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Sample records for reappraisal positive reappraisal

  1. The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adult Cognitive Reappraisal: Detached and Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control– shifting, updating or inhibition–might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults. PMID:28326024

  2. The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adult Cognitive Reappraisal: Detached and Positive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control- shifting, updating or inhibition-might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults.

  3. The Role of Mindfulness in Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric; Gaylord, Susan; Park, Jongbae

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation is increasingly well known for therapeutic efficacy in a variety of illnesses and conditions, but its mechanism of action is still under debate in scientific circles. In this paper we propose a hypothetical causal model that argues for the role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal coping. Positive reappraisal is a critical component of meaning-based coping that enables individuals to adapt successfully to stressful life events. Mindfulness, as a metacognitive form of awareness, involves the process of decentering, a shifting of cognitive sets that enables alternate appraisals of life events. We review the concept of positive reappraisal in transactional stress and coping theory; then describe research and traditional literature related to mindfulness and cognitive reappraisal, and detail the central role of mindfulness in the reappraisal process. With this understanding, we present a causal model explicating the proposed mechanism. The discussion has implications for clinical practice, suggesting how mindfulness-based integrative medicine interventions can be designed to support adaptive coping processes. PMID:19114262

  4. Effects of Aging on Experimentally Instructed Detached Reappraisal, Positive Reappraisal, and Emotional Behavior Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Michelle N.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion regulation includes multiple strategies that rely upon different underlying abilities, and that may be affected differently by aging. We assessed young, middle-aged, and older adults' ability to implement three emotion regulation strategies (detached reappraisal, positive reappraisal, and behavior suppression) in a laboratory setting, using standardized emotional stimuli and a multi-method approach to assessing regulation success. Results revealed age-related decline in ability to implement detached reappraisal, enhancement of ability to implement positive reappraisal, and maintenance of ability to implement behavior suppression. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for emotion theory and for promoting successful aging. PMID:20025404

  5. The temporal dynamics of detached versus positive reappraisal: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Senqing; Li, Yangping; Tang, Xuemei; Zeng, Qinghong; Diao, Liuting; Li, Xiying; Li, Hong; Hu, Weiping

    2017-01-23

    Detached reappraisal and positive reappraisal are regarded as two distinct types of cognitive reappraisal strategy, and the former is considered more disengaging than the latter. The conceptual framework of emotion regulation choice posits that strategies involving disengagement operate earlier and more efficiently than engagement strategies. Here, we compare for the first time the temporal dynamics of detached and positive reappraisal during the regulation and re-exposure phases thereof by measuring event-related potentials. During the regulation phase, pictures were viewed or regulated using detached or positive reappraisal. During the re-exposure phase, the same pictures were viewed again. Results showed that during regulation, central-parietal late positive potentials (LPPs) were greatly attenuated under both strategy types, with the regulation effect of detached reappraisal occurring earlier than that of positive reappraisal and resulting in a stronger attenuation of LPP amplitudes. Upon re-exposure, detached reappraisal exerted enduring effects on self-reported arousal and the central-parietal LPP, whereas positive reappraisal had an enduring effect only on pleasantness. These findings demonstrate the differential effects of detached and positive reappraisal on valence, arousal, and neural responses, and underline the striking differences in the temporal dynamics of these reappraisal strategies.

  6. Turn down the volume or change the channel? Emotional effects of detached versus positive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive reappraisal, or changing one's interpretation of an event in order to alter the emotional response to it, is thought to be a healthy and an effective emotion regulation strategy. Although researchers recognize several distinct varieties of reappraisal, few studies have explicitly compared the effects of multiple reappraisal strategies on emotional responding. The present study compares the effects of detached and positive reappraisal on thought content, subjective emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and facial expressions of emotion while viewing film clips evoking sadness and disgust. Although both forms of reappraisal reduced overall emotional responding to unpleasant stimuli, the effects of detached reappraisal were stronger in this regard, and positive reappraisal was more likely to maintain subjective experience and facial expression of stimulus-appropriate positive emotions. The two reappraisal strategies also produced somewhat different profiles of physiological responding. Differences between detached and positive reappraisal with respect to subjective experience and facial expression were more pronounced among men than women; the reverse was true for differences with respect to physiological responding. Beyond these effects on individual emotion response systems, detached and positive reappraisal also had somewhat different effects on coherence in change across response systems. Implications for our understanding of emotion regulation processes, and for emotion theory more broadly, are discussed.

  7. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-varies with Self-Reported Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Adam W.; Garland, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that mindfulness is associated with positive reappraisal and that mindfulness practice may be a means of encouraging positive reappraisal capacities. These findings, linking mindfulness with the promotion of cognitive coping strategies, challenge traditional Western conceptualizations of mindfulness as non-discursive. This study explored the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported positive reappraisal across five distinct samples: a general sample of American adults, contemplative practitioners, college students chronic pain outpatients, and alcohol dependent inpatient. Results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is positively related with self-reported positive reappraisal in all five studies as well as in an aggregated analysis combining all five studies. Furthermore, a second set of analyses statistically controlling for factors previously associated with positive reappraisal (i.e., psychological well-being, positive affect, and positive refocusing), provided evidence that mindfulness is uniquely associated with self-reported positive reappraisal. While more research is needed to refine our understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and positive reappraisal, the present investigation contributes to the growing evidence base supporting the hypothesized link between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported reappraisal by demonstrating a significant association between these constructs across a variety of samples and in the largest combined dataset on this phenomenon collected to date (N=819). PMID:24904191

  8. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-varies with Self-Reported Positive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Adam W; Garland, Eric L

    2014-08-01

    Emerging research suggests that mindfulness is associated with positive reappraisal and that mindfulness practice may be a means of encouraging positive reappraisal capacities. These findings, linking mindfulness with the promotion of cognitive coping strategies, challenge traditional Western conceptualizations of mindfulness as non-discursive. This study explored the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported positive reappraisal across five distinct samples: a general sample of American adults, contemplative practitioners, college students chronic pain outpatients, and alcohol dependent inpatient. Results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is positively related with self-reported positive reappraisal in all five studies as well as in an aggregated analysis combining all five studies. Furthermore, a second set of analyses statistically controlling for factors previously associated with positive reappraisal (i.e., psychological well-being, positive affect, and positive refocusing), provided evidence that mindfulness is uniquely associated with self-reported positive reappraisal. While more research is needed to refine our understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and positive reappraisal, the present investigation contributes to the growing evidence base supporting the hypothesized link between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported reappraisal by demonstrating a significant association between these constructs across a variety of samples and in the largest combined dataset on this phenomenon collected to date (N=819).

  9. Trait Reappraisal Predicts Affective Reactivity to Daily Positive and Negative Events

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Gul; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Past research on emotion regulation has provided evidence that cognitive reappraisal predicts reactivity to affective stimuli and challenge tests in laboratory settings. However, little is known about how trait reappraisal might contribute to affective reactivity to everyday positive and negative events. Using a large, life-span sample of adults (N = 1755), the present study addressed this important gap in the literature. Respondents completed a measure of trait reappraisal and reported on their daily experiences of positive and negative events and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. Results showed that trait reappraisal predicted lower increases in negative affect in response to daily negative events and lower increases in positive affect in response to daily positive events. These findings advance our understanding of the role of reappraisal in emotion regulation by showing how individual differences in the use of this strategy relate to emotional reactions to both positive and negative events outside the laboratory. PMID:27445954

  10. Rethinking emotion: cognitive reappraisal is an effective positive and negative emotion regulation strategy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Hay, Aleena C; Gross, James J

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal. Positive, negative, and neutral films were used to elicit emotion, and participants were cued to watch the film carefully (i.e., uninstructed condition) or reappraise while measures of affect, behavior, and psychophysiology were obtained. Results showed that reappraisal was associated with reductions in emotion reactivity across subjective (i.e., positive and negative affect), behavioral (i.e., positive facial displays), and physiological (i.e., skin conductance) response domains across all participants. Results suggest that reappraisal may be an effective regulation strategy for both negative and positive emotion across both healthy adults and individuals with bipolar disorder. Discussion focuses on clinical and treatment implications for bipolar disorder.

