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Sample records for realistic delivery conditions

  1. Pulmonary vaccine delivery: a realistic approach?

    PubMed

    Tonnis, Wouter F; Kersten, Gideon F; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; de Boer, Anne H; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary vaccine delivery has gained increasing attention during the last decade because this vaccination method combines potential advantages such as the fact that it omits the use of needles and may elicit immunity at the port of entry for many pathogens. In this review the current status of pulmonary vaccination, the potential advantages of pulmonary vaccine delivery, the hurdles to overcome in the future, and the overall perspectives of this vaccination strategy are described.

  2. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA s) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol s Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than is possible today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, is one way to achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy that produces a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on a specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when an ADS-B signal is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS un-der these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  3. Realistic loading conditions for upper body bending.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, A; Zander, T; Rao, M; Bergmann, G

    2009-05-11

    Different modes of load applications are used to simulate flexion and extension of the upper body. It is not clear which loading modes deliver realistic results and allow the comparison of different studies. In a numerical study, a validated finite element model of the lumbar spine, ranging from the vertebra L1 to the disc L5-S1 was employed. Each of six different loading modes was studied for simulating flexion and extension, including pure moments, an eccentric axial force, using a wedged fixture, and applying upper body weight plus follower load plus muscle forces. Intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressures and facet joint contact forces were calculated. Where possible, results were compared to data measured in vivo. The results of the loading modes studied show a large variance for some values. Outcome measures such as flexion angle and intradiscal pressure differed at a segment by up to 44% and 88%, respectively, related to their maximum values. Intradiscal pressure is mainly determined by the magnitude of the applied compressive force. For flexion maximum contact forces between 0 and 69 N are predicted in each facet joint for different loading modes. For both flexion and extension, applying upper body weight plus follower load plus muscle forces as well as a follower load together with a bending moment delivers results which agreed well with in vivo data from the literature. Choosing an adequate loading mode is important in spine biomechanics when realistic results are required for intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressure and facet joint contact forces. Only then will results of different studies be comparable.

  4. From Delivery to Adoption of Physical Activity Guidelines: Realist Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leone, Liliana; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-10-08

    Evidence-based guidelines published by health authorities for the promotion of health-enhancing physical activity (PA), continue to be implemented unsuccessfully and demonstrate a gap between evidence and policies. This review synthesizes evidence on factors influencing delivery, adoption and implementation of PA promotion guidelines within different policy sectors (e.g., health, transport, urban planning, sport, education). Published literature was initially searched using PubMed, EBSCO, Google Scholar and continued through an iterative snowball technique. The literature review spanned the period 2002-2017. The realist synthesis approach was adopted to review the content of 39 included studies. An initial programme theory with a four-step chain from evidence emersion to implementation of guidelines was tested. The synthesis furthers our understanding of the link between PA guidelines delivery and the actions of professionals responsible for implementation within health services, school departments and municipalities. The main mechanisms identified for guidance implementation were scientific legitimation, enforcement, feasibility, familiarity with concepts and PA habits. Threats emerged to the successful implementation of PA guidelines at national/local jurisdictional levels. The way PA guidelines are developed may influence their adoption by policy-makers and professionals. Useful lessons emerged that may inform synergies between policymaking and professional practices, promoting win-win multisectoral strategies.

  5. Homogeneous nucleation of methane hydrates: unrealistic under realistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Knott, Brandon C; Molinero, Valeria; Doherty, Michael F; Peters, Baron

    2012-12-05

    Methane hydrates are ice-like inclusion compounds with importance to the oil and natural gas industry, global climate change, and gas transportation and storage. The molecular mechanism by which these compounds form under conditions relevant to industry and nature remains mysterious. To understand the mechanism of methane hydrate nucleation from supersaturated aqueous solutions, we performed simulations at controlled and realistic supersaturation. We found that critical nuclei are extremely large and that homogeneous nucleation rates are extremely low. Our findings suggest that nucleation of methane hydrates under these realistic conditions cannot occur by a homogeneous mechanism.

  6. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of automobile exhaust emissions under realistic road conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Staab, J.; Schurmann, D.

    1987-01-01

    An exhaust gas measurement system for on-board use has been developed, which enables the direct and continuous determination of the exhaust mass emissions in vehicles on the road. Such measurements under realistic traffic conditions are a valuable supplement to measurements taken on test benches, the latter, however, still being necessary. In the last two years numerous test runs were undertaken. The reliability of the on-board system could be demonstrated and a very informative view of the exhaust emissions behavior of a vehicle on the road was obtained from the test results.

  8. Multimodal person authentication on a smartphone under realistic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Andrew C.; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin; Allano, Lorene; Ehlers, Johan; Wu, Dalei; Koreman, Jacques; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia; Ly-Van, Bao; Dorizzi, Bernadette

    2006-05-01

    Verification of a person's identity by the combination of more than one biometric trait strongly increases the robustness of person authentication in real applications. This is particularly the case in applications involving signals of degraded quality, as for person authentication on mobile platforms. The context of mobility generates degradations of input signals due to the variety of environments encountered (ambient noise, lighting variations, etc.), while the sensors' lower quality further contributes to decrease in system performance. Our aim in this work is to combine traits from the three biometric modalities of speech, face and handwritten signature in a concrete application, performing non intrusive biometric verification on a personal mobile device (smartphone/PDA). Most available biometric databases have been acquired in more or less controlled environments, which makes it difficult to predict performance in a real application. Our experiments are performed on a database acquired on a PDA as part of the SecurePhone project (IST-2002-506883 project "Secure Contracts Signed by Mobile Phone"). This database contains 60 virtual subjects balanced in gender and age. Virtual subjects are obtained by coupling audio-visual signals from real English speaking subjects with signatures from other subjects captured on the touch screen of the PDA. Video data for the PDA database was recorded in 2 recording sessions separated by at least one week. Each session comprises 4 acquisition conditions: 2 indoor and 2 outdoor recordings (with in each case, a good and a degraded quality recording). Handwritten signatures were captured in one session in realistic conditions. Different scenarios of matching between training and test conditions are tested to measure the resistance of various fusion systems to different types of variability and different amounts of enrolment data.

  9. Foreword: In situ gas surface interactions: approaching realistic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Edvin; Over, Herbert

    2008-03-01

    This special issue is devoted to the application of in situ surface-sensitive techniques in the elucidation of catalysed reactions at (model) catalyst surfaces. Both reaction intermediates and the nature of the catalytically active phase are the targets of these investigations. In situ surface science techniques are also used to study the interaction of water with surfaces under realistic conditions. Since 80% of all technical chemicals are manufactured by utilizing (heterogeneous) catalysis, scientific understanding and technological development of catalysis are of central practical importance in modern society [1]. Heterogeneously catalysed reactions take place at the gas/solid interface. Therefore one of the major topics in surface chemistry and physics is closely related to heterogeneous catalysis, with the aim of developing novel catalysts and to improve catalysts' performances on the basis of atomic scale based knowledge. Despite the economical and environmental rewards—if such a goal is achieved—and despite 40 years of intensive research, practical catalysis is still safely in a black box: the reactivity and selectivity of a catalyst are commercially still optimized on a trial and error basis, applying the high throughput screening approach. The reason for this discrepancy between ambition and reality lies in the inherent complexity of the catalytic system, consisting of the working catalyst and the interaction of the catalyst with the reactant mixture. Practical (solid) catalysts consist of metal or oxide nanoparticles which are dispersed and stabilized on a support and which may be promoted by means of additives. These particles catalyse a reaction in pressures as high as 100 bar. Practical catalysis is in general considered to be far too complex for gaining atomic-scale understanding of the mechanism of the catalysed reaction of an industrial catalyst during its operation. Therefore it has been necessary to introduce idealization and simplification of

  10. Boundary conditions towards realistic simulation of jet engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamankar, Nitin S.

    Strict noise regulations at major airports and increasing environmental concerns have made prediction and attenuation of jet noise an active research topic. Large eddy simulation coupled with computational aeroacoustics has the potential to be a significant research tool for this problem. With the emergence of petascale computer clusters, it is now computationally feasible to include the nozzle geometry in jet noise simulations. In high Reynolds number experiments on jet noise, the turbulent boundary layer on the inner surface of the nozzle separates into a turbulent free shear layer. Inclusion of a nozzle with turbulent inlet conditions is necessary to simulate this phenomenon realistically. This will allow a reasonable comparison of numerically computed noise levels with the experimental results. Two viscous wall boundary conditions are implemented for modeling the nozzle walls. A characteristic-based approach is compared with a computationally cheaper, extrapolation-based formulation. In viscous flow over a circular cylinder under two different regimes, excellent agreement is observed between the results of the two approaches. The results agree reasonably well with reference experimental and numerical results. Both the boundary conditions are thus found to be appropriate, the extrapolation-based formulation having an edge with its low cost. This is followed with the crucial step of generation of a turbulent boundary layer inside the nozzle. A digital filter-based turbulent inflow condition, extended in a new way to non-uniform curvilinear grids is implemented to achieve this. A zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer is simulated at a high Reynolds number to show that the method is capable of producing sustained turbulence. The length of the adjustment region necessary for synthetic inlet turbulence to recover from modeling errors is estimated. A low Reynolds number jet simulation including a round nozzle geometry is performed and the method

  11. Assessment of Solder Joint Fatigue Life Under Realistic Service Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Sa'd.; Jaradat, Younis; Qasaimeh, Awni; Obaidat, Mazin; Borgesen, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of lead-free solder alloys under complex loading scenarios is still not well understood. Common damage accumulation rules fail to account for strong effects of variations in cycling amplitude, and random vibration test results cannot be interpreted in terms of performance under realistic service conditions. This is a result of the effects of cycling parameters on materials properties. These effects are not yet fully understood or quantitatively predictable, preventing modeling based on parameters such as strain, work, or entropy. Depending on the actual spectrum of amplitudes, Miner's rule of linear damage accumulation has been shown to overestimate life by more than an order of magnitude, and greater errors are predicted for other combinations. Consequences may be particularly critical for so-called environmental stress screening. Damage accumulation has, however, been shown to scale with the inelastic work done, even if amplitudes vary. This and the observation of effects of loading history on subsequent work per cycle provide for a modified damage accumulation rule which allows for the prediction of life. Individual joints of four different Sn-Ag-Cu-based solder alloys (SAC305, SAC105, SAC-Ni, and SACXplus) were cycled in shear at room temperature, alternating between two different amplitudes while monitoring the evolution of the effective stiffness and work per cycle. This helped elucidate general trends and behaviors that are expected to occur in vibrations of microelectronics assemblies. Deviations from Miner's rule varied systematically with the combination of amplitudes, the sequences of cycles, and the strain rates in each. The severity of deviations also varied systematically with Ag content in the solder, but major effects were observed for all the alloys. A systematic analysis was conducted to assess whether scenarios might exist in which the more fatigue-resistant high-Ag alloys would fail sooner than the lower-Ag ones.

  12. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions and Limited Surveillance Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  13. Maximizing direct current power delivery from bistable vibration energy harvesting beams subjected to realistic base excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.

    2017-04-01

    Effective development of vibration energy harvesters is required to convert ambient kinetic energy into useful electrical energy as power supply for sensors, for example in structural health monitoring applications. Energy harvesting structures exhibiting bistable nonlinearities have previously been shown to generate large alternating current (AC) power when excited so as to undergo snap-through responses between stable equilibria. Yet, most microelectronics in sensors require rectified voltages and hence direct current (DC) power. While researchers have studied DC power generation from bistable energy harvesters subjected to harmonic excitations, there remain important questions as to the promise of such harvester platforms when the excitations are more realistic and include both harmonic and random components. To close this knowledge gap, this research computationally and experimentally studies the DC power delivery from bistable energy harvesters subjected to such realistic excitation combinations as those found in practice. Based on the results, it is found that the ability for bistable energy harvesters to generate peak DC power is significantly reduced by introducing sufficient amount of stochastic excitations into an otherwise harmonic input. On the other hand, the elimination of a low amplitude, coexistent response regime by way of the additive noise promotes power delivery if the device was not originally excited to snap-through. The outcomes of this research indicate the necessity for comprehensive studies about the sensitivities of DC power generation from bistable energy harvester to practical excitation scenarios prior to their optimal deployment in applications.

  14. Stereoselective Syntheses of Pentose Sugars Under Realistic Prebiotic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-02-01

    Glycolaldehyde and dl-glyceraldehyde reacted in a water-buffered solution under mildly acidic conditions and in the presence of chiral dipeptide catalysts produced pentose sugars whose configuration is affected by the chirality of the catalyst. The chiral effect was found to vary between catalysts and to be largest for di-valine. Lyxose, arabinose, ribose and xylose are formed in different amounts, whose relative proportions do not change significantly with the varying of conditions. With LL-peptide catalysts, ribose was the only pentose sugar to have a significant D-enantiomeric excess ( ee) (≤44%), lyxose displayed an L- ee of ≤66%, arabinose a smaller L- ee of ≤8%, and xylose was about racemic. These data expand our previous findings for tetrose sugars and further substantiate the suggestion that interactions between simple molecules of prebiotic relevance on the early Earth might have included the transfer of chiral asymmetry and advanced molecular evolution.

  15. Simulating realistic imaging conditions for in situ liquid microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-12-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality.

  16. Comparison of pulsed versus continuous oxygen delivery using realistic adult nasal airway replicas.

    PubMed

    Chen, John Z; Katz, Ira M; Pichelin, Marine; Zhu, Kaixian; Caillibotte, Georges; Noga, Michelle L; Finlay, Warren H; Martin, Andrew R

    2017-01-01

    Portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) typically include pulse flow (PF) modes to conserve oxygen. The primary aims of this study were to develop a predictive in vitro model for inhaled oxygen delivery using a set of realistic airway replicas, and to compare PF for a commercial POC with steady flow (SF) from a compressed oxygen cylinder. Experiments were carried out using a stationary compressed oxygen cylinder, a POC, and 15 adult nasal airway replicas based on airway geometries derived from medical images. Oxygen delivery via nasal cannula was tested at PF settings of 2.0 and 6.0, and SF rates of 2.0 and 6.0 L/min. A test lung simulated three breathing patterns representative of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient at rest, during exercise, and while asleep. Volume-averaged fraction of inhaled oxygen (FiO2) was calculated by analyzing oxygen concentrations sampled at the exit of each replica and inhalation flow rates over time. POC pulse volumes were also measured using a commercial O2 conserver test system to attempt to predict FiO2 for PF. Relative volume-averaged FiO2 using PF ranged from 68% to 94% of SF values, increasing with breathing frequency and tidal volume. Three of 15 replicas failed to trigger the POC when used with the sleep breathing pattern at the 2.0 setting, and four of 15 replicas failed to trigger at the 6.0 setting. FiO2 values estimated from POC pulse characteristics followed similar trends but were lower than those derived from airway replica experiments. For the POC tested, PF delivered similar, though consistently lower, volume-averaged FiO2 than SF rates equivalent to nominal PF settings. Assessment of PF oxygen delivery using POC pulse characteristics alone may be insufficient; testing using airway replicas is useful in identifying possible cases of failure and may provide a better assessment of FiO2.

  17. Unintended Insulin Pump Delivery in Hyperbaric Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Pintaudi, Basilio; Bonomo, Matteo; Garuti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Unintended pump insulin delivery was reported to occur as a consequence of decreased atmospheric pressure, probably mediated by air bubble formation and the expansion of existing bubbles. This observation has been used to explain some hypoglycemic episodes occurring in patients on insulin pump treatment in between 1 and 1 h 45 min after the flight takeoff. New models of insulin pumps have been introduced in the market, most of them are waterproof certified. It is not clear if in these new pumps the influence of atmospheric pressure changes on the insulin delivery is still present. Moreover, there are no evidences related to the insulin pump operations in hyperbaric conditions, like as during diving activities. Our aim is therefore to verify the eventual variation of insulin pump delivery determined by atmospheric pressure changes in hyperbaric conditions. Three new models of insulin pumps were tested in hyperbaric conditions at a flow rate of 2 U/h. Atmospheric pressure variation affected pump insulin release. An increase in the atmospheric pressure from 1 to 1.3 atmosphere (ATA) induced a decrease of pump basal insulin release (about -0.2 U/10 min); conversely, when the atmospheric pressure returned from 1.3 to 1 ATA, an unintended insulin delivery was observed (about +0.3 U/10 min). This phenomenon appeared to be independent of the insulin pump rate and dependent on the presence of air bubbles within the insulin tube setting and cartridge. Unintended insulin delivery driven by atmospheric pressure changes in hyperbaric conditions occurred in the new insulin pumps available. Patients should pay attention to possible variation of insulin rate during the flight or during diving activities.

  18. FORMATION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS FROM PROTOPLANETS UNDER A REALISTIC ACCRETION CONDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Eiichiro; Genda, Hidenori E-mail: genda@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2010-05-01

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation is known as the giant impact stage where protoplanets collide with one another to form planets. So far this stage has been mainly investigated by N-body simulations with an assumption of perfect accretion in which all collisions lead to accretion. However, this assumption breaks for collisions with high velocity and/or a large impact parameter. We derive an accretion condition for protoplanet collisions in terms of impact velocity and angle and masses of colliding bodies, from the results of numerical collision experiments. For the first time, we adopt this realistic accretion condition in N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation from protoplanets. We compare the results with those with perfect accretion and show how the accretion condition affects terrestrial planet formation. We find that in the realistic accretion model about half of collisions do not lead to accretion. However, the final number, mass, orbital elements, and even growth timescale of planets are barely affected by the accretion condition. For the standard protoplanetary disk model, typically two Earth-sized planets form in the terrestrial planet region over about 10{sup 8} yr in both realistic and perfect accretion models. We also find that for the realistic accretion model, the spin angular velocity is about 30% smaller than that for the perfect accretion model, which is as large as the critical spin angular velocity for rotational instability. The spin angular velocity and obliquity obey Gaussian and isotropic distributions, respectively, independently of the accretion condition.

  19. Use of a realistic breathing lung phantom to evaluate dose delivery errors

    SciTech Connect

    Court, Laurence E.; Seco, Joao; Lu Xingqi; Ebe, Kazuyu; Mayo, Charles; Ionascu, Dan; Winey, Brian; Giakoumakis, Nikos; Aristophanous, Michalis; Berbeco, Ross; Rottman, Joerg; Bogdanov, Madeleine; Schofield, Deborah; Lingos, Tania

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the effect of respiration-induced motion on delivered dose (the interplay effect) for different treatment techniques under realistic clinical conditions. Methods: A flexible resin tumor model was created using rapid prototyping techniques based on a computed tomography (CT) image of an actual tumor. Twenty micro-MOSFETs were inserted into the tumor model and the tumor model was inserted into an anthropomorphic breathing phantom. Phantom motion was programed using the motion trajectory of an actual patient. A four-dimensional CT image was obtained and several treatment plans were created using different treatment techniques and planning systems: Conformal (Eclipse), step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) (Pinnacle), step-and-shoot IMRT (XiO), dynamic IMRT (Eclipse), complex dynamic IMRT (Eclipse), hybrid IMRT [60% conformal, 40% dynamic IMRT (Eclipse)], volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) [single-arc (Eclipse)], VMAT [double-arc (Eclipse)], and complex VMAT (Eclipse). The complex plans were created by artificially pushing the optimizer to give complex multileaf collimator sequences. Each IMRT field was irradiated five times and each VMAT field was irradiated ten times, with each irradiation starting at a random point in the respiratory cycle. The effect of fractionation was calculated by randomly summing the measured doses. The maximum deviation for each measurement point per fraction and the probability that 95% of the model tumor had dose deviations less than 2% and 5% were calculated as a function of the number of fractions. Tumor control probabilities for each treatment plan were calculated and compared. Results: After five fractions, measured dose deviations were less than 2% for more than 95% of measurement points within the tumor model for all plans, except the complex dynamic IMRT, step-and-shoot IMRT (XiO), complex VMAT, and single-arc VMAT plans. Reducing the dose rate of the complex IMRT plans from 600 to 200 MU

  20. Quantum dissipation with conditional wave functions: Application to the realistic simulation of nanoscale electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomés, E.; Zhan, Z.; Marian, D.; Oriols, X.

    2017-08-01

    Without access to the full quantum state, modeling dissipation in an open system requires approximations. The physical soundness of such approximations relies on using realistic microscopic models of dissipation that satisfy completely positive dynamical maps. Here we present an approach based on the use of the Bohmian conditional wave function that, by construction, ensures a completely positive dynamical map for either Markovian or non-Markovian scenarios while allowing the implementation of realistic dissipation sources. Our approach is applied to compute the current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling device with a parabolic-band structure, including electron-lattice interactions. A stochastic Schrödinger equation is solved for the conditional wave function of each simulated electron. We also extend our approach to (graphenelike) materials with a linear band structure using Bohmian conditional spinors for a stochastic Dirac equation.

  1. 48 CFR 552.270-17 - Delivery and Condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery and Condition. 552.270-17 Section 552.270-17 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Delivery and Condition. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Delivery and Condition...

  2. 48 CFR 552.270-17 - Delivery and Condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery and Condition. 552.270-17 Section 552.270-17 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Delivery and Condition. As prescribed in 570.603, insert the following clause: Delivery and Condition...

  3. 43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions of delivery. 418.28 Section 418... Enforcement § 418.28 Conditions of delivery. There are four basic elements for enforcement with all necessary... deliveries. If water is delivered to ineligible land or in excess of the appropriate water duty then: (1)...

  4. Low cost digester monitoring under realistic conditions: Rural use of biogas and digestate quality.

    PubMed

    Castro, L; Escalante, H; Jaimes-Estévez, J; Díaz, L J; Vecino, K; Rojas, G; Mantilla, L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the behaviour of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in a rural digester under realistic conditions, and estimate the quality and properties of the digestate. The data obtained during monitoring indicated that the digester operation was stable without risk of inhibition. It produced an average of 0.85Nm(3)biogas/d at 65.6% methane, providing an energy savings of 76%. In addition, the digestate contained high nutrient concentrations, which is an important feature of fertilizers. However, this method requires post-treatment due to the presence of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  6. Quantum versus classical foundation of statistical mechanics under experimentally realistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Peter; Evstigneev, Mykhaylo

    2013-11-01

    Focusing on isolated macroscopic systems, described in terms of either a quantum mechanical or a classical model, our two key questions are how far does an initial ensemble (usually far from equilibrium and largely unknown in detail) evolve towards a stationary long-time behavior (equilibration) and how far is this steady state in agreement with the microcanonical ensemble as predicted by statistical mechanics (thermalization). A recently developed quantum mechanical treatment of the problem is briefly summarized, putting particular emphasis on the realistic modeling of experimental measurements and nonequilibrium initial conditions. Within this framework, equilibration can be proven under very weak assumptions about those measurements and initial conditions, while thermalization still requires quite strong additional hypotheses. An analogous approach within the framework of classical mechanics is developed and compared with the quantum case. In particular, the assumptions to guarantee classical equilibration are now rather strong, while thermalization then follows under relatively weak additional conditions.

  7. Bumblebee colony development following chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiamethoxam under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Raine, Nigel E

    2017-08-14

    Neonicotinoid pesticides are used in agriculture to reduce damage from crop pests. However, beneficial insects such as bees can come into contact with these pesticides when foraging in treated areas, with potential consequences for bee declines and pollination service delivery. Honeybees are typically used as a model organism to investigate insecticide impacts on bees, but relatively little is known about impacts on other taxa such as bumblebees. In this experiment, we chronically exposed whole mature bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (2.4ppb & 10ppb) over four weeks, and compared colony growth under laboratory conditions. We found no impact of insecticide exposure on colony weight gain, or the number or mass of sexuals produced, although colonies exposed to 2.4ppb produced larger males. As previous studies have reported pesticide effects on bumblebee colony growth, this may suggest that impacts on bumblebee colonies are more pronounced for colonies at an earlier stage in the reproductive cycle. Alternatively, it may also indicate that thiamethoxam differs in toxicity compared to previously tested neonicotinoids in terms of reproductive effects. In either case, assessing bumblebee colony development under field conditions is likely more informative for real world scenarios than tests conducted in laboratory conditions.

  8. Sunset decay of the convective turbulence with Large-Eddy Simulation under realistic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizza, U.; Miglietta, M. M.; Degrazia, G. A.; Acevedo, O. C.; Marques Filho, E. P.

    2013-10-01

    Large-Eddy Simulation is performed for a single day from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) field program. This study investigates an observed case of evening transition boundary layer over land. Parameters of the ambient atmosphere in the LES-decay studies conducted so far were typically prescribed in an idealized form. To provide suitable data under the wide range of the PBL weather conditions, the LES should be able to adequately reproduce the PBL turbulence dynamics including-if possible-baroclinicity, radiation, large scale advection and not only be related to a decreasing surface heating. In addition LES-decay studies usually assume that the sensible heat flux decreases instantaneously or with a very short time scale. The main purpose of this investigation is to study the decay of boundary-layer average turbulent kinetic energy at sunset with Large-Eddy Simulation that is forced with realistic environment conditions. This allows investigating the Turbulent Kinetic Energy decay over the realistic time scale that is observed in the atmosphere. During the intermediate and last stage of decay of the boundary-layer average Turbulent Kinetic Energy the exponents of the decay power law t go from 2 to 6, as evidenced by experimental results and recent analytical modeling in the surface layer.

  9. Numerical Studies of Urban Planetary Boundary-Layer Structure under Realistic Synoptic Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Nelson L.; Ludwig, Francis L.; Donall, Evelyn G.; Warner, Thomas T.; Bhumralkar, Chandrakant M.

    1989-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model was modified and used to simulate the evolution of meteorological conditions in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, from near sunrise to noon on 25 July 1975. Observations obtained during the METROMEX (Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment) and RAPS (Regional Air Pollution Study) field programs were available for comparison with modeled conditions. The PSU/NCAR model used a nested grid with two-way interaction between the coarse mesh (7.5 km) and the fine mesh (2.5 km), where the fine domain covered the city and its immediate suburban and rural surroundings. Realistic three-dimensionally variable initial and lateral boundary conditions were obtained from the observations so that the numerical experiments could be used for quantitative evaluation of certain urban effects. After simulation of the actual conditions (control experiment), the importance of a number of processes on the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure were investigated. The PBL effects were isolated by using realistic surface parameters as well as those based on the preurban conditions and an expanded urban environment. Sensitivities to surface evaporative fluxes, radiative processes, and different surface roughness associated with urbanization were examined. The control simulations of the temperature, boundary layer depth, specific humidity and wind fields exhibited essentially the same behavior as observed in the urban PBL throughout the morning forecast period. Unlike many other documented cases that displayed strong urban-induced low-level convergence, the confluence on this morning was relatively weak, with the center of the heat island displaced (in both the simulation and the observations) downwind (south) of the city. A relative minimum in windspeed was associated with the center of the displaced heat island. The sensitivity experiments clearly demonstrated and maintenance of

  10. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  11. Conditions for production of interdisciplinary teamwork outcomes in oncology teams: protocol for a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary teamwork (ITW) is designed to promote the active participation of several disciplines in delivering comprehensive cancer care to patients. ITW provides mechanisms to support continuous communication among care providers, optimize professionals’ participation in clinical decision-making within and across disciplines, and foster care coordination along the cancer trajectory. However, ITW mechanisms are not activated optimally by all teams, resulting in a gap between desired outcomes of ITW and actual outcomes observed. The aim of the present study is to identify the conditions underlying outcome production by ITW in local oncology teams. Methods This retrospective multiple case study will draw upon realist evaluation principles to explore associations among context, mechanisms and outcomes (CMO). The cases are nine interdisciplinary cancer teams that participated in a previous study evaluating ITW outcomes. Qualitative data sources will be used to construct a picture of CMO associations in each case. For data collection, reflexive focus groups will be held to capture patients’ and professionals’ perspectives on ITW, using the guiding question, ‘What works, for whom, and under what circumstances?’ Intra-case analysis will be used to trace associations between context, ITW mechanisms, and patient outcomes. Inter-case analysis will be used to compare the different cases’ CMO associations for a better understanding of the phenomenon under study. Discussion This multiple case study will use realist evaluation principles to draw lessons about how certain contexts are more or less likely to produce particular outcomes. The results will make it possible to target more specifically the actions required to optimize structures and to activate the best mechanisms to meet the needs of cancer patients. This project could also contribute significantly to the development of improved research methods for conducting realist evaluations of

  12. Realist synthesis of educational interventions to improve nutrition care competencies and delivery by doctors and other healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Mogre, Victor; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Stevens, Fred; Aryee, Paul; Cherry, Mary Gemma; Dornan, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine what, how, for whom, why, and in what circumstances educational interventions improve the delivery of nutrition care by doctors and other healthcare professionals work. Design Realist synthesis following a published protocol and reported following Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) guidelines. A multidisciplinary team searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Science Direct for published and unpublished (grey) literature. The team identified studies with varied designs; appraised their ability to answer the review question; identified relationships between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes (CMOs); and entered them into a spreadsheet configured for the purpose. The final synthesis identified commonalities across CMO configurations. Results Over half of the 46 studies from which we extracted data originated from the USA. Interventions that improved the delivery of nutrition care improved skills and attitudes rather than just knowledge; provided opportunities for superiors to model nutrition care; removed barriers to nutrition care in health systems; provided participants with local, practically relevant tools and messages; and incorporated non-traditional, innovative teaching strategies. Operating in contexts where student and qualified healthcare professionals provided nutrition care in developed and developing countries, these interventions yielded health outcomes by triggering a range of mechanisms, which included feeling competent, feeling confident and comfortable, having greater self-efficacy, being less inhibited by barriers in healthcare systems and feeling that nutrition care was accepted and recognised. Conclusions These findings show how important it is to move education for nutrition care beyond the simple acquisition of knowledge. They show how educational interventions embedded within systems of healthcare can improve

  13. Deriving realistic source boundary conditions for a CFD simulation of concentrations in workroom air.

    PubMed

    Feigley, Charles E; Do, Thanh H; Khan, Jamil; Lee, Emily; Schnaufer, Nicholas D; Salzberg, Deborah C

    2011-05-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used increasingly to simulate the distribution of airborne contaminants in enclosed spaces for exposure assessment and control, but the importance of realistic boundary conditions is often not fully appreciated. In a workroom for manufacturing capacitors, full-shift samples for isoamyl acetate (IAA) were collected for 3 days at 16 locations, and velocities were measured at supply grills and at various points near the source. Then, velocity and concentration fields were simulated by 3-dimensional steady-state CFD using 295K tetrahedral cells, the k-ε turbulence model, standard wall function, and convergence criteria of 10(-6) for all scalars. Here, we demonstrate the need to represent boundary conditions accurately, especially emission characteristics at the contaminant source, and to obtain good agreement between observations and CFD results. Emission rates for each day were determined from six concentrations measured in the near field and one upwind using an IAA mass balance. The emission was initially represented as undiluted IAA vapor, but the concentrations estimated using CFD differed greatly from the measured concentrations. A second set of simulations was performed using the same IAA emission rates but a more realistic representation of the source. This yielded good agreement with measured values. Paying particular attention to the region with highest worker exposure potential-within 1.3 m of the source center-the air speed and IAA concentrations estimated by CFD were not significantly different from the measured values (P = 0.92 and P = 0.67, respectively). Thus, careful consideration of source boundary conditions greatly improved agreement with the measured values.

  14. First-Principles Prediction of the Equilibrium Shape of Nanoparticles Under Realistic Electrochemical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Nicéphore; Marzari, Nicola

    2013-02-01

    A first-principles model of the electrochemical double layer is applied to study surface energies and surface coverage under realistic electrochemical conditions and to determine the equilibrium shape of metal nanoparticles as a function of applied potential. The potential bias is directly controlled by adding electronic charge to the system, while total energy calculations and thermodynamic relations are used to predict electrodeposition curves and changes in surface energies and coverage. This approach is applied to Pt surfaces subject to hydrogen underpotential deposition. The shape of Pt nanoparticles under a cathodic scan is shown to undergo an octahedric-to-cubic transition, which is more pronounced in alkaline media due to the interaction energy of the pH-dependent surface charge with the surface dipole.

  15. First-principles prediction of the equilibrium shape of nanoparticles under realistic electrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Nicéphore; Marzari, Nicola

    2013-02-22

    A first-principles model of the electrochemical double layer is applied to study surface energies and surface coverage under realistic electrochemical conditions and to determine the equilibrium shape of metal nanoparticles as a function of applied potential. The potential bias is directly controlled by adding electronic charge to the system, while total energy calculations and thermodynamic relations are used to predict electrodeposition curves and changes in surface energies and coverage. This approach is applied to Pt surfaces subject to hydrogen underpotential deposition. The shape of Pt nanoparticles under a cathodic scan is shown to undergo an octahedric-to-cubic transition, which is more pronounced in alkaline media due to the interaction energy of the pH-dependent surface charge with the surface dipole.

  16. Ray theory analysis and modelling of the secondary sonic boom propagation for realistic atmosphere conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Dallois, Laurent; Scott, Julian; Berger, Uwe; Allwright, David

    2006-05-01

    The shock waves generated by a supersonic aircraft are reflected in the upper part of the atmosphere. Back to the ground, they are indirect sonic booms called secondary sonic booms. The recorded signals of secondary sonic booms show a low amplitude and a low frequency. They sound like rumbling noises due to amplitude bursts. These signals strongly depend on the atmospheric conditions, in particular to the amplitude and to the direction of the wind in the stratopause. In the present work, the propagation of secondary sonic booms is studied using realistic atmospheric models up to the thermosphere. The secondary carpet position is investigated by solving temporal ray equations. An amplitude equation including nonlinearity, absorption and relaxation by various chemical species is coupled to the ray solver to get the secondary boom signature at the ground level. Multipath arrivals are directly linked to wind field or 3D inhomogeneities.

  17. Uncertainty Quantification of Tracer Dispersion with the PMVP Model under Realistic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. W.; Duenser, S.

    2015-12-01

    The polar Markovian velocity process (PVMP) model provides a computationally efficient method to propagate input uncertainty stemming from unknown permeability fields to output flow and transport statistics [Meyer and Tchelepi, WRR, 2010; Meyer, Jenny, and Tchelepi, WRR, 2010; Meyer et al., WRR, 2013]. Compared with classical Monte Carlo (MC) sampling, the PMVP model provides predictions of tracer concentration statistics at computing times that are three orders of magnitude smaller. Consequently, the PMVP model is as well significantly faster than accelerated sampling techniques such as multi-level MC or polynomial chaos expansions. In this work, we further evaluate the PMVP model performance by applying the model for tracer dispersion predictions in a setup derived from the well-known MADE field experiment [Boggs et al., WRR, 1992]. We perform detailed model validations against reference MC simulations and conclude that the model provides overall accurate dispersion predictions under realistic conditions.

  18. Comparison of CaO-based synthetic CO{sub 2} sorbents under realistic calcination conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gemma Grasa; Belen Gonzalez; Monica Alonso; J. Carlos Abanades

    2007-12-15

    Several concepts to capture CO{sub 2} in power plants and hydrogen generation plants are under development using CaO as regenerable sorbent. The drastic decay in sorbent capture capacity of CaO obtained through calcination of natural sources of CaCO{sub 3} (limestones or dolomites) justifies the search of synthetic sorbents that aim to overcome this decay in capture capacity. We have reviewed some of the recent literature on the subject and tested some of the proposed sorbents under comparable conditions. Our results confirm the good performance of some of these synthetic sorbents under mild conditions and/or long carbonation times used in the original references. However, we show that these sorbents deactivate also very quickly when realistic regeneration conditions (high temperatures for calcination at high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}) are used in the laboratory test. We conclude that none of the reviewed sorbents have a chance to compete with the performance of natural limestones, of much lower cost. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Multiscale modelling as a tool to prescribe realistic boundary conditions for the study of surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Laganà, K; Dubini, G; Migliavacca, F; Pietrabissa, R; Pennati, G; Veneziani, A; Quarteroni, A

    2002-01-01

    This work was motivated by the problems of analysing detailed 3D models of vascular districts with complex anatomy. It suggests an approach to prescribing realistic boundary conditions to use in order to obtain information on local as well as global haemodynamics. A method was developed which simultaneously solves Navier-Stokes equations for local information and a non-linear system of ordinary differential equations for global information. This is based on the principle that an anatomically detailed 3D model of a cardiovascular district can be achieved by using the finite element method. In turn the finite element method requires a specific boundary condition set. The approach outlined in this work is to include the system of ordinary differential equations in the boundary condition set. Such a multiscale approach was first applied to two controls: (i) a 3D model of a straight tube in a simple hydraulic network and (ii) a 3D model of a straight coronary vessel in a lumped-parameter model of the cardiovascular system. The results obtained are very close to the solutions available for the pipe geometry. This paper also presents preliminary results from the application of the methodology to a particular haemodynamic problem: namely the fluid dynamics of a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt in paediatric cardiac surgery.

  20. Molecular dynamics study of nanoconfined water flow driven by rotating electric fields under realistic experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B D; Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J

    2014-03-25

    In our recent work, J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 154712, we demonstrated the feasibility of unidirectional pumping of water, exploiting translational-rotational momentum coupling using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Flow can be sustained when the fluid is driven out of equilibrium by an external spatially uniform rotating electric field and confined between two planar surfaces exposing different degrees of hydrophobicity. The permanent dipole moment of water follows the rotating field, thus inducing the molecules to spin, and the torque exerted by the field is continuously injected into the fluid, enabling a steady conversion of spin angular momentum into linear momentum. The translational-rotational coupling is a sensitive function of the rotating electric field parameters. In this work, we have found that there exists a small energy dissipation region attainable when the frequency of the rotating electric field matches the inverse of the dielectric relaxation time of water and when its amplitude lies in a range just before dielectric saturation effects take place. In this region, that is, when the frequency lies in a small window of the microwave region around ∼20 GHz and amplitude ∼0.03 V Å(-1), the translational-rotational coupling is most effective, yielding fluid velocities of magnitudes of ∼2 ms(-1) with only moderate fluid heating. In this work, we also confine water to a realistic nanochannel made of graphene giving a hydrophobic surface on one side and β-cristobalite giving a hydrophilic surface on the other, reproducing slip-and-stick velocity boundary conditions, respectively. This enables us to demonstrate that in a realistic environment, the coupling can be effectively exploited to achieve noncontact pumping of water at the nanoscale. A quantitative comparison between nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and analytical solutions of the extended Navier-Stokes equations, including an external rotating electric field has been performed

  1. Impact of airborne particle size, acoustic airflow and breathing pattern on delivery of nebulized antibiotic into the maxillary sinuses using a realistic human nasal replica.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Lara; Pourchez, Jérémie; Aubert, Gérald; Leguellec, Sandrine; Vecellio, Laurent; Cottier, Michèle; Durand, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Improvement of clinical outcome in patients with sinuses disorders involves targeting delivery of nebulized drug into the maxillary sinuses. We investigated the impact of nebulization conditions (with and without 100 Hz acoustic airflow), particle size (9.9 μm, 2.8 μm, 550 nm and 230 nm) and breathing pattern (nasal vs. no nasal breathing) on enhancement of aerosol delivery into the sinuses using a realistic nasal replica developed by our team. After segmentation of the airways by means of high-resolution computed tomography scans, a well-characterized nasal replica was created using a rapid prototyping technology. A total of 168 intrasinus aerosol depositions were performed with changes of aerosol particle size and breathing patterns under different nebulization conditions using gentamicin as a marker. The results demonstrate that the fraction of aerosol deposited in the maxillary sinuses is enhanced by use of submicrometric aerosols, e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 mg/L of gentamicin in the left maxillary sinus for the 2.8 μm particles vs. 2.056 ± 0.0474 for the 550 nm particles. Utilization of 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization also produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in drug deposition in the maxillary sinuses (e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 vs. 3.990 ± 1.690 for the 2.8 μm particles). Our study clearly shows that optimum deposition was achieved using submicrometric particles and 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization with no nasal breathing. It is hoped that our new respiratory nasal replica will greatly facilitate the development of more effective delivery systems in the future.

  2. Modeling the Performance Limitations and Prospects of Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells under Realistic Operating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to considerably out-perform conventional solar cells. Under standard test conditions, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells already outperform the Si single junction. Under realistic conditions, however, as we show, tandem solar cells made from current record cells are hardly more efficient than the Si cell alone. We model the performance of realistic perovskite/Si tandem solar cells under real-world climate conditions, by incorporating parasitic cell resistances, nonradiative recombination, and optical losses into the detailed-balance limit. We show quantitatively that when optimizing these parameters in the perovskite top cell, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells could reach efficiencies above 38% under realistic conditions, even while leaving the Si cell untouched. Despite the rapid efficiency increase of perovskite solar cells, our results emphasize the need for further material development, careful device design, and light management strategies, all necessary for highly efficient perovskite/Si tandem solar cells. PMID:28920081

  3. Modeling the Performance Limitations and Prospects of Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells under Realistic Operating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Futscher, Moritz H; Ehrler, Bruno

    2017-09-08

    Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to considerably out-perform conventional solar cells. Under standard test conditions, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells already outperform the Si single junction. Under realistic conditions, however, as we show, tandem solar cells made from current record cells are hardly more efficient than the Si cell alone. We model the performance of realistic perovskite/Si tandem solar cells under real-world climate conditions, by incorporating parasitic cell resistances, nonradiative recombination, and optical losses into the detailed-balance limit. We show quantitatively that when optimizing these parameters in the perovskite top cell, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells could reach efficiencies above 38% under realistic conditions, even while leaving the Si cell untouched. Despite the rapid efficiency increase of perovskite solar cells, our results emphasize the need for further material development, careful device design, and light management strategies, all necessary for highly efficient perovskite/Si tandem solar cells.

  4. Blood brain barrier: An overview on strategies in drug delivery, realistic in vitro modeling and in vivo live tracking

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a group of astrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells, which makes restricted passage of various biological or chemical entities to the brain tissue. It gives protection to brain at one hand, but at the other hand it has very selective permeability for bio-actives and other foreign materials and is one of the major challenges for the drug delivery. Nanocarriers are promising to cross BBB utilizing alternative route of administration such as intranasal and intra-carotid drug delivery which bypasses BBB. In future more optimized drug delivery system can be achieved by compiling the best routes with the best carriers. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and different brain-on-a-chip in vitro models are being very reliable to study live in vivo tracking of BBB and its pathophysiology, respectively. In the current review we have tried to exploit mechanistically all these to understand and manage the various BBB disruptions in diseased condition along with crossing the hurdles occurring in drug or gene delivery across BBB. PMID:27141418

  5. Quantum-continuum simulation of the electrochemical response of pseudocapacitor electrodes under realistic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilbart, Nathan; Okada, Yasuaki; Feehan, Aion; Higai, Shin'ichi; Dabo, Ismaila

    2017-03-01

    Pseudocapacitors are energy-storage devices characterized by fast and reversible redox reactions that enable them to store large amounts of electrical energy at high rates. We simulate the response of pseudocapacitive electrodes under realistic conditions to identify the microscopic factors that determine their performance, focusing on ruthenia (RuO2) as a prototypical electrode material. Electronic-structure methods are used together with a self-consistent continuum solvation (SCCS) model to build a complete data set of free energies as the surface of the charged electrode is gradually covered with protons under applied voltage. The resulting data set is exploited to compute hydrogen-adsorption isotherms and charge-voltage responses by means of grand-canonical sampling, finding close agreement with experimental voltammetry. These simulations reveal that small changes on the order of 5 μ F /cm2 in the intrinsic double-layer capacitance of the electrode-electrolyte interface can induce variations of up to 40 μ F /cm2 in the overall pseudocapacitance.

  6. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  7. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-11-02

    This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The Formation of Teacher Work Teams under Adverse Conditions: Towards a More Realistic Scenario for Schools in Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Rick; Charles, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Group formation studies are rare in the literature on teacher professional learning communities (PLCs). But they are needed to render realistic scenarios and design interventions for practitioners who work in schools where teachers encounter distress and social adversity. Under these conditions, we may need approaches to PLC development that are…

  9. The Formation of Teacher Work Teams under Adverse Conditions: Towards a More Realistic Scenario for Schools in Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Rick; Charles, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Group formation studies are rare in the literature on teacher professional learning communities (PLCs). But they are needed to render realistic scenarios and design interventions for practitioners who work in schools where teachers encounter distress and social adversity. Under these conditions, we may need approaches to PLC development that are…

  10. Downscaling Ocean Conditions: Initial Results using a Quasigeostrophic and Realistic Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katavouta, Anna; Thompson, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Previous theoretical work (Henshaw et al, 2003) has shown that the small-scale modes of variability of solutions of the unforced, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, and Burgers' equation, can be reconstructed with surprisingly high accuracy from the time history of a few of the large-scale modes. Motivated by this theoretical work we first describe a straightforward method for assimilating information on the large scales in order to recover the small scale oceanic variability. The method is based on nudging in specific wavebands and frequencies and is similar to the so-called spectral nudging method that has been used successfully for atmospheric downscaling with limited area models (e.g. von Storch et al., 2000). The validity of the method is tested using a quasigestrophic model configured to simulate a double ocean gyre separated by an unstable mid-ocean jet. It is shown that important features of the ocean circulation including the position of the meandering mid-ocean jet and associated pinch-off eddies can indeed be recovered from the time history of a small number of large-scales modes. The benefit of assimilating additional time series of observations from a limited number of locations, that alone are too sparse to significantly improve the recovery of the small scales using traditional assimilation techniques, is also demonstrated using several twin experiments. The final part of the study outlines the application of the approach using a realistic high resolution (1/36 degree) model, based on the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) modeling framework, configured for the Scotian Shelf of the east coast of Canada. The large scale conditions used in this application are obtained from the HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) + NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation) global 1/12 degree analysis product. Henshaw, W., Kreiss, H.-O., Ystrom, J., 2003. Numerical experiments on the interaction between the larger- and the small-scale motion of

  11. Fully kinetic 3D simulations of the Hermean magnetosphere under realistic conditions: a new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Jorge; Gonzalez-Herrero, Diego; Lembège, Bertrand; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Simulations of the magnetosphere of planets are usually performed using the MHD and the hybrid approaches. However, these two methods still rely on approximations for the computation of the pressure tensor, and require the neutrality of the plasma at every point of the domain by construction. These approximations undermine the role of electrons on the emergence of plasma features in the magnetosphere of planets. The high mobility of electrons, their characteristic time and space scales, and the lack of perfect neutrality, are the source of many observed phenomena in the magnetospheres, including the turbulence energy cascade, the magnetic reconnection, the particle acceleration in the shock front and the formation of current systems around the magnetosphere. Fully kinetic codes are extremely demanding of computing time, and have been unable to perform simulations of the full magnetosphere at the real scales of a planet with realistic plasma conditions. This is caused by two main reasons: 1) explicit codes must resolve the electron scales limiting the time and space discretisation, and 2) current versions of semi-implicit codes are unstable for cell sizes larger than a few Debye lengths. In this work we present new simulations performed with ECsim, an Energy Conserving semi-implicit method [1], that can overcome these two barriers. We compare the solutions obtained with ECsim with the solutions obtained by the classic semi-implicit code iPic3D [2]. The new simulations with ECsim demand a larger computational effort, but the time and space discretisations are larger than those in iPic3D allowing for a faster simulation time of the full planetary environment. The new code, ECsim, can reach a resolution allowing the capture of significant large scale physics without loosing kinetic electron information, such as wave-electron interaction and non-Maxwellian electron velocity distributions [3]. The code is able to better capture the thickness of the different boundary

  12. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71.

  13. Are operative delivery procedures in Greece socially conditioned?

    PubMed

    Skalkidis, Y; Petridou, E; Papathoma, E; Revinthi, K; Tong, D; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-04-01

    Caesarean section rates have increased in Greece by almost 50% during the last 13 years. We conducted a study in Athens, Greece, to assess the importance of a series of medical and socioeconomic factors in the use of Caesarean section or operative vaginal procedures, rather than a non-operative process, for the delivery of singleton, liveborn babies of primiparous mothers. We used a case control approach to compare 444 babies delivered through a Caesarean section and 130 delivered through operative vaginal delivery with 1235 normally delivered babies in a public and a private hospital. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Caesarean section was more commonly performed in older, shorter or overweight mothers and for high and low birth-weight babies, as well as in response to several obstetric complications and following in-vitro fertilization. A similar pattern was noted with respect to operative vaginal delivery, except that this procedure was not unusually frequent among overweight women and was not encountered in this study among children born after in-vitro fertilization. Caesarean section was performed twice as often in the public teaching hospital as in a private maternity hospital, and operative vaginal delivery was several times more common in the former than in the latter, after controlling for biomedical risk factors. The unequal distribution of operative delivery procedures between the public and the private hospital raises questions about the justification of their performance in a substantial fraction of deliveries, and indicates that social factors condition their use.

  14. Sensitivity of catalysis to surface structure: The example of CO oxidation on Rh under realistic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, J.; Baddeley, C. J.; Westerstroem, R.; Mikkelsen, A.; Andersen, J. N.; Lundgren, E.; Torrelles, X.; Balmes, O.; Bovet, N.

    2008-07-15

    Using a combination of surface x-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry at realistic pressures, the CO oxidation reactivity of Rh(111) and Rh(100) model catalysts has been studied in conjunction with the surface structure. The measurements show that the presence of a specific thin surface oxide is crucial for the high activity of the Rh based CO oxidation. As this oxide is readily formed on all Rh facets, we conclude that the specific Rh crystal planes exposed during catalysis will not directly influence the reactivity. This is fortified by the very close similarity between the Rh(111) and the Rh(100) results.

  15. The NetVISA automatic association tool. Next generation software testing and performance under realistic conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, Ronan; Arora, Nimar; Kushida, Noriyuki; Tomuta, Elena; Kebede, Fekadu; Feitio, Paulino

    2016-04-01

    The CTBTO's International Data Centre is in the process of developing the next generation software to perform the automatic association step. The NetVISA software uses a Bayesian approach with a forward physical model using probabilistic representations of the propagation, station capabilities, background seismicity, noise detection statistics, and coda phase statistics. The software has been in development for a few years and is now reaching the stage where it is being tested in a realistic operational context. An interactive module has been developed where the NetVISA automatic events that are in addition to the Global Association (GA) results are presented to the analysts. We report on a series of tests where the results are examined and evaluated by seasoned analysts. Consistent with the statistics previously reported (Arora et al., 2013), the first test shows that the software is able to enhance analysis work by providing additional event hypothesis for consideration by analysts. A test on a three-day data set was performed and showed that the system found 42 additional real events out of 116 examined, including 6 that pass the criterion for the Reviewed Event Bulletin of the IDC. The software was functional in a realistic, real-time mode, during the occurrence of the fourth nuclear test claimed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on January 6th, 2016. Confirming a previous statistical observation, the software found more associated stations (51, including 35 primary stations) than GA (36, including 26 primary stations) for this event. Nimar S. Arora, Stuart Russell, Erik Sudderth. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA) April 2013, vol. 103 no. 2A pp709-729.

  16. Predicting electromyographic signals under realistic conditions using a multiscale chemo–electro–mechanical finite element model

    PubMed Central

    Mordhorst, Mylena; Heidlauf, Thomas; Röhrle, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multiscale finite element-based framework for modelling electromyographic (EMG) signals. The framework combines (i) a biophysical description of the excitation–contraction coupling at the half-sarcomere level, (ii) a model of the action potential (AP) propagation along muscle fibres, (iii) a continuum-mechanical formulation of force generation and deformation of the muscle, and (iv) a model for predicting the intramuscular and surface EMG. Owing to the biophysical description of the half-sarcomere, the model inherently accounts for physiological properties of skeletal muscle. To demonstrate this, the influence of membrane fatigue on the EMG signal during sustained contractions is investigated. During a stimulation period of 500 ms at 100 Hz, the predicted EMG amplitude decreases by 40% and the AP propagation velocity decreases by 15%. Further, the model can take into account contraction-induced deformations of the muscle. This is demonstrated by simulating fixed-length contractions of an idealized geometry and a model of the human tibialis anterior muscle (TA). The model of the TA furthermore demonstrates that the proposed finite element model is capable of simulating realistic geometries, complex fibre architectures, and can include different types of heterogeneities. In addition, the TA model accounts for a distributed innervation zone, different fibre types and appeals to motor unit discharge times that are based on a biophysical description of the α motor neurons. PMID:25844148

  17. Relevant influence of limestone crystallinity on CO₂ capture in the Ca-looping technology at realistic calcination conditions.

    PubMed

    Valverde, J M; Sanchez-Jimenez, P E; Perez-Maqueda, L A

    2014-08-19

    We analyze the role of limestone crystallinity on its CO2 capture performance when subjected to carbonation/calcination cycles at conditions mimicking the Ca-looping (CaL) technology for postcombustion CO2 capture. The behavior of raw and pretreated limestones (milled and thermally annealed) is investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests under realistic sorbent regeneration conditions, which necessarily involve high CO2 partial pressure in the calciner and quick heating rates. The pretreatments applied lead to contrasting effects on the solid crystal structure and, therefore, on its resistance to solid-state diffusion. Our results show that decarbonation at high CO2 partial pressure is notably promoted by decreasing solid crystallinity. CaO regeneration is fully achieved under high CO2 partial pressure at 900 °C in short residence times for the milled limestone whereas complete regeneration for raw limestone requires a minimum calcination temperature of about 950 °C. Such a reduction of the calcination temperature and the consequent mitigation of multicyclic capture capacity decay would serve to enhance the efficiency of the CaL technology. On the other hand, the results of our study suggest that the use of highly crystalline limestones would be detrimental since excessively high calcination temperatures should be required to attain full decarbonation at realistic conditions.

  18. Capture Conditions for Merging Trajectory Segments to Model Realistic Aircraft Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda A.

    1996-01-01

    A typical commercial aircraft trajectory consists of a series of flight segments. An aircraft switches from one segment to another when certain specified variables reach their desired values. Trajectory synthesis for air traffic control automation must be consistent with practical pilot procedures. We examine capture conditions for merging trajectory segments to model commercial aircraft descent in trajectory synthesis. These conditions translate into bounds on measurements of atmospheric wind, pressure, and temperature. They also define ranges of thrust and drag feasible for a descent trajectory. Capture conditions are derived for the Center-TRACON Automation System developed at NASA Ames Research Center for automated air traffic control. Various uses of capture conditions are discussed. A Boeing 727-200 aircraft is used to provide numerical examples of capture conditions.

