Science.gov

Sample records for realizing productivity improvement

  1. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  2. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  3. Realization of improved efficiency on nanostructured multicrystalline silicon solar cells for mass production.

    PubMed

    Lin, X X; Zeng, Y; Zhong, S H; Huang, Z G; Qian, H Q; Ling, J; Zhu, J B; Shen, W Z

    2015-03-27

    We report the realization of both excellent optical and electrical properties of nanostructured multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a simple and industrially compatible technique of surface morphology modification. The nanostructures are prepared by Ag-catalyzed chemical etching and subsequent NaOH treatment with controllable geometrical parameters and surface area enhancement ratio. We have examined in detail the influence of different surface area enhancement ratios on reflectance, carrier recombination characteristics and cell performance. By conducting a quantitative analysis of these factors, we have successfully demonstrated a higher-than-traditional output performance of nanostructured multicrystalline silicon solar cells with a low average reflectance of 4.93%, a low effective surface recombination velocity of 6.59 m s(-1), and a certified conversion efficiency of 17.75% on large size (156 × 156 mm(2)) silicon cells, which is ∼0.3% higher than the acid textured counterparts. The present work opens a potential prospect for the mass production of nanostructured solar cells with improved efficiencies. PMID:25736199

  4. Product Realization Environment

    1997-06-12

    PRE provides a common framework for information flow and product information management based on Common Object Request Brokering Architecture (CORBA). More specific goals for PRE are using the technologies to improve business practices, to decrease product cycle time, and developing tools to rapidly access specialists (e.g. designers, engineers, scientists) expertise both as preserved knowledge and for real time collaboration. The PRE framework will utilize an object based approach (CORBA) to integrate product development with themore » enterprise by providing software integration for business, engineering, and manufacturing practices across organizational boundaries.« less

  5. Developing communications requirements for Agile Product Realization

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.

    1994-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken the Agile Product Realization for Innovative electroMEchanical Devices (A-PRIMED) pilot project to develop and implement technologies for agile design and manufacturing of electrochemical components. Emphasis on information-driven processes, concurrent engineering and multi-functional team communications makes computer-supported cooperative work critical to achieving significantly faster product development cycles. This report describes analyses conducted in developing communications requirements and a communications plan that addresses the unique communications demands of an agile enterprise.

  6. SLR tracking of GNSS constellations for improved future ITRF realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Koenig, Daniel; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena

    improve the tracking yield of the two ETALON satellites in orbit. Furthermore, there are efforts to launch a second LARES-type satellite in the near future. However, it is already possible to increase the number of the available targets, even if not as optimal in design as the cannonball satellites may be, by including all or some of the GNSS spacecraft that carry Laser Retroreflector Arrays—LRAs. With the planned outfitting of current and future GNSS constellations with LRAs, there is an opportunity to dramatically improve the sky-coverage, the chances that a SLR station has a target to track at any time, and the geometry of available data over each station per day. In the case of future launches, careful planning and calibration of the LRA location with respect to the radiometric phase center and the center of gravity of the s/c, these targets can become a very significant contribution in the development of the future ITRF realizations, imposing a strong tie between the two techniques in space. With the number of such targets reaching well over a hundred over the next decade, we need to define minimum requirements and a concept of operations in order to avoid undue burdening of the SLR network and a waste of resources. Using simulations of SLR data to GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, etc., we examine the utility of bringing the two techniques together in orbit and the tangible benefits that we expect to reap on the ground in realizing the ITRF. We present here the results of simulation studies aimed at designing optimal combinations of the number of required sites versus the number of targets and the temporal schedule required to achieve the nominal GGOS accuracy goals.

  7. Improved solar array power point model with SPICE realization

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    An improved and simplified formulation is given for a solar array current-voltage model. This model curve matches a specified maximum power point (i,v) specification, in addition to the open-circuit and short-circuit specifications. The improved model has a simplified numerical solution, which is practical for SPICE simulation of orbital-scale electrical power systems. This paper presents the mathematical development of the solar array model solution, and the form of the necessary Newton/Raphson equations. The iterative nonlinear solution is then realized in a SPICE model of the solar array, which is then demonstrated in an orbital-time-scale satellite power system simulation.

  8. Principles to Products: Toward Realizing MOS 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Delp, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a report on the Operations Revitalization Initiative, part of the ongoing NASA-funded Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) program. We are implementing products that significantly improve efficiency and effectiveness of Mission Operations Systems (MOS) for deep-space missions. We take a multi-mission approach, in keeping with our organization's charter to "provide multi-mission tools and services that enable mission customers to operate at a lower total cost to NASA." Focusing first on architectural fundamentals of the MOS, we review the effort's progress. In particular, we note the use of stakeholder interactions and consideration of past lessons learned to motivate a set of Principles that guide the evolution of the AMMOS. Thus guided, we have created essential patterns and connections (detailed in companion papers) that are explicitly modeled and support elaboration at multiple levels of detail (system, sub-system, element...) throughout a MOS. This architecture is realized in design and implementation products that provide lifecycle support to a Mission at the system and subsystem level. The products include adaptable multi-mission engineering documentation that describes essentials such as operational concepts and scenarios, requirements, interfaces and agreements, information models, and mission operations processes. Because we have adopted a model-based system engineering method, these documents and their contents are meaningfully related to one another and to the system model. This means they are both more rigorous and reusable (from mission to mission) than standard system engineering products. The use of models also enables detailed, early (e.g., formulation phase) insight into the impact of changes (e.g., to interfaces or to software) that is rigorous and complete, allowing better decisions on cost or technical trades. Finally, our work provides clear and rigorous specification of operations needs to software developers, further

  9. Process control improvements realized in a vertical reactor cluster tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkhoven, Chris J.; Granneman, E. H.; Lindow, E.

    1993-04-01

    Advance cell structures present in high-density memories and logic devices require high quality, ultra thin dielectric and conductor films. By controlling the interface properties of such films, remarkable process control enhancements of manufacturing proven, vertical LPCVD and oxidation processes are realized. To this end, an HF/H2O vapor etch reactor is integrated in a vacuum cluster tool comprising vertical reactors for the various LPCVD and oxidation processes. Data of process control improvement are provided for polysilicon emitters, polysilicon contacts, polysilicon gates, and NO capacitors. Finally, the cost of ownership of cluster tool use is compared with that of stand-along equipment.

  10. Advanced product realization through model-based design and virtual prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    Several government agencies and industrial sectors have recognized the need for, and payoff of, investing in the methodologies and associated technologies for improving the product realization process. Within the defense community as well as commercial industry, there are three major needs. First, they must reduce the cost of military products, of related manufacturing processes, and of the enterprises that have to be maintained. Second, they must reduce the time required to realize products while still applying the latest technologies. Finally, they must improve the predictability of process attributes, product performance, cost, schedule and quality. They must continue to advance technology, quickly incorporate their innovations in new products and in processes to produce them, and they need to capitalize on the raw computational power and communications bandwidth that continues to become available at decreasing cost. Sandia National Laboratories initiative is pursuing several interrelated, key concepts and technologies in order to enable such product realization process improvements: model-based design; intelligent manufacturing processes; rapid virtual and physical prototyping; and agile people/enterprises. While progress in each of these areas is necessary, this paper only addresses a portion of the overall initiative. First a vision of a desired future capability in model-based design and virtual prototyping is presented. This is followed by a discussion of two specific activities parametric design analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) and virtual prototyping of miniaturized high-density electronics -- that exemplify the vision as well as provide a status report on relevant work in progress.

  11. RSA cipher algorithm improvements and VC programming realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xianmin

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the RSA algorithm basic mathematical principle, on the basis to propose a faster design improvement. Programming with Visual C proved that the operation speed of improved RSA algorithm is greatly faster than the speed without improvement. However, the security of anti-crack ability has not been adversely affected.

  12. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed and demonstrated at Sandia by the A-PRIMED (Agile Product Realization for Innovative Electro MEchanical Devices) project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, design-to-production process. Evidence indicates that the process has reduced the product realization cycle and assured product quality. Products included discriminators for a robotic quick change adapter and for an electronic defense system. These discriminators, built using A-PRIMED, met random vibration requirements and had life cycles that far surpass the performance obtained from earlier efforts.

  13. A process for the agile product realization of electromechanical devices (A-primed)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed at Sandia National Laboratories by the A-PRIMED project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` (Nagel & Dove, 1992) into a complete, step-by-step, design-to-production process. For two separate product realization efforts, each geared to a different set of requirements, A-PRIMED demonstrated product realization of a custom device in less than a month. A-PRIMED used a discriminator (a precision electro mechanical device) as the demonstration device, but the process is readily adaptable to other electro mechanical products. The process begins with a qualified design parameter space (Diegert et al, 1995). From that point, the product realization process encompasses all facets of requirements development, analysis and testing, design, manufacturing, robot assembly and quality assurance, as well as product data management and concurrent engineering. In developing the product realization process, A-PRIMED employed an iterative approach whereby after each build, the process was reviewed and refinements were made on the basis of lessons learned. This paper describes the integration of project functions and product realization technologies to develop a product realization process that on repeated iterations, was proven successful.

  14. Productivity Improvement and Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Benjamin I., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a developmental model designed to help productivity improvement and professional development become an integral part of the natural everyday work experience. Examples and a summarized model are included. (CT)

  15. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Diegert, K.V.; Ashby, M.R.; Parratt, S.W.; Benavides, G.L.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed at Sandia National Laboratories by the A-PRIMED project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, step-by-step, design-to-production process. For three separate product realization efforts, each geared to a different set of requirements, A-PRIMED demonstrated product realization of a custom device in less than a month. A-PRIMED used a discriminator (a precision electro-mechanical device) as the demonstration device, but the process is readily adaptable to other electro-mechanical products. The process begins with a qualified design parameter space. From that point, the product realization process encompasses all facets of requirements development, analysis and testing, design, manufacturing, robotic assembly and quality assurance, as well as product data management and concurrent engineering. In developing the product realization process, A-PRIMED employed an iterative approach whereby after each of three builds, the process was reviewed and refinements made on the basis of lessons learned. This paper describes the integration of project functions and product realization technologies, with references to reports detailing specific facets of the overall process. The process described herein represents the outcome of an empirically-based process development effort that on repeated iterations, was proven successful.

  16. Penstock productivity improved

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Strawberry Water Users Association recently realized a significant increase in output on their hydroelectric plant near Spanish Fork, Utah. The plant's output was declining steadily and the problem was determined to be caused by build-up in its 11,000 foot long, 18 inch diameter penstock. After considering replacing the penstock or using hydro-blasting, the association decided that the pipe could be cleaned internally with flexible foam pits. Following the cleaning operation, the plant's output increased 22 percent to 345 kW. The new output level represents an increase in the association's annual income from the sale of electricity of $32,850 -enough to cover the costs of the equipment and contractor costs in approximately one year. The association plans to maintain maximum production by pumping an 18 inch pig down the line each year.

  17. Improving designer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  18. Realization of associative products in terms of Moyal and tomographic symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibort, A.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Stornaiolo, C.; Ventriglia, F.

    2013-03-01

    The quantizer-dequantizer method allows us to construct associative products on any measure space. In this paper, we consider an inverse problem: given an associative product is it possible to realize it within the quantizer-dequantizer framework? The answer is positive in finite dimensions and we give a few examples in infinite dimensions.

  19. Improvements in Realizing 4H-SiC Thermal Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, F.; Vervisch, V.; Ottaviani, L.; Szalkai, D.; Vermeeren, L.; Lyoussi, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Lazar, M.; Klix, A.; Palais, O.; Hallén, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we presented two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) both based on ion implantation of 10B inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after the implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters and the distance between the implanted 10B thermal neutron converter layer and the active pn-junction have led to low leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. This proves the strength of this new method of realizing sensitive SiC-based thermal neutron detectors.

  20. Enhanced product realization techniques using as-built and model reconstruction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.; Tsai, C.S.; Maes, G.J.

    1995-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology has developed a product realization process designed to enhance the complexity and comprehensiveness of the information fed back to the designer after the analytical and manufacturing operations have been completed. This process uses principles of As-Built Engineering and Model Reconstruction in a Models Based Engineering environment, allowing optimization in the manufacturing and assembly operations and providing information as to the As-Built configuration to engineering and physics designers for evaluation. As-Built Engineers is a product realization methodology founded on the notion that life-cycle engineering should be based on what is actually produced and not on what is nominally designed. It enables customization in mass production environments and questions nominal based methods of engineering. Model Reconstruction provides the capability of subjecting a design to adverse conditions within the computer aided environment and building a stereolithography model and simulated radiograph from the analytical finite element information of the simulated damaged part. Models Based Engineering is an information management tool and a key driver toward the development of adaptive product realization infrastructures. It encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from concept through design to product application.

  1. Improving haul truck productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    The paper reviews developments in payload management and cycle times. These were discussed at a roundtable held at the Haulage and Loading 2007 conference held in May in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) explaind what their companies were doing to improve cycle times for trucks, shovels and excavators used in surface coal mining. Quotations are given from Dion Domaschenz of Liebherr and Steve Plott of Cat Global Mining. 4 figs.

  2. Improving conservation outcomes with a new paradigm for understanding species’ fundamental and realized adaptive capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik; O’Leary, John; Mengelt, Claudia; West, Jordan M.; Julius, Susan; Green, Nancy; Magness, Dawn; Petes, Laura E.; Stein, Bruce A.; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Hellmann, Jessica J; Robertson, Amanda L; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Babij, Eleanora; Brennan, Jean; Schuurman, Gregor W; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, many species are responding to ongoing climate change with shifts in distribution, abundance, phenology, or behavior. Consequently, natural-resource managers face increasingly urgent conservation questions related to biodiversity loss, expansion of invasive species, and deteriorating ecosystem services. We argue that our ability to address these questions is hampered by the lack of explicit consideration of species’ adaptive capacity (AC). AC is the ability of a species or population to cope with climatic changes and is characterized by three fundamental components: phenotypic plasticity, dispersal ability, and genetic diversity. However, few studies simultaneously address all elements; often, AC is confused with sensitivity or omitted altogether from climate-change vulnerability assessments. Improved understanding, consistent definition, and comprehensive evaluations of AC are needed. Using classic ecological-niche theory as an analogy, we propose a new paradigm that considers fundamental and realized AC: the former reflects aspects inherent to species, whereas the latter denotes how extrinsic factors constrain AC to what is actually expressed or observed. Through this conceptualization, we identify ecological attributes contributing to AC, outline areas of research necessary to advance understanding of AC, and provide examples demonstrating how the inclusion of AC can better inform conservation and natural-resource management.

  3. Improving Productivity via QWL Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Marion T.; Hansen, Gary B.

    1980-01-01

    Gives a brief history of productivity improvement legislation in the United States and of the development and demise of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life (QWL). Describes existing productivity and QWL centers, including their locations, scope, services, and activities, and urges greater support at the federal level.…

  4. Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

  5. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2 nm have been obtained by a mild and durative ICE. The high-quality graphene layers preserve intact basal crystal planes owing to avoidance of the degradation reaction during both intercalation and ICE. Furthermore, we reveal that the high-quality FLG ensures a remarkable lithium-storage stability (>1,000 cycles) and a large reversible specific capacity (>600 mAh g(-1)). This simple and scalable technique acquiring high-quality FLG offers considerable potential for future realistic applications. PMID:23355949

  6. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2 nm have been obtained by a mild and durative ICE. The high-quality graphene layers preserve intact basal crystal planes owing to avoidance of the degradation reaction during both intercalation and ICE. Furthermore, we reveal that the high-quality FLG ensures a remarkable lithium-storage stability (>1,000 cycles) and a large reversible specific capacity (>600 mAh g-1). This simple and scalable technique acquiring high-quality FLG offers considerable potential for future realistic applications.

  7. Improved productivity through interactive communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marino, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    New methods and approaches are being tried and evaluated with the goal of increasing productivity and quality. The underlying concept in all of these approaches, methods or processes is that people require interactive communication to maximize the organization's strengths and minimize impediments to productivity improvement. This paper examines Bendix Field Engineering Corporation's organizational structure and experiences with employee involvement programs. The paper focuses on methods Bendix developed and implemented to open lines of communication throughout the organization. The Bendix approach to productivity and quality enhancement shows that interactive communication is critical to the successful implementation of any productivity improvement program. The paper concludes with an examination of the Bendix methodologies which can be adopted by any corporation in any industry.

  8. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  9. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    PubMed

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed. PMID:27087253

  10. Improvements Realized on the NiThrow{sup TM} Solution - 13075

    SciTech Connect

    Moggia, F.; Objois, L.; Damerval, F.; Toulemonde, V.; Varet, T.; Guillot, S.; Richard, F.

    2013-07-01

    Two years ago we presented the first results obtained with the highly pressurized liquid nitrogen technology (HPLN) in case of cutting, surface decontamination and concrete scabbling applications. These results, carried out in non active conditions, were really promising in term of efficiency and productivity and highlighted how this technology was interesting for D and D business (e.g. cut of depth up to 30 mm for concrete scabbling application; productivity of 4 cm.min{sup -1} in case of the cut of a 50 mm thick stainless steel ingot..). We also found some real issues which were not compatible with its use in a radioactive environment. Indeed, the reliability of some parts of the system was not efficient enough (e.g. lancing tool, intensifiers...) to run the HPLN technology in good conditions. More than two years, after a complete study of the whole system, and after the compilation of all the required troubleshooting, AREVA with its partner Air Liquide, decided to start a complete R and D work in order to improve this cryogenic technology. Our engineers started with the lancing tool and designed a new one lighter and more reliable than the original one. After that, they improved the reliability of the pressurization unit (skid) by changing seals and other parts. As mentioned above, the goal of this work was to implement this technology in a nuclear environment the best way. We also focused our efforts on the insulation of the high pressure hoses (with a maximal distance, between the 'skid - Heat exchanger' module and the lancing tool, of about 110 meters), and on the development of a quite efficient vacuum system comprising dust collection units (we can guarantee an efficiency of our system higher than 95%). Finally, the last step of our development was devoted to the design and the manufacturing of a dedicated carrier enabling the technology to move in all directions (X,Y and Z) and to reach all the positions (wall, ground, ceiling and for sure all the

  11. Productivity Sharing Programs: Can They Contribute to Productivity Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Productivity sharing plans were studied to determine how they operate, what benefits result, and whether long-term increases in productivity can be realized through the program. Thirty-six firms were interviewed that had productivity sharing plans. Nine firms that had either rejected adoption of a productivity sharing plan or were still…

  12. Why functions are not special dispositions: an improved classification of realizables for top-level ontologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of function is central to both biology and technology, but neither in philosophy nor in formal ontology is there a generally accepted theory of functions. In particular, there is no consensus how to include functions into a top-level ontology or whether to include them at all. Methods We first review current conceptions of functions in philosophy and formal ontology and evaluate them against a set of criteria. These evaluation criteria are derived from a synopsis of theoretical and practical requirements that have been suggested for formal accounts of functions. In a second step, we elucidate in particular the relation between functions and dispositions. Results We argue that functions should not be taken as a subtype of dispositions. The strongest reason for this is that any view that identifies functions with certain dispositions cannot account for malfunctioning, which is having a function but lacking the matching disposition. As a result, we suggest a cross-classification of realizables with dispositions supervening on the physical structure of their bearer, whereas both functions and roles also have some external grounding. While bearers can survive the gain, loss and change of roles, functions are rigid properties that are essentially connected to their particular bearers. Therefore, Function should not be regarded as a subtype of Disposition; rather, the classes of functions and dispositions are disjoint siblings of Realizable. PMID:25009736

  13. Usefulness of CAD/CAM techniques in the design and realization of the means of production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizot, S.

    1982-06-01

    Applications of CAD/CAM techniques as a tool to improve the efficiency and speed of industrial production are discussed. Prior to production, a machine-tooled part requires orientation guidelines, blow-ups of specific area's details, and tolerances. Consideration is also given to the position of the part in the ensemble and to the machining order. The choice of grid points for numerical modeling and the subsequent two- and three-dimensional displays of the part are outlined, with later data retrieval possible from a remotely accessed data bank. Examples are provided, using CAD/CAM, for the design and subsequent manufacture by progressive cuts of a piece contoured out of sheet metal. The automatic casting of lifters and the stamping of a balanced piece are also described.

  14. Toward the Improvement of the Budgeting Process and Policy Realization Through Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myroon, John L.

    Zero-base budgeting (ZBB), a systematically structured approach to budgeting, has the potential to improve policy attainment, resource reallocation, program review, and information systems. Some 300 businesses, a dozen states, one municipality, and one school district in the United States have operationalized the concept. Many private and public…

  15. Improved Edge Directed Super-Resolution (EDSR) with hardware realization for surveillance, transportation, and multimedia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; de Lima, Osborn; Saber, Eli; Bengtson, Kurt R.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present an improved Edge Directed Super Resolution (EDSR) technique to produce enhanced edge definition and improved image quality in the resulting high resolution image. The basic premise behind this algorithm remains, like its predecessor, to utilize gradient and spatial information and interpolate along the edge direction in a multiple pass iterative fashion. The edge direction map generated from horizontal and vertical gradients and resized to the target resolution is quantized into eight directions over a 5 × 5 block compared to four directions over a 3 × 3 block in the previous algorithm. This helps reduce the noise caused in part due to the quantization error and the super resolved results are significantly improved. In addition, an appropriate weighting encompassing the degree of similarity between the quantized edge direction and the actual edge direction is also introduced. In an attempt to determine the optimal super resolution parameters for the case of still image capture, a hardware setup was utilized to investigate and evaluate those factors. In particular, the number of images captured as well as the amount of sub pixel displacement that yield a high quality result was studied. This is done by utilizing a XY stage capable of sub-pixel movement. Finally, an edge preserving smoothing algorithm contributes to improved results by reducing the high frequency noise introduced by the super resolution process. The algorithm showed favorable results on a wide variety of datasets obtained from transportation to multimedia based print/scan application in addition to images captured with the aforementioned hardware setup.

  16. A novel realization of signal processing to improve the precision of the open-loop IFOG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Shufen; Fu, Lei

    2005-02-01

    With the development of the technique of the digital signal processor, the using of digital signal processor in the open loop IFOG (interferometric fiber optic gyroscope) signal processing brings a great improvement of the performance of IFOG, especially in the technique of digital filtering, acquisition the values of arcsine and inverse tan function. The traditional way to get the values of inverse tan function is linear interpolation technique in digital signal circuit. This article put forward a new way to acquire the values of inverse tan function, the proportion of the second order Bessel function to the first order Bessel function and the proportion of the fourth order Bessel function to the second order Bessel function by using of the virtue of DSP, high speed of data processing. The fundamental, second and fourth harmonic signals from photoelectrical detector are sampled and demodulated by analog circuit. Then the signals from analog circuit are sampled into DSP by a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, which is used to improve the dynamical range of the system. Then DSP computes the values mentioned above by polynomial approach. The simulation in Mathematic and Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 proved that the method of polynomial approach to the functions has higher precision compared to the method of linear interpolation. Meanwhile the designed circuit shows it can meet the demand of real time data process. The tested results of designed circuit prove it has a great improvement in the dynamic range and precision of IFOG.

  17. Improved high order grating method to realize wide angle beam steering on liquid crystal optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Wang, Xiangru; Xiong, Caidong; Huang, Ziqiang; Du, Jing; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Man; Wu, Shuanghong; Qiu, Qi

    2015-11-01

    To achieve a wider scanning range of liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA), in this paper, a novel method of improved high order grating (i-HOG) is proposed in one device without introducing any other devices. The method of i-HOG breaks through the traditional ideas of modulo 𝟐𝛑 phase and takes the fringe effect into account to have a multi order extension. Subsequently, the method is verified by numerical simulation showing that it realizes a scanning range of wider than 20 degrees and even wider.

  18. Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Hayes, J.D. ); Garcia, O. . Centro de Investigacions Forestais de Lourizan)

    1999-05-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don seedlots of varying genetic quality were compared in block-plot genetic-gain trials at 10 locations representing most of the site types in New Zealand. Permanent sample plots were measured annually for growth from age 6--8 yr from planting to ages 15--17 (midrotation). Seedlots from first-generation open-pollinated seed orchards and a mix of crosses that all involved the top-performing parent were, respectively, on average 4.5 % and 5.3% taller and had 6% and 11% larger mean diameter, 12% and 30% more basal area, and 15% and 34% more stem volume than seedlots originating from mild mass selection in harvested stands (climbing select). The observed growth increases were quantified as changes in the rate of growth from that predicted by pre-existing growth models in order to account for tree size and stocking differences. Seedlots from first-generation seed orchards and crosses of the top clone, respectively, grew 5.1% and 4.5% faster in height, and functions for basal area and stocking changed 13% and 26.4% faster, respectively, than the baseline growth models, which were based on climbing select. This implies that increased basal area growth must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate prediction of gain in stem volume. The incorporation of these observed increases in growth rates into stand growth models as genetic-gain multipliers in order to extrapolate predictions of growth of genetically improved seedlots beyond the sites, silvicultures, and seedlots represented in the genetic gain trials is discussed.

  19. Magnetic nanostructuring and overcoming Brown's paradox to realize extraordinary high-temperature energy products

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Mukherjee, Pinaki; Skomski, Ralph; Manchanda, Priyanka; Das, Bhaskar; Sellmyer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscience has been one of the outstanding driving forces in technology recently, arguably more so in magnetism than in any other branch of science and technology. Due to nanoscale bit size, a single computer hard disk is now able to store the text of 3,000,000 average-size books, and today's high-performance permanent magnets—found in hybrid cars, wind turbines, and disk drives—are nanostructured to a large degree. The nanostructures ideally are designed from Co- and Fe-rich building blocks without critical rare-earth elements, and often are required to exhibit high coercivity and magnetization at elevated temperatures of typically up to 180 °C for many important permanent-magnet applications. Here we achieve this goal in exchange-coupled hard-soft composite films by effective nanostructuring of high-anisotropy HfCo7 nanoparticles with a high-magnetization Fe65Co35 phase. An analysis based on a model structure shows that the soft-phase addition improves the performance of the hard-magnetic material by mitigating Brown's paradox in magnetism, a substantial reduction of coercivity from the anisotropy field. The nanostructures exhibit a high room-temperature energy product of about 20.3 MGOe (161.5 kJ/m3), which is a record for a rare earth- or Pt-free magnetic material and retain values as high as 17.1 MGOe (136.1 kJ/m3) at 180°C. PMID:25179756

  20. Magnetic nanostructuring and overcoming Brown's paradox to realize extraordinary high-temperature energy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Mukherjee, Pinaki; Skomski, Ralph; Manchanda, Priyanka; Das, Bhaskar; Sellmyer, David J.

    2014-09-01

    Nanoscience has been one of the outstanding driving forces in technology recently, arguably more so in magnetism than in any other branch of science and technology. Due to nanoscale bit size, a single computer hard disk is now able to store the text of 3,000,000 average-size books, and today's high-performance permanent magnets--found in hybrid cars, wind turbines, and disk drives--are nanostructured to a large degree. The nanostructures ideally are designed from Co- and Fe-rich building blocks without critical rare-earth elements, and often are required to exhibit high coercivity and magnetization at elevated temperatures of typically up to 180 °C for many important permanent-magnet applications. Here we achieve this goal in exchange-coupled hard-soft composite films by effective nanostructuring of high-anisotropy HfCo7 nanoparticles with a high-magnetization Fe65Co35 phase. An analysis based on a model structure shows that the soft-phase addition improves the performance of the hard-magnetic material by mitigating Brown's paradox in magnetism, a substantial reduction of coercivity from the anisotropy field. The nanostructures exhibit a high room-temperature energy product of about 20.3 MGOe (161.5 kJ/m3), which is a record for a rare earth- or Pt-free magnetic material and retain values as high as 17.1 MGOe (136.1 kJ/m3) at 180°C.

  1. Magnetic nanostructuring and overcoming Brown's paradox to realize extraordinary high-temperature energy products.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Mukherjee, Pinaki; Skomski, Ralph; Manchanda, Priyanka; Das, Bhaskar; Sellmyer, David J

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscience has been one of the outstanding driving forces in technology recently, arguably more so in magnetism than in any other branch of science and technology. Due to nanoscale bit size, a single computer hard disk is now able to store the text of 3,000,000 average-size books, and today's high-performance permanent magnets--found in hybrid cars, wind turbines, and disk drives--are nanostructured to a large degree. The nanostructures ideally are designed from Co- and Fe-rich building blocks without critical rare-earth elements, and often are required to exhibit high coercivity and magnetization at elevated temperatures of typically up to 180 °C for many important permanent-magnet applications. Here we achieve this goal in exchange-coupled hard-soft composite films by effective nanostructuring of high-anisotropy HfCo7 nanoparticles with a high-magnetization Fe65Co35 phase. An analysis based on a model structure shows that the soft-phase addition improves the performance of the hard-magnetic material by mitigating Brown's paradox in magnetism, a substantial reduction of coercivity from the anisotropy field. The nanostructures exhibit a high room-temperature energy product of about 20.3 MGOe (161.5 kJ/m(3)), which is a record for a rare earth- or Pt-free magnetic material and retain values as high as 17.1 MGOe (136.1 kJ/m(3)) at 180°C. PMID:25179756

  2. Effectiveness of simultaneous independent realizations at low carrier-to-noise ratio to improve heterodyne Doppler lidar performance. I. Theory and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerit, Gaspard; Drobinski, Philippe; Flamant, Pierre H.; Cariou, Jean-Pierre

    2002-04-01

    It is shown that the performance of heterodyne Doppler lidar (HDL) can be improved by (i) at least one good realization for every single shot or (ii) several simultaneous good realizations for accumulation. Until now, several simultaneous independent realizations at high carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) have been considered. At low CNR, noise may have a detrimental effect on the accumulation techniques. We determine the chances of getting "heavy" speckles in HDL signals from many receiver-detector units on a single-shot basis and several good realizations on a single-shot basis, which is required for an effective accumulation. The use of multiple receiver-detector units at low CNR is worthwhile in contexts such as space lidar, where optimized treatment is at a premium. We conclude on the effectiveness of many receiver-detector units in parallel in order to achieve simultaneous independent realizations at low CNR to improve the performance of HDL on a statistical basis.

  3. Productivity improvement and job satisfaction among public health nutritionists.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, J A; Feeney, M J; Wesner, K M; Dahl, T

    1979-12-01

    A workshop for public health nutritionists which scrutinized ways to improve productivity and job satisfaction is reported. Participants believed that productivity could be improved most by improving the execution of tasks, followed by better planning of programs, office management, and skills in group education, and by delegation of non-professional activities to lesser-trained personnel. Job satisfaction of public health nutritionists could be increased by reducing stress and discomfort and promoting feelings of personal effectiveness and efficiency through role clarification and by management training. There is a large potential for greater productivity in the profession. Realization of this potential will contribute measurably to the cost-effectiveness of nutritional services. PMID:117042

  4. Productivity improvement for longwall development

    SciTech Connect

    Whipkey, K.

    2005-08-01

    Industry survey reveals coal operators thoughts about the use of different techniques to keep development ahead of longwall production. Factors considered that can optimise productivity include mine design (the number of entries, size of pillars etc.), work schedules, preventative maintenance programs and good management. The article was adapted from a presentation to Longwall USA 2005, in June 2005 (Pittsburgh, PA, USA). 3 figs.

  5. Realizing the full potential of Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT) Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Chen, A.; Liu, L.; Parsekian, A.; Jafarov, E. E.; Panda, S. K.; Zebker, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT) product uses the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique to measure ground subsidence, active layer thickness (ALT), and thermokarst activity in permafrost regions. ReSALT supports research for the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) field campaign in Alaska and northwest Canada and is a precursor for a potential Nasa-Isro Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) product. ALT is a critical parameter for monitoring the status of permafrost and thermokarst activity is one of the key drivers of change in permafrost regions. The ReSALT product currently includes 1) long-term subsidence trends resulting from the melting and subsequent drainage of excess ground ice in permafrost-affected soils, 2) seasonal subsidence resulting from the expansion of soil water into ice as the active layer freezes and thaws, and 3) ALT estimated from the seasonal subsidence assuming a vertical profile of water within the soil column. ReSALT includes uncertainties for all parameters and is validated against in situ measurements from the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) network, Ground Penetrating Radar and mechanical probe measurements. We present high resolution ReSALT products on the North Slope of Alaska: Prudhoe Bay, Barrow, Toolik Lake, Happy Valley, and the Anaktuvuk fire zone. We believe that the ReSALT product could be expanded to include maps of individual thermokarst features identified as spatial anomalies in the subsidence trends, with quantified expansion rates. We illustrate the technique with multiple examples of thermokarst features on the North Slope of Alaska. Knowing the locations and expansion rates for individual features allows us to evaluate risks to human infrastructure. Our results highlight the untapped potential of the InSAR technique to remotely sense ALT and thermokarst dynamics over large areas of the Arctic.

  6. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  7. Laser Spray Fabrication for Net-Shape Rapid Product Realization LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Jeantette, F.P.; Keicher, D.M.; Oliver, M.S.; Reckaway, D.E.; Romero, J.A.; Schlienger, M.E.; Smugeresky, J.D.

    1999-04-01

    The primary purpose of this LDRD project was to characterize the laser deposition process and determine the feasibility of fabricating complex near-net shapes directly from a CAD solid model. Process characterization provided direction in developing a system to fabricate complex shapes directly from a CAD solid model. Our goal for this LDRD was to develop a system that is robust and provides a significant advancement to existing technologies (e.g., polymeric-based rapid prototyping, laser welding). Development of the process will allow design engineers to produce functional models of their designs directly from CAD files. The turnaround time for complex geometrical shaped parts will be hours instead of days and days instead of months. With reduced turnaround time, more time can be spent on the product-design phase to ensure that the best component design is achieved. Maturation of this technology will revolutionize the way the world produces structural components.

  8. Self-renewal: A strategy for quality and productivity improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Productivity improvement is discussed. The concept of productivity improvement is supplemented with two additional concepts of productivity improvement: effectiveness and innovation. Case studies are provided to illustrate concepts.

  9. Teaching Recognition Skills to Improve Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1990-01-01

    First year dental students (n=86) in a conservative restorations course were taught a discrimination learning paradigm to improve production quality. Evaluation of Class 1 amalgam preparations indicates the improved recognition skills corresponded with improved cavity preparation, supporting the use of this teaching model. (Author/MSE)

  10. Interchange. Program Improvement Products Identified through Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This catalog lists exemplary field-based program improvement products identified by the Dissemination and Utilization Products and Services Program (D&U) at the National Center for Research in Vocational Education. It is designed to increase awareness of these products among vocational educators and to provide information about them that…

  11. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  12. Improving product introduction through effective design reviews.

    PubMed

    Pelnik, Tammy M

    2003-01-01

    The design review process is a part of the manufacturer's due diligence in developing a safe and effective product. Design review provides early and on-going independent feedback to developers. By adopting a proactive review process, design improvements can be pursued at an optimum time in the product development effort, i.e., when it will cost less to implement changes and when these changes may have the greatest impact. Effective implementation of the design review requirement will lead to better medical products and improved product introduction results. PMID:12677754

  13. Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

  14. Productivity improvement and quality enhancement at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunstein, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) effort has as its objectives the encouragement of greater employee participation in management decision-making and the identification of impediments as well as opportunities for high productivity. Attempts are also made to try out novel management practices, and to evolve productivity trend analysis techniques. Every effort is made to note, reward, and diffuse successfully instituted PIQE approaches throughout the NASA-contractor organization.

  15. Productivity improvement in engineering at Rocketdyne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordlund, R. M.; Vogt, S. T.; Woo, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International has embarked on a productivity improvement program in engineering. This effort included participation in the White Collar Productivity Improvement (WCPI) project sponsored by the American Productivity Center. A number of things have been learned through this project. It seems that any productivity improvement project should be employee driven. The Rocketdyne project was essentially started as a result of a grassroots effort to remove some particular hindrances, and employee enthusiasm was a prime factor in the continuing progress of the effort. A significant result was that awareness of problems at all levels increased. Many issues surfaced in the diagnostic phase, and were then noted and discussed. This process added legitimacy to issues that had previously been merely unspoken concerns. The initial feelings of many members of the pilot group was that significant changes would occur relatively quickly. It is now recognized that this will have to be an ongoing, long-term effort.

  16. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  17. Improved Succinate Production by Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke-Ke; Wang, Gen-Yu; Zeng, Jing; Zhang, Jian-An

    2013-01-01

    Succinate is a promising chemical which has wide applications and can be produced by biological route. The history of the biosuccinate production shows that the joint effort of different metabolic engineering approaches brings successful results. In order to enhance the succinate production, multiple metabolical strategies have been sought. In this review, different overproducers for succinate production, including natural succinate overproducers and metabolic engineered overproducers, are examined and the metabolic engineering strategies and performances are discussed. Modification of the mechanism of substrate transportation, knocking-out genes responsible for by-products accumulation, overexpression of the genes directly involved in the pathway, and improvement of internal NADH and ATP formation are some of the strategies applied. Combination of the appropriate genes from homologous and heterologous hosts, extension of substrate, integrated production of succinate, and other high-value-added products are expected to bring a desired objective of producing succinate from renewable resources economically and efficiently. PMID:23691505

  18. Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Chia-Chun; Ku, Jung-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Cho; Su, Sung-Chieh; Lu, Chung-An; Huang, Li-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed. PMID:23615467

  19. Improving Organizational Productivity in NASA. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing that NASA has traditionally been in the forefront of technological change, the NASA Administrator challenged the Agency in 1982 to also become a leader in developing and applying advanced technology and management practices to increase productivity. One of the activities undertaken by the Agency to support this ambitious productivity goal was participation in a 2-year experimental action research project devoted to learning more about improving and assessing the performance of professional organizations. Participating with a dozen private sector organizations, NASA explored the usefulness of a productivity improvement process that addressed all aspects of organizational performance. This experience has given NASA valuable insight into the enhancement of professional productivity. More importantly, it has provided the Agency with a specific management approach that managers and supervisors can effectively use to emphasize and implement continuous improvement. This report documents the experiences of the five different NASA installations participating in the project, describes the improvement process that was applied and refined, and offers recommendations for expanded application of that process. Of particular interest is the conclusion that measuring white collar productivity may be possible, and at a minimum, the measurement process itself is beneficial to management. Volume I of the report provides a project overview, significant findings, and recommendations. Volume II presents individual case studies of the NASA pilot projects that were part of the action research effort.

  20. Improving Educational Productivity and School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan; Clune, William

    1995-01-01

    Presents strategies for improving student academic achievement and U.S. school productivity. Among the strategies are the following: making student achievement a priority goal for schools, enhancing and toughening the curriculum, managing all educational resources at the school and classroom levels, providing a variety of system incentives towards…

  1. How Online Faculty Improve Student Learning Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; McNeal, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Ten experienced online faculty were interviewed to elicit examples of how they improved student learning productivity in their online courses. The ten faculty represented nine different states, 13 different fields or disciplines, and all were tenured or tenure-track at master's or doctoral level higher education institutions. Based on a thematic…

  2. Blast optimization for improved dragline productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.; Baldwin, G.

    1994-12-31

    A project aimed at blast optimization for large open pit coal mines is utilizing blast monitoring and analysis techniques, advanced dragline monitoring equipment, and blast simulation software, to assess the major controlling factors affecting both blast performance and subsequent dragline productivity. This has involved collaborative work between the explosives supplier, mine operator, monitoring equipment manufacturer, and a mining research organization. The results from trial blasts and subsequently monitored dragline production have yielded promising results and continuing studies are being conducted as part of a blast optimization program. It should be stressed that the optimization of blasting practices for improved dragline productivity is a site specific task, achieved through controlled and closely monitored procedures. The benefits achieved at one location can not be simply transferred to another minesite unless similar improvement strategies are first implemented.

  3. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  4. The 3Rs of Productivity Improvement: Responsibility, Recognition, Reward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the American Production Center and a productivity improvement system in which people become part of the productivity solution when given responsibility, recognition, and reward for productivity improvement. (LRA)

  5. Improved Production Of Wrought Articles From Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James R.; Singleton, Ogle R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique for consolidation of powders into dense articles developed. Peripheral bands used in consolidation, forging, and rolling operations. Facilitates consolidation of dispersion-hardened aluminous powders and composite mixtures for processing to such useful wrought articles as plates and sheets. Potential use in production of plates and sheets and perhaps other objects from "hard" powders, particularly from powders, objects made from which have propensity to crack when mechanically worked to other forms.

  6. Toward Improving Streamflow Forecasts Using SNODAS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Boyle, D. P.; Lamorey, G. W.; Bassett, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the Water 2025 initiative, researchers at the Desert Research Institute in collaboration with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation are developing and improving water decision support system (DSS) tools to make seasonal streamflow forecasts for management and operations of water resources in the mountainous western United States. Streamflow forecasts in these areas may have errors that are directly related to uncertainties resulting from the lack of direct high resolution snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of improving the accuracy of streamflow forecasts through the use of Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) products, which are high-resolution daily estimates of snow cover and associated hydrologic variables such as SWE and snowmelt runoff that are available for the coterminous United States. To evaluate the benefit of incorporating the SNODAS product into streamflow forecasts, a variety of Ensemble Streamflow Predictions (ESP) are generated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). A series of manual and automatic calibrations of PRMS to different combinations of measured (streamflow) and estimated (SNODAS SWE) hydrologic variables is performed for several watersheds at various scales of spatial resolution. This study, which is embedded in the constant effort to improve streamflow forecasts and hence water operations DSS, shows the potential of using a product such as SNODAS SWE estimates to decrease parameter uncertainty related to snow variables and enhance forecast skills early in the forecast season.

  7. Actions for productivity improvement in crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Improvement of the productivity of astronaut crew instructors in the Space Shuttle program and beyond is proposed. It is suggested that instructor certification plans should be established to shorten the time required for trainers to develop their skills and improve their ability to convey those skills. Members of the training cadre should be thoroughly cross trained in their task. This provides better understanding of the overall task and greater flexibility in instructor utilization. Improved facility access will give instructors the benefit of practical application experience. Former crews should be integrated into the training of upcoming crews to bridge some of the gap between simulated conditions and the real world. The information contained in lengthy and complex training manuals can be presented more clearly and efficiently as computer lessons. The illustration, animation and interactive capabilities of the computer combine an effective means of explanation.

  8. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  9. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  10. Development and realization of the concept of an integrated system for the improvement of steam turbine plant reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmanskii, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Main works performed when implementing the concept of an integrated approach to the improvement of the steam turbine plant (STP) reliability were stated. The technique of an integrated approach to the collection and processing of data on the STP equipment reliability was presented. This technique is based on the information on damages resulting in equipment failures, damages revealed during the routine equipment maintenance, and on data concerning equipment faults occurred when operating the STP. There is an implementation example for the technique of defining main elements specifying the reliability of a specific unit based on the statistical analysis of STP operating data.