  11. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  12. Effects of Regulating Positive Emotions through Reappraisal and Suppression on Verbal and Non-Verbal Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ortner, Catherine N. M.; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647

  13. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  14. Reappraisal but not suppression downregulates the experience of positive and negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    The emotion regulation literature is growing exponentially, but there is limited understanding of the comparative strengths of emotion regulation strategies in downregulating positive emotional experiences. The present research made the first systematic investigation examining the consequences of using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategies to downregulate positive and negative emotion within a single design. Two experiments with over 1,300 participants demonstrated that reappraisal successfully reduced the experience of negative and positive affect compared with suppression and control conditions. Suppression did not reduce the experience of either positive or negative emotion relative to the control condition. This finding provides evidence against the assumption that expressive suppression reduces the experience of positive emotion. This work speaks to an emerging literature on the benefits of downregulating positive emotion, showing that suppression is an appropriate strategy when one wishes to reduce positive emotion displays while maintaining the benefits of positive emotional experience.

  15. Prayer and pain: the mediating role of positive re-appraisal.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, Jessie; Wachholtz, Amy; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored in a sample of Flemish pain patients the role of prayer as a possible individual factor in pain management. The focus on prayer as a personal religious factor fits with the current religious landscape in Western-Europe where personal religious factors are more important than organizational dimensions of religion. Our study is framed in the transactional theory of stress and coping by testing first, whether prayer was related with pain severity and pain tolerance and second, whether cognitive positive re-appraisal was a mediating mechanism in the association between prayer and pain. We expected that prayer would be related to pain tolerance in reducing the impact of the pain on patient's daily life, but not necessarily to pain severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, prayer, pain outcomes (i.e., pain severity and pain tolerance), and cognitive positive re-appraisal. Two hundred and two chronic pain (CP) patients, all members of a Flemish national patients association, completed the questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed that prayer was significantly related with pain tolerance, but not with pain severity. However, ancillary analyses revealed a moderational effect of religious affiliation in the relationship between prayer and pain severity as well as pain tolerance. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that cognitive positive re-appraisal was indeed an underlying mechanism in the relationship between prayer and pain tolerance. This study affirms the importance to distinguish between pain severity and pain tolerance, and indicates that prayer can play a role in pain management, especially for religious pain patients. Further, the findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and coping as the results indicate that positive re-appraisal might be an important underlying mechanism in the association between prayer and pain.

  16. Reappraising the voices of wrath.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive reappraisal recruits prefrontal and parietal cortical areas. Because of the near exclusive usage in past research of visual stimuli to elicit emotions, it is unknown whether the same neural substrates underlie the reappraisal of emotions induced through other sensory modalities. Here, participants reappraised their emotions in order to increase or decrease their emotional response to angry prosody, or maintained their attention to it in a control condition. Neural activity was monitored with fMRI, and connectivity was investigated by using psychophysiological interaction analyses. A right-sided network encompassing the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus and the inferior frontal gyrus was found to underlie the processing of angry prosody. During reappraisal to increase emotional response, the left superior frontal gyrus showed increased activity and became functionally coupled to right auditory cortices. During reappraisal to decrease emotional response, a network that included the medial frontal gyrus and posterior parietal areas showed increased activation and greater functional connectivity with bilateral auditory regions. Activations pertaining to this network were more extended on the right side of the brain. Although directionality cannot be inferred from PPI analyses, the findings suggest a similar frontoparietal network for the reappraisal of visually and auditorily induced negative emotions.

  17. Reappraising the voices of wrath

    PubMed Central

    Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal recruits prefrontal and parietal cortical areas. Because of the near exclusive usage in past research of visual stimuli to elicit emotions, it is unknown whether the same neural substrates underlie the reappraisal of emotions induced through other sensory modalities. Here, participants reappraised their emotions in order to increase or decrease their emotional response to angry prosody, or maintained their attention to it in a control condition. Neural activity was monitored with fMRI, and connectivity was investigated by using psychophysiological interaction analyses. A right-sided network encompassing the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus and the inferior frontal gyrus was found to underlie the processing of angry prosody. During reappraisal to increase emotional response, the left superior frontal gyrus showed increased activity and became functionally coupled to right auditory cortices. During reappraisal to decrease emotional response, a network that included the medial frontal gyrus and posterior parietal areas showed increased activation and greater functional connectivity with bilateral auditory regions. Activations pertaining to this network were more extended on the right side of the brain. Although directionality cannot be inferred from PPI analyses, the findings suggest a similar frontoparietal network for the reappraisal of visually and auditorily induced negative emotions. PMID:25964502

  18. Cognitive Costs of Reappraisal Depend on Both Emotional Stimulus Intensity and Individual Differences in Habitual Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Ste Marie, Mark; Corno, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Recent models of emotion regulation suggest that the cognitive costs of reappraisal depend on stimulus intensity and habitual reappraisal. In the current experiment, we tested these hypotheses by manipulating the intensity of unpleasant and pleasant images, which participants reappraised, viewed, or suppressed their emotions to. To assess cognitive costs, we measured participants’ performance on a concurrent simple reaction time task. Participants also reported on their everyday use of reappraisal and suppression. Higher intensity stimuli were associated with greater cognitive costs of reappraisal, for unpleasant, but not pleasant pictures. Also, greater habitual reappraisal predicted lower cognitive costs of reappraisal and greater reductions in subjective feelings. Results support the role of stimulus intensity and habitual use of reappraisal in predicting the cognitive costs of reappraisal. PMID:27936022

  19. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    PubMed

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources.

  20. Piece of cake. Cognitive reappraisal of food craving.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Nicole R; Calcott, Rebecca D; Berkman, Elliot T

    2013-05-01

    A common emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, involves altering the meaning of a situation so that the emotional response to the situation is changed. Most research on reappraisal has focused on down-regulation of negative emotion; few studies exist on reappraisal of positive affect, and even fewer have examined the cognitive reappraisal of craving for energy-dense (e.g., "junk") foods. In the present study we examined this form of cognitive reappraisal using a new adaptation of a classic emotion regulation task. Subjects chose idiosyncratic categories of craved (and not craved) energy-dense foods as stimuli, and were instructed either to look at the stimulus or to reappraise it in a way that reduced desire to eat the depicted food using a strategy that could be used in the real world. A repeated-measures ANOVA and follow-up tests revealed that reappraisal significantly reduced self-reported desirability of both Craved and Not Craved foods, but for a greater degree in Craved foods. In addition, the degree to which subjects decreased their desire to consume Craved foods positively correlated with the cognitive restraint subscale of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, a measure of self-control of eating in everyday life.

  1. Reappraisal Modulates Attentional Bias to Angry Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Ah; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Heightened attentional bias to emotional information is one of the main characteristics of disorders related to emotion dysregulation such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. Although reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy, is known to effectively modulate subjective experience of emotions, it remains unknown whether reappraisal can alter attentional biases to emotional information. In the current research, we investigated the influence of instruction-induced state reappraisal (Study 1) and trait reappraisal (Study 2) on attentional biases to happy and angry faces. In Study 1, healthy young women were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: up-, down-, and no-regulation. Participants were instructed to reappraise their emotions to increase and decrease emotional experience while viewing an emotionally negative film clip. Attentional bias was assessed with a dot-probe task with pictures of angry and happy facial expressions. In Study 2, a separate group of healthy young men and women participated. Participants’ trait reappraisal and suppression as well as state and trait anxiety were assessed. A dot-probe task was completed by all participants. Statistical tests in Study 1 revealed that participants who reappraised to decrease negative emotions while viewing an emotionally negative film clip had reduced attentional bias to subsequently presented angry faces compared to participants who reappraised to increase negative emotions. Multiple regression analyses in Study 2 revealed that trait reappraisal predicted slower orienting toward angry faces, whereas state anxiety predicted slower disengagement from angry faces. Interestingly, trait suppression predicted slower disengagement from happy faces. Taken together, these results suggest that both instruction-induced state reappraisal and trait reappraisal are linked to reduced attentional bias to negative information and contribute to better understanding of how everyday emotion

  2. 36 CFR 228.49 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reappraisal. 228.49 Section 228.49 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.49 Reappraisal. If an extension of time is granted...