  19. On the consequences of a realistic conditional covariance in MMM-calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Stefan; Günter, Sibylle; Röpke, Gerd

    1999-02-01

    The model microfield method (MMM) may be used to include the effect of ion motion in line shape calculations. This kind of modelling of the time evolution of the microfield as a stochastic process, as is done in this method, yields a short time behaviour of the conditional covariance of the model microfield, which differs considerably from a conditional covariance calculated by considering the real motion of the plasma ions (microscopic conditional covariance). In this work purely ionic broadened hydrogen 0953-4075/32/3/011/img6 profiles are calculated using the microscopic conditional covariance within the MMM. It is shown that, depending on the reduced radiator-perturber mass, these MMM calculations may lead to unphysical line shapes. For comparison, hydrogen 0953-4075/32/3/011/img6 profiles derived within the MMM using the kangaroo process and from line shape simulations are given.

  20. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol.

    PubMed

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-28

    The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers' performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital, France. Results will be published in scientific journals, and communicated

  1. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  2. Influence of stenosis on hemodynamic parameters in the realistic left coronary artery under hyperemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Badarudin, A; Nik-Ghazali, N; Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Salman Ahmed, N J; Yunus Khan, T M

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the hyperemic flow effects on heamodynamics parameters such as velocity, wall shear stress in 3D coronary artery models with and without stenosis. The hyperemic flow is used to evaluate the functional significance of stenosis in the current era. Patients CT scan data of having healthy and coronary artery disease was chosen for the reconstruction of 3D coronary artery models. The diseased 3D models of coronary artery shows a narrowing of >50% lumen area. Computational fluid dynamics was performed to simulate the hyperemic flow condition. The results showed that the recirculation zone was observed immediate to the stenosis and highest wall shear stress was observed across the stenosis. The decrease in pressure was found downstream to the stenosis as compared to the coronary artery without stenosis. Our analysis provides an insight into the distribution of wall shear stress and pressure drop, thus improving our understanding of hyperemic flow effect under both conditions.

  3. Understanding how self-management interventions work for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions: protocol for a realist synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Susan L; Pumarino, Javiera; Clark, Nancy; Carroll, Simon; Dennis, Sarah; Koehn, Sharon; Yu, Tricia; Davis, Connie; Fong, Maylene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Self-management programmes are complex interventions aimed at improving the way individuals self-manage chronic conditions, but there are questions about the overall impact of these programmes on disadvantaged populations, in terms of their capacity to engage with and receive the benefits from these initiatives. Given the increased resources being directed towards self-management initiatives, clinicians and policy makers need knowledge on how self-management interventions work for these populations. Most systematic reviews of self-management interventions do not consider the complex interactions between implementation contexts, intervention strategies, and mechanisms that influence how self-management interventions work in real life for disadvantaged groups. Methods To address the need for better understanding of these mechanisms and to create context-relevant knowledge, we are conducting a realist synthesis of evidence on self-management interventions for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions. The primary research question is: What are the key mechanisms operating in chronic condition self-management interventions among disadvantaged populations? In this protocol, we outline the steps we will take to identify the programme theory for self-management interventions and candidate middle-range theories; to search for evidence in academic and grey literature; to appraise and extract the collected evidence; to synthesise and interpret the findings to generate key context-mechanism-outcome configurations and to disseminate results to relevant stakeholder and to peer-review publications. Dissemination Understandings of how chronic conditions self-management interventions work among disadvantaged populations is essential knowledge for clinicians and other decision makers who need to know which programmes they should implement for which groups. Results will also benefit medical researchers who want to direct effort towards current gaps in

  4. Temperature dependence of ice-on-rock friction at realistic glacier conditions.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, C; Savage, H; Nettles, M

    2017-02-13

    Using a new biaxial friction apparatus, we conducted experiments of ice-on-rock friction in order to better understand basal sliding of glaciers and ice streams. A series of velocity-stepping and slide-hold-slide tests were conducted to measure friction and healing at temperatures between -20°C and melting. Experimental conditions in this study are comparable to subglacial temperatures, sliding rates and effective pressures of Antarctic ice streams and other glaciers, with load-point velocities ranging from 0.5 to 100 µm s(-1) and normal stress σn = 100 kPa. In this range of conditions, temperature dependences of both steady-state friction and frictional healing are considerable. The friction increases linearly with decreasing temperature (temperature weakening) from μ = 0.52 at -20°C to μ = 0.02 at melting. Frictional healing increases and velocity dependence shifts from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour with decreasing temperature. Our results indicate that the strength and stability of glaciers and ice streams may change considerably over the range of temperatures typically found at the ice-bed interface.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Temperature dependence of ice-on-rock friction at realistic glacier conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, C.; Savage, H.; Nettles, M.

    2017-02-01

    Using a new biaxial friction apparatus, we conducted experiments of ice-on-rock friction in order to better understand basal sliding of glaciers and ice streams. A series of velocity-stepping and slide-hold-slide tests were conducted to measure friction and healing at temperatures between -20°C and melting. Experimental conditions in this study are comparable to subglacial temperatures, sliding rates and effective pressures of Antarctic ice streams and other glaciers, with load-point velocities ranging from 0.5 to 100 µm s-1 and normal stress σn = 100 kPa. In this range of conditions, temperature dependences of both steady-state friction and frictional healing are considerable. The friction increases linearly with decreasing temperature (temperature weakening) from μ = 0.52 at -20°C to μ = 0.02 at melting. Frictional healing increases and velocity dependence shifts from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour with decreasing temperature. Our results indicate that the strength and stability of glaciers and ice streams may change considerably over the range of temperatures typically found at the ice-bed interface. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  6. Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Nyssen, Olga P; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Wong, Geoff; Steed, Elizabeth; Bourke, Liam; Lord, Joanne; Ross, Carol A; Hayman, Sheila; Field, Victoria; Higgins, Ailish; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Meads, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Writing therapy to improve physical or mental health can take many forms. The most researched model of therapeutic writing (TW) is unfacilitated, individual expressive writing (written emotional disclosure). Facilitated writing activities are less widely researched. Databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstracts, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, were searched from inception to March 2013 (updated January 2015). Four TW practitioners provided expert advice. Study procedures were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised comparative studies were included. Quality was appraised using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Unfacilitated and facilitated TW studies were analysed separately under International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision chapter headings. Meta-analyses were performed where possible using RevMan version 5.2.6 (RevMan 2012, The Cochrane Collaboration, The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Costs were estimated from a UK NHS perspective and three cost-consequence case studies were prepared. Realist synthesis followed Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards guidelines. To review the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TW for people with long-term conditions (LTCs) compared with no writing, or other controls, reporting any relevant clinical outcomes. To conduct a realist synthesis to understand how TW might work, and for whom. From 14,658 unique citations, 284 full-text papers were reviewed and 64 studies (59 RCTs) were included in the final effectiveness reviews. Five studies examined facilitated TW; these were extremely heterogeneous with unclear or high risk of bias but suggested that facilitated TW interventions may be beneficial in individual LTCs. Unfacilitated expressive writing was examined in 59 studies of variable

  7. Fluid-loss control for high-permeability rocks in hydraulic fracturing under realistic shear conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrete, R.C.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    A study is presented on the effectiveness of different combinations of fluid and fluid-loss additives to control fluid loss in high-permeability formations under high shear rates. The impact on matrix damage and proppant-pack damage is also studied. Borate-crosslinked guars, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and a surfactant water-base gravel packing fluid were investigated. The fluid-loss additive considered was silica flour. All fluid-loss tests were run in dynamic fluid-loss cells. To properly test high-permeability cores, new long core dynamic fluid-loss cells were used. The matrix damage caused by the invasion of the fluid was determined using pressure taps along the core. Conductivity tests were also run to determine the damage to the proppant pack. Results show that the effectiveness of particulate fluid-loss additives under dynamic conditions is strongly dependent on the initial leakoff rate, which depends on the pressure gradient across the core, permeability of the core and viscosity of the invading fluid. The use of silica flour helps matrix flowback, and it has a minimal effect on proppant-pack conductivity in clean fluids (e.g., surfactant water-base gravel packing fluid). With the exception of the borate-crosslinked guar with no fluid-loss additive, the variety of fluids used in these tests (with and without silica flour) have a negligible effect on postproduction.

  8. impact of realistic plasma conditions on characteristic scales/amplitudes of macroscopic fields of quasi-perpendicular supercritical shock front.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembege, B.; Yang, Z.; Matsukiyo, S.

    2016-12-01

    The ramp/foot of a collisionless shock front are well known to play a key role in the formation of energetic particles during their interaction with the nonstationary front of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock. Different results obtained from different simulation codes (in particular from PIC and hybrid) converge progressively towards a unified view in the dynamics of the shock front itself. However, most simulations are based on compromise in the use on realistic/nonrealistic plasma parameters (in PIC codes) or on simplifying assumptions and scalings (in Hybrid codes). The features of the shock front of a quasi-perpendicular supercritical shock are analyzed in details with the help of 1D PIC simulations via a parametric study approaching realistic conditions mainly in terms of the ratio wpe/wce, and of Vthe. Approaching real wpe/wce ratio values represents the most difficult task because of computational constraints and the need for strongly optimizing the PIC code. In particular, the present goal of the study is to analyze for different plasma conditions the variability of (i) the spatial scaling of the shock front microstructures, (ii) the overshoot amplitude features, (iii) the features of the shock front self reformation and (iv) the cross shock electric field / potential (CSP) amplitude within the ramp which plays a crucial role (and is sometimes source of controversy when comparing with experimental data) in dissipation processes within the shock transition region and in particles acceleration. The impact on the energy partition between both electrons and ions is analyzed in details in order to extract informations which can be compared with experimental data. Present results will be also compared with previous numerical works.

  9. Toward effective design and adoption of catalyst-based filter for indoor hazards: Formaldehyde abatement under realistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Kwang Hoon; Zhang, Jensen S; Guo, Bing

    2017-06-05

    Catalytic oxidation at ambient temperature has drawn wide attention as a new promising method of air cleaning, converting hazardous materials into non-hazardous ones. However, limited information is available regarding catalytic filter performance/characteristics under real operating conditions, especially on service efficiency and byproducts. Also, no practical scale-up method/evidence for filter performance evaluation is currently available to scale-up laboratory results to real application conditions. These limitations and knowledge gaps prevent building owners/designers from adopting this new promising technique in their commercial/industrial applications. The present study conducted experiments from small-scale to full-scale chamber tests which challenged a developed catalytic filter under realistic conditions. Formaldehyde was selected for approach demonstration due to its indoor ubiquitousness and criticality for human health even at low-levels. Results showed that the competition level for reaction sites in filter media had a crucial role in the performance for formaldehyde abatement, a high initial (77%; under no competing pollutants) to a typical stable level (23-32%), depending on the coexistence of other pollutants and moisture in the air, that the employment of this type of filter might generate byproducts (opposite to previous literature reports), and that small-scale column tests represented a good indication for large-scale filter performance as a practical screening method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding how self-management interventions work for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions: protocol for a realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mills, Susan L; Pumarino, Javiera; Clark, Nancy; Carroll, Simon; Dennis, Sarah; Koehn, Sharon; Yu, Tricia; Davis, Connie; Fong, Maylene

    2014-07-01

    Self-management programmes are complex interventions aimed at improving the way individuals self-manage chronic conditions, but there are questions about the overall impact of these programmes on disadvantaged populations, in terms of their capacity to engage with and receive the benefits from these initiatives. Given the increased resources being directed towards self-management initiatives, clinicians and policy makers need knowledge on how self-management interventions work for these populations. Most systematic reviews of self-management interventions do not consider the complex interactions between implementation contexts, intervention strategies, and mechanisms that influence how self-management interventions work in real life for disadvantaged groups. To address the need for better understanding of these mechanisms and to create context-relevant knowledge, we are conducting a realist synthesis of evidence on self-management interventions for disadvantaged populations living with chronic conditions. The primary research question is: What are the key mechanisms operating in chronic condition self-management interventions among disadvantaged populations? In this protocol, we outline the steps we will take to identify the programme theory for self-management interventions and candidate middle-range theories; to search for evidence in academic and grey literature; to appraise and extract the collected evidence; to synthesise and interpret the findings to generate key context-mechanism-outcome configurations and to disseminate results to relevant stakeholder and to peer-review publications. Understandings of how chronic conditions self-management interventions work among disadvantaged populations is essential knowledge for clinicians and other decision makers who need to know which programmes they should implement for which groups. Results will also benefit medical researchers who want to direct effort towards current gaps in knowledge in order to advance the self

  11. Balancing student/trainee learning with the delivery of patient care in the healthcare workplace: a protocol for realist synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sholl, Sarah; Ajjawi, Rola; Allbutt, Helen; Butler, Jane; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Morrison, Jill; Rees, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A national survey was recently conducted to explore medical education research priorities in Scotland. The identified themes and underlying priority areas can be linked to current medical education drivers in the UK. The top priority area rated by stakeholders was: ‘Understanding how to balance service and training conflicts’. Despite its perceived importance, a preliminary scoping exercise revealed the least activity with respect to published literature reviews. This protocol has therefore been developed so as to understand how patient care, other service demands and student/trainee learning can be simultaneously facilitated within the healthcare workplace. The review will identify key interventions designed to balance patient care and student/trainee learning, to understand how and why such interventions produce their effects. Our research questions seek to address how identified interventions enable balanced patient care-trainee learning within the healthcare workplace, for whom, why and under what circumstances. Methods and analysis Pawson's five stages for undertaking a realist review underpin this protocol. These stages may progress in a non-linear fashion due to the iterative nature of the review process. We will: (1) clarify the scope of the review, identifying relevant interventions and existing programme theories, understanding how interventions act to produce their intended outcomes; (2) search journal articles and grey literature for empirical evidence from 1998 (introduction of the European Working Time Directive) on the UK multidisciplinary team working concerning these interventions, theories and outcomes, using databases such as ERIC, Scopus and CINAHL; (3) assess study quality; (4) extract data; and (5) synthesise data, drawing conclusions. Ethics and dissemination A formal ethical review is not required. These findings should provide an important understanding of how workplace-based interventions influence the balance of trainee

  12. Balancing student/trainee learning with the delivery of patient care in the healthcare workplace: a protocol for realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sholl, Sarah; Ajjawi, Rola; Allbutt, Helen; Butler, Jane; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Morrison, Jill; Rees, Charlotte

    2016-04-26

    A national survey was recently conducted to explore medical education research priorities in Scotland. The identified themes and underlying priority areas can be linked to current medical education drivers in the UK. The top priority area rated by stakeholders was: 'Understanding how to balance service and training conflicts'. Despite its perceived importance, a preliminary scoping exercise revealed the least activity with respect to published literature reviews. This protocol has therefore been developed so as to understand how patient care, other service demands and student/trainee learning can be simultaneously facilitated within the healthcare workplace. The review will identify key interventions designed to balance patient care and student/trainee learning, to understand how and why such interventions produce their effects. Our research questions seek to address how identified interventions enable balanced patient care-trainee learning within the healthcare workplace, for whom, why and under what circumstances. Pawson's five stages for undertaking a realist review underpin this protocol. These stages may progress in a non-linear fashion due to the iterative nature of the review process. We will: (1) clarify the scope of the review, identifying relevant interventions and existing programme theories, understanding how interventions act to produce their intended outcomes; (2) search journal articles and grey literature for empirical evidence from 1998 (introduction of the European Working Time Directive) on the UK multidisciplinary team working concerning these interventions, theories and outcomes, using databases such as ERIC, Scopus and CINAHL; (3) assess study quality; (4) extract data; and (5) synthesise data, drawing conclusions. A formal ethical review is not required. These findings should provide an important understanding of how workplace-based interventions influence the balance of trainee learning and service provision. They should benefit various

  13. Improvement in Simulation of Eurasian Winter Climate Variability with a Realistic Arctic Sea Ice Condition in an Atmospheric GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to approx. 0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

  14. Kinetics of devolatilization and oxidation of a pulverized biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Santiago; Remacha, Pilar; Ballester, Javier; Ballesteros, Juan C.; Gimenez, Antonio

    2008-03-15

    In this paper the results of a complete set of devolatilization and combustion experiments performed with pulverized ({proportional_to}500 {mu}m) biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions are presented. The data obtained are used to derive the kinetic parameters that best fit the observed behaviors, according to a simple model of particle combustion (one-step devolatilization, apparent oxidation kinetics, thermally thin particles). The model is found to adequately reproduce the experimental trends regarding both volatile release and char oxidation rates for the range of particle sizes and combustion conditions explored. The experimental and numerical procedures, similar to those recently proposed for the combustion of pulverized coal [J. Ballester, S. Jimenez, Combust. Flame 142 (2005) 210-222], have been designed to derive the parameters required for the analysis of biomass combustion in practical pulverized fuel configurations and allow a reliable characterization of any finely pulverized biomass. Additionally, the results of a limited study on the release rate of nitrogen from the biomass particle along combustion are shown. (author)

  15. Case management in primary care among frequent users of healthcare services with chronic conditions: protocol of a realist synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Burge, Fred; Pluye, Pierre; Bush, Paula L; Ramsden, Vivian R; Legare, France; Guenette, Line; Morin, Paul; Lambert, Mireille; Groulx, Antoine; Couture, Martine; Campbell, Cameron; Baker, Margaret; Edwards, Lynn; Sabourin, Véronique; Spence, Claude; Gauthier, Gilles; Warren, Mike; Godbout, Julie; Davis, Breanna; Rabbitskin, Norma

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A common reason for frequent use of healthcare services is the complex healthcare needs of individuals suffering from multiple chronic conditions, especially in combination with mental health comorbidities and/or social vulnerability. Frequent users (FUs) of healthcare services are more at risk for disability, loss of quality of life and mortality. Case management (CM) is a promising intervention to improve care integration for FU and to reduce healthcare costs. This review aims to develop a middle-range theory explaining how CM in primary care improves outcomes among FU with chronic conditions, for what types of FU and in what circumstances. Methods and analysis A realist synthesis (RS) will be conducted between March 2017 and March 2018 to explore the causal mechanisms that underlie CM and how contextual factors influence the link between these causal mechanisms and outcomes. According to RS methodology, five steps will be followed: (1) focusing the scope of the RS; (2) searching for the evidence; (3) appraising the quality of evidence; (4) extracting the data; and (5) synthesising the evidence. Patterns in context–mechanism–outcomes (CMOs) configurations will be identified, within and across identified studies. Analysis of CMO configurations will help confirm, refute, modify or add to the components of our initial rough theory and ultimately produce a refined theory explaining how and why CM interventions in primary care works, in which contexts and for which FU with chronic conditions. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics is not required for this review, but publication guidelines on RS will be followed. Based on the review findings, we will develop and disseminate messages tailored to various relevant stakeholder groups. These messages will allow the development of material that provides guidance on the design and the implementation of CM in health organisations. Trial registration number Prospero CRD42017057753. PMID:28871027

  16. Transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions: A realist review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Helen; Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor; O'Halloran, Peter

    2017-06-23

    Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, which means they must make the transition from children's to adult services. This has proved a challenging process for both young adults and service providers, with complex transition interventions interacting in unpredictable ways with local contexts. To explain how intervention processes interact with contextual factors to help transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions. Systematic realist review of the literature. Literature was sourced from four electronic databases: Embase, MEDLINE, Science Direct and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to April 2016. This was supplemented with a search in Google Scholar and articles sourced from reference lists of included papers. Data were extracted using an adapted standardised data extraction tool which included identifying information related to interventions, mechanisms, contextual influences and outcomes. Two reviewers assessed the relevance of papers based on the inclusion criteria. Methodological rigor was assessed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. 78 articles were included in the review. Six interventions were identified related to an effective transition to adult services. Contextual factors include the need for children's service providers to collaborate with adult service providers to prepare an environment with knowledgeable staff and adequate resources. Mechanisms triggered by the interventions include a sense of empowerment and agency amongst all stakeholders. Early planning, collaboration between children's and adult service providers, and a focus on increasing the young adults' confidence in decision-making and engaging with adult services, are vital to a successful transition. Interventions should be tailored to their context and focused not only on organisational procedures but on equipping young adults, parents

  17. E-cigarettes emit very high formaldehyde levels only in conditions that are aversive to users: A replication study under verified realistic use conditions.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Voudris, Vassilis; Spyrou, Alketa; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2017-08-31

    In 2015, a study identified 5-15-fold higher levels of formaldehyde emissions from an old-generation e-cigarette tested at 5.0 V compared to tobacco cigarettes. We set to replicate this study using the same e-cigarette equipment and e-liquid, while checking for the generation of dry puffs. Experienced e-cigarette users (n = 26) took 4 s puffs at different voltage settings and were asked to report the generation of dry puffs. Formaldehyde emissions were measured at both realistic and dry puff conditions. Dry puffs were detected at ≤4.2 V by 88% of participants; thus, 4.0 V was defined as the upper limit of realistic use. Levels ranged from 3.4 (SE = 2.2) μg/10 puffs at 3.3 V to 718.2 (SE = 58.2) μg/10 puffs at 5.0 V. The levels detected at 4.0 V were 19.8 (SE = 5.6) μg/10 puffs. At 4.0 V, the daily exposure to formaldehyde from consuming 3 g of liquid with the device tested would be 32% lower compared to smoking 20 tobacco cigarettes. The high levels of formaldehyde emissions that were reported in a previous study were caused by unrealistic use conditions that create the unpleasant taste of dry puffs to e-cigarette users and are thus avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... deliveries. If water is delivered to ineligible land or in excess of the appropriate water duty then: (1) The... year to determine the amount of water required to enable the delivery of full entitlements at... arising from shortages occasioned by operation of this provision must be the responsibility of the...

  19. Development of a versatile experimental setup for the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of construction materials under realistic outdoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Suárez, S; Portela, R; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Sánchez, B

    2014-10-01

    samples at the same time. The suitability of the system for the evaluation of the DeNO x properties of construction elements at realistic outdoor conditions was demonstrated. The designed experimental device can be used 24/7 for testing materials under real fluctuations of NO x concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and relative humidity and the presence of other outdoor air pollutants such as VOCs, SO x , or NH3. The chamber-based design allows comparing a photocatalytic material with respect to a reference substrate without the photoactive phase, or even the comparison of several outdoor elements at the same time.

  20. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735... ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.110 Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. (a) In the absence of a lawful excuse, a warehouse operator will, without unnecessary delay, deliver the agricultural...

  1. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735... ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.110 Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. (a) In the absence of a lawful excuse, a warehouse operator will, without unnecessary delay, deliver the agricultural...

  2. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735... ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.110 Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. (a) In the absence of a lawful excuse, a warehouse operator will, without unnecessary delay, deliver the agricultural...

  3. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735... ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.110 Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. (a) In the absence of a lawful excuse, a warehouse operator will, without unnecessary delay, deliver the agricultural...

  4. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735... ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.110 Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. (a) In the absence of a lawful excuse, a warehouse operator will, without unnecessary delay, deliver the agricultural...

  5. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss. ...

  6. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss. ...

  7. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss. ...

  8. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss. ...

  9. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss. ...

  10. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  11. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  12. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  13. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  14. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  15. Is realistic neuronal modeling realistic?

    PubMed

    Almog, Mara; Korngreen, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Scientific models are abstractions that aim to explain natural phenomena. A successful model shows how a complex phenomenon arises from relatively simple principles while preserving major physical or biological rules and predicting novel experiments. A model should not be a facsimile of reality; it is an aid for understanding it. Contrary to this basic premise, with the 21st century has come a surge in computational efforts to model biological processes in great detail. Here we discuss the oxymoronic, realistic modeling of single neurons. This rapidly advancing field is driven by the discovery that some neurons don't merely sum their inputs and fire if the sum exceeds some threshold. Thus researchers have asked what are the computational abilities of single neurons and attempted to give answers using realistic models. We briefly review the state of the art of compartmental modeling highlighting recent progress and intrinsic flaws. We then attempt to address two fundamental questions. Practically, can we realistically model single neurons? Philosophically, should we realistically model single neurons? We use layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons as a test case to examine these issues. We subject three publically available models of layer 5 pyramidal neurons to three simple computational challenges. Based on their performance and a partial survey of published models, we conclude that current compartmental models are ad hoc, unrealistic models functioning poorly once they are stretched beyond the specific problems for which they were designed. We then attempt to plot possible paths for generating realistic single neuron models. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Interstimulus Interval and Delivery Cues Influence Timed Conditioned Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Douglas A.; Chubala, Chrissy M.; Mather, Amber A.; Johns, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    Appetitive contextual excitation supported by intertrial unconditioned stimuli was more easily overcome by timed conditioned responding in rats using quiet (Experiment 1) rather than noisy (Experiment 2) food pellet deliveries. Head-entry responding in acquisition peaked above the contextual baseline when pellet delivery occurred 10, 30, 60, or 90…

  17. Interstimulus Interval and Delivery Cues Influence Timed Conditioned Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Douglas A.; Chubala, Chrissy M.; Mather, Amber A.; Johns, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    Appetitive contextual excitation supported by intertrial unconditioned stimuli was more easily overcome by timed conditioned responding in rats using quiet (Experiment 1) rather than noisy (Experiment 2) food pellet deliveries. Head-entry responding in acquisition peaked above the contextual baseline when pellet delivery occurred 10, 30, 60, or 90…

  18. Assessment of tbe Performance of Ablative Insulators Under Realistic Solid Rocket Motor Operating Conditions (a Doctoral Dissertation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Heath Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ablative insulators are used in the interior surfaces of solid rocket motors to prevent the mechanical structure of the rocket from failing due to intense heating by the high-temperature solid-propellant combustion products. The complexity of the ablation process underscores the need for ablative material response data procured from a realistic solid rocket motor environment, where all of the potential contributions to material degradation are present and in their appropriate proportions. For this purpose, the present study examines ablative material behavior in a laboratory-scale solid rocket motor. The test apparatus includes a planar, two-dimensional flow channel in which flat ablative material samples are installed downstream of an aluminized solid propellant grain and imaged via real-time X-ray radiography. In this way, the in-situ transient thermal response of an ablator to all of the thermal, chemical, and mechanical erosion mechanisms present in a solid rocket environment can be observed and recorded. The ablative material is instrumented with multiple micro-thermocouples, so that in-depth temperature histories are known. Both total heat flux and thermal radiation flux gauges have been designed, fabricated, and tested to characterize the thermal environment to which the ablative material samples are exposed. These tests not only allow different ablative materials to be compared in a realistic solid rocket motor environment but also improve the understanding of the mechanisms that influence the erosion behavior of a given ablative material.

  19. Plasminogen Activators and Ischemic Stroke: Conditions for Acute Delivery

    PubMed Central

    del Zoppo, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate acute treatment with plasminogen activators (PAs) can significantly increase the probability of minimal or no disability in selected ischemic stroke patients. There is a great deal of evidence showing that intravenous recombinant tissue PAs (rt-PA) infusion accomplishes this goal, recanalization with other PAs has also been demonstrated in the development of this treatment. Recanalization of symptomatic, documented carotid or vertebrobasilar arterial territory occlusions have also been achieved by local intra-arterial PA delivery, although only a single prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study has been reported. The increase in intracerebral hemorrhage with these agents by either delivery approach underscores the need for careful patient selection, dose-appropriate safety and efficacy, proper clinical trial design, and an understanding of the evolution of cerebral tissue injury due to focal ischemia. Principles underlying the evolution of focal ischemia have been expanded by experience with acute PA intervention. Several questions remain open that concern the manner in which PAs can be applied acutely in ischemic stroke and how injury development can be limited. PMID:23539414

  20. Predictive factors for preterm delivery under rural conditions in post-tsunami Banda Aceh.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Fabienne D; Zettler, Eva K; Moh, Andala; Schötzau, Andreas; Gross, Uwe; Günthert, Andreas R

    2016-07-01

    To assess the risk for preterm deliveries <37 week of gestation and associated prevalence of vaginal infection in a rural setting after the tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Wet mount microscopy, vaginal pH and vaginal swabs for microbiological culture were collected in pregnant women during the 2nd trimester from February to June of 2005 in four temporary outpatient clinics and the patients were followed up until delivery. One hundred and fifty-nine pregnant patients were screened. Sixty-two could be followed up until delivery. Thirty-nine (62.9%) delivered at term and 23 (37.1%) delivered prematurely. Significant risk factors for preterm delivery were a history of preterm delivery and group B streptococcus infection. Increased vaginal pH alone had no significant influence on preterm delivery, although there was a trend. The rate of preterm delivery was high in this cohort. We suggest risk stratification for preterm delivery in rural conditions by performing a vaginal pH and wet mount microscopy. If either is suspect we suggest collecting a vaginal swab for microbiological culture for targeted treatment. Patients with a history of preterm delivery are at increased risk and should be monitored closely.

  1. Mode of delivery has an independent impact on neonatal condition at birth.

    PubMed

    Prior, Tomas; Kumar, Sailesh

    2014-10-01

    Current intra-partum monitoring techniques are often criticized for their poor specificity, with their performance frequently evaluated using measures of the neonatal condition at birth as a surrogate marker for intra-partum fetal compromise. However, these measures may potentially be influenced by a multitude of other factors, including the mode of delivery itself. This study aimed to investigate the impact of mode of delivery on neonatal condition at birth. This prospective observational study, undertaken at a tertiary referral maternity unit in London, UK, included 604 'low risk' women recruited prior to delivery. Commonly assessed neonatal outcome variables (Apgar score at 1 and 5min, umbilical artery pH and base excess, neonatal unit admission, and a composite neonatal outcome score) were used to compare the condition at birth between babies born by different modes of delivery, using one-way ANOVA and chi-squared testing. Infants born by instrumental delivery for presumed fetal compromise had the poorest condition at birth (mean composite score=1.20), whereas those born by Cesarean section for presumed fetal compromise had a better condition at birth (mean composite score=0.64) (p=<0.001). No difference in composite neonatal outcome scores was observed between babies born by instrumental delivery for a prolonged second stage (no evidence of compromise), and those born by Cesarean delivery for presumed fetal compromise. Mode of delivery represents a potential confounding factor when using condition at birth as a surrogate marker of intra-partum fetal compromise. When evaluating the efficacy of intra-partum monitoring techniques, the isolated use of Apgar scores, umbilical artery acidosis and neonatal unit admission should be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Biologically Realistic Network Model of Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear Associations in Lateral Amygdala Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoshi; Nair, Satish S.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala plays an important role in the acquisition and expression of both fear conditioning and fear extinction. To understand how a single structure could encode these “opposite” memories, we developed a biophysical network model of the lateral amygdala (LA) neurons during auditory fear conditioning and extinction. Membrane channel properties were selected to match waveforms and firing properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons in LA, from published in vitro studies. Hebbian plasticity was implemented in excitatory AMPA and inhibitory GABAA receptor-mediated synapses to model learning. The occurrence of synaptic potentiation versus depression was determined by intracellular calcium levels, according to the calcium control hypothesis. The model was able to replicate conditioning- and extinction-induced changes in tone responses of LA neurons in behaving rats. Our main finding is that LA activity during both acquisition and extinction can be controlled by a balance between pyramidal cell and interneuron activations. Extinction training depressed conditioned synapses and also potentiated local interneurons, thereby inhibiting the responses of pyramidal cells to auditory input. Both long-term depression and potentiation of inhibition were required to initiate and maintain extinction. The model provides insights into the sites of plasticity in conditioning and extinction, the mechanism of spontaneous recovery, and the role of amygdala NMDA receptors in extinction learning. PMID:19036872

  3. Compact Multi-Gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space: Evaluation Under Realistic Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Jesus Delgado; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Mendoza, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space life support systems require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical gas components. A luminescence-based optical flow-through cell to monitor carbon dioxide, oxygen, and humidity has been developed and was demonstrated using bench-top instrumentation under environmental conditions relevant to portable life support systems, including initially pure oxygen atmosphere, temperature range from 50 F to 150 F, and humidity from dry to 100% RH and under conditions of water condensation. This paper presents the most recent progress in the development of this sensor technology. Trace gas contaminants in a space suit, originating from hardware and material off-gassing and crew member metabolism, are from many chemical families. The result is a gas mix much more complex than the pure oxygen fed into the space suit, and this complexity may interfere with gas sensor readings. This paper presents an evaluation of optical sensor performance when exposed to the most significant trace gases reported to be found in space suits. A study of the calibration stability of the sensors is also presented. For that purpose, a profile of temperature, pressure, humidity, and gas composition for the duration of an EVA has been defined, and the performance of sensors operated repeatedly under those conditions has been studied. Finally, this paper presents the first compact readout unit for these optical sensors, designed for the volume, power, and weight restrictions of a PLSS.

  4. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  5. Protocol for an HTA report: Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Meads, C; Nyssen, O P; Wong, G; Steed, L; Bourke, L; Ross, C A; Hayman, S; Field, V; Lord, J; Greenhalgh, T; Taylor, S J C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Long-term medical conditions (LTCs) cause reduced health-related quality of life and considerable health service expenditure. Writing therapy has potential to improve physical and mental health in people with LTCs, but its effectiveness is not established. This project aims to establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic writing in LTCs by systematic review and economic evaluation, and to evaluate context and mechanisms by which it might work, through realist synthesis. Methods Included are any comparative study of therapeutic writing compared with no writing, waiting list, attention control or placebo writing in patients with any diagnosed LTCs that report at least one of the following: relevant clinical outcomes; quality of life; health service use; psychological, behavioural or social functioning; adherence or adverse events. Searches will be conducted in the main medical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index. For the realist review, further purposive and iterative searches through snowballing techniques will be undertaken. Inclusions, data extraction and quality assessment will be in duplicate with disagreements resolved through discussion. Quality assessment will include using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data synthesis will be narrative and tabular with meta-analysis where appropriate. De novo economic modelling will be attempted in one clinical area if sufficient evidence is available and performed according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) reference case. PMID:24549165

  6. Protocol for an HTA report: Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic modelling.

    PubMed

    Meads, C; Nyssen, O P; Wong, G; Steed, L; Bourke, L; Ross, C A; Hayman, S; Field, V; Lord, J; Greenhalgh, T; Taylor, S J C

    2014-02-18

    Long-term medical conditions (LTCs) cause reduced health-related quality of life and considerable health service expenditure. Writing therapy has potential to improve physical and mental health in people with LTCs, but its effectiveness is not established. This project aims to establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic writing in LTCs by systematic review and economic evaluation, and to evaluate context and mechanisms by which it might work, through realist synthesis. Included are any comparative study of therapeutic writing compared with no writing, waiting list, attention control or placebo writing in patients with any diagnosed LTCs that report at least one of the following: relevant clinical outcomes; quality of life; health service use; psychological, behavioural or social functioning; adherence or adverse events. Searches will be conducted in the main medical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index. For the realist review, further purposive and iterative searches through snowballing techniques will be undertaken. Inclusions, data extraction and quality assessment will be in duplicate with disagreements resolved through discussion. Quality assessment will include using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data synthesis will be narrative and tabular with meta-analysis where appropriate. De novo economic modelling will be attempted in one clinical area if sufficient evidence is available and performed according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) reference case.

  7. CFD study of the flow pattern in an ultrasonic horn reactor: Introducing a realistic vibrating boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Masoud; Movahedirad, Salman; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh

    2017-03-01

    Recently, great attention has been paid to predict the acoustic streaming field distribution inside the sonoreactors, induced by high-power ultrasonic wave generator. The focus of this paper is to model an ultrasonic vibrating horn and study the induced flow pattern with a newly developed moving boundary condition. The numerical simulation utilizes the modified cavitation model along with the "mixture" model for turbulent flow (RNG, k-ε), and a moving boundary condition with an oscillating parabolic-logarithmic profile, applied to the horn tip. This moving-boundary provides the situation in which the center of the horn tip vibrates stronger than that of the peripheral regions. The velocity field obtained by computational fluid dynamic was in a reasonably good agreement with the PIV results. The moving boundary model is more accurate since it better approximates the movement of the horn tip in the ultrasonic assisted process. From an optimizing point of view, the model with the new moving boundary is more suitable than the conventional models for design purposes because the displacement magnitude of the horn tip is the only fitting parameter. After developing and validating the numerical model, the model was utilized to predict various quantities such as cavitation zone, pressure field and stream function that are not experimentally feasible to measure.

  8. [Transdermal delivery of Gentiana macrophylla complex components system under micro-needle conditions].

    PubMed

    Dou, Jing-jing; Yan, Jing-hua; Xu, Kun; Chen, Gui; Hui, Xian; Ju, Da-hong; Hao, Bao-hua

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the transdermal delivery characteristics of Gentiana macrophylla complex components system through different parts of the skin under micro-needles conditions. Two-chamber diffusion cells were used, different parts of isolated skin and micro-needle pretreated isolated mouse skin were applied separately, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) similarity evaluation methods were used to evaluate transdermal delivery characteristics of Gentiana macrophylla complex components system on receiving pool and the permeation rate and penetration amount of Gentiopicroside at different parts of mouse skin. In the 24 h, the similarity between receiving fluid which was on passive transdermal delivery and micro-needle transdermal delivery conditions and original fluid were ranged from 83.0% to 98.9%; By the micro-needle pretreatment with different parts of the mouse skin, the time that Gentiana macrophylla complex components system though abdominal skin to the receiving fluid which reached 90% similarity compared with that of original fluid was 4 h, which was 18 h at back skin and 12 h at neck skin separately. Micro-needles can be used as the ideal ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine complex transdermal delivery; transdermal absorption time delay could be greatly reduced and its bioavailability was improved. The permeation rate and similarity to original liquid of Chinese medicine complex components increased significantly in the abdominal skin relative to the neck and back skin under micro-needle conditions.

  9. Compact Multi-Gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space: Evaluation Under Realistic Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Chullen, Cinda; Mendoza, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space life support systems require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical gas components. A luminescence-based optical flow-through cell to monitor carbon dioxide, oxygen, and humidity has been developed and was demonstrated using bench top instrumentation under environmental conditions relevant to portable life support systems, including initially pure oxygen atmosphere, pressure range from 3.5 to 14.7 psi, temperature range from 50 F to 150 F, and humidity from dry to 100% RH and under liquid water saturation. This paper presents the first compact readout unit for these optical sensors, designed for the volume, power, and weight restrictions of a spacesuit portable Life support system and the analytical characterization of the optical sensors interrogated by the novel optoelectronic system. Trace gas contaminants in a space suit, originating from hardware and material off-gassing and crew member metabolism, are from many chemical families. The result is a gas mix much more complex than the pure oxygen fed into the spacesuit, which may interfere with gas sensor readings. The paper also presents an evaluation of optical sensor performance when exposed to the most significant trace gases reported to be found in spacesuits. The studies were conducted with the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for those trace gases and the calculated 8-hr. concentrations resulting from having no trace contaminant control system in the ventilation loop. Finally, a profile of temperature, pressure, humidity, and gas composition for a typical EVA mission has been defined, and the performance of sensors operated repeatedly under simulated EVA mission conditions has been studied.

  10. The analytical solution for drug delivery system with nonhomogeneous moving boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saudi, Muhamad Hakimi; Mahali, Shalela Mohd; Harun, Fatimah Noor

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the development and the analytical solution of a mathematical model based on drug release system from a swelling delivery device. The mathematical model is represented by a one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with nonhomogeneous moving boundary condition. The solution procedures consist of three major steps. Firstly, the application of steady state solution method, which is used to transform the nonhomogeneous moving boundary condition to homogeneous boundary condition. Secondly, the application of the Landau transformation technique that gives a significant impact in removing the advection term in the system of equation and transforming the moving boundary condition to a fixed boundary condition. Thirdly, the used of separation of variables method to find the analytical solution for the resulted initial boundary value problem. The results show that the swelling rate of delivery device and drug release rate is influenced by value of growth factor r.

  11. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rabbits under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and comparative assessment between mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I

    2016-01-22

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rabbits under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085μg/kg per day, and the observed differences between rabbits and chickens. The best fitting for both species was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, and accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. Elimination was more rapid in rabbits, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 88 days compared to the 230 days observed for chickens. By contrast, the calculated assimilation efficiency for rabbits was almost 1, very close to full absorption, significantly higher than the 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68 observed for chickens. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in rabbits, as previously described for humans and other mammals; suggesting the role of a capacity-limited saturable process resulting in different kinetic behaviours for PFOS in high dose versus environmentally relevant low dose exposure conditions. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, and that the different kinetics between birds and mammals should may play a significant role in the biomagnifications assessment and potential exposure for humans and predators. For the same dose regime, the steady state concentration was estimated at about 36μg PFOS/L serum for rabbits, slightly above one-half of the 65μg PFOS/L serum estimated for chickens. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in rabbits and chickens as starting point for human health exposure assessments and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild mammals and bird in exposure assessment of predatory

  12. SiC-based neutron detector in quasi-realistic working conditions: efficiency and stability at room and high temperature under fast neutron irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferone, Raffaello; Issa, Fatima; Ottaviani, Laurent; Biondo, Stephane; Vervisch, Vanessa; Szalkai, Dora; Klix, Axel; Vermeeren, Ludo; Saenger, Richard; Lyoussi, Abadallah

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the European I SMART project, we have designed and made new SiC-based nuclear radiation detectors able to operate in harsh environments and to detect both fast and thermal neutrons. In this paper, we report experimental results of fast neutron irradiation campaign at high temperature (106 deg. C) in quasi-realistic working conditions. Our device does not suffer from high temperature, and spectra do show strong stability, preserving features. These experiments, as well as others in progress, show the I SMART SiC-based device skills to operate in harsh environments, whereas other materials would strongly suffer from degradation. Work is still demanded to test our device at higher temperatures and to enhance efficiency in order to make our device fully exploitable from an industrial point of view. (authors)

  13. Interventions to improve the self-management support health professionals provide for people with progressive neurological conditions: protocol for a realist synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Fiona; Bullock, Alison; Wallace, Carolyn; Edwards, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Supporting self-management among people with long-term conditions is recognised as an important component of healthcare. Progressive neurological conditions (PNCs), for example, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis are associated with problems such as fatigue and cognitive impairment which may make self-management more challenging. Health professionals may need to develop specific skills in order to provide effective self-management support for these patients. The review aims to develop explanatory theories about how health professional-targeted interventions to improve self-management support provision for people with PNCs operate in different circumstances. Methods and analysis A realist synthesis of the evidence is proposed. There are 2 priority questions for the review to address. These relate to the role of a shared concept of self-management support within the healthcare team, and the need to tailor the support provided to the requirements of people with PNCs. Key stakeholders will be involved throughout the process. The initial search strategy uses terms relating to (1) self-management, (2) health professionals and (3) PNCs. Searching, data extraction and synthesis will occur in parallel. Studies will be prioritised for inclusion based on anticipated contribution to generating explanatory theories. Key informant interviews are planned to direct supplementary searches and help further refine the theories developed. Results will be expressed in the form of context–mechanism–outcome configurations. Ethics and dissemination Publication guidelines on realist synthesis will be followed. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and made available to organisations involved in the provision of health professional training. PMID:28320798

  14. Interventions to improve the self-management support health professionals provide for people with progressive neurological conditions: protocol for a realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Freya; Wood, Fiona; Bullock, Alison; Wallace, Carolyn; Edwards, Adrian

    2017-03-20

    Supporting self-management among people with long-term conditions is recognised as an important component of healthcare. Progressive neurological conditions (PNCs), for example, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis are associated with problems such as fatigue and cognitive impairment which may make self-management more challenging. Health professionals may need to develop specific skills in order to provide effective self-management support for these patients. The review aims to develop explanatory theories about how health professional-targeted interventions to improve self-management support provision for people with PNCs operate in different circumstances. A realist synthesis of the evidence is proposed. There are 2 priority questions for the review to address. These relate to the role of a shared concept of self-management support within the healthcare team, and the need to tailor the support provided to the requirements of people with PNCs. Key stakeholders will be involved throughout the process. The initial search strategy uses terms relating to (1) self-management, (2) health professionals and (3) PNCs. Searching, data extraction and synthesis will occur in parallel. Studies will be prioritised for inclusion based on anticipated contribution to generating explanatory theories. Key informant interviews are planned to direct supplementary searches and help further refine the theories developed. Results will be expressed in the form of context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Publication guidelines on realist synthesis will be followed. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and made available to organisations involved in the provision of health professional training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Do primigravidae and their carers have a realistic expectation of uncomplicated labour and delivery?: a survey of primigravidae in late pregnancy, obstetric staff and medical students.

    PubMed

    Shub, Alexis; Williamson, Karen; Saunders, Lauren; McCarthy, Elizabeth A

    2012-02-01

    Women who experience unexpected labour and birth interventions describe feeling distressed and have an increased risk of postnatal depression. Primigravidae who have an unrealistic expectation of labour and birth may be at higher risk of these outcomes. To determine whether primigravidae and their carers have a realistic expectation of uncomplicated labour and birth. One hundered and ninety-five primigravidae, 32 obstetricians, 76 midwives, 198 medical students prior to their obstetric term and 131 medical students after their obstetric term completed a short questionnaire about the likelihood of primigravid women undergoing spontaneous onset of labour, no augmentation of labour and a cephalic vaginal birth without instrumental assistance, defined as birth without intervention. This number was compared to the local published data. Overall, the study subjects believed that women had a 48% chance of birth without intervention, and a 26% chance of birth without intervention or perineal sutures. The statewide published figures for these two outcomes are 21 and 8%, respectively. Staff, both obstetric and midwifery, were more accurate than medical students who were in turn more accurate than pregnant women. Attendance at antenatal education classes by pregnant women did not improve accuracy. Level of experience did not improve accuracy by medical staff. Medical students were more accurate after teaching than before teaching. Primigravidae in late pregnancy and maternity staff do not have a realistic expectation of a labour and birth that is free from medical intervention. This may impact on choices women make about care in pregnancy and labour. © 2012 The Authors Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Influence of a compost layer on the attenuation of 28 selected organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions: insights from a large scale column experiment.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Mario; Kröger, Kerrin Franziska; Nödler, Karsten; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Hernández, Marta; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Soil aquifer treatment is widely applied to improve the quality of treated wastewater in its reuse as alternative source of water. To gain a deeper understanding of the fate of thereby introduced organic micropollutants, the attenuation of 28 compounds was investigated in column experiments using two large scale column systems in duplicate. The influence of increasing proportions of solid organic matter (0.04% vs. 0.17%) and decreasing redox potentials (denitrification vs. iron reduction) was studied by introducing a layer of compost. Secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant was used as water matrix for simulating soil aquifer treatment. For neutral and anionic compounds, sorption generally increases with the compound hydrophobicity and the solid organic matter in the column system. Organic cations showed the highest attenuation. Among them, breakthroughs were only registered for the cationic beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol. An enhanced degradation in the columns with organic infiltration layer was observed for the majority of the compounds, suggesting an improved degradation for higher levels of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. Solely the degradation of sulfamethoxazole could clearly be attributed to redox effects (when reaching iron reducing conditions). The study provides valuable insights into the attenuation potential for a wide spectrum of organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions. Furthermore, the introduction of the compost layer generally showed positive effects on the removal of compounds preferentially degraded under reducing conditions and also increases the residence times in the soil aquifer treatment system via sorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Holdup measurements under realistic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkel, J.K. Jr.; Marshall, R.; Russo, P.A.; Siebelist, R.

    1997-11-01

    This paper reviews the documentation of the precision and bias of holdup (residual nuclear material remaining in processing equipment) measurements and presents previously unreported results. Precision and bias results for holdup measurements are reported from training seminars with simulated holdup, which represent the best possible results, and compared to actual plutonium processing facility measurements. Holdup measurements for plutonium and uranium processing plants are also compared to reference values. Recommendations for measuring holdup are provided for highly enriched uranium facilities and for low enriched uranium facilities. The random error component of holdup measurements is less than the systematic error component. The most likely factor in measurement error is incorrect assumptions about the measurement, such as background, measurement geometry, or signal attenuation. Measurement precision on the order of 10% can be achieved with some difficulty. Bias of poor quality holdup measurement can also be improved. However, for most facilities, holdup measurement errors have no significant impact on inventory difference, sigma, or safety (criticality, radiation, or environmental); therefore, it is difficult to justify the allocation of more resources to improving holdup measurements. 25 refs., 10 tabs.

  18. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  19. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  20. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a “quantum dot”), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1–014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1–245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals’ behavior.

  1. Ce K edge XAS of ceria-based redox materials under realistic conditions for the two-step solar thermochemical dissociation of water and/or CO2.

    PubMed

    Rothensteiner, Matthäus; Sala, Simone; Bonk, Alexander; Vogt, Ulrich; Emerich, Hermann; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2015-10-28

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to characterise ceria-based materials under realistic conditions present in a reactor for solar thermochemical two-step water and carbon dioxide splitting. A setup suitable for in situ measurements in transmission mode at the cerium K edge from room temperature up to 1773 K is presented. Time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) data, collected for a 10 mol% hafnium-doped ceria sample (Ce0.9Hf0.1O2-δ) during reduction at 1773 K in a flow of inert gas and during re-oxidation by CO2 at 1073 K, enables the quantitative determination of the non-stoichiometry δ of the fluorite-type structure. XANES analysis suggests the formation of the hexagonal Ce2O3 phase upon reduction in 2% hydrogen/helium at 1773 K. We discuss the experimental limitations and possibilities of high-temperature in situ XAS at edges of lower energy as well as the importance of the technique for understanding and improving the properties of ceria-based oxygen storage materials for thermochemical solar energy conversion.

  2. Sintering and reactivity of CaCO{sub 3}-based sorbents for in situ CO{sub 2} capture in fluidized beds under realistic calcination conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.Y.; Hughes, R.W.; Anthony, E.J.; Manovic, V.

    2009-06-15

    Sintering during calcination/carbonation may introduce substantial economic penalties for a CO{sub 2} looping cycle using limestone/dolomite-derived sorbents. Cyclic carbonation and calcination reactions were investigated for CO{sub 2} capture under fluidized bed combustion (FBC) conditions. The cyclic carbonation characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}-derived sorbents were compared at various calcination temperatures (700-925{sup o} C) and different gas stream compositions: pure -2 and a realistic calciner environment where high concentrations of CO{sub 2}>80-90% are expected. The conditions during carbonation were 700 {sup o}C and 15% CO{sub 2} in N{sub 2} and 0.18% or 0.50% SO{sub 2} in selected tests. Up to 20 calcination/carbonation cycles were conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) apparatus. Three Canadian limestones were tested: Kelly Rock, Havelock, and Cadomin, using a prescreened particle size range of 400-650 {mu} m. Calcined Kelly Rock and Cadomin samples were hydrated by steam and examined. Sorbent reactivity was reduced whenever SO{sub 2} was introduced to either the calcining or carbonation streams. The multicyclic capture capacity of CaO for CO{sub 2} was substantially reduced at high concentrations of CO{sub 2} during the sorbent regeneration process and carbonation conversion of the Kelly Rock sample obtained after 20 cycles was only 10.5%. Hydrated sorbents performed better for CO{sub 2} capture but showed deterioration following calcination in high CO{sub 2} gas streams indicating that high CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} levels in the gas stream lead to lower CaO conversion because of enhanced sintering and irreversible formation of CaSO{sub 4}.

  3. Interoceptive Pavlovian conditioning with nicotine as the conditional stimulus varies as a function of the number of conditioning trials and unpaired sucrose deliveries.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jamie L; Murray, Jennifer E; Li, Chia; Wiltgen, Steven M; Penrod, Rachel D; Berg, Sarah A; Bevins, Rick A

    2006-03-01

    In rats, the pharmacological (interoceptive) effects of nicotine can serve as a signal (conditional stimulus) in a Pavlovian (classical) conditioning task. In this task, nicotine administration (0.4 mg base/kg, subcutaneous) is typically paired with intermittent access to a liquid sucrose unconditional stimulus; sucrose is withheld on saline sessions. An increase in sucrose receptacle entries (goal tracking) on nicotine sessions indicates conditioning. Given our limited understanding of the functional relationships controlling conditioned responding to a nicotine conditional stimulus, the present research examined nicotine's sensitivity to several manipulations shown to affect the conditioned responding in more widely studied Pavlovian conditioning tasks that use exteroceptive conditional stimuli: number of nicotine conditional stimulus-sucrose unconditional stimulus pairings per session (0, 3, 9, 18, or 36) and the impact of sucrose deliveries in saline sessions. Differential goal tracking developed in fewer sessions and asymptotic conditioned responding magnitude was greater with more nicotine-sucrose pairings. Further, goal tracking was more resistant to extinction (unconditional stimulus withheld) with more conditional-unconditional stimulus pairings during the acquisition phase. The discrimination was not acquired when sucrose presentations (9 or 18) also occurred during saline sessions. Furthermore, expression of the discrimination was disrupted when sucrose was presented in saline sessions; this disruption resulted from goal tracking in saline sessions. These results are consistent with the notion that nicotine-evoked goal tracking results from interoceptive conditioning processes.