  11. Improvement of wool production through genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Rogers, G E

    1990-01-01

    Wool is a natural fibre popular in the manufacture of outer clothing and is a vital source of income for several countries. Fundamental knowledge of how wool grows has been gained from research on the biology of sheep, and the prospects ahead are to take advantage of the development and application of recombinant DNA technology to improve the efficiency of production of wool and its quality. This review surveys the possibilities for producing transgenic sheep, modifying rumen bacteria and forage crops, thus increasing the nutritional benefit sheep gain from pasture. PMID:1366571

  12. Improvement of exopolysaccharide production by Porphyridium marinum.

    PubMed

    Soanen, Nastasia; Da Silva, Elise; Gardarin, Christine; Michaud, Philippe; Laroche, Céline

    2016-08-01

    With the aim to optimize the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Porphyridium marinum, cultures in photobioreactors were conducted on a modified Provasoli medium (P) and compared to a new medium (Pm) with an elemental composition of N0.0205S0.0597P0.005. Cultivation on this medium allowed the increase of EPS concentration up to 2.5gL(-1), without modification of the EPS productivity (0.096gL(-1)) and EPS structure. In a second time, photosynthetic activity of the strain was monitored as a function of irradiance and temperature, allowing improvement of kinetic parameters of growth and EPS production. A semi-continuous culture, carried out with the Pm medium, an optimal irradiance and temperature of respectively 360μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1) and 28°C led to an EPS process productivity of 0.031gh(-1) instead of 0.020gh(-1) in batch culture. PMID:26944455

  13. Improvements in the realization of the ITS-90 over the temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Ping, Q.

    2013-09-11

    The temperature primary standard over the range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver in National institute of Metrology (NIM), China, was established in the early 1990s. The performance of all of fixed-point furnaces degraded and needs to be updated due to many years of use. Nowadays, the satisfactory fixed point materials can be available with the development of the modern purification techniques. NIM plans to use a group of three cells for each defining fixed point temperature. In this way the eventual drift of individual cells can be evidenced by periodic intercomparison and this will increase the reliability in disseminating the ITS-90 in China. This article describes the recent improvements in realization of ITS-90 over temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM. Taking advantages of the technological advances in the design and manufacture of furnaces, the new three-zone furnaces and the open-type fixed points were developed from the freezing point of indium to the freezing point of silver, and a furnace with the three-zone semiconductor cooling was designed to automatically realize the melting point of gallium. The reproducibility of the new melting point of gallium and the new open-type freezing points of In, Sn, Zn. Al and Ag is improved, especially the freezing points of Al and Ag with the reproducibility of 0.2mK and 0.5mK respectively. The expanded uncertainty in the realization of these defining fixed point temperatures is 0.34mK, 0.44mK, 0.54mK, 0.60mK, 1.30mK and 1.88mK respectively.

  14. WFC3: Improved WFC3 Calibration Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Heather C.; Sosey, M. L.; Anderson, J.; Lee, J. C.; Pirzkal, N.; MacKenty, J. W.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Deustua, S. E.; Hammer, D.; Dahlen, T.; Sabbi, E.; Mack, J.; Baggett, S. M.; WFC3 Team

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a fourth-generation UV/visible and IR imaging instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Installed in May 2009, during HST servicing mission 4, both channels have been performing very well on-orbit. To provide optimum calibrated data, the WFC3 team routinely updates and refines the calibration software and associated files, designated as calibration products. We present some of the recently improved calibration products that will be of interest to current and future users of WFC3, including information on the chip-dependent zeropoints and flat fields, post-flash calibrations, and detector-to-image distortion corrections. The latter results in four new extensions (two per chip and dimension), in all UVIS FLTs retrieved from MAST after September 10, 2013. The D2IMFILE contains astrometric corrections for shifts of the raw X and Y positions induced by the lithographic-mask pattern. We discuss the migration of CALWF3 from the STSDAS package to HSTCAL, a package independent of IRAF; as a consequence, the IRAF/STSDAS version of CALWF3 is no longer being updated. Finally, we summarize recent improvements to aXe, a PyRAF/IRAF software package that enables automated extraction of spectra from WFC3 slitless spectral (grism) images. Updated versions of aXe are made available as part of the STSDAS testing environment (SSBX).

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    P. Voyentzie; T. Leo; A. Kush; L. Christner; G. Carlson; C. Yuh

    1998-12-20

    Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the sixteen Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) stacks, ERC is finalizing the next generation commercial entry product design. The second generation cells are 50% larger in area, 40% lighter on equal geometric area basis, and 30% thinner than the earlier design. These improvements have resulted in doubling of the full-height stack power. A low-cost and high-strength matrix has also been developed for improving product ruggedness. The low-cost advanced cell design incorporating these improvements has been refined through six short stack tests. Power production per cell of two times the SCDP maximum power operation, over ten thermal cycles, and overall operating flexibility with respect to load and thermal changes have been demonstrated in these short stack tests. An internally insulated stack enclosure has been designed and fabricated to eliminate the need for an inert gas environment during operation. ERC has acquired the capability for testing 400kW full-height direct fuel ceil (DFC) stack and balance-of-plant equipment. With the readiness of the power plant test facility, the cell package design, and the stack module, full-height stack testing has begun. The first full- height stack incorporating the post-SCDP second generation design was completed. The stack reached a power level of 253 kW, setting a world record for the highest power production from the advanced fuel cell system. Excellent performance uniformity at this power level affirmed manufacturing reproducibility of the components at the factory. This unoptimized small size test has achieved pipeline natural gas to DC electricity conversion efficiency of 47% (based on lower heating value - LHV) including the parasitic power consumed by the BOP equipment; that should translate to more than 50% efficiency in commercial operation, before employing cogeneration. The power plant system also operated smoothly. With the success of this

  16. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  17. Effectiveness of simultaneous independent realizations at low carrier-to-noise ratio to improve heterodyne Doppler lidar performance. II. Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerit, Gaspard; Drobinski, Philippe; Augere, Beatrice; Flamant, Pierre H.

    2002-12-01

    A 1.55-mum continuous-wave heterodyne Doppler lidar (HDL) with three receiver-detector units is used to validate experimentally the findings presented in the Guerit et al. companion paper [Appl. Opt. 41, 2232 (2002)] on the effectiveness of independent realizations to improve HDL performance (velocity or power estimates or both) at a low carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR). In fact, noise has a detrimental effect on the accumulation techniques, so in the Guerit et al. companion paper, the chances of getting "heavy" speckles in HDL signals from many receiver-detector units on a single- or several-shot basis are investigated theoretically and numerically with the Zrnic HDL model. The experimental results enable us to conclude there is a very good agreement (better than 95%) between the performance computed from actual HDL data and from the theoretical predictions.

  18. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Design Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This annual report provides results of Energy Research Corporation`s technical approach to performing the program `Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Product Design Improvement` covered under the DOE-ERC Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC31184. This work is supported by DOE/METC and DOD/DARPA as well as ERC Team funds. The objective of the DOE-sponsored program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry for civilian applications. The overall objective of the DOD/DARPA initiative is to adapt the civilian 2 MW-Class fuel cell power plant for dual fuel DOD applications. This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the power plant demonstration status to the commercial entry early production unit design stage. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of these overall program goals are: (1) Provide environmental information to support DOE evaluation with respect to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), (2) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (3) Establish design for multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (4) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (5) Acquire capabilities to support developmental testing of 0370 stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness of the power plant for commercial entry.

  19. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  20. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-12-19

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC

  1. Improving Infrared Astronomical Satellite Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Carl

    The InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revolutionized astrophysics when it surveyed the sky at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths for the first time. Since then other missions have built upon the legacy of IRAS, but none have surpassed its far-infrared dataset. It is unlikely that a new all-sky far-infrared survey will fly any time in the near future thus making IRAS data a valuable commodity as the most sensitive and complete all-sky survey at far-infrared wavelengths that will likely remain so for at least another decade. Given its importance, it is prudent to make any attempt to extend the IRAS dataset to its limits. Using advanced image processing techniques we believe it is possible to improve IRAS data both in sensitivity and resolution by an order of magnitude or more. We will use revised IRAS data products to explore dusty circumstellar material, especially its temporal evolution, with an emphasis on protoplanetary and debris disks. Before embarking on a full-scale re-analysis of all IRAS survey data, we first propose a pilot survey in which we will validate our methodology. The proposal goals are well- aligned with the scope of the Astrophysics Data Analysis program and directly inform the NASA Science Mission Directorate to understand our cosmic origins, especially to determine how planets form around young stars, and will likely have broader impacts in all areas of astrophysics much like the original IRAS survey did.

  2. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  3. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the program period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance-of-plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  4. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  5. Productivity improvement through cycle time analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, Javier; Rios, Luis; Ortega, Carlos; Aparicio, Santiago; Fernandez, Manuel; Rosendo, Maria; Sanchez, Alejandro; Malvar, Sergio

    1996-09-01

    A cycle time (CT) reduction methodology has been developed in the Lucent Technology facility (former AT&T) in Madrid, Spain. It is based on a comparison of the contribution of each process step in each technology with a target generated by a cycle time model. These targeted cycle times are obtained using capacity data of the machines processing those steps, queuing theory and theory of constrains (TOC) principles (buffers to protect bottleneck and low cycle time/inventory everywhere else). Overall efficiency equipment (OEE) like analysis is done in the machine groups with major differences between their target cycle time and real values. Comparisons between the current value of the parameters that command their capacity (process times, availability, idles, reworks, etc.) and the engineering standards are done to detect the cause of exceeding their contribution to the cycle time. Several friendly and graphical tools have been developed to track and analyze those capacity parameters. Specially important have showed to be two tools: ASAP (analysis of scheduling, arrivals and performance) and performer which analyzes interrelation problems among machines procedures and direct labor. The performer is designed for a detailed and daily analysis of an isolate machine. The extensive use of this tool by the whole labor force has demonstrated impressive results in the elimination of multiple small inefficiencies with a direct positive implications on OEE. As for ASAP, it shows the lot in process/queue for different machines at the same time. ASAP is a powerful tool to analyze the product flow management and the assigned capacity for interdependent operations like the cleaning and the oxidation/diffusion. Additional tools have been developed to track, analyze and improve the process times and the availability.

  6. Can humic products become mainstream amendments for improving crop production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic products have been used in cropland production for several decades but only by small numbers of farmers. Appreciable proportions of field studies demonstrate efficacy of the products for numerous crops, justifying their further evaluation. Their adoption by mainstream farmers could be accelera...

  7. Vocational Education: Its Role in Productivity Improvement and Technological Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewes, Donald W.

    This report addresses productivity and technology from the perspective of state vocational education agencies. Chapter 1 explores the meaning and measurement of productivity and the benefits of productivity improvement--profits, a weapon against inflation, success in international trade, increased standard of living, improved quality of life, and…

  8. Improving Productivity in Higher Education: Administration and Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massy, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Among the many reasons why college and university costs are rising are factors internal to the institutions which hold down productivity. Most efforts to improve productivity usually fail because they do not introduce new energy or information from the outside. In order to improve productivity, formal, non-quantitative evaluation should include a…

  9. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  10. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    generation, industrial cogeneration, marine applications and uninterrupted power for military bases. FuelCell Energy operated a 1.8 MW plant at a utility site in 1996-97, the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in North America. This proof-of-concept power plant demonstrated high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power control, and unattended operation capabilities. Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the full-size power plant; FuelCell Energy launched the Product Design Improvement (PDI) program sponsored by government and the private-sector cost-share. The PDI efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program was initiated in December 1994. Year 2000 program accomplishments are discussed in this report.

  11. Improvement of biogas production by bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Kovács, K L; Ács, N; Kovács, E; Wirth, R; Rákhely, G; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  12. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, K. L.; Ács, N.; Kovács, E.; Wirth, R.; Rákhely, G.; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  13. Eastern Europe: USSR aims to improve production

    SciTech Connect

    Rigassi, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This article details the perspectives for Eastern European petroleum development. Observations include: Oil output in Russia declined 2.6% last year, a drop more than twice as bad as 1984; Gorbachev cleaned house in 1985 after inspecting production problems in West Siberia; USSR exploratory/appraisal drilling the next five years should exceed 1981-85 by 40%; Gas output in USSR for '85 was 57.5 bcfd. A peak of 64 bcfd was reached last February; Poland hit a major offshore oil and gas find in the Baltic Sea during October 1985; Cash-short Yugoslavia plans to develop Ivana offshore gas field in the Adriatic Sea; Faced with stumbling domestic oil production, Romania turns to the USSR to fill the gap; Gas production in Hungary may drop despite added production from new and old fields.

  14. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S.; Willman, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  15. Implementation of Strategies to Improve the Reliability of III-Nitride Photodetectors towards the Realization of Visible and Solar-Blind Imaging Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, John J.

    isolates conductive pathways in III-Nitrides using an electrochemical etch and novel foam passivation technique. Establishing improved photodiode performance and device reliability, 4x4 and 8x8 arrays of GaN p-i-n photodiodes were demonstrated and integrated with external circuitry to generate image patterns using 360nm illumination. This work represents significant progress towards the realization of reliable III-Nitride UV detectors arrays and future directions are proposed in order to demonstrate large-scale arrays for high-resolution ultraviolet imaging.

  16. Guide to Productivity Improvement Projects. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International City Management Association, Washington, DC.

    This edition features over 400 projects that have effected cost savings and/or improved services in a broad range of functional areas of city management, a jurisdictional index as well as a topical index, in-depth reports on selected projects, and project description forms that readers can use to share their successful projects with other readers.…

  17. Improving cow herd production through early weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning, in spring calving production systems, has intrigued many producers to consider this alternative management practice especially during extended droughts and as a tool to promote stayability within a cow herd for young developing cows. The first objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  18. Some new ideas for improving production operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.R. Jr.

    1983-04-01

    Recent innovations in equipment and technology for producing oil and gas are surveyed. A new concept called the fluid rod production system uses production fluid as a power transfer medium to transmit fluid power from a skid mounted surface unit to a down hole stroker that activates a standard API type rod pump. This system is used in low-volume wells. An automatic chemical feed system, an unusual pump jack, an electric downhole steam generator, and methods for producing gas hydrates are surveyed. Finally, a pressure activated tubing plug, which eliminates the problem of debris settling on top of a wireline retrievable plug, is discussed. The key aspect of this tool is the floating cylinder, as specified.

  19. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  20. Compositions and methods for improved protein production

    DOEpatents

    Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Steve

    2012-07-10

    The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

  1. Compositions and methods for improved protein production

    DOEpatents

    Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Steve Sungjin

    2014-06-03

    The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

  2. NASA's Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration celebrated its 25th Anniversary in 1983 at the Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, with President Reagan in attendance. We look back on the accomplishments of these twenty-five years with pride in our missions and our people. NASA captured the world's imagination during the days of the Apollo mission. So much so, that we now talk about the Apollo era. In the l970s, we moved into the Space Transportation business and in the 199Os, we look forward to having a manned Space Station. Each succeeding mission has presented its own challenge in terms of technology and resources. This is especially true today, when we are being asked to do more with less. To ensure that NASA continues to be a productive and quality conscious agency, one of our highest Agency goals is leadership in the development and application of practices which contribute to high productivity and quality. greatest competitive strength, and this country has a solid scientific and engineering foundation. Traditionally we have spent more money on research and development than Japan and Europe combined, and we are the source of most of this century significant innovations. We should build on this solid base and use it more effectively.

  3. Improved maintenance productivity through software application

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrig, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Some twelve years ago, MRC - Mound was one of the first Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites to define and implement an engineering performance standards system to aid in the management of site maintenance operations. Over succeeding years, the scope of the system was broadened to include preventive maintenance and equipment management. Portions of the system were eventually automated through applications programming utilizing Mound's mainframe computer. The Automated Maintenance Management Operations, AMMO, software package will support all the principal functions of the maintenance mission at Mound. In the subsequent pages, a few unique features of the AMMO System will be highlighted. Also to be discussed, will be some of the productivity philosophies that influenced the AMMO design, as well as, the mechanisms within the system that will monitor the success of the system in achieving the desired results. Piror to this discussion, however, an overview of Mounds's present maintenance work order execution must be briefly discussed. The AMMO System software was designed around this mode of operation while incorporating some innovative new philosophies.

  4. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer

  5. Improvements in large window and optics production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, Bob; Messner, Bill; Hall, Chris; Supranowitz, Chris

    2007-04-01

    are virtually eliminated with the MRF process. This paper presents some recent results of the deterministic finishing typified by the QED product line and more specifically of its large-aperture machines, presently capable of finishing optics up to one meter in size. Examples of large sapphire windows and meter-class aspheric glass optics will be reviewed. Associated metrology concerns will also be discussed.

  6. Improving Microbial Biogasoline Production in Escherichia coli Using Tolerance Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jee Loon; Jensen, Heather M.; Dahl, Robert H.; George, Kevin; Keasling, Jay D.; Lee, Taek Soon; Leong, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Engineering microbial hosts for the production of fungible fuels requires mitigation of limitations posed on the production capacity. One such limitation arises from the inherent toxicity of solvent-like biofuel compounds to production strains, such as Escherichia coli. Here we show the importance of host engineering for the production of short-chain alcohols by studying the overexpression of genes upregulated in response to exogenous isopentenol. Using systems biology data, we selected 40 genes that were upregulated following isopentenol exposure and subsequently overexpressed them in E. coli. Overexpression of several of these candidates improved tolerance to exogenously added isopentenol. Genes conferring isopentenol tolerance phenotypes belonged to diverse functional groups, such as oxidative stress response (soxS, fpr, and nrdH), general stress response (metR, yqhD, and gidB), heat shock-related response (ibpA), and transport (mdlB). To determine if these genes could also improve isopentenol production, we coexpressed the tolerance-enhancing genes individually with an isopentenol production pathway. Our data show that expression of 6 of the 8 candidates improved the production of isopentenol in E. coli, with the methionine biosynthesis regulator MetR improving the titer for isopentenol production by 55%. Additionally, expression of MdlB, an ABC transporter, facilitated a 12% improvement in isopentenol production. To our knowledge, MdlB is the first example of a transporter that can be used to improve production of a short-chain alcohol and provides a valuable new avenue for host engineering in biogasoline production. PMID:25370492

  7. Improving microbial biogasoline production in Escherichia coli using tolerance engineering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Foo, Jee Loon; Jensen, Heather M.; Dahl, Robert H.; George, Kevin; Keasling, Jay D.; Lee, Taek Soon; Leong, Susanna; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-11-04

    Engineering microbial hosts for the production of fungible fuels requires mitigation of limitations posed on the production capacity. One such limitation arises from the inherent toxicity of solvent-like biofuel compounds to production strains, such as Escherichia coli. Here we show the importance of host engineering for the production of short-chain alcohols by studying the overexpression of genes upregulated in response to exogenous isopentenol. Using systems biology data, we selected 40 genes that were upregulated following isopentenol exposure and subsequently overexpressed them in E. coli. Overexpression of several of these candidates improved tolerance to exogenously added isopentenol. Genes conferring isopentenol tolerancemore » phenotypes belonged to diverse functional groups, such as oxidative stress response (soxS, fpr, and nrdH), general stress response (metR, yqhD, and gidB), heat shock-related response (ibpA), and transport (mdlB). To determine if these genes could also improve isopentenol production, we coexpressed the tolerance-enhancing genes individually with an isopentenol production pathway. Our data show that expression of 6 of the 8 candidates improved the production of isopentenol in E. coli, with the methionine biosynthesis regulator MetR improving the titer for isopentenol production by 55%. Additionally, expression of MdlB, an ABC transporter, facilitated a 12% improvement in isopentenol production. To our knowledge, MdlB is the first example of a transporter that can be used to improve production of a short-chain alcohol and provides a valuable new avenue for host engineering in biogasoline production.« less

  8. A Trainer's Guide to Successful Productivity Improvement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judson

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the concept of productivity improvement which must be studied before selecting an approach. Concepts include increasing efficiency without decreasing quality; using employees to redefine the job; and planning for long-term effort. (JOW)

  9. Recent Productivity Improvements to the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Sydnor, George H.

    1998-01-01

    Productivity gains have recently been made at the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A team was assigned to assess and set productivity goals to achieve the desired operating cost and output of the facility. Simulations have been developed to show the sensitivity of selected process productivity improvements in critical areas to reduce overall test cycle times. The improvements consist of an expanded liquid nitrogen storage system, a new fan drive, a new tunnel vent stack heater, replacement of programmable logic controllers, an increased data communications speed, automated test sequencing, and a faster model changeout system. Where possible, quantifiable results of these improvements are presented. Results show that in most cases, improvements meet the productivity gains predicted by the simulations.

  10. Service Productivity How to Measure and Improve It?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartigh, Erik; Zegveld, Marc

    Productivity is a key performance measure for service businesses and serves as a compass for measuring their innovativeness. In this chapter we present a tool for measuring productivity in service businesses. Improvements in service business productivity do not depend on industry, business size or business growth, but on the specific knowledge and competences of managers. Using case examples we show various ways of how managers can improve the productivity of their service businesses. They can do so by adopting a perspective of standardization, flexibility or individualization. Based on these perspectives, we provide a framework that shows how managers can improve service business productivity by coordinating strategic orientation, value creation and the configuration of business processes.

  11. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  12. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  13. Workbook for Taguchi Methods for Product Quality Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarghami, Ali; Benbow, Don

    Taguchi methods are methods of product quality improvement that analyze major contributions and how they can be controlled to reduce variability of poor performance. In this approach, knowledge is used to shorten testing. Taguchi methods are concerned with process improvement rather than with process measurement. This manual is designed to be used…

  14. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of an improved LED lightbar, fabrication of a line-scan sensor head for the Smart-Camera based prototype, and development of prototype vulcanized splice detection algorithms.

  15. Prescriptive Package. Improving Patrol Productivity. Volume I. Routine Patrol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, William G.; Schack, Stephen

    Designed to assist police departments in improving the productivity of their patrol operations, this volume on routine patrol and a companion volume on specialized patrol operations are intended for use by various sizes of departments. The volume on routine patrol focuses on the major issues of patrol productivity and recommends a number of…

  16. Untapped opportunities for improving performance and increasing smelter production

    SciTech Connect

    Forberg, H.O.

    1996-10-01

    A review has been made of a large number of aluminum smelters concerning opportunities for improving performance and increasing production. Smelters have been grouped according to current efficiency. Opportunities for improvement of older and newer smelters are discussed. For older smelters to remain competitive and extend economic life, it is important to find new ways to increase production. These efforts have been going on for many years and the most successful producers have been able to stay viable. Opportunities are still available for many older facilities as further incremental increases of production wait to be harvested. Newer smelters are also interested in decreasing cost by increasing production. Even if the operating costs of newer plants are lower than those of older ones, it is important that newer plants make improvements that generate an acceptable rate of return on invested capital.

  17. Improving heterologous polyketide production in Escherichia coli by transporter engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingya; Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Shu-Jie; Wang, Jian-Feng; Lv, Hua-Jun; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Expelling heterologous compounds out of hosts by transporters is a potential strategy to enhance product titers in microbial cell factories. In this work, to increase heterologous polyketide 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6dEB, erythromycin precursor) production, tripartite multidrug efflux pumps MacAB-TolC, AcrAB-TolC, MdtEF-TolC, and MexAB-OprM were modulated in a 6dEB production strain. Compared with the control, overexpression of a single component of efflux pumps (except oprM) repressed 6dEB production, but modulation of two components MacA and MacB or the complete pumps MacAB-TolC and MdtEF-TolC significantly improved 6dEB titer by 100 ± 11, 118 ± 54, and 98 ± 12 %, respectively. In addition, to avoid the challenging fine-tuning components of pumps, the transcriptional regulators of efflux pumps were modulated to improve the 6dEB production. Overexpression of RpoH (activator of MdtEF-TolC) and EvgA (activator of EmrKY-TolC and AcrAD-TolC) strongly increased 6dEB titer by 152 ± 54 and 142 ± 85 %, respectively. This is the first report of transporter engineering for improving heterologous polyketide production in Escherichia coli. Our results provide an effective strategy for improving the yield of the heterologous products in chassis cell. PMID:26062534

  18. Improvements to the MODIS Land Products in Collection Version 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, R. E.; Devadiga, S.; Masuoka, E. J.; Running, S. W.; Vermote, E.; Giglio, L.; Wan, Z.; Riggs, G. A.; Schaaf, C.; Myneni, R. B.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, Z.; Sulla-menashe, D. J.; Zhao, M.

    2013-12-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), housed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has been processing the earth view data acquired by the MODIS instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites to generate suite of land and atmosphere data products using the science algorithms developed by the MODIS Science Team. These data products are used by diverse set of users in research and other applications from both government and non-government agencies around the world. These validated global products are also being used in interactive Earth system models able to predict global change accurately enough to assist policy makers in making sound decisions concerning the protection of our environment. Hence an increased emphasis is being placed on generation of high quality consistent data records from the MODIS data through reprocessing of the records using improved science algorithms. Since the launch of Terra in December 1999, MODIS land data records have been reprocessed four times. The Collection Version 6 (C6) reprocessing of MODIS Land and Atmosphere products is scheduled to start in Fall 2013 and is expected to complete in Spring 2014. This presentation will describe changes made to the C6 science algorithms to correct issues in the C5 products, additional improvements made to the products as deemed necessary by the data users and science teams, and new products introduced in this reprocessing. In addition to the improvements from product specific changes to algorithms, the C6 products will also see significant improvement in the calibration by the MODIS Calibration Science Team (MCST) of the C6 L1B Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and radiance product, more accurate geolocation, and an improved Land Water mask. For the a priori land cover input, this reprocessing will use the multi-year land cover product generated with three years of MODIS data as input as opposed to one

  19. CAD/CAM improves productivity in nonaerospace job shops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, D. T.

    1982-12-01

    Business cost improvements that can result from Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), when properly applied, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of CAD/CAM for machine and process control, design and planning control, and production and measurement control. It is pointed out that the implementation of CAD/CAM should be based on the following priorities: (1) recognize interrelationships between the principal functions of CAD/CAM; (2) establish a Systems Council to determine overall strategy and specify the communications/decision-making system; (3) implement the communications/decision-making system to improve productivity; and (4) implement interactive graphics and other additions to further improve productivity.

  20. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe. PMID:26935025

  1. Improving productivity and firm performance with enterprise resource planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Hooshang M.; Beheshti, Cyrus M.

    2010-11-01

    Productivity is generally considered to be the efficient utilisation of organisational resources and is measured in terms of the efficiency of a worker, company or nation. Focusing on efficiency alone, however, can be harmful to the organisation's long-term success and competitiveness. The full benefits of productivity improvement measures are realised when productivity is examined from two perspectives: operational efficiency (output/input) of an individual worker or a business unit as well as performance (effectiveness) with regard to end user or customer satisfaction. Over the years, corporations have adopted new technology to integrate business activities in order to achieve both effectiveness and efficiency in their operations. In recent years, many firms have invested in enterprise resource planning (ERP) in order to integrate all business activities into a uniform system. The implementation of ERP enables the firm to reduce the transaction costs of the business and improve its productivity, customer satisfaction and profitability.

  2. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  3. Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

  4. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-15

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations.

  5. Prescriptive Package. Improving Patrol Productivity. Volume II. Specialized Patrol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schack, Stephen; Gay, William G.

    Designed to assist police departments in improving the productivity of their patrol operations, this volume on specialized patrol and a companion volume on routine patrol operations are intended for use by various sizes of departments. The volume of specialized patrol focuses upon the appropriate use and effective operation of specialized patrol…

  6. Managing soil under vegetable production to improve soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the years, soil quality has eroded as soil organic matter has declined on farms across North Carolina. This study is assessing the effects of tillage practice, winter cover cropping and compost use on changes in soil function and improvement in soil quality under vegetable production. The field...

  7. Creating Shared Instructional Products: An Alternative Approach to Improving Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James

    2011-01-01

    To solve two enduring problems in education--unacceptably large variation in learning opportunities for students across classrooms and little continuing improvement in the quality of instruction--the authors propose a system that centers on the creation of shared instructional products that guide classroom teaching. By examining systems outside…

  8. Improvement of the production of Trypanosoma vivax antigens.

    PubMed

    Staak, C

    1975-09-01

    An improved technique for the production of Trypanosoma vivax antigen from infected cattle is described. This technique is based upon 1. the application of immunosuppressive drug, 2. the isolation of trypanosomes by centrifugation, and 3. the clearing of the trypanosome suspension from non sedimented blood cells by an anti-serum against bovine blood cells, raised in rabbits. PMID:1189022

  9. R and D productivity improvement at Honeywell: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The problems encountered when computer-aided-design/documentation was applied to a large design program at Honeywell; how a study team was established to solve the problem; the techniques used by the team and the resulting solutions are described. The techniques used in this instance may be applied to other problem areas in the R&D process to improve productivity.

  10. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of low-cost prototype hardware, acquisition of infrared thermal data, and initial design of a Smart-Camera based system.

  11. Management Practices to Improve Productivity of Degraded/Eroded Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored by using organic amendment, such as manure, and improved soil management. A study is being conducted near Hays, KS, to investigate and compare restorative potential of two nitrogen (N) sources. Dried beef manure and urea fertilizer were each appl...

  12. Polymer mud improves chalk gas production and profits

    SciTech Connect

    Cornett, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A new polymer drilling fluid is being used successfully in the Austin Chalk area of Texas to improve wellbore stability, decrease formation damage and significantly increase production rates. This article discusses development of the fluid, laboratory test results, field performance and benefits to operators.

  13. Production does not improve memory for face-name associations.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Smith, Alexis R S

    2016-06-01

    Strategies for learning face-name associations are generally difficult and time-consuming. However, research has shown that saying a word aloud improves our memory for that word relative to words from the same set that were read silently. Such production effects have been shown for words, pictures, text material, and even word pairs. Can production improve memory for face-name associations? In Experiment 1, participants studied face-name pairs by reading half of the names aloud and half of the names silently, and were tested with cued recall. In Experiment 2, names were repeated aloud (or silently) for the full trial duration. Neither experiment showed a production effect in cued recall. Bayesian analyses showed positive support for the null effect. One possibility is that participants spontaneously implemented more elaborate encoding strategies that overrode any influence of production. However, a more likely explanation for the null production effect is that only half of each stimulus pair was produced-the name, but not the face. Consistent with this explanation, in Experiment 3 a production effect was not observed in cued recall of word-word pairs in which only the target words were read aloud or silently. Averaged across all 3 experiments, aloud targets were more likely to be recalled than silent targets (though not associated with the correct cue). The production effect in associative memory appears to require both members of a pair to be produced. Surprisingly, production shows little promise as a strategy for improving memory for the names of people we have just met. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27244356

  14. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children. PMID:20032473

  15. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  16. Special report. New products that improve officer performance, safety.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The need for products that improve performance of security officers is counterbalanced these days by budgetary constraints. While this may limit major investments in security systems and personnel, less costly improvements or innovations might be worth considering. In this report, we will discuss four advances that may be valuable not only in hospital security, but in other industries as well. One of them, a smoke filter, was originally developed for the hotel industry. Another, a drug detection device, may replace the use of undercover agents or drug-sniffing' dogs in certain circumstances. The third new product is an economical patrol vehicle for parking facilities which might replace more costly vehicles such as golf carts or cars. The fourth product, a roving CCTV camera, is actually being tested at a Midwest medical center and may allow you to monitor areas of parking garages with cameras instead of officers on patrol. PMID:10116406

  17. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.028<0.05, 95% efficiency, increase productivity 11%, financial analysis (NPV 2,340,596>0, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  18. Efflux transporter engineering markedly improves amorphadiene production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congqiang; Chen, Xixian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Too, Heng-Phon

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic engineering aims at altering cellular metabolism to produce valuable products at high yields and titers. Achieving high titers and productivity can be challenging if final products are largely accumulated intracellularly. A potential solution to this problem is to facilitate the export of these substances from cells by membrane transporters. Amorphadiene, the precursor of antimalarial drug artemisinin, is known to be secreted from Escherichia coli overexpressing the biosynthetic pathway. In order to assess the involvement of various endogenous efflux pumps in amorphadiene transport, the effects of single gene deletion of 16 known multidrug-resistant membrane efflux transporters were examined. The outer membrane protein TolC was found to be intimately involved in amorphadiene efflux. The overexpression of tolC together with ABC family transporters (macAB) or MFS family transporters (emrAB or emrKY) enhanced amorphadiene titer by more than threefold. In addition, the overexpression of transporters in the lipopolysaccharide transport system (msbA, lptD, lptCABFG) was found to improve amorphadiene production. As efflux transporters often have a wide range of substrate specificity, the multiple families of transporters were co-expressed and synergistic benefits were observed in amorphadiene production. This strategy of screening and then rationally engineering transporters can be used to improve the production of other valuable compounds in E. coli. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1755-1763. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804325

  19. [Improving 3-dehydroshikimate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fei; Chen, Wujiu; Jia, Shiru; Wang, Qinhong

    2014-10-01

    In the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway 3-dehydroshikimate (DHS) is a key intermediate. As a potent antioxidant and important feedstock for producing a variety of important industrial chemicals, such as adipate and vanillin, DHS is of great commercial value. Here, in this study, we investigated the effect of the co-expression of aroFFBR (3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase mutant with tyrosine feedback-inhibition resistance) and tktA (Transketolase A) at different copy number on the production of DHS. The increased copy number of aroFFBR and tktA would enhance the production of DHS by the fold of 2.93. In order to further improve the production of DHS, we disrupted the key genes in by-product pathways of the parent strain Escherichia coli AB2834. The triple knockout strain of ldhA, ackA-pta and adhE would further increase the production of DHS. The titer of DHS in shake flask reached 1.83 g/L, 5.7-fold higher than that of the parent strain E. coli AB2834. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation, the metabolically engineered strain produced 25.48 g/L DHS after 62 h. Metabolically engineered E. coli has the potential to further improve the production of DHS. PMID:25726580

  20. Evaluation of pig production practices, constraints and opportunities for improvement in smallholder production systems in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated pig production practices by smallholder farmers in two distinct production systems geared towards addressing their constraints and prospects for improvement. The production systems evaluated were semi-intensive and extensive and differed in remoteness, market access, resource availability and pig production intensity. Data were collected using structured questionnaires where a total of 102 pig farmers were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to define the socioeconomic characteristics of the production systems, understanding the different roles that pigs play, marketing systems and constraints to production. In both systems, regular cash income and insurance against emergencies were ranked as the main reasons for rearing pigs. Marketing of pigs was mainly driven by the type of production operation. Finances, feeds and housing were identified as the major constraints to production. The study provides important parameters and identifies constraints important for consideration in design of sustainable production improvement strategies. Feeding challenges can be improved through understanding the composition and proper utilization of local feed resources. Provision of adequate housing would improve the stocking rates and control mating. PMID:25448534

  1. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products. PMID:27005492

  2. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories. PMID:21059201

  3. Realizing Their Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orloff, Jeffrey H., Ed.

    The report contains the proceedings of the Third Annual Northern Virginia Conference on Gifted/Talented Education. Titles and authors of papers presented include "Realizing Your Potential" (H. Lyon), "Developing the Gifts of All Children" (W. Barbe), "What is Leadership Training for the Gifted?" (D. Sisk), "Theoretic Foundations of Differential…

  4. Realizability Is Controllability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Niels; Wolf, Karsten

    A choreography describes the interaction between services. It may be used for specification purposes, for instance serving as a contract in the design of an inter-organizational business process. Typically, not all describable interactions make sense which motivates the study of the realizability problem for a given choreography.

  5. Improving Quality of Seal Leak Test Product using Six Sigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthfi Malik, Abdullah; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Seal leak test part is a polyurethane material-based product. Based on past data, defect level of this product was 8%, higher than the target of 5%. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control. In the design phase, a Delphi method was used to identify factors that were critical to quality. In the measure phase, stability and process capability was measured. Fault tree analysis (FTA) and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analize the root cause and to determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by compiling, selecting, and designing alternative repair. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) making a checklist for maintenance schedules, (ii) making written reminder form, (iii) modifying the SOP more detail, and (iv) performing a major service to the vacuum machine. To ensure the continuity of improvement efforts, some control activities were executed, i.e. (i) controlling, monitoring, documenting, and setting target frequently, (ii) implementing reward and punishment system, (iii) adding cleaning tool, and (iv) building six sigma organizational structure.

  6. Adhesion improvement of lignocellulosic products by enzymatic pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Widsten, Petri; Kandelbauer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic bonding methods, based on laccase or peroxidase enzymes, for lignocellulosic products such as medium-density fiberboard and particleboard are discussed with reference to the increasing costs of presently used petroleum-based adhesives and the health concerns associated with formaldehyde emissions from current composite products. One approach is to improve the self-bonding properties of the particles by oxidation of their surface lignin before they are fabricated into boards. Another method involves using enzymatically pre-treated lignins as adhesives for boards and laminates. The application of this technology to achieve wet strength characteristics in paper is also reviewed. PMID:18502077

  7. A Framework for Process Improvement in Software Product Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkers, Willem; van de Weerd, Inge; Spruit, Marco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of all the important areas within Software Product Management (SPM). The overview has been created and validated in collaboration with many experts from practice and the scientific community. It provides a list of 68 capabilities a product software organization should implement to reach a full grown SPM maturity. The overview consists of the SPM Competence Model that shows the areas of importance to SPM, and the SPM Maturity Matrix that lists all important activities within those areas in a best practice implementation order. SPM organizations can use this matrix to map and improve their SPM practices incrementally.

  8. Productivity improvements through the use of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrman, M. D.

    This paper focuses on Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) productivity improvements that occurred in the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (BCAC) between 1979 and 1983, with a look at future direction. Since the introduction of numerically controlled machinery in the 1950s, a wide range of engineering and manufacturing applications has evolved. The main portion of this paper includes a summarized and illustrated cross-section of these applications, touching on benefits such as reduced tooling, shortened flow time, increased accuracy, and reduced labor hours. The current CAD/CAM integration activity, directed toward capitalizing on this productivity in the future, is addressed.

  9. Effective Conveyer Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    David LaRose

    2006-11-14

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from May 15, 2006 to November 14, 2006. Progress during this period includes significant advances in development of a Smart Camera based prototype system for on-site mechanical splice detection, and continued deployment of both the mechanical splice detection system and the vulcanized splice detection system in area coal mines.

  10. Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending. PMID:21047057

  11. Improvement of biohydrogen production using a reduced pressure fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kisielewska, M; Dębowski, M; Zieliński, M

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of reduced pressure on biohydrogen production in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor from whey permeate. The results showed that the reduced pressure fermentation was more effective in enhancing biohydrogen production than dark fermentative hydrogen production at atmospheric pressure. Mesophilic fermentative biohydrogen production was investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h and increasing organic loading rates (OLRs) of 20, 25, 30, 35 kg COD/m(3) day. The reduced pressure fermentation was successfully operated at all OLRs tested. The maximum proportion of hydrogen in biogas of 47.7 %, volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) of 7.10 L H2/day and hydrogen yield of 4.55 mol H2/kg COD removed occurred at the highest OLR. Increase in OLR affected the hydrogen production in UASB reactor exploited at atmospheric pressure. The reduced pressure process was able to remarkably improve the biohydrogen performance at high OLRs. PMID:26111633

  12. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  13. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve 1-hexadecanol production.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueyang; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of a vast array of surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce 1-hexadecanol by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) from barn owl (Tyto alba). In order to improve fatty alcohol production, we have manipulated both the structural genes and the regulatory genes in yeast lipid metabolism. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACC1) was over-expressed, which improved 1-hexadecanol production by 56% (from 45mg/L to 71mg/L). Knocking out the negative regulator of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, RPD3, further enhanced 1-hexadecanol production by 98% (from 71mg/L to 140mg/L). The cytosolic acetyl-CoA supply was next engineered by expressing a heterologous ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which increased the production of 1-hexadecanol by an additional 136% (from 140mg/L to 330mg/L). Through fed-batch fermentation using resting cells, over 1.1g/L 1-hexadecanol can be produced in glucose minimal medium, which represents the highest titer reported in yeast to date. PMID:25466225

  14. Improvement of halophilic cellulase production from locally isolated fungal strain

    PubMed Central

    Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Arbain, Dachyar; Jamal, Parveen; Gumba, Rizo Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic cellulases from the newly isolated fungus, Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-6 were found to be useful for in situ saccharification of ionic liquids treated lignocelluloses. Efforts have been taken to improve the enzyme production through statistical optimization approach namely Plackett–Burman design and the Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). Plackett–Burman experimental design was used to screen the medium components and process conditions. It was found that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), FeSO4·7H2O, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, peptone, agitation speed and inoculum size significantly influence the production of halophilic cellulase. On the other hand, KH2PO4, KOH, yeast extract and temperature had a negative effect on enzyme production. Further optimization through FCCCD revealed that the optimization approach improved halophilic cellulase production from 0.029 U/ml to 0.0625 U/ml, which was approximately 2.2-times greater than before optimization. PMID:26150755

  15. Improvement of halophilic cellulase production from locally isolated fungal strain.

    PubMed

    Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Arbain, Dachyar; Jamal, Parveen; Gumba, Rizo Edwin

    2015-07-01

    Halophilic cellulases from the newly isolated fungus, Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-6 were found to be useful for in situ saccharification of ionic liquids treated lignocelluloses. Efforts have been taken to improve the enzyme production through statistical optimization approach namely Plackett-Burman design and the Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the medium components and process conditions. It was found that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), FeSO4·7H2O, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, peptone, agitation speed and inoculum size significantly influence the production of halophilic cellulase. On the other hand, KH2PO4, KOH, yeast extract and temperature had a negative effect on enzyme production. Further optimization through FCCCD revealed that the optimization approach improved halophilic cellulase production from 0.029 U/ml to 0.0625 U/ml, which was approximately 2.2-times greater than before optimization. PMID:26150755

  16. New improved method for fructooligosaccharides production by Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Ana; Nobre, Clarisse; Rodrigues, Lígia R; Peres, António M; Torres, Duarte; Rocha, Isabel; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, José

    2012-08-01

    Fructooligosaccharides are prebiotics with numerous health benefits within which the improvement of gut microbiota balance can be highlighted, playing a key role in individual health. In this study, an integrated one-stage method for FOS production via sucrose fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans was developed and optimized using experimental design tools. Optimization of temperature and agitation speed for maximizing the FOS production was performed using response surface methodology. Temperature was found to be the most significant parameter. The optimum fermentation conditions were found to be 32 °C and 385 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted a total FOS production yield of 64.7 gFOS/gsucrose. The model was validated at optimal conditions in order to check its adequacy and accuracy and an experimental yield of 64.1 (±0.0) gFOS/gsucrose was obtained. A significant improvement of the total FOS production yields by A. pullulans using a one-stage process was obtained. PMID:24750929

  17. Metabolic engineering strategies for improving xylitol production from hemicellulosic sugars.

    PubMed

    Su, Buli; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2013-11-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol with potential for use as a sweetener. Industrially, xylitol is currently produced by chemical hydrogenation of D-xylose using Raney nickel catalysts and this requires expensive separation and purification steps as well as high pressure and temperature that lead to environmental pollution. Highly efficient biotechnological production of xylitol using microorganisms is gaining more attention and has been proposed as an alternative process. Although the biotechnological method has not yet surpassed the advantages of chemical reduction in terms of yield and cost, various strategies offer promise for the biotechnological production of xylitol. In this review, the focus is on the most recent developments of the main metabolic engineering strategies for improving the production of xylitol. PMID:23881318

  18. Highlights of contractor initiatives in quality enhancement and productivity improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/Contractor Team efforts are presented as part of NASA's continuing effort to facilitate the sharing of quality and productivity improvement ideas among its contractors. This complilation is not meant to be a comprehensive review of contractor initiative nor does it necessarily express NASA's views. The submissions represent samples from a general survey, and were not edited by NASA. The efforts are examples of quality and productivity programs in private industry, and as such, highlight company efforts in individual areas. Topics range from modernization of equipment, hardware, and technology to management of human resources. Of particular interest are contractor initiatives which deal with measurement and evaluation data pertaining to quality and productivity performance.