  3. The effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, acceptance, and distancing when thinking about a stressful event on affect states in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bögels, Susan M; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition. Manipulation checks revealed that the manipulations were successful, except for acceptance. The two most reported events were "a fight" and "death of loved one". Results showed that positive reappraisal (i.e., thinking about the benefits and personal growth) caused a significantly larger increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared to rumination, distancing, and acceptance. Current findings implicate that positive reappraisal seems an adequate coping strategy in the short-term, and therefore could be applied in interventions for youth experiencing difficulties managing negative affect. Future research should focus on long-term effects of these cognitive strategies and on more intensive training of acceptance.

  4. Cognitive reappraisal increases neuroendocrine reactivity to acute social stress and physical pain.

    PubMed

    Denson, Thomas F; Creswell, J David; Terides, Matthew D; Blundell, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive reappraisal can foster emotion regulation, yet less is known about whether cognitive reappraisal alters neuroendocrine stress reactivity. Some initial evidence suggests that although long-term training in cognitive behavioral therapy techniques (which include reappraisal as a primary training component) can reduce cortisol reactivity to stress, some studies also suggest that reappraisal is associated with heightened cortisol stress reactivity. To address this mixed evidence, the present report describes two experimental studies that randomly assigned young adult volunteers to use cognitive reappraisal while undergoing laboratory stressors. Relative to the control condition, participants in the reappraisal conditions showed greater peak cortisol reactivity in response to a socially evaluative speech task (Experiment 1, N=90) and to a physical pain cold pressor task (Experiment 2, N=94). Participants in the cognitive reappraisal group also reported enhanced anticipatory psychological appraisals of self-efficacy and control in Experiment 2 and greater post-stressor self-efficacy. There were no effects of the reappraisal manipulation on positive and negative subjective affect, pain, or heart rate in either experiment. These findings suggest that although cognitive reappraisal fosters psychological perceptions of self-efficacy and control under stress, this effortful emotion regulation strategy in the short-term may increase cortisol reactivity. Discussion focuses on promising psychological mechanisms for these cognitive reappraisal effects.

  5. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  6. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  7. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a... the total purchase price established by the contract or last extension. The authorized officer...

  8. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a... the total purchase price established by the contract or last extension. The authorized officer...

  9. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a... the total purchase price established by the contract or last extension. The authorized officer...

  10. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under §...

  11. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-05-13

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers.

  12. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers. PMID:27187437

  13. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  14. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A; Froeliger, Brett E

    2015-04-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of "nonappraisal", yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 - 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal.

  15. God rest our hearts: Religiosity and cognitive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vishkin, Allon; Bigman, Yochanan E; Porat, Roni; Solak, Nevin; Halperin, Eran; Tamir, Maya

    2016-03-01

    Although religiosity is often accompanied by more intense emotions, we propose that people who are more religious may be better at using 1 of the most effective emotion regulation strategies-namely, cognitive reappraisal. We argue that religion, which is a meaning-making system, is linked to better cognitive reappraisal, which involves changing the meaning of emotional stimuli. Four studies (N = 2,078) supported our hypotheses. In Study 1, religiosity was associated with more frequent use of cognitive reappraisal in 3 distinct religions (i.e., Islam, Christianity, Judaism). In Studies 2A-2B, we replicated these findings using 2 indices of cognitive reappraisal and in a large representative sample. In Studies 3-4, individuals more (vs. less) religious were more effective in using cognitive reappraisal in the laboratory. We discuss how these findings inform our understanding of the psychology of religion and of emotion regulation.

  16. Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Robert; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Kashdan, Todd

    2017-03-01

    Most empirical studies of emotion regulation have relied on retrospective trait measures, and have not examined the link between daily regulatory strategies and every day emotional well-being. We used a daily diary methodology with multilevel modelling data analyses (n = 187) to examine the influence of three emotion regulation strategies (mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression) on the experience of daily negative and positive affect. Our results suggested that daily mindfulness was associated with lower negative and higher positive affect whereas the converse pattern was found for daily emotion suppression; cognitive reappraisal was related to daily positive, but not negative affect. When daily mindfulness, suppression and reappraisal were included in the same models, these strategies predicted unique variance in emotional well-being. Random slope analyses revealed substantial variability in the utility of these strategies. Indeed the presumably "adaptive" cognitive reappraisal strategy seemed to confer no benefit to the regulation of negative affect in approximately half the sample. Additional analyses revealed that age moderates the effect of cognitive reappraisal on daily negative affect: Higher use of reappraisal was associated with more negative affect for adolescents (aged 17 to 19) but became associated with less negative affect with increasing age. We interpret these results in line with a contextual view of emotion regulation where no strategy is inherently "good" or "bad".

  17. Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia.

    PubMed

    Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.

  18. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  19. Get excited: reappraising pre-performance anxiety as excitement.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alison Wood

    2014-06-01

    Individuals often feel anxious in anticipation of tasks such as speaking in public or meeting with a boss. I find that an overwhelming majority of people believe trying to calm down is the best way to cope with pre-performance anxiety. However, across several studies involving karaoke singing, public speaking, and math performance, I investigate an alternative strategy: reappraising anxiety as excitement. Compared with those who attempt to calm down, individuals who reappraise their anxious arousal as excitement feel more excited and perform better. Individuals can reappraise anxiety as excitement using minimal strategies such as self-talk (e.g., saying "I am excited" out loud) or simple messages (e.g., "get excited"), which lead them to feel more excited, adopt an opportunity mind-set (as opposed to a threat mind-set), and improve their subsequent performance. These findings suggest the importance of arousal congruency during the emotional reappraisal process.

  20. A reappraisal of ocean wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yeli; Huang, Norden E.

    2012-11-01

    A reappraisal of wave theory from the beginning to the present day is made here. On the surface, the great progress in both theory and applications seems to be so successful that there would be no great challenge in wave studies anymore. On deeper examination, we found problems in many aspects of wave studies starting from the definition of frequency, the governing equations, the various source functions of wave models, the directional development of wind wavefield, the wave spectral form and finally the role of waves as they affect coastal and global ocean dynamics. This is a call for action for the wave research community. For future research, we have to consider these problems seriously and also to examine the basic physics of wave motion to determine their effects on other ocean dynamic processes quantitatively, rather than relying on parameterization in oceanic and geophysical applications.

  1. The role of cognitive reappraisal in placebo analgesia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Marian; Kamping, Sandra; Anton, Fernand

    2017-03-17

    Placebo analgesia (PA) depends crucially on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is assumed to be responsible for initiating the analgesic response. Surprisingly little research has focused on the psychological mechanisms mediated by the PFC and underlying PA. One increasingly accepted theory is that cognitive reappraisal - the reinterpretation of the meaning of adverse events - plays an important role, but no study has yet addressed the possible functional relationship with PA. We studied the influence of individual differences in reappraisal ability on PA and its prefrontal mediation. Participants completed a cognitive reappraisal ability (CRA) task, which compared negative affect evoked by pictures in a reappraise versus a control condition. In a subsequent fMRI session, PA was induced using thermal noxious stimuli and an inert skin cream. We found a region in the left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), which showed a positive correlation between placebo-induced activation and 1) the reduction in participants' pain intensity ratings; and 2) CRA scores. Moreover, this region showed increased placebo-induced functional connectivity with the periaqueductal grey, indicating its involvement in descending nociceptive control. These initial findings thus suggest that cognitive reappraisal mechanisms mediated by the DLPFC may play a role in initiating pain inhibition in placebo analgesia.