  4. Particulate Matter from Both Heavy Fuel Oil and Diesel Fuel Shipping Emissions Show Strong Biological Effects on Human Lung Cells at Realistic and Comparable In Vitro Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, Marco; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Schlager, Christoph; Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Stengel, Benjamin; Rabe, Rom; Harndorf, Horst; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; BéruBé, Kelly A.; Wlodarczyk, Anna J.; Prytherch, Zoë; Michalke, Bernhard; Krebs, Tobias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kelbg, Michael; Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Karg, Erwin; Jakobi, Gert; Scholtes, Sorana; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Sklorz, Martin; Klingbeil, Sophie; Orasche, Jürgen; Richthammer, Patrick; Müller, Laarnie; Elsasser, Michael; Reda, Ahmed; Gröger, Thomas; Weggler, Benedikt; Schwemer, Theo; Czech, Hendryk; Rüger, Christopher P.; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Radischat, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon (“soot”). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the

  5. Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Oeder, Sebastian; Kanashova, Tamara; Sippula, Olli; Sapcariu, Sean C; Streibel, Thorsten; Arteaga-Salas, Jose Manuel; Passig, Johannes; Dilger, Marco; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Schlager, Christoph; Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Stengel, Benjamin; Rabe, Rom; Harndorf, Horst; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma K; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; BéruBé, Kelly A; Wlodarczyk, Anna J; Prytherch, Zoë; Michalke, Bernhard; Krebs, Tobias; Prévôt, André S H; Kelbg, Michael; Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Karg, Erwin; Jakobi, Gert; Scholtes, Sorana; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Sklorz, Martin; Klingbeil, Sophie; Orasche, Jürgen; Richthammer, Patrick; Müller, Laarnie; Elsasser, Michael; Reda, Ahmed; Gröger, Thomas; Weggler, Benedikt; Schwemer, Theo; Czech, Hendryk; Rüger, Christopher P; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Radischat, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buters, Jeroen T M; Dittmar, Gunnar; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot"). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a reduction of

  6. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  7. Preferences for the delivery of community pharmacy services to help manage chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; Sav, Adem; Kelly, Fiona; McMillan, Sara S; King, Michelle A; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    To optimize positive outcomes, the design of new pharmacy services should consider the preferences of consumers with chronic condition(s) and their carers. (i) To evaluate the relative importance of community pharmacy service characteristics, from the perspective of consumers with chronic condition(s) and carers; (ii) To compare consumer and carer preferences to health professional beliefs about ideal service characteristics for consumers. A discrete choice experiment was completed by consumers with chronic condition(s) and/or carers (n = 602) and health professionals (n = 297), recruited from four regions in Australia. Participants were each randomized to one survey version containing four (from a total 72) different choices between two new pharmacy services. Consumer and carer participants were also given an 'opt out' alternative of current service. Each service was described using six attributes related to pharmacy service characteristics: continued medicines supply, continuity and coordinated care, location, medication management, education and information, and cost. Consumers and carers placed highest priority on continued medicines supply by a pharmacist for regular and symptom flare up medicines (100 priority points), a pharmacy located within a 'one-stop' health center (61 points) and home delivery of medicines (52 points). Although continued medicines supply was most important for consumers and carers, pharmacy location was perceived by health professionals to be the most important characteristic for consumers. Participants were less inclined to choose new services if their current pharmacy offered high quality services that were person-centered, easy to access and responsive to their needs. Younger, more highly educated and employed participants, and those with established condition(s) were more likely to choose new services. Person-centered care is a fundamental tenet for pharmacy services. The provision of continued medicines supply (e.g. through

  8. [Method of delivery and condition of newborn at 25-30 weeks of gestation].

    PubMed

    Jankova, I; Dimitrov, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of method of delivery--per vias naturales and by CS on condition of preterm newborn < or =30 w.g. Survey is on a prospective basis for the period 01.2008-12.2009. Total of 95 pregnancies are included meeting the following criteria: pregnancy with a single fetus in occiput position with birthweight appropriate for gestational age 25-30 w.g. 63 of all pregnancies completed by birth per vias naturals and 32 through CS (22 emergency CS and 10 in the planned order). The condition of newborns is found immediately after birth by Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute and the values of pH, BE and blood gases in the blood sample from a.umbilicalis. Comparison of the average values of Apgar 1 st and 5th min, pH, BE, pO2 and pCO2 in preterm born per vias naturals and by CS showed statistically significant difference in three indicators pH, BE and pCO2 and highest frequency of acidosis in an emergency operative abdominal delivery. Juxtapositioning the groups vaginal birth and CS planning in order not found statistically significant differences in BE (p = 0.616), pH (p = 0.399) and pCO2 (p = 0.448). This led to the initial conclusion that the state of newborns in both groups is the same irrespective of birth. After interpretation of the ABS in each case it has been established substantial difference in frequency of uncompensated (0% vs. 19.4%) and compensated metabolic acidosis (50% vs. 36.8%) in premature born through CS in planning orderliness and per vias naturales. The method of delivery is a factor which influences the adjacent state of prematurity after birth. The highest incidence of hypoxia is associated with CS in terms of urgency. In comparison with vaginal birth, planned CS in order seems to be a favorable method of delivery for preterm fetus.

  9. [The role of informal care in individualized care plan delivery: a conditional choice for dependent people].

    PubMed

    Del Pozo Rubio, Raúl; Escribano Sotos, Francisco; Moya Martínez, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between sociodemographic and health variables (including informal care) and the healthcare service delivery assigned in the individualized care plan. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of the dependent population in Cuenca (Spain) in February, 2009. Information was obtained on people with level II and III dependency. Four different logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with the care service delivery assigned in the individualized care plan. Independent variables consisted of age, gender, marital status, annual income, place of residence, health conditions, medical treatment, and perception of informal care. A total of 83.7% of the sample was assigned economic benefits and 15.3% were assigned services. Eighty percent of the sample received informal care in addition to dependency benefits. People who received informal care were 3239 times more likely to be assigned economic benefits than persons not receiving informal care. For the period analyzed (the first phase of the implementation of the Dependency Act), the variables associated with receiving economic benefits (versus services) were being married, having a high annual income, the place of residence (rural areas versus urban area), and receiving hygiene-dietary treatment and informal care. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Disparity profiles in 3DV applications: overcoming the issue of heterogeneous viewing conditions in stereoscopic delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, Guillaume; Chamaret, Christel

    2012-03-01

    More and more numerous 3D movies are released each year. Thanks to the current spread of 3D-TV displays, these 3D Video (3DV) contents are about to enter massively the homes. Yet viewing conditions determine the stereoscopic features achievable for 3DV material. Because the conditions at home - screen size and distance to screen - differ significantly from a theater, 3D Cinema movies need to be repurposed before broadcast and replication on 3D Blu-ray Discs for being fully enjoyed at home. In that paper we tackle that particular issue of how to handle the variety of viewing conditions in stereoscopic contents delivery. To that extend we first investigate what is basically at stake for granting stereoscopic viewers' comfort, through the well-known - and sometimes dispraised - vergence-accommodation conflict. Thereby we define a set of basic rules that can serve as guidelines for 3DV creation. We propose disparity profiles as new requirements for 3DV production and repurposing. Meeting proposed background and foreground constraints prevents from visual fatigue, and occupying the whole depth budget available grants optimal 3D effects. We present an efficient algorithm for automatic disparity-based 3DV retargeting depending on the viewing conditions. Variants are proposed depending on the input format (stereoscopic binocular content or depth-based format) and the level of complexity achievable.

  11. [Preterm breech before 35 weeks of gestation: What is the influence of the delivery route on neonatal condition?].

    PubMed

    Bruey, N; Reinbold, D; Creveuil, C; Dreyfus, M

    2015-11-01

    The mode of delivery for preterm breech is still controversial, while no randomized study has been completed. The question of a protective effect of cesarean section on neonatal outcome arises. The objective of this study was to compare mortality and neonatal morbidity for children born before 35 weeks of gestation in breech presentation, depending on the route of delivery. This was a retrospective study done in University Hospital type 3 over five years, comparing neonatal mortality and different neonatal morbidity criteria for children born between 25 weeks of gestation and 34 weeks+6 days spread into two groups according to their mode of delivery: elective caesarean section before labor and vaginal delivery. Statistical analysis was performed with an adjustment for gestational age and weight of the newborn. No significant difference between the two groups was found with regard to neonatal mortality. Among the various morbidity criteria studied, only the head entrapment rate and serious traumatic injury occurrence were significantly increased in the "intent to vaginal delivery" group. pH at birth and Apgar scores at five minutes were not significantly different between the two groups. This work shows an increased risk of traumatic complications for vaginal delivery with no increase in other neonatal complications. It seems reasonable in this particular context to allow an attempt at vaginal delivery on condition of strict compliance with safety regulations relating to breech delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Water intoxication-a dangerous condition in labor and delivery rooms.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Ella; Solt, Ido; Odeh, Marwan; Bornstein, Jacob

    2007-11-01

    Water intoxication, a form of acute hyponatremia, has been described in various clinical situations. Although hyponatremia is a common metabolic disorder in hospitalized patients, it is generally not well known as a hazard in the labor and delivery room. However, several factors predispose laboring women to develop hyponatremia. Moreover, because the fetus acquires water from the maternal circulation via the placenta, and there is a close correlation between maternal and cord blood serum sodium levels, the newborn infant of a hyponatremic mother is also at considerable risk of developing water intoxication. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment of this hazardous disorder. We emphasize the need for awareness of this condition, and call attention to the risk of fluid overload during labor.

  13. Combined temperature-programmed reaction and in-situ x-ray scattering studies of size-selected silver clusters under realistic reaction conditions in the epoxidation of propene.

    SciTech Connect

    Vajda, S.; Lee, S.; Sell, K.; Barke, I.; Kleibert, A.; von Oeynhausen, V.; Meiwes-Broer, K. H.; Rodriguez, A. F.; Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. M.; Lee, B.; Seifert, S.; Winans, R. W.; Yale Univ.; Univ. Rostock; Swiss Light Source

    2009-09-28

    The catalytic activity and dynamical shape changes in size-selected nanoclusters at work are studied under realistic reaction conditions by using a combination of simultaneous temperature-programmed reaction with in situ grazing-incidence small angle x-ray scattering. This approach allows drawing a direct correlation between nanocatalyst size, composition, shape, and its function under realistic reaction conditions for the first time. The approach is illustrated in a chemical industry highly relevant selective partial oxidation of propene on a monodisperse silver nanocatalyst. The shape of the catalyst undergoes rapid change already at room temperature upon the exposure to the reactants, followed by a complex evolution of shape with increasing temperature. Acrolein formation is observed around 50 C while the formation of the propylene oxide exhibits a sharp onset at 80 C and is leveling off at 150 C. At lower temperatures acrolein is produced preferentially to propylene oxide; at temperatures above 100 C propylene oxide is favored.

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture and Delivery in Autologous Conditions: A Smart Approach for Orthopedic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trombi, Luisa; Danti, Serena; Savelli, Sara; Moscato, Stefania; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Ricci, Claudio; Giannotti, Stefano; Petrini, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (hMSCs) are cultured in vitro with different media. Limits on their use in clinical settings, however, mainly depend on potential biohazard and inflammation risks exerted by xenogeneic nutrients for their culture. Human derivatives or recombinant materials are the first choice candidates to reduce these reactions. Therefore, culture supplements and materials of autologous origin represent the best nutrients and the safest products. Here, we describe a new protocol for the isolation and culture of bone marrow hMSCs in autologous conditions — namely, patient-derived serum as a supplement for the culture medium and fibrin as a scaffold for hMSC administration. Indeed, hMSC/fibrin clot constructs could be extremely useful for several clinical applications. In particular, we focus on their use in orthopedic surgery, where the fibrin clot derived from the donor's own blood allowed effective cell delivery and nutrient/waste exchanges. To ensure optimal safety conditions, it is of the utmost importance to avoid the risks of hMSC transformation and tissue overgrowth. For these reasons, the approach described in this paper also indicates a minimally ex vivo hMSC expansion, to reduce cell senescence and morphologic changes, and short-term osteo-differentiation before implantation, to induce osteogenic lineage specification, thus decreasing the risk of subsequent uncontrolled proliferation. PMID:28060333

  15. Effect of delivery condition on desorption rate of ZrCo metal hydride bed for fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.G.; Yun, S.H.; Chung, D.; Oh, Y.H.; Chang, M.H.; Cho, S.; Chung, H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    For the safety of fusion fuel cycle, hydrogen isotope gases including tritium are stored as metal hydride form. To satisfy fueling requirement of fusion machine, rapid delivery from metal hydride bed is one of major factors for the development of tritium storage and delivery system. Desorption from metal hydride depends on the operation scenario by pressure and temperature control of the bed. The effect of operation scenario and pump performance on desorption rate of metal hydride bed was experimentally investigated using ZrCo bed. The results showed that the condition of pre-heating scenario before actual delivery of gas affected the delivery performance. Different pumps were connected to desorption line from bed and the effect of pump capacity on desorption rate were also found to be significant. (authors)

  16. Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; O'Connell, M. E.; Prestegaard, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water processes affecting seasonal variations of surface water nitrate concentrations were investigated in an incised first-order stream in an agricultural watershed with a riparian forest in the coastal plain of Maryland. Aquifer characteristics including sediment stratigraphy, geochemistry, and hydraulic properties were examined in combination with chemical and isotopic analyses of ground water, macropore discharge, and stream water. The ground water flow system exhibits vertical stratification of hydraulic properties and redox conditions, with sub-horizontal boundaries that extend beneath the field and adjacent riparian forest. Below the minimum water table position, ground water age gradients indicate low recharge rates (2-5 cm yr-1) and long residence times (years to decades), whereas the transient ground water wedge between the maximum and minimum water table positions has a relatively short residence time (months to years), partly because of an upward increase in hydraulic conductivity. Oxygen reduction and denitrification in recharging ground waters are coupled with pyrite oxidation near the minimum water table elevation in a mottled weathering zone in Tertiary marine glauconitic sediments. The incised stream had high nitrate concentrations during high flow conditions when much of the ground water was transmitted rapidly across the riparian zone in a shallow oxic aquifer wedge with abundant outflow macropores, and low nitrate concentrations during low flow conditions when the oxic wedge was smaller and stream discharge was dominated by upwelling from the deeper denitrified parts of the aquifer. Results from this and similar studies illustrate the importance of near-stream geomorphology and subsurface geology as controls of riparian zone function and delivery of nitrate to streams in agricultural watersheds. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  17. Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Böhlke, J K; O'Connell, Michael E; Prestegaard, Karen L

    2007-01-01

    Ground water processes affecting seasonal variations of surface water nitrate concentrations were investigated in an incised first-order stream in an agricultural watershed with a riparian forest in the coastal plain of Maryland. Aquifer characteristics including sediment stratigraphy, geochemistry, and hydraulic properties were examined in combination with chemical and isotopic analyses of ground water, macropore discharge, and stream water. The ground water flow system exhibits vertical stratification of hydraulic properties and redox conditions, with sub-horizontal boundaries that extend beneath the field and adjacent riparian forest. Below the minimum water table position, ground water age gradients indicate low recharge rates (2-5 cm yr(-1)) and long residence times (years to decades), whereas the transient ground water wedge between the maximum and minimum water table positions has a relatively short residence time (months to years), partly because of an upward increase in hydraulic conductivity. Oxygen reduction and denitrification in recharging ground waters are coupled with pyrite oxidation near the minimum water table elevation in a mottled weathering zone in Tertiary marine glauconitic sediments. The incised stream had high nitrate concentrations during high flow conditions when much of the ground water was transmitted rapidly across the riparian zone in a shallow oxic aquifer wedge with abundant outflow macropores, and low nitrate concentrations during low flow conditions when the oxic wedge was smaller and stream discharge was dominated by upwelling from the deeper denitrified parts of the aquifer. Results from this and similar studies illustrate the importance of near-stream geomorphology and subsurface geology as controls of riparian zone function and delivery of nitrate to streams in agricultural watersheds.

  18. Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems among Adults with Mental Health Conditions, 2015.

    PubMed

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M; Weaver, Scott R; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    2016-12-23

    Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) are especially likely to smoke and experience tobacco-related health disparities. Individuals with MHC may also use electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) at disproportionately high rates. However, there is a relative dearth of knowledge regarding ENDS use among individuals with MHC. In a large representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 6051), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and ENDS use and susceptibility were examined, stratified by smoking status. Participants with MHC were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have used ENDS in their lifetime and almost twice as likely to currently use ENDS as those without MHC. MHC status was most strongly linked to higher ENDS use among former smokers, and former smokers with MHC were more likely to report using ENDS during past smoking quit attempts than those without MHC. Among participants who had not tried ENDS, former smokers with MHC were especially susceptible to future ENDS use. The potential advantage of ENDS for cessation purposes should be balanced with the risk of attracting former smokers with MHC to ENDS.

  19. Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems among Adults with Mental Health Conditions, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) are especially likely to smoke and experience tobacco-related health disparities. Individuals with MHC may also use electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) at disproportionately high rates. However, there is a relative dearth of knowledge regarding ENDS use among individuals with MHC. In a large representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 6051), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and ENDS use and susceptibility were examined, stratified by smoking status. Participants with MHC were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have used ENDS in their lifetime and almost twice as likely to currently use ENDS as those without MHC. MHC status was most strongly linked to higher ENDS use among former smokers, and former smokers with MHC were more likely to report using ENDS during past smoking quit attempts than those without MHC. Among participants who had not tried ENDS, former smokers with MHC were especially susceptible to future ENDS use. The potential advantage of ENDS for cessation purposes should be balanced with the risk of attracting former smokers with MHC to ENDS. PMID:28025560

  20. Targeted Drug Delivery Systems and its Therapeutic Applications in Cancer and related Immune Pathological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Iqbal, Jamshed; Anwar, Fareeha

    2017-06-05

    Earlier a century ago, Paul Ehrlich proposed an idea of a drug "magic bullet" that selectively eradicate diseased cells without harming the surrounding normal cells. Since a lot of progress has been attained in this field to discover new horizons for targeted delivery of drug. As major problem in disease therapy is the severe toxic effects of prescribed drugs on healthy cells. In order to reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy on healthy tissues, herein, we summaries the use of recent drug delivery systems for targeted therapy. The selective delivery of the drugs to specific diseased cells or tissues is the dream of near future. Ideally, for target drug delivery systems, the system should be made up of a carriers and drugs, were carriers play the role of target delivery of the desired drug. This issue covers the recent advancement, in modern techniques for targeted drug delivery systems. It encompasses advances, benefits and limitations in state of art work of targeted drug delivery through hydrogels, microfluidics, nano particles, carbon nanotubes, polymeric micelles, liposomes, lipoprotein based drug carriers and dendrites. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Realistic collective nuclear Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Marianne; Zuker, Andrés P.

    1996-10-01

    The residual part of the realistic forces-obtained after extracting the monopole terms responsible for bulk properties-is strongly dominated by pairing and quadrupole interactions, with important στ.στ, octupole, and hexadecapole contributions. Their forms retain the simplicity of the traditional pairing plus multipole models, while eliminating their flaws through a normalization mechanism dictated by a universal A-1/3 scaling. Coupling strengths and effective charges are calculated and shown to agree with empirical values. Comparisons between different realistic interactions confirm the claim that they are very similar.

  2. Improving stamping simulation accuracy by accounting for realistic friction and lubrication conditions: Application to the door-outer of the Mercedes-Benz C-class Coupé

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Stock, J.; Wied, J.; Wiegand, K.; Carleer, B.

    2016-08-01

    In the stamping of automotive parts, friction and lubrication play a key role in achieving high quality products. In the development process of new automotive parts, it is therefore crucial to accurately account for these effects in sheet metal forming simulations. Only then, one can obtain reliable and realistic simulation results that correspond to the actual try-out and mass production conditions. In this work, the TriboForm software is used to accurately account for tribology-, friction-, and lubrication conditions in stamping simulations. The enhanced stamping simulations are applied and validated for the door-outer of the Mercedes- Benz C-Class Coupe. The project results demonstrate the improved prediction accuracy of stamping simulations with respect to both part quality and actual stamping process conditions.

  3. Realistic and Schematic Visuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuvelman, Ard

    1996-01-01

    A study examined three different visual formats (studio presenter only, realistic visuals, or schematic visuals) of an educational television program. Recognition and recall of the abstract subject matter were measured in 101 adult viewers directly after the program and 3 months later. The schematic version yielded better recall of the program,…

  4. Realistic and Schematic Visuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuvelman, Ard

    1996-01-01

    A study examined three different visual formats (studio presenter only, realistic visuals, or schematic visuals) of an educational television program. Recognition and recall of the abstract subject matter were measured in 101 adult viewers directly after the program and 3 months later. The schematic version yielded better recall of the program,…

  5. The Educational Value of Visual Cues and 3D-Representational Format in a Computer Animation under Restricted and Realistic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huk, Thomas; Steinke, Mattias; Floto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of cognitive learning theories, instructional design manipulations have primarily been investigated under tightly controlled laboratory conditions. We carried out two experiments, where the first experiment was conducted in a restricted system-paced setting and is therefore in line with the majority of empirical studies in the…

  6. The Educational Value of Visual Cues and 3D-Representational Format in a Computer Animation under Restricted and Realistic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huk, Thomas; Steinke, Mattias; Floto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of cognitive learning theories, instructional design manipulations have primarily been investigated under tightly controlled laboratory conditions. We carried out two experiments, where the first experiment was conducted in a restricted system-paced setting and is therefore in line with the majority of empirical studies in the…

  7. Learning effect of a conditional cash transfer programme on poor rural women's selection of delivery care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Walker, Dilys; Serván, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND The Mexican programme Oportunidades/Progresa conditionally transfers money to beneficiary families. Over the past 10 years, poor rural women have been obliged to attend antenatal care (ANC) visits and reproductive health talks. We propose that the length of time in the programme influences women's preferences, thus increasing their use not only of services directly linked to the cash transfers, but also of other services, such as clinic-based delivery, whose utilization is not obligatory. OBJECTIVE To analyse the long-term effect of Oportunidades on women's use of antenatal and delivery care. METHODOLOGY 5051 women aged between 15 and 49 years old with at least one child aged less than 24 months living in rural localities were analysed. Multilevel probit and logit models were used to analyse ANC visits and physician/nurse attended delivery, respectively. Models were adjusted with individual and socio-economic variables and the locality's exposure time to Oportunidades. Findings On average women living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades report 2.1% more ANC visits than women living in localities with less exposure. Young women aged 15-19 and 20-24 years and living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades (since 1998) have 88% and 41% greater likelihood of choosing a physician/nurse vs. traditional midwife for childbirth, respectively. Women of indigenous origin are 68.9% less likely to choose a physician/nurse for delivery care than non-indigenous women. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the average number of ANC visits has been achieved among Oportunidades beneficiaries. An indirect effect is the increased selection of a physician/nurse for delivery care among young women living in localities with greater exposure time to Oportunidades. Disadvantaged women in Mexico (indigenous women) continue to have less access to skilled delivery care. Developing countries must develop strategies to increase access and use of skilled obstetric

  8. Adaptation of the STARR test for adult Italian population: A speech test for a realistic estimate in real-life listening conditions.

    PubMed

    Dincer D'Alessandro, Hilal; Ballantyne, Deborah; De Seta, Elio; Musacchio, Angela; Mancini, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    To introduce the Italian adaptation of the STARR test based on a roving-level adaptive method to mimic challenging real-life listening conditions for use in people with auditory prostheses. Normative data were collected and interlist-variability, as well as learning effects, were investigated using a within-subject design with repeated measures. A group of 32 normal-hearing (NH) adults participated in the study. The average speech reception threshold (SRT) for NH subjects was -8.4 dB SNR. The variability of mean SRTs across test lists was relatively small (≤1 dB for all test lists). The statistically significant differences between lists were eliminated after applying correction factors. On the basis of variability for the corrected SRTs within each subject, a difference of 2.8 dB in SRT was meaningful for outcome comparisons using one test list per condition and 2 dB using two lists per condition. Statistical analysis did not show any significant learning effects. Findings in NH listeners suggested that the Italian STARR test could be a promising supplement to existing speech assessment tools. Further studies in populations with hearing impairment could contribute to cross-language studies.

  9. Simulation of realistic retinoscopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Baker, K.; Lewis, J. W.; Swartz, T.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, M.

    2007-03-01

    Realistic simulation of ophthalmic measurements on normal and diseased eyes is presented. We use clinical data of ametropic and keratoconus patients to construct anatomically accurate three-dimensional eye models and simulate the measurement of a streak retinoscope with all the optical elements. The results show the clinical observations including the anomalous motion in high myopia and the scissors reflex in keratoconus. The demonstrated technique can be applied to other ophthalmic instruments and to other and more extensively abnormal eye conditions. It provides promising features for medical training and for evaluating and developing ocular instruments.

  10. Insight into chemoselectivity of nitroarene hydrogenation: A DFT-D3 study of nitroarene adsorption on metal surfaces under the realistic reaction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lidong; Cao, Xiao-Ming; Hu, P.

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption of nitrobenzene and 4-nitrostyrene on the Pt(111) and the Au(111) surfaces under the general reaction condition of nitroarene catalytic hydrogenation is investigated utilizing periodic density functional theory calculations with the Grimme's empirical three-body dispersion correction to understand the influence of adsorption configurations on chemoselectivity of nitroarene compound hydrogenation. It is found that at the low coverage both nitrobenzene and 4-nitrostyrene tend to adsorb paralleling to the Pt(111) and the Au(111) surfaces. Based on the crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis, it is found that the chemical bonding between nitro group and Pt(111) surface is weak. The adsorption configurations of nitrobenzene and 4-nitrostyrene are determined by the chemisorption strength of phenyl group and vinyl group. Under the reaction condition, the 1/9 ML nitrobenzene and 4/9 ML hydrogen atom can be coadsorbed while the 1/6 ML 4-nitrostyrene and 1/3 ML hydrogen atom can be coadsorbed on Pt(111). With the increase of the coverage, nitrobenzene still remains its paralleled adsorption configuration while the adsorption configuration of 4-nitrostyrene is switched to the tilted adsorption configuration through vinyl group without the chemisorption of phenyl and nitro group on Pt(111). In addition, the competitive adsorption with hydrogen will not change the adsorption configuration of nitrobenzene and 4-nitrostyrene under the reaction condition. On Au(111), the physical adsorption strength determines the adsorption configuration. The paralleled adsorption with the shortest average distance between the adsorbate and Au(111) surface is preferred. At the paralleled adsorption configuration, the chemoselectivities of the hydrogenation on these functional groups are similar if only in terms of geometric configuration. However, the hydrogenation on nitro group encounters the problem of steric hindrance at the tilted adsorption configuration through vinyl

  11. Numerical assessment of a criterion for the optimal choice of the operative conditions in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia on a realistic model of the human head.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, Gennaro; Bucci, Ovidio M; Chirico, Gaetano

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical study aiming at assessing the effectiveness of a recently proposed optimisation criterion for determining the optimal operative conditions in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia applied to the clinically relevant case of brain tumours. The study is carried out using the Zubal numerical phantom, and performing electromagnetic-thermal co-simulations. The Pennes model is used for thermal balance; the dissipation models for the magnetic nanoparticles are those available in the literature. The results concerning the optimal therapeutic concentration of nanoparticles, obtained through the analysis, are validated using experimental data on the specific absorption rate of iron oxide nanoparticles, available in the literature. The numerical estimates obtained by applying the criterion to the treatment of brain tumours shows that the acceptable values for the product between the magnetic field amplitude and frequency may be two to four times larger than the safety threshold of 4.85 × 10(8)A/m/s usually considered. This would allow the reduction of the dosage of nanoparticles required for an effective treatment. In particular, depending on the tumour depth, concentrations of nanoparticles smaller than 10 mg/mL of tumour may be sufficient for heating tumours smaller than 10 mm above 42 °C. Moreover, the study of the clinical scalability shows that, whatever the tumour position, lesions larger than 15 mm may be successfully treated with concentrations lower than 10 mg/mL. The criterion also allows the prediction of the temperature rise in healthy tissue, thus assuring safe treatment. The criterion can represent a helpful tool for planning and optimising an effective hyperthermia treatment.

  12. Liposomal systems as viable drug delivery technology for skin cancer sites with an outlook on lipid-based delivery vehicles and diagnostic imaging inputs for skin conditions'.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naseem; Khan, Riaz A

    2016-10-01

    Skin cancer is among one of the most common human malignancies wide-spread world-over with mortality statistics rising continuously at an alarming rate. The increasing frequency of these malignancies has marked the need for adopting effective treatment plan coupled with better and site-specific delivery options for the desired therapeutic agent's availability at the affected site. The concurrent delivery approaches to cancerous tissues are under constant challenge and, as a result, are evolving and gaining advancements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of the therapeutics delivery. The lipid-based liposomal drug delivery is an attractive and emerging option, and which is meticulously shaping up beyond a threshold level to a promising, and viable route for the effective delivery of therapeutic agents and other required injuctions to the skin cancer. An update on liposomal delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, natural-origin compounds, photosensitizer, and DNA repair enzymes as well as other desirable and typical delivery modes employed in drug delivery and in the treatment of skin cancers is discussed in details. Moreover, liposomal delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA), mRNA therapy, and RGD-linked liposomes are among the other promising novel technology under constant development. The current clinical applicability, viable clinical plans, future prospects including transport feasibility of delivery vesicles and imaging techniques in conjunction with the therapeutic agents is also discussed. The ongoing innovations in liposomal drug delivery technology for skin cancers hold promise for further development of the methodology for better, more effective and site-specific delivery as part of the better treatment plan by ensuring faster drug transport, better and full payload delivery with enough and required concentration of the dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Updating realistic access.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Mike

    2010-05-03

    Nearly six years ago Ira Mellman, then Editor-in-Chief of the JCB, published an editorial entitled "Providing realistic access" (1). It described the Journal's efforts to reconcile its subscription-based business model with the goal of providing public access to scholarly journal content. Since then, developments in the public-access movement are bringing us closer to the ideal of universal public access. But will there still be a place for selective journals like the JCB when we achieve that objective?

  14. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  15. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  16. A realistic lattice example

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    A realistic, distributed interaction region (IR) lattice has been designed that includes new components discussed in the June 1985 lattice workshop. Unlike the test lattices, the lattice presented here includes utility straights and the mechanism for crossing the beams in the experimental straights. Moreover, both the phase trombones and the dispersion suppressors contain the same bending as the normal cells. Vertically separated beams and 6 Tesla, 1-in-1 magnets are assumed. Since the cells are 200 meters long, and have 60 degree phase advance, this lattice has been named RLD1, in analogy with the corresponding test lattice, TLD1. The quadrupole gradient is 136 tesla/meter in the cells, and has similar values in other quadrupoles except in those in the IR`s, where the maximum gradient is 245 tesla/meter. RLD1 has distributed IR`s; however, clustered realistic lattices can easily be assembled from the same components, as was recently done in a version that utilizes the same type of experimental and utility straights as those of RLD1.

  17. Evaluation of an extended duct air delivery system for spaces conditioned by rooftop units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, Ryan

    Traditional air delivery to high-bay buildings involves ceiling level supply and return ducts that create an almost-uniform temperature in the space. Problems with this system include potential recirculation of supply air and higher-than-necessary return air temperatures. A new air delivery strategy was investigated that involves changing the height of conventional supply and return ducts to have control over thermal stratification in the space. A full-scale experiment using ten vertical temperature profiles was conducted in a manufacturing facility over one year. The experimental data was utilized to validated CFD and EnergyPlus models. CFD simulation results show that supplying air directly to the occupied zone increases stratification while holding thermal comfort constant during the cooling operation. The building energy simulation identified how return air temperature offset, set point offset, and stratification influence the building's energy consumption. A utility bill analysis for cooling shows 28.8% HVAC energy savings while the building energy simulation shows 19.3-37.4% HVAC energy savings.

  18. Realistic Sensor Tasking Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, C.; Fiedler, H.; Herzog, J.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sensor tasking is a crucial step in building up and maintaining a catalog of space objects at the highest possible orbit quality. Sensor resources are limited; sensor location and setup (hardware and processing software) influence the quality of observations for initial orbit determination or orbit improvement that can be obtained. Furthermore, improved sensing capabilities are expected to lead to an increase of objects that are sought to be maintained in a catalog, easily reaching over 100'000 objects. Sensor tasking methods hence need to be computationally efficient in order to be successfully applied to operational systems, and need to take realistic constraints, such as limited visibility of objects, time-varying probability of detection and the specific capabilities in software and hardware for the specific sensors into account. This paper shows a method to formulate sensor tasking as an optimization problem and introduces a new method to provide fast and computationally efficient real time, near optimal sensor tasking solutions. Simulations are preformed using the USSTRATCOM TLE catalog of all geosynchronous objects. The results are compared to state of the art observation strategies.

  19. Degradation of poly(glycoamidoamine) DNA delivery vehicles: polyamide hydrolysis at physiological conditions promotes DNA release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yemin; Reineke, Theresa M

    2010-02-08

    Poly(glycoamidoamine)s (PGAAs) are a group of efficient and degradable gene delivery vehicles that consist of three main functionalities: carbohydrate groups, secondary amines, and amide bonds. Herein, we have created nonhydroxylated models to these structures by polymerizing oxylate, succinate, or adipate groups with pentaethylenehexamine. The resulting polymers (named O4, S4, and A4, respectively) were created to understand how the absence of hydroxyl groups and changes in the amide bond spacing affect polymer degradation, plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexation, toxicity, and transfection efficiency in vitro. An additional model was also created that retains a galactaramide unit, but we have replaced the secondary amines with ethyleneoxide units (GO2) to understand the effects of the amine groups on polymer degradation. We have found that the secondary amines and hydroxyls are necessary to facilitate rapid degradation of these polymers, and analogues lacking hydroxyls or amines did not degrade over the time course of the study. Through electron-withdrawing and hydrogen bonding, the hydroxyls appear to activate the carbonyls of the amide bond to hydrolysis via an inductive electron withdrawing effect. Through titration experiments, PGAA degradation appears not to affect the polymer buffering capacity. Furthermore, we have found that PGAA degradation may enhance gene expression by releasing pDNA from polyplexes (polymer-pDNA complexes) and, thus, exposing it to undergo transcription and translation. The difference in the optimal pH that promotes degradation of the PGAAs and the hydroxyl-free analogues may prove to be a useful means to achieve pH-regulated DNA release from polyplexes by specifically modulating the chemical structures.

  20. Clinical leadership and prevention in practice: is a needs led preventive approach to the delivery of care to improve quality, outcomes and value in primary dental care practice a realistic concept?

    PubMed

    Bridgman, Colette; McGrady, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to improve access to, and the quality of, service delivery in NHS primary dental care. Building public health thinking and leadership capacity in clinicians from primary care teams was seen as an underpinning component to achieving this goal. Clinical teams contributed to service redesign concepts and were contractually supported to embrace a preventive approach. Improvement in quality and preventive focus of dental practice care delivery was explored through determining the impact of several projects, to share how evidence, skill mix and clinical leadership could be utilised in design, implementation and measurement of care outcomes in general dental practice in order to champion and advocate change, during a period of substantial change within the NHS system. The projects were: 1. A needs-led, evidence informed preventive care pathway approach to primary dental care delivery with a focus on quality and outcomes. 2. Building clinical leadership to influence and advocate for improved quality of care; and spread of learning through local professional networks. This comprised two separate projects: improved access for very young children called “Baby Teeth DO Matter” and the production of a clinically led, evidence-based guidance for periodontyal treatment in primary care called "Healthy Gums DO Matter". What worked and what hindered progress, is described. The projects developed understanding of how working with 'local majorities' of clinicians influenced, adoption and spread of learning, and the impact in prompting wider policy and contract reform in England. The projects identified issues that required change to meet population need. Clinicians were allowed to innovate in an environment working together with commissioners, patients and public health colleagues. Communication and the development of clinical leadership led to the development of an infrastructure to define care pathways and decision points in the patient's journey.

  1. Clinical leadership and prevention in practice: is a needs led preventive approach to the delivery of care to improve quality, outcomes and value in primary dental care practice a realistic concept?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a need to improve access to, and the quality of, service delivery in NHS primary dental care. Building public health thinking and leadership capacity in clinicians from primary care teams was seen as an underpinning component to achieving this goal. Clinical teams contributed to service redesign concepts and were contractually supported to embrace a preventive approach. Methods Improvement in quality and preventive focus of dental practice care delivery was explored through determining the impact of several projects, to share how evidence, skill mix and clinical leadership could be utilised in design, implementation and measurement of care outcomes in general dental practice in order to champion and advocate change, during a period of substantial change within the NHS system. The projects were: 1. A needs-led, evidence informed preventive care pathway approach to primary dental care delivery with a focus on quality and outcomes. 2. Building clinical leadership to influence and advocate for improved quality of care; and spread of learning through local professional networks. This comprised two separate projects: improved access for very young children called “Baby Teeth DO Matter” and the production of a clinically led, evidence-based guidance for periodontyal treatment in primary care called “Healthy Gums DO Matter”. Results What worked and what hindered progress, is described. The projects developed understanding of how working with ‘local majorities’ of clinicians influenced, adoption and spread of learning, and the impact in prompting wider policy and contract reform in England. Conclusions The projects identified issues that required change to meet population need. Clinicians were allowed to innovate in an evironment working together with commissioners, patients and public health colleagues. Communication and the development of clinical leadership led to the development of an infrastructure to define care pathways and decision

  2. Temporal location of unsignaled food deliveries: effects on conditioned withdrawal (inhibition) in pigeon signtracking.

    PubMed

    Janssen, M; Farley, J; Hearst, E

    1995-04-01

    Standard models of Pavlovian conditioning neglect local effects of unsignaled unconditioned stimuli (USs) on learning and performance. Using the approach-withdrawal behavior of pigeons toward keylights as conditioned stimuli (CSs), the authors varied the specific times (5-110 s) that USs occurred before or after a CS. Withdrawal from a CS generally increased as the time between a US before and/or after the CS was lengthened. Combinations of 2 distant USs produced more withdrawal from the CS than either US alone, whereas combinations of a distant and a nearby US yielded behavior intermediate between that for either US alone. Postacquisition retardation tests supported similar conclusions. Based on the temporal isolation of CSs and USs, a tentative model was offered to summarize these data. The results and the model suggest that a more molecular, possibly perceptual approach to Pavlovian excitation and inhibition is needed.

  3. A realistic interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L.; Andrews, G. B.; Gold, R. E.; Bokulic, R. S.; Boone, B. G.; Haley, D. R.; McAdams, J. V.; Williams, B. D.; Boyle, M. P.; Starstrom, G.; Riggin, J.; Lester, D.; Lyman, R.; Ewing, M.; Krishnan, R.; Read, D.; Naes, L.; McPherson, M.; Deters, R.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 20 years, an "Interstellar Precursor Mission" has been discussed as a high-priority mission for multiple scientific objectives. The chief difficulty with actually carrying out such a mission is the need for reaching significant penetration into the interstellar medium (˜1000 Astronomical Units (AU)) within the working lifetime of the initiators (<50 years). While there has been much speculation on various aspects of such a mission, we have systematically considered all of the components required, using realistic extrapolations of current and near-current technology. To provide a first-order cut at many of the engineering realities associated with such a mission, we consider a probe that can be launched with available vehicles and infrastructure. To implement the mission, we have revisited an old idea: the probe and a perihelion carrier are launched initially to Jupiter as a combined package and then fall to the Sun where a large propulsive maneuver propels the package on a high-energy, ballistic escape trajectory from the solar system. Outbound in deep space, the two separate, and the probe takes data with its onboard instruments and autonomously downlinks the data to Earth at regular intervals. The implementation requires a low-mass, highly-integrated spacecraft. Engineering issues separate into (1) the systems constraints imposed on the perihelion package by the combination of the propulsion system, carrying the needed propellant into perihelion, and the associated thermal and mechanical constraints, and (2) the requirements of power, autonomous operations, and data downlink from the probe itself. System trades define the minimum mass and power required for such a probe. We find that many of the requirements for a low-mass probe that operates autonomously for this mission are common for either this propulsion concept or more advanced low-thrust concepts, e.g., solar sails and ion propulsion. We describe an implementation, including science

  4. A realistic interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R.

    For more than 20 years, an Interstellar Precursor Mission has been discussed as a high-priority mission for multiple scientific objectives. The chief difficulty with actually carrying out such a mission is the need for reaching significant penetration into the interstellar medium (~1000 Astronomical Units (AU)) within the working lifetime of the initiators (<50 years). While there has been much speculation on various aspects of such a mission, we have systematically considered all of the components required, using realistic extrapolations of current and near-current technology. To provide a firstorder cut at many of the engineering realities associated with such a mission, we consider a probe that can be launched with available vehicles and infrastructure. To implement the mission, we have revisited an old idea: the probe and a perihelion carrier are launched initially to Jupiter as a combined package and then fall to the Sun where a large propulsive maneuver propels the package on a high-energy, ballistic escape trajectory from the solar system. Outbound in deep space, the two separate, and the probe takes data with its onboard instruments and autonomously downlinks the data to Earth at regular intervals. The implementation requires a low-mass, highly-integrated spacecraft. Engineering issues separate into (1) the systems constraints imposed on the perihelion package by the combination of the propulsion system, carrying the needed propellant into perihelion, and the associated thermal and mechanical constraints, and (2) the requirements of power, autonomous operations, and data downlink from the probe itself. System trades define the minimum mass and power required for such a probe. We find that many of the requirements for a low-mass probe that operates autonomously for this mission are common for either this propulsion concept or more advanced low-thrust concepts, e.g., solar sails and ion propulsion. We describe an implementation, including science

  5. Non-Sink Dissolution Conditions for Predicting Product Quality and In Vivo Performance of Supersaturating Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dajun D; Wen, Hong; Taylor, Lynne S

    2016-09-01

    With recent advances in the development of supersaturating oral dosage forms for poorly water-soluble drugs, pharmaceutical scientists are increasingly applying in vitro dissolution testing under non-sink conditions for a direct evaluation of their ability to generate and maintain supersaturation as a predictive surrogate for ensuring product quality and in vivo performance. However, the scientific rationale for developing the appropriate non-sink dissolution methodologies has not been extensively debated. This calls for a comprehensive discussion of recent research efforts on theoretical and experimental considerations of amorphous solubility, liquid-liquid phase separation, and phase transitions of drugs in a supersaturated solution when dissolution testing is performed under supersaturated non-sink conditions. In addition, we outline the concept of "sink index" that quantifies the magnitude of deviations from perfect sink dissolution conditions in the sink/non-sink continuum and some considerations of non-sink dissolution testing for marketed drug products. These factors should be carefully considered in recommending an adequately discriminatory dissolution method in the performance assessment of supersaturating drug delivery systems.

  6. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

    The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

    This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

    The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

    This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Sequential delivery of synaptic GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs) by SAP97 anchored protein complexes in classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoqing; Keifer, Joyce

    2014-04-11

    Multiple signaling pathways are involved in AMPAR trafficking to synapses during synaptic plasticity and learning. The mechanisms for how these pathways are coordinated in parallel but maintain their functional specificity involves subcellular compartmentalization of kinase function by scaffolding proteins, but how this is accomplished is not well understood. Here, we focused on characterizing the molecular machinery that functions in the sequential synaptic delivery of GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPARs using an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning. We show that conditioning induces the interaction of selective protein complexes with the key structural protein SAP97, which tightly regulates the synaptic delivery of GluA1 and GluA4 AMPAR subunits. The results demonstrate that in the early stages of conditioning the initial activation of PKA stimulates the formation of a SAP97-AKAP/PKA-GluA1 protein complex leading to synaptic delivery of GluA1-containing AMPARs through a SAP97-PSD95 interaction. This is followed shortly thereafter by generation of a SAP97-KSR1/PKC-GluA4 complex for GluA4 AMPAR subunit delivery again through a SAP97-PSD95 interaction. These data suggest that SAP97 forms the molecular backbone of a protein scaffold critical for delivery of AMPARs to the PSD during conditioning. Together, the findings reveal a cooperative interaction of multiple scaffolding proteins for appropriately timed delivery of subunit-specific AMPARs to synapses and support a sequential two-stage model of AMPAR synaptic delivery during classical conditioning.

  9. An Innovative Approach to Health Care Delivery for Patients with Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bourn, Scott; Skoufalos, Alexis; Beck, Eric H.; Castillo, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although the health care reform movement has brought about positive changes, lingering inefficiencies and communication gaps continue to hamper system-wide progress toward achieving the overarching goal—higher quality health care and improved population health outcomes at a lower cost. The multiple interrelated barriers to improvement are most evident in care for the population of patients with multiple chronic conditions. During transitions of care, the lack of integration among various silos and inadequate communication among providers cause delays in delivering appropriate health care services to these vulnerable patients and their caregivers, diminishing positive health outcomes and driving costs ever higher. Long-entrenched acute care-focused treatment and reimbursement paradigms hamper more effective deployment of existing resources to improve the ongoing care of these patients. New models for care coordination during transitions, longitudinal high-risk care management, and unplanned acute episodic care have been conceived and piloted with promising results. Utilizing existing resources, Mobile Integrated Healthcare is an emerging model focused on closing these care gaps by means of a round-the-clock, technologically sophisticated, physician-led interprofessional team to manage care transitions and chronic care services on-site in patients' homes or workplaces. PMID:27563751

  10. An Innovative Approach to Health Care Delivery for Patients with Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Janice L; Bourn, Scott; Skoufalos, Alexis; Beck, Eric H; Castillo, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Although the health care reform movement has brought about positive changes, lingering inefficiencies and communication gaps continue to hamper system-wide progress toward achieving the overarching goal-higher quality health care and improved population health outcomes at a lower cost. The multiple interrelated barriers to improvement are most evident in care for the population of patients with multiple chronic conditions. During transitions of care, the lack of integration among various silos and inadequate communication among providers cause delays in delivering appropriate health care services to these vulnerable patients and their caregivers, diminishing positive health outcomes and driving costs ever higher. Long-entrenched acute care-focused treatment and reimbursement paradigms hamper more effective deployment of existing resources to improve the ongoing care of these patients. New models for care coordination during transitions, longitudinal high-risk care management, and unplanned acute episodic care have been conceived and piloted with promising results. Utilizing existing resources, Mobile Integrated Healthcare is an emerging model focused on closing these care gaps by means of a round-the-clock, technologically sophisticated, physician-led interprofessional team to manage care transitions and chronic care services on-site in patients' homes or workplaces.

  11. A longitudinal, multicentre, cohort study of community rehabilitation service delivery in long-term neurological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Richard J; Jackson, Diana M; Playford, E Diane; Fleminger, Simon; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Part A: To pilot the use of a register to identify and monitor patients with complex needs arising from long-term neurological conditions. Part B: To determine the extent to which patients’ needs for health and social services are met following discharge to the community after inpatient rehabilitation; to identify which factors predict unmet needs and to explore the relationship between service provision and outcomes at 12 months. Design A multicentre, prospective, cohort study surveying participants at 1, 6 and 12 months using postal/online questionnaires and telephone interview. Setting Consecutive discharges to the community from all nine tertiary, specialist, inpatient neurorehabilitation services in London over 18 months in 2010–2011. Participants Of 576 admissions 428 patients were recruited at discharge: 256 responded at 4 weeks, 212 at 6 months and 190 at 12 months. Measures Neurological Impairment Scale, The Needs and Provision Complexity Scale, The Northwick Park Dependency Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Inventory. Results n=322 (75%) expressed willingness to be registered, but in practice less than half responded to questionnaires at 6 and 12 months (49% and 44%, respectively), despite extensive efforts to contact them, with no significant differences between responders and non-responders. Significant unmet needs were identified within the first year following discharge, particularly in rehabilitation, social work support and provision of specialist equipment. Dependency for basic care and motor and cognitive impairment predicted services received, together accounting for 40% of the variance. Contra to expectation, patients whose rehabilitation needs were met were more dependent and less well integrated at 12 months post discharge than those with unmet needs. Conclusions Registration is acceptable to most patients, but questionnaires/telephone interviews may not be the most efficient way to reach

  12. Developing an intervention to facilitate family communication about inherited genetic conditions, and training genetic counsellors in its delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, Ivan; Ellison, Matthew; Flinter, Frances; Grey, Jo; Hutchison, Suzanne; Jackson, Carole; Longworth, Louise; MacLeod, Rhona; McAllister, Marion; Metcalfe, Alison; Murrells, Trevor; Patch, Christine; Pritchard, Stuart; Robert, Glenn; Rowland, Emma; Ulph, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Many families experience difficulty in talking about an inherited genetic condition that affects one or more of them. There have now been a number of studies identifying the issues in detail, however few have developed interventions to assist families. The SPRinG collaborative have used the UK Medical Research Council's guidance on Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, to work with families and genetic counsellors (GCs) to co-design a psycho-educational intervention to facilitate family communication and promote better coping and adaptation to living with an inherited genetic condition for parents and their children (<18 years). The intervention is modelled on multi-family discussion groups (MFDGs) used in psychiatric settings. The MFDG was developed and tested over three phases. First focus groups with parents, young people, children and health professionals discussed whether MFDG was acceptable and proposed a suitable design. Using evidence and focus group data, the intervention and a training manual were developed and three GCs were trained in its delivery. Finally, a prototype MFDG was led by a family therapist and co-facilitated by the three GCs. Data analysis showed that families attending the focus groups and intervention thought MFDG highly beneficial, and the pilot sessions had a significant impact on their family' functioning. We also demonstrated that it is possible to train GCs to deliver the MFDG intervention. Further studies are now required to test the feasibility of undertaking a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness in improving family outcomes before implementing into genetic counselling practice. PMID:26443265

  13. Viral delivery of shRNA to amygdala neurons leads to neurotoxicity and deficits in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    de Solis, Christopher A; Holehonnur, Roopashri; Banerjee, Anwesha; Luong, Jonathan A; Lella, Srihari K; Ho, Anthony; Pahlavan, Bahram; Ploski, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    knockdown of Egr1 and GluN2A compared to the other groups examined respectively, but Arc was not knocked down in the shArc group under these conditions. Differences in fear conditioning among the shLuc, shCntrl, shArc and shEgr1 groups were not detected under these circumstances; however, the shGluN2A group exhibited significantly impaired fear conditioning compared to most of the groups, indicating that gene specific deficits in fear conditioning could be observed utilizing viral mediated delivery of shRNA. Collectively, these data indicate that viral mediated shRNA expression was toxic to neurons in vivo, under all viral titers examined and this toxicity in some cases may be masking gene specific changes in learning. Therefore, the use of this technology in behavioral neuroscience warrants a heightened level of careful consideration and potential methods to alleviate shRNA induced toxicity are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Viral delivery of shRNA to amygdala neurons leads to neurotoxicity and deficits in Pavlovian fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    de Solis, Christopher A.; Holehonnur, Roopashri; Banerjee, Anwesha; Luong, Jonathan A.; Lella, Srihari K; Ho, Anthony; Pahlavan, Bahram; Ploski, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    exhibited gene knockdown of Egr1 and GluN2A compared to the other groups examined respectively, but Arc was not knocked down in the shArc group under these conditions. Differences in fear conditioning among the shLuc, shCntrl, shArc and shEgr1 groups were not detected under these circumstances, however the shGluN2A group exhibited significantly impaired fear conditioning compared to most of the groups, indicating that gene specific deficits in fear conditioning could be observed utilizing viral mediated delivery of shRNA. Collectively, these data indicate that viral mediated shRNA expression was toxic to neurons in vivo, under all viral titers examined and this toxicity in some cases may be masking gene specific changes in learning. Therefore, the use of this technology in behavioral neuroscience warrants a heightened level of careful consideration and study design and potential methods to alleviate shRNA induced toxicity are discussed. PMID:26182988

  15. Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

  16. Targeted viral delivery of Cre recombinase induces conditional gene deletion in cardiovascular circuits of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sinnayah, Puspha; Lindley, Timothy E; Staber, Patrick D; Davidson, Beverly L; Cassell, Martin D; Davisson, Robin L

    2004-06-17

    The Cre/loxP system has shown promise for investigating genes involved in nervous system function and pathology, although its application for studying central neural regulation of cardiovascular function and disease has not been explored. Here, we report for the first time that recombination of loxP-flanked genes can be achieved in discrete cardiovascular regulatory nuclei of adult mouse brain using targeted delivery of adenovirus (Ad) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) bearing Cre recombinase (Ad-Cre, FIV-Cre). Single stereotaxic microinjections of Ad-Cre or FIV-Cre into specific nuclei along the subfornical organ-hypothalamic-hypophysial and brain stem-parabrachial axes resulted in robust and highly localized gene deletion as early as 7 days and for as long as 3 wk in a reporter mouse model in which Cre recombinase activates beta-galactosidase expression. An even greater selectivity in Cre-mediated gene deletion could be achieved in unique subpopulations of cells, such as vasopressin-synthesizing magnocellular neurons, by delivering Ad-Cre via retrograde transport. Moreover, Ad-Cre and FIV-Cre induced gene recombination in differential cell populations within these cardiovascular nuclei. FIV-Cre infection resulted in LacZ activation selectively in neurons, whereas both neuronal and glial cell types underwent gene recombination upon infection with Ad-Cre. These results establish the feasibility of using a combination of viral and Cre/loxP technologies to target specific cardiovascular nuclei in the brain for conditional gene modification and suggest the potential of this approach for determining the functional role of genes within these sites.

  17. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: not a rare condition occurring after non-traumatic delivery or non-traumatic abortion.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yosuke; Matsubara, Shigeki; Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Saruyama, Miyuki; Nakata, Manabu; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2014-09-01

    Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is considered a rare disorder after traumatic delivery or traumatic pregnancy termination such as cesarean section or dilatation and curettage, initially manifesting as genital hemorrhage. Our clinical impression contradicts these three assumptions; after traumatic delivery/termination, hemorrhage, and its rarity. Thus, we attempted to clarify these three issues. We retrospectively analyzed 22 UAP cases treated at our institute over a 6-year period. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm occurred in 2-3/1,000 deliveries. Of 22 cases, half occurred after non-traumatic deliveries or non-traumatic pregnancy termination. Fifty-five percent (12/22) showed no hemorrhage; ultrasound or color Doppler revealed UAP. Thus, half of UAP occurred after non-traumatic deliveries or non-traumatic pregnancy termination and showed no hemorrhage at the time of their diagnoses. All patients received transarterial embolization, which stopped blood flow into UAP or achieved hemostasis. We must be aware that UAP may not be so rare and it may be present in patients after non-traumatic deliveries/pregnancy termination and without postpartum or postabortal hemorrhage.

  18. Time management: a realistic approach.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Valerie P

    2009-06-01

    Realistic time management and organization plans can improve productivity and the quality of life. However, these skills can be difficult to develop and maintain. The key elements of time management are goals, organization, delegation, and relaxation. The author addresses each of these components and provides suggestions for successful time management.

  19. A gastro-resistant ovalbumin bi-layered mini-tablet-in-tablet system for the delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic to simulated human intestinal and colon conditions.

