigate a role of various hormonal, genetic and environmental factors in the regulation of lateral root organogenesis, the real time imaging based analyses represent extremely powerful tools (Laskowski et al., 2008; De Smet et al., 2012; Marhavý et al., 2013 and 2014). Herein, we describe a protocol for real time lateral root primordia (LRP) analysis, which enables the monitoring of an onset of the specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during primordia organogenesis, as well as the evaluation of the impact of genetic and environmental perturbations on LRP organogenesis. PMID:27331080

  10. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions

    SciTech Connect

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-15

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. - Highlights: • We introduce four methods for virus particle-based quantification of viruses. • They allow for quantification of a wide range of samples in under an hour time. • The additional measurement of size and zeta potential is possible for some.

  11. Implementation and Analysis of Real-Time Streaming Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-01-01

    Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay. PMID:28417949

  12. Implementation and Analysis of Real-Time Streaming Protocols.

    PubMed

    Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-04-12

    Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay.

  13. Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan; Duong, Vu

    2005-01-01

    Dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN) is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) that is well suited for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, this method offers a greater rate of learning convergence. Like the prior method, DOGEDYN can be implemented in software. However, the main advantage of DOGEDYN over the prior method lies in the facts that it requires less computation and can be implemented in simpler hardware. It should be possible to implement DOGEDYN in compact, low-power, very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry that could process data in real time.

  14. Space Shuttle telemetry analysis by a real time expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    1987-01-01

    During early manned spacecraft operations, the primary role of ground telemetry systems was data display to flight controllers. As manned spaceflights have increased in complexity, greater demands have been placed on flight controllers to simultaneously monitor systems and replan systems operations. This has led to interest in automated telemetry monitoring systems to decrease the workload on flight controllers. The Mission Operations Directorate at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center has developed a five layer model to integrate various monitoring and analysis technologies such as digital filtering, fault detection algorithms, and expert systems. The paper describes the five layer model and explains how it has been used to guide prototyping efforts at Mission Control. Results from some initial expert systems are presented. The paper also describes the integrated prototype currently under development which implements a real time expert system to assist flight controllers in the Mission Control Center in monitoring Space Shuttle communications systems.

  15. Space Shuttle telemetry analysis by a real time expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    1987-01-01

    During early manned spacecraft operations, the primary role of ground telemetry systems was data display to flight controllers. As manned spaceflights have increased in complexity, greater demands have been placed on flight controllers to simultaneously monitor systems and replan systems operations. This has led to interest in automated telemetry monitoring systems to decrease the workload on flight controllers. The Mission Operations Directorate at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center has developed a five layer model to integrate various monitoring and analysis technologies such as digital filtering, fault detection algorithms, and expert systems. The paper describes the five layer model and explains how it has been used to guide prototyping efforts at Mission Control. Results from some initial expert systems are presented. The paper also describes the integrated prototype currently under development which implements a real time expert system to assist flight controllers in the Mission Control Center in monitoring Space Shuttle communications systems.

  16. VLBI real-time analysis by Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Ciuxian; Xu, Minghui; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques. It provides the full set of Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1) and precession/nutation. Currently the VLBI products are delivered with a delay of about two weeks from the moment of the observation. However, the need for near-real time estimates of the parameters is increasing, e.g. for satellite based navigation and positioning or for enabling precise tracking of interplanetary spacecraft. The goal is thus to reduce the time span between observation and the final result to less than one day. This can be archived by replacing the classical least squares method with an adaptive Kalman filter. We have developed a Kalman filter for VLBI data analysis. This method has the advantage that it is simultaneously possible to estimate stationary parameters, e.g. station positions, and to model the highly variable stochastic behavior of non-stationary parameters like clocks or atmospheric parameters. The filter is able to perform without any human interaction, making it a completely autonomous tool. In this work we describe the filter and discuss its application for EOP determination and prediction. We discuss the implementation of the stochastic models to statistically account for unpredictable changes in EOP. Furthermore, additional data like results from other techniques can be included to improve the performance. For example, atmospheric angular momentum calculated from numerical weather models can be introduced to supplement the short-term prediction of UT1 and polar motion. This Kalman filter will be extended and embedded in the newly developed Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely autonomous tool enabling the VLBI analysis in near real-time and providing all the parameters of interest with the highest possible accuracy.