  2. Inframammary fold: a histologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Muntan, C D; Sundine, M J; Rink, R D; Acland, R D

    2000-02-01

    The inframammary fold is a defining element in the shape and structure of the female breast. It should be preserved whenever possible in ablative procedures and recreated accurately when the breast is reconstructed after mastectomy. To date, no accurate anatomic description of this essential structure exists. Previous studies have suggested that the fold is produced by a supporting ligament running from the dermis in the fold region to a variety of locations on the rib cage. This clinic's experience with mastectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and breast reconstruction does not support the existence of a ligamentous structure. To define the structure of the inframammary fold, 10 female and 2 male cadavers were studied. The anterior chest wall was removed en bloc and frozen in orthostatic position. Parasagittal sections were made of the inframammary fold with the chest wall intact. After decalcification of the ribs and routine histologic preparation, thin sections were stained with Gomori's trichrome. On light microscopic examination, no demonstrable ligamentous structure of dense regular connective tissue could be identified in the fold region in any of the 12 specimens. Superficial and deep fascial layers were uniformly observed anterior to the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles. The superficial fascia was connected to the dermis in the fold region in a variety of configurations. In some cases, the deep fascia fused with the superficial fascia and dermis at the fold level. In other cases, bundles of collagen fibers arising from the superficial fascial layer were found to insert into the dermis at the inframammary fold, slightly inferior to it, or both. These bundles were observed consistently in sections from the sternum to the middle axillary line. They were distinct from Cooper's suspensory ligaments, which are seen more superiorly in the glandular tissue.

  3. Subjective responses to emotional stimuli during labeling, reappraisal, and distraction.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D; Inagaki, Tristen K; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Crockett, Molly J

    2011-06-01

    Although multiple neuroimaging studies suggest that affect labeling (i.e., putting feelings into words) can dampen affect-related responses in the amygdala, the consequences of affect labeling have not been examined in other channels of emotional responding. We conducted four studies examining the effect of affect labeling on self-reported emotional experience. In study one, self-reported distress was lower during affect labeling, compared to passive watching, of negative emotional pictures. Studies two and three added reappraisal and distraction conditions, respectively. Affect labeling showed similar effects on self-reported distress as both of these intentional emotion regulation strategies. In each of the first three studies, however, participant predictions about the effects of affect labeling suggest that unlike reappraisal and distraction, people do not believe affect labeling to be an effective emotion regulation strategy. Even after having the experience of affect labels leading to lower distress, participants still predicted that affect labeling would increase distress in the future. Thus, affect labeling is best described as an incidental emotion regulation process. Finally, study four employed positive emotional pictures and here, affect labeling was associated with diminished self-reported pleasure, relative to passive watching. This suggests that affect labeling tends to dampen affective responses in general, rather than specifically alleviating negative affect.

  4. Representation of Cognitive Reappraisal Goals in Frontal Gamma Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35–55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  5. High working memory load impairs the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional response: Evidence from an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Gan, Shuzhen; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Xuhai; Zhang, Xiuping; Yang, Yufang

    2017-02-03

    This study investigates how the working memory (WM) load influenced the efficacy of cognitive reappraisal, a frequently used strategy for emotion regulation. In a dual-task paradigm, the participants were required to perform a high-load or a low-load memory task and simultaneously reappraise aversive pictures with a negative or a neutral meaning. In the low-load condition, we found that the amplitude of emotion-enhanced late positive potential (LPP) was significantly decreased by neutral reappraisal compared to negative reappraisal. In the high-load condition, this regulatory effect of reappraisal disappeared. These results suggest that successful reappraisal relies on cognitive resources and WM processes. If the necessary resources involved in reappraisal are over-depleted by a concurrent memory task, the reappraisal effect will be impaired. Moreover, we found that emotion-enhanced LPP was significant in both of the high-load and low-load tasks, which suggests that emotional electrocortical response may not be susceptible to the available resources.

  6. Latex medical gloves: time for a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Palosuo, Timo; Antoniadou, Irini; Gottrup, Finn; Phillips, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves and a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of NRL allergies after interventions and education prompted us to revisit the basis for justifiable glove selection policies. The published Anglophone literature from 1990 to 2010 was reviewed for original articles and reviews dealing with the barrier and performance properties of NRL and synthetic gloves and the role of glove powder. The review shows that NRL medical gloves, when compared with synthetic gloves, tend to be stronger, more flexible and better accepted by clinicians. The introduction of powder-free gloves has been associated with reductions in protein content and associated allergies. Recently, new methods to quantify clinically relevant NRL allergens have enabled the identification of gloves with low allergenic potential. The use of low-protein, low-allergenic, powder-free gloves is associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of type I allergic reactions to NRL among healthcare workers. Given the excellent barrier properties and operating characteristics, dramatically reduced incidences of allergic reactions, availability of specific tests for selection of low-allergen gloves, competitive costs and low environmental impact, the use of NRL gloves within the hospital environment warrants reappraisal.

  7. Mechanical Ventilation in Sepsis: A Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fernando G; Mazza, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is the main cause of close to 70% of all cases of acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS). In addition, sepsis increases susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, the development of a ventilatory strategy that can achieve adequate oxygenation without injuring the lungs is highly sought after for patients with acute infection and represents an important therapeutic window to improve patient care. Suboptimal ventilatory settings cannot only harm the lung, but may also contribute to the cascade of organ failure in sepsis due to organ crosstalk.Despite the prominent role of sepsis as a cause for lung injury, most of the studies that addressed mechanical ventilation strategies in ARDS did not specifically assess sepsis-related ARDS patients. Consequently, most of the recommendations regarding mechanical ventilation in sepsis patients are derived from ARDS trials that included multiple clinical diagnoses. While there have been important improvements in general ventilatory management that should apply to all critically ill patients, sepsis-related lung injury might still have particularities that could influence bedside management.After revisiting the interplay between sepsis and ventilation-induced lung injury, this review will reappraise the evidence for the major components of the lung protective ventilation strategy, emphasizing the particularities of sepsis-related acute lung injury.

  8. Event-related induced frontal alpha as a marker of lateral prefrontal cortex activation during cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; MacNamara, Annmarie; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Electrocortical activity, typically used to track the effects of cognitive reappraisal on the processing of emotional stimuli, has not been used to index PFC-mediated regulatory mechanisms responsible for these effects. In the current study, we examined the novel possibility that induced frontal alpha (i.e., 8 – 13 Hz), shown to reflect the inhibition and disengagement of task-relevant cortical regions, may be quantified to explore cortical activation that is specifically enhanced during cognitive reappraisal. For this purpose, 44 participants viewed unpleasant and neutral pictures followed by auditory instructions to either continue viewing the picture or reduce emotional response to the picture by making the picture seem less emotional (i.e., cognitive reappraisal). In line with previous work, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures elicited a larger late positive potential (LPP). Also corroborating previous work, the mid-latency LPP was reduced when pictures were cognitively reappraised. However, the current study showed for the first time that whereas unpleasant pictures elicited higher frontal alpha power than the neutral pictures bilaterally, frontal alpha power was reduced (indicative of more activation and cognitive control) during cognitive reappraisal of both picture types over the left hemisphere. Taken together, the LPP and event-related induced frontal alpha findings contribute unique information about distinct neural substrates and cognitive processes underlying reappraisal. PMID:22773414

  9. Differential Effects of Goal Setting and Value Reappraisal on College Women's Motivation and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the differential effects of goal setting and value reappraisal on female students' self-efficacy beliefs, value perceptions, exam performance and continued interest in statistics. It was hypothesized that the Enhanced Goal Setting Intervention (GS-E) would positively impact students'…

  10. Argument, Counterargument, and Integration? Patterns of Argument Reappraisal in Controversial Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronostay, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Being challenged by opposing views in a controversial discussion can stimulate the production of more elaborate and sophisticated argumentations. According to the model of argument reappraisal (Leitão, 2000), such processes require transactivity, meaning that students do not only give reasons to support their own position (e.g., pro/contra…

  11. Intergroup Contact and Ingroup Reappraisal: Examining the Deprovincialization Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Bekhuis, Hidde

    2010-01-01

    According to the deprovincialization thesis, interethnic contact involves a reappraisal and distancing from the ingroup. Contact can broaden one's horizon by acknowledging and recognizing the value of other cultures and thereby putting the taken-for-granted own cultural standards into perspective. The current research uses data from three surveys…

  12. The neural basis of cognitive change: reappraisal of emotional faces modulates neural source activity in a frontoparietal attention network.