    PubMed

    Govender, Mershen; Choonara, Yahya Essop; van Vuuren, Sandy; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa Claire; Pillay, Viness

    2015-07-01

    The viability of probiotic bacteria during formulation processes and delivery is vital to ensure health benefits. This study focuses on the use of gastro-resistant denatured ovalbumin for the targeted delivery of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus to simulated human intestinal and colon conditions through a bi-layered mini-tablet-in-tablet system (BMTTS). The BMTTS consists of two gastro-resistant ovalbumin mini-tablets containing L. acidophilus suspended in lactose and eudragit S100 for targeted intestinal and colonic delivery respectively. Luminescence has been utilized to ensure probiotic viability during formulation processes in addition to determining all probiotic release profiles. The mechanism of probiotic release from the ovalbumin matrix was ascertained using mathematical modelling and molecular docking studies. Magnetic resonance imaging and differential scanning calorimetry are also included as part of the in-vitro characterization of the ovalbumin system. The BMTTS was effective in the delivery of L. acidophilus to simulated human intestinal and colon conditions. Formulation processes were furthermore determined to maintain probiotic viability. Statistical analysis of the release data noted a significant effect of pH denaturation on the release properties of ovalbumin. Magnetic resonance imaging results have indicated a decrease in ovalbumin matrix size upon exposure to simulated intestinal fluid. Molecular docking studies carried out depicted the interaction and binding positions inherent to the ovalbumin-pancreatic trypsin interaction complex indicating the possible enzymatic degradation of ovalbumin leading to the release of the probiotic from the protein matrix. The BMTTS has been determined to be effective in the protection and delivery of probiotic L. acidophilus to simulated human intestinal and colonic conditions. Molecular docking analysis has noted that pancreatin exerts a significant effect on probiotic release from the gastro

  20. Reduction of nontarget infection and systemic toxicity by targeted delivery of conditionally replicating viruses transported in mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, J L; Spaeth, E L; Fueyo, J; Gomez-Manzano, C; Studeny, M; Andreeff, M; Marini, F C

    2010-04-01

    The fiber-modified adenoviral vector Delta-24-RGD (D24RGD) offers vast therapeutic potential. Direct injection of D24RGD has been used to successfully target ovarian tumors in mice. However, systemic toxicity, especially in the liver, profoundly limits the efficacy of direct viral vector delivery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the ability to function as a vector for targeted gene therapy because of their preferential engraftment into solid tumors and participation in tumor stroma formation. We show that MSC-guided delivery of D24RGD is specific and efficient and reduces the overall systemic toxicity in mice to negligible levels compared with D24RGD alone. In our model, we found efficient targeted delivery of MSC-D24RGD to both breast and ovarian cell lines. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for adenoviral hexon protein confirmed negligible levels of systemic toxicity in mice that were administered MSC-D24RGD compared with those that were administered D24RGD. These data suggest that delivery of D24RGD through MSC not only increases the targeted delivery efficiency, but also reduces the systemic exposure of the virus, thereby reducing overall systemic toxicity to the host and ultimately enhancing its value as an anti-tumor therapeutic candidate.

  1. Reduction of nontarget infection and systemic toxicity by targeted delivery of conditionally replicating viruses transported in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Dembinski, Jennifer L.; Spaeth, Erika; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Studeny, Matus; Andreeff, Michael; Marini, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The fiber-modified adenoviral vector Delta-24-RGD (D24RGD) offers vast therapeutic potential. Direct injection of D24RGD has been used to successfully target ovarian tumors in mice. However, systemic toxicity, especially in the liver, is a profoundly limits the efficacy of direct viral vector delivery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the ability to function as a vector for targeted gene therapy because of their preferential engraftment into solid tumors and participation in tumor stroma formation. We show that MSC-guided delivery of D24RGD is specific and efficient and reduces the overall systemic toxicity in mice to negligible levels compared with D24RGD alone. In our model, we found efficient targeted delivery of MSC-D24RGD to both breast and ovarian cell lines. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for adenoviral hexon protein confirmed negligible levels of systemic toxicity in mice given MSC-D24RGD compared with those given D24RGD. These data suggest that delivery of D24RGD via MSC not only increases the targeted delivery efficiency but also reduces the systemic exposure of the virus, thereby reducing overall systemic toxicity to the host and ultimately enhancing its value as an anti-tumor therapeutic candidate. PMID:19876078

  2. True-to-Life? Realistic Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that modern realistic fiction for young readers is intensely moralistic and directive at the spoken and unspoken behest of the adults who write, select, and buy that literature. Discusses moral tales, early realistic fiction, modern realistic fiction, and choosing realistic fiction. (RS)

  3. True-to-Life? Realistic Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that modern realistic fiction for young readers is intensely moralistic and directive at the spoken and unspoken behest of the adults who write, select, and buy that literature. Discusses moral tales, early realistic fiction, modern realistic fiction, and choosing realistic fiction. (RS)

  4. Protocol for a realist review of workplace learning in postgraduate medical education and training.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Anel; Kilty, Caroline; Bergin, Colm; Flood, Patrick; Fu, Na; Horgan, Mary; Higgins, Agnes; Maher, Bridget; O'Kane, Grainne; Prihodova, Lucia; Slattery, Dubhfeasa; Bennett, Deirdre

    2017-01-19

    Postgraduate medical education and training (PGMET) is a complex social process which happens predominantly during the delivery of patient care. The clinical learning environment (CLE), the context for PGMET, shapes the development of the doctors who learn and work within it, ultimately impacting the quality and safety of patient care. Clinical workplaces are complex, dynamic systems in which learning emerges from non-linear interactions within a network of related factors and activities. Those tasked with the design and delivery of postgraduate medical education and training need to understand the relationship between the processes of medical workplace learning and these contextual elements in order to optimise conditions for learning. We propose to conduct a realist synthesis of the literature to address the overarching questions; how, why and in what circumstances do doctors learn in clinical environments? This review is part of a funded projected with the overall aim of producing guidelines and recommendations for the design of high quality clinical learning environments for postgraduate medical education and training. We have chosen realist synthesis as a methodology because of its suitability for researching complexity and producing answers useful to policymakers and practitioners. This realist synthesis will follow the steps and procedures outlined by Wong et al. in the RAMESES Publication Standards for Realist Synthesis and the Realist Synthesis RAMESES Training Materials. The core research team is a multi-disciplinary group of researchers, clinicians and health professions educators. The wider research group includes experts in organisational behaviour and human resources management as well as the key stakeholders; doctors in training, patient representatives and providers of PGMET. This study will draw from the published literature and programme, and substantive, theories of workplace learning, to describe context, mechanism and outcome configurations for

  5. Realistic models of paracrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhmanson, S. M.; Voyles, P. M.; Mousseau, Normand; Barkema, G. T.; Drabold, D. A.

    2001-06-01

    We present a procedure for the preparation of physically realistic models of paracrystalline silicon based on a modification of the bond-switching method of Wooten, Winer, and Weaire. The models contain randomly oriented c-Si grains embedded in a disordered matrix. Our technique creates interfaces between the crystalline and disordered phases of Si with an extremely low concentration of coordination defects. The resulting models possess structural and vibrational properties comparable with those of good continuous random network models of amorphous silicon and display realistic optical properties, correctly reproducing the electronic band gap of amorphous silicon. The largest of our models also shows the best agreement of any atomistic model structure that we tested with fluctuation microscopy experiments, indicating that this model has a degree of medium-range order closest to that of the real material.

  6. Surfactant therapy of pulmonary conditions excluding those with primary surfactant deficiency and bronchoscopy as delivery method: an overview of Russian patents and publications.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2013-08-01

    Preparations of pulmonary surfactant are used for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in a newborn. Their applicability as a method of routine for lung diseases beyond the neonatal period is questionable. Some publications from the former Soviet Union (SU) have reported on successful surfactant therapy of ARDS in children and adults as well as for inhalation injuries, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Bronchoscopy was used and recommended as a method of surfactant delivery for ARDS, some types of pneumonia and tuberculosis. Manufacturing processes of surfactant preparations from bovine lung and amniotic fluid, described by Russian patents, and bronchoscopy as a delivery mode are discussed here. A concluding point is that some reports from the former SU about administration of exogenous surfactant in pulmonary conditions, excluding those with primary surfactant deficiency, are only partly confirmed by the international literature.

  7. Electromagnetic Scattering from Realistic Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shung- Wu; Jin, Jian-Ming

    1997-01-01

    The general goal of the project is to develop computational tools for calculating radar signature of realistic targets. A hybrid technique that combines the shooting-and-bouncing-ray (SBR) method and the finite-element method (FEM) for the radiation characterization of microstrip patch antennas in a complex geometry was developed. In addition, a hybridization procedure to combine moment method (MoM) solution and the SBR method to treat the scattering of waveguide slot arrays on an aircraft was developed. A list of journal articles and conference papers is included.

  8. Realistic Analytical Polyhedral MRI Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Tri M.; Fung, George S. K.; Han, Shuo; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry L.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Herzka, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and are used to simulate MRI acquisitions. Existing 3D analytical phantoms are unable to accurately model shapes of biomedical interest. It is demonstrated that polyhedral analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and can accurately represent 3D biomedical shapes. Theory The derivations of the Fourier transform of a polygon and polyhedron are presented. Methods The Fourier transform of a polyhedron was implemented and its accuracy in representing faceted and smooth surfaces was characterized. Realistic anthropomorphic polyhedral brain and torso phantoms were constructed and their use in simulated 3D/2D MRI acquisitions was described. Results Using polyhedra, the Fourier transform of faceted shapes can be computed to within machine precision. Smooth surfaces can be approximated with increasing accuracy by increasing the number of facets in the polyhedron; the additional accumulated numerical imprecision of the Fourier transform of polyhedra with many faces remained small. Simulations of 3D/2D brain and 2D torso cine acquisitions produced realistic reconstructions free of high frequency edge aliasing as compared to equivalent voxelized/rasterized phantoms. Conclusion Analytical polyhedral phantoms are easy to construct and can accurately simulate shapes of biomedical interest. PMID:26479724

  9. Realistic analytical polyhedral MRI phantoms.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Tri M; Fung, George S K; Han, Shuo; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry L; Tsui, Benjamin M W; McVeigh, Elliot R; Herzka, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    Analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and are used to simulate MRI acquisitions. Existing three-dimensional (3D) analytical phantoms are unable to accurately model shapes of biomedical interest. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polyhedral analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and can accurately represent 3D biomedical shapes. The Fourier transform of a polyhedron was implemented and its accuracy in representing faceted and smooth surfaces was characterized. Realistic anthropomorphic polyhedral brain and torso phantoms were constructed and their use in simulated 3D and two-dimensional (2D) MRI acquisitions was described. Using polyhedra, the Fourier transform of faceted shapes can be computed to within machine precision. Smooth surfaces can be approximated with increasing accuracy by increasing the number of facets in the polyhedron; the additional accumulated numerical imprecision of the Fourier transform of polyhedra with many faces remained small. Simulations of 3D and 2D brain and 2D torso cine acquisitions produced realistic reconstructions free of high frequency edge aliasing compared with equivalent voxelized/rasterized phantoms. Analytical polyhedral phantoms are easy to construct and can accurately simulate shapes of biomedical interest. Magn Reson Med 76:663-678, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Sociological analysis of healthcare delivery in Russia regions with inclement natural conditions (in case of the Republic of Altai)].

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a sociological study of delivery of healthcare in the Republic of Altai to search for ways to improve its quality and to provide access to the local population. Analysis was made with regard to an interdisciplinary, comprehensive approach to considering the range of problems associated with not only the health of local residents and identifying risk factors leading to diseases, but also by determining the possibilities that could promote the minimization of causes that have a considerable impact on the occurrence of diseases and also hamper healthcare delivery in the human settlements of Gornyi Altai, which are difficult of access. The investigation has used sociological and statistical methods. It has been ascertained that the available healthcare forces and means should be today employed at the regional level, by applying the principles of necessary sufficiency in conjunction with the local population's social motivation to be involved in the activity associated with the rendering of medical services. In addition, it is necessary to systemically use mobile medical units as a significant factor for the optimization of medical care to the population living in Russia's regions which are difficult of access.

  11. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    PubMed

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward Realistic Acquisition Schedule Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Toward Realistic Acquisition Schedule Estimates Raymond Franck, Professor...the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. To request defense acquisition ...research, to become a research sponsor, or to print additional copies of reports, please contact any of the staff listed on the Acquisition

  13. Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Ake

    2000-01-01

    We perform essentially parameter free simulations with realistic physics of convection near the solar surface. We summarize the physics that is included and compare the simulation results with observations. Excellent agreement is obtained for the depth of the convection zone, the p-mode frequencies, the p-mode excitation rate, the distribution of the emergent continuum intensity, and the profiles of weak photospheric lines. We describe how solar convection is nonlocal. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative cooling produces low entropy gas which forms the cores of the downdrafts in which most of the buoyancy work occurs. We show that turbulence and vorticity are mostly confined to the intergranular lanes and underlying downdrafts. Finally, we illustrate our current work on magneto-convection.

  14. Realist RCTs of complex interventions - an oxymoron.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Bruno; Westhorp, Gill; Wong, Geoff; Van Belle, Sara; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kegels, Guy; Pawson, Ray

    2013-10-01

    Bonell et al. discuss the challenges of carrying out randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate complex interventions in public health, and consider the role of realist evaluation in enhancing this design (Bonell, Fletcher, Morton, Lorenc, & Moore, 2012). They argue for a "synergistic, rather than oppositional relationship between realist and randomised evaluation" and that "it is possible to benefit from the insights provided by realist evaluation without relinquishing the RCT as the best means of examining intervention causality." We present counter-arguments to their analysis of realist evaluation and their recommendations for realist RCTs. Bonell et al. are right to question whether and how (quasi-)experimental designs can be improved to better evaluate complex public health interventions. However, the paper does not explain how a research design that is fundamentally built upon a positivist ontological and epistemological position can be meaningfully adapted to allow it to be used from within a realist paradigm. The recommendations for "realist RCTs" do not sufficiently take into account important elements of complexity that pose major challenges for the RCT design. They also ignore key tenets of the realist evaluation approach. We propose that the adjective 'realist' should continue to be used only for studies based on a realist philosophy and whose analytic approach follows the established principles of realist analysis. It seems more correct to call the approach proposed by Bonell and colleagues 'theory informed RCT', which indeed can help in enhancing RCTs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient, physiologically realistic lung airflow simulations.

    PubMed

    Walters, D Keith; Burgreen, Greg W; Lavallee, David M; Thompson, David S; Hester, Robert L

    2011-10-01

    One of the key challenges for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of human lung airflow is the sheer size and complexity of the complete, multiscale geometry of the bronchopulmonary tree. Since 3-D CFD simulations of the full airway tree are currently intractable, researchers have proposed reduced geometry models in which multiple airway paths are truncated downstream of the first few generations. This paper investigates a recently proposed method for closing the CFD model by application of physiologically correct boundary conditions at truncated outlets. A realistic, reduced geometry model of the lung airway based on CT data has been constructed up to generation 18, including extrathoracic, bronchi, and bronchiole regions. Results indicate that the new method yields reasonable results for pressure drop through the airway, at a small fraction of the cost of fully resolved simulations.

  16. Presupernova neutrinos: realistic emissivities from stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Kelly; Lunardini, Cecilia; Farmer, Rob; Timmes, Frank

    2017-01-01

    We present a calculation of neutrino emissivities and energy spectra from a presupernova, a massive star going through the advanced stages of nuclear burning before becoming a supernova. Neutrinos produced from beta decay and electron capture, as well as pair annihilation, plasmon decay, and the photoneutrino process are included. We use the state of the art stellar evolution code MESA to obtain realistic conditions for temperature, density, electron fraction, and nuclear isotopic composition. We have found that beta processes contribute significantly to the neutrino flux at potentially detectable energies of a few MeV. Estimates for the number of events at several current and future detectors are presented for the last few hours before collapse.

  17. SU-E-T-403: Evaluation of the Beam Performance of a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator Under External Device-Based Gated Delivery Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kobulnicky, K; Pawlak, D; Purwar, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the beam performance of a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator under external device-based gated delivery conditions. Methods: Six gating cycles were used to evaluate the gating performance of a standard production TrueBeam system that was not specially tuned in any way. The system was equipped with a factory installed external gating interface (EXGI). An in-house EXGI tester box was used to simulate the input gating signals. The gating cycles were selected based on long beam-on and short beam-off times, short beam-on and long beam-off times, or equal beam on and off times to check linac performance. The beam latencies were measured as the time difference between the logic high gating signal and the first or last target pulses with an oscilloscope. Tissue-Phantom Ratio, beam flatness, and dose distributions from 5 different plans were measured using the 6 different gating durations and the un-gated irradiation. A PTW 729 2-D array was used to compare 5 plans versus the un-gated delivery with a 1%/1mm gamma index passing criteria. Results: The beam latencies of the linac were based off of 20 samples for beam-on and beam-off, for each gating cycle. The average beam-on delays were measured to be between 57 and 66msec, with a maximum of 88 msec. The beam off latencies averaged between 19 and 26msec, with a maximum of 48 msec. TPR20,10 measurements showed beam energy stability within 0.5% of the un-gated delivery. Beam flatness was better than 2.5% for all gated cycles. All but two deliveries, the open field with 4 seconds on, 1 second off, and a five field IMRT plan with 0.5 seconds on, 2.5 seconds off, had >90% passing rate. Conclusion: TrueBeam demonstrates excellent beam stability with minimal beam latencies under external device-based gated operations. Dosimetric measurements show minimal variation in beam energy, flatness, and plan delivery. Authors are employees of Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  18. Powder Aerosol Delivery through Nasal High-flow System: In Vitro Feasibility and Influence of Process Conditions.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoyuki; Tang, Patricia; Yu, Jiaqi; Finlay, Warren H; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-08-19

    We aimed to obtain fundamental information for potential pulmonary delivery of powder aerosols using a clinically-approved nasal high-flow system (AIRVO), with spray-dried mannitol (SD-Man) being a model powder. Compressed air exiting the AIRVO at set 'dispersion' air flow rates dispersed SD-Man loaded in an Osmohaler(®) into a human nasal airway replica (NAR) coupled downstream to a Next Generation Impactor (NGI) running at specific 'inspiratory' flow rates. Increasing the dispersion flow rate from 30 to 60L/min increased powder deposition in the NAR from 50 to 70% of the emitted dose, while decreased the NGI deposition from 50 to 30% of the emitted dose. The inspiratory flow rate did not affect powder deposition in the NAR and NGI. In contrast, as the inspiratory flow rate was increased from 15 to 40L/min, powder recovery, emitted fraction, and fine particle fraction below 5μm (as aerosol performance indices) were increased from 90, 30 and 5% to 97, 45 and 8% of the loaded dose, respectively. The dispersion flow rate did not change the performance indices. Importantly, heating and humidification of dispersion airflow, loaded doses, and nasal cannula sizes did not greatly affect the aerosol characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavior of vitamin E acetate delivery systems under simulated gastrointestinal conditions: lipid digestion and bioaccessibility of low-energy nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Sinja; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2013-08-15

    Colloidal delivery systems are needed to incorporate oil-soluble vitamins into aqueous-based foods and beverage products. In this study, we encapsulated vitamin E acetate into oil-in-water nanoemulsions produced using either a low-energy method (Emulsion Phase Inversion, EPI) or a high energy method (microfluidization). Oil-in-water nanoemulsions (d<200 nm) could be produced using both low- and high-energy methods from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility of EPI nanoemulsions was determined using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model that simulated the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. There were increases in the size and negative charge of the oil droplets after passage through the GIT, which was attributed to droplet coalescence and changes in interfacial composition. The rate and extent of lipid digestion decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, but the bioaccessibility of vitamin E acetate was high in all of the samples (>95%). No appreciable influence of the preparation method (low-energy versus high-energy) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility was observed. The major advantage of the EPI method for forming nanoemulsions is that no expensive equipment is required, but relatively high surfactant concentrations are needed compared to microfluidization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of context in care transition interventions for medically complex older adults: a realist synthesis protocol.

    PubMed

    Pitzul, Kristen B; Lane, Natasha E; Voruganti, Teja; Khan, Anum I; Innis, Jennifer; Wodchis, Walter P; Baker, G Ross

    2015-11-19

    Approximately 30-50% of older adults have two or more conditions and are referred to as multimorbid or complex patients. These patients often require visits to various healthcare providers in a number of settings and are therefore susceptible to fragmented healthcare delivery while transitioning to receive care. Care transition interventions have been implemented to improve continuity of care, however, current evidence suggests that some interventions or components of interventions are only effective within certain contexts. There is therefore a need to unpack the mechanisms of how and within which contexts care transition interventions and their components are effective. Realist review is a synthesis method that explains how complex programmes work within various contexts. The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of context on the activities and mechanisms of care transition interventions in medically complex older adults using a realist review approach. This synthesis will be guided by Pawson and colleagues' 2004 and 2005 protocols for conducting realist reviews. The underlying theories of care transition interventions were determined based on an initial literature search using relevant databases. English language peer-reviewed studies published after 1993 will be included. Several relevant databases will be searched using medical subject headings and text terms. A screening form will be piloted and titles, abstracts and full text of potentially relevant articles will be screened in duplicate. Abstracted data will include study characteristics, intervention type, contextual factors, intervention activities and underlying mechanisms. Patterns in Context-Activity-Mechanism-Outcome (CAMO) configurations will be reported. Internal knowledge translation activities will occur throughout the review and existing partnerships will be leveraged to disseminate findings to frontline staff, hospital administrators and policymakers. Finalised results will be

  1. How does capacity building of health managers work? A realist evaluation study protocol.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, N S; Marchal, Bruno; Hoeree, Tom; Devadasan, Narayanan; Macq, Jean; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

    2012-01-01

    There has been a lot of attention on the role of human resource management interventions to improve delivery of health services in low- and middle-income countries. However, studies on this subject are few due to limited research on implementation of programmes and methodological difficulties in conducting experimental studies on human resource interventions. The authors present the protocol of an evaluation of a district-level capacity-building intervention to identify the determinants of performance of health workers in managerial positions and to understand how changes (if any) are brought about. The aim of this study is to understand how capacity building works. The authors will use realist evaluation to evaluate an intervention in Karnataka, India. The intervention is a capacity-building programme that seeks to improve management capacities of health managers at district and subdistrict levels through periodic classroom-based teaching and mentoring support at the workplace. The authors conducted interviews and reviewed literature on capacity building in health to draw out the programme theory of the intervention. Based on this, the authors formulated hypothetical pathways connecting the expected outcomes of the intervention (planning and supervision) to the inputs (contact classes and mentoring). The authors prepared a questionnaire to assess elements of the programme theory-organisational culture, self-efficacy and supervision. The authors shall conduct a survey among health managers as well as collect qualitative data through interviews with participants and non-participants selected purposively based on their planning and supervision performance. The authors will construct explanations in the form of context-mechanism-outcome configurations from the results. This will be iterative and the authors will use a realist evaluation framework to refine the explanatory theories that are based on the findings to explain and validate an improved theory on 'what works

  2. Application of mesoscale simulation to explore the aggregate morphology of pH-sensitive nanoparticles used as the oral drug delivery carriers under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Bo Zhi; Liu, Yue Jin; Wu, Zhi Min; Guo, Xin Dong

    2017-03-01

    The pH-sensitive nanoparticles are selected as the potentially promising oral protein and peptide drug carriers due to their excellent performance. With the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (PLGA/HP55) nanoparticle as a model nanoparticle, the structure-property relationship of nanoparticles with different conditions is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations in our work. In the oral drug delivery system, the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is hydrophobic polymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) is pH-sensitive enteric polymer which used to protect the nanoparticles through the stomach and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is hydrophilic polymer as the stabilizer. It can be seen from DPD simulations that all polymer molecules form spherical core-shell nanoparticles with stabilizer PVA molecules adsorbed on the outer surface of the PLGA/HP55 matrix at certain compositions. The DPD simulation study can provide microscopic insight into the formation and morphological changes of pH-sensitive nanoparticles which is useful for the design of new materials for high-efficacy oral drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of novel multifunctional targeting nano-carrier drug delivery system based on CD44 receptor and tumor microenvironment pH condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daquan; Lian, Shengnan; Sun, Jingfang; Liu, Zongliang; Zhao, Feng; Jiang, Yongtao; Gao, Mingming; Sun, Kaoxiang; Liu, Wanhui; Fu, Fenghua

    2016-01-01

    In this study, to develop a multifunctional targeting nano-carrier drug delivery system for cancer therapy, the novel pH-sensitive ketal based oligosaccharides of hyaluronan (oHA) conjugates were synthesized by chemical conjugation of hydrophobic menthone 1,2-glycerol ketal (MGK) to the backbone of oHA with the histidine as the linker of proton sponge effect. The multifunctional oHA conjugates, oHA-histidine-MGK (oHM) carried the pH-sensitive MGK as hydrophobic moieties and oHA as the target of CD44 receptor. The oHM could self-assemble to nano-sized spherical shape with the average diameters of 128.6 nm at pH 7.4 PBS conditions. The oHM nanoparticles (oHMN) could release encapsulated curcumin (Cur) with 82.6% at pH 5.0 compared with 49.3% at pH 7.4. The results of cytotoxicity assay indicated that encapsulated Cur in oHMN (Cur-oHMN) were stable and have less toxicity compared to Cur suspension. The anti-tumor efficacy in vivo suggested that Cur-oHMN suppressed tumor growth most efficiently. These results present the promising potential of oHMN as a stable and effective nano-sized pH-sensitive drug delivery system for cancer treatment.

  4. Fludarabine with pharmacokinetically guided IV busulfan is superior to fixed-dose delivery in pretransplant conditioning of AML/MDS patients.

    PubMed

    Andersson, B S; Thall, P F; Valdez, B C; Milton, D R; Al-Atrash, G; Chen, J; Gulbis, A; Chu, D; Martinez, C; Parmar, S; Popat, U; Nieto, Y; Kebriaei, P; Alousi, A; de Lima, M; Rondon, G; Meng, Q H; Myers, A; Kawedia, J; Worth, L L; Fernandez-Vina, M; Madden, T; Shpall, E J; Jones, R B; Champlin, R E

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesized that IV busulfan (Bu) dosing could be safely intensified through pharmacokinetic (PK-) dose guidance to minimize the inter-patient variability in systemic exposure (SE) associated with body-sized dosing, and that this should improve outcome of AML/MDS patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. To test this hypothesis, we treated 218 patients (median age 50.7 years, male/female 50/50%) with fludarabine 40 mg/m(2) once daily x4, each dose followed by IV Bu, randomized to 130 mg/m(2) (N=107) or PK-guided to average daily SE, AUC of 6000 μM min (N=111), stratified for remission status and allo-grafting from HLA-matched donors. Toxicity and GvHD rates in the groups were similar; the risk of relapse or treatment-related mortality remained higher in the fixed-dose group throughout the 80-month observation period. Further, PK-guidance yielded safer disease control, leading to improved overall and PFS, most prominently in MDS patients and in AML patients not in remission at allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We conclude that AML/MDS patients receiving pretransplant conditioning treatment with our 4-day regimen may benefit significantly from PK-guided Bu dosing. This could be considered an alternative to fixed-dose delivery since it provides the benefit of precise dose delivery to a predetermined SE without increasing risk(s) of serious toxicity and/or GvHD.

  5. Helping With All Your Heart: Realistic Heart Stimulus and Compliance With an Organ Donation Request.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Pictures and images are important aspects in fundraising advertising and could generate more donations. In two experimental studies, we examined the effect of various pictures of hearts on compliance with a request for organ donations. The solicitor wore a white tee shirt where various forms of hearts were printed: symbolic versus realistic (first experiment), none versus symbolic versus realistic (second experiment). Results showed that more compliance was found in the realistic heart experimental condition whereas the symbolic heart form had no significant effect.

  6. Alveolar mechanics using realistic acinar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Haribalan; Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the mechanics in terminal airspaces of the lung is desirable for study of particle transport and pathology. The flow in the acinar region is traditionally studied by employing prescribed boundary conditions to represent rhythmic breathing and volumetric expansion. Conventional models utilize simplified spherical or polygonal units to represent the alveolar duct and sac. Accurate prediction of flow and transport characteristics may require geometries reconstructed from CT-based images and serve to understand the importance of physiologically realistic representation of the acinus. In this effort, we present a stabilized finite element framework, supplemented with appropriate boundary conditions at the alveolar mouth and septal borders for simulation of the alveolar mechanics and the resulting airflow. Results of material advection based on Lagrangian tracking are presented to complete the study of transport and compare the results with simplified acinar models. The current formulation provides improved understanding and realization of a dynamic framework for parenchymal mechanics with incorporation of alveolar pressure and traction stresses.

  7. Postpositivist Realist Theory: Identity and Representation Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Lorraine S.

    2006-01-01

    In postpositivist realist theory, people like Paula Moya (2000) and Satya Mohanty (2000) make a space that at once reflects and informs my location as a Third-World woman of color and a Black-immigrant educator in the United States. In postpositivist realist theory, understanding emerges from one's past and present experiences and interactions as…

  8. Monoacylglycerol-enriched oil increases EPA/DHA delivery to circulatory system in humans with induced lipid malabsorption conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Destaillats, Frédéric; Thakkar, Sagar K; Goulet, Laurence; Wynn, Emma; Grathwohl, Dominik; Roessle, Claudia; de Giorgi, Sara; Tappy, Luc; Giuffrida, Francesca; Giusti, Vittorio

    2016-12-01

    It was hypothesized that under induced lipid malabsorption/maldigestion conditions, an enriched sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) oil may be a better carrier for n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) compared with triacylglycerol (TAG) from fish oil. This monocentric double blinded clinical trial examined the accretion of EPA (500 mg/day) and DHA (300 mg/day) when consumed as TAG or MAG, into the erythrocytes, plasma, and chylomicrons of 45 obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and ≤40 kg/m(2)) volunteers who were and were not administered Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipases. Intake of MAG-enriched oil resulted in higher accretion of LC-PUFAs than with TAG, the concentrations of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes being, respectively, 72 and 24% higher at 21 days (P < 0.001). In addition, MAG increased the plasma concentration of EPA by 56% (P < 0.001) as compared with TAG. In chylomicrons, MAG intake yielded higher levels of EPA with the area under the curve (0-10 h) of EPA being 55% greater (P = 0.012). In conclusion, in obese human subjects with Orlistat-induced lipid maldigestion/malabsorption conditions, LC-PUFA MAG oil increased LC-PUFA levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and chylomicrons to a greater extent than TAG. These results indicate that MAG oil might require minimal enzymatic digestion prior to intestinal uptake and transfer across the epithelial barrier.

  9. Realist complex intervention science: Applying realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Moore, Graham; Evans, Rhiannon E.; Murphy, Simon; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The integration of realist evaluation principles within randomised controlled trials (‘realist RCTs’) enables evaluations of complex interventions to answer questions about what works, for whom and under what circumstances. This allows evaluators to better develop and refine mid-level programme theories. However, this is only one phase in the process of developing and evaluating complex interventions. We describe and exemplify how social scientists can integrate realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework. Intervention development, modelling, and feasibility and pilot studies need to theorise the contextual conditions necessary for intervention mechanisms to be activated. Where interventions are scaled up and translated into routine practice, realist principles also have much to offer in facilitating knowledge about longer-term sustainability, benefits and harms. Integrating a realist approach across all phases of complex intervention science is vital for considering the feasibility and likely effects of interventions for different localities and population subgroups. PMID:27478401

  10. The Differential Impact of User-Fee Exemption Compared to Conditional Cash Transfers on Safe Deliveries in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Elina; Fan, Victoria Y

    2017-08-01

    To assess the differential impact of a copayment exemption compared to a cash incentive on increasing skilled birth attendance (i.e., birth attended by a skilled health worker) in Nepal. This study used data on 8,785 children born between July 2005 and December 2008, obtained from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys, 2006 and 2011. Twenty-five districts received both the policy interventions, and the remaining 50 control districts received only the cash incentive. We employed a difference-in-differences model to compare children born in districts with both interventions to those in districts with conditional cash transfers only. Average marginal effects of the difference-in-difference coefficient on skilled birth attendance measures are estimated. Skilled birth attendance in districts with both interventions was no higher on average than in districts with only the cash incentive. In areas with adequate road networks, however, significantly higher skilled birth attendance was observed in districts with both interventions compared to those with only the cash incentive. The added incentive of the user-fee exemption did not significantly increase skilled birth attendance relative to the presence of the cash incentive. User-fee exemptions may not be effective in areas with inadequate road infrastructure. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Competence of birth attendants at providing emergency obstetric care under India's JSY conditional cash transfer program for institutional delivery: an assessment using case vignettes in Madhya Pradesh province.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Upadhyay, Sourabh; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-05-24

    Access to emergency obstetric care by competent staff can reduce maternal mortality. India has launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program to promote institutional births. During implementation of the JSY, India witnessed a steep increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries-from 40% in 2004 to 73% in 2012. However, maternal mortality reduction follows a secular trend. Competent management of complications, when women deliver in facilities under the JSY, is essential for reduction in maternal mortality and therefore to a successful program outcome. We investigate, using clinical vignettes, whether birth attendants at institutions under the program are competent at providing appropriate care for obstetric complications. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province. Written case vignettes for two obstetric complications, hemorrhage and eclampsia, were administered to 233 birth attendant nurses at 73 JSY facilities. Their competence at (a) initial assessment, (b) diagnosis, and (c) making decisions on appropriate first-line care for these complications was scored. The mean emergency obstetric care (EmOC) competence score was 5.4 (median = 5) on a total score of 20, and 75% of participants scored below 35% of the maximum score. The overall score, although poor, was marginally higher in respondents with Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) training, those with general nursing and midwifery qualifications, those at higher facility levels, and those conducting >30 deliveries a month. In all, 14% of respondents were competent at assessment, 58% were competent at making a correct clinical diagnosis, and 20% were competent at providing first-line care. Birth attendants in the JSY facilities have low competence at EmOC provision. Hence, births in the JSY program cannot be considered to have access to competent EmOC. Urgent efforts are required to effectively increase the

  12. Realistic simulations of coaxial atomisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Stephane; Fuster, Daniel; Arrufat Jackson, Tomas; Ling, Yue; Cenni, Matteo; Scardovelli, Ruben; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2015-11-01

    We discuss advances in the methodology for Direct Numerical Simulations of coaxial atomization in typical experimental conditions. Such conditions are extremely demanding for the numerical methods. The key difficulty seems to be the combination of high density ratios, surface tension, and large Reynolds numbers. We explore how using a momentum-conserving Volume-Of-Fluid scheme allows to improve the stability and accuracy of the simulations. We show computational evidence that the use of momentum conserving methods allows to reduce the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude in the simple case of a falling rain drop. We then apply these ideas to coaxial atomization. We show that in moderate-size simulations in air-water conditions close to real experiments, instabilities are still present and then discuss ways to fix them. Among those, removing small VOF debris and improving the time-stepping scheme are two important directions.The accuracy of the simulations is then discussed in comparison with experimental results and in particular the angle of ejection of the structures. The code used for this research is free and distributed at http://parissimulator.sf.net.

  13. Fludarabine with pharmacokinetically-guided IV busulfan is superior to fixed-dose delivery in pretransplant conditioning of AML/MDS patients

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Borje S.; Thall, Peter F.; Valdez, Benigno C.; Milton, Denái R.; Al-Atrash, Gheath; Chen, Julianne; Gulbis, Alison; Chu, Diem; Martinez, Charles; Parmar, Simrit; Popat, Uday; Nieto, Yago; Kebriaei, Partow; Alousi, Amin; de Lima, Marcos; Rondon, Gabriela; Meng, Qing H.; Myers, Alan; Kawedia, Jitesh; Worth, Laura L.; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Madden, Timothy; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Jones, Roy B.; Champlin, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that IV Busulfan (Bu) dosing could be safely intensified through pharmacokinetic (PK-) dose guidance to minimize the inter-patient variability in systemic exposure (SE) associated with body-sized dosing, and this should improve outcome of AML/MDS patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). To test this hypothesis, we treated 218 patients (median age 50.7 years, male/female 50/50%) with fludarabine (Flu) 40 mg/m2 once daily ×4, each dose followed by IV Bu, randomized to 130 mg/m2 (N=107) or PK-guided to average daily SE, AUC of 6,000 µM-min (N=111), stratified for remission-status, and allo-grafting from HLA-matched donors. Toxicity and graft vs. host disease (GvHD) rates in the groups were similar; the risk of relapse or treatment-related mortality remained higher in the fixed-dose group throughout the 80-month observation period. Further, PK-guidance yielded safer disease-control, leading to improved overall and progression-free survival, most prominently in MDS-patients and in AML-patients not in remission at allo-HSCT. We conclude that AML/MDS patients receiving pretransplant conditioning treatment with our 4-day regimen may benefit significantly from PK-guided Bu-dosing. This could be considered an alternative to fixed dose delivery since it provides the benefit of precise dose delivery to a predetermined SE without increasing risk(s) of serious toxicity and/or GvHD. PMID:27991894

  14. Mechanical stabilization of the Levitron's realistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera, Arturo; De la Rosa, Abraham; Giordano, Claudia M.

    2016-11-01

    The stability of the magnetic levitation showed by the Levitron was studied by M.V. Berry as a six degrees of freedom Hamiltonian system using an adiabatic approximation. Further, H.R. Dullin found critical spin rate bounds where the levitation persists and R.F. Gans et al. offered numerical results regarding the initial conditions' manifold where this occurs. In the line of this series of works, first, we extend the equations of motion to include dissipation for a more realistic model, and then introduce a mechanical forcing to inject energy into the system in order to prevent the Levitron from falling. A systematic study of the flying time as a function of the forcing parameters is carried out which yields detailed bifurcation diagrams showing an Arnold's tongues structure. The stability of these solutions were studied with the help of a novel method to compute the maximum Lyapunov exponent called MEGNO. The bifurcation diagrams for MEGNO reproduce the same Arnold's tongue structure.

  15. PET-based dose delivery verification in proton therapy: a GATE based simulation study of five PET system designs in clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Robert, Charlotte; Fourrier, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Stute, Simon; Gueth, Pierre; Grevillot, Loïc; Buvat, Irène

    2013-10-07

    PET is a promising technique for in vivo treatment verification in hadrontherapy. Three main PET geometries dedicated to in-beam treatment monitoring have been proposed in the literature: the dual-head PET geometry, the OpenPET geometry and the slanted-closed ring geometry. The aim of this work is to characterize the performance of two of these dedicated PET detectors in realistic clinical conditions. Several configurations of the dual-head PET and OpenPET systems were simulated using GATE v6.2. For the dual-head configuration, two aperture angles (15° and 45°) were studied. For the OpenPET system, two gaps between rings were investigated (110 and 160 mm). A full-ring PET system was also simulated as a reference. After preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and spatial resolution using a Derenzo phantom, a real small-field head and neck treatment plan was simulated, with and without introducing patient displacements. No wash-out was taken into account. 3D maps of the annihilation photon locations were deduced from the PET data acquired right after the treatment session (5 min acquisition) using a dedicated OS-EM reconstruction algorithm. Detection sensitivity at the center of the field-of-view (FOV) varied from 5.2% (45° dual-head system) to 7.0% (full-ring PET). The dual-head systems had a more uniform efficiency within the FOV than the OpenPET systems. The spatial resolution strongly depended on the location within the FOV for the ϕ = 45° dual-head system and for the two OpenPET systems. All investigated architectures identified the magnitude of mispositioning introduced in the simulations within a 1.5 mm accuracy. The variability on the estimated mispositionings was less than 2 mm for all PET systems.

  16. PET-based dose delivery verification in proton therapy: a GATE based simulation study of five PET system designs in clinical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Charlotte; Fourrier, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Stute, Simon; Gueth, Pierre; Grevillot, Loïc; Buvat, Irène

    2013-10-01

    PET is a promising technique for in vivo treatment verification in hadrontherapy. Three main PET geometries dedicated to in-beam treatment monitoring have been proposed in the literature: the dual-head PET geometry, the OpenPET geometry and the slanted-closed ring geometry. The aim of this work is to characterize the performance of two of these dedicated PET detectors in realistic clinical conditions. Several configurations of the dual-head PET and OpenPET systems were simulated using GATE v6.2. For the dual-head configuration, two aperture angles (15° and 45°) were studied. For the OpenPET system, two gaps between rings were investigated (110 and 160 mm). A full-ring PET system was also simulated as a reference. After preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and spatial resolution using a Derenzo phantom, a real small-field head and neck treatment plan was simulated, with and without introducing patient displacements. No wash-out was taken into account. 3D maps of the annihilation photon locations were deduced from the PET data acquired right after the treatment session (5 min acquisition) using a dedicated OS-EM reconstruction algorithm. Detection sensitivity at the center of the field-of-view (FOV) varied from 5.2% (45° dual-head system) to 7.0% (full-ring PET). The dual-head systems had a more uniform efficiency within the FOV than the OpenPET systems. The spatial resolution strongly depended on the location within the FOV for the ϕ = 45° dual-head system and for the two OpenPET systems. All investigated architectures identified the magnitude of mispositioning introduced in the simulations within a 1.5 mm accuracy. The variability on the estimated mispositionings was less than 2 mm for all PET systems.

  17. Temporal Coding in Realistic Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasyuta, S. M.; Ivanov, D. V.

    1995-10-01

    The modification of realistic neural network model have been proposed. The model differs from the Hopfield model because of the two characteristic contributions to synaptic efficacious: the short-time contribution which is determined by the chemical reactions in the synapses and the long-time contribution corresponding to the structural changes of synaptic contacts. The approximation solution of the realistic neural network model equations is obtained. This solution allows us to calculate the postsynaptic potential as function of input. Using the approximate solution of realistic neural network model equations the behaviour of postsynaptic potential of realistic neural network as function of time for the different temporal sequences of stimuli is described. The various outputs are obtained for the different temporal sequences of the given stimuli. These properties of the temporal coding can be exploited as a recognition element capable of being selectively tuned to different inputs.

  18. Toward a Direct Realist Account of Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievers, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes the account of observation given by Alan Chalmers in "What Is This Thing Called Science?" and provides an alternative based on direct realist approaches to perception. Contains 15 references. (Author/WRM)

  19. Toward a Direct Realist Account of Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievers, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes the account of observation given by Alan Chalmers in "What Is This Thing Called Science?" and provides an alternative based on direct realist approaches to perception. Contains 15 references. (Author/WRM)

  20. Realistic modeling of chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.

    2003-05-01

    Transport of intense heavy-ion beams to an inertial-fusion target after final focus is simulated here using a realistic computer model. It is found that passing the beam through a rarefied plasma layer before it enters the fusion chamber can largely neutralize the beam space charge and lead to a usable focal spot for a range of ion species and input conditions.

  1. Towards a Realistic Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Harding, Alice; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents ami charge densities of pulsar magnetospberes which do not obey the ideal condition, E(raised dot) B = O. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation requires the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E(sub ll) the structure of non-Ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-Ideal pulsar maglletospheres is important because their comparison (including models for t he production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. We implement a variety of prescriptions that support nonzero values for E(sub ll) and explore their effects on the structure of the resulting magnetospheres. We produce families of solutions that span the entire range between the vacuum and the (ideal) Force-Free Electrodynamic solutions. We also compute the amount of dissipation as a fraction of the Poynting flux for pulsars of different angles between the rotation and magnetic axes and conclude that tltis is at most 20-40% (depending on t he non-ideal prescription) in the aligned rotator and 10% in the perpendicular one. We present also the limiting solutions with the property J = pc and discuss their possible implicatioll on the determination of the "on/ off" states of the intermittent pulsars. Finally, we find that solutions with values of J greater than those needed to null E(sub ll) locally produce oscillations, potentially observable in the data.

  2. TOWARD A REALISTIC PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Harding, Alice

    2012-04-10

    We present the magnetic and electric field structures and the currents and charge densities of pulsar magnetospheres that do not obey the ideal condition, E {center_dot} B = 0. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation require the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E{sub ||}, the structure of non-ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-ideal pulsar magnetospheres is important because their comparison (including models for the production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. We implement a variety of prescriptions that support non-zero values for E{sub ||} and explore their effects on the structure of the resulting magnetospheres. We produce families of solutions that span the entire range between the vacuum and the (ideal) force-free electrodynamic solutions. We also compute the amount of dissipation as a fraction of the Poynting flux for pulsars of different angles between the rotation and magnetic axes and conclude that this is at most 20%-40% (depending on the non-ideal prescription) in the aligned rotator and 10% in the perpendicular one. We present also the limiting solutions with the property J = {rho}c and discuss their possible implication on the determination of the 'on/off' states of the intermittent pulsars. Finally, we find that solutions with values of J greater than those needed to null E{sub ||} locally produce oscillations, potentially observable in the data.

  3. Physiorack: an integrated MRI safe/conditional, gas delivery, respiratory gating, and subject monitoring solution for structural and functional assessments of pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Halaweish, Ahmed F; Charles, H Cecil

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the use of a modular MRI conditional respiratory monitoring and gating solution, designed to facilitate proper monitoring of subjects' vital signals and their respiratory efforts, during free-breathing and breathheld 19F, oxygen-enhanced, and Fourier-decomposition MRI-based acquisitions. All Imaging was performed on a Siemens TIM Trio 3 Tesla MRI scanner, following Institutional Review Board approval. Gas delivery is accomplished through the use of an MR compatible pneumotachometer, in conjunction with two three-way pneumatically controlled Hans Rudolph Valves. The pneumatic valves are connected to Douglas bags used as the gas source. A mouthpiece (+nose clip) or an oro-nasal Hans Rudolph disposable mask is connected following the pneumatic valve to minimize dead-space and provide an airtight seal. Continuous monitoring/sampling of inspiratory and expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide levels at the mouthpiece/mask is achieved through the use of an Oxigraf gas analyzer. Forty-four imaging sessions were successfully monitored, during Fourier-decomposition (n=3), fluorine-enhanced (n=29), oxygen-enhanced, and ultra short echo (n=12) acquisitions. The collected waveforms, facilitated proper monitoring and coaching of the subjects. We demonstrate an inexpensive, off-the-shelf solution for monitoring these signals, facilitating assessments of lung function. Monitoring of respiratory efforts and exhaled gas concentrations assists in understanding the heterogeneity of lung function visualized by gas imaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A microdosimetry study for a realistic shaped nucleus.

    PubMed

    Denzi, A; Escobar, J A A; Nasta, C; Merla, C; Benassi, B; Consales, C; Apollonio, F; Liberti, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades, the effects of ultrashort pulsed electric fields have been investigated demonstrating their capability to be involved in a great number of medical applications (e.g. cancer, gene electrotransfer, drug delivery, electrofusion). In particular, experiments in literature demonstrate that internal structures can be involved when pulse duration is reduced. Up to now, the mechanism that permits the electroporation phenomenon has not been completely understood and hence atomistic, microdosimetry and dosimetry models have been developed to help in this field. Aim of this work is to demonstrate the importance of realistically model also the internal organelles to obtain predictive results of effects at sub-cellular level with a microdosimetry model.

  5. Delivery presentations

    MedlinePlus

    ... passage will take place depends on how your baby is positioned during delivery. The best position for the baby to be ... possible, but labor will generally take longer. After delivery, the baby's face or brow will be swollen and may ...

  6. Forceps Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically done during a contraction while the mother pushes. Your health care provider might recommend a ... delivery poses a risk of injury for both mother and baby. If a forceps delivery fails, a ...

  7. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    PubMed

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained.

  8. An inexpensive yet realistic model for teaching vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Coe, Taylor M; Curington, John

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the no-scalpel vasectomy is important, since vasectomy is a safe, simple, and cost-effective method of contraception. This minimally invasive vasectomy technique involves delivering the vas through the skin with specialized tools. This technique is associated with fewer complications than the traditional incisional vasectomy (1). One of the most challenging steps is the delivery of the vas through a small puncture in the scrotal skin, and there is a need for a realistic and inexpensive scrotal model for beginning learners to practice this step. After careful observation using several scrotal models while teaching residents and senior trainees, we developed a simplified scrotal model that uses only three components-bicycle inner tube, latex tubing, and a Penrose drain. This model is remarkably realistic and allows learners to practice a challenging step in the no-scalpel vasectomy. The low cost and simple construction of the model allows wide dissemination of training in this important technique. We propose a simple, inexpensive model that will enable learners to master the hand movements involved in delivering the vas through the skin while mitigating the risks of learning on patients.

  9. A Realist Interpretation of the Quantum Measurement Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2006-11-01

    A new, realist interpretation of the quantum measurement processes is given. In this scenario a quantum measurement is a non-equilibrium phase transition in a "resonant cavity" formed by the entire physical universe including all its material and energy content. Both the amplitude and the phase of the quantum mechanical wavefunction acquire substantial meaning in this picture, and the probabilistic element is removed from the foundations of quantum mechanics, its apparent presence in the quantum measurement process is viewed as a result of the sensitive dependence on initial/boundary conditions of the non-equilibrium phase transitions in a many degree-of-freedom system. The implications of adopting this realist ontology to the clarification and resolution of lingering issues in the foundations of quantum mechanics, such as wave-particle duality, Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, Schrodinger's Cat paradox, first and higher order coherence of photons and atoms, virtual particles, the existence of commutation relations and quantized behavior, etc., are also presented.

  10. Role of dissipation in realistic Majorana nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-02-01

    We carry out a realistic simulation of Majorana nanowires in order to understand the latest high-quality experimental data [H. Zhang et al., arXiv:1603.04069 (2016)] and, in the process, develop a comprehensive picture for what physical mechanisms may be operational in realistic nanowires leading to discrepancies between minimal theory and experimental observations (e.g., weakness and broadening of the zero-bias peak and breaking of particle-hole symmetry). Our focus is on understanding specific intriguing features in the data, and our goal is to establish matters of principle controlling the physics of the best possible nanowires available in current experiments. We identify dissipation, finite temperature, multi-sub-band effects, and the finite tunnel barrier as the four most important physical mechanisms controlling the zero-bias conductance peak. Our theoretical results including these realistic effects agree well with the best available experimental data in ballistic nanowires.

  11. Evidence of collaboration, pooling of resources, learning and role blurring in interprofessional healthcare teams: a realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sims, Sarah; Hewitt, Gillian; Harris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional teamwork has become an integral feature of healthcare delivery in a wide range of conditions and services in many countries. Many assumptions are made in healthcare literature and policy about how interprofessional teams function and about the outcomes of interprofessional teamwork. Realist synthesis is an approach to reviewing research evidence on complex interventions which seeks to explore these assumptions. It does this by unpacking the mechanisms of an intervention, exploring the contexts which trigger or deactivate them and connecting these contexts and mechanisms to their subsequent outcomes. This is the second in a series of four papers reporting a realist synthesis of interprofessional teamworking. The paper discusses four of the 13 mechanisms identified in the synthesis: collaboration and coordination; pooling of resources; individual learning; and role blurring. These mechanisms together capture the day-to-day functioning of teams and the dependence of that on members' understanding each others' skills and knowledge and learning from them. This synthesis found empirical evidence to support all four mechanisms, which tentatively suggests that collaboration, pooling, learning, and role blurring are all underlying processes of interprofessional teamwork. However, the supporting evidence for individual learning was relatively weak, therefore there may be assumptions made about learning within healthcare literature and policy that are not founded upon strong empirical evidence. There is a need for more robust research on individual learning to further understand its relationship with interprofessional teamworking in healthcare.

  12. Keeping It Real: How Realistic Does Realistic Fiction for Children Need to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    O'Connor, an author of realistic fiction for children, shares her attempts to strike a balance between carefree, uncensored, authentic, realistic writing and age-appropriate writing. Of course, complicating that balancing act is the fact that what seems age-appropriate to her might not seem so to everyone. O'Connor suggests that while it may be…

  13. Keeping It Real: How Realistic Does Realistic Fiction for Children Need to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    O'Connor, an author of realistic fiction for children, shares her attempts to strike a balance between carefree, uncensored, authentic, realistic writing and age-appropriate writing. Of course, complicating that balancing act is the fact that what seems age-appropriate to her might not seem so to everyone. O'Connor suggests that while it may be…

  14. Transdermal drug delivery using microemulsion and aqueous systems: influence of skin storage conditions on the in vitro permeability of diclofenac from aqueous vehicle systems.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Amnon C; Botner, Shafir

    2006-03-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the transdermal delivery potential of diclofenac-containing microemulsion system in vivo and in vitro. It was found that the transdermal administration of the microemulsion to rats resulted in 8-fold higher drug plasma levels than those obtained after application of Voltaren Emulgel. After s.c. administration (3.5 mg/kg), the plasma levels of diclofenac reached a peak of 0.94 microg/ml at t=1 h and decreased rapidly to 0.19 microg/ml at t=6 h, while transdermal administration of the drug in microemulsion maintained constant levels of 0.7-0.9 microg/ml for at least 8 h. The transdermal fluxes of diclofenac were measured in vitro using skin excised from different animal species. In three rodent species, penetration fluxes of 53.35+/-8.19 (furry mouse), 31.70+/-3.83 (hairless mouse), 31.66+/-4.45 (rat), and 22.89+/-6.23 microg/cm(2)/h (hairless guinea pig) were obtained following the application of the microemulsion. These fluxes were significantly higher than those obtained by application of the drug in aqueous solution. In contrast to these results, a 'flip-flop' phenomenon was observed when frozen porcine skin (but not fresh skin) was significantly more permeable to diclofenac-in-water than to the drug-in-microemulsion. In fact, the drug penetration from the microemulsion was not affected by the skin storage conditions, but it was increased when an aqueous solution was applied. However, this unusual phenomenon observed in non-freshly used porcine skin places a question mark on its relevancy for in vitro penetration studies involving aqueous vehicle systems.