  19. The role of productivity in improving the environmental sustainability of ruminant production systems.

    PubMed

    Capper, Judith L; Bauman, Dale E

    2013-01-01

    The global livestock industry is charged with providing sufficient animal source foods to supply the global population while improving the environmental sustainability of animal production. Improved productivity within dairy and beef systems has demonstrably reduced resource use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of food over the past century through the dilution of maintenance effect. Further environmental mitigation effects have been gained through the current use of technologies and practices that enhance milk yield or growth in ruminants; however, the social acceptability of continued intensification and use of productivity-enhancing technologies is subject to debate. As the environmental impact of food production continues to be a significant issue for all stakeholders within the field, further research is needed to ensure that comparisons among foods are made based on both environmental impact and nutritive value to truly assess the sustainability of ruminant products. PMID:25387028

  20. Realizations of Galilei algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, Maryna; Pošta, Severin; Vaneeva, Olena

    2016-03-01

    All inequivalent realizations of the Galilei algebras of dimensions not greater than five are constructed using the algebraic approach proposed by Shirokov. The varieties of the deformed Galilei algebras are discussed and families of one-parametric deformations are presented in explicit form. It is also shown that a number of well-known and physically interesting equations and systems are invariant with respect to the considered Galilei algebras or their deformations.

  1. Improving products of anaerobic sludge digestion by microaeration.

    PubMed

    Jenicek, P; Celis, C A; Krayzelova, L; Anferova, N; Pokorna, D

    2014-01-01

    Biogas, digested sludge and sludge liquor are the main products of anaerobic sludge digestion. Each of the products is influenced significantly by specific conditions of the digestion process. Therefore, any upgrade of the digestion technology must be considered with regard to quality changes in all products. Microaeration is one of the methods used for the improvement of biogas quality. Recently, microaeration has been proved to be a relatively simple and highly efficient biological method of sulfide removal in the anaerobic digestion of biosolids, but little attention has been paid to comparing the quality of digested sludge and sludge liquor in the anaerobic and microaerobic digestion and that is why this paper primarily deals with this area of research. The results of the long-term monitoring of digested sludge quality and sludge liquor quality in the anaerobic and microaerobic digesters suggest that products of both technologies are comparable. However, there are several parameters in which the 'microaerobic' products have a significantly better quality such as: sulfide (68% lower) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (33% lower) concentrations in the sludge liquor and the lower foaming potential of the digested sludge. PMID:24569280

  2. Evolutionary engineering of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for improved ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiewen; Wu, Kang; Rao, Christopher V

    2016-10-01

    The ability to grow at high temperatures makes thermophiles attractive for many fermentation processes. In this work, we used evolutionary engineering to increase ethanol production in the thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. This bacterium is a facultative anaerobe, grows at an optimal temperature of 60°C, and can ferment diverse carbohydrates. However, it natively performs mixed-acid fermentation. To improve ethanol productivity, we first eliminated lactate and formate production in two strains of G. thermoglucosidasius, 95A1 and C56-YS93. These deletion strains were generated by selection on spectinomycin, which represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first time this antibiotic has been shown to work with thermophiles. Both knockout strains, however, were unable to grow under microaerobic conditions. We were able to recover growth in G. thermoglucosidasius 95A1 by serial adaptation in the presence of acetic acid. The evolved 95A1 strain was able to efficiently produce ethanol during growth on glucose or cellobiose. Genome sequencing identified loss-of-function mutations in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) and the stage III sporulation protein AA (spoIIIAA). Disruption of both genes improved ethanol production in the unadapted strains: however, the increase was significant only when aprt was deleted. In conclusion, we were able to engineer a strain of G. thermoglucosidasius to efficiently produce ethanol from glucose and cellobiose using a combination of metabolic engineering and evolutionary strategies. This work further establishes this thermophile as a platform organism for fuel and chemical production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2156-2167. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27002479

  3. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    -- 4. Mesoscopic superconductivity with unconventional superconductor or ferromagnet. Ultraefficient microrefrigerators realized with ferromagnet-superconductor junctions / F. Giazotto et al. Anomalous charge transport in triplet superconductor junctions by the synergy effect of the proximity effect and the mid gap Andreev resonant states / Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya. Paramagnetic and glass states in superconductive YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] ceramics of sub-micron scale grains / H. Deguchi et al. Quantum properties of single-domain triplet superconductors / A. M. Gulian and K. S. Wood. A numerical study of Josephson current in p wave superconducting junctions / Y. Asano et al. Tilted bi-crystal sapphire substrates improve properties of grain boundary YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] junctions and extend their Josephson response to THZ frequencies / E. Stepantsov et al. Circuit theory analysis of AB-plane tunnel junctions of unconventional superconductor Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ca[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / I. Shigeta et al. Transport properties of normal metal/anisotropic superconductor junctions in the eutectic system Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol]Ru / M. Kawamura et al. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in d-wave superconductor Josephson / S. Kawabata et al. Quasiparticle states of high-T[symbol] oxides observed by a Zeeman magnetic field response / S. Kashiwaya et al. Experimentally realizable devices for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta in anisotropic superconductors: vortex lenses, vortex diodes and vortex pumps / S. Savel'ev and F. Nori. Stability of vortex-antivortex "molecules" in mesoscopic superconducting triangles / V. R. Misko et al. Superconducting network with magnetic decoration - Hofstadter butterfly in spatially modulated magnetic field / Y. Iye et al. Observation of paramagnetic supercurrent in mesoscopic superconducting rings and disks using multiple-small-tunnel-junction method / A. Kanda et al. Guidance of vortices in high

  4. Role of ultra thin pseudomorphic InP layer to improve the high-k dielectric/GaAs interface in realizing metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Souvik; Halder, Nripendra N.; Biswas, D.; Banerji, P.; Shripathi, T.; Chakraborty, S.

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we report GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with a metal organic chemical vapor deposited ultrathin (1.5 nm) pseudomorphic InP interface passivation layer (IPL) and a thin (5 nm) ZrO2 high-k dielectric. Reduction of the surface states on InP passivated GaAs surfaces was observed from the photoluminescence study. The x-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed the dramatic reduction of GaAs native oxides (Ga-O and As-O) from the interface of ZrO2 and p-GaAs, implying that the Fermi level at the high-k/GaAs interface can be unpinned with good interface quality. As a result, very low values of interface trap density (1.1 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1) and hysteresis (8.21 mV) were observed. The same was done for directly deposited ZrO2 on GaAs surface to understand the efficacy of InP interface passivation layer on GaAs MOS devices. A systematic capacitance-voltage and current density-voltage studies were performed on bothAl/ZrO2/InP/p-GaAs and Al/ZrO2/p-GaAs structures. It was found that insertion of 1.5 nm InP ultrathin layer in-between ZrO2 and GaAs improves the essential parameters of GaAs MOS such as dielectric constant, frequency dispersion, leakage current, etc. The dielectric reliability has been studied with constant voltage stressing. A very small flatband voltage shift with stress time was observed in InP passivated GaAs MOS capacitors.

  5. Genetic improvement for root growth angle to enhance crop production.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Ishikawa, Satoru; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    The root system is an essential organ for taking up water and nutrients and anchoring shoots to the ground. On the other hand, the root system has rarely been regarded as breeding target, possibly because it is more laborious and time-consuming to evaluate roots (which require excavation) in a large number of plants than aboveground tissues. The root growth angle (RGA), which determines the direction of root elongation in the soil, affects the area in which roots capture water and nutrients. In this review, we describe the significance of RGA as a potential trait to improve crop production, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms that regulate RGA. We discuss the prospects for breeding to improve RGA based on current knowledge of quantitative trait loci for RGA in rice. PMID:26069440

  6. Genetic improvement for root growth angle to enhance crop production

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Ishikawa, Satoru; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The root system is an essential organ for taking up water and nutrients and anchoring shoots to the ground. On the other hand, the root system has rarely been regarded as breeding target, possibly because it is more laborious and time-consuming to evaluate roots (which require excavation) in a large number of plants than aboveground tissues. The root growth angle (RGA), which determines the direction of root elongation in the soil, affects the area in which roots capture water and nutrients. In this review, we describe the significance of RGA as a potential trait to improve crop production, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms that regulate RGA. We discuss the prospects for breeding to improve RGA based on current knowledge of quantitative trait loci for RGA in rice. PMID:26069440

  7. Vector Design for Improved DNA Vaccine Efficacy, Safety and Production

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James A.

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a disruptive technology that offers the promise of a new rapidly deployed vaccination platform to treat human and animal disease with gene-based materials. Innovations such as electroporation, needle free jet delivery and lipid-based carriers increase transgene expression and immunogenicity through more effective gene delivery. This review summarizes complementary vector design innovations that, when combined with leading delivery platforms, further enhance DNA vaccine performance. These next generation vectors also address potential safety issues such as antibiotic selection, and increase plasmid manufacturing quality and yield in exemplary fermentation production processes. Application of optimized constructs in combination with improved delivery platforms tangibly improves the prospect of successful application of DNA vaccination as prophylactic vaccines for diverse human infectious disease targets or as therapeutic vaccines for cancer and allergy. PMID:26344110

  8. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. PMID:25257071

  9. Improved photobiological H2 production in engineered green algal cells.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Olaf; Rupprecht, Jens; Bader, Klaus-Peter; Thomas-Hall, Skye; Schenk, Peer Martin; Finazzi, Giovanni; Hankamer, Ben

    2005-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to split water (H2O) into protons (H+), electrons (e-), and oxygen. A select group of photosynthetic microorganisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has evolved the additional ability to redirect the derived H+ and e- to drive hydrogen (H2) production via the chloroplast hydrogenases HydA1 and A2 (H2 ase). This process occurs under anaerobic conditions and provides a biological basis for solar-driven H2 production. However, its relatively poor yield is a major limitation for the economic viability of this process. To improve H2 production in Chlamydomonas, we have developed a new approach to increase H+ and e- supply to the hydrogenases. In a first step, mutants blocked in the state 1 transition were selected. These mutants are inhibited in cyclic e- transfer around photosystem I, eliminating possible competition for e- with H2ase. Selected strains were further screened for increased H2 production rates, leading to the isolation of Stm6. This strain has a modified respiratory metabolism, providing it with two additional important properties as follows: large starch reserves (i.e. enhanced substrate availability), and a low dissolved O2 concentration (40% of the wild type (WT)), resulting in reduced inhibition of H2ase activation. The H2 production rates of Stm6 were 5-13 times that of the control WT strain over a range of conditions (light intensity, culture time, +/- uncoupler). Typically, approximately 540 ml of H2 liter(-1) culture (up to 98% pure) were produced over a 10-14-day period at a maximal rate of 4 ml h(-1) (efficiency = approximately 5 times the WT). Stm6 therefore represents an important step toward the development of future solar-powered H2 production systems. PMID:16100118

  10. In Situ Propellant Production for improved sample return mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, M. L.; Niehoff, J. C.; Wells, W. C.; Feingold, H.; Ash, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) on the surface of a target body is evaluated as a potential way to relax sample return mass constraints and to improve mission performance. Utilization of an oxygen/methane bipropellant combination for primary outbound and return propulsion has a significant favorable impact upon Earth escape requirements. A small sample can be returned from Mars using a single Shuttle/IUS(Twin) launch. Performance and design data are presented for the Mars mission. For sample returns from selected Galilean satellites, launch requirements are reduced by fifteen to forty percent. An assessment is made of overall utility of ISPP to planetary missions.

  11. Informativeness Improvement of Hardness Test Methods for Metal Product Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, S.; Podshivalov, I.; Osipov, O.; Zhantybaev, A.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a combination of theoretical suggestions, results, and observations allowing to improve the informativeness of hardness testing process in solving problems of metal product assessment while in operation. The hardness value of metal surface obtained by a single measurement is considered to be random. Various measures of location and scattering of the random variable were experimentally estimated for a number of test samples using the correlation analysis, and their close interaction was studied. It was stated that in metal assessment, the main informative characteristics of hardness testing process are its average value and mean-square deviation for measures of location and scattering, respectively.

  12. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated acylglycerols through alkyl phenolate intermediates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-04-01

    A novel approach is reported for the synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerols that consists of two steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid, and enzymatic interesterification of triacylglycerols with octyl dihydrocaffeate. Due to the good compatibility of the intermediate with triacylglycerols, an improved volumetric productivity [147 mol h(-1)(kg Novozym 435)(-1)] and high enzyme specific activity [up to 9.6 μmol(-1) min(-1)(g Novozym 435)(-1)] have been obtained. PMID:21120584

  13. Reservoir management options for improving water productivity in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasse, M.

    2003-04-01

    Although there seems to be a global consensus on the need for improving the productivity of water, little progress has been made, especially in Africa, toward applying this concept in approaches to water resources planning and management. The notion of water productivity refers to the types, amount and value of material and non material products generated from water use, and embraces therefore a broad spectrum outputs, including crop and hydropower production, livestock and fishery yields, as well as outputs from other water-based activities such as domestic and industrial water consumption. In contexts of water scarcity, like in many regions in Africa, it becomes more and more important to allocate available freshwater resources among competing sectors as efficiently as possible, while taking into account the needs of aquatic ecosystems and the concerns of equity and poverty reduction. A minimum level of control of water is often necessary for the implementation of these water allocation principles. On the basis of the water budget of the Senegal River -- a basin where a significant share of the river flow is controlled by dams since the late 1980s—and other river basins in Africa, the proposed communication analyses the merits and limitations of different reservoir management options. On this basis the paper discuss approaches to optimal and sustainable water allocation which takes into consideration multiple uses and the need for greater equity in access and reduced vulnerability of the poor.

  14. Biohydrogen Production: Strategies to Improve Process Efficiency through Microbial Routes

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications. PMID:25874756

  15. Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications. PMID:25874756

  16. A New Medium for Improving Spinosad Production by Saccharopolyspora spinosa

    PubMed Central

    Guojun, Yang; Yuping, He; Yan, Jiang; Kaichun, Lin; Haiyang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinosad (a mixture of spinosyns A and D) is a unique natural pesticide produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa. With regard to attempts to improve S. spinosa by classical mutagenesis, we propose that the bottleneck of screening out high-spinosad-production strains is probably caused by the fermentation media. Objectives The current study aimed to identify a new medium to extensively investigate the potential of S. spinosa strains to produce spinosad. Materials and Methods Statistical and regressive modeling methods were used to investigate the effects of the carbon source and to optimize the production media. Results The spinosad production of S. spinosa Co121 increased 77.13%, from 310.44 ± 21.84 μg/mL in the initial fermentation medium (with glucose as the main carbon source) to 549.89 ± 38.59 μg/mL in a new optimized fermentation medium (98.0 g of mannitol, 43.0 g of cottonseed flour, 12.9 g of corn steep liquor, 0.5 g of KH2PO4, and 3.0 g of CaCO3 in 1 L of H2O; pH was adjusted to 7.0 before autoclaving). After screening 4,000 strains, an overall 3.33-fold increase was observed in spinosad titers, starting from the parental strain Co121 in the original fermentation medium and ending with the mutant strain J78 (1035 ± 34 μg/mL) in the optimized medium. Conclusions The optimized fermentation medium developed in this study can probably be used to improve spinosad production in screening industrial strains of S. spinosa.

  17. Improvements in Production of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balzano, Leandro; Resasco, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    A continuing program of research and development has been directed toward improvement of a prior batch process in which single-walled carbon nanotubes are formed by catalytic disproportionation of carbon monoxide in a fluidized-bed reactor. The overall effect of the improvements has been to make progress toward converting the process from a batch mode to a continuous mode and to scaling of production to larger quantities. Efforts have also been made to optimize associated purification and dispersion post processes to make them effective at large scales and to investigate means of incorporating the purified products into composite materials. The ultimate purpose of the program is to enable the production of high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes in quantities large enough and at costs low enough to foster the further development of practical applications. The fluidized bed used in this process contains mixed-metal catalyst particles. The choice of the catalyst and the operating conditions is such that the yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes, relative to all forms of carbon (including carbon fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphite) produced in the disproportionation reaction is more than 90 weight percent. After the reaction, the nanotubes are dispersed in various solvents in preparation for end use, which typically involves blending into a plastic, ceramic, or other matrix to form a composite material. Notwithstanding the batch nature of the unmodified prior fluidized-bed process, the fluidized-bed reactor operates in a continuous mode during the process. The operation is almost entirely automated, utilizing mass flow controllers, a control computer running software specific to the process, and other equipment. Moreover, an important inherent advantage of fluidized- bed reactors in general is that solid particles can be added to and removed from fluidized beds during operation. For these reasons, the process and equipment were amenable to

  18. Health Rights and Realization

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In their hypothesis published in IJHPM, Lisa Forman and colleagues examined the prominence of the right to health and sexual and reproductive health rights (as well as related language) in four of the key reports that fed into the process of negotiating the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Now that the SDGs have been formally adopted, this comment builds on some of the insights of Forman and colleagues to examine the extent to which those rights have been incorporated in SDGs 3 and 5. I argue that sexual and reproductive health rights are relatively well-covered within the SDGs. In terms of the right to health, however, the picture is much less clear. Some of the elements that make up that right are present and correct, but the SDGs have delivered no coherent vision of how a ‘right to health’ might actually be realized. An important task facing global health and human rights advocates is to continue pushing human rights framings so that progress is made both on meeting the SDGs and on realizing the right to health. PMID:27239886

  19. Natural products discovery needs improved taxonomic and geographic information.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel C; Hilário, Ana; Munro, Murray H G; Blunt, John W; Calado, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016Marine and terrestrial organisms yield a remarkable chemical diversity and are important sources for discovery of new chemical products. In order to maximize the bioprospecting efficiency of natural products (NP), taxonomy, geography and biodiversity are starting to be used to draw conclusions on which taxonomic groups and/or regions may be of interest for future research. However, accurate taxonomic information and sampling location of source organisms have often been overlooked. Although these issues were already reported a few decades ago and improvements have been made, such outstanding problems are still recurrent in recent peer-reviewed literature. Here, we focus on the importance of taxonomic and geographic identification of source material and illustrate how taxonomic and geographic data of source organisms continues to be poorly handled. It is our opinion that this issue needs to be discussed within the NP community with the ultimate goal of improving publication standards and guaranteeing the scientific principle of research reproducibility. Moreover, by doing so, it will be possible to take advantage of information available in the literature to develop cross-disciplinary meta-analyses that may help to advance the state of the art of NP research and future bioprospecting endeavours. PMID:26892141

  20. Implementing quality/productivity improvement initiatives in an engineering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruda, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quality/Productivity Improvement (QPI) initiatives in the engineering environment at McDonnell Douglas-Houston include several different, distinct activities, each having its own application, yet all targeted toward one common goal - making continuous improvement a way of life. The chief executive and the next two levels of management demonstrate their commitment to QPI with hands-on involvement in several activities. Each is a member of a QPI Council which consists of six panels - Participative Management, Communications, Training, Performance/Productivity, Human Resources Management and Strategic Management. In addition, each manager conducts Workplace Visits and Bosstalks, to enhance communications with employees and to provide a forum for the identification of problems - both real and perceived. Quality Circles and Project Teams are well established within McConnel Douglas as useful and desirable employee involvement teams. The continued growth of voluntary membership in the circles program is strong evidence of the employee interest and management support that have developed within the organization.

  1. Improving Access to MODIS Biophysical Science Products for NACP Investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Gao, Feng; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Ederer, Gregory A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    MODIS 4 NACP is a NASA-funded project supporting the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The purpose of this Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS) project is to provide researchers with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) biophysical data products that are custom tailored for use in NACP model studies. Standard MODIS biophysical products provide used to improve our understanding on the climate and ecosystem changes. However, direct uses of the MODIS biophysical parameters are constrained by retrieval quality and cloud contamination. Another challenge that NACP users face is acquiring MODIS data in formats and at spatial-temporal resolutions consistent with other data sets they use. We have been working closely with key NACP users to tailor the MODIS products to fit their needs. First, we provide new temporally smoothed and spatially continuous MODIS biophysical data sets. Second, we are distributing MODIS data at suitable spatial-temporal resolutions and in formats consistent with other data integration into model studies.

  2. Fisher Pierce products for improving distribution system reliability

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The challenges facing the electric power utility today in the 1990s has changed significantly from those of even 10 years ago. The proliferation of automation and the personnel computer have heightened the requirements and demands put on the electric distribution system. Today`s customers, fighting to compete in a world market, demand quality, uninterrupted power service. Privatization and the concept of unregulated competition require utilities to streamline to minimize system support costs and optimize power delivery efficiency. Fisher Pierce, serving the electric utility industry for over 50 years, offers a line of products to assist utilities in meeting these challenges. The Fisher Pierce Family of products provide tools for the electric utility to exceed customer service demands. A full line of fault indicating devices are offered to expedite system power restoration both locally and in conjunction with SCADA systems. Fisher Pierce is the largest supplier of roadway lighting controls, manufacturing on a 6 million dollar automated line assuring the highest quality in the world. The distribution system capacitor control line offers intelligent local or radio linked switching control to maintain system voltage and Var levels for quality and cost efficient power delivery under varying customer loads. Additional products, designed to authenticate revenue metering calibration and verify on sight metering service wiring, help optimize the profitability of the utility assuring continuous system service improvements for their customers.

  3. Road Sediment Production and Delivery: Processes, Rates, and Possible Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lee; Ramos-Scharron, Carlos; Coe, Drew; Stafford, Alexander; Welsh, Matthew; Korte, Abby; Libohova, Zamir; Brown, Ethan; James, Cajun

    2013-04-01

    -dominated area. Connectivity was less than 20% in permeable volcanics in California and coarse-textured soils in the Colorado Front Range. Road-stream crossings accounted for most of the connected segments, as in temperate forests drainage rills and sediment plumes rarely extend for more than 50 m. Few studies have quantified the effects of unpaved roads on watershed-scale sediment yields, but in northern California the estimated sediment yield was 1.4 Mg yr-1 per kilometer of road, while in Colorado the long-term, chronic sediment production from roads was estimated to be about 1 Mg km-2 yr-1. On St. John roads were estimated to increase watershed-scale sediment production by 3-9 times, indicating that the road sediments are a critical stressor to near-shore coral reefs. Relatively simple management actions can greatly reduce sediment production and delivery from unpaved roads, but the necessary improvements are constrained by the lack of political will and funding.

  4. Quality and productivity improvement program (PPKP) from alumni perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruza, Nadiah; Mustafa, Zainol

    2013-04-01

    Defining the quality of the university education system is not easy. Institutions of higher education, through curriculum are hoped to provide the knowledge, wisdom and personality of students. It is questionable of how far Quality and Productivity Improvement Program (PPKP) are capable to ensure the courses offered relevant and effective in preparing the students for job market. The effectiveness of a university to undertake responsibilities and the impact given to students even after they graduate can be a measure of education quality at university. So, the quality of education can be enhanced and improved from time to time. In general, this study is aims to determine the effectiveness of PPKP's education system from the perspective of their alumni as well as their satisfaction and the importance level based on how PPKP be able to meet their needs. In overall, summary of open-ended questions from the questionnaire, Importance-Performance analysis and correlation analysis were conducted for this study. Based on result, it appears that there are still some deficiencies that can be improve, particularly in terms of teaching skills and PPKP's relationships with external organizations to enable knowledge be channel effectively. Importance-Performance analysis highlights some topics or courses that should be offered by PPKP based on their importance in industrial practice. Summary of the results of correlation analysis was found that women are more positive and not too demanding compared to men. In addition, it is found that the responsibilities and workload of the older generations, higher income and a high level of experience demands them to use and practice what they have learned during their studies at PPKP. Results of this study are hoped could be used to improve the quality of education system at PPKP.

  5. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  6. Natural Product Discovery through Improved Functional Metagenomics in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hala A; Low-Beinart, Lila; Obiajulu, Joseph U; Brady, Sean F

    2016-08-01

    Because the majority of environmental bacteria are not easily culturable, access to many bacterially encoded secondary metabolites will be dependent on the development of improved functional metagenomic screening methods. In this study, we examined a collection of diverse Streptomyces species for the best innate ability to heterologously express biosynthetic gene clusters. We then optimized methods for constructing high quality metagenomic cosmid libraries in the best Streptomyces host. An initial screen of a 1.5 million-membered metagenomic library constructed in Streptomyces albus, the species that exhibited the highest propensity for heterologous expression of gene clusters, led to the identification of the novel natural product metatricycloene (1). Metatricycloene is a tricyclic polyene encoded by a reductive, iterative polyketide-like gene cluster. Related gene clusters found in sequenced genomes appear to encode a largely unexplored collection of structurally diverse, polyene-based metabolites. PMID:27447056

  7. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  8. An Improved Tropospheric Ozone Residual Product: Limitations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) product is derived from Aura's Ozone (O3) Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). OMI and MLS can estimate the TOR by subtracting the MLS stratospheric O3 from the OMI total column O3. Our improved TOR is a subset of the 2005-2012 database that takes into account (1) outliers that occur regularly in the mid to high latitudes, and (2) decreased sensitivity in the OMI O3 total column below clouds that contributes to a low-bias in the TOR compared to in-situ ozonesonde observations. To remove outliers, we have devised a filtering criteria based on the expected range of tropospheric O3 values from sondes, in combination with the tropospheric column fraction amount represented by the ratio of the OMI total column O3 to the MLS stratospheric column amount. We take advantage of a new cloud height algorithm - the optical centroid cloud pressure algorithm (OCCP) - that is sensitive to O3 below the nominal cloud-top pressure and can extend significantly below previous estimates of the assigned effective cloud height. Applying the new algorithm significantly improves the agreement with sondes for effective cloud pressures greater than 800-850 hPa, thereby reducing the need to assign a below-cloud O3 climatology. Finally, we assess the viability of applying the improved TOR for pollution studies and monitoring in the northern mid-latitudes. We examine O3 variability in the improved TOR over case study regions of Europe, Southeast Asia, and the US between 2005 and 2012, along with available sonde observations. We record the frequency, dates, and locations of the best and worst agreements with sondes to estimate when and where the TOR can be optimally used, and show cases where the variability of the TOR is representative of O3 variability in the boundary layer. A potential application of the improved TOR is to study inter-annual variability in summertime continental pollution outflow over regions of the US and

  9. Improvements of SMILES Level 2 products on ISAS/JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Chihiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Iwata, Yoshitaka; Manago, Naohiro; Takahashi, Chikako; Imai, Koji; Shiotani, Masato; Sano, Takuki; Takayanagi, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Hirotomo

    The Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES),which was jointly developed by JAXA and NICT, had been launched and aboard the Japanese Experiment Mod-ule (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September, 2009. The SMILES carries 4 K-cooled Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixers to demonstrate a sensitive instrument for sub-millimeter limb sounding. SMILES system noise temperature (Tsys) is less than 500K (random noise ¡ 1 K). Since ISS has a non-sun-synchronous orbit, SMILES can observe diurnal variations of ClO, BrO, HO2 and mesospheric O3 etc. Standard L2 products, which are defined as O3, HCl, ClO, HNO3, CH3CN, HOCl, HO2, BrO, O3-isotopes on stratospheres, began to be released to RA PIs on January, 2010. The L2 data is currently 4 85 km, with 3 km interval (geometrical altitude) in HDF ver.5 file format similar to EOS-HDF including time, location etc.However, release data (ver. 005-06-0024) is a test version which is retrieved by prelaunch algorithms (Rodgers 1976. SMILES mission plan 2002. Takahashi et al., 2010. Imai et al., 2010.), and has some known issues. The one of the main issue is less product data. SMILES observes 1630 scans per a day. However, release products include only 60 percents of observation data. There are two reasons for this. The first is that antenna main beam is interfered by the ISS solar paddles. The second is that star tracker cameras, which determine SMILES observation points, are interfered by the Sun. In latter case, if we estimate the points by other information, geophysical parameters are retrieved since observed spectrums are useful. In new release data, we use both STT and ISS information and 80 percents of the data are included to products. In this presentation, we will introduce improvements of operational level 2 processing for new release product version.

  10. Improved bounds on the heavy neutrino productions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arindam; Okada, Nobuchika

    2016-02-01

    The Majorana neutrino in the type-I seesaw and the pseudo-Dirac neutrinos in the inverse seesaw can have sizable mixings with the light neutrinos in the standard model, through which the heavy neutrinos can be produced at the LHC. In producing the heavy neutrinos, we study a variety of initial states such as quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon as well as photon mediated processes. For the Majorana heavy neutrino production, we consider a same-sign dilepton plus dijet as the signal events. Using the recent ATLAS and CMS data at √{s }=8 TeV with 20.3 and 19.7 fb-1 luminosities, respectively, we obtain direct upper bounds on the light-heavy neutrino mixing angles. For the pseudo-Dirac heavy neutrino production we consider the final sate with a trilepton plus missing energy as the signal events. Using the recent anomalous multilepton search by CMS at √{s }=8 TeV with 19.5 fb-1 luminosity, we obtain upper bounds on the mixing angles. Taking the varieties of initial states into account, the previously obtained upper bounds on the mixing angles have been improved. We scale our results at the 8 TeV LHC to obtain a prospective search reach at the 14 TeV LHC with high luminosities.

  11. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    PubMed

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. PMID:24859305

  12. Kraft mill sludge to improve vegetal production in Chilean Andisol.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, F; Mora, M L; Diez, M C

    2007-01-01

    The effect of kraft mill sludge addition (25 to 75 ton/ha) to soil derived from volcanic ashes (Andisol) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv. Puken) biomass production, and in the nutrient absorption by the plants was evaluated. Respiration activity and seed germination tests were carried out on the soil/sludge mixtures, in order to evaluate possible toxic effects due to the sludge addition to the soil. Soil without sludge was used as a control treatment. The plants were grown in a greenhouse (25 degrees C, 14 h-photoperiod) during 120 days, then the plants were collected and dried at 65 degrees C for 72 h for the determination of biomass production (root and aerial) and analyzed for mineral content (Ca, Mg, K and P). The mixtures of soil/sludge showed no toxicity. Seed germination and respiration activity increased with the increment of the sludge. The accumulated CO2 in the soil without sludge was 41.66 mg CO2/100; this value shows a low microbial activity. The biomass increased with the increment of sludge addition to the soil and five times more biomass was obtained when 75 ton/ha sludge was added to the soil. The nutrient absorption efficiency was also improved with the sludge addition. PMID:17486832

  13. Improving biohydrogen production using Clostridium beijerinckii immobilized with magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seelert, Trevor; Ghosh, Dipankar; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    In order to supplement the need for alternative energy resources within the near future, enhancing the production of biohydrogen with immobilized Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB8052 was investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were functionalized, with chitosan and alginic acid polyelectrolytes using a layer-by-layer method, to promote bacterial attachment. Cultivating C. beijerinckii with these nanoparticles resulted in a shorter lag growth phase and increased total biohydrogen production within 100-ml, 250-ml and 3.6-L reactors compared with freely suspended organisms. The greatest hydrogen yield was obtained in the 250-ml reactor with a value of 2.1 ± 0.7 mol H2/mol glucose, corresponding to substrate conversion and energy conversion efficiencies of 52 ± 18 and 10 ± 3 %, respectively. The hydrogen yields obtained using the immobilized bacteria are comparable to values found in literature. However, to make this process viable, further improvements are required to increase the substrate and energy conversion efficiencies. PMID:25728446

  14. Environmental report for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Norris, E.S.; Duck, R.R.; Hass, R.B.; Morgan, M.E.; Helble, J.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fossil Energy Program has a mission to develop energy systems that utilize national coal resources in power systems with increased efficiency and environmental compatibility. Coal gasification technology is a versatile candidate that meets this goal. This two phased project consists primarily of the design, construction and operation of a 5-foot inside diameter (minimum) fixed-bed gasifier called PyGas{trademark} and supporting infrastructure (Phase I), and an additional follow on phase consisting of the design, construction and operation of a hot fuel gas cleanup unit (Phase II). Issues expected to be successfully overcome by PyGas{trademark} through its application in this test facility include the processing of high-swelling coals, which causes agglomeration in conventional fixed-bed gasifiers. Such coals comprise 87% of all eastern coals. Other issues expected to be eliminated or significantly reduced include: production of ash clinkers, production of ammonia, the presence of significant tars and fines, and the volatilization of alkalinity in the product fuel gas. A second portion of the NEPA report is concerned with the emission of toxic metal compounds by the gasification process improvement facility (GPIF). The GPIF facility will be located on site at the Fort Martin facility of Allegheny Power Company, and the energy produced (steam) will be directly used by Fort Martin to produce electricity. The coal used at the GPIF facility will be the same coal used by the utility. Therefore, the emissions of the GPIF will be put in context of the entire facility. The GPIF assessment will be divided into four sections: Estimation of the toxic metals content of the raw coal; calculation of the emissions from Fort Martin normally; an estimate of the emission from the GPIF; and a comparison of the two flows.

  15. Improvements of AIMS D2DB matching for product patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Kana; Son, Donghwan; Tolani, Vikram; Satake, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    AIMSTM is mainly used in photomask industry for verifying the print impact of mask defects on wafer CD in DUV lithography process. AIMS verification is typically used in D2D configuration, wherein two AIMS images, reference and defect, are captured and compared. Criticality of defects is then analyzed off these images using a number of criteria. As photomasks with aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), and single-die are being routinely manufactured in production environment, it is required to improve cycle time through the AIMS step by saving time in searching for and capturing an adequate reference AIMS image. One solution is to use AIMS D2DB methodology which compares AIMS defect image with a reference image simulated from the corresponding mask design data. In general, such simulation needs calibration with the native images captured on the AIMS tool. In our previous paper we evaluated a calibration procedure directly using the defect AIMS image and compared the analysis results with a D2D capture using AIA (Aerial Image Analyzer) software product from Luminescent Technologies (now part of KLA-Tencor Corporation). The results showed that calibration using defect AIMS image does not influence AIMS judgment as long as the defect size is less than 100nm in case of typical basic patterns. When applying this methodology to product patterns, it was found that there were differences between reference AIMS image and simulation image. These differences influenced AIMS verification. Then new method to compensate would be needed. Our approach to compensate the difference between AIMS image and simulated image is examination with some factors likely to cause the difference.

  16. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  17. M-C Power`s product design and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Scroppo, J.A.; Laurens, R.M.; Petraglia, V.J.

    1995-12-31

    The sole mission of M-C Power is the development and subsequent commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stacks. These MCFC stacks are based on the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchanger plate design developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Integration of the MCFC stack into a commercially viable power plant is the mission of the IMHEX{sup {reg_sign}} team. The team is composed of leaders in the packaging and design of power generation equipment, including fuel cell technology, and includes Stewart & Stevenson, Bechtel, The Institute of Gas Technology and M-C Power. In an effort to succeed in their respective missions, M-C Power and the IMHEX{sup {reg_sign}} team have developed a commercialization program. At the present time, the team is making the transition from Phase I (Technology Development) to Phase II (Product Design & Improvement) of the program. Phase II`s objective is a commercially viable (cost effective and technologically reliable) MCFC power plant ready for market by the turn of the century.

  18. Method and apparatus for improving oil production in oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Vogen, W.V.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a method for improving the production of oil from appropriate wells, comprising: attaching the lower end of an elastic steel column to the upper end of a liner; the upper end of the column extending to the top of the well and above; attaching the upper end of the column to a reaction mass vertically above through vertically mounted compression spring means and, in parallel with a vertically mounted servo-controlled hydraulic cylinder-piston assembly; applying a substantially constant upward load to the reactions mass; reciprocating the piston of the hydraulic cylinder under servo control to apply vertical vibration to the upper end of the column with resultant vertical displacement of the upper end of the column; developing a displacement signal while developing an electrical, pressure-differential signal corresponding to the pressure across the cylinder-piston assembly; adjusting the vertical vibration through the servo control in accordance with the displacement signal and the pressure differential signal: to seek and find an appropriate resonant frequency for the column in the range of 5 Hz to 25 Hz; and maintaining the frequency at resonance.

  19. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R.; Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J.; Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography (DRCT) Product Improvement Plan (PIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Roney; Bob Pink; Karen Wendt; Robert Seifert; Mike Smith

    2010-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing and deploying x-ray inspection systems for chemical weapons containers for the past 12 years under the direction of the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM). In FY-10 funding was provided to advance the capabilities of these systems through the DRCT (Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography) Product Improvement Plan (PIP), funded by the PMNSCM. The DRCT PIP identified three research tasks; end user study, detector evaluation and DRCT/PINS integration. Work commenced in February, 2010. Due to the late start and the schedule for field inspection of munitions at various sites, it was not possible to spend sufficient field time with operators to develop a complete end user study. We were able to interact with several operators, principally Mr. Mike Rowan who provided substantial useful input through several discussions and development of a set of field notes from the Pueblo, CO field mission. We will be pursuing ongoing interactions with field personnel as opportunities arise in FY-11.

  1. Towards an improved aerosol product from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John; Hommel, Rene

    2015-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are of a great scientific interest because of their crucial role in the Earth's radiative budget as well as their contribution to chemical processes resulting in ozone depletion. While the permanent aerosol background in the stratosphere is determined by the tropical injection of SO2, COS and sulphate particles from the troposphere, major perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer result form an uplift of SO2 after strong volcanic eruptions. Satellite measurements in the visible spectral range represent one of the most important sources of information about the vertical distribution of the stratospheric aerosol on the global scale. This study employs measurements of the scattered solar light performed in the limb viewing geometry from the space borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY, which operated onboard the ENVISAT satellite from August 2002 to April 2012. A progress in the development of SCIAMACHY aerosol data product within the ROSA/ROMIC project including the improvements in the extinction coefficient data base and steps towards the retrieval of particle size distribution parameters is reported.

  2. Chrysanthemum Cutting Productivity and Rooting Ability Are Improved by Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Sumei; Liu, Ruixia; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted “Jinba” (non-grafted cuttings) with those collected from grafted “Jinba” plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings). The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings “Jinba” rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N), as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand. PMID:23878523

  3. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

  4. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  5. M-C Power`s product design and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, R.M.; Petraglia, V.J.

    1995-08-01

    The sole mission of M-C Power is the development and subsequent commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stacks. These MCFC stacks are based on the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchanger plate design developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Integration of the MCFC stack into a commercially viable power plant is the mission of the IMHEX{reg_sign} team. The team is composed of leaders in the packaging and design of power generation equipment, including fuel cell technology, and includes Stewart & Stevenson, Bechtel, The Institute of Gas Technology and M-C Power. In an effort to succeed in their respective missions, M-C Power and the IMHEX{reg_sign} team have developed a commercialization program. At the present time the team is making the transition from Phase I (Technology Development) to Phase II (Product Design & Improvement) of the program. Phase II`s objective is a commercially viable (cost effective and technologically reliable) MCFC power plant ready for market by the turn of the century.

  6. Design for manufacturablility (DFM) in the life sciences: fluorescence spectroscopy product platform realized with TracePro suite of opto-mechanical design software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freniere, Edward; Hassler, Richard; Heinz, Eric; Smith, Linda

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the design-for-manufacture (DFM) process for a multi-channel fluorometer product platform. The multi-disciplinary team eliminated the cost of quality by design, using a formal design method, facilitated by Lambda Research Corporation's suite of TraceProTM suite of optical design software. Development of this platform presented rigorous design challenges - from identifying feasible design alternatives to minimizing the exponential cumulative effect of component quality and quantity to optimizing tolerances to thoroughly documenting the design. The design was highly constrained in terms of cost and the ability of the platform to accommodate a breadth of fluorescence-tagged media. Furthermore, the inherently interdisciplinary nature of developing medical devices required a high level of collaboration between scientists and engineers across the areas of optics, mechanics, materials, biology and clinical chemistry. While fluorescence tag technologies enable very sensitive detection of molecules, the anisotropic nature of fluorescence in both intensity and polarization severely complicate system design. TracePro's fluorescence modeling capability enabled adherence to a methodical design process of (1) testing system design alternatives, (2) evaluating off-the- shelf and custom optical component and fluorophore feasibility, and (3) tolerancing for robustness without the cost and time associated with iterative hardware prototyping.

  7. Improving product quality and productivity using better guidelines for concept design

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, C.M.; Barkan, P.

    1995-08-01

    The remarkable effectiveness of Japanese practices has led to a growing interest in the US in the development and application of rules and methodologies which attempt to capture design experience. US companies have found unexpected benefits and pitfalls in the application of these rules and methods. In this article, the authors critically examine one of the most widely accepted rules of Design for Manufacturability (DFM): minimize the number of parts. An examination of 240 assemblies and subassemblies has shown that rigid adherence to this rule can lead to unnecessarily complex parts and assembly. Quantitative insights derived from this study have led to a better design goal: minimize and simplify assembly operations. This new rule, which should not be rigidly interpreted, tends to reduce part count, while having the benefit of assuring improved assembly. Another significant advantage of the new design rule is that it results in lower product defect rates as demonstrated by correlations observed for a wide range of products from two different manufacturers. This research links quality to the product concept, enabling a new approach to improving quality at the earliest stages of design.

  8. Shrinkage estimation of the realized relationship matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The additive relationship matrix plays an important role in mixed model prediction of breeding values. For genotype matrix X (loci in columns), the product XX' is widely used as a realized relationship matrix, but the scaling of this matrix is ambiguous. Our first objective was to derive a proper ...