  17. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the mouse uterus in the peri-implantation period.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Lan, Xiangli; Chen, Fenglei; Yang, Yanzhou; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2013-01-01

    The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance; however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. This study employs several mouse models, including an early pregnancy, a pseudopregnancy, a delayed implantation and activation, an artificial decidualization and a hormonal treatment model; ten candidate reference genes (PPIA, RPLP0, HPRT1, GAPDH, ACTB, TBP, B2M, 18S, UBC and TUBA) that are found in uterine tissues were assessed for their suitability as internal controls for relative qRT-PCR quantification. GeNorm(PLUS), NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate these candidate reference genes, and all of these methods identified RPLP0 and GAPDH as the most stable candidates and B2M and 18S as the least stable candidates. However, when the different models were analyzed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels.

  18. Petroleomics by Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Romão, Wanderson; Tose, Lilian V; Vaz, Boniek G; Sama, Sara G; Lobinski, Ryszard; Giusti, Pierre; Carrier, Hervé; Bouyssiere, Brice

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of crude oil and its fractions by applying ambient ionization techniques remains underexplored in mass spectrometry (MS). Direct analysis in real time (DART) in the positive-ion mode was coupled to a linear quadrupole ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap) to analyze crude oil, paraffin samples, and porphyrin standard compounds. The ionization parameters of DART-MS were optimized for crude oil analysis. DART-MS rendered the optimum conditions of the operation using paper as the substrate, T = 400°C, helium as the carrier gas, and a sample concentration ≥6 mg mL(-1). In the crude oils analysis, the DART(+)-Orbitrap mass spectra detected the typical N, NO, and O-containing compounds. In the paraffin samples, oxidized hydrocarbon species (Ox classes, where x = 1-4) with double-bond equivalent of 1-4 were detected, and their structures and connectivity were confirmed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. DART(+)-MS has identified the porphyrin standard compounds as [M + H](+) ions of m/z 615.2502 and 680.1763, where M = C44H30N4 and C44H28N4OV, respectively, based on the formula assignment and by phenyl losses observed on CID experiments.

  19. Automatic traffic real-time analysis system based on video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Liya; Liu, Jilin; Zhou, Qubo; Wang, Rengrong

    2003-05-01

    Automatic traffic analysis is very important in the modern world with heavy traffic. It can be achieved in numerous ways, among them, detection and analysis through video system, being able to provide affluent information and having little disturbance to the traffic, is an ideal choice. The proposed traffic vision analysis system uses Image Acquisition Card to capture real time images of the traffic scene through video camera, and then exploits the sequence of traffic scene and the image processing and analysis technique to detect the presence and movement of vehicles. First getting rid of the complex traffic background, which is always changing, the system segment each vehicle in the region the user interested. The system extracts features from each vehicle and tracks them through the image sequence. Combined with calibration, the system calculates information of the traffic, such as the speed of the vehicles, their types, the volume of flow, the traffic density, the waiting length of the lanes, the turning information of the vehicles, and so on. Traffic congestion and vehicles" shadows are disturbing problems of the vehicle detection, segmentation and tracking. So we make great effort to investigate on methods to dealing with them.

  20. Padlock probe-mediated qRT-PCR for DNA computing answer determination

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fusheng; Frasch, Wayne D.

    2011-01-01

    Padlock probe-mediated quantitative real time PCR (PLP-qRT-PCR) was adapted to quantify the abundance of sequential 10mer DNA sequences for use in DNA computing to identify optimal answers of traveling salesman problems. The protocol involves: (i) hybridization of a linear PLP with a target DNA sequence; (ii) PLP circularization through enzymatic ligation; and (iii) qRT-PCR amplification of the circularized PLP after removal of non-circularized templates. The linear PLP was designed to consist of two 10-mer sequence-detection arms at the 5′ and 3′ ends separated by a core sequence composed of universal PCR primers, and a qRT-PCR reporter binding site. Circularization of each PLP molecule is dependent upon hybridization with target sequence and high-fidelity ligation. Thus, the number of PLP circularized is determined by the abundance of target in solution. The amplification efficiency of the PLP was 98.7% within a 0.2 pg–20 ng linear detection range between thermal cycle threshold (Ct value) and target content. The Ct values derived from multiplex qRT-PCR upon three targets did not differ significantly from those obtained with singleplex assays. The protocol provides a highly sensitive and efficient means for the simultaneous quantification of multiple short nucleic acid sequences that has a wide range of applications in biotechnology. PMID:21691417