  15. Making a Literature Methods Course "Realistic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William J.

    Recognizing that it can be a challenge to make an undergraduate literature methods course realistic, a methods instructor at a Michigan university has developed three major and several minor activities that have proven effective in preparing pre-student teachers for the "real world" of teaching and, at the same time, have been challenging and…

  16. Wiskobas and Freudenthal: Realistic Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffers, A.

    1993-01-01

    Freudenthal was the founder of realistic mathematics education, in which reality serves as a source of applications and learning. Takes a newspaper article about reproducing a Van Gogh painting using plants in a field to exemplify a rich context problem containing elements of all areas of elementary school mathematics. (MDH)

  17. Faculty Development for Educators: A Realist Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorinola, Olanrewaju O.; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Davies, David; Peile, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities for educators in UK medical schools remains underexplored. This study used a realist approach to evaluate FD and to test the hypothesis that motivation, engagement and perception are key mechanisms of effective FD activities. The authors observed and interviewed 33 course participants at one…

  18. Realistic Planning for the Day Care Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlen, Arthur C.

    This paper questions public attitudes of disparagement toward child care that is privately arranged in neighborhood homes, and cites research to show that the widespread non-use of organized facilities is based on realistic alternative patterns of day care behavior. Some determinants of day care use are discussed, and an understanding of…

  19. A Look at Young Children's Realistic Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Jane M.; Wickersham, Elaine B.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes recent realistic fiction for children produced in the United States in terms of ethnicity, stereotyped behavior, and themes. Concludes that the sample did not reflect equivalent treatment of males and females nor the culturally pluralistic makeup of U.S. society. Provides an annotated bibliography of the books analyzed. (Author/FL)

  20. Making a Literature Methods Course "Realistic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William J.

    Recognizing that it can be a challenge to make an undergraduate literature methods course realistic, a methods instructor at a Michigan university has developed three major and several minor activities that have proven effective in preparing pre-student teachers for the "real world" of teaching and, at the same time, have been challenging and…

  1. A Look at Young Children's Realistic Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Jane M.; Wickersham, Elaine B.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes recent realistic fiction for children produced in the United States in terms of ethnicity, stereotyped behavior, and themes. Concludes that the sample did not reflect equivalent treatment of males and females nor the culturally pluralistic makeup of U.S. society. Provides an annotated bibliography of the books analyzed. (Author/FL)

  2. Improving Intuition Skills with Realistic Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirza, Bonita; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim; Zulkardi

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the present study was to see the improvement of students' intuitive skills. This improvement was seen by comparing the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME)-based instruction with the conventional mathematics instruction. The subject of this study was 164 fifth graders of elementary school in Palembang. The design of this study…

  3. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  4. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  5. Satellite Maps Deliver More Realistic Gaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    When Redwood City, California-based Electronic Arts (EA) decided to make SSX, its latest snowboarding video game, it faced challenges in creating realistic-looking mountains. The solution was NASA's ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map, made available by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which EA used to create 28 real-life mountains from 9 different ranges for its award-winning game.

  6. More Realistic Face Model Surface Improves Relevance of Pediatric In-Vitro Aerosol Studies.

    PubMed

    Amirav, Israel; Halamish, Asaf; Gorenberg, Miguel; Omar, Hamza; Newhouse, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Various hard face models are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of aerosol face masks. Softer more realistic "face" surface materials, like skin, deform upon mask application and should provide more relevant in-vitro tests. Studies that simultaneously take into consideration many of the factors characteristic of the in vivo face are lacking. These include airways, various application forces, comparison of various devices, comparison with a hard-surface model and use of a more representative model face based on large numbers of actual faces. To compare mask to "face" seal and aerosol delivery of two pediatric masks using a soft vs. a hard, appropriately representative, pediatric face model under various applied forces. Two identical face models and upper airways replicas were constructed, the only difference being the suppleness and compressibility of the surface layer of the "face." Integrity of the seal and aerosol delivery of two different masks [AeroChamber (AC) and SootherMask (SM)] were compared using a breath simulator, filter collection and realistic applied forces. The soft "face" significantly increased the delivery efficiency and the sealing characteristics of both masks. Aerosol delivery with the soft "face" was significantly greater for the SM compared to the AC (p< 0.01). No statistically significant difference between the two masks was observed with the hard "face." The material and pliability of the model "face" surface has a significant influence on both the seal and delivery efficiency of face masks. This finding should be taken into account during in-vitro aerosol studies.

  7. Simulation of human ischemic stroke in realistic 3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Thierry; Duarte, Max; Descombes, Stéphane; Dronne, Marie-Aimée; Massot, Marc; Louvet, Violaine

    2013-06-01

    In silico research in medicine is thought to reduce the need for expensive clinical trials under the condition of reliable mathematical models and accurate and efficient numerical methods. In the present work, we tackle the numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion equations modeling human ischemic stroke. This problem induces peculiar difficulties like potentially large stiffness which stems from the broad spectrum of temporal scales in the nonlinear chemical source term as well as from the presence of steep spatial gradients in the reaction fronts, spatially very localized. Furthermore, simulations on realistic 3D geometries are mandatory in order to describe correctly this type of phenomenon. The main goal of this article is to obtain, for the first time, 3D simulations on realistic geometries and to show that the simulation results are consistent with those obtain in experimental studies or observed on MRI images in stroke patients. For this purpose, we introduce a new resolution strategy based mainly on time operator splitting that takes into account complex geometry coupled with a well-conceived parallelization strategy for shared memory architectures. We consider then a high order implicit time integration for the reaction and an explicit one for the diffusion term in order to build a time operator splitting scheme that exploits efficiently the special features of each problem. Thus, we aim at solving complete and realistic models including all time and space scales with conventional computing resources, that is on a reasonably powerful workstation. Consequently and as expected, 2D and also fully 3D numerical simulations of ischemic strokes for a realistic brain geometry, are conducted for the first time and shown to reproduce the dynamics observed on MRI images in stroke patients. Beyond this major step, in order to improve accuracy and computational efficiency of the simulations, we indicate how the present numerical strategy can be coupled with spatial

  8. Coping with changing conditions: alternative strategies for the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning services in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Routh, S.; el Arifeen, S.; Jahan, S. A.; Begum, A.; Thwin, A. A.; Baqui, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    The door-to-door distribution of contraceptives and information on maternal and child health and family planning (MCH-FP) services, through bimonthly visits to eligible couples by trained fieldworkers, has been instrumental in increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate and immunization coverage in Bangladesh. The doorstep delivery strategy, however, is labour-intensive and costly. More cost-effective service delivery strategies are needed, not only for family planning services but also for a broader package of reproductive and other essential health services. Against this backdrop, operations research was conducted by the Centre for Health and Population Research at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) from January 1996 to May 1997, in collaboration with government agencies and a leading national nongovernmental organization, with a view to developing and field-testing alternative approaches to the delivery of MCH-FP services in urban areas. Two alternative strategies featuring the withdrawal of home-based distribution and the delivery of basic health care from fixed-site facilities were tested in two areas of Dhaka. The clinic-based service delivery strategy was found to be a feasible alternative to the resource-intensive doorstep system in urban Dhaka. It did not adversely affect programme performance and it allowed the needs of clients to be addressed holistically through a package of essential health and family planning services. PMID:11242821

  9. Coping with changing conditions: alternative strategies for the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning services in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Routh, S; el Arifeen, S; Jahan, S A; Begum, A; Thwin, A A; Baqui, A H

    2001-01-01

    The door-to-door distribution of contraceptives and information on maternal and child health and family planning (MCH-FP) services, through bimonthly visits to eligible couples by trained fieldworkers, has been instrumental in increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate and immunization coverage in Bangladesh. The doorstep delivery strategy, however, is labour-intensive and costly. More cost-effective service delivery strategies are needed, not only for family planning services but also for a broader package of reproductive and other essential health services. Against this backdrop, operations research was conducted by the Centre for Health and Population Research at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) from January 1996 to May 1997, in collaboration with government agencies and a leading national nongovernmental organization, with a view to developing and field-testing alternative approaches to the delivery of MCH-FP services in urban areas. Two alternative strategies featuring the withdrawal of home-based distribution and the delivery of basic health care from fixed-site facilities were tested in two areas of Dhaka. The clinic-based service delivery strategy was found to be a feasible alternative to the resource-intensive doorstep system in urban Dhaka. It did not adversely affect programme performance and it allowed the needs of clients to be addressed holistically through a package of essential health and family planning services.

  10. UAV based distributed ATR under realistic simulated environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Gong, Shanshan; Schmid, Natalia A.; Valenti, Matthew C.

    2007-04-01

    Over the past several years, the military has grown increasingly reliant upon the use of unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance missions. There is an increasing trend towards fielding swarms of UAVs operating as large-scale sensor networks in the air. Such systems tend to be used primarily for the purpose of acquiring sensory data with the goal of automatic detection, identification, and tracking objects of interest. These trends have been paralleled by advances in both distributed detection, image/signal processing and data fusion techniques. Furthermore, swarmed UAV systems must operate under severe constraints on environmental conditions and sensor limitations. In this work, we investigate the effects of environmental conditions on target detection and recognition performance in a UAV network. We assume that each UAV is equipped with an optical camera, and use a realistic computer simulation to generate synthetic images. The detection algorithm relies on Haar-based features while the automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm relies on Bessel K features. The performance of both algorithms is evaluated using simulated images that closely mimic data acquired in a UAV network under realistic environmental conditions. We design several fusion techniques and analyze both the case of a single observation and the case of multiple observations of the same target.

  11. Regularization techniques in realistic Laplacian computation.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Radoslav; Sovka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores regularization options for the ill-posed spline coefficient equations in the realistic Laplacian computation. We investigate the use of the Tikhonov regularization, truncated singular value decomposition, and the so-called lambda-correction with the regularization parameter chosen by the L-curve, generalized cross-validation, quasi-optimality, and the discrepancy principle criteria. The provided range of regularization techniques is much wider than in the previous works. The improvement of the realistic Laplacian is investigated by simulations on the three-shell spherical head model. The conclusion is that the best performance is provided by the combination of the Tikhonov regularization and the generalized cross-validation criterion-a combination that has never been suggested for this task before.

  12. Spectral tunability of realistic plasmonic nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Portela, Alejandro; Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi; Yano, Takaaki; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Hara, Masahiko; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2014-09-01

    Single nanoantenna spectroscopy was carried out on realistic dipole nanoantennas with various arm lengths and gap sizes fabricated by electron-beam lithography. A significant difference in resonance wavelength between realistic and ideal nanoantennas was found by comparing their spectral response. Consequently, the spectral tunability (96 nm) of the structures was significantly lower than that of simulated ideal nanoantennas. These observations, attributed to the nanofabrication process, are related to imperfections in the geometry, added metal adhesion layer, and shape modifications, which are analyzed in this work. Our results provide important information for the design of dipole nanoantennas clarifying the role of the structural modifications on the resonance spectra, as supported by calculations.

  13. Realistic molecular model of kerogen's nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousige, Colin; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Vix-Guterl, Cathie; Pomerantz, Andrew E.; Suleimenova, Assiya; Vaughan, Gavin; Garbarino, Gaston; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wildgruber, Christoph; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Coasne, Benoit

    2016-05-01

    Despite kerogen's importance as the organic backbone for hydrocarbon production from source rocks such as gas shale, the interplay between kerogen's chemistry, morphology and mechanics remains unexplored. As the environmental impact of shale gas rises, identifying functional relations between its geochemical, transport, elastic and fracture properties from realistic molecular models of kerogens becomes all the more important. Here, by using a hybrid experimental-simulation method, we propose a panel of realistic molecular models of mature and immature kerogens that provide a detailed picture of kerogen's nanostructure without considering the presence of clays and other minerals in shales. We probe the models' strengths and limitations, and show that they predict essential features amenable to experimental validation, including pore distribution, vibrational density of states and stiffness. We also show that kerogen's maturation, which manifests itself as an increase in the sp2/sp3 hybridization ratio, entails a crossover from plastic-to-brittle rupture mechanisms.

  14. Realistic molecular model of kerogen's nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Bousige, Colin; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Vix-Guterl, Cathie; Pomerantz, Andrew E; Suleimenova, Assiya; Vaughan, Gavin; Garbarino, Gaston; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wildgruber, Christoph; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Coasne, Benoit

    2016-05-01

    Despite kerogen's importance as the organic backbone for hydrocarbon production from source rocks such as gas shale, the interplay between kerogen's chemistry, morphology and mechanics remains unexplored. As the environmental impact of shale gas rises, identifying functional relations between its geochemical, transport, elastic and fracture properties from realistic molecular models of kerogens becomes all the more important. Here, by using a hybrid experimental-simulation method, we propose a panel of realistic molecular models of mature and immature kerogens that provide a detailed picture of kerogen's nanostructure without considering the presence of clays and other minerals in shales. We probe the models' strengths and limitations, and show that they predict essential features amenable to experimental validation, including pore distribution, vibrational density of states and stiffness. We also show that kerogen's maturation, which manifests itself as an increase in the sp(2)/sp(3) hybridization ratio, entails a crossover from plastic-to-brittle rupture mechanisms.

  15. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St Aldates Oxford OX1 3LB England phone... Oxford University ,Pembroke College,St Aldates,Oxford OX1 3LB England, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...in my group. REFERENCES Clarke, L. (1999) Rogue Thermocouple Detection. MSc Thesis, Mathematical Institute, Oxford University . Hansen J. and L. A

  16. Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    Maintaining Realistic Uncertainty in Model and Forecast Leonard Smith Pembroke College Oxford University St. Aldates Oxford OX1 1DW United Kingdom...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Pembroke College, Oxford University ,,St...evaluation: l-shadowing, probabilistic prediction and weather forecasting. D.Phil Thesis, Oxford University . Lorenz, E. (1995) Predictability-a Partially

  17. A realistic evaluation: the case of protocol-based care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Protocol based care' was envisioned by policy makers as a mechanism for delivering on the service improvement agenda in England. Realistic evaluation is an increasingly popular approach, but few published examples exist, particularly in implementation research. To fill this gap, within this paper we describe the application of a realistic evaluation approach to the study of protocol-based care, whilst sharing findings of relevance about standardising care through the use of protocols, guidelines, and pathways. Methods Situated between positivism and relativism, realistic evaluation is concerned with the identification of underlying causal mechanisms, how they work, and under what conditions. Fundamentally it focuses attention on finding out what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Results In this research, we were interested in understanding the relationships between the type and nature of particular approaches to protocol-based care (mechanisms), within different clinical settings (context), and what impacts this resulted in (outcomes). An evidence review using the principles of realist synthesis resulted in a number of propositions, i.e., context, mechanism, and outcome threads (CMOs). These propositions were then 'tested' through multiple case studies, using multiple methods including non-participant observation, interviews, and document analysis through an iterative analysis process. The initial propositions (conjectured CMOs) only partially corresponded to the findings that emerged during analysis. From the iterative analysis process of scrutinising mechanisms, context, and outcomes we were able to draw out some theoretically generalisable features about what works, for whom, how, and what circumstances in relation to the use of standardised care approaches (refined CMOs). Conclusions As one of the first studies to apply realistic evaluation in implementation research, it was a good fit, particularly given the growing emphasis on

  18. Numerical computation of aeroacoustic transfer functions for realistic airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotto, Renato Fuzaro; Wolf, William Roberto; de Santana, Leandro Dantas

    2017-10-01

    Based on Amiet's theory formalism, we propose a numerical framework to compute the aeroacoustic transfer function of realistic airfoil geometries. The aeroacoustic transfer function relates the amplitude and phase of an incoming periodic gust to the respective unsteady lift response permitting, therefore, the application of Curle's analogy to compute the radiated noise. The methodology is focused on the airfoil leading-edge noise problem being able to also consider the trailing-edge back-scattering and, consequently, airfoil compactness effects. The approach is valid for compressible subsonic flows and the airfoil blade is assumed of large aspect ratio subjected to three-dimensional periodic gusts with supersonic velocity trace at the airfoil leading edge (i.e. supercritical gusts). This work proposes the iterative application of the boundary element method to numerically solve the boundary value problem prescribed by the linearized airfoil theory. Details of the numerical implementation are discussed and include the application of boundary conditions in different steps of the iterative procedure, treatment of derivatives in the implementation of the Kutta condition and accurate representation of singularities present at the leading- and trailing-edges. This study validates the numerical approach by comparing results with Amiet's theory obtained analytically. Subsequently, effects of realistic airfoil geometries on the leading-edge airfoil radiated noise are presented.

  19. Realistic inflation models and primordial gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Mansoor Ur

    We investigate both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric realistic models of inflation. In non-supersymmetric models, inflation is successfully realized by employing both Coleman Weinberg and Higgs potentials in GUTs such as SU(5) and SO(10). The quantum smearing of tree level predictions is discussed in the Higgs inflation. These quantum corrections can arise from the inflaton couplings to other particles such as GUT scalars. As a result of including these corrections, a reduction in the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, a canonical measure of gravity waves produced during inflation, is observed. In a simple phi4 chaotic model, we reconsider a non-minimal (xi > 0) gravitationalcoupling of inflaton φ arising from the interaction xi R phi2, where R is the Ricci scalar. In estimating bounds on various inflationaryparameters we also include quantum corrections. We emphasize that while working with high precision observations such as the current Planck satellite experiment we cannot ignore these radiative and gravitational corrections in analyzing the predictions of various inflationary models. In supersymmetric hybrid inflation with minimal Kahler potential, the soft SUSY breaking terms are shown to play an important role in realizing inflation consistent with the latest WMAP data. The SUSY hybrid models which we consider here predict exceedingly small values of r. However, to obtain observable gravity waves the non-minimal Kahler potential turns out to be a necessary ingredient. A realistic model of flipped SU(5) model, which benefits from the absence of topological defects, is considered in the standard SUSY hybrid inflation. We also present a discussion of shifted hybrid inflation in a realistic model of SUSY SU(5) GUT.

  20. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  1. Anderson localization for chemically realistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Disorder which is ubiquitous for most materials can strongly effect their properties. It may change their electronic structures or even cause their localization, known as Anderson localization. Although, substantial progress has been achieved in the description of the Anderson localization, a proper mean-field theory of this phenomenon for more realistic systems remains elusive. Commonly used theoretical methods such as the coherent potential approximation and its cluster extensions fail to describe the Anderson transition, as the average density of states (DOS) employed in such theories is not critical at the transition. However, near the transition, due to the spatial confinement of carriers, the local DOS becomes highly skewed with a log-normal distribution, for which the most probable and the typical values differ noticeably from the average value. Dobrosavljevic et.al., incorporated such ideas in their typical medium theory (TMT), and showed that the typical (not average) DOS is critical at the transition. While the TMT is able to capture the localized states, as a local single site theory it still has several drawbacks. For the disorder Anderson model in three dimension it underestimates the critical disorder strength, and fails to capture the re-entrance behavior of the mobility edge. We have recently developed a cluster extension of the TMT, which addresses these drawbacks by systematically incorporating non-local corrections. This approach converges quickly with cluster size and allows us to incorporate the effect of interactions and realistic electronic structure. As the first steps towards realistic material modeling, we extended our TMDCA formalisms to systems with the off diagonal disorder and multiple bands structures. We also applied our TMDCA scheme to systems with both disorder and interactions and found that correlations effects tend to stabilize the metallic behavior even in two dimensions. This work was supported by DOE SciDAC Grant No. DE-FC02

  2. Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-15

    Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.

  3. Adiabatic Hyperspherical Analysis of Realistic Nuclear Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, K. M.; Kievsky, Alejandro; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-12-01

    Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin T = 3/2 contribution in our analysis.

  4. A realistic renormalizable supersymmetric E₆ model

    SciTech Connect

    Bajc, Borut; Susič, Vasja

    2014-01-01

    A complete realistic model based on the supersymmetric version of E₆ is presented. It consists of three copies of matter 27, and a Higgs sector made of 2×(27+27⁻)+351´+351´⁻ representations. An analytic solution to the equations of motion is found which spontaneously breaks the gauge group into the Standard Model. The light fermion mass matrices are written down explicitly as non-linear functions of three Yukawa matrices. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  5. How outcomes are achieved through patient portals: a realist review.

    PubMed

    Otte-Trojel, Terese; de Bont, Antoinette; Rundall, Thomas G; van de Klundert, Joris

    2014-01-01

    To examine how patient portals contribute to health service delivery and patient outcomes. The specific aims were to examine how outcomes are produced, and how variations in outcomes can be explained. We used a realist review method, which aims to describe how 'an intervention works, for whom, and in what circumstances' by analyzing patterns between context, mechanism, and outcomes. We reviewed 32 evaluation studies of patient portals published since 2003. The reviewed evaluations indicate that as a complement to existing health services, patient portals can lead to improvements in clinical outcomes, patient behavior, and experiences. Four different mechanisms are reported to yield the reported outcome improvements. These are patient insight into personal health information, activation of information, interpersonal continuity of care, and service convenience. The vast majority of evaluations were conducted in integrated health service networks in the USA, and we detected no substantial variation in outcomes across these networks. Patient portals may impact clinical outcomes and health service delivery through multiple mechanisms. Given the relative uniformity of evaluation contexts, we were not able to detect patterns in how patient portals work in different contexts. Nonetheless, it appears from the overwhelming proportion of patient portal evaluations coming from integrated health service networks, that these networks provide more fertile contexts for patient portals to be effective. To improve the understanding of how patient portals work, future evaluations of patient portals should capture information about mechanisms and context that influence their outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Realistic Ground Motion Scenarios: Methodological Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nunziata, C.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E.; Panza, G. F.

    2008-07-08

    The definition of realistic seismic input can be obtained from the computation of a wide set of time histories, corresponding to possible seismotectonic scenarios. The propagation of the waves in the bedrock from the source to the local laterally varying structure is computed with the modal summation technique, while in the laterally heterogeneous structure the finite difference method is used. The definition of shear wave velocities within the soil cover is obtained from the non-linear inversion of the dispersion curve of group velocities of Rayleigh waves, artificially or naturally generated. Information about the possible focal mechanisms of the sources can be obtained from historical seismicity, based on earthquake catalogues and inversion of isoseismal maps. In addition, morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition of seismogenic nodes is useful to identify areas prone to strong earthquakes, based on the combined analysis of topographic, tectonic, geological maps and satellite photos. We show that the quantitative knowledge of regional geological structures and the computation of realistic ground motion can be a powerful tool for a preventive definition of the seismic hazard in Italy. Then, the formulation of reliable building codes, based on the evaluation of the main potential earthquakes, will have a great impact on the effective reduction of the seismic vulnerability of Italian urban areas, validating or improving the national building code.

  7. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  8. Realistic affective forecasting: The role of personality.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Ben; Duberstein, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Affective forecasting often drives decision-making. Although affective forecasting research has often focused on identifying sources of error at the event level, the present investigation draws upon the "realistic paradigm" in seeking to identify factors that similarly influence predicted and actual emotions, explaining their concordance across individuals. We hypothesised that the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion would account for variation in both predicted and actual emotional reactions to a wide array of stimuli and events (football games, an election, Valentine's Day, birthdays, happy/sad film clips, and an intrusive interview). As hypothesised, individuals who were more introverted and neurotic anticipated, correctly, that they would experience relatively more unpleasant emotional reactions, and those who were more extraverted and less neurotic anticipated, correctly, that they would experience relatively more pleasant emotional reactions. Personality explained 30% of the concordance between predicted and actual emotional reactions. Findings suggest three purported personality processes implicated in affective forecasting, highlight the importance of individual-differences research in this domain, and call for more research on realistic affective forecasts.

  9. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  10. A realist evaluation of the role of communities of practice in changing healthcare practice.

    PubMed

    Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Cunningham, Frances C; Plumb, Jennifer J; Long, Janet; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2011-05-23

    Healthcare organisations seeking to manage knowledge and improve organisational performance are increasingly investing in communities of practice (CoPs). Such investments are being made in the absence of empirical evidence demonstrating the impact of CoPs in improving the delivery of healthcare. A realist evaluation is proposed to address this knowledge gap. Underpinned by the principle that outcomes are determined by the context in which an intervention is implemented, a realist evaluation is well suited to understand the role of CoPs in improving healthcare practice. By applying a realist approach, this study will explore the following questions: What outcomes do CoPs achieve in healthcare? Do these outcomes translate into improved practice in healthcare? What are the contexts and mechanisms by which CoPs improve healthcare? The realist evaluation will be conducted by developing, testing, and refining theories on how, why, and when CoPs improve healthcare practice. When collecting data, context will be defined as the setting in which the CoP operates; mechanisms will be the factors and resources that the community offers to influence a change in behaviour or action; and outcomes will be defined as a change in behaviour or work practice that occurs as a result of accessing resources provided by the CoP. Realist evaluation is being used increasingly to study social interventions where context plays an important role in determining outcomes. This study further enhances the value of realist evaluations by incorporating a social network analysis component to quantify the structural context associated with CoPs. By identifying key mechanisms and contexts that optimise the effectiveness of CoPs, this study will contribute to creating a framework that will guide future establishment and evaluation of CoPs in healthcare.

  11. Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Akşit, Kaan; Niaki, Amir Hossein Ghanbari; Ulusoy, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2014-12-15

    Two well-known problems of stereoscopic displays are the accommodation-convergence conflict and the lack of natural blur for defocused objects. We present a new technique that we name Super Stereoscopy (SS3D) to provide a convenient solution to these problems. Regular stereoscopic glasses are replaced by SS3D glasses which deliver at least two parallax images per eye through pinholes equipped with light selective filters. The pinholes generate blur-free retinal images so as to enable correct accommodation, while the delivery of multiple parallax images per eye creates an approximate blur effect for defocused objects. Experiments performed with cameras and human viewers indicate that the technique works as desired. In case two, pinholes equipped with color filters per eye are used; the technique can be used on a regular stereoscopic display by only uploading a new content, without requiring any change in display hardware, driver, or frame rate. Apart from some tolerable loss in display brightness and decrease in natural spatial resolution limit of the eye because of pinholes, the technique is quite promising for comfortable and realistic 3D vision, especially enabling the display of close objects that are not possible to display and comfortably view on regular 3DTV and cinema.

  12. 43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valid headgate deliveries. 418.11 Section... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.11 Valid headgate deliveries. The valid water deliveries at the headgate... accordance with §§ 418.8 and 418.10. The District will regularly monitor all water deliveries and report...

  13. 43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valid headgate deliveries. 418.11 Section... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.11 Valid headgate deliveries. The valid water deliveries at the headgate... accordance with §§ 418.8 and 418.10. The District will regularly monitor all water deliveries and report...

  14. Unlicensed assistive personnel retention and realistic job previews.

    PubMed

    Kupperschmidt, Betty R

    2002-01-01

    There is a rich literature addressing employee turnover and retention. Research demonstrates that realistic job previews increase employee retention by fostering development of realistic job expectations that match job and organization requirements. Realistic job previews use may be an effective strategy to decrease unlicensed assistive personnel turnover and increase retention.$

  15. Scaling up complex interventions: insights from a realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    Willis, Cameron D; Riley, Barbara L; Stockton, Lisa; Abramowicz, Aneta; Zummach, Dana; Wong, Geoff; Robinson, Kerry L; Best, Allan

    2016-12-19

    Preventing chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, requires complex interventions, involving multi-component and multi-level efforts that are tailored to the contexts in which they are delivered. Despite an increasing number of complex interventions in public health, many fail to be 'scaled up'. This study aimed to increase understanding of how and under what conditions complex public health interventions may be scaled up to benefit more people and populations.A realist synthesis was conducted and discussed at an in-person workshop involving practitioners responsible for scaling up activities. Realist approaches view causality through the linkages between changes in contexts (C) that activate mechanisms (M), leading to specific outcomes (O) (CMO configurations). To focus this review, three cases of complex interventions that had been successfully scaled up were included: Vibrant Communities, Youth Build USA and Pathways to Education. A search strategy of published and grey literature related to each case was developed, involving searches of relevant databases and nominations from experts. Data extracted from included documents were classified according to CMO configurations within strategic themes. Findings were compared and contrasted with guidance from diffusion theory, and interpreted with knowledge users to identify practical implications and potential directions for future research.Four core mechanisms were identified, namely awareness, commitment, confidence and trust. These mechanisms were activated within two broad scaling up strategies, those of renewing and regenerating, and documenting success. Within each strategy, specific actions to change contexts included building partnerships, conducting evaluations, engaging political support and adapting funding models. These modified contexts triggered the identified mechanisms, leading to a range of scaling up outcomes, such as commitment of new communities, changes in relevant

  16. Mathematical modeling of drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2008-12-08

    Due to the significant advances in information technology mathematical modeling of drug delivery is a field of steadily increasing academic and industrial importance with an enormous future potential. The in silico optimization of novel drug delivery systems can be expected to significantly increase in accuracy and easiness of application. Analogous to other scientific disciplines, computer simulations are likely to become an integral part of future research and development in pharmaceutical technology. Mathematical programs can be expected to be routinely used to help optimizing the design of novel dosage forms. Good estimates for the required composition, geometry, dimensions and preparation procedure of various types of delivery systems will be available, taking into account the desired administration route, drug dose and release profile. Thus, the number of required experimental studies during product development can be significantly reduced, saving time and reducing costs. In addition, the quantitative analysis of the physical, chemical and potentially biological phenomena, which are involved in the control of drug release, offers another fundamental advantage: The underlying drug release mechanisms can be elucidated, which is not only of academic interest, but a pre-requisite for an efficient improvement of the safety of the pharmaco-treatments and for effective trouble-shooting during production. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art of mathematical modeling of drug delivery, including empirical/semi-empirical and mechanistic realistic models. Analytical as well as numerical solutions are described and various practical examples are given. One of the major challenges to be addressed in the future is the combination of mechanistic theories describing drug release out of the delivery systems with mathematical models quantifying the subsequent drug transport within the human body in a realistic way. Ideally, the effects of the design

  17. Atomic level insights into realistic molecular models of dendrimer-drug complexes through MD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Maiti, Prabal K.; Bharatam, Prasad V.

    2016-09-01

    Computational studies performed on dendrimer-drug complexes usually consider 1:1 stoichiometry, which is far from reality, since in experiments more number of drug molecules get encapsulated inside a dendrimer. In the present study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were implemented to characterize the more realistic molecular models of dendrimer-drug complexes (1:n stoichiometry) in order to understand the effect of high drug loading on the structural properties and also to unveil the atomistic level details. For this purpose, possible inclusion complexes of model drug Nateglinide (Ntg) (antidiabetic, belongs to Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II) with amine- and acetyl-terminated G4 poly(amidoamine) (G4 PAMAM(NH2) and G4 PAMAM(Ac)) dendrimers at neutral and low pH conditions are explored in this work. MD simulation analysis on dendrimer-drug complexes revealed that the drug encapsulation efficiency of G4 PAMAM(NH2) and G4 PAMAM(Ac) dendrimers at neutral pH was 6 and 5, respectively, while at low pH it was 12 and 13, respectively. Center-of-mass distance analysis showed that most of the drug molecules are located in the interior hydrophobic pockets of G4 PAMAM(NH2) at both the pH; while in the case of G4 PAMAM(Ac), most of them are distributed near to the surface at neutral pH and in the interior hydrophobic pockets at low pH. Structural properties such as radius of gyration, shape, radial density distribution, and solvent accessible surface area of dendrimer-drug complexes were also assessed and compared with that of the drug unloaded dendrimers. Further, binding energy calculations using molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area approach revealed that the location of drug molecules in the dendrimer is not the decisive factor for the higher and lower binding affinity of the complex, but the charged state of dendrimer and drug, intermolecular interactions, pH-induced conformational changes, and surface groups of dendrimer do play an

  18. Diffusive and dynamical radiating stars with realistic equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassel, Byron P.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2017-03-01

    We model the dynamics of a spherically symmetric radiating dynamical star with three spacetime regions. The local internal atmosphere is a two-component system consisting of standard pressure-free, null radiation and an additional string fluid with energy density and nonzero pressure obeying all physically realistic energy conditions. The middle region is purely radiative which matches to a third region which is the Schwarzschild exterior. A large family of solutions to the field equations are presented for various realistic equations of state. We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain solutions via a direct integration of the second order equations resulting from the assumption of an equation of state. A comparison of our solutions with earlier well known results is undertaken and we show that all these solutions, including those of Husain, are contained in our family. We then generalise our class of solutions to higher dimensions. Finally we consider the effects of diffusive transport and transparently derive the specific equations of state for which this diffusive behaviour is possible.

  19. Toward the classification of the realistic free fermionic models

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-08-01

    The realistic free fermionic models have had remarkable success in providing plausible explanations for various properties of the Standard Model which include the natural appearance of three generations, the explanation of the heavy top quark mass and the qualitative structure of the fermion mass spectrum in general, the stability of the proton and more. These intriguing achievements makes evident the need to understand the general space of these models. While the number of possibilities is large, general patterns can be extracted. In this paper the author presents a detailed discussion on the construction of the realistic free fermionic models with the aim of providing some insight into the basic structures and building blocks that enter the construction. The role of free phases in the determination of the phenomenology of the models is discussed in detail. The author discusses the connection between the free phases and mirror symmetry in (2,2) models and the corresponding symmetries in the case of (2,0) models. The importance of the free phases in determining the effective low energy phenomenology is illustrated in several examples. The classification of the models in terms of boundary condition selection rules, real world-sheet fermion pairings, exotic matter states and the hidden sector is discussed.

  20. Novel high-fidelity realistic explosion damage simulation for urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob; Zhu, Youding; Raju, Chaitanya; Bhagavathula, Jaya

    2010-04-01

    Realistic building damage simulation has a significant impact in modern modeling and simulation systems especially in diverse panoply of military and civil applications where these simulation systems are widely used for personnel training, critical mission planning, disaster management, etc. Realistic building damage simulation should incorporate accurate physics-based explosion models, rubble generation, rubble flyout, and interactions between flying rubble and their surrounding entities. However, none of the existing building damage simulation systems sufficiently faithfully realize the criteria of realism required for effective military applications. In this paper, we present a novel physics-based high-fidelity and runtime efficient explosion simulation system to realistically simulate destruction to buildings. In the proposed system, a family of novel blast models is applied to accurately and realistically simulate explosions based on static and/or dynamic detonation conditions. The system also takes account of rubble pile formation and applies a generic and scalable multi-component based object representation to describe scene entities and highly scalable agent-subsumption architecture and scheduler to schedule clusters of sequential and parallel events. The proposed system utilizes a highly efficient and scalable tetrahedral decomposition approach to realistically simulate rubble formation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically simulate rubble generation, rubble flyout and their primary and secondary impacts on surrounding objects including buildings, constructions, vehicles and pedestrians in clusters of sequential and parallel damage events.

  1. Theoretical and applied research on bistable dual-piezoelectric-cantilever vibration energy harvesting toward realistic ambience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Leng, Y.; Javey, A.; Tan, D.; Liu, J.; Fan, S.; Lai, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Pink noise, which is similar to realistic ambient noise, is normally used to simulate ambience where a piezoelectric energy harvesting system (PEHS) is set up. However, pink noise with standard spectral representation can only be used to simulate excitations assumed to possess constant intensity, whereas realistic ambient noise normally appears with a random spectrum and varying intensity in terms of different locations and time. The output performance of conventional bistable magnetic repulsive energy harvesters is significantly affected by the ambience intensity. Considering this fact, a model bistable dual-piezoelectric-cantilever energy harvester (DPEH) is developed in this study to achieve optimal broadband energy harvesting under a varying-intensity realistic circumstance. We utilized various realistic ambient conditions as excitations to obtain the DPEH energy harvesting performance for theoretical and applied study. The elastically supported PEHS has been proven to be more adaptive to realistic ambience with significant or medium intensity variation, but is less qualified for realistic ambience with constant intensity compared with the rigidly supported PEHS (RPEHS). Fortunately, the dual-piezoelectric-cantilever energy harvesting system is superior to the RPEHS under all circumstances because the dual-piezoelectric cantilevers are efficiently utilized for electromechanical energy conversion to realize optimal energy harvesting.

  2. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

  3. Realistic synthetic observations from radiative transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepferl, Christine; Robitaille, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    When modeling young stars and star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy, it is important to correctly treat the limitations of the data such as finite resolution and sensitivity. In order to study these effects, and to make radiative transfer models directly comparable to real observations, we have developed a Python package that allows post-processing the output of the 3-d Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer code HYPERION (Robitaille 2011 A&A 536, A79, see poster 2S001). With this package, realistic synthetic observations can be generated, modeling the effects of convolution with arbitrary PSFs, transmission curves, finite pixel resolution, noise and reddening. Pipelines can be written to compute synthetic observations that simulate observatories such as the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory. In this poster we describe the package and present examples of such synthetic observations.

  4. Visualizing realistic 3D urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aaron; Chen, Tuolin; Brunig, Michael; Schmidt, Hauke

    2003-05-01

    Visualizing complex urban environments has been an active research topic due to its wide variety of applications in city planning: road construction, emergency facilities planning, and optimal placement of wireless carrier base stations. Traditional 2D visualizations have been around for a long time but they only provide a schematic line-drawing bird's eye view and are sometimes confusing to understand due to the lack of depth information. Early versions of 3D systems have been developed for very expensive graphics workstations which seriously limited the availability. In this paper we describe a 3D visualization system for a desktop PC which integrates multiple resolutions of data and provides a realistic view of the urban environment.

  5. HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF A REALISTIC MAGNETOCONVECTIVE SUNSPOT SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.; Rempel, M.; Duvall, T. L. Jr. E-mail: aaronb@cora.nwra.com E-mail: Thomas.L.Duvall@nasa.gov

    2012-01-01

    We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

  6. Helioseismology of a Realistic Magnetoconvective Sunspot Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.; Rempel, M.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We compare helioseismic travel-time shifts measured from a realistic magnetoconvective sunspot simulation using both helioseismic holography and time-distance helioseismology, and measured from real sunspots observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We find remarkable similarities in the travel-time shifts measured between the methodologies applied and between the simulated and real sunspots. Forward modeling of the travel-time shifts using either Born or ray approximation kernels and the sound-speed perturbations present in the simulation indicates major disagreements with the measured travel-time shifts. These findings do not substantially change with the application of a correction for the reduction of wave amplitudes in the simulated and real sunspots. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for new methods for inferring the subsurface structure of sunspots through helioseismic inversions.

  7. Cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Dresang, Lee T; Leeman, Lawrence

    2012-03-01

    Cesarean delivery rates rose from 20 to 33% of births in the United States from 2006-2009 without an accompanying improvement in neonatal outcomes. The cesarean rate may be safely decreased by increasing vaginal birth after cesarean, encouraging external cephalic version for breech presentation, maintaining operative vaginal delivery skills, and applying stricter criteria for operative intervention in labor dystocia. A variety of cesarean operative techniques are supported by randomized controlled trials. Optimal maternity care outcomes depend on sound medical decision-making, appropriate operative technique and skills, and effective communication between maternity care team members. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. More Realistic Face Model Surface Improves Relevance of Pediatric In-Vitro Aerosol Studies

    PubMed Central

    Amirav, Israel; Halamish, Asaf; Gorenberg, Miguel; Omar, Hamza; Newhouse, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Various hard face models are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of aerosol face masks. Softer more realistic “face” surface materials, like skin, deform upon mask application and should provide more relevant in-vitro tests. Studies that simultaneously take into consideration many of the factors characteristic of the in vivo face are lacking. These include airways, various application forces, comparison of various devices, comparison with a hard-surface model and use of a more representative model face based on large numbers of actual faces. Aim To compare mask to “face” seal and aerosol delivery of two pediatric masks using a soft vs. a hard, appropriately representative, pediatric face model under various applied forces. Methods Two identical face models and upper airways replicas were constructed, the only difference being the suppleness and compressibility of the surface layer of the “face.” Integrity of the seal and aerosol delivery of two different masks [AeroChamber (AC) and SootherMask (SM)] were compared using a breath simulator, filter collection and realistic applied forces. Results The soft “face” significantly increased the delivery efficiency and the sealing characteristics of both masks. Aerosol delivery with the soft “face” was significantly greater for the SM compared to the AC (p< 0.01). No statistically significant difference between the two masks was observed with the hard “face.” Conclusions The material and pliability of the model “face” surface has a significant influence on both the seal and delivery efficiency of face masks. This finding should be taken into account during in-vitro aerosol studies. PMID:26090661

  9. What Is a Cesarean Delivery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOIA Jobs at NICHD Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff Directory Overview Condition Information ... statement from a 2006 NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on Cesarean Delivery by Maternal Request . If ...

  10. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  11. [Forceps delivery--obstetric indications and outcome].

    PubMed

    Wydra, D; Rogoza, A; Szczurowicz, A; Olszewski, J; Tomczyk, P

    1996-07-01

    Authors analysed 170 forceps delivery in comparison to the control group of normal vaginal delivery. We analysed mothers age, obstetrical history, gestational age and duration of labour as well as traumatization, loss of blood and hospitalisation time. Analysed concerned as well the newborns state in the Apgar score its delivery way and newborn injuries. The most frequent indication for the forceps delivery was the imminent foetal asphyxia. The second stage of delivery lasted significantly longer, the blood lost was greater and the hospitalisation prolonged. Newborns presented poorer after-delivery condition measured in the Apgar score.

  12. [Twin delivery].

    PubMed

    Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Equy, Véronique; Thong-Vanh, Catherine; Pons, Jean-Claude; Hoffmann, Pascale

    2006-12-31

    The number of twin pregnancies is still increasing. This should not be assessed only as therapeutic success but also as complex obstetrical challenges. The main difficulties encountered are dystocic presentations, dystocic labours, and cord prolapses. Specific multiple pregnancy dystocias as chin-to-chin interlocking twins and conjoined twins are very rare. Twin delivery is substantially worse when compared with singleton delivery, with increased morbidity and mortality principally involving the second twin. Labour induction is possible, and should be indicated between the 38th and 39th weeks of gestation. Caesarean section should be done easily, especially in case of prematurity or in case of breech presentation for the first twin. Excepting these cases and the usual caesarean section indications, there is no demonstrated superiority of the caesarean section delivery compared to the vaginal delivery. When needed, internal version and/or breech extraction should be done with intact membranes. Active management of the third stage is necessary, due to uterine surdistension easily leading to uterine atonia.

  13. Levels of serum-circulating angiogenic factors within 1 week prior to delivery are closely related to conditions of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and/or fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Sakiko; Minami, Sawako; Mizoguchi, Mika; Yamamoto, Madoka; Yahata, Tamaki; Toujima, Saori; Shiro, Michihisa; Kobayashi, Aya; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2017-09-20

    We aimed to investigate maternal serum angiogenic marker profiles within 1 week prior to delivery in cases of gestational hypertension (GH), pre-eclampsia (PE), and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR) with different clinical conditions. We enrolled 165 women with singleton pregnancy. The participants were classified based on three characteristics: (i) proteinuria (GH and PE); (ii) FGR (PE with FGR [PE + FGR], PE alone, and FGR alone); and (iii) onset (early onset PE [EO PE] and late-onset PE [LO PE]). All sera were obtained within 1 week prior to delivery, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sEng), and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (i) In PE, a significantly increased sFlt-1, sEng, and sFlt-1 to PlGF ratio (sFlt-1/PlGF) and significantly decreased PlGF were observed compared with GH and Term control, whereas in GH, only sFlt-1/PlGF was significantly higher than Term control. (ii) In PE + FGR, similar changes were more markedly shown compared with PE alone. The FGR alone group exhibited similar tendencies as PE, although significant differences were found in PlGF and sEng levels. (iii) In EO PE, significant changes were observed in all factors compared with LO PE or Term control, while no significant change in PlGF levels was observed between LO PE and Term control. We demonstrated that the levels of circulating angiogenic factors just before delivery are correlated with the severity of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and FGR. Profiling these specific markers may contribute to better understanding of the clinical conditions in individual patients and their pathogenesis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Challenges and solutions for realistic room simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2002-05-01

    Virtual room acoustic simulation (auralization) techniques have traditionally focused on answering questions related to speech intelligibility or musical quality, typically in large volumetric spaces. More recently, auralization techniques have been found to be important for the externalization of headphone-reproduced virtual acoustic images. Although externalization can be accomplished using a minimal simulation, data indicate that realistic auralizations need to be responsive to head motion cues for accurate localization. Computational demands increase when providing for the simulation of coupled spaces, small rooms lacking meaningful reverberant decays, or reflective surfaces in outdoor environments. Auditory threshold data for both early reflections and late reverberant energy levels indicate that much of the information captured in acoustical measurements is inaudible, minimizing the intensive computational requirements of real-time auralization systems. Results are presented for early reflection thresholds as a function of azimuth angle, arrival time, and sound-source type, and reverberation thresholds as a function of reverberation time and level within 250-Hz-2-kHz octave bands. Good agreement is found between data obtained in virtual room simulations and those obtained in real rooms, allowing a strategy for minimizing computational requirements of real-time auralization systems.

  15. Quantifying introgression risk with realistic population genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Atiyo; Meirmans, Patrick G.; Haccou, Patsy

    2012-01-01

    Introgression is the permanent incorporation of genes from the genome of one population into another. This can have severe consequences, such as extinction of endemic species, or the spread of transgenes. Quantification of the risk of introgression is an important component of genetically modified crop regulation. Most theoretical introgression studies aimed at such quantification disregard one or more of the most important factors concerning introgression: realistic genetical mechanisms, repeated invasions and stochasticity. In addition, the use of linkage as a risk mitigation strategy has not been studied properly yet with genetic introgression models. Current genetic introgression studies fail to take repeated invasions and demographic stochasticity into account properly, and use incorrect measures of introgression risk that can be manipulated by arbitrary choices. In this study, we present proper methods for risk quantification that overcome these difficulties. We generalize a probabilistic risk measure, the so-called hazard rate of introgression, for application to introgression models with complex genetics and small natural population sizes. We illustrate the method by studying the effects of linkage and recombination on transgene introgression risk at different population sizes. PMID:23055068

  16. Quantifying introgression risk with realistic population genetics.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Atiyo; Meirmans, Patrick G; Haccou, Patsy

    2012-12-07

    Introgression is the permanent incorporation of genes from the genome of one population into another. This can have severe consequences, such as extinction of endemic species, or the spread of transgenes. Quantification of the risk of introgression is an important component of genetically modified crop regulation. Most theoretical introgression studies aimed at such quantification disregard one or more of the most important factors concerning introgression: realistic genetical mechanisms, repeated invasions and stochasticity. In addition, the use of linkage as a risk mitigation strategy has not been studied properly yet with genetic introgression models. Current genetic introgression studies fail to take repeated invasions and demographic stochasticity into account properly, and use incorrect measures of introgression risk that can be manipulated by arbitrary choices. In this study, we present proper methods for risk quantification that overcome these difficulties. We generalize a probabilistic risk measure, the so-called hazard rate of introgression, for application to introgression models with complex genetics and small natural population sizes. We illustrate the method by studying the effects of linkage and recombination on transgene introgression risk at different population sizes.

  17. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  18. Differentiability of correlations in realistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Alejandro; Faria, Edson de; Pujals, Enrique; Tresser, Charles

    2015-09-15

    We prove a version of Bell’s theorem in which the locality assumption is weakened. We start by assuming theoretical quantum mechanics and weak forms of relativistic causality and of realism (essentially the fact that observable values are well defined independently of whether or not they are measured). Under these hypotheses, we show that only one of the correlation functions that can be formulated in the framework of the usual Bell theorem is unknown. We prove that this unknown function must be differentiable at certain angular configuration points that include the origin. We also prove that, if this correlation is assumed to be twice differentiable at the origin, then we arrive at a version of Bell’s theorem. On the one hand, we are showing that any realistic theory of quantum mechanics which incorporates the kinematic aspects of relativity must lead to this type of rough correlation function that is once but not twice differentiable. On the other hand, this study brings us a single degree of differentiability away from a relativistic von Neumann no hidden variables theorem.

  19. Leadership research in healthcare: A realist review.

    PubMed

    Lega, Federico; Prenestini, Anna; Rosso, Matilde

    2017-05-01

    Being largely considered a human right, healthcare needs leaders who are able to make choices and to set directions. Following the recommendations expressed by Gilmartin and D'Aunno's review and roadmap compiled in 2008, today, it is important to acknowledge researchers' contributions to outline this landscape. The realist review of 77 publications answered questions such as "what works, for whom, and in which circumstances" highlighting: the effectiveness and acceptance of transformational and collaborative approaches; professionalism, expertise, and good task delegation within operational teams; distributed leadership, relationships, and social responsibility at a systemic level. The relevancy and need of leadership development programs, framed within a wider strategy, emerged. Nonetheless, gaps still exist and require further investigation: particular needs in public vs. private contexts; professionals' and women's differentiating characters; generational gaps; associations between leadership and recruitment HR practices research; how (and if) leaders (should) influence the organizational culture and values; and developing countries specific challenges. Also, a greater proportion of relevant findings should be drawn by empirical and more rigorous studies. Finally, a major attention could be paid to interactions happening at the team, organizational, and systemic level among different leaders and among leaders, followers and external actors.

  20. Sialendoscopy Training: Presentation of a Realistic Model.

    PubMed

    Pascoto, Gabriela Robaskewicz; Stamm, Aldo Cassol; Lyra, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several surgical training simulators have been created for residents and young surgeons to gain experience with surgical procedures. Laboratory training is fundamental for acquiring familiarity with the techniques of surgery and skill in handing instruments. Objective The aim of this study is to present a novel simulator for training sialendoscopy. Method This realistic simulator was built with a synthetic thermo-retractile, thermo-sensible rubber which, when combined with different polymers, produces more than 30 different formulas. These formulas present textures, consistencies, and mechanical resistance are similar to many human tissues. Results The authors present a training model to practice sialendoscopy. All aspects of the procedure are simulated: month opening, dilatation of papillae, insert of the scope, visualization of stones, extraction of these stones with grasping or baskets, and finally, stone fragmentation with holmium laser. Conclusion This anatomical model for sialendoscopy training should be considerably useful to abbreviate the learning curve during the qualification of young surgeons while minimizing the consequences of technical errors.

  1. Sialendoscopy Training: Presentation of a Realistic Model

    PubMed Central

    Pascoto, Gabriela Robaskewicz; Stamm, Aldo Cassol; Lyra, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several surgical training simulators have been created for residents and young surgeons to gain experience with surgical procedures. Laboratory training is fundamental for acquiring familiarity with the techniques of surgery and skill in handing instruments. Objective The aim of this study is to present a novel simulator for training sialendoscopy. Method This realistic simulator was built with a synthetic thermo-retractile, thermo-sensible rubber which, when combined with different polymers, produces more than 30 different formulas. These formulas present textures, consistencies, and mechanical resistance are similar to many human tissues. Results The authors present a training model to practice sialendoscopy. All aspects of the procedure are simulated: month opening, dilatation of papillae, insert of the scope, visualization of stones, extraction of these stones with grasping or baskets, and finally, stone fragmentation with holmium laser. Conclusion This anatomical model for sialendoscopy training should be considerably useful to abbreviate the learning curve during the qualification of young surgeons while minimizing the consequences of technical errors. PMID:28050202

  2. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  3. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation.

  4. Decision to delivery intervals for assisted vaginal vertex delivery.

    PubMed

    Okunwobi-Smith, Y; Cooke, I; MacKenzie, I Z

    2000-04-01

    To describe the time interval between decision for assisted vaginal delivery and the birth of the baby in different clinical circumstances. A prospective analysis of 225 consecutive women with a singleton fetal cephalic presentation in the second stage of labour requiring an operative vaginal delivery for various reasons. A maternity unit in a district general hospital delivering more than 6,000 women annually. The decision to delivery interval and the immediate and short term maternal and neonatal outcomes according to indication for operative vaginal delivery. The mean (SD) decision to delivery interval was 34.4 minutes (28.3) with a range of 5 to 101 minutes. For those delivered because of suspected fetal distress, the interval of 26.5 minutes (14.0) was significantly shorter than for those performed without fetal distress 39.5 minutes (19.0) (P < 0.0001); for cases with fetal distress, forceps were significantly quicker at 23.3 minutes (14.3) than the ventouse 29.2 minutes (13.2) (P = 0.04). The longer the interval in cases of fetal distress the less favourable the condition of the neonate at birth, although this trend did not reach statistical significance and was not seen for deliveries expedited for other reasons. Perineal repair was required following 96% forceps deliveries compared with 87% ventouse (P = 0.015). Perineal trauma was not influenced by the interval between decision and delivery. If speed of delivery is important, use of forceps results in a quicker birth than use of the ventouse, without any compromise to the condition of the baby at delivery, and with similar rates of perineal trauma.

  5. Delivery Innovations.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    The need for innovations in care delivery is recognized by providers, payers, and patients alike. Hospitals, physicians, and other clinicians are experimenting with new models of care designed to better meet patients' needs, reduce administrative burdens, and lower costs. The Affordable Care Act placed the Medicare and Medicaid programs at the center of a national effort to experiment with delivery and payment models designed to improve care and contain costs. These public-sector efforts have often aligned with private initiatives, such as the use of reference pricing-in which an insurer will only pay for a service at the price available from the lowest-cost provider. Employers in the public and private sectors have adopted value-based insurance design, in which copayments and deductibles are calibrated to the clinical benefit obtained from different services. Patients have the most to gain-or lose-from delivery innovations. Better, more efficient care should translate into better health and lower costs, but payment models designed to encourage innovation may have the unintended effect of limiting access to care.

  6. Towards a realistic population of simulated galaxy groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, Amandine M. C.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Ponman, Trevor J.

    2014-06-01

    We present a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations called cosmo-OWLS. They form an extension to the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project, and have been designed to help improve our understanding of cluster astrophysics and non-linear structure formation, which are now the limiting systematic errors when using clusters as cosmological probes. Starting from identical initial conditions in either the Planck or WMAP7 cosmologies, we systematically vary the most important `sub-grid' physics, including feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGN). We compare the properties of the simulated galaxy groups and clusters to a wide range of observational data, such as X-ray luminosity and temperature, gas mass fractions, entropy and density profiles, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, I-band mass-to-light ratio, dominance of the brightest cluster galaxy and central massive black hole (BH) masses, by producing synthetic observations and mimicking observational analysis techniques. These comparisons demonstrate that some AGN feedback models can produce a realistic population of galaxy groups and clusters, broadly reproducing both the median trend and, for the first time, the scatter in physical properties over approximately two decades in mass (1013 M⊙ ≲ M500 ≲ 1015 M⊙) and 1.5 decades in radius (0.05 ≲ r/r500 ≲ 1.5). However, in other models, the AGN feedback is too violent (even though they reproduce the observed BH scaling relations), implying that calibration of the models is required. The production of realistic populations of simulated groups and clusters, as well as models that bracket the observations, opens the door to the creation of synthetic surveys for assisting the astrophysical and cosmological interpretation of cluster surveys, as well as quantifying the impact of selection effects.