  9. Integrating diverse calibration products to improve seismic location

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C; Myers, S; Swenson, J; Flanagan, M; Pasyanos, M; Bhattacharyya, J; Dodge, D

    2000-07-17

    The monitoring of nuclear explosions on a global basis requires accurate event locations. As an example, under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the size of an on-site inspection search area is 1,000 square kilometers or approximately 17 km accuracy assuming a circular area. This level of accuracy is a significant challenge for small events that are recorded using a sparse regional network. In such cases, the travel-time of seismic energy is strongly affected by crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity and large biases can result. This can lead to large systematic errors in location and, more importantly, to invalid error bounds associated with location estimates. Corrections can be developed and integrated to correct for these biases. These path corrections take the form of both three-dimensional model corrections along with three-dimensional empirically based travel time corrections. LLNL is currently working to integrate a diverse set of three-dimensional velocity model and empirical based travel-time products into one consistent and validated calibration set. To perform this task, we have developed a hybrid approach that uses three-dimensional model corrections for a region and then uses reference events when available to improve the path correction. This Bayesian kriging approach uses the best apriori three-dimensional velocity model that is produced for a local region and uses this as a baseline correction. When multiple models are produced for a local region, uncertainties in the models are compared against each other using ground truth data and an optimal model is chosen. We .are in the process of combining three-dimensional models on a region-by-region basis and integrating the uncertainties to form a global correction set. The Bayesian kriging prediction combines this a priori model and its statistics with the empirical calibrations to give an optimal aposteriori calibration estimate. In regions where there is limited or no coverage by reference events the

  10. Team Building: A Management Technology for Improving Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Team building and participatory strategies are techniques for increasing productivity in the workplace. Studies show that people often solve problems more effectively in groups, and they are more productive when they assume more responsibility for their work. (SK)

  11. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    SciTech Connect

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  12. Working for America: A Worker-Centered Approach to Productivity Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewes, Donald W.

    This report examines worker-centered productivity and discusses the organizational and educational strategies for its improvement. Chapter 1 explores the meaning and measurement of productivity and the benefits of productivity improvement--profits, a weapon against inflation, success in international trade, increased standard of living, improved…

  13. Summary of strategies for planning Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Summary of NASA Strategies for Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement respond to NASA's eighth top goal: Establish NASA as a leader in the development and application of advanced technology and management practices which contribute to significant increases in both Agency and national productivity. The Strategies provide the framework for development of the agency-wide Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Plans.

  14. Strategies to improve water productivity in a water-stressed future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the fiscal years 2011 through 2014, ARS scientists and engineers made substantial progress in addressing research problems related to improving water productivity and creating new knowledge, products and outcomes to improve American agricultural production, efficiency of resource use, safety and ...

  15. Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of U.S. dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% p...

  16. Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of U.S. dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein ...

  17. The Role of Capital in Improving Productivity and Creating Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    Causes of the significant decrease in productivity growth and dramatic increase in unemployment in the United States since the mid-1960's are examined in order to test the underlying assumption of current economic policies that increasing capital savings and investments will create fuller and more productive employment. Data on trends in…

  18. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  19. How Do We Improve Crop Production in a Warming World?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global analysis of crop yields from 1981-2002, showed a negative response of wheat, maize and barley yields to rising temperature, costing an estimated $5 billion per year. An analysis of maize and soybean production in the northern Corn Belt region of the U.S. found that productivity was adversely ...

  20. Improving Knowledge for Green Textile Products: Life Cycle Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Jinhee

    2012-01-01

    Textile products are used heavily every day. The apparel industry is one of the largest industrial polluters, causing damage to both human health and the environment. Despite increasing consumer concern about environmental issues and a growing trend toward supporting sustainable production, consumers are often unable to evaluate accurately which…

  1. Cell line profiling to improve monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sohye; Ren, Da; Xiao, Gang; Daris, Kristi; Buck, Lynette; Enyenihi, Atim A; Zubarev, Roman; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Deshpande, Rohini

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian cell culture performance is influenced by both intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (media and process) factors. In this study, intrinsic capacity of various monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines was compared by exposing them to the same culture condition. Microarray-based transcriptomics and LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics technologies were utilized to obtain expression landscape of different cell lines. Specific transcripts and proteins correlating with productivity, growth rate and cell size have been identified. The proteomics analysis results showed a strong correlation between the intracellular protein expression levels of the recombinant DHFR and productivity. In contrast, neither the light chain nor the heavy chain of the recombinant monoclonal antibody showed correlation to productivity. Other top ranked proteins which demonstrated positive correlation to productivity included the adaptor protein complex subunits AP3D1and AP2B2, DNA repair protein DDB1 and the ER translocation complex component, SRPR. The subunits of molecular chaperone T-complex protein 1 and the regulator of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism MTHFD2 showed negative correlation to productivity. The transcriptomics analysis has identified the regulators of calcium signaling, Tmem20 and Rcan1, as the top ranked genes displaying positive and negative correlation to productivity, respectively. For the second part of the study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was generated to view the underlying global structure of the expression data. A clear division and expression polarity was observed between the two distinct clusters of cell lines, independent of link to productivity or any other traits examined. The primary component of the PCA generated from either transcriptomics or proteomics data displayed a strong correlation to cell size and doubling time, while none of the main principal components showed correlation to productivity. Our findings suggest

  2. Renewable microbial lipid production from Oleaginous Yeast: some surfactants greatly improved lipid production of Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyang; Du, Wei; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2016-07-01

    Microbial oil is drawing increasing interest worldwide as an alternative non-food oil feedstock for biodiesel industry. Nowadays researchers have been increasingly focused on the improvement of microbial oil production process. Oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (R. toruloides) is considered an important candidate due to its excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various carbon substrates, and the potential of co-production of some pigments. In present work, the individual effects of non-ionic, cationic, and anionic surfactant on cell growth and lipid accumulation of R. toruloides were investigated for the first time. Interesting results were noticed when some anionic surfactants were supplemented. The most significant effect was observed with addition of 0.2 % (w/v) sodium lignosulfonate, that biomass concentration, lipid concentration, and lipid yield was increased by 25.1, 44.9, and 15.7 %, respectively. The fatty acid compositions of R. toruloides lipids remained unchanged, which is similar to that of vegetable oils, and is considered potential feedstock for biodiesel preparation. PMID:27263002

  3. Improving efficiency of sow productivity: nutrition and health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This reviews research focused to understand the nutrient requirement and balance to meet the needs of fetal growth, mammary growth, and milk production. This summary will handle how feeding strategies can be adjusted according to the nutrient needs for a sow to enhance productivity and health. Most research data used in this summary are based on the studies conducted by the authors between 1996 and 2013. Nutrient requirements of sows are affected by stage of gestation and parity of sows. Dietary antioxidant concentrations need to be re-evaluated for its sufficiency in sow diets especially to prevent excessive oxidative stress during late gestation and lactation. When feeding sows, consideration of phase feeding of gestating sows and parity feeding of lactating sows could enhances production longevity and health of sows. Use of selected nutrients and additives seems to help productivity and health of sows. PMID:23885840

  4. Improved predictions for J/psi and Upsilon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoisenet, P.

    I discuss J/ψ and ϒ production at the Tevatron. Working in the framework of NRQCD, I review the current theoretical status. Motivated by the polarization puzzle at the Tevatron, I present the brand-new computation of higher-order αs corrections to the color-singlet production and discuss the impact of these corrections on the differential cross sections. I finally comment on the relative importance of the various transitions that feed quarkonium hadroproduction.

  5. Targeting Solutions to Improve Crop Production and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P. C.; Gerber, J. S.; Mueller, N. D.; Brauman, K. A.; Cassidy, E. S.; Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Several recent studies propose broad strategies for increasing food production and decreasing the environmental impacts of agriculture. Using data sets for crop production, land management practices, and a yield response model, we identify promising locations for reducing environmental effects of agriculture and boosting crop yields. We find that a small number of crops and countries account for over two-thirds of water use, excess nutrients, and greenhouse gas emissions from croplands. Similarly, a small set of crops and regions offers the best opportunities for boosting global production without expanding croplands. These findings can be used to direct policies to specific crops and regions to help meet food security while shifting to more sustainable practices.

  6. Realizing and optimizing an atomtronic SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathey, Amy C.; Mathey, L.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how a toroidal Bose–Einstein condensate with a movable barrier can be used to realize an atomtronic SQUID. The magnitude of the barrier height, which creates the analogue of an SNS junction, is of crucial importance, as well as its ramp-up and -down protocol. For too low of a barrier, the relaxation of the system is dynamically suppressed, due to the small rate of phase slips at the barrier. For a higher barrier, the phase coherence across the barrier is suppressed due to thermal fluctuations, which are included in our Truncated Wigner approach. Furthermore, we show that the ramp-up protocol of the barrier can be improved by ramping up its height first, and its velocity after that. This protocol can be further improved by optimizing the ramp-up and ramp-down time scales, which is of direct practical relevance for on-going experimental realizations.

  7. Morphology engineering of Aspergillus niger for improved enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Driouch, Habib; Sommer, Becky; Wittmann, Christoph

    2010-04-15

    Supplementation with silicate microparticles was used as novel approach to control the morphological development of Aspergillus niger, important as the major world source of citric acid and higher-value enzymes, in submerged culture. With careful variation of size and concentration of the micromaterial added, a number of distinct morphological forms including pellets of different size, free dispersed mycelium, and short hyphae fragments could be reproducibly created. Aluminum oxide particles similarly affected morphology, showing that this effect is largely independent of the chemical particle composition. Image analysis of morphological development of A. niger during the cultivation process showed that the microparticles influence the morphology by collision-induced disruption of conidia aggregates and probably also the hindrance of new spore-spore interactions in the very early stage of the process. Exemplified for different recombinant A. niger strains enzyme production could be strongly enhanced by the addition of microparticles. Linked to the formation of freely dispersed mycelium, titers for glucoamylase (GA) expressed as intracellular enzyme (88 U/mL) and fructofuranosidase secreted into the supernatant (77 U/mL), were up to fourfold higher in shake flasks. Moreover, accumulation of the undesired by-product oxalate was suppressed by up to 90%. The microparticle strategy could be successfully transferred to fructofuranosidase production in bioreactor, where a final titer of 160 U/mL could be reached. Using co-expression of GA with green fluorescent protein, enzyme production was localized in the cellular aggregates of A. niger. For pelleted growth, protein production was maximal only within a thin layer at the pellet surface and markedly decreased in the pellet interior, whereas the interaction with the microparticles created a highly active biocatalyst with the dominant fraction of cells contributing to production. PMID:19953678

  8. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  9. Engineering Neurospora crassa for improved cellobiose and cellobionate production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report engineering Neurospora crassa to improve the yield of cellobiose and cellobionate from cellulose. A previously engineered strain of N. crassa (F5) with six out of seven bgl genes knocked out was shown to produce cellobiose and cellobionate directly from cellulose without the addition of ex...

  10. Perpendicular cultivation for improved weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, trials were conducted to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrate...

  11. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25% by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental well-being. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be utilized to enhance yields of staple crops, incre...

  12. How to Improve Your Productivity. The Best of CASE Currents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia Carter, Ed.; Said, Carolyn, Ed.

    Ideas on increasing personal and professional productivity for institutional advancement staff are provided in 25 articles. Techniques are outlined for getting organized, setting deadlines, delegating responsibilities, motivating staff members, and meeting the demands of one- or two-person compus offices. Some of the titles and authors of the…

  13. Strategies for improved rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Jr, Nei; Freire, Denise M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants with potential for diversified industrial and environmental uses. The present study evaluated three strategies for increasing the production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1. The influence of pH, the addition of P. aeruginosa spent culture medium and the use of a fed-batch process were examined. The culture medium adjusted to pH 7.0 was the most productive. Furthermore, the pH of the culture medium had a measurable effect on the ratio of synthesized mono- and dirhamnolipids. At pH values below 7.3, the proportion of monorhamnolipids decreased from 45 to 24%. The recycling of 20% of the spent culture medium in where P. aeruginosa was grown up to the later stationary phase was responsible for a 100% increase in rhamnolipid volumetric productivity in the new culture medium. Finally, the use of fed-batch operation under conditions of limited nitrogen resulted in a 3.8-fold increase in the amount of rhamnolipids produced (2.9 g L−1–10.9 g L−1). These results offer promising pathways for the optimization of processes for the production of rhamnolipids. PMID:27257553

  14. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. PMID:27370916

  15. Improving Information Products for System 2 Decision Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The creation, maintenance, and management of Information Product (IP) systems that are used by organizations for complex decisions represent a unique set of challenges. These challenges are compounded when the purpose of such a systems is also for knowledge creation and dissemination. Information quality research to date has focused mainly upon…

  16. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance for productivity and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production losses in agriculture during extended or severe drought episodes can be significant. Among a number of important food crops in the U.S. and many regions of the world, peanut is an important legume that is a rich source for oil, proteins, and vitamins. Drought can negatively affect yield...

  17. Improving Biocatalysts for the Production of Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial-scale production of fuel ethanol from biomass continues to show promise for relieving dependence upon petroleum-based transportation fuels. The limited range of materials that can be practically converted, however, continues to be an obstacle to the lignocellulosic revolution. Therefore...

  18. Rationally engineered synthetic coculture for improved biomass and product formation.

    PubMed

    Santala, Suvi; Karp, Matti; Santala, Ville

    2014-01-01

    In microbial ecosystems, bacteria are dependent on dynamic interspecific interactions related to carbon and energy flow. Substrates and end-metabolites are rapidly converted to other compounds, which protects the community from high concentrations of inhibitory molecules. In biotechnological applications, pure cultures are preferred because of the more straight-forward metabolic engineering and bioprocess control. However, the accumulation of unwanted side products can limit the cell growth and process efficiency. In this study, a rationally engineered coculture with a carbon channeling system was constructed using two well-characterized model strains Escherichia coli K12 and Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The directed carbon flow resulted in efficient acetate removal, and the coculture showed symbiotic nature in terms of substrate utilization and growth. Recombinant protein production was used as a proof-of-principle example to demonstrate the coculture utility and the effects on product formation. As a result, the biomass and recombinant protein titers of E. coli were enhanced in both minimal and rich medium simple batch cocultures. Finally, harnessing both the strains to the production resulted in enhanced recombinant protein titers. The study demonstrates the potential of rationally engineered cocultures for synthetic biology applications. PMID:25470793

  19. Midcontinent operators embrace vlaue in DOE improved production program

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1996-05-01

    In less than four years, the DOE`s fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir program is paying off in a big way for Midcontinent operators. Many of the projects are getting to the point where they are showing real production impacts.

  20. Industry Immersion for Reading and Mathematics Improvement. Valley Products Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul L.; And Others

    An intensive industry immersion program of reading and mathematics was conducted in Spring 1989 for employees at Valley Products, Inc., in a cooperative venture by the Literacy Foundation, Memphis, the Memphis City Schools Adult Education Program, and the company. Employee participants were assessed with the San Diego Quick Assessment Test to…

  1. Heat Exchange System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Winery

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    In 2000, Fetzer Vineyards implemented a project to improve its process heating cycle at its Hopland Winery in Hopland, California. In an effort to reduce expenditures on natural gas, Fetzer reviewed their wine process heating cycle and discovered that they could reduce their natural gas purchases and improve efficiency by installing a heat exchanger.

  2. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  3. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  4. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  5. Improved method for determination of light filth in chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Shostak, M T

    1978-07-01

    The recovery of rodent hairs from chocolate has been significantly improved by the introduction of an additional defatting step, substitution of 40% isopropanol for water, and substitution of mineral oil-heptane (85+15) for heptane in the trapping-off step. These changes have no adverse effect on insect fragment recovery. An average recovery of 95% was obtained for rodent hairs, coefficient of variation 7.9%. Insect fragment recoveries were 100%. PMID:681273

  6. Composite material and method for production of improved composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laminated composite material with improved interlaminar strength and damage tolerance having short rods distributed evenly throughout the composite material perpendicular to the laminae. Each rod is shorter than the thickness of the finished laminate, but several times as long as the thickness of each lamina. The laminate is made by inserting short rods in layers of prepreg material, and then stacking and curing prepreg material with rods inserted therethrough.

  7. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V.; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-01-01

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land. PMID:23636397

  8. Scrubber and remote control system improves productivity and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, J.

    1984-07-01

    The paper describes the development of a scrubber and remote control system for a continuous miner. Test results using the system and a greater depth of cut showed that productivity was increased without any sacrifice to health and safety. Approval has been obtained from MSHA for operation under a ventilation plan which allows a 40 aft cut and a face-to-brattice distance of 40 ft when the scrubber is in operation.

  9. CLAES Product Improvement by use of GSFC Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent development in chemistry transport models (CTM) and in data assimilation systems (DAS) indicate impressive predictive capability for the movement of airparcels and the chemistry that goes on within these. This project was aimed at exploring the use of this capability to achieve improved retrieval of geophysical parameters from remote sensing data. The specific goal was to improve retrieval of the CLAES CH4 data obtained during the active north high latitude dynamics event of 18 to 25 February 1992. The model capabilities would be used: (1) rather than climatology to improve on the first guess and the a-priori fields, and (2) to provide horizontal gradients to include in the retrieval forward model. The retrieval would be implemented with the first forward DAS prediction. The results would feed back to the DAS and a second DAS prediction for first guess, a-priori and gradients would feed to the retrieval. The process would repeat to convergence and then proceed to the next day.

  10. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems

    PubMed Central

    Okura, Masako; Kawashima, Motoko; Katagiri, Mikiyuki; Shirasawa, Takuji; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo) to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms. PMID:26347812

  11. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems.

    PubMed

    Okura, Masako; Kawashima, Motoko; Katagiri, Mikiyuki; Shirasawa, Takuji; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo) to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms. PMID:26347812

  12. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. . Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Realization of Complex Onsets by Pediatric Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variations in English complex onset realizations by children who use cochlear implants. Data consisted of 227 productions of two-segment onset clusters from 12 children. In general, onset cluster realizations of children with cochlear implants did not differ markedly from those reported for children with normal hearing: null…

  14. Proctor & Gamble: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy & Improves Production at a Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    In 2002, Procter & Gamble applied a system-level strategy to optimize a compressed air system at its paper products mill in Mehoopany, Pennsylvania. The project improved production, improved system performance, and saved 7.6 million kWh per year and $309,000 per year in maintenance costs.

  15. Why "Working Smarter" Isn't Working: White-Collar Productivity Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the productivity and work days of white collar workers. Topics include productivity improvement; task analysis; the amount of time spent reading, and how to reduce it by improving writing skills; time spent in meetings; empowered time management; and sustaining a climate for change. (LRW)

  16. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Improves Production at a Metal Forging Plant (Modern Forge, TN, Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.

  17. Programming for Preventive Disease and Improved Production in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Boundy, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sheep losses each year are high in all types of rearing systems throughout the United Kingdom. Losses could well be reduced by a closer relationship between the sheep owner and the veterinarian. A closer relationship should involve the development of a simple disease preventive programme requiring a number of regular farm visits each year. Any such programme could attempt to control disease mainly by preventive methods, establish a complete parasite control programme and incorporate a high degree of instruction. There is probably a need for many veterinarians to attend specialist sheep courses, and suggestions are offered whereby the situation could be improved. PMID:7340921

  18. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  19. Optimization of some additives to improve protease production under SSF.

    PubMed

    Tunga, R; Banerjee, R; Bhattacharyya, B C

    2001-11-01

    In a locally isolated Rhizopus oryzae strain highest-production of protease (388.54/g wheat bran) was observed in presence of Tween-80 and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate individually at 40mg/g wheat bran concentration. Under solid state fermentation biotin (0.0025mg/g wheat bran); Ca2+ (0.05mg/g wheat bran) and 1-Naphthyl acetic acid (0.01mg/g wheat bran) also showed some inducing effect on the synthesis of the enzyme protease by solid state fermentation. PMID:11906108

  20. Scrubber and remote control system improves productivity and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kust, J.

    1984-07-01

    The test program conducted at NREC No. 1 Mine clearly indicated that methane levels did not increase with greater depths of cut (up to 40 ft) and corresponding increases in the face-to-brattice distance and methane and respirable dust levels remained well within acceptable levels. By using the scrubber, remote control, and greater depth of cut, productivity is increased without any sacrifice to miner health and safety. Based on the test results, NREC recently received approval from MSHA to operate under a ventilation plan which allows a 40-ft cut and face-to-brattice distance of 40 ft when the scrubber is in operation.

  1. Improvement of ectoine productivity by using sugar transporter-overexpressing Halomonas elongata.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakayama, Hideki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    We successfully enhanced the productivity of ectoine with Halomonas elongata by improvement of the transport of sugar. First, we carried out screening for sugar transporters capable of improving glucose and xylose consumption. We found two transporters: b3657 from Escherichia coli, which is capable of improving glucose consumption, and HEO_0208 from H. elongata, which is capable of improving xylose consumption. Using transporter-overexpressing strains, the productivity of ectoine was improved. These results indicate that sugar consumption is important for efficient ectoine production. As result of phenotypic analysis of a HEO_0208 deletion strain, we discovered that HEO_0208 is the major xylose transporter in H. elongata. This is the first report demonstrating improvement of ectoine productivity by enhancing the transport of sugar. PMID:27233128

  2. Improvements in FCC catalyst technology for light hydrocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, R.E.; Habib, E.T.; Peters, A.W.; Rheaume, L.; Thiel, P.G.; Wallace, D.N.; Wormsbecher, R.F.

    1985-03-01

    As the refining industry continues to undergo dramatic changes due to crude pricing, environmental demands, and product demand, cracking catalyst manufacturers continue to make significant strides in the understanding of the processes and products to meet the refiners' needs. This paper builds on information reported to the industry in previous articles, with the aim of keeping the industry informed of the many dramatic changes taking place in cracking catalyst technology. From our vantage point, the key refining industry concerns today are gasoline octane quality due to the lead phase-down, atmospheric emissions due to increasingly strict EPA and local limits on SOx emissions, and catalytic upgrading of resid feeds due to an expected long term price differential between high and low quality crudes. Hence, we focus here on the significant changes in cracking catalyst technology which will help the refiner handle these issues. In particular, we discuss the catalytic enhancement of gasoline octane with Davison's Octacat and GXO catalyst families, the reduction of FCC SOx emissions with Davison's Additive R SOx catalyst, and the passivation of vanadium with Davison's DVT, so that catalyst deactivation is minimized.

  3. Improved alcohol production employing SSF with thermotolerant yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.; Cao, N.; Gong, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and the yeast fermentation of sugars to ethanol simultaneously in the same reactor. For the effective SSF process to produce ethanol from lignocellulose, it is required to remove the physical and chemical barrier around cellulose fibers and make cellulose more accessible to cellulose. Furthermore, it is preferred to have the compatible fermentation and saccharification conditions (e.g., temperature and pH). The process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass involves the steeping in ammonia solution to remove lignin followed by dilute acid (1%, w/w) hydrolysis of hemicellulose fraction. The ammonia steeping removes over 70% of lignin and consequently facilitates the removal of hemicellulose by dilute acid. Dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose yielding hydrolysate with sugar concentration of up to 8%. This fraction was used as substrate for ethanol production with xylose fermenting yeast strain. After lignin and hemicellulose were removed, the cellulose fraction was used as substrate in the SSF process for ethanol production. High yield of ethanol of over 60 g/L was produced by the thermotolerant yeast within 80 hours of SSF with a low enzyme loading of 8 IFPU/g cellulose.

  4. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  5. Improving Jet Reactor Configuration for Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povitsky, Alex

    2000-01-01

    The jet mixing reactor has been proposed for the industrial production of fullerene carbon nanotubes. Here we study the flowfield of this reactor using the SIMPLER algorithm. Hot peripheral jets are used to enhance heating of the central jet by mixing with the ambiance of reactor. Numerous configurations of peripheral jets with various number of jets, distance between nozzles, angles between the central jet and a peripheral jets, and twisted configuration of nozzles are considered. Unlike the previous studies of jet mixing, the optimal configuration of peripheral jets produces strong non-uniformity of the central jet in a cross-section. The geometrical shape of reactor is designed to obtain a uniform temperature of a catalyst.

  6. Potential Roles of Vocational Education in Improving the Productivity of the Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Education.

    This monograph is a report on the impact vocational education can have on improving worker productivity. Specifically, the monograph presents a discussion of the relationship between vocational education and productivity and identifies potential areas of impact. The first chapter discusses the concept of productivity and its relationship to…

  7. Weyerhaeuser: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Sawmill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    In 2000, Weyerhaeuser Company, a U.S. Department of Energy Allied Partner in the Industrial Technologies Program, increased the efficiency of the compressed air system at its sawmill facility in Coburg, Oregon. This improved the system's performance and will save about 1.3 million kWh annually. Total project costs were $55,000; because annual energy cost savings were also $55,000, the simple payback period was only 1 year. Subsequent improvements at six other company plants and mills are yielding 6.8 million kWh in energy savings and reducing annual energy costs by $250,000.

  8. Reducing phosphorus runoff and improving poultry production with alum.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Daniel, T C; Edwards, D R

    1999-05-01

    This is a review paper on the effects of aluminum sulfate (alum) on ammonia volatilization and P runoff from poultry litter. Initially, laboratory studies were conducted that showed P solubility could be reduced in poultry litter with Al, Ca, and Fe amendments, indicating that these amendments may reduce P runoff. These results were confirmed in small plot studies in which alum applications to litter were shown to decrease P concentrations in runoff by as much as 87%, while improving tall fescue yields. Leaf tissue analyses indicated that the yield improvements were due to increased N availability, which we hypothesized was due to reduced NH3 volatilization. This result was confirmed in laboratory studies that showed that alum was one of the most effective (and cost-effective) compounds for reducing NH3 volatilization. Field trials conducted at commercial broiler farms in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency showed that alum additions to poultry litter lowered litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout, which resulted in less NH3 volatilization and lower atmospheric NH3. Ammonia volatilization rates were reduced by 97% for the first 4 wk of the growout. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were heavier than the controls (1.73 vs 1.66 kg) and had lower mortality (3.9 vs 4.2%) and better feed efficiency (1.98 vs 2.04). Electricity and propane use were lower for alum-treated houses. As a result of these economic benefits to the integrator and grower, the benefit:cost ratio of alum addition was 1.96. Phosphorus concentrations in runoff from small watersheds were 75% lower from alum-treated litter than normal litter over a 3-yr period. Long-term small plot studies on alum use have shown that alum-treated litter results in lower soil test P levels than normal litter and does not increase Al availability in soils or uptake by plants. PMID:10228965

  9. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  10. Gauge fields, nonlinear realizations, supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    This is a brief survey of the all-years research activity in the Sector "Supersymmetry" (the former Markov Group) at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. The focus is on the issues related to gauge fields, spontaneously broken symmetries in the nonlinear realizations approach, and diverse aspects of supersymmetry.

  11. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  12. High-density plasma deposition manufacturing productivity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmer, Leonard J.; Hudson, Chris P.

    1999-09-01

    High Density Plasma (HDP) deposition provides a means to deposit high quality dielectrics meeting submicron gap fill requirements. But, compared to traditional PECVD processing, HDP is relatively expensive due to the higher capital cost of the equipment. In order to keep processing costs low, it became necessary to maximize the wafer throughput of HDP processing without degrading the film properties. The approach taken was to optimize the post deposition microwave in-situ clean efficiency. A regression model, based on actual data, indicated that number of wafers processed before a chamber clean was the dominant factor. Furthermore, a design change in the ceramic hardware, surrounding the electrostatic chuck, provided thermal isolation resulting in an enhanced clean rate of the chamber process kit. An infra-red detector located in the chamber exhaust line provided a means to endpoint the clean and in-film particle data confirmed the infra-red results. The combination of increased chamber clean frequency, optimized clean time and improved process.

  13. Quality Improvement Methodologies Increase Autologous Blood Product Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Preston, Thomas J.; Fitch, Jill A.; Harrison, Sheilah K.; Hersey, Diane K.; Nicol, Kathleen K.; Naguib, Aymen N.; McConnell, Patrick I.; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Whole blood from the heart–lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients’ charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  14. Selection for uterine capacity improves lifetime productivity of sows.

    PubMed

    Freking, B A; Lents, C A; Vallet, J L

    2016-04-01

    Selection for 11 generations for uterine capacity (UC) increased litter size in gilts by 1.6 more fully formed pigs at birth compared to an unselected control line (CO) despite averaging one less ovulation. The objective of the present study was to quantify line by parity interactions and characterize litter performance traits of sows in each line at later parities. Gilts farrowed in contemporary groups of 19 litters and were maintained through four parities if successfully mated in that contemporary group. A total of 243 litters and 2639 piglets were analyzed. Fixed effects of farrowing group, line, parity (1-4), and two-way interactions involving line were fitted. Sire (n=57) of the sow within farrowing group and line was fitted as a random effect. No significant line by parity interactions were observed. Parity effects were detected (P<0.01) for individual piglet birth weight, pre-weaning gain, and weaning weight. Parity effects were also detected (P<0.05) for total number born, average and total litter birth weight, and average and total litter weaning weight. Selection line differences for litter traits were detected (P<0.05) for number stillborn piglets and approached significance (P=0.06) for number of piglets weaned. Retention of sows in the herd was greater (P<0.05) with an average of 2.33 parities for the UC line females compared to 1.87 parities for the CO line. This resulted in favorable cumulative lifetime productivity of the UC line for total number of piglets born, number of piglets born alive, litter birth weight, number of piglets weaned and litter weaning weight. PMID:26869209

  15. Improving Epithermal Transmission Measurements by Optimizing Neutron Production and Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piela, Sean Garrigan

    Methods of improving the neutron count rate in the energy range 3 to 100-300 [keV] at the 100 [m] detector station for the Gaerttner LINAC Center were studied. One part of this undertaking was the explore alterations to the main photonuclear target used for this energy range. Detailed simulations using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP, version 5) were carried out and the results used to synthesize an optimized target design. Simulation predicted a gain in neutron intensity of 1.63 at 4.49 [keV], above the current target capability. Experiment found a gain of 1.42 at 4.89 [keV] over the current target. An addition of 1% boric acid to the water in the moderating ring of the current target is predicted to result in a factor of 111 +/- 12 increase in the neutron to photon ratio above baseline for 3.51 [keV] neutrons at 100 [m]; this value is for photons above 700 [keV]. The gain in neutron intensity for the optimized target comes with a gain in photon intensity. A 1% boric acid addition to this design has same neutron to photon ratio as with the boric acid addition to the current target (for 3.51 [keV] neutrons). In an alternate approach to enhancing the neutron counts, a prototype plastic scintillator was studied as a possible replacement for the extant lithium glass scintillators, with experiments finding major increases to the neutron counts in the energy range of interest. The plastic scintillator prototype was found to produce gains of 1.86, 3.61, 1.76 and 3.16 at 70.1, 127, 219, and 307 [keV], respectively, over a lithium glass detector. However, at 24.5 [keV] the plastic prototype count rate was only 36% of that measured with the lithium glass detector. The prototype detector geometry and its associated electronics need to be altered in order to actualize the true potential of the plastic scintillator detector.

  16. Importance of Indigenous Breeds of Chicken for Rural Economy and Their Improvements for Higher Production Performance

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Mahendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous/native breeds of chickens are playing an important role in rural economies in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. They play a major role for the rural poor and marginalised section of the people with respect to their subsidiary income and also provide them with nutritious chicken egg and meat for their own consumption. Performance of native fowl can be improved by change in husbandry, feeding, and better health cover. However, genetic improvement may be made either through selection and crossbreeding or by utilisation of both selection and crossbreeding. Improvement through selection may be time consuming but the improvement will be permanent. Through crossbreeding improvement may be faster but research has to aim for the production of native-type birds with higher production potential. In the present review efforts have been made to present the importance of native fowl to rural economy and their improvement for higher production performance. PMID:27144053

  17. Improved Digitization of Lunar Mare Ridges with LROC Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, J. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Watters, T. R.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Enns, A. C.; Lawrence, S.

    2011-12-01

    Lunar wrinkle ridges (mare ridges) are positive-relief structures formed from compressional stress in basin-filling flood basalt deposits [1]. Previous workers have measured wrinkle ridge orientations and lengths to investigate their spatial distribution and infer basin-localized stress fields [2,3]. Although these plots include the most prominent mare ridges and their general trends, they may not have fully captured all of the ridges, particularly the smaller-scale ridges. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) global mosaics and derived topography (100m pixel scale) [4], we systematically remapped wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis. By comparing two WAC mosaics with different lighting geometry, and shaded relief maps made from a WAC digital elevation model (DEM) [5], we observed that some ridge segments and some smaller ridges are not visible in previous structure maps [2,3]. In the past, mapping efforts were limited by a fixed Sun direction [6,7]. For systematic mapping we created three shaded relief maps from the WAC DEM with solar azimuth angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and a fourth map was created by combining the three shaded reliefs into one, using a simple averaging scheme. Along with the original WAC mosaic and the WAC DEM, these four datasets were imported into ArcGIS, and the mare ridges of Imbrium, Serenitatis, and Tranquillitatis were digitized from each of the six maps. Since the mare ridges are often divided into many ridge segments [8], each major component was digitized separately, as opposed to the ridge as a whole. This strategy enhanced our ability to analyze the lengths, orientations, and abundances of these ridges. After the initial mapping was completed, the six products were viewed together to identify and resolve discrepancies in order to produce a final wrinkle ridge map. Comparing this new mare ridge map with past lunar tectonic maps, we found that many mare ridges were not recorded in the previous works. It was noted

  18. Experimental realization of invisibility cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelokova, A. V.; Melchakova, I. V.; Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Yankovskaya, E. A.; Simovski, C. R.; Belov, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    Advances in the studies of metamaterials have pushed the development of invisibility cloaks, which suppress scattering by objects within certain frequency ranges. During recent years, there has been a transition from a purely theoretical consideration of the cloaking effect to its practical implementation. This paper is an overview of the current state of the art in the area of invisibility cloaks. Special emphasis is put on experimental realizations of such devices.

  19. Improving microbial biogasoline production in Escherichia coli using tolerance engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Jee Loon; Jensen, Heather M.; Dahl, Robert H.; George, Kevin; Keasling, Jay D.; Lee, Taek Soon; Leong, Susanna; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-11-04

    Engineering microbial hosts for the production of fungible fuels requires mitigation of limitations posed on the production capacity. One such limitation arises from the inherent toxicity of solvent-like biofuel compounds to production strains, such as Escherichia coli. Here we show the importance of host engineering for the production of short-chain alcohols by studying the overexpression of genes upregulated in response to exogenous isopentenol. Using systems biology data, we selected 40 genes that were upregulated following isopentenol exposure and subsequently overexpressed them in E. coli. Overexpression of several of these candidates improved tolerance to exogenously added isopentenol. Genes conferring isopentenol tolerance phenotypes belonged to diverse functional groups, such as oxidative stress response (soxS, fpr, and nrdH), general stress response (metR, yqhD, and gidB), heat shock-related response (ibpA), and transport (mdlB). To determine if these genes could also improve isopentenol production, we coexpressed the tolerance-enhancing genes individually with an isopentenol production pathway. Our data show that expression of 6 of the 8 candidates improved the production of isopentenol in E. coli, with the methionine biosynthesis regulator MetR improving the titer for isopentenol production by 55%. Additionally, expression of MdlB, an ABC transporter, facilitated a 12% improvement in isopentenol production. To our knowledge, MdlB is the first example of a transporter that can be used to improve production of a short-chain alcohol and provides a valuable new avenue for host engineering in biogasoline production.

  20. Improving GPR Surveys Productivity by Array Technology and Fully Automated Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Marco; Ercoli, Emanuele; Mazzucchelli, Paolo; Cottino, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The realization of network infrastructures with lower environmental impact and the tendency to use digging technologies less invasive in terms of time and space of road occupation and restoration play a key-role in the development of communication networks. However, pre-existing buried utilities must be detected and located in the subsurface, to exploit the high productivity of modern digging apparatus. According to SUE quality level B+ both position and depth of subsurface utilities must be accurately estimated, demanding for 3D GPR surveys. In fact, the advantages of 3D GPR acquisitions (obtained either by multiple 2D recordings or by an antenna array) versus 2D acquisitions are well-known. Nonetheless, the amount of acquired data for such 3D acquisitions does not usually allow to complete processing and interpretation directly in field and in real-time, thus limiting the overall efficiency of the GPR acquisition. As an example, the "low impact mini-trench "technique (addressed in ITU - International Telecommunication Union - L.83 recommendation) requires that non-destructive mapping of buried services enhances its productivity to match the improvements of new digging equipment. Nowadays multi-antenna and multi-pass GPR acquisitions demand for new processing techniques that can obtain high quality subsurface images, taking full advantage of 3D data: the development of a fully automated and real-time 3D GPR processing system plays a key-role in overall optical network deployment profitability. Furthermore, currently available computing power suggests the feasibility of processing schemes that incorporate better focusing algorithms. A novel processing scheme, whose goal is the automated processing and detection of buried targets that can be applied in real-time to 3D GPR array systems, has been developed and fruitfully tested with two different GPR arrays (16 antennas, 900 MHz central frequency, and 34 antennas, 600 MHz central frequency). The proposed processing

  1. NGS for the Masses: Empowering Biologists to Improve Bioinformatics Productivity ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Qaadri, Kashef

    2012-06-01

    Kashef Qaadri on "NGS for the Masses: Empowering biologists to improve bioinformatic productivity" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  2. NGS for the Masses: Empowering Biologists to Improve Bioinformatics Productivity ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Qaadri, Kashef [Biomatters

    2013-03-22

    Kashef Qaadri on "NGS for the Masses: Empowering biologists to improve bioinformatic productivity" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  3. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  4. Improved product energy intensity benchmarking metrics for thermally concentrated food products.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael E; Arnold, Craig S; Lettieri, David J; Hutchins, Margot J; Masanet, Eric

    2014-10-21

    Product energy intensity (PEI) metrics allow industry and policymakers to quantify manufacturing energy requirements on a product-output basis. However, complexities can arise for benchmarking of thermally concentrated products, particularly in the food processing industry, due to differences in outlet composition, feed material composition, and processing technology. This study analyzes tomato paste as a typical, high-volume concentrated product using a thermodynamics-based model. Results show that PEI for tomato pastes and purees varies from 1200 to 9700 kJ/kg over the range of 8%-40% outlet solids concentration for a 3-effect evaporator, and 980-7000 kJ/kg for a 5-effect evaporator. Further, the PEI for producing paste at 31% outlet solids concentration in a 3-effect evaporator varies from 13,000 kJ/kg at 3% feed solids concentration to 5900 kJ/kg at 6%; for a 5-effect evaporator, the variation is from 9200 kJ/kg at 3%, to 4300 kJ/kg at 6%. Methods to compare the PEI of different product concentrations on a standard basis are evaluated. This paper also presents methods to develop PEI benchmark values for multiple plants. These results focus on the case of a tomato paste processing facility, but can be extended to other products and industries that utilize thermal concentration. PMID:25215537

  5. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF ADVANCED THERMAL-CHEMICAL CONCEPTS FOR OBTAINING IMPROVED MSW-DERIVED PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although a number of resource recovery from refuse programs have been effective, the quality of the products recovered could be enhanced to improve their marketability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of known processes that could improve the quality of...

  7. Present and future applications of DNA technologies to improve beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial improvements in production efficiency and quality of beef and dairy products have been made possible through manipulation of bovine genetics. The advent of modern breeds in the last two centuries, the institution of phenotypic selection practices and quantitative genetics, even the proce...

  8. The Role of Breeding and Genetics in Animal Production Improvement in the Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rendel, Jan

    1974-01-01

    Availability of animal protein for human consumption is very low in the developing countries mainly because of low productivity of existing livestock; ways and means to improve productivity through breeding are discussed and some basic issues requiring further research pointed out. PMID:17248670

  9. Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

  10. Automated Performance Tracking and Productivity Improvement Project. Annual Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    Findings are reported of a process evaluation of the Automated Performance Tracking and Productivity Improvement Project, a project developed to enhance the productivity and efficiency of child protective services (CPS) staff and to enable Region 10 of the Texas Department of Human Services to better meet federal and state performance guidelines.…

  11. Improving Student Concern for Safety in a Production Technology Lab through the Use of Teambuilding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Dale Robert

    The effectiveness of team building as a strategy for improving students' concern for safety in a production technology laboratory was examined in a study involving a group of grade 9 and 10 production technology students from an urban, lower-middle-class community in western Illinois. Students' safety test scores, teacher checklists, and…

  12. Improvement of xylanase production by Cochliobolus sativus in solid state fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Yasser; Jawhar, Mohammed; Arabi, Mohammed Imad Eddin

    2008-01-01

    The xylanase production by Cochliobolus sativus strain Cs6 was improved under solid state fermentation (SSF). High xylanase activity (1079 U/g) was obtained when wheat straw was used after 8 days of incubation. Combinations of sodium nitrate with peptone or yeast extract resulted in an increased xylanase production (1543 and 1483 U/g, respectively). The Cs6 strain grown in SSF in a simple medium, proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production. PMID:24031273

  13. Improved exponential product cum dual to product type estimator of population mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. K.; Choudhury, Sanjib; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-09-01

    In the present paper, an efficient exponential product cum dual to product type estimator has been proposed to estimate the population mean of the study variable by using simple random sampling scheme. The bias and mean squared error of the proposed estimator have been obtained up to the first order of approximation. A comparison has been made with existing similar estimators. The estimator has shown its efficiency over other estimators in terms of mean squared error (MSE). The numerical demonstrations have been made to show the gain in the estimator under study.