  1. Real-time quadtree analysis using HistoPyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Gernot; Dimitrov, Rouslan; Theobalt, Christian; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    2007-02-01

    Region quadtrees are convenient tools for hierarchical image analysis. Like the related Haar wavelets, they are simple to generate within a fixed calculation time. The clustering at each resolution level requires only local data, yet they deliver intuitive classification results. Although the region quadtree partitioning is very rigid, it can be rapidly computed from arbitrary imagery. This research article demonstrates how graphics hardware can be utilized to build region quadtrees at unprecedented speeds. To achieve this, a data-structure called HistoPyramid registers the number of desired image features in a pyramidal 2D array. Then, this HistoPyramid is used as an implicit indexing data structure through quadtree traversal, creating lists of the registered image features directly in GPU memory, and virtually eliminating bus transfers between CPU and GPU. With this novel concept, quadtrees can be applied in real-time video processing on standard PC hardware. A multitude of applications in image and video processing arises, since region quadtree analysis becomes a light-weight preprocessing step for feature clustering in vision tasks, motion vector analysis, PDE calculations, or data compression. In a sidenote, we outline how this algorithm can be applied to 3D volume data, effectively generating region octrees purely on graphics hardware.

  2. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses in calcium-channel blockers induced gingival overgrowth tissues of periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Kubota, Takehiko; Nakasone, Naohiro; Abe, Daisuke; Morozumi, Toshiya; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse transcriptomes and mRNA expression levels for specific genes in calcium-channel blocker-induced gingival overgrowth (GO) tissues. Eight gingival tissues samples (from both GO negative and positive sites) were harvested from four GO patients for microarray analyses. Twelve candidate genes were selected for further quantitative real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses. Ten GO tissues from periodontitis patients and ten control gingival tissues from healthy subjects were compared by qRT-PCR. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical evaluation. In GO positive tissues, 163-1631 up-regulated and 100-695 down-regulated genes were identified with more than two-fold changes compared with GO negative tissues amongst patients by microarray experiments. No commonly expressed genes amongst the eight sets of microarray data were found. The clustering analysis confirmed that the entire transcriptome patterns showed similarities in individuals, but differences amongst the four patients. The qRT-PCR and statistical analyses for the candidate genes, though, revealed differential gene expressions between GO-positive and negative tissues. We found that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-12 as well as cathepsin-L were significantly up-regulated whilst keratin-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly down-regulated in GO tissues of periodontitis patients compared with the control gingival tissues of healthy subjects. The microarray analyses revealed that GO pathogenesis was complex and individually varied, though GO-affected gingival tissues were controlled at least by genes related to collagen metabolisms including regulated MMPs, cathepsin-L, growth factors, and keratins to maintain tissue homeostasis in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cluster Computing For Real Time Seismic Array Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, M.; Giudicepietro, F.

    A seismic array is an instrument composed by a dense distribution of seismic sen- sors that allow to measure the directional properties of the wavefield (slowness or wavenumber vector) radiated by a seismic source. Over the last years arrays have been widely used in different fields of seismological researches. In particular they are applied in the investigation of seismic sources on volcanoes where they can be suc- cessfully used for studying the volcanic microtremor and long period events which are critical for getting information on the volcanic systems evolution. For this reason arrays could be usefully employed for the volcanoes monitoring, however the huge amount of data produced by this type of instruments and the processing techniques which are quite time consuming limited their potentiality for this application. In order to favor a direct application of arrays techniques to continuous volcano monitoring we designed and built a small PC cluster able to near real time computing the kinematics properties of the wavefield (slowness or wavenumber vector) produced by local seis- mic source. The cluster is composed of 8 Intel Pentium-III bi-processors PC working at 550 MHz, and has 4 Gigabytes of RAM memory. It runs under Linux operating system. The developed analysis software package is based on the Multiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm and is written in Fortran. The message-passing part is based upon the LAM programming environment package, an open-source imple- mentation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The developed software system includes modules devote to receiving date by internet and graphical applications for the continuous displaying of the processing results. The system has been tested with a data set collected during a seismic experiment conducted on Etna in 1999 when two dense seismic arrays have been deployed on the northeast and the southeast flanks of this volcano. A real time continuous acquisition system has been simulated by