  7. Magnetic drug targeting through a realistic model of human tracheobronchial airways using computational fluid and particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pourmehran, Oveis; Gorji, Tahereh B; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is a local drug delivery system which aims to concentrate a pharmacological agent at its site of action in order to minimize undesired side effects due to systemic distribution in the organism. Using magnetic drug particles under the influence of an external magnetic field, the drug particles are navigated toward the target region. Herein, computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate the air flow and magnetic particle deposition in a realistic human airway geometry obtained by CT scan images. Using discrete phase modeling and one-way coupling of particle-fluid phases, a Lagrangian approach for particle tracking in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field was applied. Polystyrene (PMS40) particles were utilized as the magnetic drug carrier. A parametric study was conducted, and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, magnetic field strength and inhalation condition on the particle transport pattern and deposition efficiency (DE) was reported. Overall, the results show considerable promise of MDT in deposition enhancement at the target region (i.e., left lung). However, the positive effect of increasing particle size on DE enhancement was evident at smaller magnetic field strengths (Mn [Formula: see text] 1.5 T), whereas, at higher applied magnetic field strengths, increasing particle size has a inverse effect on DE. This implies that for efficient MTD in the human respiratory system, an optimal combination of magnetic drug career characteristics and magnetic field strength has to be achieved.

  8. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates.

    PubMed

    Pellenq, Roland J-M; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Buehler, Markus J; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-22

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this "liquid stone" gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm(3)) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)(1.65)(SiO2)(H2O)(1.75), also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking.

  9. A realistic approach to locating dental practices.

    PubMed

    Barron, E G; Shirley, W L; Waldrep, A C

    1984-12-01

    A realistic approach to locating a dental practice involves the consideration of factors affecting the demand for dental services in an area. This dictates examination of the demographic and economic determinants of demand. Many retail businesses have used this approach to making locational decisions, and dentistry should benefit from this same process. If the thesis is accepted that dentistry is a business as well as a profession, it follows that the dentist-business person must be permitted, indeed expected, to make a reasonable return in revenue on the investment of dollars in education, equipment, and other related expenses. This return on investment occurs only when there is adequate patient flow. An objective procedure to assess demand for dental services at a particular location has been described. With this method, students were expected to: Visit the community and, through interviews with other professionals and knowledgeable business persons, determine the extent of the probable dental service area. The service area is circumscribed on a census map. Use the census subdivision numbers on the map to secure data from the state data center that describes the area's population, in regard to age, race, gender, income, and education. Transfer the data to a spreadsheet designed to generate total visits, according to each of the demand determinants. Calculate the number of FTE practitioners needed to meet this potential demand, and compare this with the number of FTE dentists presently practicing in the community. Fourteen senior dental students, who have since graduated, have completed this procedure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  11. Realistic Detectability of Close Interstellar Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nathaniel V.; Ragozzine, Darin; Granvik, Mikael; Stephens, Denise C.

    2016-07-01

    During the planet formation process, billions of comets are created and ejected into interstellar space. The detection and characterization of such interstellar comets (ICs) (also known as extra-solar planetesimals or extra-solar comets) would give us in situ information about the efficiency and properties of planet formation throughout the galaxy. However, no ICs have ever been detected, despite the fact that their hyperbolic orbits would make them readily identifiable as unrelated to the solar system. Moro-Martín et al. have made a detailed and reasonable estimate of the properties of the IC population. We extend their estimates of detectability with a numerical model that allows us to consider “close” ICs, e.g., those that come within the orbit of Jupiter. We include several constraints on a “detectable” object that allow for realistic estimates of the frequency of detections expected from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other surveys. The influence of several of the assumed model parameters on the frequency of detections is explored in detail. Based on the expectation from Moro-Martín et al., we expect that LSST will detect 0.001-10 ICs during its nominal 10 year lifetime, with most of the uncertainty from the unknown number density of small (nuclei of ˜0.1-1 km) ICs. Both asteroid and comet cases are considered, where the latter includes various empirical prescriptions of brightening. Using simulated LSST-like astrometric data, we study the problem of orbit determination for these bodies, finding that LSST could identify their orbits as hyperbolic and determine an ephemeris sufficiently accurate for follow-up in about 4-7 days. We give the hyperbolic orbital parameters of the most detectable ICs. Taking the results into consideration, we give recommendations to future searches for ICs.

  12. On the realistic validation of photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.; Lin, C.-A.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Gieseke, F.; de Souza, R. S.; Costa-Duarte, M. V.; Hattab, M. W.; Krone-Martins, A.

    2017-07-01

    Two of the main problems encountered in the development and accurate validation of photometric redshift (photo-z) techniques are the lack of spectroscopic coverage in the feature space (e.g. colours and magnitudes) and the mismatch between the photometric error distributions associated with the spectroscopic and photometric samples. Although these issues are well known, there is currently no standard benchmark allowing a quantitative analysis of their impact on the final photo-z estimation. In this work, we present two galaxy catalogues, Teddy and Happy, built to enable a more demanding and realistic test of photo-z methods. Using photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and spectroscopy from a collection of sources, we constructed data sets that mimic the biases between the underlying probability distribution of the real spectroscopic and photometric sample. We demonstrate the potential of these catalogues by submitting them to the scrutiny of different photo-z methods, including machine learning (ML) and template fitting approaches. Beyond the expected bad results from most ML algorithms for cases with missing coverage in the feature space, we were able to recognize the superiority of global models in the same situation and the general failure across all types of methods when incomplete coverage is convoluted with the presence of photometric errors - a data situation which photo-z methods were not trained to deal with up to now and which must be addressed by future large-scale surveys. Our catalogues represent the first controlled environment allowing a straightforward implementation of such tests. The data are publicly available within the COINtoolbox (https://github.com/COINtoolbox/photoz_catalogues).

  13. A realist evaluation of the management of a well- performing regional hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Realist evaluation offers an interesting approach to evaluation of interventions in complex settings, but has been little applied in health care. We report on a realist case study of a well performing hospital in Ghana and show how such a realist evaluation design can help to overcome the limited external validity of a traditional case study. Methods We developed a realist evaluation framework for hypothesis formulation, data collection, data analysis and synthesis of the findings. Focusing on the role of human resource management in hospital performance, we formulated our hypothesis around the high commitment management concept. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual and group interviews, observations and document reviews. Results We found that the human resource management approach (the actual intervention) included induction of new staff, training and personal development, good communication and information sharing, and decentralised decision-making. We identified 3 additional practices: ensuring optimal physical working conditions, access to top managers and managers' involvement on the work floor. Teamwork, recognition and trust emerged as key elements of the organisational climate. Interviewees reported high levels of organisational commitment. The analysis unearthed perceived organisational support and reciprocity as underlying mechanisms that link the management practices with commitment. Methodologically, we found that realist evaluation can be fruitfully used to develop detailed case studies that analyse how management interventions work and in which conditions. Analysing the links between intervention, mechanism and outcome increases the explaining power, while identification of essential context elements improves the usefulness of the findings for decision-makers in other settings (external validity). We also identified a number of practical difficulties and priorities for further methodological development

  14. A realist evaluation of the management of a well-performing regional hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Bruno; Dedzo, McDamien; Kegels, Guy

    2010-01-25

    Realist evaluation offers an interesting approach to evaluation of interventions in complex settings, but has been little applied in health care. We report on a realist case study of a well performing hospital in Ghana and show how such a realist evaluation design can help to overcome the limited external validity of a traditional case study. We developed a realist evaluation framework for hypothesis formulation, data collection, data analysis and synthesis of the findings. Focusing on the role of human resource management in hospital performance, we formulated our hypothesis around the high commitment management concept. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual and group interviews, observations and document reviews. We found that the human resource management approach (the actual intervention) included induction of new staff, training and personal development, good communication and information sharing, and decentralised decision-making. We identified 3 additional practices: ensuring optimal physical working conditions, access to top managers and managers' involvement on the work floor. Teamwork, recognition and trust emerged as key elements of the organisational climate. Interviewees reported high levels of organisational commitment. The analysis unearthed perceived organisational support and reciprocity as underlying mechanisms that link the management practices with commitment. Methodologically, we found that realist evaluation can be fruitfully used to develop detailed case studies that analyse how management interventions work and in which conditions. Analysing the links between intervention, mechanism and outcome increases the explaining power, while identification of essential context elements improves the usefulness of the findings for decision-makers in other settings (external validity). We also identified a number of practical difficulties and priorities for further methodological development. This case suggests that a well

  15. Special problems in aerosol delivery: neonatal and pediatric considerations.

    PubMed

    Cole, C H

    2000-06-01

    if we had a clear understanding of the efficiency and functional differences among the various drugs and devices. These are substantive issues with daily therapeutic impact that have received increasingly outspoken concern over the past decade by aerosol scientists and clinicians. These issues must be given due attention by drug and device manufacturers as well as by regulatory agencies. The medication, the device, and the conditions under which they are tested must be considered together and studied as thoroughly as the medications themselves with respect to total output and particle size distribution. As noted by Bisgaard, medication dose recommendations are useless unless the device and technique used are specified. Medication dose recommendation could be facilitated by setting equivalent standards for generic and brand-name medications and devices. In addition, standardization of in vitro models with better replicas of infants' and children's anatomy (oropharynx, upper airways), and better in vitro lung models, plus utilization of realistic breathing patterns of infants and children will improve in vitro prediction of the in vivo dose delivered to lower airways. This would greatly facilitate selection of delivery systems under specific circumstances for infants and children of various ages). Safety profile, therapeutic efficacy, and efficiency of aerosolized medications delivered to infants and children need to be rigorously studied. This is particularly true for medications with potentially great benefit but possible adverse effects, such as inhaled glucocorticoid therapy in extremely premature infants. Common sense, ethics, and due respect for the same high standard of approval requirements of adults and older children should motivate further research in understanding and improving aerosol delivery in infants and young children.

  16. Down-regulation of intestinal scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) expression in rodents under conditions of deficient bile delivery to the intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Voshol, P J; Schwarz, M; Rigotti, A; Krieger, M; Groen, A K; Kuipers, F

    2001-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) is expressed in the intestines of rodents and has been suggested to be involved in the absorption of dietary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to determine whether intestinal SR-BI expression is affected in animal models with altered bile delivery to the intestine and impaired cholesterol absorption. SR-BI protein and mRNA levels were determined in proximal and distal small intestine from control, bile-duct-ligated and bile-diverted rats and from control and bile-duct-ligated mice. Two genetically altered mouse models were studied: multidrug resistance-2 P-glycoprotein-deficient [Mdr2((-/-))] mice that produce phospholipid/cholesterol-free bile, and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase-deficient [Cyp7a((-/-))] mice, which exhibit qualitative and quantitative changes in the bile-salt pool. Cholesterol-absorption efficiency was quantified using a dual-isotope ratio method. SR-BI was present at the apical membrane of enterocytes in control rats and mice and was more abundant in proximal than in distal segments of the intestine. In bile-duct-ligated animals, levels of SR-BI protein were virtually absent and mRNA levels were decreased by approximately 50%. Bile-diverted rats, Mdr2((-/-)) mice and Cyp7a((-/-)) mice showed decreased levels of intestinal SR-BI protein while mRNA levels were unaffected. Cholesterol absorption was reduced by >90% in bile-duct-ligated and bile-diverted animals and in Cyp7a((-/-)) mice, whereas Mdr2((-/-)) mice showed an approximately 50% reduction. This study shows that SR-BI is expressed at the apical membrane of enterocytes of rats and mice, mainly in the upper intestine where cholesterol absorption is greatest, and indicates that bile components play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of SR-BI expression. Factors associated with cholestasis appear to be involved in transcriptional control of intestinal SR-BI expression. The role of SR-BI in the cholesterol-absorption process remains to be

  17. Realistic test cases for limited area ocean modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, M.; Schmidt, M.; Griffies, S. M.; Liang, Z.

    The applicability of Modular Ocean Model version 4 (MOM4p1) as a code base to study regional physical oceanographic phenomena is presented, highlighting features recently implemented for use in limited area domains. Central to the successful operation of limited area model applications are the inclusion of a comprehensive suite of open boundary conditions, turbulence closure and vertical discretization. The open boundary problem, in particular, is considered and we present the open boundary condition implementation and performance in limited area model configurations corresponding to three realistic test cases. These tests represent typical configurations the physical oceanographer may encounter, and consist of (1) a coastal shelf model application where a two-tiered model configuration is used for down-scaling from a coarse grid model to supply sufficiently resolved boundary values for active cross-shelf open boundaries of a regional model; (2) tidal response of a gulf with one open boundary across the mouth of the gulf; (3) response of a coastal region to the passage of a tropical cyclone, where the open boundaries behave in primarily a passive capacity. Although the code base used in the test cases is MOM4p1, emphasis is placed on general features of the tests that are necessary for the scientific and operational use of any limited area model, hence key findings may be applied to limited area models in general.

  18. Falsification Attacks against WPA-TKIP in a Realistic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, Yosuke; Ozawa, Yuki; Ohigashi, Toshihiro; Morii, Masakatu

    In this paper, we propose two new falsification attacks against Wi-Fi Protected Access Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (WPA-TKIP). A previous realistic attack succeeds only for a network that supports IEEE 802.11e QoS features by both an access point (AP) and a client, and it has an execution time of 12-15min, in which it recovers a message integrity code (MIC) key from an ARP packet. Our first attack reduces the execution time for recovering a MIC key. It can recover the MIC key within 7-8min. Our second attack expands its targets that can be attacked. This attack focuses on a new vulnerability of QoS packet processing, and this vulnerability can remove the condition that the AP supports IEEE 802.11e. In addition, we discovered another vulnerability by which our attack succeeds under the condition that the chipset of the client supports IEEE 802.11e even if the client disables this standard through the OS. We demonstrate that chipsets developed by several kinds of vendors have the same vulnerability.

  19. Drug delivery to the ear.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions.

  20. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993... delivery. Each handler shall at all times, hold, in his possession or under his control, in proper storage... require that such delivery consist of natural condition prunes or it may arrange for such delivery...

  1. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water deliveries may be made only to eligible land to be irrigated. The District must maintain records for...

  2. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... delivery. Each handler shall at all times, hold, in his possession or under his control, in proper storage... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993... require that such delivery consist of natural condition prunes or it may arrange for such delivery to...

  3. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Christopher E.