  14. PREFACE: Nanospintronics design and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Nanospintronics Design and Realization (ICNDR 2004), which was held in Kyoto, Japan, 24--28 May 2004. This conference was organized by the Nanospintronics Design and Realization project members: Hideaki Kasai, Osaka (Chair of the Conference) Hisazumi Akai, Osaka Hajime Asahi, Osaka Wilson Agerico Diño, Osaka Hiroshi Harima, Kyoto Tomoyuki Kakeshita, Osaka Junjiro Kanamori, Kyoto Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida, Osaka Koichi Kusakabe, Osaka Hiroshi Nakanishi, Osaka (Secretary) Tamio Oguchi, Hiroshima Teruo Ono, Osaka Naoshi Suzuki, Osaka Hitoshi Tabata, Osaka under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, and the sponsorship of Osaka University and the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS). The conference is intended to provide an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers, in the rapidly developing field of nanospintronics. It aims to: provide an overview of our current understanding of the physics of spin transport in (magnetic) semiconductors and hybrid magnetic/semiconductor structures; provide a venue to present and discuss the latest developments in using spin-dependent phenomena in nano-(opto-) electronics and computing applications; provide a venue for discussion and assessment of other possible means of exploiting the spin-dependent phenomena in future nano-(opto-) electronic and computing applications; address current (and foreseeable future) problems, of fundamental and applied nature, in an effort to bridge the physics and technology gap between semiconducting and magnetic materials. All of these being geared towards bringing about the realization of a functioning nanospintronics. A total of 127 delegates from 15 countries took part in ICNDR 2004, which was comprised of 62 invited

  15. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Citation Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and $45,000. With a total project cost of $67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  16. Citation Corporation: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and$45,000. With a total project cost of$67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  17. Technology for Improving Production, Economic Efficiency, Quality and Sustainability in Peanut Production and Handling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

  20. Improved heterologous erythromycin A production through expression plasmid re-design.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Fang, Lei; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2013-01-01

    The production of complex compounds from technically convenient microorganisms is an emerging route to the chemical diversity found in the surrounding environment. In this study, the antibiotic compound erythromycin A is produced from Escherichia coli as an alternative to native production through the soil bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea. By doing so, there is an opportunity to apply and refine engineering strategies for the manipulation of the erythromycin biosynthetic pathway and for the overproduction of this and other complex natural compounds. Previously, E. coli-derived production was enabled by the introduction of the entire erythromycin pathway (20 genes total) using separately selectable expression plasmids which demonstrated negative effects on final biosynthesis through metabolic burden and plasmid instability. In this study, improvements to final production were made by altering the design of the expression plasmids needed for biosynthetic pathway introduction. Specifically, the total number of genes and plasmids was pruned to reduce both metabolic burden and plasmid instability. Further, a comparison was conducted between species-specific (E. coli vs. S. coelicolor) protein chaperonins. Results indicate improvements in growth and plasmid retention metrics. The newly designed expression platform also increased erythromycin A production levels 5-fold. In conclusion, the steps outlined in this report were designed to upgrade the E. coli erythromycin A production system, led to improved final compound titers, and suggest additional forms of pathway engineering to further improve results from heterologous production attempts. PMID:23804312

  1. Realizing autonomy in responsive relationships

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Rob; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Widdershoven, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support autonomy in responsive relationships: preserving patterns of concern and interaction, nurturing collaborative responsibilities and being closely engaged in trustful and helpful family relations. People with diabetes realize autonomy in various responsive relationships in their unique life context. Next, we performed a literature review of care ethics and caring in nursing with regard to relational autonomy. We classified the literature in five strands of care: attitude-oriented, dialogue-oriented, activity-oriented, relationship-oriented and life-oriented. According to our respondents, autonomy in responsive relationships is fostered when patient, nurses, professionals of the health team and family members carry out care activities supported by a relational attitude of care. They can best realize autonomy in relationships with others when several essential aspects of care and caring are present in their lives. Therefore, we advocate a comprehensive approach to care and caring. PMID:20339930

  2. Application of kaolin to improve citric acid production by a thermophilic Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander

    2006-12-01

    Citric acid production by a thermophilic strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger IIB-6 in a medium containing blackstrap cane molasses was improved by the addition of kaolin to the fermentation medium. The fermentation was run in a 7.5-l stirred bioreactor (60% working volume). The optimal sugar concentration was found to be 150 g/l. Kaolin (1.0 ml) was added to the fermentation medium to enhance volumetric production. The best results in terms of product formation were observed when 15 parts per million (ppm) kaolin was added 24 h after inoculation. With added kaolin, citric acid production was enhanced 2.34-fold, compared to a control fermentation without added kaolin. The length of incubation to attain this product yield was shortened from 168 to 96 h. The comparison of kinetic parameters showed improved citrate synthase activity of the culture (Y (p/x)=7.046 g/g). When the culture grown at various kaolin concentrations was monitored for Q (p), Q (s), and q (p), there was significant improvement in these variables over the control. Specific production by the culture (q (p)=0.073 g/g cells/h) was improved several fold. The addition of kaolin substantially improved the enthalpy (DeltaH (D)=74.5 kJ/mol) and entropy of activation (DeltaS=-174 J/mol/K) for citric acid production, free energies for transition state formation, and substrate binding for sucrose hydrolysis. The performance of fuzzy logic control of the bioreactor was found to be very promising for an improvement ( approximately 4.2-fold) in the production of citric acid (96.88 g/l), which is of value in commercial applications. PMID:16871375

  3. RNGAVXLIB: Program library for random number generation, AVX realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskova, M. S.; Barash, L. Yu.; Shchur, L. N.

    2016-03-01

    We present the random number generator (RNG) library RNGAVXLIB, which contains fast AVX realizations of a number of modern random number generators, and also the abilities to jump ahead inside a RNG sequence and to initialize up to 1019 independent random number streams with block splitting method. Fast AVX implementations produce exactly the same output sequences as the original algorithms. Usage of AVX vectorization allows to substantially improve performance of the generators. The new realizations are up to 2 times faster than the SSE realizations implemented in the previous version of the library (Barash and Shchur, 2013), and up to 40 times faster compared to the original algorithms written in ANSI C.

  4. Realizations of conformal current-type Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Pei Yufeng; Bai Chengming

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we obtain the realizations of some infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, named 'conformal current-type Lie algebras', in terms of a two-dimensional Novikov algebra and its deformations. Furthermore, Ovsienko and Roger's loop cotangent Virasoro algebra, which can be regarded as a nice generalization of the Virasoro algebra with two space variables, is naturally realized as an affinization of the tensor product of a deformation of the two-dimensional Novikov algebra and the Laurent polynomial algebra. These realizations shed new light on various aspects of the structure and representation theory of the corresponding infinite-dimensional Lie algebras.

  5. Better and faster: improvements and optimization for mammalian recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Almo, Steven C.; Love, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to numerous technological advances, the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell lines has become an increasingly routine task that is no longer viewed as a heroic enterprise. While production in prokaryotic or lower eukaryotic systems may be more rapid and economical, the advantages of producing large amounts of protein that closely resembles the native form is often advantageous and may be essential for the realization of functionally active material for biological studies or biopharmaceuticals. The correct folding, processing and post-translational modifications conferred by expression in a mammalian cell is relevant to all classes of proteins, including cytoplasmic, secreted or integral membrane proteins. Therefore considerable efforts have focused on the development of growth media, cell lines, transformation methods and selection techniques that enable the production of grams of functional protein in weeks, rather than months. This review will focus on a plethora of methods that are broadly applicable to the high yield production of any class of protein (cytoplasmic, secreted or integral membrane) from mammalian cells. PMID:24721463

  6. Better and faster: improvements and optimization for mammalian recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Almo, Steven C; Love, James D

    2014-06-01

    Thanks to numerous technological advances, the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell lines has become an increasingly routine task that is no longer viewed as a heroic enterprise. While production in prokaryotic or lower eukaryotic systems may be more rapid and economical, the advantages of producing large amounts of protein that closely resembles the native form is often advantageous and may be essential for the realization of functionally active material for biological studies or biopharmaceuticals. The correct folding, processing and post-translational modifications conferred by expression in a mammalian cell is relevant to all classes of proteins, including cytoplasmic, secreted or integral membrane proteins. Therefore considerable efforts have focused on the development of growth media, cell lines, transformation methods and selection techniques that enable the production of grams of functional protein in weeks, rather than months. This review will focus on a plethora of methods that are broadly applicable to the high yield production of any class of protein (cytoplasmic, secreted or integral membrane) from mammalian cells. PMID:24721463

  7. Improving lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum through DNA microarray-based identification of novel target genes.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Georg; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-09-01

    For the biotechnological production of L: -lysine, mainly strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum are used, which have been obtained by classical mutagenesis and screening or selection or by metabolic engineering. Gene targets for the amplification and deregulation of the lysine biosynthesis pathway, for the improvement of carbon precursor supply and of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form) (NADPH) regeneration, are known. To identify novel target genes to improve lysine production, the transcriptomes of the classically obtained lysine producing strain MH20-22B and several other C. glutamicum strains were compared. As lysine production by the classically obtained strain, which possesses feedback-resistant aspartokinase and is leucine auxotrophic, exceeds that of a genetically defined leucine auxotrophic wild-type derivative possessing feedback-resistant aspartokinase, additional traits beneficial for lysine production are present. NCgl0855, putatively encoding a methyltransferase, and the amtA-ocd-soxA operon, encoding an ammonium uptake system, a putative ornithine cyclodeaminase and an uncharacterized enzyme, were among the genes showing increased expression in the classically obtained strain irrespective of the presence of feedback-resistant aspartokinase. Lysine production could be improved by about 40% through overexpression of NCgl0855 or the amtA-ocd-soxA operon. Thus, novel target genes for the improvement of lysine production could be identified in a discovery-driven approach based on global gene expression analysis. PMID:17364200

  8. Bayreuth Productivity Analysis-a method for ascertaining and improving the holistic service productivity of acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pfannstiel, Mario Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The healthcare sector is lacking a method with which hospitals can measure the extent to which they achieve their goals in terms of aggregate productivity from both patients' and employees' perspectives. The Bayreuth Productivity Analysis (BPA) provides a solution to this problem because it uses two standardized questionnaires-one for patients and one for employees-to ascertain productivity at hospitals. These questionnaires were developed in several steps according to the principles of classical test theory, and they consist of six dimensions (information, organization, climate, methods, infrastructure and equipment) of five items each. One item describes a factual situation relevant to productivity and services so that it makes a contribution to the overall productivity of a hospital. After individualized evaluation of these items, the dimensions are subjectively weighted in the two questionnaires. The productivity index thus ascertained can be considered "holistic" when all patients and employees in a hospital make a differentiated assessment and weigh off each of the dimensions. In conclusion, the BPA constitutes a simple yet practicable method to ascertain and improve the holistic service productivity of hospitals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24839174

  9. Rashba realization: Raman with RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. L.; Spielman, I. B.

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically explore a Rashba spin–orbit coupling scheme which operates entirely in the absolute ground state manifold of an alkali atom, thereby minimizing all inelastic processes. An energy gap between ground eigenstates of the proposed coupling can be continuously opened or closed by modifying laser polarizations. Our technique uses far-detuned ‘Raman’ laser coupling to create the Rashba potential, which has the benefit of low spontaneous emission rates. At these detunings, the Raman matrix elements that link m F magnetic sublevel quantum numbers separated by two are also suppressed. These matrix elements are necessary to produce the Rashba Hamiltonian within a single total angular momentum f manifold. However, the far-detuned Raman couplings can link the three XYZ states familiar to quantum chemistry, which possess the necessary connectivity to realize the Rashba potential. We show that these XYZ states are essentially the hyperfine spin eigenstates of {}87{Rb} dressed by a strong radio-frequency magnetic field.

  10. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    PubMed

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. PMID:26399220

  11. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems. PMID:25151072

  12. Shikimic Acid Production in Escherichia coli: From Classical Metabolic Engineering Strategies to Omics Applied to Improve Its Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Juan Andrés; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is an intermediate of the SA pathway that is present in bacteria and plants. SA has gained great interest because it is a precursor in the synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSF), an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of diverse seasonal influenza viruses, the avian influenza virus H5N1, and the human influenza virus H1N1. For the purposes of OSF production, SA is extracted from the pods of Chinese star anise plants (Illicium spp.), yielding up to 17% of SA (dry basis content). The high demand for OSF necessary to manage a major influenza outbreak is not adequately met by industrial production using SA from plants sources. As the SA pathway is present in the model bacteria Escherichia coli, several “intuitive” metabolically engineered strains have been applied for its successful overproduction by biotechnological processes, resulting in strains producing up to 71 g/L of SA, with high conversion yields of up to 0.42 (mol SA/mol Glc), in both batch and fed-batch cultures using complex fermentation broths, including glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract. Global transcriptomic analyses have been performed in SA-producing strains, resulting in the identification of possible key target genes for the design of a rational strain improvement strategy. Because possible target genes are involved in the transport, catabolism, and interconversion of different carbon sources and metabolic intermediates outside the central carbon metabolism and SA pathways, as genes involved in diverse cellular stress responses, the development of rational cellular strain improvement strategies based on omics data constitutes a challenging task to improve SA production in currently overproducing engineered strains. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic engineering strategies that have been applied for the development of efficient SA-producing strains, as the perspective of omics analysis has focused on further strain improvement for

  13. Shikimic Acid Production in Escherichia coli: From Classical Metabolic Engineering Strategies to Omics Applied to Improve Its Production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan Andrés; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is an intermediate of the SA pathway that is present in bacteria and plants. SA has gained great interest because it is a precursor in the synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSF), an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of diverse seasonal influenza viruses, the avian influenza virus H5N1, and the human influenza virus H1N1. For the purposes of OSF production, SA is extracted from the pods of Chinese star anise plants (Illicium spp.), yielding up to 17% of SA (dry basis content). The high demand for OSF necessary to manage a major influenza outbreak is not adequately met by industrial production using SA from plants sources. As the SA pathway is present in the model bacteria Escherichia coli, several "intuitive" metabolically engineered strains have been applied for its successful overproduction by biotechnological processes, resulting in strains producing up to 71 g/L of SA, with high conversion yields of up to 0.42 (mol SA/mol Glc), in both batch and fed-batch cultures using complex fermentation broths, including glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract. Global transcriptomic analyses have been performed in SA-producing strains, resulting in the identification of possible key target genes for the design of a rational strain improvement strategy. Because possible target genes are involved in the transport, catabolism, and interconversion of different carbon sources and metabolic intermediates outside the central carbon metabolism and SA pathways, as genes involved in diverse cellular stress responses, the development of rational cellular strain improvement strategies based on omics data constitutes a challenging task to improve SA production in currently overproducing engineered strains. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic engineering strategies that have been applied for the development of efficient SA-producing strains, as the perspective of omics analysis has focused on further strain improvement for the

  14. Life cycle assessment of Italian citrus-based products. Sensitivity analysis and improvement scenarios.

    PubMed

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2010-07-01

    Though many studies concern the agro-food sector in the EU and Italy, and its environmental impacts, literature is quite lacking in works regarding LCA application on citrus products. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts of citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance. In particular, it is part of a research aimed to estimate environmental burdens associated with the production of the following citrus-based products: essential oil, natural juice and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The life cycle assessment of these products, published in a previous paper, had highlighted significant environmental issues in terms of energy consumption, associated CO(2) emissions, and water consumption. Starting from such results the authors carry out an improvement analysis of the assessed production system, whereby sustainable scenarios for saving water and energy are proposed to reduce environmental burdens of the examined production system. In addition, a sensitivity analysis to estimate the effects of the chosen methods will be performed, giving data on the outcome of the study. Uncertainty related to allocation methods, secondary data sources, and initial assumptions on cultivation, transport modes, and waste management is analysed. The results of the performed analyses allow stating that every assessed eco-profile is differently influenced by the uncertainty study. Different assumptions on initial data and methods showed very sensible variations in the energy and environmental performances of the final products. Besides, the results show energy and environmental benefits that clearly state the improvement of the products eco-profile, by reusing purified water use for irrigation, using the railway mode for the delivery of final products, when possible, and adopting efficient technologies, as the mechanical vapour recompression, in the pasteurisation and

  15. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. PMID:25405548

  16. Development of Sustainable Landscape Designs for Improved Biomass Production in the U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, Ian J.

    Demand for renewable and sustainable energy options has resulted in a significant commitment by the US Government to research pathways for fuel production from biomass. The research presented in this thesis describes one potential pathway to increase the amount of biomass available for biofuel production by integrating dedicated energy crops into agricultural fields. In the first chapter an innovative landscape design method based on subfield placement of an energy crop into row crop fields in central Iowa is used to reduce financial loss for farmers, increase and diversify biomass production, and improve soil resources. The second chapter explores how subfield management decisions may be made using high fidelity data and modeling to balance concerns of primary crop production and economics. This work provides critical forward looking support to agricultural land managers and stakeholders in the biomass and bioenergy industry for pathways to improving land stewardship and energy security.

  17. A Realizable Reynolds Stress Algebraic Equation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The invariance theory in continuum mechanics is applied to analyze Reynolds stresses in high Reynolds number turbulent flows. The analysis leads to a turbulent constitutive relation that relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean velocity gradients in a more general form in which the classical isotropic eddy viscosity model is just the linear approximation of the general form. On the basis of realizability analysis, a set of model coefficients are obtained which are functions of the time scale ratios of the turbulence to the mean strain rate and the mean rotation rate. The coefficients will ensure the positivity of each component of the mean rotation rate. These coefficients will ensure the positivity of each component of the turbulent kinetic energy - realizability that most existing turbulence models fail to satisfy. Separated flows over backward-facing step configurations are taken as applications. The calculations are performed with a conservative finite-volume method. Grid-independent and numerical diffusion-free solutions are obtained by using differencing schemes of second-order accuracy on sufficiently fine grids. The calculated results are compared in detail with the experimental data for both mean and turbulent quantities. The comparison shows that the present proposal significantly improves the predictive capability of K-epsilon based two equation models. In addition, the proposed model is able to simulate rotational homogeneous shear flows with large rotation rates which all conventional eddy viscosity models fail to simulate.

  18. Versatile microscale screening platform for improving recombinant protein productivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Nilsson, Claes Nymand; Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kol, Stefan; Grav, Lise Marie; Lundqvist, Magnus; Rockberg, Johan; Lee, Gyun Min; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup

    2015-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used as cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals. In contrast to the highly optimized production processes for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based biopharmaceuticals, improving productivity of non-mAb therapeutic glycoproteins is more likely to reduce production costs significantly. The aim of this study was to establish a versatile target gene screening platform for improving productivity for primarily non-mAb glycoproteins with complete interchangeability of model proteins and target genes using transient expression. The platform consists of four techniques compatible with 96-well microplates: lipid-based transient transfection, cell cultivation in microplates, cell counting and antibody-independent product titer determination based on split-GFP complementation. We were able to demonstrate growth profiles and volumetric productivity of CHO cells in 96-half-deepwell microplates comparable with those obtained in shake flasks. In addition, we demonstrate that split-GFP complementation can be used to accurately measure relative titers of therapeutic glycoproteins. Using this platform, we were able to detect target gene-specific increase in titer and specific productivity of two non-mAb glycoproteins. In conclusion, the platform provides a novel miniaturized and parallelisable solution for screening target genes and holds the potential to unravel genes that can enhance the secretory capacity of CHO cells. PMID:26657798

  19. Using the Deming quality improvement method to manage medical record department product lines.

    PubMed

    Postal, S N

    1990-06-01

    The above application of the quality improvement cycle provides insight into the use of the Deming method to address one of several identified customer needs and expectations obtained during the managing phase of product-line administration. Implementation of the quality improvement method requires a major commitment from all team members. Process improvement requires a willingness to be detail oriented. Gathering of statistics--such as analysis turn-around time--and evaluation are critical. This objective view of processes requires accountability and a commitment to change. Improvements focus on long-term problem resolution, not the quick fixes that result from addressing symptoms of problems. True problem resolution occurs by solving the root causes of variations. Medical record departments must move from being outcome oriented to being process focused. It is no longer feasible to be constantly putting out fires in an environment that demands well-planned and well-designed products that meet customers' expectations. The long-term management of product lines requires a systematic method of planning, doing, checking, and acting. The Deming quality improvement method provides a framework for positive change that focuses on quality processes resulting in a quality product that meets consumers' needs. PMID:10106656

  20. UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project`s environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions.

  1. Expressing the sweet potato orange gene in transgenic potato improves drought tolerance and marketable tuber production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Han, Eun-Heui; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Hong, Su-Young; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is generally considered to be sensitive to drought stress. Even short periods of water shortage can result in reduced tuber production and quality. We previously reported that transgenic potato plants expressing the sweet potato orange gene (IbOr) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SOR plants) showed increased tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and high salinity, along with increased carotenoid contents. In this study, in an effort to improve the productivity and environmental stress tolerance of potato, we subjected transgenic potato plants expressing IbOr to water-deficient conditions in the greenhouse. The SOR plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought stress under greenhouse conditions. IbOr expression was associated with slightly negative phenotypes, including reduced tuber production. Controlling IbOr expression imparted the same degree of drought tolerance while ameliorating these negative phenotypic effects, leading to levels of tuber production similar to or better than those of wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In particular, under drought stress, drought tolerance and the production of marketable tubers (over 80g) were improved in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that expressing the IbOr transgene can lead to significant gains in drought tolerance and tuber production in potato, thereby improving these agronomically important traits. PMID:27212605

  2. Rashba realization: Raman with RF

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D L; Spielman, I B

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically explore a Rashba spin–orbit coupling scheme which operates entirely in the absolute ground state manifold of an alkali atom, thereby minimizing all inelastic processes. An energy gap between ground eigenstates of the proposed coupling can be continuously opened or closed by modifying laser polarizations. Our technique uses far-detuned ‘Raman’ laser coupling to create the Rashba potential, which has the benefit of low spontaneous emission rates. At these detunings, the Raman matrix elements that link mF magnetic sublevel quantum numbers separated by two are also suppressed. These matrix elements are necessary to produce the Rashba Hamiltonian within a single total angular momentum f manifold. However, the far-detuned Raman couplings can link the three XYZ states familiar to quantum chemistry, which possess the necessary connectivity to realize the Rashba potential. We show that these XYZ states are essentially the hyperfine spin eigenstates of 87Rb dressed by a strong radio-frequency magnetic field. PMID:27524933

  3. Improving crop productivity and resource use efficiency to ensure food security and environmental quality in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingsheng; Shen, Jianbo; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Chen, Xinping; Davies, William J; Zhang, Fusuo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural growth in China has accelerated remarkably, but most of this growth has been driven by increased yield per unit area rather than by expansion of the cultivated area. Looking towards 2030, to meet the demand for grain and to feed a growing population on the available arable land, it is suggested that annual crop production should be increased to around 580 Mt and that yield should increase by at least 2% annually. Crop production will become more difficult with climate change, resource scarcity (e.g. land, water, energy, and nutrients) and environmental degradation (e.g. declining soil quality, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and surface water eutrophication). To pursue the fastest and most practical route to improved yield, the near-term strategy is application and extension of existing agricultural technologies. This would lead to substantial improvement in crop and soil management practices, which are currently suboptimal. Two pivotal components are required if we are to follow new trajectories. First, the disciplines of soil management and agronomy need to be given increased emphasis in research and teaching, as part of a grand food security challenge. Second, continued genetic improvement in crop varieties will be vital. However, our view is that the biggest gains from improved technology will come most immediately from combinations of improved crops and improved agronomical practices. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the historical trend of crop production in China and to examine the main constraints to the further increase of crop productivity. The paper provides a perspective on the challenge faced by science and technology in agriculture which must be met both in terms of increased crop productivity but also in increased resource use efficiency and the protection of environmental quality. PMID:21963614

  4. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-07

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  5. Research needs to improve agricultural productivity and food quality, with emphasis on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2002-11-01

    Research into agricultural productivity, especially for crops in the developing world, should include resistance to plant viruses, fungi and the parasitic weed Striga. It must also include research into the development of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-expressing crops. Drought- and heat-tolerant crops, and those that can combat the problems of soil deficiencies, are required, and vaccine production in plants should be a high priority. Research into food quality should include the equivalent of "golden rice" in maize, the enhancement of the production of phytosterols and improved qualities of vegetable oils. PMID:12421866

  6. Induced reactive oxygen species improve enzyme production from Aspergillus niger cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Susmita; Rao, K Krishnamurthy; Suraishkumar, G K

    2003-05-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) induction by HOCl was used as a novel strategy to improve enzyme productivities in Aspergillus niger growing in a bioreactor. With induced iROS, the specific intracellular activities of alpha-amylase, protease, catalase, and glucose oxidase were increased by about 170%, 250%, 320%, and 260%, respectively. The optimum specific iROS level for achieving maximum cell concentration and enzyme production was about 15 mmol g cell-1. The type of iROS inducing the enzyme production was identified to be a derivative of the superoxide radical. PMID:12882014

  7. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Chandani, Yasmin; Andersson, Sarah; Heaton, Alexis; Noel, Megan; Shieshia, Mildred; Mwirotsi, Amanda; Krudwig, Kirstin; Nsona, Humphreys; Felling, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM) found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM’s purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome. Methods SC4CCM selected three countries to implement supply chain innovations and developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for the learning phase, which identified the main drivers of product availability and was used for baseline assessments, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda. Interventions were developed in each country and tested over 12–24 months. Mixed–method follow up assessments were conducted in each country in 2012–2013. The Supply Chain for Community Case Management (SC4CCM) Project then simplified the TOC into a Community Health Supply Chain (CHSC) framework to enable cross country analysis Results The findings from interventions in the three countries suggest that the greatest supply chain benefits are realized when all three CHSC framework elements (data flow, product flow, and effective people) are in place and working together. The synergistic effect of these three elements on supply chain performance was most effectively demonstrated by results from the Enhanced Management and Quality Collaborative interventions in Malawi and Rwanda, respectively, which were characterized by lower mean stockout rates and higher in stock rates on day of visit, when compared to other interventions. Conclusions Many conditions are necessary to ensure continuous product availability at the community level, however a supply chain works

  8. Metabolites production improvement by identifying minimal genomes and essential genes using flux balance analysis.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Abdul Hakim Mohamed; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Deris, Safaai; Illias, Rosli Md

    2015-01-01

    With the advancement in metabolic engineering technologies, reconstruction of the genome of host organisms to achieve desired phenotypes can be made. However, due to the complexity and size of the genome scale metabolic network, significant components tend to be invisible. We proposed an approach to improve metabolite production that consists of two steps. First, we find the essential genes and identify the minimal genome by a single gene deletion process using Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and second by identifying the significant pathway for the metabolite production using gene expression data. A genome scale model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of vanillin and acetate is used to test this approach. The result has shown the reliability of this approach to find essential genes, reduce genome size and identify production pathway that can further optimise the production yield. The identified genes and pathways can be extendable to other applications especially in strain optimisation. PMID:26489144

  9. Resolution and Content Improvements to MISR Aerosol and Land Surface Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Bull, M. A.; Diner, D. J.; Hansen, E. G.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has been providing operational Level 2 (swath-based) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property retrievals at 17.6 km spatial resolution and atmospherically corrected land surface products at 1.1 km resolution. The performance of the aerosol product has been validated against ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations, model comparisons, and climatological assessments. This product has played a major role in studies of the impacts of aerosols on climate and air quality. The surface product has found a variety of uses, particularly at regional scales for assessing vegetation and land surface change. A major development effort has led to the release of an update to the operational (Version 22) MISR Level 2 aerosol and land surface retrieval products, which has been in production since December 2007. The new release is designated Version 23. The resolution of the aerosol product has been increased to 4.4 km, allowing more detailed characterization of aerosol spatial variability, especially near local sources and in urban areas. The product content has been simplified and updated to include more robust measures of retrieval uncertainty and other fields to benefit users. The land surface product has also been updated to incorporate the Version 23 aerosol product as input and to improve spatial coverage, particularly over mountainous terrain and snow/ice-covered surfaces. We will describe the major upgrades incorporated in Version 23 and present validation of the aerosol product against both the standard AERONET historical database, as well as high spatial density AERONET-DRAGON deployments. Comparisons will also be shown relative to the Version 22 aerosol and land surface products. Applications enabled by these product updates will be discussed.

  10. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  12. Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-05-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  13. Evaluation of FGD-gypsum to improve forage production and reduce phosphorus lossed from Piedmont soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD-gypsum), a byproduct from coal fired electricity generators, has the potential for beneficial use in agricultural systems as a soil amendment. Similar to mined gypsum it can improve soil chemical and physical properties and increase crop productivity. FGD-gypsum ...

  14. Stop Managing, Start Coaching! How Performance Coaching Can Enhance Commitment and Improve Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Jerry W.; Boughton, Nathaniel W.

    This book, which is intended for managers responsible for training and managing employees, outlines an approach to employee management and training that is based on the premise that, if managers are to enhance employees' commitment to the organization and improve productivity, they must first stop managing their employees and start coaching them.…

  15. Improving heterologous polyketide production in Escherichia coli by overexpression of an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Boghigian, Brett A; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2007-11-01

    An S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene (metK) from Streptomyces spectabilis was cloned into an expression plasmid under the control of an inducible T7 promoter and introduced into a strain of Escherichia coli (BAP1(pBP130/pBP144)) capable of producing the polyketide product 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6-dEB). The metK coexpression in BAP1(pBP130/pBP144) improved the specific production of 6-dEB from 10.86 to 20.08 mg l(-1) OD(600)(-1). In an effort to probe the reason for this improvement, a series of gene deletion and expression experiments were conducted based on a metK metabolic pathway that branches between propionyl-CoA (a 6-dEB precursor) and autoinducer compounds. The deletion and expression studies suggested that the autoinducer pathway had a larger impact on improved 6-dEB biosynthesis. Supporting these results were experiments demonstrating the positive effect conditioned media (the suspected location of the autoinducer compounds) had on 6-dEB production. Taken together, the results of this study show an increase in heterologous 6-dEB production concomitant with heterologous metK gene expression and suggest that the mechanism for this improvement is linked to native autoinducer compounds. PMID:17876579

  16. Improvements in animal productivity and health with a total aerobic manure management system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management using second generation technology on air and water quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health. The technology is a lower cost, second generation treatment system develop...

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement. Quarterly report, December 1994--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Primary objective is to establish the commercial readiness of MW- class IMHEX {reg_sign} MCFC power plants for distributed generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. The following tasks are reported: product definition/planning, system design/analysis, manufacturing process development, packaging/assembly, test facilities, and technology development/improvement/verification.

  18. Report and Guidelines on Improving the Retrieval of Product Information from ERIC. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiger, JoAnn M.

    The purpose of this project was to provide guidance to ERIC on how to facilitate product information retrieval. Information on practitioner needs, on the use of descriptors and abstracting procedures, and on alternatives for improving the system was gathered and circulated to NIE staff members. The resulting document described three alternative…

  19. Improving feed efficiency in dairy production systems – challenges and possibilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving production efficiency has always been a goal of animal agriculture to ensure an abundant food and fiber supply, and to maintain producer profitability. In recent decades, the concept of sustainable agriculture emerged, which includes the additional goals of safeguarding natural resources, ...

  20. How Community College Faculty Members May Improve Student Learning Productivity in Their Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven experienced community college faculty members were interviewed to elicit examples of how they improved student learning productivity in their online courses. The 11 faculty members represented eight different states, nine different fields or disciplines, and all were permanent or full-time faculty members at community colleges in the…

  1. Compressed Air System Improvement Project Saves Foundry Energy and Increases Production

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  2. Fungal pretreatment of switchgrass for improved saccharification and simultaneous enzyme production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal pretreatment of switchgrass involving solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve saccharification and simultaneously produce enzymes as co-products was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the fungus Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 can significantly degrade lignin and enhance enzymatic...

  3. Potential nationwide improvements in productivity and health from better indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in their estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the US, the authors estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  4. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second

  5. Triple Diagonal modeling: A mechanism to focus productivity improvement for business success

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.O.; Villareal, L.D.

    1993-09-01

    Triple Diagonal (M) modeling is a technique to help quickly diagnose an organization`s existing production system and to identify significant improvement opportunities in executing, controlling, and planning operations. TD modeling is derived from ICAM Definition Language (IDEF 0)-also known as Structured Analysis and Design Technique. It has been used successfully at several Department of Defense remanufacturing facilities trying to accomplish significant production system modernization. TD has several advantages over other modeling techniques. First, it quickly does ``As-ls`` analysis and then moves on to identify improvements. Second, creating one large diagram makes it easier to share the TD model throughout an organization, rather than the many linked 8 1/2 {times} 11`` drawings used in traditional decomposition approaches. Third, it acts as a communication mechanism to share understanding about improvement opportunities that may cross existing functional/organizational boundaries. Finally, TD acts as a vehicle to build a consensus on a prioritized list of improvement efforts that ``hangs togethers as an agenda for systemic changes in the production system and the improved integration of support functions.

  6. Improving isopropanol tolerance and production of Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423 by random mutagenesis and genome shuffling.

    PubMed

    Gérando, H Máté de; Fayolle-Guichard, F; Rudant, L; Millah, S K; Monot, F; Ferreira, Nicolas Lopes; López-Contreras, A M

    2016-06-01

    Random mutagenesis and genome shuffling was applied to improve solvent tolerance and isopropanol/butanol/ethanol (IBE) production in the strictly anaerobic bacteria Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423. Following chemical mutagenesis with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), screening of putatively improved strains was done by submitting the mutants to toxic levels of inhibitory chemicals or by screening for their tolerance to isopropanol (>35 g/L). Suicide substrates, such as ethyl or methyl bromobutyrate or alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors like allyl alcohol, were tested and, finally, 36 mutants were isolated. The fermentation profiles of these NTG mutant strains were characterized, and the best performing mutants were used for consecutive rounds of genome shuffling. Screening of strains with further enhancement in isopropanol tolerance at each recursive shuffling step was then used to spot additionally improved strains. Three highly tolerant strains were finally isolated and able to withstand up to 50 g/L isopropanol on plates. Even if increased tolerance to the desired end product was not always accompanied by higher production capabilities, some shuffled strains showed increased solvent titers compared to the parental strains and the original C. beijerinckii DSM 6423. This study confirms the efficiency of genome shuffling to generate improved strains toward a desired phenotype such as alcohol tolerance. This tool also offers the possibility of obtaining improved strains of Clostridium species for which targeted genetic engineering approaches have not been described yet. PMID:26852409

  7. Unique Three-Dimensional InP Nanopore Arrays for Improved Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Liguo; Zhong, Miao; Zhu, Changqing; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Faze; Song, Jingnan; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-08-31

    Ordered three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure arrays hold promise for high-performance energy harvesting and storage devices. Here, we report the fabrication of InP nanopore arrays (NPs) in unique 3D architectures with excellent light trapping characteristic and large surface areas for use as highly active photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution devices. The ordered 3D NPs were scalably synthesized by a facile two-step etching process of (1) anodic etching of InP in neutral 3 M NaCl electrolytes to realize nanoporous structures and (2) wet chemical etching in HCl/H3PO4 (volume ratio of 1:3) solutions for removing the remaining top irregular layer. Importantly, we demonstrated that the use of neutral electrolyte of NaCl instead of other solutions, such as HCl, in anodic etching of InP can significantly passivate the surface states of 3D NPs. As a result, the maximum photoconversion efficiency obtained with ∼15.7 μm thick 3D NPs was 0.95%, which was 7.3 and 1.4 times higher than that of planar and 2D NPs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoluminescence analyses further clarified that the improved PEC performance was attributed to the enhanced charge transfer across 3D NPs/electrolyte interfaces, the improved charge separation at 3D NPs/electrolyte junction, and the increased PEC active surface areas with our unique 3D NP arrays. PMID:27501479

  8. Improving electricity production in tubular microbial fuel cells through optimizing the anolyte flow with spiral spacers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Ge, Zheng; Grimaud, Julien; Hurst, Jim; He, Zhen

    2013-04-01

    The use of spiral spacers to create a helical flow for improving electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated in both laboratory and on-site tests. The lab tests found that the MFC with the spiral spacers produced more electricity than the one without the spiral spacers at different recirculation rates or organic loading rates, likely due to the improved transport/distribution of ions and electron mediators instead of the substrates because the organic removal efficiency was not obviously affected by the presence of the spiral spacers. The energy production in the MFC with the spiral spacers reached 0.071 or 0.073 kWh/kg COD in either vertical or horizontal installment. The examination of the MFCs installed in an aeration tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant confirmed the advantage of using the spiral spacers. Those results demonstrate that spiral spacers could be an effective approach to improve energy production in MFCs. PMID:23500582

  9. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  10. Microbial desalination cells for improved performance in wastewater treatment, electricity production, and desalination.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiping; Xu, Pei; Roane, Timberley M; Jenkins, Peter E; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-02-01

    The low conductivity and alkalinity in municipal wastewater significantly limit power production from microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study integrated desalination with wastewater treatment and electricity production in a microbial desalination cell (MDC) by utilizing the mutual benefits among the above functions. When using wastewater as the sole substrate, the power output from the MDC (8.01 W/m(3)) was four times higher than a control MFC without desalination function. In addition, the MDC removed 66% of the salts and improved COD removal by 52% and Coulombic efficiency by 131%. Desalination in MDCs improved wastewater characteristics by increasing the conductivity by 2.5 times and stabilizing anolyte pH, which therefore reduced system resistance and maintained microbial activity. Microbial community analysis revealed a more diverse anode microbial structure in the MDC than in the MFC. The results demonstrated that MDC can serve as a viable option for integrated wastewater treatment, energy production, and desalination. PMID:22178493

  11. Improvement of saccharification process for bioethanol production from Undaria sp. by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Recently, many research works have reported on improvements to the saccharification process that increase bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. Gamma irradiation has been studied as an effective method for the depolymerization of complex polysaccharides. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on saccharification of Undaria biomass for bioethanol production was investigated. The Undaria biomass was irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy and then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid. The effects of gamma irradiation were measured through microscopic analysis to determine morphological changes and concentration of the reducing sugar of hydrolysates. Microscopic images show that gamma irradiation causes structure breakage of the Undaria cell wall. The concentration of reducing sugar of hydrolysates significantly increased as a result of gamma irradiation, with or without acid hydrolysis. These results indicate that the combined method of gamma irradiation with acid hydrolysis can significantly improve the saccharification process for bioethanol production from marine algae materials.

  12. Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways in yeast mitochondria improves the production of branched-chain alcohols.

    PubMed

    Avalos, José L; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to improve the production of a compound of interest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly involved engineering or overexpression of cytoplasmic enzymes. We show that targeting metabolic pathways to mitochondria can increase production compared with overexpression of the enzymes involved in the same pathways in the cytoplasm. Compartmentalization of the Ehrlich pathway into mitochondria increased isobutanol production by 260%, whereas overexpression of the same pathway in the cytoplasm only improved yields by 10%, compared with a strain overproducing enzymes involved in only the first three steps of the biosynthetic pathway. Subcellular fractionation of engineered strains revealed that targeting the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway to the mitochondria achieves greater local enzyme concentrations. Other benefits of compartmentalization may include increased availability of intermediates, removing the need to transport intermediates out of the mitochondrion and reducing the loss of intermediates to competing pathways. PMID:23417095

  13. Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways in yeast mitochondria improves production of branched chain alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, José L.; Fink, Gerald R.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to improve the production of a compound of interest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly involved engineering or overexpression of cytoplasmic enzymes. We show that targeted expression of metabolic pathways to mitochondria can increase production levels compared with expression of the same pathways in the cytoplasm. Compartmentalisation of the Ehrlich pathway into mitochondria increased isobutanol production by 260%, whereas overexpression of the same pathway in the cytoplasm only improved yields by 10%, compared with a strain overexpressing only the first three steps of the biosynthetic pathway. Subcellular fractionation of engineered strains reveals that targeting the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway to the mitochondria achieves higher local enzyme concentrations. Other benefits of compartmentalization may include increased availability of intermediates, removing the need to transport intermediates out of the mitochondrion, and reducing the loss of intermediates to competing pathways. PMID:23417095

  14. Pilot projects for improving product tracing along the food supply system.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tejas; Hickey, Caitlin; McEntire, Jennifer C

    2013-12-01

    In September 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asked the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) to execute product tracing pilot projects as described in Section 204 of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). IFT collaborated with representatives from more than 100 organizations-including the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, state departments of agriculture and public health, industry, and consumer groups, as well as not-for-profit organizations-to implement the pilots. The objectives of the pilot projects were 1) to identify and gather information on methods to improve product tracing of foods in the supply chain and 2) to explore and evaluate methods to rapidly and effectively identify the recipient of food to prevent or mitigate a foodborne illness outbreak and to address credible threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals as a result of such food being adulterated or misbranded. IFT conducted evaluations to determine the impact of currently available technologies, types of data and formats, and the data acquisition process, as well as the use of technology on the ability to follow product movement through the supply chain. Results from the pilots found inconsistencies in the terminology, numbering systems, formatting, legibility, and occasionally the language that sometimes required IFT to contact the submitting firm to gain clarity, thus increasing the time required to capture data before any meaningful analysis could begin. However, the pilot participants appeared to have many of the tools and processes in place which are required to allow the capture and communication of critical track and trace information (such as, key data elements) at critical points of product transfer and transformation (such as, critical tracking events). IFT determined that costs associated with implementing a product tracing system can vary widely as determined by numerous factors: the size of the firm/facility, the method of product

  15. Activating phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in combination for improvement of succinate production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zaigao; Zhu, Xinna; Chen, Jing; Li, Qingyan; Zhang, Xueli

    2013-08-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation is an important step in the production of succinate by Escherichia coli. Two enzymes, PEP carboxylase (PPC) and PEP carboxykinase (PCK), are responsible for PEP carboxylation. PPC has high substrate affinity and catalytic velocity but wastes the high energy of PEP. PCK has low substrate affinity and catalytic velocity but can conserve the high energy of PEP for ATP formation. In this work, the expression of both the ppc and pck genes was modulated, with multiple regulatory parts of different strengths, in order to investigate the relationship between PPC or PCK activity and succinate production. There was a positive correlation between PCK activity and succinate production. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between PPC activity and succinate production only when PPC activity was within a certain range; excessive PPC activity decreased the rates of both cell growth and succinate formation. These two enzymes were also activated in combination in order to recruit the advantages of each for the improvement of succinate production. It was demonstrated that PPC and PCK had a synergistic effect in improving succinate production. PMID:23747698

  16. Isolation of an oxalate-resistant Ashbya gossypii strain and its improved riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Morimoto, Aki; Nariyama, Masashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    An oxalate-resistant strain of Ashbya gossypii was naturally isolated from spores grown on an oxalate-containing medium, and its medium was optimized to improve riboflavin production. Riboflavin production by the resistant strain was three-fold higher than that by the wild-type organism when grown in flask cultures. Medium optimization increased the riboflavin production by the resistant strain to 5 g l(-1), which was five-fold higher than that obtained by the wild-type strain. The productivity was reproduced in a 3-l bioreactor. During the early growth phase, the specific activity of isocitrate lyase in the oxalate-resistant strain was slightly higher than that in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the oxalate-resistant strain revealed that the expression of aldose reductase and cobalamin-independent methionine synthase decreased significantly. This is the first report that describes the natural isolation of a riboflavin producer using an antimetabolite-containing medium to enhance the riboflavin production level. This method should also be useful for improving the productivity of other bioproducts since it does not require any mutations or genetic modifications of the microorganism. PMID:19826846

  17. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  18. Integrating Theory and Practice: Applying the Quality Improvement Paradigm to Product Line Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Michael; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    My assertion is that not only are product lines a relevant research topic, but that the tools used by empirical software engineering researchers can address observed practical problems. Our experience at NASA has been there are often externally proposed solutions available, but that we have had difficulties applying them in our particular context. We have also focused on return on investment issues when evaluating product lines, and while these are important, one can not attain objective data on success or failure until several applications from a product family have been deployed. The use of the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) can address these issues: (1) Planning an adoption path from an organization's current state to a product line approach; (2) Constructing a development process to fit the organization's adoption path; (3) Evaluation of product line development processes as the project is being developed. The QIP consists of the following six steps: (1) Characterize the project and its environment; (2) Set quantifiable goals for successful project performance; (3) Choose the appropriate process models, supporting methods, and tools for the project; (4) Execute the process, analyze interim results, and provide real-time feedback for corrective action; (5) Analyze the results of completed projects and recommend improvements; and (6) Package the lessons learned as updated and refined process models. A figure shows the QIP in detail. The iterative nature of the QIP supports an incremental development approach to product lines, and the project learning and feedback provide the necessary early evaluations.