    PubMed

    Wessing, Ida; Rehbein, Maimu A; Postert, Christian; Fürniss, Tilman; Junghöfer, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Emotions can be regulated effectively via cognitive change, as evidenced by cognitive behavioural therapy. The neural correlates of cognitive change were investigated using reappraisal, a strategy that involves the reinterpretation of emotional stimuli. Hemodynamic studies revealed cortical structures involved in reappraisal and highlighted the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating subcortical affective processing. Studies using event-related potentials elucidated the timing of reappraisal by showing effective modulation of the Late Positive Potential (LPP) after 300ms but also even earlier effects. The present study investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the cortical network underlying cognitive change via inverse source modelling based on whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG). During MEG recording, 28 healthy participants saw angry and neutral faces and followed instructions designed to down- or up-regulate emotions via reappraisal. Differences between angry and neutral face processing were specifically enhanced during up-regulation, first in the parietal cortex during M170 and across the whole cortex during LPP-M, with particular involvement of the parietal and dorsal prefrontal cortex regions. Thus, our data suggest that the reappraisal of emotional faces involves specific modulations in a frontoparietal attention network.

  13. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-02-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal's neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses.

  14. 27 CFR 72.41 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property... OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.41 Re-appraisal of property... official appraisal thereof immediately following seizure: Provided, however, That if the petitioner...

  15. Reappraisal writing relieves social anxiety and may be accompanied by changes in frontal alpha asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Changming; Yin, Qin; Wang, Kui; Li, Dongdong; Mao, Mengchai; Zhu, Chaozhe; Huang, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that expressive writing can improve mental and physical health. However, to date, the neural correlates of expressive writing have not been reported. The current study examined the neural electrical correlates of expressive writing in a reappraisal approach. Three groups of participants were required to give a public speech. Before speaking, the reappraisal writing group was asked to write about the current stressful task in a reappraisal manner. The irrelevant writing group was asked to write about their weekly plan, and the non-writing group did not write anything. It was found that following the experimental writing manipulation, both reappraisal and irrelevant writing conditions decreased self-reported anxiety levels. But when re-exposed to the stressful situation, participants in the irrelevant writing group showed increased anxiety levels, while anxiety levels remained lower in the reappraisal group. During the experimental writing manipulation period, participants in the reappraisal group had lower frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. However, following re-exposure to stress, participants in the reappraisal group showed higher frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. Self-reported anxiety and frontal alpha asymmetry of the non-writing condition did not change significantly across these different stages. It is noteworthy that expressive writing in a reappraisal style seems not to be a fast-acting treatment but may instead take effect in the long run. PMID:26539146

  16. Reappraisal writing relieves social anxiety and may be accompanied by changes in frontal alpha asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Changming; Yin, Qin; Wang, Kui; Li, Dongdong; Mao, Mengchai; Zhu, Chaozhe; Huang, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that expressive writing can improve mental and physical health. However, to date, the neural correlates of expressive writing have not been reported. The current study examined the neural electrical correlates of expressive writing in a reappraisal approach. Three groups of participants were required to give a public speech. Before speaking, the reappraisal writing group was asked to write about the current stressful task in a reappraisal manner. The irrelevant writing group was asked to write about their weekly plan, and the non-writing group did not write anything. It was found that following the experimental writing manipulation, both reappraisal and irrelevant writing conditions decreased self-reported anxiety levels. But when re-exposed to the stressful situation, participants in the irrelevant writing group showed increased anxiety levels, while anxiety levels remained lower in the reappraisal group. During the experimental writing manipulation period, participants in the reappraisal group had lower frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. However, following re-exposure to stress, participants in the reappraisal group showed higher frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. Self-reported anxiety and frontal alpha asymmetry of the non-writing condition did not change significantly across these different stages. It is noteworthy that expressive writing in a reappraisal style seems not to be a fast-acting treatment but may instead take effect in the long run.

  17. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  18. Carbonates in Martian Meteorites - A Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, M. M.; Wright, I. P.; Douglas, C.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    The occurrence of carbonates in martian meteorites was first established after acid dissolution and stepped combustion analyses of whole-rock Nakhla [1]. The release of CO2 after a 24 hr. reaction with 100% H3PO4 at 25 degrees C was taken to imply that the carbonate mineral present was calcite, a proposal subsequently confirmed by petrographic examination [2]. The isotopic composition of the carbon comprising the calcite was enriched in 13C (isotopically heavy) with delta^(l3)C ~ +12 per mil. An extended period of acid attack, also at 25 degrees C, released small quantities of even more 13C-enriched CO2 (delta^(13)C ~ +49 per mil), but the isotopic data were considered uncertain, and thus little significance was attached to the result, beyond the suggestion that some carbonate was perhaps dolomite or iron-bearing. Now, however, following the analysis of Fe-Mg-rich carbonates in ALH 84001 [3-5], it is apparent that previously-reported data might underestimate the abundance and delta^(13)C of carbonates in SNCs [6], and that a much higher proportion might occur as siderite or dolomite end-members. Iron- and magnesium-rich carbonates are only partially attacked at 25 degrees C, even after extended exposure to H3PO4 [7]. Given that the delta^(13)C of carbonates in SNCs has been used to deduce both environmental conditions on Mars [4, 6], and the evolution of the martian atmosphere [8], it is desirable that correct delta^(l3)c values are known. We have undertaken a reappraisal of the chemical and isotopic composition of carbonates in martian meteorites, by a programme of high resolution stepped combustion analyses and high temperature (75 degrees C) acid dissolution . Carbonates in most martian meteorites are extremely fine-grained. and therefore not easv to identify by traditional optical microscopic methods; it is not possible to determine readily the mineralogical composition of the grains. Comparison of combustion data from SNCs with that from pure materials allows

  19. A reappraisal of loop diuretic choice in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Buggey, Jonathan; Mentz, Robert J; Pitt, Bertram; Eisenstein, Eric L; Anstrom, Kevin J; Velazquez, Eric J; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    The health and economic burden of heart failure is significant and continues to grow each year. Loop diuretics are an integral part of symptom management in heart failure. Furosemide is used disproportionately compared with other loop diuretics, and there is currently no guidance for physicians regarding which agent to choose. However, there exist pharmacologic differences as well as other mechanistic differences that appear to favor torsemide use over furosemide. Compared with furosemide, torsemide improves surrogate markers of heart failure severity such as left ventricular function, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and New York Heart Association functional class and may also reduce hospitalizations, readmissions, and mortality. Data suggest that these benefits could be mediated through torsemide's ability to positively affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Specifically, torsemide has been shown to inhibit aldosterone secretion, synthesis, and receptor binding in vitro, as well as decrease transcardiac extraction of aldosterone, myocardial collagen production, and cardiac fibrosis in patients with heart failure. We identified pertinent literature using keyword MEDLINE searches and cross-referencing prior bibliographies. We summarize the available data suggesting potential benefits with torsemide over furosemide, and call attention to the need for a reappraisal of diuretic use in heart failure patients and also for a well-powered, randomized control trial assessing torsemide versus furosemide use.