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212367"><span>The use and limitation of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation as a tool for evidence-based practice: a critical <span class="hlt">realist</span> perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The use and limitation of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation as a tool for evidence-based practice: a critical <span class="hlt">realist</span> perspective In this paper, we assess <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation's articulation with evidence-based practice (EBP) from the perspective of critical realism. We argue that the adoption by <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation of a <span class="hlt">realist</span> causal ontology means that it is better placed to explain complex healthcare interventions than the traditional method used by EBP, the randomized controlled trial (RCT). However, we do not conclude from this that the use of RCTs is without merit, arguing that it is possible to use both methods in combination under the rubric of <span class="hlt">realist</span> theory. More negatively, we contend that the rejection of critical theory and utopianism by <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation in favour of the pragmatism of piecemeal social engineering means that it is vulnerable to accusations that it promotes technocratic interpretations of human problems. We conclude that, insofar as <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation adheres to the ontology of critical realism, it provides a sound contribution to EBP, but insofar as it rejects the critical turn of Bhaskar's realism, it replicates the technocratic tendencies inherent in EBP. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6430E..1LD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6430E..1LD"><span>Non-invasive, photonics-based diagnostic, imaging, monitoring, and light <span class="hlt">delivery</span> techniques for the recognition, quantification and treatment of malignant and chronic inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, N.; Davies-Shaw, D.; Shaw, J. D.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>We report firsthand on innovative developments in non-invasive, biophotonic techniques for a wide range of diagnostic, imaging and treatment options, including the recognition and quantification of cancerous, pre-cancerous cells and chronic inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. These techniques have benefited from the ability to target the affected site by both monochromatic light and broad multiple wavelength spectra. The employment of such wavelength or color-specific properties embraces the fluorescence stimulation of various photosensitizing drugs, and the instigation and detection of identified fluorescence signatures attendant upon laser induced fluorescence (LIF) phenomena as transmitted and propagated by precancerous, cancerous and normal tissue. In terms of tumor imaging and therapeutic and treatment options, we have exploited the abilities of various wavelengths to penetrate to different depths, through different types of tissues, and have explored quantifiable absorption and reflection characteristics upon which diagnostic assumptions can be reliably based and formulated. These biophotonic-based diagnostic, sensing and imaging techniques have also benefited from, and have been further enhanced by, the integrated ability to provide various power levels to be employed at various stages in the procedure. Applications are myriad, including non-invasive, non destructive diagnosis of in vivo cell characteristics and functions; light-based tissue analysis; real-time monitoring and mapping of brain function and of tumor growth; real time monitoring of the surgical completeness of tumor removal during laser-imaged/guided brain resection; diagnostic procedures based on fluorescence life-time monitoring, the monitoring of chronic inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (including rheumatoid arthritis), and continuous blood glucose monitoring in the control of diabetes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143439"><span>Search for a <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Orbifold Grand Unification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kawamura, Yoshiharu</p> <p>2008-05-13</p> <p>We review the prototype model of a grand unified theory on the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} and discuss topics related to the choice of boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>; the dynamical rearrangement of gauge symmetry and the equivalence classes of BCs. We explore a family unification scenario by orbifolding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418523"><span>Synthetic Tumor Networks for Screening Drug <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Shen, Ming-Che; Nichols, Joseph B.; Garson, Charles J.; Mills, Ivy R.; Matar, Majed M.; Fewell, Jason G.; Pant, Kapil</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tumor drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> is a complex phenomenon affected by several elements in addition to drug or <span class="hlt">delivery</span> vehicle’s physico-chemical properties. A key factor is tumor microvasculature with complex effects including convective transport, high interstitial pressure and enhanced vascular permeability due to the presence of “leaky vessels”. Current in vitro models of the tumor microenvironment for evaluating drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> are oversimplified and, as a result, show poor correlation with in vivo performance. In this study, we report on the development of a novel microfluidic platform that models the tumor microenvironment more accurately, with physiologically and morphologically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> microvasculature including endothelial cell lined leaky capillary vessels along with 3D solid tumors. Endothelial cells and 3D spheroids of cervical tumor cells were co-cultured in the networks. Drug vehicle screening was demonstrated using GFP gene <span class="hlt">delivery</span> by different formulations of nanopolymers. The synthetic tumor network was successful in predicting in vivo <span class="hlt">delivery</span> efficiencies of the drug vehicles. The developed assay will have critical applications both in basic research, where it can be used to develop next generation <span class="hlt">delivery</span> vehicles, and in drug discovery where it can be used to study drug transport and <span class="hlt">delivery</span> efficacy in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> tumor microenvironment, thereby enabling drug compound and/or <span class="hlt">delivery</span> vehicle screening. PMID:25599856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361874"><span>Palliative care <span class="hlt">delivery</span> models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiencek, Clareen; Coyne, Patrick</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>To provide an overview of the four major palliative care <span class="hlt">delivery</span> models: ambulatory clinics, home-based programs, inpatient palliative care units, and inpatient consultation services. The advantages and disadvantages of each model and the generalist and specialist roles in palliative care will be discussed. Literature review. The discipline of palliative care continues to experience growth in the number of programs and in types of <span class="hlt">delivery</span> models. Ambulatory- and home-based models are the newest on the scene. Nurses caring for oncology patients with life-limiting disease should be informed about these models for optimal impact on patient care outcomes. Oncology nurses should demonstrate generalist skills in the care of the seriously ill and access specialist palliative care providers as warranted by the patient's <span class="hlt">condition</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4596150','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4596150"><span>A <span class="hlt">realist</span> evaluation of an antenatal programme to change drinking behaviour of pregnant women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Doi, Lawrence; Jepson, Ruth; Cheyne, Helen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective to use <span class="hlt">realist</span> evaluation to describe and explain how and in what circumstances screening and alcohol brief interventions work in routine antenatal care. Design a <span class="hlt">realist</span> evaluation incorporating systematic reviews and qualitative data. Setting NHS Lothian, which is one of the 14 Scottish health boards. Participants participants were recruited from two maternity units. In phase one, interviews were conducted with four participants responsible for policy implementation. These data were supported by two systematic reviews. In phase two, 17 pregnant women and 15 midwives participated in interviews, with a further six midwifery team leaders involved in a focus group. Findings training and resources provided to midwives as part of the programme acted as facilitating mechanisms that improved their skills and confidence to screen and deliver alcohol brief interventions. The programme elicited positive change in attitudes to drinking in pregnancy and possibly stimulated drinking behaviour change amongst pregnant women. However, the small numbers of pregnant women being identified for alcohol brief interventions meant <span class="hlt">delivery</span> was infrequent and resulted in the programme not working as anticipated. The findings also revealed contextual issues around midwife–pregnant woman relationship and the challenges of negotiating the timing of screening and alcohol brief interventions <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. Conclusions Drinking in pregnancy is an emotive issue, therefore delivering alcohol brief interventions at the first antenatal appointment when they are more likely to achieve the most benefits poses challenges. When training midwives to screen and deliver alcohol brief interventions, special attention is needed to improve person-centred communication skills to overcome barriers associated with discussing sensitive prenatal alcohol use and enhance early identification and <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of alcohol brief interventions at the first antenatal appointment. PMID:26123741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22primary+care+collaborative%22+OR+%22primary+care+teams%22+OR+%22virtual+workspace%22+OR+%22img+style%3d%22+OR+%22stafford+counties.%22&pg=2&id=EJ129586','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22primary+care+collaborative%22+OR+%22primary+care+teams%22+OR+%22virtual+workspace%22+OR+%22img+style%3d%22+OR+%22stafford+counties.%22&pg=2&id=EJ129586"><span>Interdisciplinary Education for Primary Health Care Team <span class="hlt">Delivery</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kindig, David A.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Discusses historical background of the primary health care team and key questions about team <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, reviews past experiences in interdisciplinary education for primary care, lists guidelines for future educational experiences, and presents a model for the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> implementation of these concepts in any health science center. (Author/JT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880006378','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880006378"><span>Unsteady transonic algorithm improvements for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> aircraft applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Batina, John T.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Improvements to a time-accurate approximate factorization (AF) algorithm were implemented for steady and unsteady transonic analysis of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> aircraft configurations. These algorithm improvements were made to the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code developed at the Langley Research Center. The code permits the aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft in the flutter critical transonic speed range. The AF algorithm of the CAP-TSD code solves the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The algorithm improvements include: an Engquist-Osher (E-O) type-dependent switch to more accurately and efficiently treat regions of supersonic flow; extension of the E-O switch for second-order spatial accuracy in these regions; nonreflecting far field boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for more accurate unsteady applications; and several modifications which accelerate convergence to steady-state. Calculations are presented for several configurations including the General Dynamics one-ninth scale F-16C aircraft model to evaluate the algorithm modifications. The modifications have significantly improved the stability of the AF algorithm and hence the reliability of the CAP-TSD code in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457577','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457577"><span>Construction of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> images using R-functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shevchenko, A.N.; Tsukanov, I.G.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> images are plane images of three-dimensional bodies in which volume effects are conveyed by illumination. This is how volume is displayed in photographs and paintings. Photographs achieve a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> volume effect by choosing a certain arrangement, brightness, and number of light sources. Painters choose for their paintings a color palette based entirely on sensory perception. In this paper, we consider the construction of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> images on a computer display. The shape of the imaged objects is not always known in advance: it may be generated as a result of complex mathematical computations. The geometrical information is described using R-functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3259041','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3259041"><span>Challenges of nurse <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of psychological interventions for long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in primary care: a qualitative exploration of the case of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background The evidence base for a range of psychosocial and behavioural interventions in managing and supporting patients with long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LTCs) is now well-established. With increasing numbers of such patients being managed in primary care, and a shortage of specialists in psychology and behavioural management to deliver interventions, therapeutic interventions are increasingly being delivered by general nurses with limited training in psychological interventions. It is unknown what issues this raises for the nurses or their patients. The purpose of the study was to examine the challenges faced by non-specialist nurses when delivering psychological interventions for an LTC (chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis [CFS/ME]) within a primary care setting. Methods A qualitative study nested within a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN 74156610] explored the experiences and acceptability of two different psychological interventions (pragmatic rehabilitation and supportive listening) from the perspectives of nurses, their supervisors, and patients. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with three nurse therapists, three supervisors, and 46 patients. An iterative approach was used to develop conceptual categories from the dataset. Results Analyses identified four sets of challenges that were common to both interventions: (i) being a novice therapist, (ii) engaging patients in the therapeutic model, (iii) dealing with emotions, and (iv) the complexity of primary care. Each challenge had the potential to cause tension between therapist and patient. A number of strategies were developed by participants to manage the tensions. Conclusions Tensions existed for nurses when attempting to deliver psychological interventions for patients with CFS/ME in this primary care trial. Such tensions should be addressed before implementing psychological interventions within routine clinical practice. Similar tensions may be found for other LTCs. Our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22192566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22192566"><span>Challenges of nurse <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of psychological interventions for long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in primary care: a qualitative exploration of the case of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peters, Sarah; Wearden, Alison; Morriss, Richard; Dowrick, Christopher F; Lovell, Karina; Brooks, Joanna; Cahill, Greg; Chew-Graham, Carolyn</p> <p>2011-12-22</p> <p>The evidence base for a range of psychosocial and behavioural interventions in managing and supporting patients with long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LTCs) is now well-established. With increasing numbers of such patients being managed in primary care, and a shortage of specialists in psychology and behavioural management to deliver interventions, therapeutic interventions are increasingly being delivered by general nurses with limited training in psychological interventions. It is unknown what issues this raises for the nurses or their patients. The purpose of the study was to examine the challenges faced by non-specialist nurses when delivering psychological interventions for an LTC (chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis [CFS/ME]) within a primary care setting. A qualitative study nested within a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN 74156610] explored the experiences and acceptability of two different psychological interventions (pragmatic rehabilitation and supportive listening) from the perspectives of nurses, their supervisors, and patients. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with three nurse therapists, three supervisors, and 46 patients. An iterative approach was used to develop conceptual categories from the dataset. Analyses identified four sets of challenges that were common to both interventions: (i) being a novice therapist, (ii) engaging patients in the therapeutic model, (iii) dealing with emotions, and (iv) the complexity of primary care. Each challenge had the potential to cause tension between therapist and patient. A number of strategies were developed by participants to manage the tensions. Tensions existed for nurses when attempting to deliver psychological interventions for patients with CFS/ME in this primary care trial. Such tensions should be addressed before implementing psychological interventions within routine clinical practice. Similar tensions may be found for other LTCs. Our findings have implications for developing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11779412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11779412"><span>Safety of local <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of low- and intermediate-dose adenovirus gene transfer vectors to individuals with a spectrum of morbid <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harvey, Ben-Gary; Maroni, Jaman; O'Donoghue, Kelley A; Chu, Karen W; Muscat, Jolene C; Pippo, Allison L; Wright, Connie E; Hollmann, Charleen; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Kessler, Paul D; Rasmussen, Henrik S; Rosengart, Todd K; Crystal, Ronald G</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>To help define the safety profile of the use of adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors in humans, this report summarizes our experience since April 1993 of the local administration of E1(-)/E3(-) Ad vectors to humans using low (<10(9) particle units) or intermediate (10(9)-10(11) particle units) doses. Included in the study are 90 individuals and 12 controls, with diverse comorbid <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, including cystic fibrosis, colon cancer metastatic to liver, severe coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease, as well as normals. These individuals received 140 different administrations of vector, with up to seven administrations to a single individual. The vectors used include three different transgenes (human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator cDNA, E. coli cytosine deaminase gene, and the human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 cDNA) administered by six different routes (nasal epithelium, bronchial epithelium, percutaneous to solid tumor, intradermal, epicardial injection of the myocardium, and skeletal muscle). The total population was followed for 130.4 patient-years. The study assesses adverse events, common laboratory tests, and long-term follow-up, including incidence of death or development of malignancy. The total group incidence of major adverse events linked to an Ad vector was 0.7%. There were no deaths attributable to the Ad vectors per se, and the incidence of malignancy was within that expected for the population. Overall, the observations are consistent with the concept that local administration of low and intermediate doses of Ad vectors appears to be well tolerated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075933','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075933"><span>Competence of birth attendants at providing emergency obstetric care under India’s JSY <span class="hlt">conditional</span> cash transfer program for institutional <span class="hlt">delivery</span>: an assessment using case vignettes in Madhya Pradesh province</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Access to emergency obstetric care by competent staff can reduce maternal mortality. India has launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) <span class="hlt">conditional</span> cash transfer program to promote institutional births. During implementation of the JSY, India witnessed a steep increase in the proportion of institutional <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>-from 40% in 2004 to 73% in 2012. However, maternal mortality reduction follows a secular trend. Competent management of complications, when women deliver in facilities under the JSY, is essential for reduction in maternal mortality and therefore to a successful program outcome. We investigate, using clinical vignettes, whether birth attendants at institutions under the program are competent at providing appropriate care for obstetric complications. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province. Written case vignettes for two obstetric complications, hemorrhage and eclampsia, were administered to 233 birth attendant nurses at 73 JSY facilities. Their competence at (a) initial assessment, (b) diagnosis, and (c) making decisions on appropriate first-line care for these complications was scored. Results The mean emergency obstetric care (EmOC) competence score was 5.4 (median = 5) on a total score of 20, and 75% of participants scored below 35% of the maximum score. The overall score, although poor, was marginally higher in respondents with Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) training, those with general nursing and midwifery qualifications, those at higher facility levels, and those conducting >30 <span class="hlt">deliveries</span> a month. In all, 14% of respondents were competent at assessment, 58% were competent at making a correct clinical diagnosis, and 20% were competent at providing first-line care. Conclusions Birth attendants in the JSY facilities have low competence at EmOC provision. Hence, births in the JSY program cannot be considered to have access to competent EmOC. Urgent efforts are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23521065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23521065"><span>Comparative analysis of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> CT-scan and simplified human airway models in airflow simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johari, Nasrul Hadi; Osman, Kahar; Helmi, Nor Harris N; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed A Rafiq</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Efforts to model the human upper respiratory system have undergone many phases. Geometrical proximity to the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> shape has been the subject of many research projects. In this study, three different geometries of the trachea and main bronchus were modelled, which were reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) scan images. The geometrical variations were named <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, simplified and oversimplified. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> refers to the lifelike image taken from digital imaging and communications in medicine format CT scan images, simplified refers to the reconstructed image based on natural images without <span class="hlt">realistic</span> details pertaining to the rough surfaces, and oversimplified describes the straight wall geometry of the airway. The characteristics of steady state flows with different flow rates were investigated, simulating three varied physical activities and passing through each model. The results agree with previous studies where simplified models are sufficient for providing comparable results for airflow in human airways. This work further suggests that, under most exercise <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, the idealised oversimplified model is not favourable for simulating either airflow regimes or airflow with particle depositions. However, in terms of immediate analysis for the prediction of abnormalities of various dimensions of human airways, the oversimplified techniques may be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=merchandising&pg=5&id=EJ217392','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=merchandising&pg=5&id=EJ217392"><span>Student Work Experience: A <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Approach to Merchandising Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Horridge, Patricia; And Others</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Relevant and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> experiences are needed to prepare the student for a future career. Addresses the results of a survey of colleges and universities in the United States in regard to their student work experience (SWE) in fashion merchandising. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tardiness&pg=5&id=EJ202671','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tardiness&pg=5&id=EJ202671"><span>Office Skills: <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Evaluation in Office Education Programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shinn, Larry</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate office occupations <span class="hlt">realistically</span>, evaluation procedure criteria were developed using office simulation techniques. Grading methods given cover quality, quantity, attenance, tardiness, use of time, and cost of extra supplies, with grade penalties for performance deficiencies. (MF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvL..90d2502Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvL..90d2502Z"><span>Three-Body Monopole Corrections to <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuker, A. P.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is shown that a very simple three-body monopole term can solve practically all the spectroscopic problems—in the p, sd, and pf shells—that were hitherto assumed to need drastic revisions of the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> potentials.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93786','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93786"><span>Toward a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> low-field SSC lattice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heifets, S.</p> <p>1985-10-01</p> <p>Three six-fold lattices for 3 T superferric SSC have been generated at TAC. The program based on the first order canonical transformation was used to compare lattices. On this basis the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> race-track lattices were generated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm"><span>Assisted <span class="hlt">delivery</span> with forceps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted <span class="hlt">delivery</span> with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted <span class="hlt">delivery</span> . When is a Forceps <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094628"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> linac motion improves the accuracy of a Monte Carlo based VMAT plan QA system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boylan, Christopher J; Aitkenhead, Adam H; Rowbottom, Carl G; Mackay, Ranald I</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To investigate the use of a software-based pre-treatment QA system for VMAT, which incorporates <span class="hlt">realistic</span> linac motion during <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. A beam model was produced using the GATE platform for GEANT4 Monte Carlo dose calculations. Initially validated against static measurements, the model was then integrated with a VMAT <span class="hlt">delivery</span> emulator, which reads plan files and generates a set of dynamic <span class="hlt">delivery</span> instructions analogous to the linac control system. Monte Carlo simulations were compared to measurements on dosimetric phantoms for prostate and head and neck VMAT plans. Comparisons were made between calculations using fixed control points, and simulations of continuous motion utilising the emulator. For routine use, the model was incorporated into an automated pre-treatment QA system. The model showed better agreement with measurements when incorporating linac motion: mean gamma pass (Γ<1) over 5 prostate plans was 100.0% at 3%/3mm and 97.4% at 2%/2mm when compared to measurement. For the head and neck plans, delivered to the anatomical phantom, gamma passes were 99.4% at 4%/4mm and 94.94% at 3%/3mm. For example simulations within patient CT data, gamma passes were observed which are within our centre's tolerance for pre-treatment QA. Through comparison to phantom measurements, it was found that the incorporation of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> linac motion improves the accuracy of the model compared to the simulation of fixed control points. The ability to accurately calculate dose as a second check of the planning system, and determine <span class="hlt">realistic</span> <span class="hlt">delivery</span> characteristics, may allow for the reduction of machine-based pre-treatment plan QA for VMAT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617725','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617725"><span>Highly <span class="hlt">Realistic</span>, Immersive Training for Navy Corpsmen: Preliminary Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>to assess corpsmen participants’ satisfaction with highly <span class="hlt">realistic</span> training. The study sample consisted of 434 male Navy service members attending...expressed high levels of satisfaction with the training overall and with several specific elements of the training. The element of the training that the...students’ satisfaction with the highly <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, immersive training. We hypothesized that corpsmen would express a high level of satisfaction with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2600074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2600074"><span>Cartoons vs. <span class="hlt">realistic</span> illustration: picture preferences of adolescent patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dirr, K L; Katz, A A</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Illustrations are an important element in patient education materials because they engage the interest of the audience. However, little research has been conducted to determine the style of illustration that most effectively engages a patient population. This study tested the picture preferences of 39 adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU). A survey instrument asked them to choose between cartoons and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> illustrations. A significant number preferred <span class="hlt">realistic</span> illustrations to cartoons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934258','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934258"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Image Rendition Using a Variable Exponent Functional Model for Retinex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dou, Zeyang; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Bin; Yu, Xinyan; Han, Lu; Zhu, Zhenyu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The goal of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> image rendition is to recover the acquired image under imperfect illuminant <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, where non–uniform illumination may degrade image quality with high contrast and low SNR. In this paper, the assumption regarding illumination is modified and a variable exponent functional model for Retinex is proposed to remove non–uniform illumination and reduce halo artifacts. The theoretical derivation is provided and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. PMID:27338379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PTEP.2016i3B01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PTEP.2016i3B01F"><span>Toward <span class="hlt">realistic</span> gauge-Higgs grand unification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furui, Atsushi; Hosotani, Yutaka; Yamatsu, Naoki</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth-dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase θ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). SO(11) is broken to SO(4)×SO(6) by the orbifold boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, which is broken to SU2×U1×SU3 by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential V(θ), we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to U1. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. Proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses given; however, it turns out to be smaller than the observed value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf"><span>43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... individual water right holder indicating the number of eligible acres irrigated and the amount of water... <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of Water <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. Project irrigation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJC...76..208A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJC...76..208A"><span>Non-tachyonic semi-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> non-supersymmetric heterotic-string vacua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ashfaque, Johar M.; Athanasopoulos, Panos; Faraggi, Alon E.; Sonmez, Hasan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The heterotic-string models in the free fermionic formulation gave rise to some of the most <span class="hlt">realistic</span>-string models to date, which possess N=1 spacetime supersymmetry. Lack of evidence for supersymmetry at the LHC instigated recent interest in non-supersymmetric heterotic-string vacua. We explore what may be learned in this context from the quasi-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> free fermionic models. We show that constructions with a low number of families give rise to proliferation of a priori tachyon producing sectors, compared to the non-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> examples, which typically may contain only one such sector. The reason being that in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> cases the internal six dimensional space is fragmented into smaller units. We present one example of a quasi-<span class="hlt">realistic</span>, non-supersymmetric, non-tachyonic, heterotic-string vacuum and compare the structure of its massless spectrum to the corresponding supersymmetric vacuum. While in some sectors supersymmetry is broken explicitly, i.e. the bosonic and fermionic sectors produce massless and massive states, other sectors, and in particular those leading to the chiral families, continue to exhibit Fermi-Bose degeneracy. In these sectors the massless spectrum, as compared to the supersymmetric cases, will only differ in some local or global U(1) charges. We discuss the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for obtaining n_b=n_f at the massless level in these models. Our example model contains an anomalous U(1) symmetry, which generates a tadpole diagram at one-loop order in string perturbation theory. We speculate that this tadpole diagram may cancel the corresponding diagram generated by the one-loop non-vanishing vacuum energy and that in this respect the supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric vacua should be regarded on an equal footing. Finally we discuss vacua that contain two supersymmetry generating sectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27904934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27904934"><span>Part-2: Analytical Expressions of Concentrations of Glucose, Oxygen, and Gluconic Acid in a Composite Membrane for Closed-Loop Insulin <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> for the Non-steady State <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehala, N; Rajendran, L; Meena, V</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A mathematical model developed by Abdekhodaie and Wu (J Membr Sci 335:21-31, 2009), which describes a dynamic process involving an enzymatic reaction and diffusion of reactants and product inside glucose-sensitive composite membrane has been discussed. This theoretical model depicts a system of non-linear non-steady state reaction diffusion equations. These equations have been solved using new approach of homotopy perturbation method and analytical solutions pertaining to the concentrations of glucose, oxygen, and gluconic acid are derived. These analytical results are compared with the numerical results, and limiting case results for steady state <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and a good agreement is observed. The influence of various kinetic parameters involved in the model has been presented graphically. Theoretical evaluation of the kinetic parameters like the maximal reaction velocity (V max) and Michaelis-Menten constants for glucose and oxygen (K g and K ox) is also reported. This predicted model is very much useful for designing the glucose-responsive composite membranes for closed-loop insulin <span class="hlt">delivery</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23402391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23402391"><span>The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of shared care: protocol for a <span class="hlt">realist</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hardwick, Rebecca; Pearson, Mark; Byng, Richard; Anderson, Rob</p> <p>2013-02-12</p> <p>Shared care (an enhanced information exchange over and above routine outpatient letters) is commonly used to improve care coordination and communication between a specialist and primary care services for people with long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of shared care is mixed. Informed decision-making for targeting shared care requires a greater understanding of how it works, for whom it works, in what contexts and why. This protocol outlines how <span class="hlt">realist</span> review methods can be used to synthesise evidence on shared care for long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.A further aim of the review is to explore economic evaluations of shared care. Economic evaluations are difficult to synthesise due to problems in accounting for contextual differences that impact on resource use and opportunity costs. <span class="hlt">Realist</span> review methods have been suggested as a way to overcome some of these issues, so this review will also assess whether <span class="hlt">realist</span> review methods are amenable to synthesising economic evidence. Database and web searching will be carried out in order to find relevant evidence to develop and test programme theories about how shared care works. The review will have two phases. Phase 1 will concentrate on the contextual <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and mechanisms that influence how shared care works, in order to develop programme theories, which partially explain how it works. Phase 2 will focus on testing these programme theories. A Project Reference Group made up of health service professionals and people with actual experience of long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span> will be used to ground the study in real-life experience. Review findings will be disseminated through local and sub-national networks for integrated care and long-term <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. This <span class="hlt">realist</span> review will explore why and for whom shared care works, in order to support decision-makers working to improve the effectiveness of care for people outside hospital. The development of <span class="hlt">realist</span> review methods to take into account cost and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25587864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25587864"><span>The construction of context-mechanisms-outcomes in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Linsley, Paul; Howard, David; Owen, Sara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To discuss the construction of context-mechanisms-outcomes (CMOs) developed as part of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation study of two aggression management training programmes. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> evaluation draws on theories and methods derived from the social sciences. It provides a distinctive account of the nature of programmes and how they work. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> evaluation is a form of evaluation that is driven by theory, and was based by Pawson and Tilley ( 1997 ) on the philosophy of critical realism. Critical realism is an important perspective in modern philosophy and social science, but it is largely absent in the field of healthcare research. This paper provides a critical discussion on the construction of CMOs as part of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation study. This paper draws on the personal experiences of the author in using <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation to evaluate training in aggression management. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> evaluation stresses four key linked concepts for explaining and understanding programmes: 'mechanism', 'context', 'outcome pattern' and 'context-mechanisms-outcomes (CMO) pattern configuration'. A CMO configuration is a proposition stating what it is about an initiative that works, for whom and in what circumstances. In this way, the effectiveness of the programme is understood, with an explanation of why the outcomes developed as they did and how the programme was able to react to underlying mechanisms and in what contexts. Therefore, a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> evaluation researcher is not just inspecting outcomes to see if an initiative (implementation) works, but is analysing the outcomes to discover if the conjectured mechanism or context theories are confirmed. This analysis provides not only evidence of effectiveness, but also an explanation that helps to develop and improve the content and the targeting of future programmes. The development of CMOs requires a great deal of skill on the part of the researcher and requires a flexibility of approach when collecting and analysing the data and in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330260','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330260"><span>How does capacity building of health managers work? A <span class="hlt">realist</span> evaluation study protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marchal, Bruno; Hoeree, Tom; Devadasan, Narayanan; Macq, Jean; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Introduction There has been a lot of attention on the role of human resource management interventions to improve <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of health services in low- and middle-income countries. However, studies on this subject are few due to limited research on implementation of programmes and methodological difficulties in conducting experimental studies on human resource interventions. The authors present the protocol of an evaluation of a district-level capacity-building intervention to identify the determinants of performance of health workers in managerial positions and to understand how changes (if any) are brought about. Methods and analysis The aim of this study is to understand how capacity building works. The authors will use <span class="hlt">realist</span> evaluation to evaluate an intervention in Karnataka, India. The intervention is a capacity-building programme that seeks to improve management capacities of health managers at district and subdistrict levels through periodic classroom-based teaching and mentoring support at the workplace. The authors conducted interviews and reviewed literature on capacity building in health to draw out the programme theory of the intervention. Based on this, the authors formulated hypothetical pathways connecting the expected outcomes of the intervention (planning and supervision) to the inputs (contact classes and mentoring). The authors prepared a questionnaire to assess elements of the programme theory—organisational culture, self-efficacy and supervision. The authors shall conduct a survey among health managers as well as collect qualitative data through interviews with participants and non-participants selected purposively based on their planning and supervision performance. The authors will construct explanations in the form of context–mechanism–outcome configurations from the results. This will be iterative and the authors will use a <span class="hlt">realist</span> evaluation framework to refine the explanatory theories that are based on the findings to explain and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28269540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28269540"><span>Simplified <span class="hlt">realistic</span> human head model for simulating Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wenger, Cornelia; Bomzon, Ze'ev; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J; Miranda, Pedro C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are alternating electric fields in the intermediate frequency range (100-300 kHz) of low-intensity (1-3 V/cm). TTFields are an anti-mitotic treatment against solid tumors, which are approved for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients. These electric fields are induced non-invasively by transducer arrays placed directly on the patient's scalp. Cell culture experiments showed that treatment efficacy is dependent on the induced field intensity. In clinical practice, a software called NovoTalTM uses head measurements to estimate the optimal array placement to maximize the electric field <span class="hlt">delivery</span> to the tumor. Computational studies predict an increase in the tumor's electric field strength when adapting transducer arrays to its location. Ideally, a personalized head model could be created for each patient, to calculate the electric field distribution for the specific situation. Thus, the optimal transducer layout could be inferred from field calculation rather than distance measurements. Nonetheless, creating <span class="hlt">realistic</span> head models of patients is time-consuming and often needs user interaction, because automated image segmentation is prone to failure. This study presents a first approach to creating simplified head models consisting of convex hulls of the tissue layers. The model is able to account for anisotropic conductivity in the cortical tissues by using a tensor representation estimated from Diffusion Tensor Imaging. The induced electric field distribution is compared in the simplified and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> head models. The average field intensities in the brain and tumor are generally slightly higher in the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> head model, with a maximal ratio of 114% for a simplified model with reasonable layer thicknesses. Thus, the present pipeline is a fast and efficient means towards personalized head models with less complexity involved in characterizing tissue interfaces, while enabling accurate predictions of electric field distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4182460','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4182460"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few <span class="hlt">realistic</span> rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve <span class="hlt">realistic</span> real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> AR systems. PMID:25268480</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139652"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> modeling of neurons and networks: towards brain simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Angelo, Egidio; Solinas, Sergio; Garrido, Jesus; Casellato, Claudia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; Prestori, Francesca</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> modeling is a new advanced methodology for investigating brain functions. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> modeling is based on a detailed biophysical description of neurons and synapses, which can be integrated into microcircuits. The latter can, in turn, be further integrated to form large-scale brain networks and eventually to reconstruct complex brain systems. Here we provide a review of the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation strategy and use the cerebellar network as an example. This network has been carefully investigated at molecular and cellular level and has been the object of intense theoretical investigation. The cerebellum is thought to lie at the core of the forward controller operations of the brain and to implement timing and sensory prediction functions. The cerebellum is well described and provides a challenging field in which one of the most advanced <span class="hlt">realistic</span> microcircuit models has been generated. We illustrate how these models can be elaborated and embedded into robotic control systems to gain insight into how the cellular properties of cerebellar neurons emerge in integrated behaviors. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> network modeling opens up new perspectives for the investigation of brain pathologies and for the neurorobotic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812748"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> modeling of neurons and networks: towards brain simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>D’Angelo, Egidio; Solinas, Sergio; Garrido, Jesus; Casellato, Claudia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; Prestori, Francesca</p> <p></p> <p>Summary <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> modeling is a new advanced methodology for investigating brain functions. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> modeling is based on a detailed biophysical description of neurons and synapses, which can be integrated into microcircuits. The latter can, in turn, be further integrated to form large-scale brain networks and eventually to reconstruct complex brain systems. Here we provide a review of the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation strategy and use the cerebellar network as an example. This network has been carefully investigated at molecular and cellular level and has been the object of intense theoretical investigation. The cerebellum is thought to lie at the core of the forward controller operations of the brain and to implement timing and sensory prediction functions. The cerebellum is well described and provides a challenging field in which one of the most advanced <span class="hlt">realistic</span> microcircuit models has been generated. We illustrate how these models can be elaborated and embedded into robotic control systems to gain insight into how the cellular properties of cerebellar neurons emerge in integrated behaviors. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> network modeling opens up new perspectives for the investigation of brain pathologies and for the neurorobotic field. PMID:24139652</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25268480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25268480"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few <span class="hlt">realistic</span> rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve <span class="hlt">realistic</span> real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> AR systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4142116','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4142116"><span>Ocular <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of macromolecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Yoo-Chun; Chiang, Bryce; Wu, Xianggen; Prausnitz, Mark R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered invasive <span class="hlt">delivery</span> methods, because non--invasive ocular <span class="hlt">delivery</span> methods, such as eye drops, and systemic <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting. There is a need to improve <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive <span class="hlt">delivery</span> routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> and improved drug targeting within the eye to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. This review discusses the barriers to drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> via various ophthalmic routes of administration in the context of macromolecule <span class="hlt">delivery</span> and discusses efforts to develop controlled-release systems for <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of biopharmaceuticals to the eye. The growing number of macromolecular therapies in the eye needs improved drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> methods that increase drug efficacy, safety and patient compliance. PMID:24998941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1339361','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1339361"><span>Survey of Approaches to Generate <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Synthetic Graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Sangkeun; Powers, Sarah S; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Imam, Neena</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A graph is a flexible data structure that can represent relationships between entities. As with other data analysis tasks, the use of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> graphs is critical to obtaining valid research results. Unfortunately, using the actual ("real-world") graphs for research and new algorithm development is difficult due to the presence of sensitive information in the data or due to the scale of data. This results in practitioners developing algorithms and systems that employ synthetic graphs instead of real-world graphs. Generating <span class="hlt">realistic</span> synthetic graphs that provide reliable statistical confidence to algorithmic analysis and system evaluation involves addressing technical hurdles in a broad set of areas. This report surveys the state of the art in approaches to generate <span class="hlt">realistic</span> graphs that are derived from fitted graph models on real-world graphs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43J..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43J..04M"><span>Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Reservoir Operating Policy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on <span class="hlt">realistic</span> policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007888','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007888"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> pancake solenoids on particle transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gu, X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Field Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of '<span class="hlt">realistic</span>' solenoids on low energy particle transport. The finding in this paper may be applicable to some lower energy particle transport system design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22524895','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22524895"><span>Bosonic condensates in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> supersymmetric GUT cosmic strings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allys, Erwan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> structure of F-term Nambu-Goto cosmic strings forming in a general supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory implementation, assuming standard hybrid inflation. Examining the symmetry breaking of the unification gauge group down to the Standard Model, we discuss the minimal field content necessary to describe abelian cosmic strings appearing at the end of inflation. We find that several fields will condense in most theories, questioning the plausible occurrence of associated currents (bosonic and fermionic). We perturbatively evaluate the modification of their energy per unit length due to the condensates. We provide a criterion for comparing the usual abelian Higgs approximation used in cosmology to <span class="hlt">realistic</span> situations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15539600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15539600"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> species losses disproportionately reduce grassland resistance to biological invaders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zavaleta, Erika S; Hulvey, Kristin B</p> <p>2004-11-12</p> <p>Consequences of progressive biodiversity declines depend on the functional roles of individual species and the order in which species are lost. Most studies of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relation tackle only the first of these factors. We used observed variation in grassland diversity to design an experimental test of how <span class="hlt">realistic</span> species losses affect invasion resistance. Because entire plant functional groups disappeared faster than expected by chance, resistance declined dramatically with progressive species losses. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> biodiversity losses, even of rare species, can thus affect ecosystem processes far more than indicated by randomized-loss experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523889','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523889"><span>A GPU tool for efficient, accurate, and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation of cone beam CT projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jia, Xun; Yan, Hao; Cerviño, Laura; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Simulation of x-ray projection images plays an important role in cone beam CT (CBCT) related research projects, such as the design of reconstruction algorithms or scanners. A projection image contains primary signal, scatter signal, and noise. It is computationally demanding to perform accurate and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> computations for all of these components. In this work, the authors develop a package on graphics processing unit (GPU), called gDRR, for the accurate and efficient computations of x-ray projection images in CBCT under clinically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Methods: The primary signal is computed by a trilinear ray-tracing algorithm. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is then performed, yielding the primary signal and the scatter signal, both with noise. A denoising process specifically designed for Poisson noise removal is applied to obtain a smooth scatter signal. The noise component is then obtained by combining the difference between the MC primary and the ray-tracing primary signals, and the difference between the MC simulated scatter and the denoised scatter signals. Finally, a calibration step converts the calculated noise signal into a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> one by scaling its amplitude according to a specified mAs level. The computations of gDRR include a number of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> features, e.g., a bowtie filter, a polyenergetic spectrum, and detector response. The implementation is fine-tuned for a GPU platform to yield high computational efficiency. Results: For a typical CBCT projection with a polyenergetic spectrum, the calculation time for the primary signal using the ray-tracing algorithms is 1.2–2.3 s, while the MC simulations take 28.1–95.3 s, depending on the voxel size. Computation time for all other steps is negligible. The ray-tracing primary signal matches well with the primary part of the MC simulation result. The MC simulated scatter signal using gDRR is in agreement with EGSnrc results with a relative difference of 3.8%. A noise calibration process is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23231286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23231286"><span>A GPU tool for efficient, accurate, and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation of cone beam CT projections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jia, Xun; Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Simulation of x-ray projection images plays an important role in cone beam CT (CBCT) related research projects, such as the design of reconstruction algorithms or scanners. A projection image contains primary signal, scatter signal, and noise. It is computationally demanding to perform accurate and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> computations for all of these components. In this work, the authors develop a package on graphics processing unit (GPU), called gDRR, for the accurate and efficient computations of x-ray projection images in CBCT under clinically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The primary signal is computed by a trilinear ray-tracing algorithm. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is then performed, yielding the primary signal and the scatter signal, both with noise. A denoising process specifically designed for Poisson noise removal is applied to obtain a smooth scatter signal. The noise component is then obtained by combining the difference between the MC primary and the ray-tracing primary signals, and the difference between the MC simulated scatter and the denoised scatter signals. Finally, a calibration step converts the calculated noise signal into a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> one by scaling its amplitude according to a specified mAs level. The computations of gDRR include a number of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> features, e.g., a bowtie filter, a polyenergetic spectrum, and detector response. The implementation is fine-tuned for a GPU platform to yield high computational efficiency. For a typical CBCT projection with a polyenergetic spectrum, the calculation time for the primary signal using the ray-tracing algorithms is 1.2-2.3 s, while the MC simulations take 28.1-95.3 s, depending on the voxel size. Computation time for all other steps is negligible. The ray-tracing primary signal matches well with the primary part of the MC simulation result. The MC simulated scatter signal using gDRR is in agreement with EGSnrc results with a relative difference of 3.8%. A noise calibration process is conducted to calibrate g</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25499578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25499578"><span>Factors contributing to the effectiveness of physical activity counselling in primary care: a <span class="hlt">realist</span> systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gagliardi, Anna R; Abdallah, Flavia; Faulkner, Guy; Ciliska, Donna; Hicks, Audrey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Physical activity (PA) counselling in primary care increases PA but is not consistently practiced. This study examined factors that optimise the <span class="hlt">delivery</span> and impact of PA counselling. A <span class="hlt">realist</span> systematic review based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and RAMESES principles was conducted to identify essential components of PA counselling. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Physical Education Index were searched from 2000 to 2013 for studies that evaluated family practice PA counselling. Of 1546 articles identified, 10 were eligible for review (3 systematic reviews, 5 randomised controlled trials, 2 observational studies). Counselling provided by clinicians or counsellors alone that explored motivation increased self-reported PA at least 12 months following intervention. Multiple sessions may sustain increased PA beyond 12 months. Given the paucity of eligible studies and limited detail reported about interventions, further research is needed to establish the optimal design and <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of PA counselling. Research and planning should consider predisposing, reinforcing and enabling design features identified in these studies. Since research shows that PA counselling promotes PA but is not widely practiced, primary care providers will require training and tools to operationalize PA counselling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=IDEALISM&id=EJ1144509','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=IDEALISM&id=EJ1144509"><span>Hope in Janusz Korczak's Pedagogy of <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Idealism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Silverman, Marc</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the approach of "<span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Idealism" to moral education developed by the humanist-progressive moral educator Janusz Korczak, and the role hope plays in it. This pair of terms seems to be an oxymoron. However, their employment is intentional and the article will demonstrate their dialectical interdependence:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=catherine+AND+great&pg=5&id=EJ628898','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=catherine+AND+great&pg=5&id=EJ628898"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Business Data in Teaching Business Problem Solving.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chen, Catherine</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Describes a business data generator to assist instructors in generating <span class="hlt">realistic</span> business data in great volume for teaching and learning activities. Illustrates how the software application allows instructors to manipulate parameters to customize the data to reflect problem situation. (Contains 40 references.) (JOW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Speed+AND+Reading+AND+Technique&pg=4&id=EJ685229','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Speed+AND+Reading+AND+Technique&pg=4&id=EJ685229"><span>Automated Finger Spelling by Highly <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> 3D Animation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Beni, Gerardo</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly <span class="hlt">realistic</span> hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via programmable blending of animation segments. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=attitudes+AND+counselling&pg=6&id=EJ948957','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=attitudes+AND+counselling&pg=6&id=EJ948957"><span>Magical <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Pathways into and under the Psychotherapeutic Imaginary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Speedy, Jane</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>My experience of people's life stories from my work as a narrative therapist consistently destabilised distinctions between imagined/magical and real experiences. I came to realise that the day-to-day magical <span class="hlt">realist</span> juxtapositions I came upon were encounters with people's daily lives, as lived, that have remained unacknowledged within the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065556&hterms=roma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Droma','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065556&hterms=roma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Droma"><span>Synthesis Of <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Animations Of A Person Speaking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scott, Kenneth C.; Kagels, David S.; Watson, Stephen H.; Rom, Hillel S.; Lorre, Jean J.; Wright, John R.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Actors computer program implements automated process that synthesizes <span class="hlt">realistic</span> animations of person speaking. Produces "newscaster" type video sequences. Uses images of person and, therefore, not limited to cartoons and cartoonlike movies. Potential applications also include use of process for automatically producing on-the-fly animations for human/computer interfaces and for reducing bandwidth needed to transmit video telephone signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thesis+AND+writing&pg=7&id=EJ1005384','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thesis+AND+writing&pg=7&id=EJ1005384"><span>The Potential and Challenges of Critical <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Ethnography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barron, Ian</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article revisits the critical <span class="hlt">realist</span> ethnographic process that was adopted in my doctoral thesis, which was concerned with the experiences of ethnic identity of white British and Pakistani British children as they started kindergarten in the northwest of England. The article focuses on the ethnography that emerged from the visits that I…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065556&hterms=speaking+english&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dspeaking%2Benglish','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065556&hterms=speaking+english&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dspeaking%2Benglish"><span>Synthesis Of <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Animations Of A Person Speaking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scott, Kenneth C.; Kagels, David S.; Watson, Stephen H.; Rom, Hillel S.; Lorre, Jean J.; Wright, John R.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Actors computer program implements automated process that synthesizes <span class="hlt">realistic</span> animations of person speaking. Produces "newscaster" type video sequences. Uses images of person and, therefore, not limited to cartoons and cartoonlike movies. Potential applications also include use of process for automatically producing on-the-fly animations for human/computer interfaces and for reducing bandwidth needed to transmit video telephone signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=RCT&pg=6&id=EJ1093485','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=RCT&pg=6&id=EJ1093485"><span>Critical <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Review: Exploring the Real, beyond the Empirical</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edgley, Alison; Stickley, Theodore; Timmons, Stephen; Meal, Andy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article defines the "critical <span class="hlt">realist</span> review", a literature-based methodological approach to critical analysis of health care studies (or any discipline charged with social interventions) that is robust, insightful and essential for the complexities of twenty-first century evidence-based health and social care. We argue that this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=methodology&pg=5&id=EJ1126215','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=methodology&pg=5&id=EJ1126215"><span>Using a <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Research Methodology in Policy Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lourie, Megan; Rata, Elizabeth</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The article describes the usefulness of a <span class="hlt">realist</span> methodology in linking sociological theory to empirically obtained data through the development of a methodological device. Three layers of analysis were integrated: 1. the findings from a case study about Maori language education in New Zealand; 2. the identification and analysis of contradictions…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=multinational+AND+companies&pg=6&id=EJ620056','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=multinational+AND+companies&pg=6&id=EJ620056"><span>International Management: Creating a More <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Global Planning Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Waldron, Darryl G.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the need for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65854&keyword=owl&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65854&keyword=owl&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A SPATIALLY <span class="hlt">REALISTIC</span> MODEL FOR INFORMING FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Spatially <span class="hlt">realistic</span> population models (SRPMs) address a fundamental<br>problem commonly confronted by wildlife managers - predicting the<br>effects of landscape-scale habitat management on an animal population.<br>SRPMs typically consist of three submodels: (1) a habitat submodel...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+analysis+AND+statistics&pg=2&id=EJ829437','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+analysis+AND+statistics&pg=2&id=EJ829437"><span>A <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muske, Kenneth R.; Myers, John A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">realistic</span> applied chemical engineering experimental design and statistical analysis project is documented in this article. This project has been implemented as part of the professional development and applied statistics courses at Villanova University over the past five years. The novel aspects of this project are that the students are given a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Realistic+AND+fiction&pg=4&id=EJ518977','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Realistic+AND+fiction&pg=4&id=EJ518977"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Fiction and the Social Studies. Children's Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mitchell-Powell, Brenda, Ed.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Asserts that children's literature is an effective tool to access and present sophisticated social studies concepts in the elementary classroom. Maintains that <span class="hlt">realistic</span> fiction can integrate the social sciences with philosophy and religion. Presents a bibliographic essay including children's books and teacher resources. (CFR)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Realistic+AND+fiction&pg=5&id=EJ428862','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Realistic+AND+fiction&pg=5&id=EJ428862"><span>A Sense of Responsibility in <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Children's Fiction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rochelle, Warren</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the qualities of successful <span class="hlt">realistic</span> children's fiction and examines issues involved in writing and publishing for children. A historical overview of the image of children in fiction is presented; dealing with sensitive, emotional topics is discussed; and concerns of editors and publishers of children's fiction are addressed. (12…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Realistic+AND+fiction&pg=3&id=EJ594243','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Realistic+AND+fiction&pg=3&id=EJ594243"><span>"Shut My Mouth Wide Open": <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Fiction and Social Action.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tyson, Cynthia A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Shares the responses of seven urban, male, African-American fifth graders to contemporary <span class="hlt">realistic</span> fiction, discussing how the tying of this literature to the events in the boys' lives had the potential to move them toward social action. The paper examines the following: literature as a catalyst, reader responses to texts, critical literacy, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=realistic+AND+fiction&pg=4&id=EJ518977','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=realistic+AND+fiction&pg=4&id=EJ518977"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Fiction and the Social Studies. Children's Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mitchell-Powell, Brenda, Ed.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Asserts that children's literature is an effective tool to access and present sophisticated social studies concepts in the elementary classroom. Maintains that <span class="hlt">realistic</span> fiction can integrate the social sciences with philosophy and religion. Presents a bibliographic essay including children's books and teacher resources. (CFR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=realistic+AND+fiction&pg=5&id=EJ428862','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=realistic+AND+fiction&pg=5&id=EJ428862"><span>A Sense of Responsibility in <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Children's Fiction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rochelle, Warren</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the qualities of successful <span class="hlt">realistic</span> children's fiction and examines issues involved in writing and publishing for children. A historical overview of the image of children in fiction is presented; dealing with sensitive, emotional topics is discussed; and concerns of editors and publishers of children's fiction are addressed. (12…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capacitors&pg=4&id=EJ203688','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capacitors&pg=4&id=EJ203688"><span>Two-Capacitor Problem: A More <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> View.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Powell, R. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the two-capacitor problem by considering the self-inductance of the circuit used and by determining how well the usual series RC circuit approximates the two-capacitor problem when <span class="hlt">realistic</span> values of L, C, and R are chosen. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=PAPADAKIS&id=EJ1134969','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=PAPADAKIS&id=EJ1134969"><span>Improving Mathematics Teaching in Kindergarten with <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Mathematical Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Papadakis, Stamatios; Kalogiannakis, Michail; Zaranis, Nicholas</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The present study investigates and compares the influence of teaching <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Mathematics on the development of mathematical competence in kindergarten. The sample consisted of 231 Greek kindergarten students. For the implementation of the survey, we conducted an intervention, which included one experimental and one control group. Children in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518401','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518401"><span>Modeling Computer Communication Networks in a <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> 3D Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>visualization in OPNET . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Sample NetViz visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> 3D terrains...scenario in OPNET . . . 19 10. OPNET 3DNV only displays connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 11. The digitally connected battlefield...confirmation tool 12 OPNET Optimized Network Evaluation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 NetViz Network Visualization</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ergonomic+AND+design&pg=4&id=ED319367','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ergonomic+AND+design&pg=4&id=ED319367"><span>What Today's Educational Technology Needs: Defensible Evaluations and <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Implementation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roweton, William E.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>It is argued that in order to make computer assisted instruction effective in the schools, educators should pay more attention to implementation issues (including modifying teacher attitudes, changing classroom routines, and offering <span class="hlt">realistic</span> technical training and support) and to producing understandable product and performance evaluations.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65854&keyword=owl&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90697075&CFTOKEN=76166813','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65854&keyword=owl&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90697075&CFTOKEN=76166813"><span>A SPATIALLY <span class="hlt">REALISTIC</span> MODEL FOR INFORMING FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Spatially <span class="hlt">realistic</span> population models (SRPMs) address a fundamental<br>problem commonly confronted by wildlife managers - predicting the<br>effects of landscape-scale habitat management on an animal population.<br>SRPMs typically consist of three submodels: (1) a habitat submodel...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=health+AND+care&pg=7&id=EJ1093485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=health+AND+care&pg=7&id=EJ1093485"><span>Critical <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Review: Exploring the Real, beyond the Empirical</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edgley, Alison; Stickley, Theodore; Timmons, Stephen; Meal, Andy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article defines the "critical <span class="hlt">realist</span> review", a literature-based methodological approach to critical analysis of health care studies (or any discipline charged with social interventions) that is robust, insightful and essential for the complexities of twenty-first century evidence-based health and social care. We argue that this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=policy+AND+analysis&pg=7&id=EJ1126215','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=policy+AND+analysis&pg=7&id=EJ1126215"><span>Using a <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Research Methodology in Policy Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lourie, Megan; Rata, Elizabeth</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The article describes the usefulness of a <span class="hlt">realist</span> methodology in linking sociological theory to empirically obtained data through the development of a methodological device. Three layers of analysis were integrated: 1. the findings from a case study about Maori language education in New Zealand; 2. the identification and analysis of contradictions…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=capacitors&pg=4&id=EJ203688','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=capacitors&pg=4&id=EJ203688"><span>Two-Capacitor Problem: A More <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> View.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Powell, R. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the two-capacitor problem by considering the self-inductance of the circuit used and by determining how well the usual series RC circuit approximates the two-capacitor problem when <span class="hlt">realistic</span> values of L, C, and R are chosen. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemical+AND+Process+AND+Design&pg=6&id=EJ829437','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemical+AND+Process+AND+Design&pg=6&id=EJ829437"><span>A <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muske, Kenneth R.; Myers, John A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">realistic</span> applied chemical engineering experimental design and statistical analysis project is documented in this article. This project has been implemented as part of the professional development and applied statistics courses at Villanova University over the past five years. The novel aspects of this project are that the students are given a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447313.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447313.pdf"><span>Developing Skills: <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Work Environments in Further Education. FEDA Reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria</p> <p></p> <p>To establish the prevalence and perceived value of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469964"><span>Highly <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, immersive training for navy corpsmen: preliminary results.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; McWhorter, Stephanie K</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Highly <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, immersive training has been developed for Navy corpsmen based on the success of the Infantry Immersion Trainer. This new training is built around scenarios that are designed to depict real-life, operational situations. Each scenario used in the training includes sights, sounds, smells, and distractions to simulate <span class="hlt">realistic</span> and challenging combat situations. The primary objective of this study was to assess corpsmen participants' satisfaction with highly <span class="hlt">realistic</span> training. The study sample consisted of 434 male Navy service members attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Corpsmen participants completed surveys after receiving the training. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with the training overall and with several specific elements of the training. The element of the training that the corpsmen rated the highest was the use of live actors. The vast majority of the participants reported that the training had increased their overall confidence about being successful corpsmen and had strengthened their confidence in their ability to provide care under pressure. Additional research should extend highly <span class="hlt">realistic</span> training to other military medical provider populations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141502.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141502.pdf"><span>Representations of Adoption in Contemporary <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Fiction for Young Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parsons, Sue Christian; Fuxa, Robin; Kander, Faryl; Hardy, Dana</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this critical content analysis of thirty-seven contemporary <span class="hlt">realistic</span> fiction books about adoption, the authors examine how adoption and adoptive families are depicted in young adult (YA) literature. The critical literacy theoretical frame brings into focus significant social implications of these depictions as the researchers illuminate and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reader+AND+response+AND+critical+AND+literacy&pg=2&id=EJ594243','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reader+AND+response+AND+critical+AND+literacy&pg=2&id=EJ594243"><span>"Shut My Mouth Wide Open": <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Fiction and Social Action.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tyson, Cynthia A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Shares the responses of seven urban, male, African-American fifth graders to contemporary <span class="hlt">realistic</span> fiction, discussing how the tying of this literature to the events in the boys' lives had the potential to move them toward social action. The paper examines the following: literature as a catalyst, reader responses to texts, critical literacy, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=animals+AND+only+AND+pets&id=ED385840','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=animals+AND+only+AND+pets&id=ED385840"><span>Engendering Anthropocentrism: Lessons from Children's <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Animal Stories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kathleen R.</p> <p></p> <p>In children's <span class="hlt">realistic</span> stories about animals a number of wholly and unambiguously anthropocentric assumptions are at work. For instance, in a study most of the books (81%) in one sampling of 50 stories involve a pet or the process of domesticating a wild animal. In most cases the primary animal character is a dog or horse. The predominance of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf"><span>43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. 418.7 Section 418.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of Water <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. Project irrigation water...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title43-vol1-sec418-11.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title43-vol1-sec418-11.pdf"><span>43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... accordance with § 418.9. No amount of water will be delivered in excess of the individual water user's... <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of Water <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> § 418.11 Valid headgate <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. The valid water <span class="hlt">deliveries</span> at the headgate are set by the product of eligible land actually irrigated multiplied by the appropriate water duty...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf"><span>43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. 418.7 Section 418.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of Water <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. Project irrigation water...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title43-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title43-vol1-sec418-7.pdf"><span>43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. 418.7 Section 418.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of Water <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. Project irrigation water...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25954946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25954946"><span>Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of a Micro-CT Based Bio-<span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Fruit Fly Wing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brandt, Joshua; Doig, Graham; Tsafnat, Naomi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aerodynamic features of a bio-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> 3D fruit fly wing in steady state (snapshot) flight <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were analyzed numerically. The wing geometry was created from high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of the fruit fly Drosophila virilis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the wing were conducted at ultra-low Reynolds numbers ranging from 71 to 200, and at angles of attack ranging from -10° to +30°. It was found that in the 3D bio-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> model, the corrugations of the wing created localized circulation regions in the flow field, most notably at higher angles of attack near the wing tip. Analyses of a simplified flat wing geometry showed higher lift to drag performance values for any given angle of attack at these Reynolds numbers, though very similar performance is noted at -10°. Results have indicated that the simplified flat wing can successfully be used to approximate high-level properties such as aerodynamic coefficients and overall performance trends as well as large flow-field structures. However, local pressure peaks and near-wing flow features induced by the corrugations are unable to be replicated by the simple wing. We therefore recommend that accurate 3D bio-<span class="hlt">realistic</span> geometries be used when modelling insect wings where such information is useful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19141939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19141939"><span>Head modeling for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> electrical brain activity mapping identification of a multimodal neuroimaging protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vatta, F; Bruno, P; Di Salle, F; Esposito, F; Meneghini, F; Mininel, S; Rodaro, M</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> electrical brain activity mapping implies reconstructing and visualizing sources of electrical brain activity within the specific patient's head. This requires the assumption of a precise and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> volume conductor model of the specific subject's head, i.e., a 3-D representation of the head's electrical properties in terms of shape and electrical conductivities. Source reconstruction accuracy is influenced by errors committed in head modeling. Clinical images, MRI and CT, are used to identify the head structures to be included in the volume conductor head model. Modeling accuracy mainly relies on the correct image-based identification of head structures, characterized by different electrical conductivities, to be included as separate compartments in the model. This paper analyzes the imaging protocols used in clinical practice to define the most suitable procedures for identification of the various head structures necessary to build an accurate head model also in the presence of morphologic brain pathologies. Furthermore, tissues anisotropy is discussed and identified as well. With this work we have identified a protocol for the acquisition of multimodal patient's imaging data for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> electrical brain activity mapping purposes, able to account for pathological <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and for head tissues anisotropy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22481816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22481816"><span>A probabilistic approach to <span class="hlt">realistic</span> face synthesis with a single uncalibrated image.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shim, Hyunjung</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel approach to automatic face modeling for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> synthesis from an unknown face image, using a probabilistic face diffuse model and a generic face specular map. We construct a probabilistic face diffuse model for estimating the albedo and normals of the input face. Then, we develop a generic face specular map for estimating the specularity of face. Using the estimated albedo, normal and specular information, we can synthesize the face under arbitrary lighting and viewing directions <span class="hlt">realistically</span>. Unlike many existing techniques, our approach can extract both the diffuse and specular information of face without involving an intensive 3D matching procedure. We conduct three different experiments to show our improvement over the prior art. First, we compare the proposed algorithm with previous techniques, including the state of the art, to demonstrate our achievement in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> face synthesis. Moreover, we evaluate the proposed algorithm over non-automatic face modeling techniques through a subjective study. This evaluation is meaningful in that it tells us how far the proposed algorithm as well as others are from the real photograph in terms of the perceptual quality. Finally, we apply our face model for improving the face recognition performance under varying illumination <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and show that the proposed algorithm is effective to enhance the face recognition rate. Thanks to the compact representation and the effective inference scheme, our technique is applicable for many practical applications, such as avatar creation, digital face cloning, face normalization, deidentification and many others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497072"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> prediction of solid pharmaceutical oxidation products by using a novel forced oxidation system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ueyama, Eiji; Tamura, Kousuke; Mizukawa, Kousei; Kano, Kenji</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This study investigated a novel solid-state-based forced oxidation system to enable a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> prediction of pharmaceutical product oxidation, a key consideration in drug development and manufacture. Polysorbate 80 and ferric(III) acetylacetonate were used as an organic hydroperoxide source and a transition metal catalyst, respectively. Homogeneous solutions of target compounds and these reagents were prepared in a mixed organic solvent. The organic solvent was removed rapidly under reduced pressure, and the oxidation of the resulting dried solid was investigated. Analysis of the oxidation products generated in test compounds by this proposed forced oxidation system using HPLC showed a high similarity with those generated during more prolonged naturalistic drug oxidation. The proposed system provided a better predictive performance in prediction of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> oxidative degradants of the drugs tested than did other established methods. Another advantage of this system was that the generation of undesired products of hydrolysis, solvolysis, and thermolysis was prevented because efficient oxidation was achieved under mild <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The results of this study suggest that this system is suitable for a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> prediction of oxidative degradation of solid pharmaceuticals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284771"><span>A generalized pyramid matching kernel for human action recognition in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> videos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Quan; Zou, Weijia; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wenjun</p> <p>2013-10-24</p> <p>Human action recognition is an increasingly important research topic in the fields of video sensing, analysis and understanding. Caused by unconstrained sensing <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, there exist large intra-class variations and inter-class ambiguities in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> videos, which hinder the improvement of recognition performance for recent vision-based action recognition systems. In this paper, we propose a generalized pyramid matching kernel (GPMK) for recognizing human actions in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> videos, based on a multi-channel "bag of words" representation constructed from local spatial-temporal features of video clips. As an extension to the spatial-temporal pyramid matching (STPM) kernel, the GPMK leverages heterogeneous visual cues in multiple feature descriptor types and spatial-temporal grid granularity levels, to build a valid similarity metric between two video clips for kernel-based classification. Instead of the predefined and fixed weights used in STPM, we present a simple, yet effective, method to compute adaptive channel weights of GPMK based on the kernel target alignment from training data. It incorporates prior knowledge and the data-driven information of different channels in a principled way. The experimental results on three challenging video datasets (i.e., Hollywood2, Youtube and HMDB51) validate the superiority of our GPMK w.r.t. the traditional STPM kernel for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> human action recognition and outperform the state-of-the-art results in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823459"><span>Searching for the mechanisms of change: a protocol for a <span class="hlt">realist</span> review of batterer treatment programmes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cheff, Rebecca; Finn, Debbie; Davloor, Whitney; O'Campo, Patricia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Conflicting results reported by evaluations of typical batterer intervention programmes leave many judicial officials and policymakers uncertain about the best way to respond to domestic violence, and whether to recommend and fund these programmes. Traditional evaluations and systematic reviews tend to focus predominantly on whether the programmes ‘worked’ (eg, reduced recidivism) often at the exclusion of understanding for whom they may or may not have worked, under what circumstances, and why. Methods and analysis We are undertaking a <span class="hlt">realist</span> review of the batterer treatment programme literature with the aim of addressing this gap. Keeping with the goals of <span class="hlt">realist</span> review, our primary aims are to identify the theory that underlies these programmes, highlight the mechanisms that trigger changes in participant behaviour and finally explain why these programmes help some individuals reduce their use of violence and under what <span class="hlt">conditions</span> they are effective or not effective. We begin by describing the process of perpetrator treatment, and by proposing an initial theoretical model of behaviour change that will be tested by our review. We then describe the criteria for inclusion of an evaluation into the review, the search strategy we will use to identify the studies, and the plan for data extraction and analysis. Ethics and dissemination The results of this review will be written up using the RAMESES Guidelines for <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Synthesis, and disseminated through peer-reviewed publications aimed at the practitioner community as well as presented at community forums, and at violence against women conferences. Ethics approval was not needed. PMID:27053268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13C1526H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13C1526H"><span><span class="hlt">Realistically</span> Predicting Saturation-Excess Runoff With El-SWAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoang, L.; Schneiderman, E. M.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Moore, K. E.; Owens, E. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Saturation excess runoff (SER) is without doubt the major runoff mechanism in the humid well vegetated areas where infiltration rates often exceed the medium rainfall intensity. Despite its preponderance, incorporating SER in the distributed models has been slow and fraught with difficulties. The short term objective of this paper to adjust the generally used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to include SER and test the results in the Catskill Mountains that is the source of most of New York City's water. The long term goal is to use the adjusted distributed runoff mechanism in water quality models to aid in the design of effective management practices. The current version of SWAT uses information of soil plant characteristics and hydrologic <span class="hlt">condition</span> to predict runoff and thus is implicitly based on infiltration-excess runoff. Previous attempts to incorporate SER mechanism in SWAT fell short because they were unable to distribute water from a Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) to another. In the current version called El-SWAT, this shortcoming has been overcome by redefining HRU to include landscape position through the topographic index, grouping the newly defined HRU into wetness classes and by introducing a perched water table with the ability to route interflow from "dryer" to "wetter" HRU wetness classes. Mathematically, the perched aquifer is a non-linear reservoir that generates rapid subsurface stormflow as the perched water table rises. The El-SWAT model was tested in the Town Brook watershed in the upper reaches of the West Branch of the Delaware in the Catskill Mountains. The results showed that El-SWAT could predict discharge well with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.69 and 0.84 for daily and monthly time steps. Compared to the original SWAT model, El-SWAT predicted less surface runoff and groundwater flow and a greater lateral flow component. The saturated areas in El-SWAT were concentrated in locations with high topographic index and was in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26303400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26303400"><span>Informing a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> laboratory erosion-testing regime--observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qutieshat, A S; Mason, A G; Chadwick, R G</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>To measure aspects of fizzy drink consumption in a social environment to inform the development of a laboratory testing regime. This was an observational study in which participants were invited to attend one of four pizza and soft drink parties. All such foods and drinks were served in an air <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> room at a temperature of 24°C. All drinks were at a temperature of 4°C and each participant was asked to spit out, into graduated cups, their first and second sips. Both the temperature and volume of these were measured. Upon completion of the party the volume of drinks consumed was determined. Video footage of the experiment was recorded for subsequent analysis to determine sip count and the elapsed time period between first and last sip. These values were compared to the analogous measured value of expectorated volume in order to assess the usefulness of video observation in the context of this work. The mean expectorated beverage temperature was 14.9±2.0°C. The mean time spent drinking was 44.2±17.4 minutes with a mean consumption rate of 13.3±6.0 ml/min. Only the sip volume and sip count per can values were significantly different between sexes (P<0.05) with females displaying lower values for volume and a higher sip count. There was close agreement between the sip volume values observed and calculated using video observation derived parameters. Several human drinking behaviour values were reported in this study and these will be of value in the development of more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> laboratory erosion-testing regimes. It is concluded, within the limitations of this work, that (1) there are differences in the drinking behaviour of males and females with respect to sip volume and count, (2) the intraoral rise in temperature of a 4°C beverage is lower than that used in previous laboratory simulations and (3) the values derived from video observation agree with those measured directly validating this technique for use in further studies. The work provides valuable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RaSc...39.1S20M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RaSc...39.1S20M"><span>GPS receiver performance characterization under <span class="hlt">realistic</span> ionospheric phase scintillation environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morrissey, Thomas N.; Shallberg, Karl W.; van Dierendonck, A. J.; Nicholson, Matthew J.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>It is well known that ionospheric scintillation has the potential to affect all types of GPS receivers, even dual-frequency military precise-positioning service versions. In a previous effort the degree of degradation to Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) operation caused by scintillation, on the basis of simulated data input to an actual WAAS reference receiver under carefully controlled laboratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, was analyzed and reported [, 2000]. This degradation is manifested in increased errors for carrier phase and code range measurements and in a higher probability of loss of GPS signal track. However, the results supported the assessment that scintillation should not be a problem for WAAS receivers in the conterminous United States, except perhaps during the very rare occurrence of a "severe geomagnetic storm." The previous work was briefed in a number of fora, and a detailed report was widely distributed throughout the ionospheric community along with a request for identification of any "gaps" in the results that could be addressed with further testing. From the feedback received, the following tests were conducted: (1) tests with long-duration deep amplitude nulls, corresponding to the GPS signal moving with the ionospheric disturbance; (2) tests with phase scintillation waveforms derived from 50 Hz ionospheric scintillation monitor (ISM) data previously collected by the U.S. Air Force (Philips Laboratory) at Antofagosta, Chile; (3) tests of a modified military single-frequency receiver (Enhanced Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (EMAGR)) side-by-side with the WAAS receiver, with emphasis on maintaining lock at L1; and (4) tests at values of input carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) lower (i.e., down to 36 dB Hz) than those used in the original tests. The tests with deep amplitude nulls were reported by [2002], and the tests with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> input phase scintillation waveforms were reported at the Ionospheric Effects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26264913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26264913"><span>A systematic, <span class="hlt">realist</span> review of zooprophylaxis for malaria control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Blánaid; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ross, Nancy A; Michel, Pascal</p> <p>2015-08-12</p> <p>Integrated vector management (IVM) is recommended as a sustainable approach to malaria control. IVM consists of combining vector control methods based on scientific evidence to maximize efficacy and cost-effectiveness while minimizing negative impacts, such as insecticide resistance and environmental damage. Zooprophylaxis has been identified as a possible component of IVM as livestock may draw mosquitoes away from humans, decreasing human-vector contact and malaria transmission. It is possible, however, that livestock may actually draw mosquitoes to humans, increasing malaria transmission (zoopotentiation). The goal of this paper is to take a <span class="hlt">realist</span> approach to a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to understand the contexts under which zooprophylaxis or zoopotentiation occur. Three electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'zooprophylaxis' and 'zoopotentiation', and forward and backward citation tracking employed, to identify relevant articles. Only empirical, peer-reviewed articles were included. Critical appraisal was applied to articles retained for full review. Twenty empirical studies met inclusion criteria after critical appraisal. A range of experimental and observational study designs were reported. Outcome measures included human malaria infection and mosquito feeding behaviour. Two key factors were consistently associated with zooprophylaxis and zoopotentiation: the characteristics of the local mosquito vector, and the location of livestock relative to human sleeping quarters. These associations were modified by the use of bed nets and socio-economic factors. This review suggests that malaria risk is reduced (zooprophylaxis) in areas where predominant mosquito species do not prefer human hosts, where livestock are kept at a distance from human sleeping quarters at night, and where mosquito nets or other protective measures are used. Zoopotentiation occurs where livestock are housed within or near human sleeping quarters at night</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21494730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21494730"><span>Ion size effects on the electric double layer of a spherical particle in a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> salt-free concentrated suspension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roa, Rafael; Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio</p> <p>2011-05-28</p> <p>A new modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation accounting for the finite size of the ions valid for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> salt-free concentrated suspensions has been derived, extending the formalism developed for pure salt-free suspensions [Roa et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 3960-3968] to real experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. These <span class="hlt">realistic</span> suspensions include water dissociation ions and those generated by atmospheric carbon dioxide contamination, in addition to the added counterions released by the particles to the solution. The electric potential at the particle surface will be calculated for different ion sizes and compared with classical Poisson-Boltzmann predictions for point-like ions, as a function of particle charge and volume fraction. The <span class="hlt">realistic</span> predictions turn out to be essential to achieve a closer picture of real salt-free suspensions, and even more important when ionic size effects are incorporated to the electric double layer description. We think that both corrections have to be taken into account when developing new <span class="hlt">realistic</span> electrokinetic models, and surely will help in the comparison with experiments for low-salt or <span class="hlt">realistic</span> salt-free systems. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1353M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1353M"><span>Meteorological impact of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> Terra Nova Bay polynyas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morelli, Sandra</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Antarctic marginal sea ice zone is influenced by the extent of sea-ice cover. In areas of open water, a direct contact is established and intense energy exchanges occur, due to the large difference of temperature between the water and the air above it. This implies that the polynyas are areas where the ocean exchanges energy with the atmosphere and as a result they have an effect on the polar meteorology/climate. The work presented here concerns real polynya events in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of the impact of polynyas on the atmosphere by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006) was used and ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (Casini and Morelli, 2007) A polynya of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> size (as observed by satellite image) was included in the initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for the simulations and a study of the air circulation during the events is found in Morelli et al. (2007), Morelli and Casini (2008), Morelli et al. (2009). The Eta Model reproduced the evolution of upper and mod-level <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in good agreement with AVHRR observations (Morelli, 2008, Morelli and Parmiggiani, 2009). Also, the simulated 10 m wind was well correlated with the observed extension of the polynya. In order to isolate the effect of the presence of the open water area on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the atmospheric circulation, further simulations were performed without the presence of the polynya, i.e. with its extent covered with sea ice. The numerical simulations show that the polynyas act to increase the speed of the air above them and generate strong heat fluxes that warm the air. The effects are found over and downwind the sea ice free area. Results from the Eta</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm"><span>Vacuum-assisted <span class="hlt">delivery</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted <span class="hlt">delivery</span> To use the sharing features on ... the baby through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> Needed? Even after your cervix is ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1107883','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1107883"><span>Articulating feedstock <span class="hlt">delivery</span> device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Jordan, Kevin</p> <p>2013-11-05</p> <p>A fully articulable feedstock <span class="hlt">delivery</span> device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691738"><span>Drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> system based on chronobiology--A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mandal, Asim Sattwa; Biswas, Nikhil; Karim, Kazi Masud; Guha, Arijit; Chatterjee, Sugata; Behera, Mamata; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>With the advancement in the field of chronobiology, modern drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> approaches have been elevated to a new concept of chronopharmacology i.e. the ability to deliver the therapeutic agent to a patient in a staggered profile. However the major drawback in the development of such <span class="hlt">delivery</span> system that matches the circadian rhythm requires the availability of precise technology (pulsatile drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span>). The increasing research interest surrounding this <span class="hlt">delivery</span> system has widened the areas of pharmaceutics in particular with many more sub-disciplines expected to coexist in the near future. This review on chronopharmaceutics gives a comprehensive emphasis on potential disease targets, revisits the existing technologies in hand and also addresses the theoretical approaches to emerging discipline such as genetic engineering and target based specific molecules. With the biological prospective approaches in delivering drugs it is well understood that safer and more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> approaches in the therapy of diseases will be achieved in the days to come.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18068312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18068312"><span>[Emergency caesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span>: is there an ideal decision-to-<span class="hlt">delivery</span> interval?