  19. Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-10-01

    Raw biogas can be an alternative feedstock to pure methane (CH4) for methanol production. In this investigation, we evaluated the methanol production potential of Methylosinus sporium from raw biogas originated from an anaerobic digester. Furthermore, the roles of different gases in methanol production were investigated using synthetic gas mixtures of CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen (H2). Maximum methanol production was 5.13, 4.35, 6.28, 7.16, 0.38, and 0.36mM from raw biogas, CH4:CO2, CH4:H2, CH4:CO2:H2, CO2, and CO2:H2, respectively. Supplementation of H2 into raw biogas increased methanol production up to 3.5-fold. Additionally, covalent immobilization of M. sporium on chitosan resulted in higher methanol production from raw biogas. This study provides a suitable approach to improve methanol production using low cost raw biogas as a feed containing high concentrations of H2S (0.13%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on methanol production from raw biogas, using immobilized cells of methanotrophs. PMID:27371792

  20. NASA Symposium on Productivity and Quality: Strategies for Improving Operations in Government and Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium is to increase the awareness of productivity and quality issues in the United States, and to foster national initiatives through government and industry executive leadership. The Symposium will provide a forum for discussion of white-collar productivity issues by experienced executives from successful organizations and an opportunity to share information learned through Productivity initiatives in govemment, industry and academic organizations. It will focus on white-collar organizational issues that are common to large companies and technology oriented organizations. The Symposium program will include strategies for improving operations in government and industry and will be responsive to the management issues viewed necessary to increase our nation's productivity growth rate.

  1. A spatially coherent global soil moisture product with improved temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Parinussa, Robert M.; Owe, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    Fitzroy catchment demonstrated that the downscaled data product has a more detailed spatial description of soil moisture, especially during wet and dry conditions with more pronounced dry and wet regions within the catchment. The increased resolution data products could therefore improve runoff predictions and this study demonstrated the potential added value of a transitioning from a spatial resolution of 56 km toward a higher resolution of 11 km. The hydrological implications of these newly developed data records are not only linked to AMSR-E satellite data, but also to the next generation Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission where a 9 km spatial resolution is the target resolution for satellite soil moisture products. The new data products will not replace the current LPRM products, but will be added to the existing array of data products and will become publicly available through our data portals.

  2. Towards Fast Morphological Mosaicking of High-Resolution Multi-Spectral Products - on Improvements of Seamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Tobias; Fischer, Peter; Fast, Sebastian; Serr, Philipp; Krauß, Thomas; Müller, Rupert

    2016-06-01

    The complex process of fully automatically establishing seamlines for the fast production of high-quality mosaics with high-amount of high-resolution multi-spectral images is detailed and improved in this paper. The algorithm is analyzed and a quasi-linear runtime in the number of considered pixels is proven for all situations. For typical situations the storage is even essentially smaller from a complexity theoretical perspective. Improvements from algorithm practical perspective are specified, too. The influence of different methods for the determination of seamlines based on gradients is investigated in detail for three Sentinel-2 products. The studied techniques cover well-known ones normally based on a single band. But also more sophisticated techniques based on multiple bands or even taking additional external geo-information data are taken into account. Based on the results a larger area covered by Image2006 orthorectified products with data of the Resourcesat-1 mission is regarded. The feasibility of applying advanced subordinated methods for improving the mosaic such as radiometric harmonization is examined. This also illustrates the robustness of the improved seamline determination approaches.

  3. Copper sulfate improves pullulan production by bioconversion using whole cells of Aureobasidium pullulans as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dahui; Ju, Xiaomin; Zhang, Gaochuan; Wang, Donghua; Wei, Gongyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of mineral salts on pullulan production by bioconversion using whole cells of Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 as the catalyst were investigated. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) improved pullulan production by 36.2% and 42.3% when added at the optimum concentration of 0.2mg/L to the bioconversion broth or seed medium, respectively, as compared with controls without CuSO4 addition. Pullulan production was further enhanced when CuSO4 was added to both seed medium and bioconversion broth simultaneously. In order to probe the mechanism of CuSO4 improvement, cell viability, membrane integrity, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the activities of key enzymes involved in pullulan biosynthesis were determined. As a result, CuSO4 increased the activities of key biosynthetic enzymes, maintained intracellular ATP at a higher level, and accelerated the rate of pullulan secretion, all of which contributed to improved pullulan production by bioconversion. PMID:27312631

  4. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1999-04-28

    The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

  5. Improved Production of a Heterologous Amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zihe; Liu, Lifang; Österlund, Tobias; Hou, Jin; Huang, Mingtao; Fagerberg, Linn; Petranovic, Dina; Uhlén, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for industrial enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins relies on robust production hosts with high protein yield and productivity. Being one of the best-studied model organisms and capable of performing posttranslational modifications, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory for recombinant protein production. However, many recombinant proteins are produced at only 1% (or less) of the theoretical capacity due to the complexity of the secretory pathway, which has not been fully exploited. In this study, we applied the concept of inverse metabolic engineering to identify novel targets for improving protein secretion. Screening that combined UV-random mutagenesis and selection for growth on starch was performed to find mutant strains producing heterologous amylase 5-fold above the level produced by the reference strain. Genomic mutations that could be associated with higher amylase secretion were identified through whole-genome sequencing. Several single-point mutations, including an S196I point mutation in the VTA1 gene coding for a protein involved in vacuolar sorting, were evaluated by introducing these to the starting strain. By applying this modification alone, the amylase secretion could be improved by 35%. As a complement to the identification of genomic variants, transcriptome analysis was also performed in order to understand on a global level the transcriptional changes associated with the improved amylase production caused by UV mutagenesis. PMID:24973076

  6. Towards SMOS L4 SSS products: Improving L3 SSS with auxiliary SSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordà, G.; Gomis, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission will provide for the first time remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS). The SMOS SSS dataset will have an averaged spatial resolution of 40km and a maximum revisiting time of 3 days, so the amount of available data will be large. However, several authors have suggested an observational error value of 0.85 psu. ( Philipps et al., 2007; Sabia et al, 2008). That error is by far too large to obtain a direct profit from SMOS data. GODAE recommends for instance an accuracy of 0.1 psu for SSS products, and therefore some data treatment is required to increase the accuracy of SMOS products. The level 3 (L3) of the SMOS processing chain focuses on the generation of gridded SSS products. These L3 products will summarize large amounts of SMOS data in coarse resolution maps with reduced errors (Jordà and Gomis, 2009). An additional way to improve these products is to combine them with auxiliary data coming from other observational programs such as Argo profilers, ships of opportunity or buoys. These auxiliary data usually have a partial spatial or temporal coverage but a much better accuracy (~ 0.01psu) than SMOS data. Therefore, these datasets are complementary to the SMOS dataset and could be merged at a subsequent level 4 (L4) of the processing chain. Such merging would, at least partially, overcome the trade-off between accuracy and spatial/temporal resolution that affects SSS products obtained only from SMOS observations. In this contribution, we present the merging procedure and several examples of L4 products. The aim is to describe and to quantify the benefits of using different kinds of auxiliary datasets to improve SMOS L3 products.

  7. Semirational Directed Evolution of Loop Regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase for Improved Fructooligosaccharide Production.

    PubMed

    Trollope, K M; Görgens, J F; Volschenk, H

    2015-10-01

    The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the β-fructofuranosidase were engineered using a combined crystal structure- and evolutionary-guided approach. This semirational approach yielded a functionally enriched first-round library of 36 single-amino-acid-substitution variants with 58% retaining activity, and of these, 71% displayed improved activities compared to the parent. The substitutions yielding the five most improved variants subsequently were exhaustively combined and evaluated. A four-substitution combination variant was identified as the most improved and reduced the time to completion of an efficient industrial-like reaction by 22%. Characterization of the top five combination variants by isothermal denaturation assays indicated that these variants displayed improved thermostability, with the most thermostable variant displaying a 5.7°C increased melting temperature. The variants displayed uniquely altered, concentration-dependent substrate and product binding as determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The altered catalytic activity was evidenced by increased specific activities of all five variants, with the most improved variant doubling that of the parent. Variant homology modeling and computational analyses were used to rationalize the effects of amino acid changes lacking direct interaction with substrates. Data indicated that targeting substitutions to loop regions resulted in improved enzyme thermostability, specific activity, and relief from product inhibition. PMID:26253664

  8. Semirational Directed Evolution of Loop Regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase for Improved Fructooligosaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Trollope, K. M.; Görgens, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the β-fructofuranosidase were engineered using a combined crystal structure- and evolutionary-guided approach. This semirational approach yielded a functionally enriched first-round library of 36 single-amino-acid-substitution variants with 58% retaining activity, and of these, 71% displayed improved activities compared to the parent. The substitutions yielding the five most improved variants subsequently were exhaustively combined and evaluated. A four-substitution combination variant was identified as the most improved and reduced the time to completion of an efficient industrial-like reaction by 22%. Characterization of the top five combination variants by isothermal denaturation assays indicated that these variants displayed improved thermostability, with the most thermostable variant displaying a 5.7°C increased melting temperature. The variants displayed uniquely altered, concentration-dependent substrate and product binding as determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The altered catalytic activity was evidenced by increased specific activities of all five variants, with the most improved variant doubling that of the parent. Variant homology modeling and computational analyses were used to rationalize the effects of amino acid changes lacking direct interaction with substrates. Data indicated that targeting substitutions to loop regions resulted in improved enzyme thermostability, specific activity, and relief from product inhibition. PMID:26253664

  9. Improving monoterpene geraniol production through geranyl diphosphate synthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianzhi; Bao, Xiaoming; Li, Chen; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Monoterpenes have wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and medicine industries and have recently received increased attention as advanced biofuels. However, compared with sesquiterpenes, monoterpene production is still lagging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, geraniol, a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol, was synthesized in S. cerevisiae. We evaluated three geraniol synthases in S. cerevisiae, and the geraniol synthase Valeriana officinalis (tVoGES), which lacked a plastid-targeting peptide, yielded the highest geraniol production. To improve geraniol production, synthesis of the precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP) was regulated by comparing three specific GPP synthase genes derived from different plants and the endogenous farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene variants ERG20 (G) (ERG20 (K197G) ) and ERG20 (WW) (ERG20 (F96W-N127W) ), and controlling endogenous ERG20 expression, coupled with increasing the expression of the mevalonate pathway by co-overexpressing IDI1, tHMG1, and UPC2-1. The results showed that overexpressing ERG20 (WW) and strengthening the mevalonate pathway significantly improved geraniol production, while expressing heterologous GPP synthase genes or down-regulating endogenous ERG20 expression did not show positive effect. In addition, we constructed an Erg20p(F96W-N127W)-tVoGES fusion protein, and geraniol production reached 66.2 mg/L after optimizing the amino acid linker and the order of the proteins. The best strain yielded 293 mg/L geraniol in a fed-batch cultivation, a sevenfold improvement over the highest titer previously reported in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. Finally, we showed that the toxicity of geraniol limited its production. The platform developed here can be readily used to synthesize other monoterpenes. PMID:26883346

  10. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, Mary; Keasling, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-07-14

    Cells use feedback to implement a diverse range of regulatory functions. Building synthetic feedback control systems may yield insight into the roles that feedback can play in regulation since it can be introduced independently of native regulation, and alternative control architectures can be compared. We propose a model for microbial biofuel production where a synthetic control system is used to increase cell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be engineered to produce biofuels, the fuels are often toxic to cell growth, creating a negative feedback loop that limits biofuel production. These toxic effects may be mitigated by expressing efflux pumps that export biofuel from the cell. We developed a model for cell growth and biofuel production and used it to compare several genetic control strategies for their ability to improve biofuel yields. We show that controlling efflux pump expression directly with a biofuel-responsive promoter is a straight forward way of improving biofuel production. In addition, a feed forward loop controller is shown to be versatile at dealing with uncertainty in biofuel production rates.

  11. Improved Production of Cyclodextrins by Alkalophilic Bacilli Immobilized on Synthetic or Loofa Sponges

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Delani, Tieles Carina; Pazzetto, Rúbia; Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Fenelon, Vanderson Carvalho; Moriwaki, Cristiane; Matioli, Graciette

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the production of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by microbial cells immobilized on synthetic or loofa sponges both with and without the use of alginate or chitosan. The most suitable matrix for the immobilization of Bacillus firmus strain 7B was synthetic sponge and for Bacillus sphaericus strain 41 was loofa sponge. After 330 days of storage, the β-CD production by Bacillus firmus and Bacillus sphaericus remained at around 41% and 49%, respectively, of initial levels. After 24 days of immobilization on loofa sponge, Bacillus sphaericus strain 41 achieved an improved operational stability, reaching 86.6 mM β-CD after 20 days of production, compared to only 32.8 mM of β-CD produced by free Bacillus sphaericus strain 41 cells. The expected increase in β-CD production by immobilized cells of Bacillus firmus strain 7B on synthetic sponge for 4 days was not statistically different to that for cells immobilized for 24 days. The application of this process on an industrial scale using loofa sponge, an inexpensive and renewable matrix, will allow the stable production of β-CD. PMID:23202953

  12. Improved Productivity of Neutral Lipids in Chlorella sp. A2 by Minimal Nitrogen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junying; Chen, Weixian; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xin; He, Chenliu; Rong, Junfeng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation is an efficient environmental pressure for increasing lipid accumulation in microalgae, but it could also significantly lower the biomass productivity, resulting in lower lipid productivity. In this study, green alga Chlorella sp. A2 was cultivated by using a minimal nitrogen supply strategy under both laboratory and outdoor cultivation conditions to evaluate biomass accumulation and lipid production. Results showed that minimal nitrogen supply could promote neutral lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. A2 without a significant negative effect on cell growth. In laboratory cultivation mode, alga cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition could generate 74 and 416% (w/w) more neutral lipid productivity than cells cultured with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. In outdoor cultivation mode, lipid productivity of cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition is approximately 10 and 88% higher than the one with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. Notably, the results of photosynthetic analysis clarified that minimal nitrogen supply reduced the loss of photosynthetic capacity to keep CO2 fixation during photosynthesis for biomass production. The minimal nitrogen supply strategy for microalgae cultivation could promote neutral lipid accumulation without a significant negative effect on cell growth, resulting in a significant improvement in the lipid productivity. PMID:27148237

  13. Improved penicillin amidase production using a genetically engineered mutant of escherichia coli ATCC 11105

    SciTech Connect

    Robas, N.; Zouheiry, H.; Branlant, G.; Branlant, C. )

    1993-01-05

    Penicillin G amidase (PGA) is a key enzyme for the industrial production of penicillin G derivatives used in therapeutics. Escherichia coli ATCC 11105 is the more commonly used strain for PGA production. To improve enzyme yield, the authors constructed various recombinant E. coli HB 101 and ATCC 11105 strains. For each strain, PGA production was determined for various concentrations of glucose and phenylacetic acid (PAA) in the medium. The E. coli strain, G271, was identified as the best performer (800 U NIPAB/L). This strain was obtained as follows: an E. coli ATCC 11105 mutant (E. coli G133) was first selected based on a low negative effect of glucose on PGA production. This mutant was then transformed with a pBR322 derivative containing the PGA gene. Various experiments were made to try to understand the reason for the high productivity of E. coli G271. The host strain, E. coli G133, was found to be mutated in one (or more) gene(s) whose product(s) act(s) in trans on the PGA gene expression. Its growth is not inhibited by high glucose concentration in the medium. Interestingly, whereas glucose still exerts some negative effect on the PGA production by E. coli G133, PGA production by its transformant (E. coli G271) is stimulated by glucose. The reason for this stimulation is discussed. Transformation of E. coli G133 with a pBR322 derivative containing the HindIII fragment of the PGA gene, showed that the performance of E. coli G271 depends both upon the host strain properties and the plasmid structure. Study of the production by the less efficient E. coli HB101 derivatives brought some light on the mechanism of regulation of the PGA gene.

  14. Assessing the Utility of and Improving USGS Earthquake Hazards Program Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Scott, M.; Weaver, C. S.; Sherrod, B. L.; Bailey, D.; Gibbons, D.

    2010-12-01

    A major focus of the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) has been the development and implementation of products and information meant to improve earthquake hazard assessment, mitigation and response for a myriad of users. Many of these products rely on the data and efforts of the EHP and its partner scientists who are building the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). We report on a project meant to assess the utility of many of these products and information, conducted collaboratively by EHP scientists and Pierce County Department of Emergency Management staff. We have conducted focus group listening sessions with members of the engineering, business, medical, media, risk management, and emergency response communities as well as participated in the planning and implementation of earthquake exercises in the Pacific Northwest. Thus far we have learned that EHP and ANSS products satisfy many of the needs of engineers and some planners, and information is widely used by media and the general public. However, some important communities do not use these products despite their intended application for their purposes, particularly county and local emergency management and business communities. We have learned that products need to convey more clearly the impact of earthquakes, in everyday terms. Users also want products (e.g. maps, forecasts, etc.) that can be incorporated into tools and systems they use regularly. Rather than simply building products and posting them on websites, products need to be actively marketed and training provided. We suggest that engaging users prior to and during product development will enhance their usage and effectiveness.

  15. A truly healthy bottom line: improving financial results through effective health and productivity programs.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Financially speaking, an effective, comprehensive, properly executed health and productivity (H&P) program can drive significant business results. Unfortunately, many companies are not getting the same return on their investments in H&P programs as their peers. This article defines program effectiveness and describes the specific activities of employers that have implemented successful H&P strategies leading to improved health, increased productivity and lower benefit costs-and, in turn, higher levels of performance, returns to shareholders and market premium. PMID:18590178

  16. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/industry project designated Intergrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies.

  17. High Resolution Separations and Improved Ion Production and Transmission in Metabolomics

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Thomas O.; Page, Jason S.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tang, Keqi; Ding, Jie; Shen, Yufeng; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-03-31

    The goal of metabolomics experiments is the detection and quantitation of as many sample components as reasonably possible in order to identify “features” that can be used to characterize the samples under study. When utilizing electrospray ionization to produce ions for analysis by mass spectrometry (MS), it is imperative that metabolome sample constituents be efficiently separated prior to ion production, in order to minimize the phenomenon of ionization suppression. Similarly, optimization of the MS inlet can lead to increased measurement sensitivity. This review will focus on the role of high resolution liquid chromatography (LC) separations in conjunction with improved ion production and transmission for LC-MS-based metabolomics.

  18. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  19. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  20. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  1. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  2. Novel Approach for Improving the Productivity of Antibiotic-Producing Strains by Inducing Combined Resistant Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haifeng; Ochi, Kozo

    2001-01-01

    We developed a novel approach for improving the production of antibiotic from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations. Mutants with enhanced (1.6- to 3-fold-higher) actinorhodin production were detected at a high frequency (5 to 10%) among isolates resistant to streptomycin (Strr), gentamicin (Genr), or rifampin (Rifr), which developed spontaneously on agar plates which contained one of the three drugs. Construction of double mutants (str gen and str rif) by introducing gentamicin or rifampin resistance into an str mutant resulted in further increased (1.7- to 2.5-fold-higher) actinorhodin productivity. Likewise, triple mutants (str gen rif) thus constructed were found to have an even greater ability for producing the antibiotic, eventually generating a mutant able to produce 48 times more actinorhodin than the wild-type strain. Analysis of str mutants revealed that a point mutation occurred within the rpsL gene, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. rif mutants were found to have a point mutation in the rpoB gene, which encodes the β-subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutation points in gen mutants still remain unknown. These single, double, and triple mutants displayed in hierarchical order a remarkable increase in the production of ActII-ORF4, a pathway-specific regulatory protein, as determined by Western blotting analysis. This reflects the same hierarchical order observed for the increase in actinorhodin production. The superior ability of the triple mutants was demonstrated by physiological analyses under various cultural conditions. We conclude that by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations we can continuously increase the production of antibiotic in a stepwise manner. This new breeding approach could be especially effective for initially improving the production of antibiotics from wild-type strains. PMID:11282646

  3. Acid-sludge characterization and remediation improve well productivity and save costs in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.C.; Hwang, R.J.; Beaty, D.W.; Dolan, J.D.; McCarty, R.A.; Franzen, A.L.

    1997-02-01

    Many oil wells in the Permian Basin have reported sludging problems associated with acid stimulations. The acid sludge is similar among wells and was identified as a viscous emulsion stabilized by asphaltene-rich organic solids. The sludging tendency of the oil increased with the concentrations of asphaltenes and resins, base number of the oil, and ferric ion content in the acid. Only three out of nine commercial acid systems tested were effective in preventing acid-sludge formation; they all use the same novel iron control technology, i.e., catalytic reduction of ferric ions. Several commercial and generic solvent systems were effective in dissolving acid sludge, including mixtures of an aromatic solvent (e.g., xylene) with either isopropyl alcohol (2:1 volume ratio), or ethylene glycol-monobutylether (EGMBE) (2:1 to 3:1 volume ratios). Selection of acid formulations and solvent systems was based on cost effectiveness and operation safety. Field implementation proved successful. If the results of this study had been implemented earlier in the lives of some of the Permian Basin properties, the recovery of 574 BOPD of lost or deferred production from 99 wells could have been realized. This would have resulted in an estimated increased revenue of over US $3 million in 1 year.

  4. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  5. Strain improvement by metabolic engineering: lysine production as a case study for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Koffas, Mattheos; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2005-06-01

    A central goal of systems biology is the elucidation of cell function and physiology through the integrated use of broad based genomic and physiological data. Such systemic approaches have been employed extensively in the past, as they are a central element of metabolic flux analysis, the distribution of kinetic control in pathways, and the key differentiating characteristic of metabolic engineering. In one case study, these tools have been applied to the improvement of lysine-producing strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The systematic study of the physiology of this organism allowed the identification of specific metabolic targets and subsequently led to significant improvements in product yield and productivity. This case study can serve as a guide for the development of systems biology tools for the utilization of large volumes of cell- and genome-wide transcriptional and physiological data. PMID:15961038

  6. Improved Sugar Production by Optimizing Planetary Mill Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis Process

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeong Heo; Lee, Siseon; Lee, Jae-Won; Hong, Youn-Woo; Chang, Jeong Ho; Sung, Daekyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Sang, Byoung-In; Mitchell, Robert J.; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization of planetary mill pretreatment and saccharification processes for improving biosugar production. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) wood sawdust waste was used as biomass feedstock and the process parameters optimized in this study were the buffering media, the milling time, the enzyme quantity, and the incubation time. Glucose yields were improved when acetate buffer was used rather than citrate buffer. Initially, with each process variable tests, the optimal values were 100 minutes of milling, an enzyme concentration of 16 FPU/g-biomass, and a 12-hour enzymatic hydrolysis. Typically, interactions between these experimental conditions and their effects on glucose production were next investigated using RSM. Glucose yields from the Pinus rigida waste exceeded 80% with several of the conditions tested, demonstrating that milling can be used to obtain high levels of glucose bioconversion from woody biomass for biorefinery purposes. PMID:26539475

  7. Improving productivity and profitability of a bioanalytical business through sales and operation planning.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafiqul

    2013-07-01

    Today's bioanalytical CROs face increasing global competition, highly variable demand, high fixed costs, pricing pressure, and increasing demand for quality and speed. Most bioanalytical laboratories have responded to these challenges by implementing automation and by implementing process improvement methodologies (e.g., Six Sigma). These solutions have not resulted in a significant improvement in productivity and profitability since none of them are able to predict the upturn or downturn in demand. High volatility of demand causes long lead times and high costs during peak demand and poor productivity during trough demand. Most bioanalytical laboratories lack the tools to align supply efficiently to meet changing demand. In this paper, sales and operation planning (S&OP) has been investigated as a tool to balance supply and demand. The S&OP process, when executed effectively, can be the single greatest determinant of profitability for a bioanalytical business. PMID:23862711

  8. Built-in Test Equipment (BITE) to improve front-end-loader productivity. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    This Topical Report describes an equipment system being developed to improve the availability and productivity of large front-end loaders used in surface-mining operations. The equipment is mounted on the front end loader and includes an operator display and keypad, a microcomputer, machine sensors and a signal conditioner. Safety and machine performance problems are displayed to the operator and a report is printed for the maintenance shop. The BITE equipment, environment and system operation are described.

  9. Genetically engineered microorganisms for improved crop production. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of genetically altered bacteria and viruses to improve and increase crop production. The uses of microorganisms to transport desirable genes into the subject plant, and the external applications of microorganisms for frost protection, insect repellent properties, or conversion of nitrogen to fertilizer are among the topics discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Big Data and the Atmospheric Science Data Center: Improving Access and Understanding of Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, T. J.; Little, M. M.; Huffer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Working from an Enterprise Architecture, the ASDC has implemented a suite of new tools to provide improved access and understanding of data products related to the Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. This poster describes the overall architecture and the capabilities that have been implemented within the past twelve months. Further insight is offered into the issues and constraints of those tools, as well as lessons learned in their implementation.

  11. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G.; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for productionmore » in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.« less

  12. Improving the layout of recycling centres by use of lean production principles.

    PubMed

    Sundin, Erik; Björkman, Mats; Eklund, Mats; Eklund, Jörgen; Engkvist, Inga-Lill

    2011-06-01

    There has been increased focus on recycling in Sweden during recent years. This focus can be attributed to external environmental factors such as tougher legislation, but also to the potential gains for raw materials suppliers. Recycling centres are important components in the Swedish total recycling system. Recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection where visitors can bring, sort and discard worn products as well as large-sized, hazardous, and electrical waste. The aim of this paper was to identify and describe the main flows and layout types at Swedish recycling centres. The aim was also to adapt and apply production theory for designing and managing recycling centre operations. More specifically, this means using lean production principles to help develop guidelines for recycling centre design and efficient control. Empirical data for this research was primarily collected through interviews and questionnaires among both visitors and employees at 16 Swedish recycling centres. Furthermore, adapted observation protocols have been used in order to explore visitor activities. There was also close collaboration with a local recycling centre company, which shared their layout experiences with the researchers in this project. The recycling centres studied had a variety of problems such as queues of visitors, overloading of material and improper sorting. The study shows that in order to decrease the problems, the recycling centres should be designed and managed according to lean production principles, i.e. through choosing more suitable layout choices with visible and linear flows, providing better visitor information, and providing suitable technical equipment. Improvements can be achieved through proper planning of the layout and control of the flow of vehicles, with the result of increased efficiency and capacity, shorter visits, and cleaner waste fractions. The benefits of a lean production mindset include increased visitor capacity, waste

  13. Adaptation to climate change in industry: improving resource efficiency through sustainable production applications.

    PubMed

    Alkayal, Emrah; Bogurcu, Merve; Ulutas, Ferda; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the climate change adaptation opportunities of six companies from different sectors through resource efficiency and sustainable production. A total of 77 sustainable production options were developed for the companies based on the audits conducted. After screening these opportunities with each company's staff, 19 options were selected and implemented. Significant water savings (849,668 m3/year) were achieved as a result of the applications that targeted reduction of water use. In addition to water savings, the energy consumption was reduced by 3,607 MWh, which decreased the CO2 emissions by 904.1 tons/year. Moreover, the consumption of 278.4 tons/year of chemicals (e.g., NaCl, CdO, NaCN) was avoided, thus the corresponding pollution load to the wastewater treatment plant was reduced. Besides the tangible improvements, other gains were achieved, such as improved product quality, improved health and safety conditions, reduced maintenance requirements, and ensured compliance with national and EU regulations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey devoted to climate change adaptation in the private sector. This study may serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation approach in the industry, since water efficiency (adaptation) and carbon reduction (mitigation) are achieved simultaneously. PMID:25630123

  14. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-04-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production. PMID:24031850

  15. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production. PMID:24031850

  16. Combined gene cluster engineering and precursor feeding to improve gougerotin production in Streptomyces graminearus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingjuan; Wei, Junhong; Li, Lei; Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2013-12-01

    Gougerotin is a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces graminearus . It is a specific inhibitor of protein synthesis and exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. Generation of an overproducing strain is crucial for the scale-up production of gougerotin. In this study, the natural and engineered gougerotin gene clusters were reassembled into an integrative plasmid by λ-red-mediated recombination technology combined with classic cloning methods. The resulting plasmids pGOU and pGOUe were introduced into S. graminearus to obtain recombinant strains Sgr-GOU and Sgr-GOUe, respectively. Compared with the wild-type strain, Sgr-GOU led to a maximum 1.3-fold increase in gougerotin production, while Sgr-GOUe resulted in a maximum 2.1-fold increase in gougerotin production. To further increase the yield of gougerotin, the effect of different precursors on its production was investigated. All precursors, including cytosine, serine, and glycine, had stimulatory effect on gougerotin production. The maximum gougerotin yield was achieved with Sgr-GOUe in the presence of glycine, and it was approximately 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. The strategies used in this study can be extended to other Streptomyces for improving production of industrial important antibiotics. PMID:24121866

  17. Improvement of lipid content of Chlorella minutissima MCC 5 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sourabh; Mohanty, Debabrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Das, Debabrata

    2016-09-01

    Lipids extracted from microalgae have been considered as a potential source for the production of biodiesel. Enhancement of lipid has the limitations of low biomass productivity. So, the main objective of the present study was to deduce suitable conditions for the improvement of biomass production followed by enhancement of lipid content. After optimization, a strategy for two stage cultivation was utilized where high lipid content was obtained with a high biomass concentration. Optimization of biomass production of Chlorella minutissima MCC 5 was carried out under different intensities of light, temperatures, concentrations of nitrate and phosphate using Taguchi model. A suitable synergy of the four parameters yielded maximum biomass (1.93 g L(-1)) in airlift reactor. Temperature was found to be relatively effective than other parameters for higher biomass production. Activation energy for the cell growth was determined (47.95 kJ mol(-1)). Among the various (photo, thermal, nitrate and phosphate) stress conditions studied, nitrate limitation (1 mM) was found to be suitable for the enhancement of lipid resulting highest yield (48.26% w/w). Two stage cultivation of the microalgae yielded a maximum lipid content of 46% w/w with a biomass concentration of 2.2 g L(-1). Additionally, FAME analysis exhibited significant increase of oleic acid in the biodiesel. So, C. minutissima MCC 5 cultivated under nitrate stress could be a possible feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:26922477

  18. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The rats were divided into four groups (n=10): GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control), GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control), GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV, respectively, and an

  19. Analysis of Productivity Improvement Act for Clinical Staff Working in the Health System: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Leila; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The productivity of healthcare staff is one of the main issues for health managers. This study explores the concept of executive regulation of Productivity Improvement Act of clinical staff in health. Methods: In this study phenomenological methodology has been employed. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group composed of 10 hospital experts and experts in human resources department working in headquarter of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and 16 nursing managers working in public and private hospitals of Mashhad using purposive sampling. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven step method. Results: The strengths of this Act included increasing spirit of hope in nurses, paying attention to quality of nursing care and decreasing problems related to the work plan development. Some of the weaknesses of Productivity Improvement Act included lack of required executive mechanisms, lack of considering nursing productivity indicator, increasing non-public hospitals problems, discrimination between employees, and removal of resting on night shifts. Suggestions were introduced to strengthen the Act such as increased organizational posts, use of a coefficient for wage in unusual work shifts and consideration of a performance indicator. Conclusion: The results may be used as a proper tool for long term management planning at organization level. Finally, if high quality care by health system staff is expected, in the first step, we should take care of them through proper policy making and focusing on occupational characteristics of the target group so that it does not result in discrimination among the staff. PMID:26383203

  20. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L.; Campbell, Con A.; Zentner, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the world’s most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging −256 kg CO2 eq ha−1 per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027–0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. PMID:25405548

  1. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L.; Campbell, Con A.; Zentner, Robert P.

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is one of the world’s most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha-1 per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  2. Improving xylitol production at elevated temperature with engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus through over-expressing transporters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Three transporter genes including Kluyveromyces marxianus aquaglyceroporin gene (KmFPS1), Candida intermedia glucose/xylose facilitator gene (CiGXF1) or glucose/xylose symporter gene (CiGXS1) were over-expressed in K. marxianus YZJ017 to improve xylitol production at elevated temperatures. The xylitol production of YZJ074 that harbored CiGXF1 was improved to 147.62g/L in Erlenmeyer flask at 42°C. In fermenter, 99.29 and 149.60g/L xylitol were produced from 99.55 and 151.91g/L xylose with productivity of 4.14 and 3.40g/L/h respectively at 42°C. Even at 45°C, YZJ074 could produce 101.30g/L xylitol from 101.41g/L xylose with productivity of 2.81g/L/h. Using fed-batch fermentation through repeatedly adding non-sterilized substrate directly, YZJ074 could produce 312.05g/L xylitol which is the highest yield reported to date. The engineered strains YZJ074 which can produce xylitol at elevated temperatures is an excellent foundation for xylitol bioconversion. PMID:25465792

  3. Biosynthetic Pathway Analysis for Improving the Cordycepin and Cordycepic Acid Production in Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Ya-Ping; Baker, Peter James; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Brathwaite, Mgavi Elombe; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Hirsutella sinensis is considered as the only correct anamorph of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. To improve cordycepin and cordycepic acid production in H. sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of cordycepin and cordycepic acid were predicted, and verified by cloning and expressing genes involved in these pathways, respectively. Then, 5'-nucleotidase participating in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepin, hexokinase, and glucose phosphate isomerase involved in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepic acid, were demonstrated playing important roles in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway by real-time PCR, accompanying with significantly up-regulated 15.03-, 5.27-, and 3.94-fold, respectively. Moreover, the metabolic regulation of H. sinensis was performed. As expected, cordycepin production reached 1.09 mg/g when additional substrate of 5'-nucleotidase was 4 mg/mL, resulting in an increase of 201.1 % compared with the control. In the same way, cordycepic acid production reached 26.6 and 23.4 % by adding substrate of hexokinase or glucose phosphate isomerase, leading to a rise of 77.3 and 55.1 %, respectively. To date, this is the first time to improve cordycepin and cordycepic acid production through metabolic regulation based on biosynthetic pathway analysis, and metabolic regulation is proved as a simple and effective way to enhance the output of cordycepin and cordycepic acid in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis. PMID:26922724

  4. Algorithm integration using ADL (Algorithm Development Library) for improving CrIMSS EDR science product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B.; Wilson, M.; Divakarla, M. G.; Chen, W.; Barnet, C.; Wolf, W.

    2013-05-01

    Algorithm Development Library (ADL) is a framework that mimics the operational system IDPS (Interface Data Processing Segment) that is currently being used to process data from instruments aboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. The satellite was launched successfully in October 2011. The Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) consists of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments that are on-board of S-NPP. These instruments will also be on-board of JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) that will be launched in early 2017. The primary products of the CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) include global atmospheric vertical temperature, moisture, and pressure profiles (AVTP, AVMP and AVPP) and Ozone IP (Intermediate Product from CrIS radiances). Several algorithm updates have recently been proposed by CrIMSS scientists that include fixes to the handling of forward modeling errors, a more conservative identification of clear scenes, indexing corrections for daytime products, and relaxed constraints between surface temperature and air temperature for daytime land scenes. We have integrated these improvements into the ADL framework. This work compares the results from ADL emulation of future IDPS system incorporating all the suggested algorithm updates with the current official processing results by qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The results prove these algorithm updates improve science product quality.

  5. Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 μm. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

  6. Brazilian Propolis: A Natural Product That Improved the Fungicidal Activity by Blood Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Possamai, Muryllo Mendes; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Reinaque, Ana Paula Barcelos; França, Eduardo Luzia; Souto, Paula Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies. PMID:23509737

  7. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-10-01

    Although many plant-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on their host, their importance during plant growth and development is still underestimated. A better understanding of their plant growth-promoting mechanisms could be exploited for sustainable growth of food and feed crops, biomass for biofuel production and feedstocks for industrial processes. Such plant growth-promoting mechanisms might facilitate higher production of energy crops in a more sustainable manner, even on marginal land, and thus contribute to avoiding conflicts between food and energy production. Furthermore, because many bacteria show a natural capacity to cope with contaminants, they could be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or to protect the food chain by reducing levels of agrochemicals in food crops.

  8. Improvement of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase production by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fickers, Patrick; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Two different types of fed-batch fermentation were investigated to improve production yields of the Lip2 extracellular lipase in Y. lipolytica mutant-strain LgX64.81 grown in a 20l bioreactor. Compare to batch cultures, culture feeding with the complete medium led to a 2-fold increased lipase production (2016 +/- 76 U ml(-1)) whereas addition of a combination of glucose and olive oil led to a 3-fold increase. The high level of lipase production obtained on glucose media with Y. lipolytica LgX64.81 could be related to its phenotype, i.e., a lower sensibility to glucose catabolite repression due to a modification in the level of HXK1 expression. PMID:19025871

  9. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank. PMID:27268439

  10. Improved Production Efficiency of Virus-Like Particles by the Baculovirus Expression Vector System.

    PubMed

    López-Vidal, Javier; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Bárcena, Juan; Nuñez, Maria del Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Diego; Dudognon, Benoit; Guijarro, Eva; Escribano, José M

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) have proven effective in humans and animals. In this regard, the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the technologies of choice to generate such highly immunogenic vaccines. The extended use of these vaccines for human and animal populations is constrained because of high production costs, therefore a significant improvement in productivity is crucial to ensure their commercial viability. Here we describe the use of the previously described baculovirus expression cassette, called TB, to model the production of two VLP-forming vaccine antigens in insect cells. Capsid proteins from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap) and from the calicivirus that causes rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHDV VP60) were expressed in insect cells using baculoviruses genetically engineered with the TB expression cassette. Productivity was compared to that obtained using standard counterpart vectors expressing the same proteins under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Our results demonstrate that the use of the TB expression cassette increased the production yields of these vaccine antigens by around 300% with respect to the standard vectors. The recombinant proteins produced by TB-modified vectors were fully functional, forming VLPs identical in size and shape to those generated by the standard baculoviruses, as determined by electron microscopy analysis. The use of the TB expression cassette implies a simple modification of the baculovirus vectors that significantly improves the cost efficiency of VLP-based vaccine production, thereby facilitating the commercial viability and broad application of these vaccines for human and animal health. PMID:26458221

  11. Improved Production Efficiency of Virus-Like Particles by the Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Juan; Nuñez, Maria del Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Diego; Dudognon, Benoit; Guijarro, Eva; Escribano, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) have proven effective in humans and animals. In this regard, the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the technologies of choice to generate such highly immunogenic vaccines. The extended use of these vaccines for human and animal populations is constrained because of high production costs, therefore a significant improvement in productivity is crucial to ensure their commercial viability. Here we describe the use of the previously described baculovirus expression cassette, called TB, to model the production of two VLP-forming vaccine antigens in insect cells. Capsid proteins from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap) and from the calicivirus that causes rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHDV VP60) were expressed in insect cells using baculoviruses genetically engineered with the TB expression cassette. Productivity was compared to that obtained using standard counterpart vectors expressing the same proteins under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Our results demonstrate that the use of the TB expression cassette increased the production yields of these vaccine antigens by around 300% with respect to the standard vectors. The recombinant proteins produced by TB-modified vectors were fully functional, forming VLPs identical in size and shape to those generated by the standard baculoviruses, as determined by electron microscopy analysis. The use of the TB expression cassette implies a simple modification of the baculovirus vectors that significantly improves the cost efficiency of VLP-based vaccine production, thereby facilitating the commercial viability and broad application of these vaccines for human and animal health. PMID:26458221

  12. Improved efficiency of butanol production by absorbent fermentation with a renewable carrier

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biobutanol production is still not economically competitive because of some principal drawbacks including high cost in feedstock consumption, low butanol concentration in the fermentation broth caused by severe product inhibition. An alternative fermentation mode is becoming an urgent requirement to solve these problems. Biobutanol production by absorbent fermentation with a renewable carrier, i.e. pretreated straw materials, is studied in this paper. Results Compared with other types of porous media, alkali-treated steam-exploded straw was proved to be a suitable carrier for absorbent fermentation of butanol. The Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) concentration increased by 52% compared with submerged culture at an initial glucose concentration of 65 g/L. The adsorption of ABE solvent on substrate and increased bacterial concentration alleviated the end product inhibition and partly explained this positive effect. The steam pretreatment conditions, solid–liquid ratio, substrate types and substrate concentration were also investigated. Steam-explosion at 1.1 MPa for 4 min and solid–liquid ratio of 1:10 was shown to be the optimum. Glucose showed a great advantage over xylose, and higher glucose content was more conducive to biobutanol production. However, the yield of solvent decreased with the increased initial sugar concentration. Considering comprehensively, 100 g/L initial glucose was considered to be the optimum. Conclusions This work demonstrated an effective approach of improved butanol fermentation and its probable mechanisms of this positive effect, i.e. the adsorption of ABE solvent and the adhesion of bacteria on porous substrate accounted for the production improvement and the proportional variation of solvent constituents. PMID:23971993

  13. Recruiting a new strategy to improve levan production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Quan, Yufen; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Weixia; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao; Wang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Microbial levan is an important biopolymer with considerable potential in food and medical applications. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-ΔLP strain can produce high-purity, low-molecular-weight levan, but production is relatively low. To enhance the production of levan, six extracellular protease genes (bpr, epr, mpr, vpr, nprE and aprE), together with the tasA gene (encoding the major biofilm matrix protein TasA) and the pgsBCA cluster (responsible for poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) synthesis), were intentionally knocked out in the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain. The highest levan production (31.1 g/L) was obtained from the NK-Q-7 strain (ΔtasA, Δbpr, Δepr, Δmpr, Δvpr, ΔnprE, ΔaprE and ΔpgsBCA), which was 103% higher than that of the NK-ΔLP strain (ΔpgsBCA) (15.3 g/L). Furthermore, the NK-Q-7 strain also showed a 94.1% increase in α-amylase production compared with NK-ΔLP strain, suggesting a positive effect of extracellular protease genes deficient on the production of endogenously secreted proteins. This is the first report of the improvement of levan production in microbes deficient in extracellular proteases and TasA, and the NK-Q-7 strain exhibits outstanding characteristics for extracellular protein production or extracellular protein related product synthesis. PMID:26347185

  14. Recruiting a new strategy to improve levan production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Quan, Yufen; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Weixia; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao; Wang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Microbial levan is an important biopolymer with considerable potential in food and medical applications. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-ΔLP strain can produce high-purity, low-molecular-weight levan, but production is relatively low. To enhance the production of levan, six extracellular protease genes (bpr, epr, mpr, vpr, nprE and aprE), together with the tasA gene (encoding the major biofilm matrix protein TasA) and the pgsBCA cluster (responsible for poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) synthesis), were intentionally knocked out in the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain. The highest levan production (31.1 g/L) was obtained from the NK-Q-7 strain (ΔtasA, Δbpr, Δepr, Δmpr, Δvpr, ΔnprE, ΔaprE and ΔpgsBCA), which was 103% higher than that of the NK-ΔLP strain (ΔpgsBCA) (15.3 g/L). Furthermore, the NK-Q-7 strain also showed a 94.1% increase in α-amylase production compared with NK-ΔLP strain, suggesting a positive effect of extracellular protease genes deficient on the production of endogenously secreted proteins. This is the first report of the improvement of levan production in microbes deficient in extracellular proteases and TasA, and the NK-Q-7 strain exhibits outstanding characteristics for extracellular protein production or extracellular protein related product synthesis. PMID:26347185

  15. Analysis, improvement and application of the MODIS leaf area index products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenze

    Green leaf area governs the exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Therefore, leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (0.4-0.7 mum) absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FPAR) are widely used in vegetation monitoring and modeling. The launch of Terra and Aqua satellites with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard provided the first global products of LAI and FPAR, derived mainly from an algorithm based on radiative transfer. The objective of this research is to comprehensively evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS LAI/FPAR products. Large volumes of these products have been analyzed with the goal of understanding product quality with respect to version (Collection 3 versus 4), algorithm (main versus back-up), snow (snow-free versus snow on the ground) and cloud (cloud-free versus cloudy) conditions. Field validation efforts identified several key factors that influence the accuracy of algorithm retrievals. The strategy of validation efforts guiding algorithm refinements has led to progressively more accurate LAI/FPAR products. The combination of products derived from the Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors increases the success rate of the main radiative transfer algorithm by 10-20 percent over woody vegetation. The Terra Collection 4 LAI data reveal seasonal swings in green leaf area of about 25 percent in a majority of the Amazon rainforests caused by variability in cloud cover and light. The timing and the influence of this seasonal cycle are critical to understanding tropical plant adaptation patterns and ecological processes. The results presented in this dissertation suggest how the product quality has gradually improved largely through the efforts of validation activities. The Amazon case study highlights the utility of these data sets for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. Thus, these results can be seen as a benchmark for evaluation of

  16. An Innovative Magnetic Charging Chute to Improve Productivity of Sinter Machine at Rourkela Steel Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Sambandham Thirumalai; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Das, Arunaba; Singh, Mithilesh Kumar; Mahanta, H. K.