  20. Gut check: reappraisal of disgust helps explain liberal-conservative differences on issues of purity.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Antonenko, Olga; Willer, Robb; Horberg, E J; John, Oliver P

    2014-06-01

    Disgust plays an important role in conservatives' moral and political judgments, helping to explain why conservatives and liberals differ in their attitudes on issues related to purity. We examined the extent to which the emotion-regulation strategy reappraisal drives the disgust-conservatism relationship. We hypothesized that disgust has less influence on the political and moral judgments of liberals because they tend to regulate disgust reactions through emotional reappraisal more than conservatives. Study 1a found that a greater tendency to reappraise disgust was negatively associated with conservatism, independent of disgust sensitivity. Study 1b replicated this finding, demonstrating that the effect of reappraisal is unique to disgust. In Study 2, liberals condemned a disgusting act less than conservatives, and did so to the extent that they reappraised their initial disgust response. Study 3 manipulated participants' use of reappraisal when exposed to a video of men kissing. Conservatives instructed to reappraise their emotional reactions subsequently expressed more support for same-sex marriage than conservatives in the control condition, demonstrating attitudes statistically equivalent to liberal participants.

  1. Lead me not into temptation: using cognitive reappraisal to reduce goal inconsistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Véronique; Grégoire, Jacques; Magen, Eran; Gross, James J; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2012-01-01

    Temptations besiege us, and we must resist their appeal if we are to achieve our long-term goals. In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive reappraisal could be used to successfully maintain performance in a task embedded in temptation. In Study 1, 62 participants had to search for information on the Internet while resisting attractive task-irrelevant content on preselected sites. In Study 2, 58 participants had to count target words in a funny TV sequence. Compared to the no-reappraisal condition, participants who understood the situation as a test of willpower (the reappraisal condition) (1) performed better at the task (Studies 1 and 2), and (2) were less tempted by the attractive content of the TV sequence (Study 2). These findings suggest that, by making the temptation less attractive and the task more appealing, cognitive reappraisal can help us resist temptation.

  2. The unconscious regulation of emotion: nonconscious reappraisal goals modulate emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Bargh, John A; Nocera, Christopher C; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    People often encounter difficulty when making conscious attempts to regulate their emotions. We propose that nonconscious self-regulatory processes may be of help in these difficult circumstances because nonconscious processes are not subject to the same set of limitations as are conscious processes. Two experiments examined the effects of nonconsciously operating goals on people's emotion regulatory success. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in an anxiety-eliciting task. Participants who had a reappraisal emotion control goal primed and operating nonconsciously achieved the same decrease in physiological reactivity as those explicitly instructed to reappraise. In Experiment 2, the effect of nonconscious reappraisal priming on physiological reactivity was shown to be most pronounced for those who do not habitually use reappraisal strategies. The findings highlight the potential importance of nonconscious goals for facilitating emotional control in complex real-world environments and have implications for contemporary models of emotion regulation.

  3. The effect of cognitive reappraisal on the emotional memory trade-off.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Allie; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2011-11-01

    Emotional information is often remembered better than neutral information, but this enhancement can come at the cost of memory for non-emotional stimuli presented alongside emotionally salient items. Two encoding-related factors have been proposed to influence the magnitude of this trade-off: The intensity of the affective response to the scenes (which increases the trade-off) and the cognitive control exerted to process the scenes (which decreases the trade-off). The present study examined the relative importance of these two factors by assessing the effect of cognitive reappraisal on the magnitude of the trade-off effect. Cognitive reappraisal refers to the implementation of cognitive strategies to assist a person in changing the intensity of their response to an experience. Thus, reappraisal provides a way to assess both of the factors that are important for the elicitation of the trade-off. The results revealed that when participants were asked to view the scenes, without cognitive reappraisal, a robust memory trade-off occurred. But, when participants were asked to either heighten or decrease their emotional reactions via reappraisal, there was a reduction in the magnitude of the trade-off. These results suggest that the cognitive process of reappraising the scenes is sufficient to reduce the trade-off effect, even when such processing leads to an intensified affective response.

  4. Executive and semantic processes in reappraisal of negative stimuli: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Simone; Sambin, Marco; Viviani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled processes, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS) and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT). We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought. PMID:26217277

  5. Worrying about the Future: An Episodic Specificity Induction Impacts Problem Solving, Reappraisal, and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Helen G.; Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction – brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience – enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants’ performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i.e., more relevant steps) and an episodic reappraisal task (i.e., more episodic details) involving personally worrisome future events compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. Imagining constructive behaviors with increased episodic detail via the specificity induction was also related to significantly larger decreases in anxiety, perceived likelihood of a bad outcome, and perceived difficulty to cope with a bad outcome, as well as larger increases in perceived likelihood of a good outcome and indicated use of active coping behaviors compared with the control. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings using a more stringent control induction, and found preliminary evidence that the specificity induction was related to an increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared with the control. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in means-end problem solving and episodic reappraisal, and that increasing the episodic specificity of imagining constructive behaviors regarding worrisome events may be related to improved psychological well-being. PMID:26820166

  6. A basis for migraine therapy- the autonomic theory reappraised.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The concept that migraine results from an initial vasoconstriction due to increased release of noradrenaline from the sympathetic nerves to cranial blood vessels has been reappraised in the light of recently acquired knowledge of the mechanisms of action of drugs used in the treatment of migraine, physiological and pharmacological evidence implicating noradrenaline, and the observations by others that several migraine variants may be associated with some degree of sympathetic overactivity. If the theory is correct, it suggests that both prophylaxis and management of the acute condition should be possible by means of selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism. The use of drugs with potentially dangerous vasoconstrictor properties appears to be unnecessary. The suggestion is made that the increased adrenergic activity might result from changes within the hypothalamus. PMID:26908

  7. [A reappraisal of the works of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross].

    PubMed

    Afonso, Selene Beviláqua Chaves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a reappraisal of part of the works of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, one of the most quoted authors addressing the end of life process, mourning and dying. Her work has contributed to a clearer understanding of these issues by health professionals, families, religious and lay people who handle and/or experience mourning. She has also been the subject of controversy related to ethical issues and the scientific rigor of her work. The books analyzed in this article are: On death and dying (1969); Questions and answers on death and dying (1971); Living with death and dying (1981); On children and death(1983); On life after death (1991) and Life lessons (2000).

  8. Cognitive reappraisal fails when attempting to reduce the appetitive value of food: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Michela; Ubel, Sonja; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2013-12-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during the exposure to food cues. Thirty-three healthy, normal-weight women viewed images of high-caloric food and non-food items after an overnight fast. The participants were instructed to either passively look at the pictures, or to change (increase, decrease) the appetitive value of the food items. The P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) were higher across all conditions for food relative to non-food pictures. In the 'increase condition' the food images were rated as more appetizing and arousing than during passive viewing which was accompanied by increased amplitudes of the P300 and LPP. In contrast, the 'watch condition' and the 'decrease condition' did not differ with regard to appetite and arousal ratings as well as ERPs. Amplitudes of late positive potentials in the 'decrease condition' were positively correlated with scores on eating disorder scales indicating bulimic tendencies. The ERP data show that the appetitive value of food cues can easily be enhanced via reappraisal but is difficult to reduce, especially in women who display non-clinical forms of purging. The reduced ERP reactivity might constitute a risk factor for bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal-prospective studies should follow up on this aspect.

  9. [Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence: a reappraisal].