  4. Real-time gait analysis for diagnosing movement disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard D.; Guan, Ling; Burne, J. A.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a video analysis system, free of markers and set-up procedures, that quantitatively identified gait abnormalities in real-time from standard video images. A novel color 3D body model was sized and texture mapped to the exact characteristics of a person from video images. The kinematics of the body model was represented by a transformation tree to track the position and orientation of a person relative to the camera. Joint angles were used to track the location and orientation of each body part, with the range of joint angles being constrained by associating degrees of freedom with each joint. To stabilize tracking, the joint angles were estimated for the next frame. The calculation of joint angles, for the next frame, was cast as an estimation problem which was solved using an iterated extended Kalman filter. Patients with dopa-responsive parkinsonism, and age matched normals, were video taped during several gait cycles with walking movements successfully tracked and classified. The results suggested that this approach has the potential to guide clinicians on the relative sensitivity of specific postural/gait features in diagnosis.

  5. Dimensional analysis of blood vessel images in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter R.; Eustaquio-Martin, Almudena; Thomason, Harry; Bennett, M.; Thurston, H.

    1996-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of dissected blood vessels are studied by perfusion myography combined with video microscopy. Images of the vessels are formed under diffuse white light illumination and contrast is achieved by differential absorption with respect to the vessel wall. To obtain the vessel dimensional information in quasi real time an edge-tracking algorithm is used, allowing the edges to be found by applying common image processing tools to a very small number of pixels rather than the whole image. Employing a low order optical model of the light transmission properties of vessels with circular cross section, a relationship between the positions of edges found by a typical image processing algorithm and actual dimensions is derived. The dimensional analysis is demonstrated on rat mesenteric resistance arteries (internal diameter less than 300 micrometer) mounted in a perfusion arteriograph. Segments of vessels are secured on two glass cannulae using single strands of a nylon braided suture. The artery is perfused with physiological salt solution and the perfusion pressure maintained at 60 mmHg before starting the experiment. Changes in vascular diameter to the vasoconstrictor noradrenaline and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine were then observed.

  6. Predicting Gene Structures from Multiple RT-PCR Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, Jakub; Vinař, Tomáš; Brejová, Broňa

    It has been demonstrated that the use of additional information such as ESTs and protein homology can significantly improve accuracy of gene prediction. However, many sources of external information are still being omitted from consideration. Here, we investigate the use of product lengths from RT-PCR experiments in gene finding. We present hardness results and practical algorithms for several variants of the problem and apply our methods to a real RT-PCR data set in the Drosophila genome. We conclude that the use of RT-PCR data can improve the sensitivity of gene prediction and locate novel splicing variants.

  7. Misidentification of Bordetella bronchiseptica as Bordetella pertussis using a Newly Described RT-PCR Targeting the Pertactin Gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently a real-time PCR (RT-PCT) assay based on sequence from the gene for pertactin was proposed for identification of Bordetella pertussis. Here we report that the B. pertussis pertactin gene sequence for the region encompassing the RT-PCR probe and primers is nearly identical to that of many B....