    Sintering is a process in sinter machine for agglomeration of iron ore and other raw material fines into a compact porous mass, i.e., sinter, used in Blast Furnaces as an iron bearing input charge material for hot metal production. 'Permeability' of sinter-bed on sinter machine i.e., the porosity in sinter-bed of charged materials, facilitates atmospheric air passes from the top to bottom across the depth of sinter-bed, when suction created from the bottom of the bed, for efficient heat carry over from top to bottom of the bed for complete burning of charged materials for effective sintering process controls the productivity of the sinter machine. The level of 'permeability' in sinter-bed is depending upon the effectiveness of 'charging chute' in size-wise 'segregation' of charge materials across the depth in sinter-bed, achieved due to differences in the sliding velocities of particles during charging into the moving sinter-bed. The permeability achieved by the earlier conventional 'charging chute' was limited due to its design and positional constraints in sinter machine. Improving the productivity of sinter machine, through increased permeability of sinter bed is successfully achieved through implementation of an innovatively designed and developed, "Magnetic Charging Chute" at Sinter Plant no. 2 of Rourkela Steel Plant. The induced magnetic force on the charged materials while the charge materials dropping down through the charge chute has improved the permeability of sinter bed through an unique method of segregating the para-magnetic materials and the finer materials of the charge materials to top layer of sinter bed along with improved size-wise segregation of charge materials. This has increased the productivity of the sinter machine by 3% and also reduced the solid fuel consumption i.e., coke breeze in input charge materials by 1 kg/t of sinter.

  17. Application of equalization notch to improve synthetic aperture radar coherent data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, Cameron; West, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Interference and interference mitigation techniques degrade synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent data products. Radars utilizing stretch processing present a unique challenge for many mitigation techniques because the interference signal itself is modified through stretch processing from its original signal characteristics. Many sources of interference, including constant tones, are only present within the fast-time sample data for a limited number of samples, depending on the radar and interference bandwidth. Adaptive filtering algorithms to estimate and remove the interference signal that rely upon assuming stationary interference signal characteristics can be ineffective. An effective mitigation method, called notching, forces the value of the data samples containing interference to zero. However, as the number of data samples set to zero increases, image distortion and loss of resolution degrade both the image product and any second order image products. Techniques to repair image distortions,1 are effective for point-like targets. However, these techniques are not designed to model and repair distortions in SAR image terrain. Good terrain coherence is important for SAR second order image products because terrain occupies the majority of many scenes. For the case of coherent change detection it is the terrain coherence itself that determines the quality of the change detection image. This paper proposes an unique equalization technique that improves coherence over existing notching techniques. First, the proposed algorithm limits mitigation to only the samples containing interference, unlike adaptive filtering algorithms, so the remaining samples are not modified. Additionally, the mitigation adapts to changing interference power such that the resulting correction equalizes the power across the data samples. The result is reduced distortion and improved coherence for the terrain. SAR data demonstrates improved coherence from the proposed equalization

  18. The potential and realized spread of wildfires across Canada.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianli; Parisien, Marc-André; Flannigan, Mike D; Parks, Sean A; Anderson, Kerry R; Little, John M; Taylor, Steve W

    2014-08-01

    Given that they can burn for weeks or months, wildfires in temperate and boreal forests may become immense (eg., 10(0) - 10(4) km(2) ). However, during the period within which a large fire is 'active', not all days experience weather that is conducive to fire spread; indeed most of the spread occurs on a small proportion (e.g., 1 - 15 days) of not necessarily consecutive days during the active period. This study examines and compares the Canada-wide patterns in fire-conducive weather ('potential' spread) and the spread that occurs on the ground ('realized' spread). Results show substantial variability in distributions of potential and realized spread days across Canada. Both potential and realized spread are higher in western than in eastern Canada; however, whereas potential spread generally decreases from south to north, there is no such pattern with realized spread. The realized-to-potential fire-spread ratio is considerably higher in northern Canada than in the south, indicating that proportionally more fire-conducive days translate into fire progression. An exploration of environmental correlates to spread show that there may be a few factors compensating for the lower potential spread in northern Canada: a greater proportion of coniferous (i.e., more flammable) vegetation, lesser human impacts (i.e., less fragmented landscapes), sufficient fire ignitions, and intense droughts. Because a linear relationship exists between the frequency distributions of potential spread days and realized spread days in a fire zone, it is possible to obtain one from the other using a simple conversion factor. Our methodology thus provides a means to estimate realized fire spread from weather-based data in regions where fire databases are poor, which may improve our ability to predict future fire activity. PMID:24700739

  19. Realizing a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder as an adult.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Laura Foran

    2016-08-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder are not diagnosed until adulthood, yet little is known about their experiences. This descriptive phenomenological study aimed to explore the experience of realizing a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood. A purposive sample of 77 adults was asked to describe their experiences of realizing a diagnosis as adults via an open-ended online survey. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's method and six themes were derived: feeling different from others, riding an emotional rollercoaster, striving to accept themselves, strategizing to improve their lives, maintaining normalcy, and wandering into the future. Nurses must realize the importance of screening for depression following a new diagnosis. Barriers to reaching a formal diagnosis should also be evaluated. PMID:26940281

  20. Cauliflower waste incorporation into cane molasses improves ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Bansal, Sunil; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2007-12-01

    Diluted cane molasses having total sugar and reducing sugar content of 9.60 and 3.80% (w/v) respectively was subjected to ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178. Incorporation of dried Cauliflower Waste (CW) in molasses at the level of 15 % increased ethanol production by nearly 36 % compared to molasses alone. Addition of 0.2 % yeast extract improved ethanol production by nearly 49 % as compared to molasses alone. When the medium containing diluted molasses and 0.2 % yeast extract was supplemented with 15 % CW, 29 % more ethanol was produced compared to molasses with 0.2 % yeast extract. Cell biomass, ethanol production, final ethanol concentration and fermentation efficiency of 2.65 mg mL(-1), 41.2 gL(-1), 0.358 gg(-1) and 70.11 % respectively were found to be best at 15% CW supplementation level besides reduction in fermentation time but further increase in CW level resulted in decline on account of all the above parameters. This is probably the first report to our knowledge, in which CW was used in enhancing ethanol production significantly using a small quantity of yeast extract. PMID:23100689

  1. Improvement of exopolysaccharide production in Lactobacillus casei LC2W by overexpression of NADH oxidase gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wang, Yuanlong; Zhu, Ping; Liu, Zhenmin; Guo, Benheng; Ren, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacillus casei LC2W is an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain with probiotic effects. To investigate the regulation mechanism of EPS biosynthesis and to improve EPS production through cofactor engineering, a H₂O-forming NADH oxidase gene was cloned from Streptococcus mutans and overexpressed in L. casei LC2W under the control of constitutive promoter P₂₃. The recombinant strain LC-nox exhibited 0.854 U/mL of NADH oxidase activity, which was elevated by almost 20-fold in comparison with that of wild-type strain. As a result, overexpression of NADH oxidase resulted in a reduction in growth rate. In addition, lactate production was decreased by 22% in recombinant strain. It was proposed that more carbon source was saved and used for the biosynthesis of EPS, the production of which was reached at 219.4 mg/L, increased by 46% compared to that of wild-type strain. This work provided a novel and convenient genetic approach to manipulate metabolic flux and to increase EPS production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which correlates cofactor engineering with EPS production. PMID:25644955

  2. Simultaneous improvement in productivity, water use, and albedo through crop structural modification.

    PubMed

    Drewry, Darren T; Kumar, Praveen; Long, Stephen P

    2014-06-01

    Spanning 15% of the global ice-free terrestrial surface, agricultural lands provide an immense and near-term opportunity to address climate change, food, and water security challenges. Through the computationally informed breeding of canopy structural traits away from those of modern cultivars, we show that solutions exist that increase productivity and water use efficiency, while increasing land-surface reflectivity to offset greenhouse gas warming. Plants have evolved to maximize capture of radiation in the upper leaves, thus shading competitors. While important for survival in the wild, this is suboptimal in monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Crop progenitors evolved over the last 25 million years in an atmosphere with less than half the [CO2] projected for 2050. By altering leaf photosynthetic rates, rising [CO2] and temperature may also alter the optimal canopy form. Here using soybean, the world's most important protein crop, as an example we show by applying optimization routines to a micrometeorological leaf canopy model linked to a steady-state model of photosynthesis, that significant gains in production, water use, and reflectivity are possible with no additional demand on resources. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical profile and angular distribution, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, increases in productivity (7%) are possible with no change in water use or albedo. Alternatively, improvements in water use (13%) or albedo (34%) can likewise be made with no loss of productivity, under Corn Belt climate conditions. PMID:24700722

  3. Kappa Snyder deformations of Minkowski spacetime, realizations, and Hopf algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Meljanac, S.; Meljanac, D.; Samsarov, A.; Stojic, M.

    2011-03-15

    We present Lie-algebraic deformations of Minkowski space with undeformed Poincare algebra. These deformations interpolate between Snyder and {kappa}-Minkowski space. We find realizations of noncommutative coordinates in terms of commutative coordinates and derivatives. By introducing modules, it is shown that, although deformed and undeformed structures are not isomorphic at the level of vector spaces, they are isomorphic at the level of Hopf-algebraic action on corresponding modules. Invariants and tensors with respect to Lorentz algebra are discussed. A general mapping from {kappa}-deformed Snyder to Snyder space is constructed. The deformed Leibniz rule, the Hopf structure, and the star product are found. Special cases, particularly Snyder and {kappa}-Minkowski in Maggiore-type realizations, are discussed. The same generalized Hopf-algebraic structures are considered as well in the case of an arbitrary allowable kind of realization, and results are given perturbatively up to second order in deformation parameters.

  4. Basic mechanisms of photosynthesis and applications to improved production and conversion of biomass to fuels and chemical products

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sayed, M.; Greenbaum, E.; Wasielewski, M.

    1996-09-01

    Natural photosynthesis, the result of 3.5 billion years of evolutionary experimentation, is the best proven, functional solar energy conversion technology. It is responsible for filling the vast majority of humanity`s energy, nutritional, and materials needs. Understanding the basic physical chemical principles underlying photosynthesis as a working model system is vital to further exploitation of this natural technology. These principles can be used to improve or modify natural photosynthesis so that it is more efficient or so that it can produce unusual products such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, ethanol, diesel fuel substitutes, biodegradable materials, or other high value chemical products. Principles garnered from the natural process can also be used to design artificial photosynthetic devices that employ analogs of natural antenna and reaction center function, self-assembly and repair concepts, photoinduced charge transfer processes, photoprotection, and dark reactions that facilitate catalytic action to convert light into, useful chemical or electrical energy. The present broad understanding of many structural and functional aspects of photosynthesis has resulted from rapid recent research progress. X-ray structures of several key photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna systems are available, and the overall principles controlling photoinduced energy and electron transfer are being established.

  5. Physically realizable entanglement by local continuous measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Santos, Marcelo Franca; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Vedral, Vlatko

    2011-02-15

    Quantum systems prepared in pure states evolve into mixtures under environmental action. Continuously realizable ensembles (or physically realizable) are the pure state decompositions of those mixtures that can be generated in time through continuous measurements of the environment. Here, we define continuously realizable entanglement as the average entanglement over realizable ensembles. We search for the measurement strategy to maximize and minimize this quantity through observations on the independent environments that cause two qubits to disentangle in time. We then compare it with the entanglement bounds (entanglement of formation and entanglement of assistance) for the unmonitored system. For some relevant noise sources the maximum realizable entanglement coincides with the upper bound, establishing the scheme as an alternative to protect entanglement. However, for local strategies, the lower bound of the unmonitored system is not reached.

  6. Realization and performance of cryogenic selection mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Bettonvil, Felix; Kragt, Jan; Elswijk, Eddy; Tromp, Niels

    2014-07-01

    Within Infra-Red large wavelength bandwidth instruments the use of mechanisms for selection of observation modes, filters, dispersing elements, pinholes or slits is inevitable. The cryogenic operating environment poses several challenges to these cryogenic mechanisms; like differential thermal shrinkage, physical property change of materials, limited use of lubrication, high feature density, limited space etc. MATISSE the mid-infrared interferometric spectrograph and imager for ESO's VLT interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal in Chile coherently combines the light from 4 telescopes. Within the Cold Optics Bench (COB) of MATISSE two concepts of selection mechanisms can be distinguished based on the same design principles: linear selection mechanisms (sliders) and rotating selection mechanisms (wheels).Both sliders and wheels are used at a temperature of 38 Kelvin. The selection mechanisms have to provide high accuracy and repeatability. The sliders/wheels have integrated tracks that run on small, accurately located, spring loaded precision bearings. Special indents are used for selection of the slider/wheel position. For maximum accuracy/repeatability the guiding/selection system is separated from the actuation in this case a cryogenic actuator inside the cryostat. The paper discusses the detailed design of the mechanisms and the final realization for the MATISSE COB. Limited lifetime and performance tests determine accuracy, warm and cold and the reliability/wear during life of the instrument. The test results and further improvements to the mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Restoration Of MEX SRC Images For Improved Topography: A New Image Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Surface topography is an important constraint when investigating the evolution of solar system bodies. Topography is typically obtained from stereo photogrammetric or photometric (shape from shading) analyses of overlapping / stereo images and from laser / radar altimetry data. The ESA Mars Express Mission [1] carries a Super Resolution Channel (SRC) as part of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) [2]. The SRC can build up overlapping / stereo coverage of Mars, Phobos and Deimos by viewing the surfaces from different orbits. The derivation of high precision topography data from the SRC raw images is degraded because the camera is out of focus. The point spread function (PSF) is multi-peaked, covering tens of pixels. After registering and co-adding hundreds of star images, an accurate SRC PSF was reconstructed and is being used to restore the SRC images to near blur free quality. The restored images offer a factor of about 3 in improved geometric accuracy as well as identifying the smallest of features to significantly improve the stereo photogrammetric accuracy in producing digital elevation models. The difference between blurred and restored images provides a new derived image product that can provide improved feature recognition to increase spatial resolution and topographic accuracy of derived elevation models. Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the NASA Mars Express Participating Scientist Program. [1] Chicarro, et al., ESA SP 1291(2009) [2] Neukum, et al., ESA SP 1291 (2009). A raw SRC image (h4235.003) of a Martian crater within Gale crater (the MSL landing site) is shown in the upper left and the restored image is shown in the lower left. A raw image (h0715.004) of Phobos is shown in the upper right and the difference between the raw and restored images, a new derived image data product, is shown in the lower right. The lower images, resulting from an image restoration process, significantly improve feature recognition for improved derived

  8. Recent Improvements to CALIOP Level 3 Aerosol Profile Product for Global 3-D Aerosol Extinction Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, J. L.; Getzewich, B. J.; Winker, D. M.; Vaughan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    With nine years of retrievals, the CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product provides an unprecedented synopsis of aerosol extinction in three dimensions and the potential to quantify changes in aerosol distributions over time. The CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product, initially released as a beta product in 2011, reports monthly averages of quality-screened aerosol extinction profiles on a uniform latitude/longitude grid for different cloud-cover scenarios, called "sky conditions". This presentation demonstrates improvements to the second version of the product which will be released in September 2015. The largest improvements are the new sky condition definitions which parse the atmosphere into "cloud-free" views accessible to passive remote sensors, "all-sky" views accessible to active remote sensors and "cloudy-sky" views for opaque and transparent clouds which were previously inaccessible to passive remote sensors. Taken together, the new sky conditions comprehensively summarize CALIOP aerosol extinction profiles for a broad range of scientific queries. In addition to dust-only extinction profiles, the new version will include polluted-dust and smoke-only extinction averages. A new method is adopted for averaging dust-only extinction profiles to reduce high biases which exist in the beta version of the level 3 aerosol profile product. This presentation justifies the new averaging methodology and demonstrates vertical profiles of dust and smoke extinction over Africa during the biomass burning season. Another crucial advancement demonstrated in this presentation is a new approach for computing monthly mean aerosol optical depth which removes low biases reported in the beta version - a scenario unique to lidar datasets.

  9. Extracellular peptidase hunting for improvement of protein production in plant cells and roots

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand, Jérôme; Bouché, Frédéric; Desiron, Carole; Stautemas, Jennifer; de Lemos Esteves, Frédéric; Périlleux, Claire; Tocquin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based recombinant protein production systems have gained an extensive interest over the past few years, because of their reduced cost and relative safety. Although the first products are now reaching the market, progress are still needed to improve plant hosts and strategies for biopharming. Targeting recombinant proteins toward the extracellular space offers several advantages in terms of protein folding and purification, but degradation events are observed, due to endogenous peptidases. This paper focuses on the analysis of extracellular proteolytic activities in two production systems: cell cultures and root-secretion (rhizosecretion), in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Proteolytic activities of extracellular proteomes (secretomes) were evaluated in vitro against two substrate proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum immunoglobulins G (hIgGs). Both targets were found to be degraded by the secretomes, BSA being more prone to proteolysis than hIgGs. The analysis of the proteolysis pH-dependence showed that target degradation was mainly dependent upon the production system: rhizosecretomes contained more peptidase activity than extracellular medium of cell suspensions, whereas variations due to plant species were smaller. Using class-specific peptidase inhibitors, serine, and metallopeptidases were found to be responsible for degradation of both substrates. An in-depth in silico analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data from Arabidopsis was then performed and led to the identification of a limited number of serine and metallo-peptidases that are consistently expressed in both production systems. These peptidases should be prime candidates for further improvement of plant hosts by targeted silencing. PMID:25705212

  10. Improving Flood Modeling Applications of Global Reanalysis Precipitation Products through Satellite-driven Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, E. N.; Seyyedi, H.; Beighley, E., II; McCollum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deriving flood vulnerability maps at basin scale typically requires simulating a long record of annual maximum discharges. To improve this approach, long precipitation records from global reanalysis systems must be downscaled to a spatio-temporal resolution applicable for flood modeling. This study evaluates a combined spatial downscaling and error correction technique based on high-resolution satellite precipitation products applied on NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) reanalysis precipitation dataset. The TRMM 3B42 25-km and 3-hourly blended satellite precipitation product is used for driving the GLDAS reanalysis downscaling. The study focuses on 437 flood-inducing storm events that occurred over a period of ten years (2002-2011) in the Susquehanna River basin located in the northeast United States. A validation strategy was devised for assessing error metrics in rainfall and simulated runoff as function of basin area, storm severity and season. The WSR-88D gauge-adjusted radar-rainfall (stage IV) product was used as the reference rainfall dataset, while runoff simulations forced with the stage IV precipitation dataset were considered as the runoff reference. Results show that the generated rainfall ensembles from the downscaled reanalysis products encapsulate the reference rainfall. Frequency analysis of rainfall and runoff and mean relative error and root mean square error statistics exhibited improvements in the precipitation and runoff simulation error statistics of the 3B42-driven downscaled GLDAS reanalysis dataset compared to the original reanalysis precipitation product. Results vary by season and less by basin scale. The proposed downscaling scheme is modular in design and can be applied on different satellite and reanalysis dataset over different regions.

  11. Molecular and bioengineering strategies to improve alginate and polydydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Enrique; Peña, Carlos; Núñez, Cinthia; Segura, Daniel; Espín, Guadalupe

    2007-01-01

    Several aspects of alginate and PHB synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii at a molecular level have been elucidated in articles published during the last ten years. It is now clear that alginate and PHB synthesis are under a very complex genetic control. Genetic modification of A. vinelandii has produced a number of very interesting mutants which have particular traits for alginate production. One of these mutants has been shown to produce the alginate with the highest mean molecular mass so far reported. Recent work has also shed light on the factors determining molecular mass distribution; the most important of these being identified as; dissolved oxygen tension and specific growth rate. The use of specific mutants has been very useful for the correct analysis and interpretation of the factors affecting polymerization. Recent scale-up/down work on alginate production has shown that oxygen limitation is crucial for producing alginate of high molecular mass, a condition which is optimized in shake flasks and which can now be reproduced in stirred fermenters. It is clear that the phenotypes of mutants grown on plates are not necessarily reproducible when the strains are tested in lab or bench scale fermenters. In the case of PHB, A. vinelandii has shown itself able to produce relatively large amounts of this polymer of high molecular weight on cheap substrates, even allowing for simple extraction processes. The development of fermentation strategies has also shown promising results in terms of improving productivity. The understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of PHB synthesis, and of its metabolic relationships, has increased considerably, making way for new potential strategies for the further improvement of PHB production. Overall, the use of a multidisciplinary approach, integrating molecular and bioengineering aspects is a necessity for optimizing alginate and PHB production in A. vinelandii. PMID:17306024

  12. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  13. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and

  14. Evaluation of Production Version of the NASA Improved Inorganic-Organic Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The technology of an inorganic-organic (I/O) separator, which demonstrated improved flexibility, reduced cost, production feasibility and improved cycle life was developed. Substrates to replace asbestos and waterbased separator coatings to replace the solvent based coatings were investigated. An improved fuel cell grade asbestos sheet was developed and a large scale production capability for the solvent based I/O separator was demonstrated. A cellulose based substrate and a nonwoven polypropylene fiber substrate were evaluated as replacements for the asbestos. Both the cellulose and polypropylene substrates were coated with solvent based and water based coatings to produce a modified I/O separator. The solvent based coatings were modified to produce aqueous separator coatings with acceptable separator properties. A single ply fuel cell grade asbestos with a binder (BTA) was produced. It has shown to be an acceptable substrate for the solvent and water based separator coatings, an acceptable absorber for alkaline cells, and an acceptable matrix for alkaline fuel cells. The original solvent based separator (K19W1), using asbestos as a substrate, was prepared.

  15. Evolved beta-galactosidases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus with improved transgalactosylation yield for galacto-oligosaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Placier, Gaël; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Rabiller, Claude; Mattes, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    A mutagenesis approach was applied to the beta-galactosidase BgaB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39 in order to improve its enzymatic transglycosylation of lactose into oligosaccharides. A simple screening strategy, which was based on the reduction of the hydrolysis of a potential transglycosylation product (lactosucrose), provided mutant enzymes possessing improved synthetic properties for the autocondensation product from nitrophenyl-galactoside and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. The effects of the mutations on enzyme activity and kinetics were determined. An change of one arginine to lysine (R109K) increased the oligosaccharide yield compared to that for the wild-type BgaB. Subsequently, saturation mutagenesis at this position demonstrated that valine and tryptophan further increased the transglycosylation performance of BgaB. During the transglycosylation reaction with lactose of the evolved beta-galactosidases, a major trisaccharide was formed. Its structure was characterized as beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucopyranoside (3'-galactosyl-lactose). At the lactose concentration of 18% (wt/vol), this trisaccharide was obtained in yields of 11.5% (wt/wt) with GP21 (BgaB R109K), 21% with GP637.2 (BgaB R109V), and only 2% with the wild-type BgaB enzyme. GP643.3 (BgaB R109W) was shown to be the most efficient mutant, with a 3'-galactosyl-lactose production of 23%. PMID:19666723

  16. Implementation of Sustainable Soil Management Practices to Improve Crop Production in the Different Ethiopian Agro Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Moreno, R.; Gameda, S.; Diaz Alvarez, M. C.; Selasie, Y. G.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture in Ethiopia is one of first priority since close to 10 In this context, the Ethiopian crop production faces to the following soil management challenges: lack of updated soil data, macro and micro nutrient depletion, acidity, salinity and soil surface erosion and crusting. One of the biggest issues is the loss of arable land, above 137 T/yr, reaching during some particularly dried periods until 300 T/yr. In this context, the authors constituted a working group of experts from Spanish and Ethiopian universities, local producers and international and governmental organisms to analyse the problems related to the different agro ecological zones found in Ethiopia and the management practices of different local producers. The study produced the trends to implement in the different areas to improve soil management practices in order to contribute to increase the crop production mainly to achieve food security problems. The analyse produced different working fields for the next years for addressing soil degradation, improving land resources management practices, increasing agricultural productivity, updating the available soil data, developing an international program of education, transferring of knowledge from similar study cases and implementing economical tools to help producers to assure income after severe edapho-climatic events. The practical work and the projects developed for the next period is addressed to smallholder farms belonging to the different 34 agro ecological zones identified in Ethiopia, each of them with very specific environmental, cultural and soil management practices.

  17. Strain Improvement of Streptomyces xanthochromogenes RIA 1098 for Enhanced Pravastatin Production at High Compactin Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dzhavakhiya, Vakhtang V; Voinova, Tatiana M; Glagoleva, Elena V; Petukhov, Dmitry V; Ovchinnikov, Alexander I; Kartashov, Maksim I; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Skryabin, Konstantin G

    2015-12-01

    Pravastatin is one of the most popular cholesterol-lowering drugs. Its industrial production represents a two-stage process including the microbial production of compactin and its further biocatalytic conversion to pravastatin. To increase a conversion rate, a higher compactin content in fermentation medium should be used; however, high compactin concentrations inhibit microbial growth. Therefore, the improvement of the compactin resistance of a producer still remains a relevant problem. A multi-step random UV mutagenesis of a Streptomyces xanthochromogenes strain RIA 1098 and the further selection of high-yield compactin-resistant mutants have resulted in a highly productive compactin-resistant strain S 33-1. After the fermentation medium improvement, the maximum bioconversion rate of this strain has reached 91 % at the daily compactin dose equal to 1 g/L and still remained high (83 %) even at the doubled dose (2 g/L). A 1-year study of the mutant strain stability has proved a stable inheritance of its characteristics that provides this strain to be very promising for the pravastatin-producing industry. PMID:26543270

  18. Deregulation of feedback inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase for improved lysine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Bommareddy, Rajesh Reddy; Frank, Doinita; Rappert, Sugima; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Allosteric regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) controls the metabolic flux distribution of anaplerotic pathways. In this study, the feedback inhibition of Corynebacterium glutamicum PEPC was rationally deregulated, and its effect on metabolic flux redistribution was evaluated. Based on rational protein design, six PEPC mutants were designed, and all of them showed significantly reduced sensitivity toward aspartate and malate inhibition. Introducing one of the point mutations (N917G) into the ppc gene, encoding PEPC of the lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum LC298, resulted in ∼37% improved lysine production. In vitro enzyme assays and (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis showed ca. 20 and 30% increases in the PEPC activity and corresponding flux, respectively, in the mutant strain. Higher demand for NADPH in the mutant strain increased the flux toward pentose phosphate pathway, which increased the supply of NADPH for enhanced lysine production. The present study highlights the importance of allosteric regulation on the flux control of central metabolism. The strategy described here can also be implemented to improve other oxaloacetate-derived products. PMID:24334667

  19. Genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of Saccharopolyspora spinosa for Spinosad Production improvement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinosad is a macrolide antibiotic produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa with aerobic fermentation. However, the wild strain has a low productivity. In this article, a computational guided engineering approach was adopted in order to improve the yield of spinosad in S. spinosa. Results Firstly, a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction (GSMR) for S.spinosa based on its genome information, literature data and experimental data was extablished. The model was consists of 1,577 reactions, 1,726 metabolites, and 733 enzymes after manually refined. Then, amino acids supplying experiments were performed in order to test the capabilities of the model, and the results showed a high consistency. Subsequently, transhydrogenase (PntAB, EC 1.6.1.2) was chosen as the potential target for spinosad yield improvement based on the in silico metabolic network models. Furthermore, the target gene was manipulated in the parent strain in order to validate the model predictions. At last, shake flask fermentation was carried out which led to spinosad production of 75.32 mg/L, 86.5% higher than the parent strain (40.39 mg/L). Conclusions Results confirmed the model had a high potential in engineering S. spinosa for spinosad production. It is the first GSMM for S.spinosa, it has significance for a better understanding of the comprehensive metabolism and guiding strain designing of Saccharopolyspora spinosa in the future. PMID:24628959

  20. Improved Production of Active Streptomyces griseus Trypsin with a Novel Auto-Catalyzed Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Ling, Zhenmin; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal sequences play crucial roles in regulating expression, translation, activation and enzymatic properties of proteins. To reduce cell toxicity of intracellular trypsin and increase secretory expression, we developed a novel auto-catalyzed strategy to produce recombinant trypsin by engineering the N-terminus of mature Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT). The engineered N-terminal peptide of SGT was composed of the thioredoxin, glycine-serine linker, His6-tag and the partial bovine trypsinogen pro-peptide (DDDDK). Furthermore, we constructed a variant TLEI with insertion of the artificial peptide at N-terminus and site-directed mutagenesis of the autolysis residue R145. In fed-batch fermentation, the production of extracellular trypsin activity was significantly improved to 47.4 ± 1.2 U·ml−1 (amidase activity, 8532 ± 142.2 U·ml−1 BAEE activity) with a productivity of 0.49 U·ml−1·h−1, which was 329% greater than that of parent strain Pichia pastoris GS115-SGT. This work has significant potential to be scaled-up for microbial production of SGT. In addition, the N-terminal peptide engineering strategy can be extended to improve heterologous expression of other toxic enzymes. PMID:26983398

  1. The improved L-tryptophan production in recombinant Escherichia coli by expressing the polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Pengfei; Kang, Junhua; Yang, Fan; Wang, Qian; Liang, Quanfeng; Qi, Qingsheng

    2013-05-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the best known polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) has been believed to change intracellular metabolic flow and oxidation/reduction state, as well as enhance stress resistance of the host. In this study, a PHB biosynthesis pathway, which contains phaCAB operon genes from Ralstonia eutropha, was introduced into an L-tryptophan producing Escherichia coli strain GPT1002. The expression of the PHB biosynthesis genes resulted in PHB accumulation inside the cells and improved the L-tryptophan production. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcription of tryptophan operon genes in GPT2000 increased by 1.9 to 4.3 times compared with the control, indicating that PHB biosynthesis in engineered E. coli changed the physiological state of the host. Xylose was added into the medium as co-substrate to enhance the precursor supply for PHB biosynthesis. The addition of xylose improved both extracellular L-tryptophan production and intracellular PHB accumulation. Moreover, we obtained 14.4 g l(-1) L-tryptophan production and 9.7 % PHB (w/w) accumulation in GPT2000 via fed-batch cultivation. PMID:23321909

  2. GENXICC2.1: An improved version of GENXICC for hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2013-03-01

    We present an improved version of GENXICC, which is a generator for hadronic production of the doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb and has been introduced by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu [Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 467; Comput. Phys. Commun. 181 (2010) 1144]. In comparison with the previous GENXICC versions, we update the program in order to generate the unweighted baryon events more effectively under various simulation environments, whose distributions are now generated according to the probability proportional to the integrand. One Les Houches Event (LHE) common block has been added to produce a standard LHE data file that contains useful information of the doubly heavy baryon and its accompanying partons. Such LHE data can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation, especially, the color-flow problem can be solved with PYTHIA8.0. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYTitle of program: GENXICC2.1 Program obtained from: CPC Program Library Reference to original program: GENXICC Reference in CPC: Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 467 (2007); Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 1144 (2010) Does the new version supersede the old program: No Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating systems: LINUX Programming language used: FORTRAN 77/90 Memory required to execute with typical data: About 2.0 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: About 2 MB, including PYTHIA6.4 Distribution format: .tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb. Method of solution: The upgraded version with a proper interface to PYTHIA can generate full production and decay events, either weighted or unweighted, conveniently and effectively. Especially, the unweighted events are generated by using an improved hit-and-miss approach. Reasons for new version: Responding to the feedback from users of CMS and LHCb groups at the Large Hadron Collider, and based on

  3. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    PubMed

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. PMID:24981514

  4. Improving USGS National Hydrologic Model Parameterization with Satellite-Based Phenology Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletty, P. D.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.; Markstrom, S. L.; Regan, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologists and water resource engineers are simulating hydrologic processes at the continental scale assisted by the advancement of high-performance computing and the accessibility of large-scale climate and hydrologic datasets. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is developing a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) that supports coordinated, comprehensive, and consistent hydrologic model development and simulations of the conterminous United States (CONUS). The goal of this project is to improve model parameterization and ultimately streamflow predictions across the CONUS using remotely sensed data products. The current work will specifically improve estimates of the growing season in the NHM through the integration of satellite-based phenology products developed at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Currently, the NHM defines the growing season using one of three temperature-index methods: 1) first and last freezing air temperatures; 2) temperature threshold for a specified begin and end month; and 3) dynamic specification. The USGS/EROS RSP products are based on a timeseries analysis of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensors. Using the phenological metrics derived from AVHRR, we define a new growing season parameter set for the CONUS from 1989 to 2013, which ultimately will enhance estimations of daily transpiration rates throughout the model domain. Using default temperature-index based estimates of growing season and RSP derived estimates, we provide statistical evaluation and comparison of the NHM simulations related to growing season. The RSP growing season dates may improve model hydrologic simulations especially in drought periods when water availability, demand, and usage are critical, or in areas where the temperature-index based growing season estimates lack skill, such as some

  5. Application of Airborne Sea Ice Observations Towards Improving Satellite-based Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Baldwin, D.; Liu, Y.; Dworak, R.; Key, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent airborne and satellite observations suggest large decreases in Arctic sea ice thickness in recent years, but uncertainty remains in terms of overall loss of ice mass versus redistribution of mass within the Arctic Basin. In general though, the combination of airborne and satellite observations tend to agree that some thinning of the ice cover has occurred. In addition to changes in ice thickness and mass, other related changes in properties are likely if the ice pack is undergoing fundamental changes such as a shift to a largely seasonal sea-ice cover. Therefore, it is imperative to utilize airborne and surface-based observations to evaluate satellite-based sea ice products and to improve algorithms that estimate sea ice properties. Sea ice surface properties derived from NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne measurements are currently being used to evaluate and update Suomi-NPP VIIRS sea ice products. Estimates of ice thickness derived from the OIB observations may be used to establish a relationship between sea ice thickness and the age of the ice. Drifting buoys serve to improve errors in tracking the movement of ice parcels through Arctic waters. Future airborne measurements of spectral reflectance during the melt season will improve algorithms that estimate melt pond fraction. We present examples of airborne validation of VIIRS sea ice products, relationships between sea ice thickness estimated from OIB measurements and sea ice age, and demonstrate the need for future airborne high-resolution estimates of surface reflectance, particularly in melt ponds. OIB thickness estimates over one sea ice age cell (12.5 km box) are shown in the attached figure.

  6. Pathway engineering of Propionibacterium jensenii for improved production of propionic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Guan, Ningzi; Zhu, Gexin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is an important chemical building block widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. In our previous study, a shuttle vector was developed as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, and two key enzymes-glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase-were overexpressed to improve PA titer. Here, we aimed to improve PA production further via the pathway engineering of P. jensenii. First, the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene (ppc) from Klebsiella pneumoniae was overexpressed to access the one-step synthesis of oxaloacetate directly from phosphoenolpyruvate without pyruvate as intermediate. Next, genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB) were deleted to block the synthesis of the by-products lactic acid and acetic acid, respectively. Overexpression of ppc and deleting ldh improved PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g·L(-1) to 33.21 ± 1.92 g·L(-1) and 30.50 ± 1.63 g·L(-1), whereas poxB deletion decreased it. The influence of this pathway engineering on gene transcription, enzyme expression, NADH/NAD(+) ratio, and metabolite concentration was also investigated. Finally, PA production in P. jensenii with ppc overexpression as well as ldh deletion was investigated, which resulted in further increases in PA titer to 34.93 ± 2.99 g·L(-1) in a fed-batch culture. PMID:26814976

  7. Pathway engineering of Propionibacterium jensenii for improved production of propionic acid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Guan, Ningzi; Zhu, Gexin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is an important chemical building block widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. In our previous study, a shuttle vector was developed as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, and two key enzymes—glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase—were overexpressed to improve PA titer. Here, we aimed to improve PA production further via the pathway engineering of P. jensenii. First, the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene (ppc) from Klebsiella pneumoniae was overexpressed to access the one-step synthesis of oxaloacetate directly from phosphoenolpyruvate without pyruvate as intermediate. Next, genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB) were deleted to block the synthesis of the by-products lactic acid and acetic acid, respectively. Overexpression of ppc and deleting ldh improved PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g·L−1 to 33.21 ± 1.92 g·L−1 and 30.50 ± 1.63 g·L−1, whereas poxB deletion decreased it. The influence of this pathway engineering on gene transcription, enzyme expression, NADH/NAD+ ratio, and metabolite concentration was also investigated. Finally, PA production in P. jensenii with ppc overexpression as well as ldh deletion was investigated, which resulted in further increases in PA titer to 34.93 ± 2.99 g·L−1 in a fed-batch culture. PMID:26814976

  8. Expression of exoinulinase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve ethanol production from inulin sources.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2013-10-01

    To improve inulin utilization and ethanol fermentation, exoinulinase genes from the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and the recently identified yeast, Candida kutaonensis, were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae harboring the exoinulinase gene from C. kutaonensis gave higher ethanol yield and productivity from both inulin (0.38 vs. 0.34 g/g and 1.35 vs. 1.22 g l(-1) h(-1)) and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour (0.47 vs. 0.46 g/g and 1.62 vs. 1.54 g l(-1) h(-1)) compared with the strain expressing the exoinulinase gene from K. marxianus. Thus, the exoinulinase gene from C. kutaonensis is advantageous for engineering S. cerevisiae to improve ethanol fermentation from inulin sources. PMID:23743955

  9. Improved electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) belt press for food products. Phase 3, Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Battelle`s electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process improves the performance of mechanical dewatering processes for several food products (such as corn fiber) by superimposing electric and ultrasonic fields. EAD has the potential to save 0.027 to 0.035 quad/yr energy by 1995 in the food processing industry, which consumed 0.15 to 0.18 quad in 1986. This report covers Phase III for demonstrating the EAD prototype on corn wet milling products (corn fiber and gluten); only Task 1 (prototype preparation and planning) was completed. EAD performance was examined in the laboratory; availability of a test site was examined. The single-roll, postdewatering EAD belt press prototype can accept material predewatered by a screw press, centrifuge, or any other mechanical dewatering device. The two-belt system, utilizing a copper-polymer cathode belt, performed as well as the three-belt system used in Phase II.

  10. Biotechnological strategies to improve production of microbial poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate): a review of recent research work

    PubMed Central

    Peña, C; Castillo, T; García, A; Millán, M; Segura, D

    2014-01-01

    Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] is a polyester synthesized as a carbon and energy reserve material by a wide number of bacteria. This polymer is characterized by its thermo-plastic properties similar to plastics derived from petrochemical industry, such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Furthermore, P(3HB) is an inert, biocompatible and biodegradable material which has been proposed for several uses in medical and biomedical areas. Currently, only few bacterial species such as Cupriavidus necator, Azohydromonas lata and recombinant Escherichia coli have been successfully used for P(3HB) production at industrial level. Nevertheless, in recent years, several fermentation strategies using other microbial models such as Azotobacter vinelandii, A. chroococcum, as well as some methane-utilizing species, have been developed in order to improve the P(3HB) production and also its mean molecular weight. PMID:24898500

  11. Biotechnological strategies to improve production of microbial poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate): a review of recent research work.

    PubMed

    Peña, C; Castillo, T; García, A; Millán, M; Segura, D

    2014-07-01

    Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] is a polyester synthesized as a carbon and energy reserve material by a wide number of bacteria. This polymer is characterized by its thermo-plastic properties similar to plastics derived from petrochemical industry, such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Furthermore, P(3HB) is an inert, biocompatible and biodegradable material which has been proposed for several uses in medical and biomedical areas. Currently, only few bacterial species such as Cupriavidus necator, Azohydromonas lata and recombinant Escherichia coli have been successfully used for P(3HB) production at industrial level. Nevertheless, in recent years, several fermentation strategies using other microbial models such as Azotobacter vinelandii, A. chroococcum, as well as some methane-utilizing species, have been developed in order to improve the P(3HB) production and also its mean molecular weight. PMID:24898500

  12. An improved procedure for high purity gaseous peroxyacyl nitrate production: Use of heavy lipid solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Fajer, R.; Senum, G. I.

    An improved procedure is described for the production of peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN's) in the gas phase. The method of Nielsen et al. (1982) has been modified to yield PAN's of high purity with no further Chromatographic purification required. Extraction of PAN's from the nitration of the peracids is accomplished by use of a heavy lipid solvent ( n-tridecane). This solvent's low vapor pressure allows the simple separation and preparation of high purity gaseous PAN's (> 98 %) as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Using this method infrared integrated band strengths are reported for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) perdeutero-peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN-D 3) and peroxyproprionyl nitrate (PPN). The method allows facile production of large amounts of gaseous PAN's for smog chamber and laboratory studies, lexicological and health effects research, as well as for calibration of PAN analyses.