    PubMed

    Covarrubías, Natalia; Hurtado, Carmen; Díaz, Alex; Mezzano, Gabriel; Brahm, Javier; Venegas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Reported seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in developed countries is between 0.3-53%. Published data relies on the assays used and its technical performance. Sensitivity on new available tests has improved, which has changed HEV seroprevalence around the world. We re-evaluated retrospectively, 178 serum samples of patients with previous anti HEV IgG determination between 2009 and 2012. Initial analysis was performed with ELISA kit Genelabs (Singapore), with 7.3% positivity. The reevaluation was done with ELISA kit AccuDiag TM HEV-IgG (Diagnostic Automation, United States), with reported sensitivity and specificity over 99.8%. With the new assay, 32.6% positive samples were found, significantly greater to the previous result (p<0.001) (4.5 times more). There were no differences in gender but a significant association between age and HEV IgG seropositivity was found (p<0.001). This suggests that previous testing might have underestimated HEV seroprevalence in Chile, which should be reevaluated using the new available test.

  10. A reappraisal of early hominid phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Strait, D S; Grine, F E; Moniz, M A

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the results of a new cladistic analysis of early hominid relationships. Ingroup taxa included Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster and Homo sapiens. Outgroup taxa included Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla. Sixty craniodental characters were selected for analysis. These were drawn from the trait lists of other studies and our own observations. Eight parsimony analyses were performed that differed with respect to the number of characters examined and the manner in which the characters were treated. Seven employed ordered characters, and included analyses in which (1) taxa that were variable with respect to a character were coded as having an intermediate state, (2) characters with variable states in any taxon were excluded; (3) a variable taxon was coded as having the state exhibited by the majority of its hypodigm, (4) variable taxa were coded as missing data for that character, (5) some characters were considered irreversible, (6) masticatory characters were excluded, and (7) characters whose states were unknown in some taxa were excluded. In the final analysis, (8) all characters were unordered. All analyses were performed using PAUP 3.0s. Despite the fact that the eight analyses differed with respect to methodology, they produced several consistent results. All agreed that the "robust" australopithecines form a clade, A. afarensis is the sister taxon of all other hominids, and the genus Australopithecus, as conventionally defined, is paraphyletic. All eight also supported trees in which A. africanus is the sister taxon of a joint Homo+ "robust" clade, although in one analysis an equally parsimonious topology found A. africanus to be the sister of the "robust" species. In most analyses, the relationships of A. africanus and H. habilis were unstable, in the sense that their positions vary in trees

  11. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and brain activity involved in reappraisal of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of negative emotion through reappraisal has been shown to induce increased prefrontal activity and decreased amygdala activity. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness reflect differences in typical recognition, detachment and regulation of current experience, thought to also operate as top–down control mechanism. We sought to investigate whether such individual differences would be associated with brain activity elicited during reappraisal of negative emotion. Eighteen healthy participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that involved attending to or reappraising negative stimuli, and provided emotion experience ratings after each trial. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed with a self-report questionnaire. Reappraisal induced activity in a brain network involving predominantly dorsal portions of the prefrontal cortex, replicating previous studies. A voxelwise regression analysis showed that individual differences in the tendency to be mindful predicted activity in neural regions underlying reappraisal, with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activation increasing with more mindfulness traits. Notably, this prefrontal activation was inversely correlated with the amygdala response to negative scenes, further supporting its role in down-regulating emotion-generation regions. These findings suggest that individual differences in dispositional mindfulness, which reflect the tendency to recognize and regulate current states, may modulate activity in neural systems involved in the effective cognitive control of negative emotion. PMID:20147457

  12. Habitual reappraisal in context: peer victimisation moderates its association with physiological reactivity to social stress

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kara A.; Aldao, Amelia; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Although the emotion regulation strategy of reappraisal has been associated with adaptive outcomes, there is a growing evidence that it may not be adaptive in all contexts. In the present study, adolescents reported their use of habitual reappraisal and their experiences with peer victimisation, a chronic stressor that is associated with reduced well-being in this population. We examined how these variables predicted physiological reactivity (vagal withdrawal and changes in pre-ejection period) during a social stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Task). In line with previous research, at high levels of victimisation, habitual reappraisal predicted adaptive physiological reactivity (i.e., greater vagal withdrawal). Conversely, at low levels of victimisation, habitual reappraisal predicted maladaptive physiological reactivity (i.e., blunted vagal withdrawal). These findings were specific to parasympathetic reactivity. They suggest that habitual reappraisal may exert different effects on parasympathetic reactivity depending on the presence of stressors, and highlight the importance of examining the role of contextual factors in determining the adaptiveness of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:26654477

  13. Reappraisal and suppression mediate the contribution of regulatory focus to anxiety in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Dolcos, Sanda; Iordan, Alexandru D; Rudolph, Karen D; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-08-01

    Theory and research link regulatory focus (RF) in the form of promotion and prevention goal orientation with internalizing symptoms (e.g., anxiety), but the relevant mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of two emotion regulation (ER) strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) as possible mediators. Path analysis using data from 179 healthy young participants (110 women, 69 men) revealed that stronger promotion orientation was significantly associated with less anxiety, and that the use of reappraisal and suppression partially mediated this association. Prevention was associated with more suppression but was not directly associated with anxiety. There were no gender differences in these effects. Collectively, these findings suggest that effective ER, through heightened use of reappraisal and dampened use of suppression, serves as a mechanism through which promotion confers protection against anxiety. This research provides empirical support to initiatives aimed at promoting healthy psychological adjustment and preventing anxiety, by optimizing ER strategies with respect to RF goal orientations.

  14. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Burklund, Lisa J.; Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one's own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 39). Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes. PMID:24715880

  15. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  16. Functional overlap of top-down emotion regulation and generation: an fMRI study identifying common neural substrates between cognitive reappraisal and cognitively generated emotions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri

    2014-09-01

    One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation.

  17. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  18. U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, David E., Ed.

    The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed…

  19. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    PubMed

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  20. Effects of a Value-Reappraisal Intervention on Statistics Students' Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an exploratory value-reappraisal intervention on students' motivation and performance in an undergraduate introductory statistics course. They sampled 82 students from 2 instructors' sections during both the fall and spring semesters. Students were randomly assigned within each section to either the…

  1. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation.

  2. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  3. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND A REAPPRAISAL OF THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REQUA, ELOISE; THOMASINE, SISTER M.

    A CONFERENCE WAS HELD TO PROVIDE 30 PARTICIPATING SCHOLARS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF UNDERDEVELOPED NATIONS IN RELATION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF BIENNIAL CONFERENCES, IT POOLED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESOURCES FOR REAPPRAISAL OF THE MOST RECENT FINDINGS, AND PROVIDED THE ATMOSPHERE FOR AN…

  4. Resisting the Sirens of Temptation while Studying: Using Reappraisal to Increase Focus, Enthusiasm, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy, Veronique; Gregoire, Jacques; Magen, Eran; Gross, James J.; Mikolajczak, Moira

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in the learning process is temptation, which has the power to divert students from even their most important goals (e.g. getting a degree). In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive reappraisal could be used to successfully resist temptation. Participants had to memorize tedious material while being tempted…

  5. Reappraisal of the Validity of WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Data from the WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Standardization samples were used to reappraise validity of all short forms of two, three, four, and five subtests. Results were compared with those given by McNemar's formula. The corrected formula gave lower values and selected "best short forms that differed from McNemar's formula. (Author)

  6. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems.

  7. Reappraising foreground contamination in the COBE-DMR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banday, A. J.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Górski, K. M.