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pierre, F; Rudigoz, R-C</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Among data on medical liability for obstetrical practice in labour ward, one of the claims concerns the decision-to-<span class="hlt">delivery</span> interval during emergency caesarean section, for which an optimal time is frequently advocated. A <span class="hlt">realistic</span> review on this subject is needed. It mainly allows to note that: unlike current opinion, neonatal prognosis is more dependent on the causal pathology than on decision-to-<span class="hlt">delivery</span> interval; the transfer time to the operating theater, which represents approximately half of this interval, should benefit an internal audit for each maternity as it is mainly dependent on organization and architectural specifications; the choice of mode of anesthesia in relation with the obstetrical context and the induction time have a strong incidence, which shows the importance of a good communication between the obstetrician and the anesthetist. A detailed analysis of obstetrical context and of each sequence of the decision-to-<span class="hlt">delivery</span> interval is more efficient and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> for evaluation in medical liability cases than an optimal "gold standard". In addition, it allows a prophylactic reflexion for a risk management approach in each labour ward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833359"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> 3D coherent transfer function inverse filtering of complex fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih M; Arfire, Cristian; Kou, Shan Shan; Boss, Daniel; Bergoënd, Isabelle; Depeursinge, Christian</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>We present a novel technique for three-dimensional (3D) image processing of complex fields. It consists in inverting the coherent image formation by filtering the complex spectrum with a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> 3D coherent transfer function (CTF) of a high-NA digital holographic microscope. By combining scattering theory and signal processing, the method is demonstrated to yield the reconstruction of a scattering object field. Experimental reconstructions in phase and amplitude are presented under non-design imaging <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The suggested technique is best suited for an implementation in high-resolution diffraction tomography based on sample or illumination rotation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3149520','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3149520"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> 3D coherent transfer function inverse filtering of complex fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih M.; Arfire, Cristian; Kou, Shan Shan; Boss, Daniel; Bergoënd, Isabelle; Depeursinge, Christian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We present a novel technique for three-dimensional (3D) image processing of complex fields. It consists in inverting the coherent image formation by filtering the complex spectrum with a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> 3D coherent transfer function (CTF) of a high-NA digital holographic microscope. By combining scattering theory and signal processing, the method is demonstrated to yield the reconstruction of a scattering object field. Experimental reconstructions in phase and amplitude are presented under non-design imaging <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The suggested technique is best suited for an implementation in high-resolution diffraction tomography based on sample or illumination rotation. PMID:21833359</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......312B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......312B"><span>Precision robotic control of agricultural vehicles on <span class="hlt">realistic</span> farm trajectories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>High-precision "autofarming", or precise agricultural vehicle guidance, is rapidly becoming a reality thanks to increasing computing power and carrier-phase differential GPS ("CPDGPS") position and attitude sensors. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> farm trajectories will include not only rows but also arcs created by smoothly joining rows or path-planning algorithms, spirals for farming center-pivot irrigated fields, and curved trajectories dictated by nonlinear field boundaries. In addition, fields are often sloped, and accurate control may be required either on linear trajectories or on curved contours. A three-dimensional vehicle model which adapts to changing vehicle and ground <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was created, and a low-order model for controller synthesis was extracted based on nominal <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The model was extended to include a towed implement. Experimentation showed that an extended Kalman filter could identify the vehicle's state in real-time. An approximation was derived for the additional positional uncertainty introduced by the noisy "lever-arm correction" necessary to translate the GPS position measurement at the roof antenna to the vehicle's control point on the ground; this approximation was then used to support the assertion that attitude measurement accuracy was as important to control point position measurement as the original position measurement accuracy at the GPS antenna. The low-order vehicle control model was transformed to polar coordinates for control on arcs and spirals. Experimental data showed that the tractor's control, point tracked an arc to within a -0.3 cm mean and a 3.4 cm standard deviation and a spiral to within a -0.2 cm mean and a 5.3 cm standard deviation. Cubic splines were used to describe curve trajectories, and a general expression for the time-rate-of-change of curve-related parameters was derived. Four vehicle control algorithms were derived for curve tracking: linear local-error control based on linearizing the vehicle about the curve's radius of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017944','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017944"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Covariance Prediction for the Earth Science Constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellation and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed using Monte Carlo techniques as well as by numerically integrating relative state probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, <span class="hlt">realistic</span> covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate <span class="hlt">realistic</span> covariance predictions for three of the Earth Science Constellation satellites: Aqua, Aura and Terra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070010585&hterms=prediction+probability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dprediction%2Bprobability','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070010585&hterms=prediction+probability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dprediction%2Bprobability"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Covariance Prediction For the Earth Science Constellations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellations (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellations and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed via Monte Carlo techniques as well as numerically integrating relative probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, <span class="hlt">realistic</span> covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by NASA Goddard's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate <span class="hlt">realistic</span> covariance predictions for three of the ESC satellites: Aqua, Aura, and Terra</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381064"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> losses of rare species disproportionately impact higher trophic levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bracken, Matthew E S; Low, Natalie H N</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Predicting the consequences of changes in biodiversity requires understanding both species' susceptibility to extirpation and their functional roles in ecosystems. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, non-random biodiversity losses, severely limiting the applicability of biodiversity research to conservation. Here, we removed sessile species from a rocky shore community in a way that deliberately mimicked natural patterns of species loss. We found that the rarest species in the system act from the bottom up to disproportionately impact the diversity and abundance of consumers. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> losses of rare species in a diverse assemblage of seaweeds and sessile invertebrates, collectively comprising <10% of sessile biomass, resulted in a 42-47% decline in consumer biomass. In contrast, removal of an equivalent biomass of dominant sessile species had no effect on consumers. Our results highlight the 'cornerstone' role that rare species can play in shaping the structure of the community they support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17271174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17271174"><span>Hybrid neural networks--combining abstract and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> neural units.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lytton, William W; Hines, Michael</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>There is a trade-off in neural network simulation between simulations that embody the details of neuronal biology and those that omit these details in favor of abstractions. The former approach appeals to physiologists and pharmacologists who can directly relate their experimental manipulations to parameter changes in the model. The latter approach appeals to physicists and mathematicians who seek analytic understanding of the behavior of large numbers of coupled simple units. This simplified approach is also valuable for practical reasons a highly simplified unit will run several orders of magnitude faster than a complex, biologically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> unit. In order to have our cake and eat it, we have developed hybrid networks in the Neuron simulator package. These make use of Neuron's local variable timestep method to permit simplified integrate-and-fire units to move ahead quickly while <span class="hlt">realistic</span> neurons in the same network are integrated slowly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070010585&hterms=density+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bscience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070010585&hterms=density+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bscience"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Covariance Prediction For the Earth Science Constellations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, Matthew; Long, Anne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellations (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellations and other orbiting space objects. One component of the risk assessment process is computing the collision probability between two space objects. The collision probability is computed via Monte Carlo techniques as well as numerically integrating relative probability density functions. Each algorithm takes as inputs state vector and state vector uncertainty information for both objects. The state vector uncertainty information is expressed in terms of a covariance matrix. The collision probability computation is only as good as the inputs. Therefore, to obtain a collision calculation that is a useful decision-making metric, <span class="hlt">realistic</span> covariance matrices must be used as inputs to the calculation. This paper describes the process used by NASA Goddard's Earth Science Mission Operations Project to generate <span class="hlt">realistic</span> covariance predictions for three of the ESC satellites: Aqua, Aura, and Terra</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651027','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651027"><span>Automatic Perceptual Color Map Generation for <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Volume Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Parsad, Nigel M.; Tsirline, Victor</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Advances in computed tomography imaging technology and inexpensive high performance computer graphics hardware are making high-resolution, full color (24-bit) volume visualizations commonplace. However, many of the color maps used in volume rendering provide questionable value in knowledge representation and are non-perceptual thus biasing data analysis or even obscuring information. These drawbacks, coupled with our need for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> anatomical volume rendering for teaching and surgical planning, has motivated us to explore the auto-generation of color maps that combine natural colorization with the perceptual discriminating capacity of grayscale. As evidenced by the examples shown that have been created by the algorithm described, the merging of perceptually accurate and <span class="hlt">realistically</span> colorized virtual anatomy appears to insightfully interpret and impartially enhance volume rendered patient data. PMID:18430609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..769..227S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..769..227S"><span>Resonance and continuum Gamow shell model with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> nuclear forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Z. H.; Wu, Q.; Zhao, Z. H.; Hu, B. S.; Dai, S. J.; Xu, F. R.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Starting from <span class="hlt">realistic</span> nuclear forces, we have developed a core Gamow shell model which can describe resonance and continuum properties of loosely-bound or unbound nuclear systems. To describe properly resonance and continuum, the Berggren representation has been employed, which treats bound, resonant and continuum states on equal footing in a complex-momentum (complex-k) plane. To derive the model-space effective interaction based on <span class="hlt">realistic</span> forces, the full Q ˆ -box folded-diagram renormalization has been, for the first time, extended to the nondegenerate complex-k space. The CD-Bonn potential is softened by using the Vlow-k method. Choosing 16O as the inert core, we have calculated sd-shell neutron-rich oxygen isotopes, giving good descriptions of both bound and resonant states. The isotopes 25,26O are calculated to be resonant even in their ground states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9015E..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9015E..04K"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> fetus skin color processing for ultrasound volume rendering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes <span class="hlt">realistic</span> fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better <span class="hlt">realistic</span> skin color reproduction than the conventional method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FoPh...46.1229R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FoPh...46.1229R"><span>An Argument Against the <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Interpretation of the Wave Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rovelli, Carlo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Testable predictions of quantum mechanics are invariant under time reversal. But the evolution of the quantum state in time is not so, neither in the collapse nor in the no-collapse interpretations of the theory. This is a fact that challenges any <span class="hlt">realistic</span> interpretation of the quantum state. On the other hand, this fact raises no difficulty if we interpret the quantum state as a mere calculation device, bookkeeping past real quantum events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TDR.....6...38A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TDR.....6...38A"><span>Blend Shape Interpolation and FACS for <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Avatar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Saba, Tanzila</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The quest of developing <span class="hlt">realistic</span> facial animation is ever-growing. The emergence of sophisticated algorithms, new graphical user interfaces, laser scans and advanced 3D tools imparted further impetus towards the rapid advancement of complex virtual human facial model. Face-to-face communication being the most natural way of human interaction, the facial animation systems became more attractive in the information technology era for sundry applications. The production of computer-animated movies using synthetic actors are still challenging issues. Proposed facial expression carries the signature of happiness, sadness, angry or cheerful, etc. The mood of a particular person in the midst of a large group can immediately be identified via very subtle changes in facial expressions. Facial expressions being very complex as well as important nonverbal communication channel are tricky to synthesize <span class="hlt">realistically</span> using computer graphics. Computer synthesis of practical facial expressions must deal with the geometric representation of the human face and the control of the facial animation. We developed a new approach by integrating blend shape interpolation (BSI) and facial action coding system (FACS) to create a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> and expressive computer facial animation design. The BSI is used to generate the natural face while the FACS is employed to reflect the exact facial muscle movements for four basic natural emotional expressions such as angry, happy, sad and fear with high fidelity. The results in perceiving the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> facial expression for virtual human emotions based on facial skin color and texture may contribute towards the development of virtual reality and game environment of computer aided graphics animation systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850004577','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850004577"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> localizer courses for aircraft instrument landing simulators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Murphy, T. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">realistic</span> instrument landing simulator (ILS) course structures for use in aircraft simulators are described. Software developed for data conversion and translation of ILS course structure measurements and calcomp plots of the courses provided are described. A method of implementing the ILS course structure data in existing aircraft simulators is outlined. A cockpit used in the lab to review the digitized ILS course structures is displayed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChPhC..41a5102T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChPhC..41a5102T"><span>A <span class="hlt">realistic</span> model for charged strange quark stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thirukkanesh, S.; Ragel, F. C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We report a general approach to solve an Einstein-Maxwell system to describe a static spherically symmetric anisotropic strange matter distribution with linear equation of state in terms of two generating functions. It is examined by choosing Tolmann IV type potential for one of the gravitational potentials and a physically reasonable choice for the electric field. Hence, the generated model satisfies all the required major physical properties of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> star. The effect of electric charge on physical properties is highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20178450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20178450"><span>Comparison between <span class="hlt">realistic</span> and spherical approaches in EEG forward modelling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meneghini, Fabio; Vatta, Federica; Esposito, Fabrizio; Mininel, Stefano; Di Salle, Francesco</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>In electroencephalography (EEG) a valid conductor model of the head (forward model) is necessary for predicting measurable scalp voltages from intra-cranial current distributions. All inverse models, capable of inferring the spatial distribution of the neural sources generating measurable electrical and magnetic signals outside the brain are normally formulated in terms of a pre-estimated forward model, which implies considering one (or more) current dipole(s) inside the head and computing the electrical potentials generated at the electrode sites on the scalp surface. Therefore, the accuracy of the forward model strongly affects the reliability of the source reconstruction process independently of the specific inverse model. So far, it is as yet unclear which brain regions are more sensitive to the choice of different model geometry, from both quantitative and qualitative points of view. In this paper, we compare the finite difference method-based <span class="hlt">realistic</span> model with the four-layers sensor-fitted spherical model using simulated cortical sources in the MNI152 standard space. We focused on the investigation of the spatial variation of the lead fields produced by simulated cortical sources which were placed on the reconstructed mesh of the neocortex along the surface electrodes of a 62-channel configuration. This comparison is carried out by evaluating a point spread function all over the brain cortex, with the aim of finding the lead fields mismatch between <span class="hlt">realistic</span> and spherical geometry. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> geometry turns out to be a relevant factor of improvement which is particularly important when considering sources placed in the temporal or in the occipital cortex. In these situations, using a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> head model will allow a better spatial discrimination of neural sources when compared to the spherical model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA440370','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA440370"><span>A Survey of Photon Mapping for <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Image Synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204...the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> image synthesis capabilities of any modern rendering system . Traditionally, much computational work has been required to accurately...a photon structure that is 32, 48, or 64 bytes should be considered since most processor architectures operate on 32 or 64 byte cache lines. If</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3783653','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3783653"><span>Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Prostheses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making <span class="hlt">realistic</span> facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> facial prostheses. PMID:23750920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18154635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18154635"><span>Mixed method nursing studies: a critical <span class="hlt">realist</span> critique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lipscomb, Martin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Mixed method study designs are becoming increasingly popular among nurse researchers. Mixed studies can have advantages over single method or methodological investigative designs. However, these advantages may be squandered where researchers fail to think through and justify their theoretic decisions. This paper argues that nurse researchers do not always pay sufficient heed to the philosophic and theoretic elements of research design and, in consequence, some mixed study reports lack argumentative coherence and validity. It is here suggested that Hempel's concept of equivalence can be stretched to usefully illustrate one of the main threats to argumentative coherence in mixed study design. The critical <span class="hlt">realist</span> theory of Roy Bhaskar is then introduced and this, it is proposed, offers one means by which Hempel's equivalence dilemma can be overcome. Critical <span class="hlt">realists</span> recognize the existence of logical connections between the ontological, epistemological, and methodological premises that underpin their work. They are therefore more likely to produce coherent studies than uncritical pragmatists who ignore such linkages and, paradoxically, critical <span class="hlt">realists</span> can be epistemological pluralists because, in re-conceptualizing the ontological basis of inquiry, problems associated with the mixing of alternative metaphysics are circumvented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999CoPhC.121..161S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999CoPhC.121..161S"><span>Behaviorly <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulations of stock market traders with a soul</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solomon, Sorin</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>The price fluctuations of the stocks in the financial markets are the result of the individual operations by many individual investors. However for many decades the financial theory did not use directly this “microscopic representation” of the markets. The main difficulties preventing this approach were solved recently with the advent of modern computer technology: - massive detailed data on the individual market operations became available; - “microscopic simulations” of the stock markets in terms of their individual participating agents allow very <span class="hlt">realistic</span> treatment of the problem. By taking advantage of the modern computer processing and simulation techniques, we are now able to confront real market data with the results of simulating “microscopic” <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models of the markets. These models have the potential to include and study the effects on the market of any desired feature in the investors behavior: departures from rationality, herding effects, heterogeneous investor-specific trading strategies. We propose to use the comparison of computer simulations of microscopic models with the actual market data in order to validate and enhance the knowledge on the financial behavior of individuals. Moreover we hope to explain, understand (and may be predict and control) macroscopic market dynamical features (e.g., cycles of booms and crashes, investors wealth distribution, market returns probability distribution etc.) based on <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models using this knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23750920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23750920"><span>Depigmented skin and phantom color measurements for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> prostheses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> prostheses. Data was analyzed from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared with 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making <span class="hlt">realistic</span> facial prostheses. The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162). Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> facial prostheses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20584241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20584241"><span>Relating <span class="hlt">realist</span> metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key <span class="hlt">realist</span> propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key <span class="hlt">realist</span> theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a <span class="hlt">realist</span> metatheory.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24549755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24549755"><span>An anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> temperature phantom for radiofrequency heating measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graedel, Nadine N; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Guerin, Bastien; Gagoski, Borjan; Wald, Lawrence L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An anthropomorphic phantom with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> electrical properties allows for a more accurate reproduction of tissue current patterns during excitation. A temperature map can then probe the worst-case heating expected in the unperfused case. We describe an anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> human head phantom that allows rapid three-dimensional (3D) temperature mapping at 7T. The phantom was based on hand-labeled anatomical imaging data and consists of four compartments matching the corresponding human tissues in geometry and electrical properties. The increases in temperature resulting from radiofrequency excitation were measured with MR thermometry using a temperature-sensitive contrast agent (TmDOTMA(-)) validated by direct fiber optic temperature measurements. Acquisition of 3D temperature maps of the full phantom with a temperature accuracy better than 0.1°C was achieved with an isotropic resolution of 5 mm and acquisition times of 2-4 minutes. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> phantoms with complex geometries incorporating the ability to measure accurate temperature maps in the phantom. The anthropomorphic temperature phantom is expected to provide a useful tool for the evaluation of the heating effects of both conventional and parallel transmit pulses and help validate electromagnetic and temperature simulations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204441"><span>MRXCAT: <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> numerical phantoms for cardiovascular magnetic resonance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wissmann, Lukas; Santelli, Claudio; Segars, William P; Kozerke, Sebastian</p> <p>2014-08-20</p> <p>Computer simulations are important for validating novel image acquisition and reconstruction strategies. In cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), numerical simulations need to combine anatomical information and the effects of cardiac and/or respiratory motion. To this end, a framework for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> CMR simulations is proposed and its use for image reconstruction from undersampled data is demonstrated. The extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) anatomical phantom framework with various motion options was used as a basis for the numerical phantoms. Different tissue, dynamic contrast and signal models, multiple receiver coils and noise are simulated. Arbitrary trajectories and undersampled acquisition can be selected. The utility of the framework is demonstrated for accelerated cine and first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging using k-t PCA and k-t SPARSE. MRXCAT phantoms allow for <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation of CMR including optional cardiac and respiratory motion. Example reconstructions from simulated undersampled k-t parallel imaging demonstrate the feasibility of simulated acquisition and reconstruction using the presented framework. Myocardial blood flow assessment from simulated myocardial perfusion images highlights the suitability of MRXCAT for quantitative post-processing simulation. The proposed MRXCAT phantom framework enables versatile and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulations of CMR including breathhold and free-breathing acquisitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136997','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136997"><span>An anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> temperature phantom for radiofrequency heating measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graedel, Nadine N.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Guerin, Bastien; Gagoski, Borjan; Wald, Lawrence L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose An anthropomorphic phantom with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> electrical properties allows for a more accurate reproduction of tissue current patterns during excitation. A temperature map can then probe the worst-case heating expected in the un-perfused case. We describe an anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> human head phantom that allows rapid 3D temperature mapping at 7 T. Methods The phantom was based on hand-labeled anatomical imaging data and consists of four compartments matching the corresponding human tissues in geometry and electrical properties. The increases in temperature resulting from radiofrequency excitation were measured with MR thermometry using a temperature sensitive contrast agent (TmDOTMA−) validated by direct fiber optic temperature measurements. Results Acquisition of 3D temperature maps of the full phantom with a temperature accuracy better than 0.1°C was achieved with an isotropic resolution of 5 mm and acquisition times of 2–4 minutes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> phantoms with complex geometries incorporating the ability to measure accurate temperature maps in the phantom. The anthropomorphic temperature phantom is expected to provide a useful tool for the evaluation of the heating effects of both conventional and parallel transmit pulses and help validate electromagnetic and temperature simulations. PMID:24549755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874444"><span>A multi-level approach to investigate the control of an input device: application to a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> pointing task.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De La Fuente, Hugo Loeches; Rao, Guillaume; Sarrazin, Jean-Christophe; Berton, Eric; Fernandez, Laure</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the subjects' performance during <span class="hlt">realistic</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of control of a joystick. An adapted reciprocal aiming task consisting in driving a virtual vehicle along a slalom course as fast as possible was performed while accuracy constraints were manipulated. <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> dynamical Interface Screen Relationship between the joystick displacements and the displacements of the vehicle was simulated. Vehicle displacements and motor activity (muscle activity and joint kinematics) were recorded. The results highlighted the applicability of the Fitts' law to more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where the use of an input device is performed in an intensive control situation. Besides, biomechanical results suggested that neuromuscular responses were different regarding the direction of movement, whereas the performance at a behavioural level were not affected. Thus, this study demonstrates the interest in considering two different aspects of the user's performance (behavioural and biomechanical ones) to make a better agreement between the device design and users' needs. This study considered two different aspects of the subject’s performance in a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> situation of speed–accuracy trade-off: the behavioural and motor activity. The necessity for the design of the future ergonomics pointing devices to meet the expectations of the neuromuscular system in order to facilitate their uses is highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23072326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23072326"><span>Colloidal drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> systems in vaccine <span class="hlt">delivery</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beg, Sarwar; Samad, Abdus; Nazish, Iram; Sultana, Ruksar; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Md Zaki; Akbar, Md</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Vaccines play a vital role in the field of community medicine to combat against several diseases of human existence. Vaccines primarily trigger the acquired immune system to develop long-lasting immunity against pathogens. Conventional approaches for vaccine <span class="hlt">delivery</span> lacks potential to target a particular antigen to develop acquired immunity by specific antibodies. Recent advancements in vaccine <span class="hlt">delivery</span> showed that inclusion of adjuvants in vaccine formulations or <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of them in a carrier helps in achieving desired targeting ability, reducing the immunogenicity and significant augmentation in the immune response. Colloidal carriers (liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, proteosomes, virosomes and virus like particles (VLPs), antigen cochleates, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) have been widely explored for vaccine <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. Further, surface engineering of these carriers with ligands, functional moieties and monoclonal antibodies tend to enhance the immune recognition potential of vaccines by differentiation of antigen specific memory T-cells. The current review, therefore, provides an updated account on the recent advancements in various colloidal <span class="hlt">delivery</span> systems in vaccine <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, outlining the mechanism of immune response initiated by them along with potential applications and marketed instances in an explicit manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851075"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D’Errico, Raffaele</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present an accurate and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying <span class="hlt">realistic</span> traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet <span class="hlt">delivery</span> ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27104537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27104537"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D'Errico, Raffaele</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>In this paper, we present an accurate and <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying <span class="hlt">realistic</span> traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet <span class="hlt">delivery</span> ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22114995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22114995"><span>Long-term maternal morbidity associated with repeat cesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, Erin A S; Silver, Robert M</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Concern regarding the association between cesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span> and long-term maternal morbidity is growing as the rate of cesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span> continues to increase. Observational evidence suggests that the risk of morbidity increases with increasing number of cesarean <span class="hlt">deliveries</span>. The dominant maternal risk in subsequent pregnancies is placenta accreta spectrum disorder and its associated complications. A history of multiple cesarean <span class="hlt">deliveries</span> is the major risk factor for this <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Pregnancies following cesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span> also have increased risk for other types of abnormal placentation, reduced fetal growth, preterm birth, and possibly stillbirth. Chronic maternal morbidities associated with cesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span> include pelvic pain and adhesions. Adverse reproductive effects may include decreased fertility and increased risk of spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. Clinicians and patients need to be aware of the long-term risks associated with cesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span> so that they can be considered when determining the method of <span class="hlt">delivery</span> for first and subsequent births.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3159727','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3159727"><span>Intracochlear Drug <span class="hlt">Delivery</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borenstein, Jeffrey T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Advances in molecular biology and in the basic understanding of the mechanisms associated with sensorineural hearing loss and other diseases of the inner ear, are paving the way towards new approaches for treatments for millions of patients. However, the cochlea is a particularly challenging target for drug therapy, and new technologies will be required to provide safe and efficacious <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of these compounds. Emerging <span class="hlt">delivery</span> systems based on microfluidic technologies are showing promise as a means for direct intracochlear <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients suffering from a host of auditory diseases. Areas covered in this review Recent progress in the development of drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> systems capable of direct intracochlear <span class="hlt">delivery</span> is reviewed, including passive systems such as osmotic pumps, active microfluidic devices, and systems combined with currently available devices such as cochlear implants. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of intracochlear drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> systems currently under development, and ultimately capable of being combined with emerging therapeutic compounds for the treatment of inner ear diseases. Expert Opinion Safe and efficacious treatment of auditory diseases will require the development of microscale <span class="hlt">delivery</span> devices, capable of extended operation and direct application to the inner ear. These advances will require miniaturization and integration of multiple functions, including drug storage, <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, power management and sensing, ultimately enabling closed-loop control and timed-sequence <span class="hlt">delivery</span> devices for treatment of these diseases. PMID:21615213</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27222457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27222457"><span>Parent education interventions designed to support the transition to parenthood: A <span class="hlt">realist</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilmer, Cyndi; Buchan, Judy L; Letourneau, Nicole; Bennett, Claudine T; Shanker, Stuart G; Fenwick, Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Public health nurses use parent education programmes to support individuals' transition to parenthood. A wide array of these programmes exists; however, the approach must be accommodated by resources available in a publicly funded system. For example, some new-parent education approaches use 1:1 home visiting (with a nurse or trained lay-home visitor) but the costs of this intensive approach can be prohibitive. Because of this limitation there is an interest in identifying effective and efficient new parent educational approaches that can <span class="hlt">realistically</span> be provided at a universal level. Unfortunately, there is a lack of high-quality evaluation identifying programmes or educational processes that meet these criteria. To identify potentially effective new-parenting education interventions that could be implemented at a population level during the transition to parenthood period. <span class="hlt">Realist</span> synthesis. Medline, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, grey literature. A <span class="hlt">realist</span> review method generated a total of 72 papers that were used to inform the results. A three-pronged approach was used incorporating an initial search (6), a database search using applicable keywords and MeSH headings (58), and review of literature identified by advisory group (8 grey literature). An 'implementation chain' was developed to outline the overall logic and process behind parent education interventions and to guide the analysis. Seventy-two papers informed this review: 13 systematic reviews/meta-analyses, 34 intervention studies, 9 opinion papers, 8 programme reviews, and 8 grey literature reports. There was no compelling evidence to suggest that a single educational programme or <span class="hlt">delivery</span> format was effective at a universal level. Some inherent issues were identified. For example, adult learning principles were overlooked and theories of parent-child interaction were not in evidence. No direct links between universal new-parent education programmes and child development outcomes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880003070','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880003070"><span>A full potential flow analysis with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> wake influence for helicopter rotor airload prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Egolf, T. Alan; Sparks, S. Patrick</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A 3-D, quasi-steady, full potential flow solver was adapted to include <span class="hlt">realistic</span> wake influence for the aerodynamic analysis of helicopter rotors. The method is based on a finite difference solution of the full potential equation, using an inner and outer domain procedure for the blade flowfield to accommodate wake effects. The nonlinear flow is computed in the inner domain region using a finite difference solution method. The wake is modeled by a vortex lattice using prescribed geometry techniques to allow for the inclusion of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> rotor wakes. The key feature of the analysis is that vortices contained within the finite difference mesh (inner domain) were treated with a vortex embedding technique while the influence of the remaining portion of the wake (in the outer domain) is impressed as a boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span> on the outer surface of the finite difference mesh. The solution procedure couples the wake influence with the inner domain solution in a consistent and efficient solution process. The method has been applied to both hover and forward flight <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Correlation with subsonic and transonic hover airload data is shown which demonstrates the merits of the approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062602"><span>Systemic gene <span class="hlt">delivery</span> following intravenous administration of AAV9 to fetal and neonatal mice and late-gestation nonhuman primates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mattar, Citra N; Wong, Andrew M S; Hoefer, Klemens; Alonso-Ferrero, Maria E; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Howe, Steven J; Cooper, Jonathan D; Waddington, Simon N; Chan, Jerry K Y; Rahim, Ahad A</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Several acute monogenic diseases affect multiple body systems, causing death in childhood. The development of novel therapies for such <span class="hlt">conditions</span> is challenging. However, improvements in gene <span class="hlt">delivery</span> technology mean that gene therapy has the potential to treat such disorders. We evaluated the ability of the AAV9 vector to mediate systemic gene <span class="hlt">delivery</span> after intravenous administration to perinatal mice and late-gestation nonhuman primates (NHPs). Titer-matched single-stranded (ss) and self-complementary (sc) AAV9 carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were intravenously administered to fetal and neonatal mice, with noninjected age-matched mice used as the control. Extensive GFP expression was observed in organs throughout the body, with the epithelial and muscle cells being particularly well transduced. ssAAV9 carrying the WPRE sequence mediated significantly more gene expression than its sc counterpart, which lacked the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) sequence. To examine a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> scale-up to larger models or potentially patients for such an approach, AAV9 was intravenously administered to late-gestation NHPs by using a clinically relevant protocol. Widespread systemic gene expression was measured throughout the body, with cellular tropisms similar to those observed in the mouse studies and no observable adverse events. This study confirms that AAV9 can safely mediate systemic gene <span class="hlt">delivery</span> in small and large animal models and supports its potential use in clinical systemic gene therapy protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94d5314M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94d5314M"><span>Transport of spin qubits with donor chains under <span class="hlt">realistic</span> experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Morello, Andrea</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The ability to transport quantum information across some distance can facilitate the design and operation of a quantum processor. One-dimensional spin chains provide a compact platform to realize scalable spin transport for a solid-state quantum computer. Here, we model odd-sized donor chains in silicon under a range of experimental nonidealities, including variability of donor position within the chain. We show that the tolerance against donor placement inaccuracies is greatly improved by operating the spin chain in a mode where the electrons are confined at the Si-SiO2 interface. We then estimate the required time scales and exchange couplings, and the level of noise that can be tolerated to achieve high-fidelity transport. We also propose a protocol to calibrate and initialize the chain, thereby providing a complete guideline for realizing a functional donor chain and utilizing it for spin transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1327730','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1327730"><span>Transport of spin qubits with donor chains under <span class="hlt">realistic</span> experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Morello, Andrea</p> <p>2016-07-25</p> <p>The ability to transport quantum information across some distance can facilitate the design and operation of a quantum processor. One-dimensional spin chains provide a compact platform to realize scalable spin transport for a solid-state quantum computer. Here, we model odd-sized donor chains in silicon under a range of experimental nonidealities, including variability of donor position within the chain. We show that the tolerance against donor placement inaccuracies is greatly improved by operating the spin chain in a mode where the electrons are confined at the Si-SiO<sub>2</sub> interface. We then estimate the required time scales and exchange couplings, and the level of noise that can be tolerated to achieve high-fidelity transport. As a result, we also propose a protocol to calibrate and initialize the chain, thereby providing a complete guideline for realizing a functional donor chain and utilizing it for spin transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27228447','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27228447"><span>Stability and Aggregation Kinetics of Titania Nanomaterials under Environmentally <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raza, Ghulam; Amjad, Muhammad; Kaur, Inder; Wen, Dongsheng</p> <p>2016-08-16</p> <p>Nanoparticle morphology is expected to play a significant role in the stability, aggregation behavior, and ultimate fate of engineered nanomaterials in natural aquatic environments. The aggregation kinetics of ellipsoidal and spherical titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) under different surfactant loadings, pH values, and ionic strengths were investigated in this study. The stability results revealed that alteration of surface charge was the stability determining factor. Among five different surfactants investigated, sodium citrate and Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA) were the most effective stabilizers. It was observed that both types of NPs were more stable in monovalent salts (NaCl and NaNO3) as compared with divalent salts (Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2). The aggregation of spherical TiO2 NPs demonstrated a strong dependency on the ionic strength regardless of the presence of mono or divalent salts; while the ellipsoids exhibited a lower dependency on the ionic strength but was more stable. This work acts as a benchmark study toward understanding the ultimate fate of stabilized NPs in natural environments that are rich in Ca(CO3)2, NaNO3, NaCl, and CaCl2 along with natural organic matters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1327730-transport-spin-qubits-donor-chains-under-realistic-experimental-conditions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1327730-transport-spin-qubits-donor-chains-under-realistic-experimental-conditions"><span>Transport of spin qubits with donor chains under <span class="hlt">realistic</span> experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; ...</p> <p>2016-07-25</p> <p>The ability to transport quantum information across some distance can facilitate the design and operation of a quantum processor. One-dimensional spin chains provide a compact platform to realize scalable spin transport for a solid-state quantum computer. Here, we model odd-sized donor chains in silicon under a range of experimental nonidealities, including variability of donor position within the chain. We show that the tolerance against donor placement inaccuracies is greatly improved by operating the spin chain in a mode where the electrons are confined at the Si-SiO2 interface. We then estimate the required time scales and exchange couplings, and the levelmore » of noise that can be tolerated to achieve high-fidelity transport. As a result, we also propose a protocol to calibrate and initialize the chain, thereby providing a complete guideline for realizing a functional donor chain and utilizing it for spin transport.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1039839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1039839"><span>Validation of Building Energy Modeling Tools Under Idealized and <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryan, Emily M.; Sanquist, Thomas F.</p> <p>2012-04-02</p> <p>Building energy models provide valuable insight into the energy use of commercial and residential buildings based on the building architecture, materials and thermal loads. They are used in the design of new buildings and the retrofitting to increase the efficiency of older buildings. The accuracy of these models is crucial to reducing the energy use of the United States and building a sustainable energy future. In addition to the architecture and thermal loads of a building, building energy models also must account for the effects of the building's occupants on the energy use of the building. Traditionally simple schedule based methods have been used to account for the effects of the occupants. However, newer research has shown that these methods often result in large differences between the modeled and actual energy use of buildings. In this paper we discuss building energy models and their accuracy in predicting building energy use. In particular we focus on the different types of validation methods which have been used to investigate the accuracy of building energy models and how they account for (or do not account for) the effects of occupants. We also review some of the newer work on stochastic methods for estimating the effects of occupants on building energy use and discuss the improvements necessary to increase the accuracy of building energy models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA564533','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA564533"><span>Numerical Simulation and Forecast of Equatorial Spread F Under <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Postsunset <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-30</p> <p>SLT GLAT GLON ALT 10:46 10:47 10:4810 3 104 105 106 n i (c m − 3 ) 10:46 6.39 21...39 12.74 162.74 445.84 10:47 6.91 21:55 12.51 166.49 437.44 10:48 7.38 22:11 12.22 170.23 429.84 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 E φ (m V /m ) UT MLAT SLT GLAT...45 9.3 167.87 403.41 12:32 4.25 00:00 8.65 171.57 402.04 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 E φ (m V /m ) UT MLAT SLT GLAT GLON ALT Figure 2. Ion density (cm−3)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA484892','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA484892"><span>Design and Modeling of Turbine Airfoils with Active Flow Control in <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Engine <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-07-16</p> <p>H2O Druck pressure transducer to measure the local cp distribution. The cp is calculated by taking the inlet total pressure from an upstream pitot ...The rod diameter and location were selected to simulate the velocity deficit in the wake of an upstream turbine vane with attached boundary layers...0.76. The rod spacing is 57% larger than the blade spacing. The larger spacing between rods is intended to simulate vane wakes impinging on a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327730','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327730"><span>Transport of spin qubits with donor chains under <span class="hlt">realistic</span> experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Morello, Andrea</p> <p>2016-07-25</p> <p>The ability to transport quantum information across some distance can facilitate the design and operation of a quantum processor. One-dimensional spin chains provide a compact platform to realize scalable spin transport for a solid-state quantum computer. Here, we model odd-sized donor chains in silicon under a range of experimental nonidealities, including variability of donor position within the chain. We show that the tolerance against donor placement inaccuracies is greatly improved by operating the spin chain in a mode where the electrons are confined at the Si-SiO<sub>2</sub> interface. We then estimate the required time scales and exchange couplings, and the level of noise that can be tolerated to achieve high-fidelity transport. As a result, we also propose a protocol to calibrate and initialize the chain, thereby providing a complete guideline for realizing a functional donor chain and utilizing it for spin transport.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178050"><span>Filled Prescriptions for Opioids After Vaginal <span class="hlt">Delivery</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jarlenski, Marian; Bodnar, Lisa M; Kim, Joo Yeon; Donohue, Julie; Krans, Elizabeth E; Bogen, Debra L</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>To estimate the prevalence of filled opioid prescriptions after vaginal <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 164,720 Medicaid-enrolled women in Pennsylvania who delivered a liveborn neonate vaginally from 2008 to 2013, excluding women who used opioids during pregnancy or who had an opioid use disorder. We assessed overall filled prescriptions as well as filled prescriptions in the presence or absence of the following pain-inducing <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: bilateral tubal ligation, perineal laceration, or episiotomy. Outcomes included a binary measure of whether a woman had any opioid prescription fill 5 days or less after <span class="hlt">delivery</span> and, among those women, a second opioid prescription fill 6-60 days after <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. Among women with no coded pain-inducing <span class="hlt">conditions</span> at <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, we used multivariable logistic regression with standard errors clustered to account for within-hospital correlation to assess the association between patient characteristics and odds of a filled opioid prescription. Twelve percent of women (n=18,131) filled an outpatient opioid prescription 5 days or less after vaginal <span class="hlt">delivery</span>; among those women, 14% (n=2,592, or 1.6% of the total) filled a second opioid prescription 6-60 days after <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. Of the former, 5,110 (28.2%) had one or more pain-inducing <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Predictors of filled opioid prescriptions with no observed pain-inducing <span class="hlt">condition</span> at <span class="hlt">delivery</span> included tobacco use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.4) and a mental health <span class="hlt">condition</span> (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). Having a diagnosis of substance use disorder other than opioid use disorder was not associated with filling an opioid prescription 5 days or less after <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, but was associated with having a second opioid prescription 6-60 days after <span class="hlt">delivery</span> (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). More than 1 in 10 Medicaid-enrolled women fill an outpatient opioid prescription after vaginal <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. National opioid-prescribing recommendations for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Nonli..22R...1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Nonli..22R...1L"><span>Towards dense, <span class="hlt">realistic</span> granular media in 2D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luding, Stefan</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The development of an applicable theory for granular matter—with both qualitative and quantitative value—is a challenging prospect, given the multitude of states, phases and (industrial) situations it has to cover. Given the general balance equations for mass, momentum and energy, the limiting case of dilute and almost elastic granular gases, where kinetic theory works perfectly well, is the starting point. In most systems, low density co-exists with very high density, where the latter is an open problem for kinetic theory. Furthermore, many additional nonlinear phenomena and material properties are important in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> granular media, involving, e.g.: multi-particle interactions and elasticity strong dissipation, friction, long-range forces and wet contacts, wide particle size distributions and various particle shapes. Note that, while some of these issues are more relevant for high density, others are important for both low and high densities; some of them can be dealt with by means of kinetic theory, some cannot. This paper is a review of recent progress towards more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models for dense granular media in 2D, even though most of the observations, conclusions and corrections given are qualitatively true also in 3D. Starting from an elastic, frictionless and monodisperse hard sphere gas, the (continuum) balance equations of mass, momentum and energy are given. The equation of state, the (Navier-Stokes level) transport coefficients and the energy-density dissipation rate are considered. Several corrections are applied to those constitutive material laws—one by one—in order to account for the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> physical effects and properties listed above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Nonli..22R.101L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Nonli..22R.101L"><span>INVITED ARTICLE: Towards dense, <span class="hlt">realistic</span> granular media in 2D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luding, Stefan</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The development of an applicable theory for granular matter—with both qualitative and quantitative value—is a challenging prospect, given the multitude of states, phases and (industrial) situations it has to cover. Given the general balance equations for mass, momentum and energy, the limiting case of dilute and almost elastic granular gases, where kinetic theory works perfectly well, is the starting point. In most systems, low density co-exists with very high density, where the latter is an open problem for kinetic theory. Furthermore, many additional nonlinear phenomena and material properties are important in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> granular media, involving, e.g.: (i) multi-particle interactions and elasticity (ii) strong dissipation, (iii) friction, (iv) long-range forces and wet contacts, (v) wide particle size distributions and (vi) various particle shapes. Note that, while some of these issues are more relevant for high density, others are important for both low and high densities; some of them can be dealt with by means of kinetic theory, some cannot. This paper is a review of recent progress towards more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models for dense granular media in 2D, even though most of the observations, conclusions and corrections given are qualitatively true also in 3D. Starting from an elastic, frictionless and monodisperse hard sphere gas, the (continuum) balance equations of mass, momentum and energy are given. The equation of state, the (Navier-Stokes level) transport coefficients and the energy-density dissipation rate are considered. Several corrections are applied to those constitutive material laws—one by one—in order to account for the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> physical effects and properties listed above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3479379','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3479379"><span>Large-System Transformation in Health Care: A <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Lewis, Steven; Saul, Jessie E; Carroll, Simon; Bitz, Jennifer</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Context An evidence base that addresses issues of complexity and context is urgently needed for large-system transformation (LST) and health care reform. Fundamental conceptual and methodological challenges also must be addressed. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health in Canada requested a six-month synthesis project to guide four major policy development and strategy initiatives focused on patient- and family-centered care, primary health care renewal, quality improvement, and surgical wait lists. The aims of the review were to analyze examples of successful and less successful transformation initiatives, to synthesize knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, to clarify the role of government, and to outline options for evaluation. Methods We used <span class="hlt">realist</span> review, whose working assumption is that a particular intervention triggers particular mechanisms of change. Mechanisms may be more or less effective in producing their intended outcomes, depending on their interaction with various contextual factors. We explain the variations in outcome as the interplay between context and mechanisms. We nested this analytic approach in a macro framing of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Findings Our rapid <span class="hlt">realist</span> review identified five “simple rules” of LST that were likely to enhance the success of the target initiatives: (1) blend designated leadership with distributed leadership; (2) establish feedback loops; (3) attend to history; (4) engage physicians; and (5) include patients and families. These principles play out differently in different contexts affecting human behavior (and thereby contributing to change) through a wide range of different mechanisms. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Realist</span> review methodology can be applied in combination with a complex system lens on published literature to produce a knowledge synthesis that informs a prospective change effort in large-system transformation. A collaborative process engaging both research producers and research users contributes to local</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296771"><span>Buccal drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smart, John D</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Buccal formulations have been developed to allow prolonged localised therapy and enhanced systemic <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. The buccal mucosa, however, while avoiding first-pass effects, is a formidable barrier to drug absorption, especially for biopharmaceutical products (proteins and oligonucleotides) arising from the recent advances in genomics and proteomics. The buccal route is typically used for extended drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, so formulations that can be attached to the buccal mucosa are favoured. The bioadhesive polymers used in buccal drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> to retain a formulation are typically hydrophilic macro-molecules containing numerous hydrogen bonding groups. Newer second-generation bioadhesives have been developed and these include modified or new polymers that allow enhanced adhesion and/or drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span>, in addition to site-specific ligands such as lectins. Over the last 20 years a wide range of formulations has been developed for buccal drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> (tablet, patch, liquids and semisolids) but comparatively few have found their way onto the market. Currently, this route is restricted to the <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of a limited number of small lipophilic molecules that readily cross the buccal mucosa. However, this route could become a significant means for the <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of a range of active agents in the coming years, if the barriers to buccal drug <span class="hlt">delivery</span> are overcome. In particular, patient acceptability and the successful systemic <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of large molecules (proteins, oligonucleotides and polysaccharides) via this route remains both a significant opportunity and challenge, and new/improved technologies may be required to address these.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6387922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6387922"><span>Causes of preterm <span class="hlt">delivery</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gravett, M G</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>Although major advances have been made in both obstetric care of the high-risk patient and in neonatal care, prematurity and its consequences remain the major contributor to perinatal mortality. The identification of maternal or obstetric risk factors associated with preterm <span class="hlt">delivery</span> has enhanced our ability to provide special obstetric care to gravidas at increased risk. The selective management of patients at increased risk for preterm <span class="hlt">delivery</span> may ultimately reduce the incidence of preterm births. Maternal genital infections are also associated with preterm <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. Further research is needed to explore the pathogenesis of preterm <span class="hlt">delivery</span> associated with genital infections, since infections may represent a potentially preventable cause of prematurity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11607115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11607115"><span>Cold fusion in palladium: a more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> calculation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parmenter, R H; Lamb, W E</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>The Thomas-Fermi-Mott equation is modified to take account of the fact that conduction electrons in a metal may be considered to have an effective mass at wave-numbers comparable with or less than the inverse Debye screening length, but they should be considered to have the free-electron mass at much larger wavenumbers. This modification allows for a more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> calculation of the fusion rate of deuteron pairs in palladium, this rate being 10(-23) sec-1, comparable with some experimental results. The Oppenheimer-Phillips process enhances the rate by a factor of 2.262.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1666"><span>Turbulence studies in Tokamak boundary plasmas with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> divertor geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, X.Q.</p> <p>1998-10-14</p> <p>Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT [1] and the linearized shooting code BAL[2] to study turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant, resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28256539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28256539"><span>Recovering the quantum formalism from physically <span class="hlt">realist</span> axioms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe</p> <p>2017-03-03</p> <p>We present a heuristic derivation of Born's rule and unitary transforms in Quantum Mechanics, from a simple set of axioms built upon a physical phenomenology of quantization. This approach naturally leads to the usual quantum formalism, within a new <span class="hlt">realistic</span> conceptual framework that is discussed in details. Physically, the structure of Quantum Mechanics appears as a result of the interplay between the quantized number of "modalities" accessible to a quantum system, and the continuum of "contexts" that are required to define these modalities. Mathematically, the Hilbert space structure appears as a consequence of a specific "extra-contextuality" of modalities, closely related to the hypothesis of Gleason's theorem, and consistent with its conclusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26C....20...83M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26C....20...83M"><span>Probabilistic cross-identification of galaxies with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> clustering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mallinar, N.; Budavári, T.; Lemson, G.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Probabilistic cross-identification has been successfully applied to a number of problems in astronomy from matching simple point sources to associating stars with unknown proper motions and even radio observations with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> morphology. Here we study the Bayes factor for clustered objects and focus in particular on galaxies to assess the effect of typical angular correlations. Numerical calculations provide the modified relationship, which (as expected) suppresses the evidence for the associations at the shortest separations where the 2-point auto-correlation function is large. Ultimately this means that the matching probability drops at somewhat shorter scales than in previous models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=55015','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=55015"><span>Cold fusion in palladium: a more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> calculation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parmenter, R H; Lamb, W E</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Thomas-Fermi-Mott equation is modified to take account of the fact that conduction electrons in a metal may be considered to have an effective mass at wave-numbers comparable with or less than the inverse Debye screening length, but they should be considered to have the free-electron mass at much larger wavenumbers. This modification allows for a more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> calculation of the fusion rate of deuteron pairs in palladium, this rate being 10(-23) sec-1, comparable with some experimental results. The Oppenheimer-Phillips process enhances the rate by a factor of 2.262. PMID:11607115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IPNPR.205C...1C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IPNPR.205C...1C"><span>Optical Communications Performance with <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Weather and Automated Repeat Query</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clare, L.; Miles, G.; Breidenthal, J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Deep-space optical communications are subject to outages arising from deterministic clear line-of-sight dynamics as well as unpredictable weather effects at the ground station. These effects can be mitigated using buffering and automatic retransmission techniques. We provide an analysis that incorporates a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> weather model based on a two-state Markov chain. Performance for a hypothetical Mars 2022 optical mission is derived incorporating dynamics over an entire 728-day synodic cycle, during which link passes and link data rate vary. Buffer sizing is addressed and operational implications are identified. Also, buffer occupancy results are extended for deep-space missions spanning a range of link data rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvL..96k2301G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvL..96k2301G"><span>Photoabsorption on He4 with a <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Nuclear Force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gazit, Doron; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir; Leidemann, Winfried; Orlandini, Giuseppina</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The He4 total photoabsorption cross section is calculated with the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> nucleon-nucleon potential Argonne V18 and the three-nucleon force (3NF) Urbana IX. Final state interaction is included rigorously via the Lorentz integral transform method. A rather pronounced giant resonance with peak cross sections of 3.0 (3.2) mb is obtained with (without) the 3NF. Above 50 MeV strong 3NF effects, up to 35%, are present. Good agreement with experiment is found close to threshold. A comparison in the giant resonance region is inconclusive, since data do not show a unique picture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148810"><span>Synchronization to a bouncing ball with a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> motion trajectory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gan, Lingyu; Huang, Yingyu; Zhou, Liang; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Xiang</p> <p>2015-07-07</p> <p>Daily music experience involves synchronizing movements in time with a perceived periodic beat. It has been established for over a century that beat synchronization is less stable for the visual than for the auditory modality. This auditory advantage of beat synchronization gives rise to the hypotheses that the neural and evolutionary mechanisms underlying beat synchronization are modality-specific. Here, however, we found that synchronization to a periodically bouncing ball with a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> motion trajectory was not less stable than synchronization to an auditory metronome. This finding challenges the auditory advantage of beat synchronization, and has important implications for the understanding of the biological substrates of beat synchronization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6957007','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6957007"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> modeling of the electronic properties of doped amorphous silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hack, M.; Street, R.A.</p> <p>1988-09-19</p> <p>In this letter we describe a fundamental approach to calculating the electronic properties of doped amorphous silicon which takes into account the thermal history of the material. Above the equilibrium temperature, the material is in a thermodynamically stable state, and this is derived by minimizing the free energy using a simple density of states model. The calculations are based on the defect compensation model of doping, introducing distributions of formation energies for neutral dangling bonds and fourfold dopant atoms while preserving charge neutrality. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data providing a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> model for use in device simulation programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389673"><span>Analytical theory of extraordinary optical transmission through <span class="hlt">realistic</span> metallic screens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delgado, V; Marqués, R; Jelinek, L</p> <p>2010-03-29</p> <p>An analytical theory of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through <span class="hlt">realistic</span> metallic screens perforated by a periodic array of subwavelength holes is presented. The theory is based on our previous work on EOT through perfect conducting screens and on the surface impedance concept. The proposed theory is valid for the complete frequency range where EOT has been reported, including microwaves and optics. A reasonably good agreement with electromagnetic simulations is shown in all this frequency range. We feel that the proposed theory may help to clarify the physics underlying EOT and serve as a first step to more accurate analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhyE....1..105Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhyE....1..105Z"><span>Toward <span class="hlt">realistic</span> effective models of quantum-Hall edges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zülicke, U.; MacDonald, A. H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We have investigated the dynamical properties of edge excitations in the (fractional) quantum-Hall regime for a sharp confining potential, emphasizing the effects resulting from the presence of long-range interaction. Our study uses chiral-Luttinger-liquid models that are motivated by the close analogy between the physics of edge excitations and that of plasmons in quasi-one-dimensional electron systems. We find that incorporating <span class="hlt">realistic</span> long-range interaction is especially important for multi-branch edges. Results are presented for the tunneling-IV-curve power-law exponent and the two-terminal conductance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2675173','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2675173"><span>Emergent properties from organisms to ecosystems: towards a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ponge, Jean-François</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>More <span class="hlt">realistic</span> approaches are needed to understand the complexity of ecological systems. Emergent properties of real systems can be used as a basis for a new, neither reductionist nor holistic, approach. Three systems, termed here BUBBLEs, WAVEs and CRYSTALs, have been identified as exhibiting emergent properties. They are non-hierarchical assemblages of individual components, with amplification and connectedness being two main principles that govern their build-up, maintenance and mutual relationships. Examples from various fields of biological and ecological science are referred to, ranging from individual organisms to landscapes. PMID:16094806</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27233635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27233635"><span>Immersion team training in a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> environment improves team performance in trauma resuscitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siriratsivawong, Kris; Kang, Jeff; Riffenburgh, Robert; Hoang, Tuan N</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In the US military, it is common for health care teams to be formed ad hoc and expected to function cohesively as a unit. Poor team dynamics decreases the effectiveness of trauma care <span class="hlt">delivery</span>. The US Navy Fleet Surgical Team Three has developed a simulation-based trauma initiative-the Shipboard Surgical Trauma Training (S2T2) Course-that emphasizes team dynamics to improve the <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of trauma care to the severely injured patient. The S2T2 Course combines classroom didactics with hands-on simulation over a period of 6 days, culminating in a daylong, mass casualty scenario. Each resuscitation team was initially evaluated with a simulated trauma resuscitation scenario then retested on the same scenario after completing the course. A written exam was also administered individually both before and after the course. A survey was administered to assess the participants' perceived effectiveness of the course on overall team training. From the evaluation of 20 resuscitation teams made up of 123 medical personnel, there was a decrease in the mean time needed to perform the simulated trauma resuscitation, from a mean of 24.4 minutes to 13.5 minutes (P < .01), a decrease in the mean number of critical events missed, from 5.15 to 1.00 (P < .01), and a mean improvement of 41% in written test scores. More than 90% of participants rated the course as highly effective for improving team dynamics. A team-based trauma course with immersion in a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> environment is an effective tool for improving team performance in trauma training. This approach has high potential to improve trauma care and patient outcomes. The benefits of this team-based course can be adapted to the civilian rural sector, where gaps have been identified in trauma care. Published by Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684035"><span>Providing effective and preferred care closer to home: a <span class="hlt">realist</span> review of intermediate care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearson, Mark; Hunt, Harriet; Cooper, Chris; Shepperd, Sasha; Pawson, Ray; Anderson, Rob</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Intermediate care is one of the number of service <span class="hlt">delivery</span> models intended to integrate care and provide enhanced health and social care services closer to home, especially to reduce reliance on acute care hospital beds. In order for health and social care practitioners, service managers and commissioners to make informed decisions, it is vital to understand how to implement the admission avoidance and early supported discharge components of intermediate care within the context of local care systems. This paper reports the findings of a theory-driven (<span class="hlt">realist</span>) review conducted in 2011-2012. A broad range of evidence contained in 193 sources was used to construct a conceptual framework for intermediate care. This framework forms the basis for exploring factors at service user, professional and organisational levels that should be considered when designing and delivering intermediate care services within a particular local context. Our synthesis found that involving service users and their carers in collaborative decision-making about the objectives of care and the place of care is central to achieving the aims of intermediate care. This pivotal involvement of the service user relies on practitioners, service managers and commissioners being aware of the impact that organisational structures at the local level can have on enabling or inhibiting collaborative decision-making and care co-ordination. Through all interactions with service users and their care networks, health and social care professionals should establish the meaning which alternative care environments have for different service users. Doing so means decisions about the best place of care will be better informed and gives service users choice. This in turn is likely to support psychological and social stability, and the attainment of functional goals. At an organisational level, integrated working can facilitate the <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of intermediate care, but there is not a straightforward relationship between</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Chaos..15a3502F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Chaos..15a3502F"><span>Modeling wave propagation in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> heart geometries using the phase-field method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fenton, Flavio H.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Karma, Alain; Rappel, Wouter-Jan</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>We present a novel algorithm for modeling electrical wave propagation in anatomical models of the heart. The algorithm uses a phase-field approach that represents the boundaries between the heart muscle and the surrounding medium as a spatially diffuse interface of finite thickness. The chief advantage of this method is to automatically handle the boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the voltage in complex geometries without the need to track the location of these boundaries explicitly. The algorithm is shown to converge accurately in nontrivial test geometries with no-flux (zero normal current) boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> as the width of the diffuse interface becomes small compared to the width of the cardiac action potential wavefront. Moreover, the method is illustrated for anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models of isolated rabbit and canine ventricles as well as human atria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090014100&hterms=realistic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drealistic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090014100&hterms=realistic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drealistic"><span>Modeling and Simulation for <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Propagation Environments of Communications Signals at SHF Band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ho, Christian</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In this article, most of widely accepted radio wave propagation models that have proven to be accurate in practice as well as numerically efficient at SHF band will be reviewed. Weather and terrain data along the signal's paths can be input in order to more accurately simulate the propagation environments under particular weather and terrain <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Radio signal degradation and communications impairment severity will be investigated through the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> radio propagation channel simulator. Three types of simulation approaches in predicting signal's behaviors are classified as: deterministic, stochastic and attenuation map. The performance of the simulation can be evaluated under operating <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for the test ranges of interest. Demonstration tests of a real-time propagation channel simulator will show the capabilities and limitations of the simulation tool and underlying models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMDI31A1935M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMDI31A1935M"><span>The effect of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> thermal diffusivity on numerical model of a subducting slab</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maierova, P.; Steinle-Neumann, G.; Cadek, O.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A number of numerical studies of subducting slab assume simplified (constant or only depth-dependent) models of thermal conductivity. The available mineral physics data indicate, however, that thermal diffusivity is strongly temperature- and pressure-dependent and may also vary among different mantle materials. In the present study, we examine the influence of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> thermal properties of mantle materials on the thermal state of the upper mantle and the dynamics of subducting slabs. On the basis of the data published in mineral physics literature we compile analytical relationships that approximate the pressure and temperature dependence of thermal diffusivity for major mineral phases of the mantle (olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite, garnet, clinopyroxenes, stishovite and perovskite). We propose a simplified composition of mineral assemblages predominating in the subducting slab and the surrounding mantle (pyrolite, mid-ocean ridge basalt, harzburgite) and we estimate their thermal diffusivity using the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The resulting complex formula for the diffusivity of each aggregate is then approximated by a simpler analytical relationship that is used in our numerical model as an input parameter. For the numerical modeling we use the Elmer software (open source finite element software for multiphysical problems, see http://www.csc.fi/english/pages/elmer). We set up a 2D Cartesian thermo-mechanical steady-state model of a subducting slab. The model is partly kinematic as the flow is driven by a boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span> on velocity that is prescribed on the top of the subducting lithospheric plate. Reology of the material is non-linear and is coupled with the thermal equation. Using the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> relationship for thermal diffusivity of mantle materials, we compute the thermal and flow fields for different input velocity and age of the subducting plate and we compare the results against the models assuming a constant thermal diffusivity. The importance of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28582250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28582250"><span>A Personalized Self-Management Rehabilitation System with an Intelligent Shoe for Stroke Survivors: A <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mawson, Susan; Nasr, Nasrin; Parker, Jack; Davies, Richard; Zheng, Huiru; Mountain, Gail</p> <p>2016-01-07</p> <p>In the United Kingdom, stroke is the most significant cause of adult disability. Stroke survivors are frequently left with physical and psychological changes that can profoundly affect their functional ability, independence, and social participation. Research suggests that long-term, intense, task- and context-specific rehabilitation that is goal-oriented and environmentally enriched improves function, independence, and quality of life after a stroke. It is recommended that rehabilitation should continue until maximum recovery has been achieved. However, the increasing demand on services and financial constraints means that needs cannot be met through traditional face-to-face <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of rehabilitation. Using a participatory design methodology, we developed an information communication technology-enhanced Personalized Self-Managed rehabilitation System (PSMrS) for stroke survivors with integrated insole sensor technology within an "intelligent shoe.". The intervention model was based around a rehabilitation paradigm underpinned by theories of motor relearning and neuroplastic adaptation, motivational feedback, self-efficacy, and knowledge transfer. To understand the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> under which this technology-based rehabilitation solution would most likely have an impact on the motor behavior of the user, what would work for whom, in what context, and how. We were interested in what aspects of the system would work best to facilitate the motor behavior change associated with self-managed rehabilitation and which user characteristics and circumstances of use could promote improved functional outcomes. We used a <span class="hlt">Realist</span> Evaluation (RE) framework to evaluate the final prototype PSMrS with the assumption that the intervention consists of a series of configurations that include the Context of use, the underlying Mechanisms of change and the potential Outcomes or impacts (CMOs). We developed the CMOs from literature reviews and engagement with clinicians, users, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1573094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1573094"><span>Issues in the <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of midwifery care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hillan, E M</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The current study was designed to further knowledge of the immediate, short and long-term effects of Caesarean <span class="hlt">delivery</span> for both the woman and her baby. A study group of 50 low-risk primigravidae of normal stature delivered by emergency Caesarean section were compared with a closely matched control group of 50 primigravidae delivered vaginally. The study generated a large amount of both quantitative and qualitative data. From the analysis of the comments made by the women in both the study and control groups at the time of both the hospital and home interviews, it was apparent that there were a number of deficiencies in the care received. This paper examines some of the issues related to the <span class="hlt">delivery</span> of midwifery care round the themes of lack of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> preparation for labour, <span class="hlt">delivery</span> and parenthood; lack of support and conflicting advice from midwives, especially in the postnatal wards; failure of communication between women and staff, and it was apparent that this occurred in all areas from antenatal care to the postnatal wards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6288..109A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6288..109A"><span>Towards Modeling <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Mobility for Performance Evaluations in MANET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aravind, Alex; Tahir, Hassan</p> <p></p> <p>Simulation modeling plays crucial role in conducting research on complex dynamic systems like mobile ad hoc networks and often the only way. Simulation has been successfully applied in MANET for more than two decades. In several recent studies, it is observed that the credibility of the simulation results in the field has decreased while the use of simulation has steadily increased. Part of this credibility crisis has been attributed to the simulation of mobility of the nodes in the system. Mobility has such a fundamental influence on the behavior and performance of mobile ad hoc networks. Accurate modeling and knowledge of mobility of the nodes in the system is not only helpful but also essential for the understanding and interpretation of the performance of the system under study. Several ideas, mostly in isolation, have been proposed in the literature to infuse realism in the mobility of nodes. In this paper, we attempt a holistic analysis of creating <span class="hlt">realistic</span> mobility models and then demonstrate creation and analysis of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> mobility models using a software tool we have developed. Using our software tool, desired mobility of the nodes in the system can be specified, generated, analyzed, and then the trace can be exported to be used in the performance studies of proposed algorithms or systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24947679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24947679"><span>Validation of a <span class="hlt">realistic</span> simulator for veterinary gastrointestinal endoscopy training.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Usón-Casaús, Jesús M; Pérez-Merino, Eva M; Soria-Gálvez, Federico; Morcillo, Esther; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article reports on the face, content, and construct validity of a new <span class="hlt">realistic</span> composite simulator (Simuldog) used to provide training in canine gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy. The basic endoscopic procedures performed on the simulator were esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), gastric biopsy (GB), and gastric foreign body removal (FBR). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the performance of novices (final-year veterinary students and recent graduates without endoscopic experience, n=30) versus experienced subjects (doctors in veterinary medicine who had performed more than 50 clinical upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as a surgeon, n=15). Tasks were scored based on completion time, and specific rating scales were developed to assess performance. Internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were assessed. Face and content validity were determined using a 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire. The novices needed considerably more time than the experts to perform EGD, GB, and FBR, and their performance scores were significantly lower (p<.010). Inter-rater agreement and the internal validity of the rating scales were good. Face validity was excellent, and both groups agreed that the endoscopy scenarios were very <span class="hlt">realistic</span>. The experts highly valued the usefulness of Simuldog for veterinary training and as a tool for assessing endoscopic skills. Simuldog is the first validated model specifically developed to be used as a training tool for endoscopy techniques in small animals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020835','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020835"><span>Radiation-Spray Coupling for <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> Flow Configurations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>El-Asrag, Hossam; Iannetti, Anthony C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Three Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for a lean-direct injection (LDI) combustor are performed and compared. In addition to the cold flow simulation, the effect of radiation coupling with the multi-physics reactive flow is analyzed. The flame let progress variable approach is used as a subgrid combustion model combined with a stochastic subgrid model for spray atomization and an optically thin radiation model. For accurate chemistry modeling, a detailed Jet-A surrogate mechanism is utilized. To achieve <span class="hlt">realistic</span> inflow, a simple recycling technique is performed at the inflow section upstream of the swirler. Good comparison is shown with the experimental data mean and root mean square profiles. The effect of combustion is found to change the shape and size of the central recirculation zone. Radiation is found to change the spray dynamics and atomization by changing the heat release distribution and the local temperature values impacting the evaporation process. The simulation with radiation modeling shows wider range of droplet size distribution by altering the evaporation rate. The current study proves the importance of radiation modeling for accurate prediction in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> spray combustion configurations, even for low pressure systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27772537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27772537"><span>Music therapy for palliative care: A <span class="hlt">realist</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McConnell, Tracey; Porter, Sam</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Music therapy has experienced a rising demand as an adjunct therapy for symptom management among palliative care patients. We conducted a <span class="hlt">realist</span> review of the literature to develop a greater understanding of how music therapy might benefit palliative care patients and the contextual mechanisms that promote or inhibit its successful implementation. We searched electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsychINFO) for literature containing information on music therapy for palliative care. In keeping with the <span class="hlt">realist</span> approach, we examined all relevant literature to develop theories that could explain how music therapy works. A total of 51 articles were included in the review. Music therapy was found to have a therapeutic effect on the physical, psychological, emotional, and spiritual suffering of palliative care patients. We also identified program mechanisms that help explain music therapy's therapeutic effects, along with facilitating contexts for implementation. Music therapy may be an effective nonpharmacological approach to managing distressing symptoms in palliative care patients. The findings also suggest that group music therapy may be a cost-efficient and effective way to support staff caring for palliative care patients. We encourage others to continue developing the evidence base in order to expand our understanding of how music therapy works, with the aim of informing and improving the provision of music therapy for palliative care patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118l4309S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118l4309S"><span>Electron percolation in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models of carbon nanotube networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simoneau, Louis-Philippe; Villeneuve, Jérémie; Rochefort, Alain</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25130509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25130509"><span>CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder toward <span class="hlt">realistic</span> biological membrane simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Emilia L; Cheng, Xi; Jo, Sunhwan; Rui, Huan; Song, Kevin C; Dávila-Contreras, Eder M; Qi, Yifei; Lee, Jumin; Monje-Galvan, Viviana; Venable, Richard M; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder, http://www.charmm-gui.org/input/membrane, is a web-based user interface designed to interactively build all-atom protein/membrane or membrane-only systems for molecular dynamics simulations through an automated optimized process. In this work, we describe the new features and major improvements in Membrane Builder that allow users to robustly build <span class="hlt">realistic</span> biological membrane systems, including (1) addition of new lipid types, such as phosphoinositides, cardiolipin (CL), sphingolipids, bacterial lipids, and ergosterol, yielding more than 180 lipid types, (2) enhanced building procedure for lipid packing around protein, (3) reliable algorithm to detect lipid tail penetration to ring structures and protein surface, (4) distance-based algorithm for faster initial ion displacement, (5) CHARMM inputs for P21 image transformation, and (6) NAMD equilibration and production inputs. The robustness of these new features is illustrated by building and simulating a membrane model of the polar and septal regions of E. coli membrane, which contains five lipid types: CL lipids with two types of acyl chains and phosphatidylethanolamine lipids with three types of acyl chains. It is our hope that CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder becomes a useful tool for simulation studies to better understand the structure and dynamics of proteins and lipids in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> biological membrane environments. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18195375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18195375"><span>Functional consequences of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bracken, Matthew E S; Friberg, Sara E; Gonzalez-Dorantes, Cirse A; Williams, Susan L</p> <p>2008-01-22</p> <p>Declines in biodiversity have prompted concern over the consequences of species loss for the goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. However, relatively few studies have evaluated the functional consequences of <span class="hlt">realistic</span>, nonrandom changes in biodiversity. Instead, most designs have used randomly selected assemblages from a local species pool to construct diversity gradients. It is therefore difficult, based on current evidence, to predict the functional consequences of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> declines in biodiversity. In this study, we used tide pool microcosms to demonstrate that the effects of real-world changes in biodiversity may be very different from those of random diversity changes. Specifically, we measured the relationship between the diversity of a seaweed assemblage and its ability to use nitrogen, a key limiting nutrient in nearshore marine systems. We quantified nitrogen uptake using both experimental and model seaweed assemblages and found that natural increases in diversity resulted in enhanced rates of nitrogen use, whereas random diversity changes had no effect on nitrogen uptake. Our results suggest that understanding the real-world consequences of declining biodiversity will require addressing changes in species performance along natural diversity gradients and understanding the relationships between species' susceptibility to loss and their contributions to ecosystem functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9708E..4OL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9708E..4OL"><span>Generation of anatomically <span class="hlt">realistic</span> numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate <span class="hlt">realistic</span> numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning <span class="hlt">realistic</span> optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18678039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18678039"><span>Salmon olfaction is impaired by an environmentally <span class="hlt">realistic</span> pesticide mixture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tierney, Keith B; Sampson, Jessica L; Ross, Peter S; Sekela, Mark A; Kennedy, Christopher J</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Many of the salmon-producing waterways of the world contain pesticides known to harm olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are critically important throughout the salmon lifecycle. The ability of OSNs to retain functionality after exposure to complex pesticide mixtures remains unknown. Here we show that a 96-h exposure to an environmentally <span class="hlt">realistic</span> concentration of a mixture made from the ten most frequently occurring pesticides in British Columbia's Nicomekl River reduced the OSN responses of rainbow troutto a behaviorally relevant odorant. Odor-evoked responses were not altered by exposure to one-fifth of the <span class="hlt">realistic</span> concentration, and this may have been due an upregulation in detoxification enzymes, since glutathione-S-transferase activity reached a maximum (> 32% above control) at this concentration. Mixture exposure did not help to prevent OSN impairment from a second, brief (5 min) exposure to a higher (20 x) concentration of the mixture, suggesting longer-term, low-concentration exposures may not prevent damage from brief, high-concentration pulse exposures. This study demonstrates that environmentally observed pesticide mixtures can injure salmon olfactory tissue, and by extension, contribute to the threatened and endangered status of many salmon stocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492732"><span>Electron percolation in <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models of carbon nanotube networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simoneau, Louis-Philippe Villeneuve, Jérémie Rochefort, Alain</p> <p>2015-09-28</p> <p>The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more <span class="hlt">realistic</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062163','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062163"><span>Simulation of Combustion Systems with <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> g-jitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this project a transient, fully three-dimensional computer simulation code was developed to simulate the effects of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. The simulation code is capable of simulating flame spread on a solid and nonpremixed or premixed gaseous combustion in nonturbulent flow with simple combustion models. Simple combustion models were used to preserve computational efficiency since this is meant to be an engineering code. Also, the use of sophisticated turbulence models was not pursued (a simple Smagorinsky type model can be implemented if deemed appropriate) because if flow velocities are large enough for turbulence to develop in a reduced gravity combustion scenario it is unlikely that g-jitter disturbances (in NASA's reduced gravity facilities) will play an important role in the flame dynamics. Acceleration disturbances of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> orientation, magnitude, and time dependence can be easily included in the simulation. The simulation algorithm was based on techniques used in an existing large eddy simulation code which has successfully simulated fire dynamics in complex domains. A series of simulations with measured and predicted acceleration disturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) are presented. The results of this series of simulations suggested a passive isolation system and appropriate scheduling of crew activity would provide a sufficiently "quiet" acceleration environment for spherical diffusion flames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990054084&hterms=combustion+code&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcombustion%2Bcode','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990054084&hterms=combustion+code&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcombustion%2Bcode"><span>Simulation of Combustion Systems with <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> g-Jitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A number of facilities are available for microgravity combustion experiments: aircraft, drop tower, sounding rocket, space shuttle and, in the future, the international space station (ISS). Acceleration disturbances or g-jitter about the background level of reduced gravity exist in all the microgravity facilities. While g-jitter is routinely measured, a quantitative comparison of the quality of g-jitter among the different microgravity facilities has not been compiled. Low frequency g-jitter (< 1 Hz) has been repeatedly observed to disturb a number of combustion systems. Guidelines regarding tolerable levels of acceleration disturbances for a given combustion system have been developed for use in the design of ISS experiments. The validity of these guidelines, however, remains unknown. In this project, recently funded by NASA, a transient, fully three-dimensional simulation code will be developed to simulate the effects of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. Acceleration disturbances of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> orientation, magnitude and time dependence will be included in the simulation. Since this is a newly funded project with code development just under-way no simulation results will be presented. Instead, first a short review of the relevant background concerning g-jitter will be given followed by a section on the proposed technical approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24487016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24487016"><span><span class="hlt">Realistic</span> thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical measures for neural synchronization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>Synchronized brain rhythms, associated with diverse cognitive functions, have been observed in electrical recordings of brain activity. Neural synchronization may be well described by using the population-averaged global potential VG in computational neuroscience. The time-averaged fluctuation of VG plays the role of a "thermodynamic" order parameter O used for describing the synchrony-asynchrony transition in neural systems. Population spike synchronization may be well visualized in the raster plot of neural spikes. The degree of neural synchronization seen in the raster plot is well measured in terms of a "statistical-mechanical" spike-based measure Ms introduced by considering the occupation and the pacing patterns of spikes. The global potential VG is also used to give a reference global cycle for the calculation of Ms. Hence, VG becomes an important collective quantity because it is associated with calculation of both O and Ms. However, it is practically difficult to directly get VG in real experiments. To overcome this difficulty, instead of VG, we employ the instantaneous population spike rate (IPSR) which can be obtained in experiments, and develop <span class="hlt">realistic</span> thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical measures, based on IPSR, to make practical characterization of the neural synchronization in both computational and experimental neuroscience. Particularly, more accurate characterization of weak sparse spike synchronization can be achieved in terms of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> statistical-mechanical IPSR-based measure, in comparison with the conventional measure based on VG. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70158696','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70158696"><span>Simulating <span class="hlt">realistic</span> predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have <span class="hlt">realistic</span> properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with <span class="hlt">realistic</span> properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990054084&hterms=mell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmell','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990054084&hterms=mell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmell"><span>Simulation of Combustion Systems with <span class="hlt">Realistic</span> g-Jitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A number of facilities are available for microgravity combustion experiments: aircraft, drop tower, sounding rocket, space shuttle and, in the future, the international space station (ISS). Acceleration disturbances or g-jitter about the background level of reduced gravity exist in all the microgravity facilities. While g-jitter is routinely measured, a quantitative comparison of the quality of g-jitter among the different microgravity facilities has not been compiled. Low frequency g-jitter (< 1 Hz) has been repeatedly observed to disturb a number of combustion systems. Guidelines regarding tolerable levels of acceleration disturbances for a given combustion system have been developed for use in the design of ISS experiments. The validity of these guidelines, however, remains unknown. In this project, recently funded by NASA, a transient, fully three-dimensional simulation code will be developed to simulate the effects of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. Acceleration disturbances of <span class="hlt">realistic</span> orientation, magnitude and time dependence will be included in the simulation. Since this is a newly funded project with code development just under-way no simulation results will be presented. Instead, first a short review of the relevant background concerning g-jitter will be given followed by a section on the proposed technical approach.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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