  8. Eye tracker uncertainty analysis and modelling in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaser, A.; De Cecco, M.; Leuci, M.; Conci, N.; Daldoss, M.; Armanini, A.; Maule, L.; De Natale, F.; Da Lio, M.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques for tracking the eyes took place since several decades for different applications that range from military, to education, entertainment and clinics. The existing systems are in general of two categories: precise but intrusive or comfortable but less accurate. The idea of this work is to calibrate an eye tracker of the second category. In particular we have estimated the uncertainty both in nominal and in case of variable operating conditions. We took into consideration different influencing factors such as: head movement and rotation, eyes detected, target position on the screen, illumination and objects in front of the eyes. Results proved that the 2D uncertainty can be modelled as a circular confidence interval as far as there is no stable principal directions in both the systematic and the repeatability effects. This confidence region was also modelled as a function of the current working conditions. In this way we can obtain a value of the uncertainty that is a function of the operating condition estimated in real time opening the field to new applications that reconfigure the human machine interface as a function of the operating conditions. Examples can range from option buttons reshape, local zoom dynamically adjusted, speed optimization to regulate interface responsiveness, the possibility to take into account the uncertainty associated to a particular interaction. Furthermore, in the analysis of visual scanning patterns, the resulting Point of Regard maps would be associated with proper confidence levels thus allowing to draw accurate conclusions. We conducted an experimental campaign to estimate and validate the overall modelling procedure obtaining valid results in 86% of the cases.

  9. ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME VEHICLE HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyses using real-time dynamometer test emissions data from 13 passenger cars to examine variations in emissions during different speeds or modes of travel. The resulting data provided a way to separately identify idle, cruise, acceleration, and dece...

  10. Real-Time Case Method: Analysis of a Second Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theroux, James M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, M. Hopkins and J. Theroux implemented the second example of an experimental case study, at 11 business schools in the United States and Canada. The new type of case study, named the "real-time case (RTC) study," uses the Internet to bring business reality to business courses and to facilitate communication among faculty,…

  11. ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME VEHICLE HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyses using real-time dynamometer test emissions data from 13 passenger cars to examine variations in emissions during different speeds or modes of travel. The resulting data provided a way to separately identify idle, cruise, acceleration, and dece...

  12. Prognostic Value of RT-PCR Tyrosinase Detection in Peripheral Blood of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Esmeralda; Prados, José; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Boulaiz, Houria; Martínez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando; Caba, Octavio; Serrano, Salvio; Aránega, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) prognosis has been related to tumour thickness and clinical stage and metastasis risk has been associated with presence of tumour cells in peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between presence of tyrosinase in peripheral blood of MM patients and their clinical prognosis. Blood samples from 58 MM patients (stage I–IV) were analysed, using RT-PCR assay to detect tyrosinase mRNA. The results showed that positive RT-PCR assay for tyrosinase were significantly associated with clinical status and tumour thickness. After a median follow-up of 24 months, RT-PCR results were found to be significant correlated with recurrence (p < 0.05) and clinical stage III (p < 0.05). Separate analysis of stage III tumours to determine the prognostic value of tyrosinase presence in peripheral blood showed an overall 24-month survival rate of 70% in the RT-PCR negative group versus 10% in the positive group (p < 0.02). These results suggest that detection of circulating melanoma cells may be especially relevant in stage III patients, in whom RT-PCR positivity defines a subpopulation at high risk of recurrence. PMID:16788251

  13. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  14. Critical analysis of rhinovirus RNA load quantification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Manuel; Yerly, Sabine; Vieille, Gaël; Docquier, Mylène; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of human respiratory infections, and quantitative rhinovirus diagnostic tools are needed for clinical investigations. Although results obtained by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays are frequently converted to viral RNA loads, this presents several limitations regarding accurate virus RNA quantification, particularly given the need to reliably quantify all known rhinovirus genotypes with a single assay. Using an internal extraction control and serial dilutions of an in vitro-transcribed rhinovirus RNA reference standard, we validated a quantitative one-step real-time PCR assay. We then used chimeric rhinovirus genomes with 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs) originating from the three rhinovirus species and from one enterovirus to estimate the impact of the 5'UTR diversity. Respiratory specimens from infected patients were then also analyzed. The assay quantification ability ranged from 4.10 to 9.10 log RNA copies/ml, with an estimated error margin of ±10%. This variation was mainly linked to target variability and interassay variability. Taken together, our results indicate that our assay can reliably estimate rhinovirus RNA load, provided that the appropriate error margin is used. In contrast, due to the lack of a universal rhinovirus RNA standard and the variability related to sample collection procedures, accurate absolute rhinovirus RNA quantification in respiratory specimens is currently hardly feasible.