  13. [Rapid improvement of lipase production in Penicillium expansum by genome shuffling].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Shi, Bi-Hong; Shi, Qiao-Qin; He, Yun-Xia; Wang, Ming-Zi

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, the genome shuffling was used to improve lipase production of Penicillium expansum. A lipase producing mutant strain-Penicillium expansum FS8486 and a wild type of Aspergillus Tamarii FS-132 isolated from soil of a volcano in Xinjiang were used as the parental strains. After two rounds of genome shuffling, several elite daughter strains were screened. The lipase activity in one of the daughter strains was increased 317% over the starting strain FS8486. Comparisons of the morphology, RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) polymorphism and the fatty acid compositions between the daughter and the parental strains suggested that the filial generation were generated by genome shuffling. In this study, the genome shuffling used successfully first time in eukaryotic microorganism and increases the production of the desired metabolite in short time, the study will be useful to spread the genome shuffling in eukaryotic microbial breeding. PMID:17822042

  14. Plant cell wall engineering: applications in biofuel production and improved human health.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell walls consist largely of cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. Concerted attempts are underway to convert wall polysaccharides from crop plant residues into renewable transport fuels and other valuable products, and to exploit the dietary benefits of cereal grain wall polysaccharides in human health. Attempts to improve plant performance for these applications have involved the manipulation of the levels and structures of wall components. Some successes in altering non-cellulosic polysaccharides has been achieved, but it would appear that drastic changes in cellulose are more difficult to engineer. Nevertheless, future prospects for both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM technologies to modify plant cell wall composition and structure remain bright, and will undoubtedly find applications beyond the current focus on human health and biofuel production. PMID:24679262

  15. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  16. Towards an improvement of carbon accounting for wildfires: incorporation of charcoal production into carbon emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan H.; Santin, Cristina; de Groot, Bill

    2015-04-01

    Every year fires release to the atmosphere the equivalent to 20-30% of the carbon (C) emissions from fossil fuel consumption, with future emissions from wildfires expected to increase under a warming climate. Critically, however, part of the biomass C affected by fire is not emitted during burning, but converted into charcoal, which is very resistant to environmental degradation and, thus, contributes to long-term C sequestration. The magnitude of charcoal production from wildfires as a long-term C sink remains essentially unknown and, to the date, charcoal production has not been included in wildfire emission and C budget models. Here we present complete inventories of charcoal production in two fuel-rich, but otherwise very different ecosystems: i) a boreal conifer forest (experimental stand-replacing crown fire; Canada, 2012) and a dry eucalyptus forest (high-intensity fuel reduction burn; Australia 2014). Our data show that, when considering all the fuel components and quantifying all the charcoal produced from each (i.e. bark, dead wood debris, fine fuels), the overall amount of charcoal produced is significant: up to a third of the biomass C affected by fire. These findings indicate that charcoal production from wildfires could represent a major and currently unaccounted error in the estimation of the effects of wildfires in the global C balance. We suggest an initial approach to include charcoal production in C emission models, by using our case study of a boreal forest fire and the Canadian Fire Effects Model (CanFIRE). We also provide recommendations of how a 'conversion factor' for charcoal production could be relatively easily estimated when emission factors for different types of fuels and fire conditions are experimentally obtained. Ultimately, this presentation is a call for integrative collaboration between the fire emission modelling community and the charcoal community to work together towards the improvement of C accounting for wildfires.

  17. An improved generator for the production of 212Pb and 212Bi from 224Ra.

    PubMed

    Atcher, R W; Friedman, A M; Hines, J J

    1988-01-01

    We have developed an improved generator for the production of the alpha emitting radionuclide 212Bi and its parent, 212Pb. These radionuclides are well suited to use as radiotherapeutic agents due to their relatively short half lives and appropriate particle particle emissions. The parent, 224Ra, is available from a long-lived parent and can be isolated on a generator which produces the daughters in good yield and low breakthrough. The 212Bi can be eluted by itself or in equilibrium with its parent. PMID:2838433

  18. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1984-11-29

    A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

  19. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  20. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

  1. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  2. An improved method for the production of fructooligosaccharides by immobilized β-fructofuranosidase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2016-03-01

    This work is focused on the prebiotic synthesis by a purified immobilized β-fructofuranosidase (FFase) using a by-product molasses as a substrate. When cultivated on wheat bran, the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces FFase with interesting transfructosylating activity. The enzyme was purified by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography to homogeneity. It showed a specific activity of 66.06 U/mg and a molecular mass of 50 kDa. The FFase was immobilized covalently on alginate and chitosan, and the immobilization yield was 90% and 81% respectively, yet the immobilization efficiency was 52% and 93% in that order. The fixed enzymes were stable at a pH varying from 4.0 to 7.0 and at a temperature ranging from 4 to 70 °C. Yet, kinetic parameters and catalytic efficiency were determined for both immobilized and free FFases. Interestingly, chitosan cross-linked enzyme activity was maintained at 89.24% level after 50 reuses during 1 week. Continuous production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from beet molasses in chitosan enzyme reactor was improved. The maximum production yield obtained in 12 H was 72.2% (g FOS/g Sucrose). Thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that the major products are kestose and nystose. PMID:25656714

  3. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  4. Improving enzymatic production of diglycerides by engineering binary ionic liquid medium system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng; Kahveci, Derya; Ozçelik, Beraat; Xu, Xuebing

    2009-10-01

    The tunable property of ionic liquids (ILs) offers tremendous opportunity to rethink the strategy of current efforts to resolve technical challenges that occurred in many production approaches. To establish an efficient glycerolysis approach for enzymatic production of diglycerides (DG), this work reported a novel concept to improve DG yield by applying a binary IL system that consisted of one IL with better DG production selectivity and another IL being able to achieve higher conversion of triglycerides (TG). The candidates for combination were determined by individually examining lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis in different ILs, as a result, promising ones are divided into two groups based on their reaction specificities. The effects of parametric variables were then preliminarily evaluated, following a further investigation of the reaction performance in different binary IL systems from cross-group combinations. The combination of TOMA.Tf(2)N/Ammoeng 102 was employed for optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Eighty to eighty-five percent (mol%) of oil conversion and up to 90% (mol%) of total DG yield (73%, wt%) were obtained, which are markedly higher than those previously reported. This work demonstrated the practical feasibility to couple the technical advantage (high TG conversion and high DG production selective in this work) of individual ILs into a binary system to over-perform the reaction. It is believed that binary IL system could be also applicable to other enzymatic reaction systems for establishment of more efficient reaction protocols. PMID:19426844

  5. Developments in the fermentation process and quality improvement strategies for mead production.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Antonio; Pascoal, Ananias; Choupina, Altino Branco; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads' quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies. PMID:25153872

  6. Improved therapeutic entities derived from known generics as an unexplored source of innovative drug products.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Sven; Klebovich, Imre; Antal, István; Blume, Henning H; Magyar, Kálmán; Németh, György; Paál, Tamás L; Stumptner, Willibald; Thaler, György; Van de Putte, Armand; Shah, Vinod P

    2011-11-20

    With a New Drug Application (NDA) innovative drug therapies are reaching the market in a specific dosage form for one or more clinically proven indications of which after expiration of the patent or the data exclusivity copies are launched using Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA). Advanced therapies that emerged from launched molecules during their product life-cycle have gained considerable attention as clinical practice provides evidence for additional therapeutic values, patient centric delivery systems show improved therapeutic outcomes or emerging technologies offer efficiency gains in manufacturing or access to emerging markets. The USA and European regulatory framework has set reasonable regulations in place for these "Supergenerics" or "hybrid" applications. While these regulations are relatively recent the pharmaceutical industry is just starting to use this route for their product development and life-cycle management. From a clinical perspective the potential for advanced product development have been demonstrated. Yet, there is still a lag of common understanding between the different stakeholders regarding the development, application process and commercial incentive in developing enhanced therapeutic entities based on existing drug products for the market. PMID:21968337

  7. The presence of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the inoculum improves methane gas production in microbial electrolysis cells

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Michael; Li, Xiu-Fen; Yates, Matthew D.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    High current densities in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) result from the predominance of various Geobacter species on the anode, but it is not known if archaeal communities similarly converge to one specific genus. MECs were examined here on the basis of maximum methane production and current density relative to the inoculum community structure. We used anaerobic digester (AD) sludge dominated by acetoclastic Methanosaeta, and an anaerobic bog sediment where hydrogenotrophic methanogens were detected. Inoculation using solids to medium ratio of 25% (w/v) resulted in the highest methane production rates (0.27 mL mL−1 cm−2, gas volume normalized by liquid volume and cathode projected area) and highest peak current densities (0.5 mA cm−2) for the bog sample. Methane production was independent of solid to medium ratio when AD sludge was used as the inoculum. 16S rRNA gene community analysis using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR confirmed the convergence of Archaea to Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter, and of Bacteria to Geobacter, despite their absence in AD sludge. Combined with other studies, these findings suggest that Archaea of the hydrogenotrophic genera Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter are the most important microorganisms for methane production in MECs and that their presence in the inoculum improves the performance. PMID:25642216

  8. Improving waterfowl production estimates: results of a test in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, P.M.; Cowardin, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in an effort to improve and standardize methods for estimating waterfowl production tested a new technique in the four-county Arrowwood Wetland Management District (WMD) for three years (1982-1984). On 14 randomly selected 10.36 km2 plots, upland and wetland habitat was mapped, classified, and digitized. Waterfowl breeding pairs were counted twice each year and the proportion of wetland basins containing water was determined. Pair numbers and habitat conditions were entered into a computer model developed by Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. That model estimates production on small federally owned wildlife tracts, federal wetland easements, and private land. Results indicate that production estimates were most accurate for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), the species for which the computer model and data base were originally designed. Predictions for the pintail (Anas acuta), gadwall (A. strepa), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and northern shoveler (A. clypeata) were believed to be less accurate. Modeling breeding period dynamics of a waterfowl species and making credible production estimates for a geographic area are possible if the data used in the model are adequate. The process of modeling the breeding period of a species aids in locating areas of insufficient biological knowledge. This process will help direct future research efforts and permit more efficient gathering of field data.

  9. Application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data for improved production well construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gossell, M.A.; Nishikawa, T.; Hanson, R.T.; Izbicki, J.A.; Tabidian, M.A.; Bertine, K.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water production wells commonly are designed to maximize well yield and, therefore, may be screened over several water-bearing zones. These water-bearing zones usually are identified, and their hydrogeologic characteristics and water quality are inferred, on the basis of indirect data such as geologic and geophysical logs. Production well designs based on these data may result in wells that are drilled deeper than necessary and are screened through zones having low permeability or poor-quality ground water. In this study, we examined the application of flowmeter logging and depth-dependent water quality samples for the improved design of production wells in a complex hydrogeologic setting. As a demonstration of these techniques, a flowmeter log and depth-dependent water quality data were collected from a long-screened production well within a multilayered coastal aquifer system in the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura County, California. Results showed that the well yields most of its water from four zones that constitute 58% of the screened interval. The importance of these zones to well yield was not readily discernible from indirect geologic or geophysical data. The flowmeter logs and downhole water quality data also show that small quantities of poor-quality water could degrade the overall quality of water from the well. The data obtained from one well can be applied to other proposed wells in the same hydrologic basin. The application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data to well design can reduce installation costs and improve the quantity and quality of water produced from wells in complex multiple-aquifer systems.

  10. Microevolution from shock to adaptation revealed strategies improving ethanol tolerance and production in Thermoanaerobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The molecular links between shock-response and adaptation remain poorly understood, particularly for extremophiles. This has hindered rational engineering of solvent tolerance and correlated traits (e.g., productivity) in extremophiles. To untangle such molecular links, here we established a model that tracked the microevolution from shock to adaptation in thermophilic bacteria. Method Temporal dynamics of genomes and transcriptomes was tracked for Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514 which under increasing exogenous ethanol evolved from ethanol-sensitive wild-type (Strain X) to tolerance of 2%- (XI) and eventually 6%-ethanol (XII). Based on the reconstructed transcriptional network underlying stress tolerance, genetic engineering was employed to improve ethanol tolerance and production in Thermoanaerobacter. Results The spontaneous genome mutation rate (μg) of Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514, calculated at 0.045, suggested a higher mutation rate in thermophile than previously thought. Transcriptomic comparison revealed that shock-response and adaptation were distinct in nature, whereas the transcriptomes of XII resembled those of the extendedly shocked X. To respond to ethanol shock, X employed fructose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS), Arginine Deiminase (ADI) pathway, alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and a distinct mechanism of V-type ATPase. As an adaptation to exogenous ethanol, XI mobilized resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux system and Adh, whereas XII, which produced higher ethanol than XI, employed ECF-type ϭ24, an alcohol catabolism operon and phase-specific heat-shock proteins (Hsps), modulated hexose/pentose-transport operon structure and reinforced membrane rigidity. Exploiting these findings, we further showed that ethanol productivity and tolerance can be improved simultaneously by overexpressing adh or ϭ24 in X. Conclusion Our work revealed thermophilic-bacteria specific features of adaptive evolution and demonstrated a rational

  11. Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. Results The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. Conclusions The results of the present

  12. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs. PMID:26107496

  13. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-an; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs. PMID:26107496

  14. Economic analysis of interventions to improve village chicken production in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Sunn, K; Meers, J

    2013-07-01

    equipment used under improved chick management were not markedly associated with profitability. Net Present Values and Benefit-Cost Ratios discounted over a 10-year period were also similar to the deterministic model when mean values obtained through stochastic modelling were used. In summary, the study showed that ND vaccination and improved chick management can improve the viability and profitability of village chicken production in Myanmar. PMID:23484803

  15. Nonlinear realizations and the orbit method

    SciTech Connect

    Gonera, Joanna

    2013-11-15

    Given a symmetry group one can construct the invariant dynamics using the technique of nonlinear realizations or the orbit method. The relationship between these methods is discussed. Few examples are presented.

  16. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis Contact Jessica Meade nibibpress@mail.nih.gov 301- ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  17. Minimal RED cell pairs markedly improve electrode kinetics and power production in microbial reverse electrodialysis cells.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Roland D; Hatzell, Marta; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-12-17

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m(2)-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m(2)), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m(2); WW: 1.9 W/m(2)). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m(2)-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m(2)) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m(2)-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m(2)) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m(2)-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. PMID:24224718

  18. Improved quality control method for Danshen products--consideration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic active components.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Chow, Moses; Zuo, Zhong

    2006-06-01

    The current study intends to provide an improved quality control analysis for Danshen product-a representative herbal product with known active components that are both hydrophilic and lipophilic in nature. A simple HPLC method with photodiode-array (PDA) ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major lipophilic components (cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA) and three major hydrophilic components (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B) of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These six components were successfully separated using Radial-pak C18 cartridge with the elution gradient consisting of 0.5% acetic acid in water and 0.5% acetic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the analysis were within 2.32 and 2.0%, respectively. The detection limits were 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.05, 0.005 and 0.02 microg/ml for cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of above six major components in Fufang Danshen Tablet and Dripping Pill products by extraction with methanol and water. It has been demonstrated that salvianolic acid B and danshensu are the major components among the eight commercial Fufang Danshen products studied. The current developed method with methanol as extraction solvent provides a simple and efficient method for simultaneous detection of both lipophilic and hydrophilic major components in Danshen products. PMID:16458472

  19. Simultaneous improvement in water use, productivity and albedo through canopy structural modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewry, Darren; Kumar, Praveen; Long, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural lands provide a tremendous opportunity to address challenges at the intersection of food and water security and climate change. Global demand for the major grain and seed crops is beginning to outstrip production, while population growth and the expansion of the global middle class have motivated calls for a doubling of food production by the middle of this century. This is occurring as yield gains for the major food crops have stagnated. At current rates of yield improvement this doubling will not be achieved. Plants have evolved to maximize the capture of radiation in the upper leaves, resulting in sub-optimal monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Using the world's most important protein crop, soybean, as an example, we show that by applying numerical optimization to a micrometeorological crop canopy model that significant, simultaneous gains in water use, productivity and reflectivity are possible with no increased demand on resources. Here we apply the MLCan multi-layer canopy biophysical model, which vertically resolves the radiation and micro-environmental variations that stimulate biochemical and ecophysiological functions that govern canopy-atmosphere exchange processes. At each canopy level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and energy balance are solved simultaneously for shaded and sunlit foliage. A multi-layer sub-surface model incorporates water availability as a function of root biomass distribution. MLCan runs at sub-hourly temporal resolution, allowing it to capture variability in CO2, water and energy exchange as a function of environmental variability. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical distribution, leaf angle, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, we show that increases in either productivity (7%), water use (13%) or albedo (34%) could be achieved with no detriment to the other objectives, under climate

  20. Simultaneous Improvement in Water Use, Productivity and Albedo Through Crop Structural Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewry, D.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural lands provide a tremendous opportunity to address challenges at the intersection of climate change, food and water security. Global demand for the major grain and seed crops is beginning to outstrip production, while population growth and the expansion of the global middle class have motivated calls for a doubling of food production by the middle of this century. This is occurring as yield gains for the major food crops have stagnated. At current rates of yield improvement this doubling will not be achieved. Plants have evolved to maximize the capture of radiation in the upper leaves, resulting in sub-optimal monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Using the world's most important protein crop, soybean, as an example, we show that by applying numerical optimization to a micrometeorological crop canopy model that significant, simultaneous gains in water use, productivity and reflectivity are possible with no increased demand on resources. Here we apply the MLCan multi-layer canopy biophysical model, which vertically resolves the radiation and micro-environmental variations that stimulate biochemical and ecophysiological functions that govern canopy-atmosphere exchange processes. At each canopy level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and energy balance are solved simultaneously for shaded and sunlit foliage. A multi-layer sub-surface model accounts for water availability as a function of root biomass distribution. MLCan runs at sub-hourly temporal resolution, allowing it to capture variability in CO2, water and energy exchange as a function of environmental variability. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical distribution, leaf angle, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, we show that increases in either productivity (7%), water use (13%) or albedo (34%) could be achieved with no detriment to the other objectives, under United

  1. Oxygen enrichment of room air to improve well-being and productivity at high altitude.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    1999-01-01

    Increasingly, commercial activities, such as mines, and scientific facilities, such as telescopes, are being placed at very high altitudes, up to 5,000 m. Frequently workers commute to these locations from much lower altitudes, or even from sea level. In addition, large numbers of people permanently live and work at high altitudes. The hypoxia of high altitude impairs sleep quality, mental performance, productivity, and general well-being. Recently it has become feasible to raise the oxygen concentration of room air by injecting oxygen into the air conditioning. This is remarkably effective at reducing the equivalent altitude. For example, increasing the oxygen concentration by 1% (e.g., from 21% to 22%) reduces the equivalent altitude by about 300 m. In other words, a room at an altitude of 4,500 m containing 26% oxygen is effectively at an altitude of 3,000 m. Oxygen enrichment has now been tested in several studies and shown to improve sleep quality and cognitive function. The fire hazard is less than in air at sea level. This innovative technique promises to improve productivity and well-being at high altitude. PMID:10441257

  2. Titer improvement and pilot-scale production of platensimycin from Streptomyces platensis SB12026.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pan, Jian; Liu, Ling; Yang, Dong; Lu, Songquan; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Shen, Ben; Duan, Yanwen; Huang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), isolated from several strains of Streptomyces platensis are potent antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. PTM was also shown to have antidiabetic and antisteatotic activities in mouse models. Through a novel genome-mining method, we have recently identified six PTM and PTN dual-producing strains, and generated several mutants with improved production of PTM or PTN by inactivating the pathway-specific transcriptional repressor gene ptmR1. Among them, S. platensis SB12026 gave the highest titer of 310 mg/L for PTM. In this study, we now report titer improvement by medium and fermentation optimization and pilot-scale production and isolation of PTM from SB12026. The fermentation medium optimization was achieved by manipulating the carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as the inorganic salts. The highest titer of 1560 mg/L PTM was obtained in 15-L fermentors, using a formulated medium mainly containing soluble starch, soybean flour, morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt and CaCO3. In addition, a polyamide chromatographic step was applied to facilitate the purification and 45.14 g of PTM was successfully obtained from a 60 L scale fermentation. These results would speed up the future development of PTM as human medicine. PMID:27126098

  3. Municipal solid waste compost application improves productivity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity of Mesembryanthemum edule.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Falleh, Hanen; Ouni, Youssef; Oueslati, Samia; Debez, Ahmed; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly

    2011-07-15

    Organic wastes were successfully used as soil amendment to improve agrosystems productivity. Yet, the effectiveness of this practice to enhance plant antioxidant capacities has received little attention. Here, we assess the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (at 40 t ha(-1)) on growth, polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Mesembryanthemum edule. MSW compost application significantly increased the soil contents of carbon, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. This was associated with higher nutrient (N, P, and K) uptake, which likely led to the significant improvement of the plant biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) (+93% on average) as compared to the control. In the same way, the fertilizing effect of the added organic matter significantly enhanced the antioxidant potential M. edule, assessed by radical scavenging activity, iron reducing power and β-carotene bleaching capacity. This was associated with significantly higher antioxidant contents, mainly total phenols and flavonoids. Heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) concentrations were slightly increased upon compost application, but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Overall, our results point out that short-term MSW compost application at 40 t ha(-1) is efficient in enhancing the productivity together with the antioxidant potentiality of M. edule without any adverse environmental impact. PMID:21605936

  4. Immunization against inhibin improves in vivo and in vitro embryo production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Leyan; Li, Hui; Shi, Zhendan

    2015-12-01

    The multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technique has become an important breeding method in modern animal selection programs and a reproductive technique that can bypass ovarian dysfunction caused by heat stress to maintain reproductive performances in dairy cows. However, oocyte and embryo development often suffer from defects following repeated superovulation protocols. This phenomenon might be attributed to high levels of circulating inhibin, which is secreted by the supra-normal numbers of developing follicles during the process of superovulation. Through inhibin's negative impact on ovarian follicle development, high concentrations of inhibin might reduce oocyte quality and embryo developmental competence. Neutralizing endogenous inhibin bioactivities by active or passive immunizations against inhibin has been demonstrated to stimulate extra follicle development and induce multiple ovulations in both rodents and ruminants. Combined with conventional superovulatory protocols, immunization against inhibin further enhances follicle development and embryo yield. Furthermore, immunization against inhibin not only enhanced embryo quantity but also embryo quality in studies conducted in cows, sheep and water buffaloes. Similar beneficial effects on enhancing embryo development quality have been demonstrated in in vitro studies, where treatment with inhibin α subunit antibody enhances oocyte maturation and development of IVF or parthenogenically activated embryos. Thus, immunization against inhibin in combination with a conventional superovulation protocol can become a new technique to improve embryo production efficiency in vivo, as well as to develop a new oocyte IVM/IVF technique that can improve embryo IVP production efficiency. PMID:26573762

  5. Solid state fermentation for production of microbial cellulases: Recent advances and improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sudhanshu S; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-05-01

    Lignocellulose is the most plentiful non-food biomass and one of the most inexhaustible renewable resources on the planet, which is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second generation biofuels. Lignocelluloses are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, in which the sugar polymers account for a large portion of the biomass. Cellulases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family and catalyze the hydrolysis of glyosidic linkages depolymerizing cellulose to fermentable sugars. They are multi-enzymatic complex proteins and require the synergistic action of three key enzymes: endoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.4), exoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.176) (E.C. 3.2.1.91) and β-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.21) for the depolymerization of cellulose to glucose. Solid state fermentation, which holds growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free flowing water, has gained considerable attention of late due its several advantages over submerged fermentation. The review summarizes the critical analysis of recent literature covering production of cellulase in solid state fermentation using advance technologies such as consolidated bioprocessing, metabolic engineering and strain improvement, and circumscribes the strategies to improve the enzyme yield. PMID:26601764

  6. Improving matrix-vector product performance and multi-level preconditioning for the parallel PCG package

    SciTech Connect

    McLay, R.T.; Carey, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    In this study we consider parallel solution of sparse linear systems arising from discretized PDE`s. As part of our continuing work on our parallel PCG Solver package, we have made improvements in two areas. The first is improving the performance of the matrix-vector product. Here on regular finite-difference grids, we are able to use the cache memory more efficiently for smaller domains or where there are multiple degrees of freedom. The second problem of interest in the present work is the construction of preconditioners in the context of the parallel PCG solver we are developing. Here the problem is partitioned over a set of processors subdomains and the matrix-vector product for PCG is carried out in parallel for overlapping grid subblocks. For problems of scaled speedup, the actual rate of convergence of the unpreconditioned system deteriorates as the mesh is refined. Multigrid and subdomain strategies provide a logical approach to resolving the problem. We consider the parallel trade-offs between communication and computation and provide a complexity analysis of a representative algorithm. Some preliminary calculations using the parallel package and comparisons with other preconditioners are provided together with parallel performance results.

  7. [Improvement of butanol production by Escherichia coli via Tn5 transposon mediated mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhao; Dong, Hongjun; Li, Yin

    2015-12-01

    For engineering an efficient butanol-producing Escherichia coli strain, many efforts have been paid on the known genes or pathways based on current knowledge. However, many genes in the genome could also contribute to butanol production in an unexpected way. In this work, we used Tn5 transposon to construct a mutant library including 1 196 strains in a previously engineered butanol-producing E. coli strain. To screen the strains with improved titer of butanol production, we developed a high-throughput method for pyruvate detection based on dinitrophenylhydrazine reaction using 96-well microplate reader, because pyruvate is the precursor of butanol and its concentration is inversely correlated with butanol in the fermentation broth. Using this method, we successfully screened three mutants with increased butanol titer. The insertion sites of Tn5 transposon was in the ORFs of pykA, tdk, and cadC by inverse PCR and sequencing. These found genes would be efficient targets for further strain improvement. And the genome scanning strategy described here will be helpful for other microbial cell factory construction. PMID:27093834

  8. Improving Fatty Acid Availability for Bio-Hydrocarbon Production in Escherichia coli by Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fengming; Chen, Yu; Levine, Robert; Lee, Kilho; Yuan, Yingjin; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of producing fatty-acid-derived hydrocarbons in Escherichia coli. However, product titers and yields remain low. In this work, we demonstrate new methods for improving fatty acid production by modifying central carbon metabolism and storing fatty acids in triacylglycerol. Based on suggestions from a computational model, we deleted seven genes involved in aerobic respiration, mixed-acid fermentation, and glyoxylate bypass (in the order of cyoA, nuoA, ndh, adhE, dld, pta, and iclR) to modify the central carbon metabolic/regulatory networks. These gene deletions led to increased total fatty acids, which were the highest in the mutants containing five or six gene knockouts. Additionally, when two key enzymes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were over-expressed, we observed further increase in strain △cyoA△adhE△nuoA△ndh△pta△dld, leading to 202 mg/g dry cell weight of total fatty acids, ~250% of that in the wild-type strain. Meanwhile, we successfully introduced a triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway into E. coli through heterologous expression of wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) enzymes. The added pathway improved both the amount and fuel quality of the fatty acids. These new metabolic engineering strategies are providing promising directions for future investigation. PMID:24147139

  9. CC process optimization through an improved thermal modeling of the cast steel products

    SciTech Connect

    Selaries, J.; Hoffbeck, AM.; Jolivet, JM.; Niederlaender, M.; Perrin, G.; Bobadilla, M.

    1997-12-31

    Heat transfer models developed for continuous casting are more and more becoming simulation tools for defining, from metallurgical criteria, the values of casting parameters (superheat, primary and secondary cooling, casting speed,...) in order to obtain quality products (free from surface cracks and having a low level of central segregation) in the framework of a given production. From this outlook, it is important to have reliable models for the description of the basic mechanisms (heat transfer, microsegregation) as well as for the values relative to the thermophysical data to be used (thermal conductivity, density, enthalpy,...). The studies conducted by IRSID in these fields have made it possible to define the improvements to be brought to the thermal models of continuous casting that are already available. In the first part of this paper, the principles of the improvements brought to the basic models are presented in detail: mathematical formulation taking into account the evolution of the thermal conductivity and the density of steel with temperature, introduction of the microsegregation model adapted to various steel grades (low carbon steels, high carbon steels, stainless steels,...) and selection of the thermophysical data (thermal conductivity, density, enthalpy) with respect to the steel grade. In the second part, some industrial applications of the new model for heat transfers in continuous casting are presented.

  10. Realization of a minimal disturbance quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Sciarrino, F; Ricci, M; De Martini, F; Filip, R; Mista, L

    2006-01-20

    We report the first experimental realization of an "optimal" quantum device able to perform a minimal disturbance measurement on polarization encoded qubits saturating the theoretical boundary established between the classical knowledge acquired of any input state, i.e., a "classical guess," and the fidelity of the same state after disturbance due to measurement. The device has been physically realized by means of a linear optical qubit manipulation, postselection measurement, and a classical feed-forward process. PMID:16486551

  11. Improving high-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation via fusion of multiple radar-based precipitation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafieeinasab, Arezoo; Norouzi, Amir; Seo, Dong-Jun; Nelson, Brian

    2015-12-01

    For monitoring and prediction of water-related hazards in urban areas such as flash flooding, high-resolution hydrologic and hydraulic modeling is necessary. Because of large sensitivity and scale dependence of rainfall-runoff models to errors in quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE), it is very important that the accuracy of QPE be improved in high-resolution hydrologic modeling to the greatest extent possible. With the availability of multiple radar-based precipitation products in many areas, one may now consider fusing them to produce more accurate high-resolution QPE for a wide spectrum of applications. In this work, we formulate and comparatively evaluate four relatively simple procedures for such fusion based on Fisher estimation and its conditional bias-penalized variant: Direct Estimation (DE), Bias Correction (BC), Reduced-Dimension Bias Correction (RBC) and Simple Estimation (SE). They are applied to fuse the Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and radar-only Next Generation QPE (Q2) products at the 15-min 1-km resolution (Experiment 1), and the MPE and Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) QPE products at the 15-min 500-m resolution (Experiment 2). The resulting fused estimates are evaluated using the 15-min rain gauge observations from the City of Grand Prairie in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) in north Texas. The main criterion used for evaluation is that the fused QPE improves over the ingredient QPEs at their native spatial resolutions, and that, at the higher resolution, the fused QPE improves not only over the ingredient higher-resolution QPE but also over the ingredient lower-resolution QPE trivially disaggregated using the ingredient high-resolution QPE. All four procedures assume that the ingredient QPEs are unbiased, which is not likely to hold true in reality even if real-time bias correction is in operation. To test robustness under more realistic conditions, the fusion procedures were evaluated with and

  12. The prospects of selection for social genetic effects to improve welfare and productivity in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Ellen, Esther D.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Albers, Gerard A. A.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Camerlink, Irene; Duijvesteijn, Naomi; Knol, Egbert F.; Muir, William M.; Peeters, Katrijn; Reimert, Inonge; Sell-Kubiak, Ewa; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.; Visscher, Jeroen; Bijma, Piter

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between individuals living in a group can have both positive and negative effects on welfare, productivity, and health of these individuals. Negative effects of social interactions in livestock are easier to observe than positive effects. For example, laying hens may develop feather pecking, which can cause mortality due to cannibalism, and pigs may develop tail biting or excessive aggression. Several studies have shown that social interactions affect the genetic variation in a trait. Genetic improvement of socially-affected traits, however, has proven to be difficult until relatively recently. The use of classical selection methods, like individual selection, may result in selection responses opposite to expected, because these methods neglect the effect of an individual on its group mates (social genetic effects). It has become clear that improvement of socially-affected traits requires selection methods that take into account not only the direct effect of an individual on its own phenotype but also the social genetic effects, also known as indirect genetic effects, of an individual on the phenotypes of its group mates. Here, we review the theoretical and empirical work on social genetic effects, with a focus on livestock. First, we present the theory of social genetic effects. Subsequently, we evaluate the evidence for social genetic effects in livestock and other species, by reviewing estimates of genetic parameters for direct and social genetic effects. Then we describe the results of different selection experiments. Finally, we discuss issues concerning the implementation of social genetic effects in livestock breeding programs. This review demonstrates that selection for socially-affected traits, using methods that target both the direct and social genetic effects, is a promising, but sometimes difficult to use in practice, tool to simultaneously improve production and welfare in livestock. PMID:25426136

  13. The prospects of selection for social genetic effects to improve welfare and productivity in livestock.

    PubMed

    Ellen, Esther D; Rodenburg, T Bas; Albers, Gerard A A; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Camerlink, Irene; Duijvesteijn, Naomi; Knol, Egbert F; Muir, William M; Peeters, Katrijn; Reimert, Inonge; Sell-Kubiak, Ewa; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Visscher, Jeroen; Bijma, Piter

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between individuals living in a group can have both positive and negative effects on welfare, productivity, and health of these individuals. Negative effects of social interactions in livestock are easier to observe than positive effects. For example, laying hens may develop feather pecking, which can cause mortality due to cannibalism, and pigs may develop tail biting or excessive aggression. Several studies have shown that social interactions affect the genetic variation in a trait. Genetic improvement of socially-affected traits, however, has proven to be difficult until relatively recently. The use of classical selection methods, like individual selection, may result in selection responses opposite to expected, because these methods neglect the effect of an individual on its group mates (social genetic effects). It has become clear that improvement of socially-affected traits requires selection methods that take into account not only the direct effect of an individual on its own phenotype but also the social genetic effects, also known as indirect genetic effects, of an individual on the phenotypes of its group mates. Here, we review the theoretical and empirical work on social genetic effects, with a focus on livestock. First, we present the theory of social genetic effects. Subsequently, we evaluate the evidence for social genetic effects in livestock and other species, by reviewing estimates of genetic parameters for direct and social genetic effects. Then we describe the results of different selection experiments. Finally, we discuss issues concerning the implementation of social genetic effects in livestock breeding programs. This review demonstrates that selection for socially-affected traits, using methods that target both the direct and social genetic effects, is a promising, but sometimes difficult to use in practice, tool to simultaneously improve production and welfare in livestock. PMID:25426136

  14. Long-term operation of microbial electrosynthesis systems improves acetate production by autotrophic microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher W; Ross, Daniel E; Fichot, Erin B; Norman, R Sean; May, Harold D

    2013-06-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis is the biocathode-driven production of chemicals from CO2 and has the promise to be a sustainable, carbon-consuming technology. To date, microbial electrosynthesis of acetate, the first step in order to generate liquid fuels from CO2, has been characterized by low rates and yields. To improve performance, a previously established acetogenic biocathode was operated in semi-batch mode at a poised potential of -590 mV vs SHE for over 150 days beyond its initial development. Rates of acetate production reached a maximum of 17.25 mM day(-1) (1.04 g L(-1) d(-1)) with accumulation to 175 mM (10.5 g L(-1)) over 20 days. Hydrogen was also produced at high rates by the biocathode, reaching 100 mM d(-1) (0.2 g L(-1) d(-1)) and a total accumulation of 1164 mM (2.4 g L(-1)) over 20 days. Phylogenetic analysis of the active electrosynthetic microbiome revealed a similar community structure to what was observed during an earlier stage of development of the electroacetogenic microbiome. Acetobacterium spp. dominated the active microbial population on the cathodes. Also prevalent were Sulfurospirillum spp. and an unclassified Rhodobacteraceae. Taken together, these results demonstrate the stability, resilience, and improved performance of electrosynthetic biocathodes following long-term operation. Furthermore, sustained product formation at faster rates by a carbon-capturing microbiome is a key milestone addressed in this study that advances microbial electrosynthesis systems toward commercialization. PMID:23676111

  15. Improved NADPH supply for xylitol production by engineered Escherichia coli with glycolytic mutations.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jonathan W; Cirino, Patrick C

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli engineered to uptake xylose while metabolizing glucose was previously shown to produce high levels of xylitol from a mixture of glucose and xylose when expressing NADPH-dependent xylose reductase from Candida boidinii (CbXR) (Cirino et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006;95:1167-1176). We then described the effects of deletions of key metabolic pathways (e.g., Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas and pentose phosphate pathway) and reactions (e.g., transhydrogenase and NADH dehydrogenase) on resting-cell xylitol yield (Y RPG: moles of xylitol produced per mole of glucose consumed) (Chin et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:209-220). These prior results demonstrated the importance of direct NADPH supply by NADP+-utilizing enzymes in central metabolism for driving heterologous NADPH-dependent reactions. This study describes strain modifications that improve coupling between glucose catabolism (oxidation) and xylose reduction using two fundamentally different strategies. We first examined the effects of deleting the phosphofructokinase (pfk) gene(s) on growth-uncoupled xylitol production and found that deleting both pfkA and sthA (encoding the E. coli-soluble transhydrogenase) improved the xylitol Y RPG from 3.4 ± 0.6 to 5.4 ± 0.4. The second strategy focused on coupling aerobic growth on glucose to xylitol production by deleting pgi (encoding phosphoglucose isomerase) and sthA. Impaired growth due to imbalanced NADPH metabolism (Sauer et al., J Biol Chem. 2004;279:6613-6619) was alleviated upon expressing CbXR, resulting in xylitol production similar to that of the growth-uncoupled precursor strains but with much less acetate secretion and more efficient utilization of glucose. Intracellular nicotinamide cofactor levels were also quantified, and the magnitude of the change in the NADPH/NADP+ ratio measured from cells consuming glucose in the absence vs. presence of xylose showed a strong correlation to the resulting Y RPG. PMID:21344680

  16. Current Status of the SOLIS Program: Improved and New Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Luca; Britanik, John; Callahan, Lorraine; Gosain, Sanjay; Harker, Brian; Harvey, J. W.; Hughes, A.; Marble, A.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Wentzel, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Over the past year the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) team has made significant improvements to the data products provided to the solar and heliospheric community. In particular, a considerable effort has been dedicated to reprocess the archive of vector and longitudinal photospheric magnetograms, from 2003 to present, using the latest production code. This endeavor is now near completion and will assure that all derived magnetic products, such as synoptic maps and flux time series, are consistently calibrated. In addition, new products have been recently developed. For example, time series of daily averages of the Sun's polar magnetic field derived from full-disk photospheric FeI 630.15 nm longitudinal magnetograms are now available from the SOLIS website at solis.nso.edu/0/vsm/vsm_plrfield.html.New intensity calibration of high resolution Ca II K & H spectra from the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS) led to significant reduction in daily variations of parameters derived from these spectra. The SOLIS team will soon also release Carrington synoptic maps for the three components of the photospheric magnetic field derived from vector measurements taken in the Fe I 630.15 nm spectral line. The addition, in late 2015, of a new Ca II 854.2 nm full-Stokes polarimeter into the SOLIS core program of magnetic observations will make available to the community daily chromospheric measurements of the complete Stokes polarization vector.We present here a summary of these improvements, with particular emphasis on the new products that can be accessed from the SOLIS data page at solis.nso.edu/0/solis_data.html. For a description of the diagnostic capability of the new Ca II 854.2 nm spectro-polarimeter and preliminary results we refer to other presentations by SOLIS team members at this meeting.This work utilizes SOLIS data obtained by the NSO Integrated Synoptic Program (NISP), managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by the

  17. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  18. Engineering MoSx/Ti/InP Hybrid Photocathode for Improved Solar Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Zheng, Maojun; Zhong, Miao; Ma, Liguo; Wang, Faze; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-07-01

    Due to its direct band gap of ~1.35 eV, appropriate energy band-edge positions, and low surface-recombination velocity, p-type InP has attracted considerable attention as a promising photocathode material for solar hydrogen generation. However, challenges remain with p-type InP for achieving high and stable photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances. Here, we demonstrate that surface modifications of InP photocathodes with Ti thin layers and amorphous MoSx nanoparticles can remarkably improve their PEC performances. A high photocurrent density with an improved PEC onset potential is obtained. Electrochemical impedance analyses reveal that the largely improved PEC performance of MoSx/Ti/InP is attributed to the reduced charge-transfer resistance and the increased band bending at the MoSx/Ti/InP/electrolyte interface. In addition, the MoSx/Ti/InP photocathodes function stably for PEC water reduction under continuous light illumination over 2 h. Our study demonstrates an effective approach to develop high-PEC-performance InP photocathodes towards stable solar hydrogen production.

  19. Engineering MoSx/Ti/InP Hybrid Photocathode for Improved Solar Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Zheng, Maojun; Zhong, Miao; Ma, Liguo; Wang, Faze; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Due to its direct band gap of ~1.35 eV, appropriate energy band-edge positions, and low surface-recombination velocity, p-type InP has attracted considerable attention as a promising photocathode material for solar hydrogen generation. However, challenges remain with p-type InP for achieving high and stable photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances. Here, we demonstrate that surface modifications of InP photocathodes with Ti thin layers and amorphous MoSx nanoparticles can remarkably improve their PEC performances. A high photocurrent density with an improved PEC onset potential is obtained. Electrochemical impedance analyses reveal that the largely improved PEC performance of MoSx/Ti/InP is attributed to the reduced charge-transfer resistance and the increased band bending at the MoSx/Ti/InP/electrolyte interface. In addition, the MoSx/Ti/InP photocathodes function stably for PEC water reduction under continuous light illumination over 2 h. Our study demonstrates an effective approach to develop high-PEC-performance InP photocathodes towards stable solar hydrogen production. PMID:27431993

  20. Organic amendments for improving biomass production and metal yield of Ni-hyperaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-López, V; Prieto-Fernández, Á; Cabello-Conejo, M I; Kidd, P S

    2016-04-01

    Ni phytomining is a promising technology for Ni recovery from low-grade ores such as ultramafic soils. Metal-hyperaccumulators are good candidates for phytomining due to their extraordinary capacity for Ni accumulation. However, many of these plants produce a low biomass, which makes the use of agronomic techniques for improving their growth necessary. In this study, the Ni hyperaccumulators Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum, A. serpyllifolium ssp. malacitanum, Alyssum bertolonii and Noccaea goesingense were evaluated for their Ni phytoextraction efficiency from a Ni-rich serpentine soil. Effects of soil inorganic fertilisation (100:100:125kgNPKha(-1)) and soil organic amendment addition (2.5, 5 or 10% compost) on plant growth and Ni accumulation were determined. All soil treatments greatly improved plant growth, but the highest biomass production was generally found after addition of 2.5 or 5% compost (w/w). The most pronounced beneficial effects were observed for N. goesingense. Total Ni phytoextracted from soils was significantly improved using both soil treatments (inorganic and organic), despite the decrease observed in soil Ni availability and shoot Ni concentrations in compost-amended soils. The most promising results were found using intermediate amount of compost, indicating that these types of organic wastes can be incorporated into phytomining systems. PMID:26803735