  15. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  16. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  17. The transcription analysis of duck enteritis virus UL49.5 gene using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Gao, Xinghong; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2013-10-01

    Duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL49.5 encoding glycoprotein N was a conserved gene. The transcription dynamic process of UL49.5 homologous genes in herpesviruses was reported. However, the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene has not yet been established. In this study, a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) assay was established to test the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene, and the recombinant plasmid pUCm-T/UL49.5 was constructed as the standard DNA. The samples prepared from DEV-infected (at different time points) and uninfected cell were detected and calculated. The results demonstrated that the real-time qRT-PCR assay was successfully established. The transcription product of DEV UL49.5 gene was first detected at 0.5 h post infection (p.i.), increased at 8 h p.i. and reached a peak at 60 h p.i. Our results illustrated that DEV UL49.5 gene could be regarded as a late gene. The transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene may provide a significant clue for further studies of DEV UL49.5 gene.

  18. Real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Di Giulio, Camillo

    2015-04-01

    Centenarians are a model to study human longevity and the physiological process of aging. A plethora of studies on this model show the complexity of the system. Laboratory studies fail to find a biomarker of senescence. The real time exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. VOCs exhaled by centenarians have not been studied in the general population and across-age-groups. In the present study we investigated, in real time, the breath properties and VOC exhaled content in healthy centenarians as compared with non-centenarian seniors and young healthy subjects. We found distinctly different breath pattern and distribution profiles of VOCs in the centenarians. Thus, the VOCs measurement allowed to discriminate the differences between the age-groups. We propose a VOCs fingerprint as a biomarker underlying the physiological mechanisms of aging and longevity. Longevity should be considered physiologically as a new phase of life, characteristic of the well adapted subject. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in Diagnosis of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Javaid; Khan, Saleem Ahmed; Rauf, Shan -E-; Ayyub, Muhammad; Ali, Nadir; Afridi, Nabeel Khan

    2017-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the diagnosis of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). A cross-sectional, analytical study. Haematology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2012 to February 2014. A total number of 87 patients of CML were studied. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical history, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration. These patients were tested for the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene by RT-PCR and FISH. About 5 ml of venous blood was collected, half was taken in heparin for FISH and half in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) for CBC and PCR. For FISH, cells were cultured for 24 hours in RPMI 1640 medium and evaluated using BX51 fluorescence microscope for dual fusion signal of yellow colour. Samples having 20 or more interphases positive for dual fusion signals were taken as positive. For PCR, RNA extraction was done by Tri-Reagent LS (MRC, USA) and cDNA was synthesized using reverse transcriptase and gene specific primer. RT-PCR was done on ABI-7500. The positive samples were identified when fluorescence exceeded threshold limit. Results of RT-PCR and FISH were compared. Out of the 87 patients, 85 (97.7%) were PCR positive and 2 (2.3%) were PCR negative, whereas in FISH 83 (95.4%) were positive and 4 (4.5%) were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of FISH was 97.6% and 100%, respectively. FISH is a reliable supplementary method to PCR for detection of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in the diagnosis of CML.

  20. How Many Microorganisms Are Present? Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andy; Álvarez, Laura Acuña; Whitby, Corinne; Larsen, Jan

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a variation of conventional quantitative or real-time PCR, whereby mRNA is first converted into the complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription, the cDNA is then subsequently quantified by qPCR. The use of mRNA as the initial template allows the quantification of gene transcripts, rather than gene copy numbers. mRNA is only produced by actively metabolising cells and is produced by its corresponding gene to provide a 'blueprint' in order for a cell to manufacture a specific protein. Conventional qPCR detects not only DNA present in actively metabolising cells but also inactive and dead cells. qRT-PCR has the advantage that only actively metabolising cells are detected, hence provides a more reliable measure of microbial activity in oilfield samples. When qRT-PCR is combined with primers and probes for specific genes, the activity of microbial processes important in the oilfield, such as sulphate reduction, methanogenesis and nitrate reduction can be monitored.

  1. Testing and error analysis of a real-time controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savolaine, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Inexpensive ways to organize and conduct system testing that were used on a real-time satellite network control system are outlined. This system contains roughly 50,000 lines of executable source code developed by a team of eight people. For a small investment of staff, the system was thoroughly tested, including automated regression testing, before field release. Detailed records were kept for fourteen months, during which several versions of the system were written. A separate testing group was not established, but testing itself was structured apart from the development process. The errors found during testing are examined by frequency per subsystem by size and complexity as well as by type. The code was released to the user in March, 1983. To date, only a few minor problems found with the system during its pre-service testing and user acceptance has been good.

  2. Real Time Analysis and Display of Aircraft Approach Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring and comparing, in real time, performance of an aircraft during an approach to touchdown along a conventional approach path and along a contemplated modified approach path to touchdown. In a first procedure, a flight parameter value at a selected location is compared and displayed, for the planned path and for the modified path. In a second procedure, flight parameter values FP(t(sub m)) at a sequence (t(sub n)}n, of measurement times is compared and displayed, for the planned path and for a contemplated or presently-executed modified path. If the flight parameter for the planned path and for the modified path differ too much from each other, the pilot in command has an option of terminating the approach along the modified path.

  3. Testing and error analysis of a real-time controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savolaine, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Inexpensive ways to organize and conduct system testing that were used on a real-time satellite network control system are outlined. This system contains roughly 50,000 lines of executable source code developed by a team of eight people. For a small investment of staff, the system was thoroughly tested, including automated regression testing, before field release. Detailed records were kept for fourteen months, during which several versions of the system were written. A separate testing group was not established, but testing itself was structured apart from the development process. The errors found during testing are examined by frequency per subsystem by size and complexity as well as by type. The code was released to the user in March, 1983. To date, only a few minor problems found with the system during its pre-service testing and user acceptance has been good.

  4. RT-PCR detection of HIV in Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Dokić, Eleni; Grunevska, Violeta

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to detect HIV RNA in seropositive patients using RT-PCR method and thus, to establish PCR methodology in the routine laboratory works. The total of 33 examined persons were divided in two groups: 1) 13 persons seropositive for HIV; and 2) 20 healthy persons - randomly selected blood donors that made the case control group. The subjects age was between 25 and 52 years (average 38,5). ELFA test for combined detection of HIV p24 antigen and anti HIV-1+2 IgG and ELISA test for detection of antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2, were performed for each examined person. RNA from the whole blood was extracted using a commercial kit based on salt precipitation. Detection of HIV RNA was performed using RT-PCR kit. Following nested PCR, the product was separated by electrophoresis in 1,5 % agarose gel. The result was scored positive if the band of 210bp was visible regardless of intensity. Measures of precaution were taken during all the steps of the work and HIV infected materials were disposed of accordingly. In the group of blood donors ELFA, ELISA and RT-PCR were negative. Assuming that prevalence of HIV infection is zero, the clinical specificity of RT-PCR is 100 %. The analytical specificity of RT-PCR method was tested against Hepatitis C and B, Human Papiloma Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Rubella Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis. None of these templates yielded amplicon. In the group of 13 seropositive persons, 33 samples were analyzed. HIV RNA was detected in 15 samples. ELISA and ELFA test were positive in all samples. Different aliquots of the samples were tested independently and showed the same results. After different periods of storing the RNA samples at -70 masculineC, RT-PCR reaction was identical to the one performed initially. The obtained amplicons were maintained frozen at -20 masculineC for a week and the subsequently performed electrophoresis was identical to the previous one. The reaction is

  5. Further improvement and validation of MagMAX-96 AI/ND viral RNA isolation for efficient removal of RT-PCR inhibitors from cloacal swabs and tissues for rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus by RT reverse transcription PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) is a high throughput molecular diagnostic test used for rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical samples. However the performance of RRT-PCR can be adversely affected by RT-PCR inhibitors present in the sample. The tested commercial RNA extraction kits ...

  6. Performance of Simplexa dengue molecular assay compared to conventional and SYBR green RT-PCR for detection of dengue infection in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sasmono, R Tedjo; Aryati, Aryati; Wardhani, Puspa; Yohan, Benediktus; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Fahri, Sukmal; Setianingsih, Tri Y; Meutiawati, Febrina

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic tests based on detection of dengue virus (DENV) genome are available with varying sensitivities and specificities. The Simplexa Dengue assay (Focus Diagnostics) is a newly developed real-time RT-PCR method designed to detect and serotype DENV simultaneously. To assess the performance of the Simplexa Dengue assay, we performed comparison with conventional RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR on patients sera isolated from eight cities across Indonesia, a dengue endemic country. A total of 184 sera that were confirmed using NS1 and/or IgM and IgG ELISA were examined. Using conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, we detected DENV in 53 (28.8%) and 81 (44.0%) out of 184 sera, respectively. When the Simplexa Dengue assay was employed, the detection rate was increased to 76.6% (141 out of 184 samples). When tested in 40 sera that were confirmed by virus isolation as the gold standard, the conventional RT-PCR yielded 95% sensitivity while the sensitivity of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR and Simplexa Dengue assay reached 97.5% and 100%, respectively. The specificities of all methods were 100% when tested in 43 non-dengue illness and 20 healthy human samples. Altogether, our data showed the higher detection rate of Simplexa Dengue compared to conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR in field/surveillance setting. In conclusion, Simplexa Dengue offers rapid and accurate detection and typing of dengue infection and is suitable for both routine diagnostic and surveillance.

  7. Performance of Simplexa Dengue Molecular Assay Compared to Conventional and SYBR Green RT-PCR for Detection of Dengue Infection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Wardhani, Puspa; Yohan, Benediktus; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Fahri, Sukmal; Setianingsih, Tri Y.; Meutiawati, Febrina

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic tests based on detection of dengue virus (DENV) genome are available with varying sensitivities and specificities. The Simplexa Dengue assay (Focus Diagnostics) is a newly developed real-time RT-PCR method designed to detect and serotype DENV simultaneously. To assess the performance of the Simplexa Dengue assay, we performed comparison with conventional RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR on patients sera isolated from eight cities across Indonesia, a dengue endemic country. A total of 184 sera that were confirmed using NS1 and/or IgM and IgG ELISA were examined. Using conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, we detected DENV in 53 (28.8%) and 81 (44.0%) out of 184 sera, respectively. When the Simplexa Dengue assay was employed, the detection rate was increased to 76.6% (141 out of 184 samples). When tested in 40 sera that were confirmed by virus isolation as the gold standard, the conventional RT-PCR yielded 95% sensitivity while the sensitivity of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR and Simplexa Dengue assay reached 97.5% and 100%, respectively. The specificities of all methods were 100% when tested in 43 non-dengue illness and 20 healthy human samples. Altogether, our data showed the higher detection rate of Simplexa Dengue compared to conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR in field/surveillance setting. In conclusion, Simplexa Dengue offers rapid and accurate detection and typing of dengue infection and is suitable for both routine diagnostic and surveillance. PMID:25102066

  8. Real-time analysis of incinerator emissions: The missing link

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    1994-11-01

    Incineration has long been, and continues to be, one of the most cost-effective technologies for disposing of the world's growing volume of municipal and hazardous waste. Yet anyone who has been involved in an attempt to site an incinerator in recent years knows the political nightmare this process has become. The public has become extremely suspicious of the health and environmental impact of incinerators, and not without reason. Incinerators have been known to release unacceptably high levels of toxic substances into the air, including dioxins, furans, and other pollutants. Worse, there are no monitoring devices that can continuously measure trace gases in incinerator emissions to allow operators to know exactly what substances are being released and allow for quick corrective action. To address the problems, several teams of university scientists are developing techniques for real-time emissions monitoring that may simultaneously allow industry to operate incinerators in the most efficient manner and assure the public that their health is being protected.

  9. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B J; Baker, B R; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; Reid, S M; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; King, D P

    2007-09-18

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay (Multiplex Version 1.0) was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRTPCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  10. Detection of nine respiratory RNA viruses using three multiplex RT-PCR assays incorporating a novel RNA internal control transcript.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Helen; Zuckerman, Mark; Broughton, Simon; Greenough, Anne; Smith, Melvyn

    2011-09