    2003-11-01

    With the advent of all-sky Hα surveys it is possible to determine a reliable free-free template of the diffuse interstellar medium which can be used in conjunction with the synchrotron and dust templates to correct cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations for diffuse Galactic foregrounds. We have used the COBE-DMR data at 31.5, 53 and 90 GHz and employed cross-correlation techniques to re-evaluate the foreground contributions, particularly that due to dust which is known to be partially correlated with Hα (and free-free) emission. The DMR microwave maps are found to contain, as well as the expected synchrotron and free-free components, a component tightly correlated to the COBE-DIRBE 140-μm dust map. At 31.5, 53 and 90 GHz this emission is 6.3 +/- 0.6, 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 2.2 +/- 0.4 μK MJy-1 sr at 140 μm, respectively. When corrected for the contribution from thermal dust, a strong anomalous dust-correlated emission component remains, which is well fitted by a frequency spectrum of the form ν-β where β~ 2.5 in the DMR frequency range; this is the dominant foreground at 31.5 GHz. The result implies the presence of an emission component with a dust-like morphology but a synchrotron-like spectrum. We discuss the possible origins of this component and compare it with the recent WMAP interpretation. The better knowledge of the individual foregrounds provided by the present study enables a larger area of the sky (|b| > 15°) to be used to reappraise the CMB quadrupole normalization, Qrms-PS, and the scalar perturbations spectral index, n. We find Qrms-PS= 15.2+2.8-2.3 with a power-law spectral index of n= 1.2 +/- 0.2. These values are consistent with previous COBE-DMR analyses and the WMAP 1-yr analysis.

  8. Reappraisal and Distraction Emotion Regulation Strategies Are Associated with Distinct Patterns of Visual Attention and Differing Levels of Cognitive Demand

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Ossenfort, Kathryn L.; Whearty, Kayla M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple emotion regulation strategies have been identified and found to differ in their effectiveness at decreasing negative emotions. One reason for this might be that individual strategies are associated with differing levels of cognitive demand and require distinct patterns of visual attention to achieve their effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a sample of psychiatrically healthy participants (n = 25) who attempted to down-regulate negative emotion to photographs from the International Affective Picture System using cognitive reappraisal or distraction. Eye movements, pupil dilation, and subjective reports of negative emotionality were obtained for reappraisal, distraction, unpleasant passive viewing, and neutral passive viewing conditions. Behavioral results indicated that reappraisal and distraction successfully decreased self-reported negative affect relative to unpleasant passive viewing. Successful down regulation of negative affect was associated with different patterns of visual attention across regulation strategies. During reappraisal, there was an initial increase in dwell time to arousing scene regions and a subsequent shift away from these regions during later portions of the trial, whereas distraction was associated with reduced total dwell time to arousing interest areas throughout the entire stimulus presentation. Pupil dilation was greater for reappraisal than distraction or unpleasant passive viewing, suggesting that reappraisal may recruit more effortful cognitive control processes. Furthermore, greater decreases in self-reported negative emotion were associated with a lower proportion of dwell time within arousing areas of interest. These findings suggest that different emotion regulation strategies necessitate different patterns of visual attention to be effective and that individual differences in visual attention predict the extent to which individuals can successfully decrease negative emotion using reappraisal

  9. The Effects of Distraction and Reappraisal On Children's Parasympathetic Regulation of Sadness and Fear

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Quiñones-Camacho, Laura; Buss, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Children commonly experience negative emotions like sadness and fear, and much recent empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the factors supporting and predicting effective emotion regulation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac index of parasympathetic function, has emerged as a key physiological correlate of children's self-regulation. But, little is known about how children's use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies corresponds to concurrent parasympathetic regulation (i.e., RSA reactivity while watching an emotion-eliciting video). The current study describes an experimental paradigm in which 101 5- to 6-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of three different emotion regulation conditions (Control, Distraction, Reappraisal). All children watched a sad and a scary film (order counterbalanced), and children in the Distraction and Reappraisal conditions received instructions to deploy the target strategy to manage sadness/fear while they watched. Consistent with predictions, children assigned to use either emotion regulation strategy showed greater RSA augmentation from baseline than children in the Control condition (all children showed an overall increase in RSA levels from baseline), suggesting enhanced parasympathetic calming when children used Distraction or Reappraisal to regulate sadness and fear. But, this pattern was found only among children who viewed the sad film before the scary film. Among children who viewed the scary film first, Reappraisal promoted marginally better parasympathetic regulation of fear (no condition differences emerged for parasympathetic regulation of sadness when the sad film was viewed second). Results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of children's emotion regulation and affective physiology. PMID:26601786

  10. Re-appraisal of negative emotions in cocaine dependence: dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Asensio, Samuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with pronounced elevations of negative affect and deficient regulation of negative emotions. We aimed to investigate the neural substrates of negative emotion regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI), as compared to non-drug-using controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a re-appraisal task. Seventeen CDI abstinent for at least 15 days and without other psychiatric co-morbidities and 18 intelligence quotient-matched non-drug-using controls participated in the study. Participants performed the re-appraisal task during fMRI scanning: they were exposed to 24 blocks of negative affective or neutral pictures that they should Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Suppress (regulate the emotion elicited by negative pictures through previously trained re-appraisal techniques). Task-related activations during two conditions of interest (Maintain>Observe and Suppress>Maintain) were analyzed using the general linear model in SPM8 software. We also performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) seed-based analyses based on one region from each condition: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC-Maintain>Observe) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG-Suppress>Maintain). Results showed that cocaine users had increased right dlPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction activations during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased right IFG, posterior cingulate cortex, insula and fusiform gyrus activations during Suppress>Maintain. PPI analyses showed that cocaine users had increased functional coupling between the dlPFC and emotion-related regions during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased functional coupling between the right IFG and the amygdala during Suppress>Maintain. These findings indicate that CDI have dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity during negative emotion experience and re-appraisal.

  11. Relative Effectiveness of Reappraisal and Distraction in Regulating Emotion in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smoski, Moria J.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Steffens, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study compares the effectiveness of two strategies, reappraisal and distraction, in reducing negative affect in older adults induced by focusing on personally relevant negative events and stressors. Participants included 30 adults with MDD and 40 never-depressed (ND) comparison participants ages 60 and over (mean age = 69.7 years). Design and Measurements Participants underwent three affect induction trials, each followed by a different emotion regulation strategy: distraction, reappraisal, and a no-instruction control condition. Self-reported affect was recorded pre- and post-affect induction, and at one-minute intervals during regulation. Results Across groups, participants reported greater reductions in negative affect with distraction than reappraisal or the no-instruction control condition. An interaction between group and regulation condition indicated that distraction was more effective in reducing negative affect in the MDD group than the ND group. Conclusions These results suggest that distraction is an especially effective strategy for reducing negative affect in older adults with MDD. Finding ways to incorporate distraction skills into psychotherapeutic interventions for late-life MDD may improve their effectiveness, especially for short-term improvement of affect following rumination. PMID:24021222

  12. 'Put on your poker face': neural systems supporting the anticipation for expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Kühn, Simone; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-12-01

    It is a unique human ability to regulate negative thoughts and feelings. Two well-investigated emotion-regulation strategies (ERSs), cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, are associated with overlapping prefrontal neural correlates, but differ temporally during the emotion-generation process. Although functional imaging studies have mainly investigated these ERS as a reaction to an emotion-inducing event, the intention to regulate upcoming negative emotions might already be associated with differences in neural activity. Hence, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was recorded in 42 participants while they completed an emotion-regulation paradigm. During this task, participants were instructed to proactively prepare to use a specific ERS knowing that a negative, high-arousing image would appear after the preparation period. As expected, the results demonstrated prefrontal and parietal activation while participants were suppressing or reappraising their emotions (family-wise error (FWE)-corrected). The intention to suppress emotions was associated with increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral putamen, pre-supplementary motor area and right supramarginal gyrus (FWE-corrected). This enhanced proactive inhibitory control: (i) predicted decreased motoric activity during the actual suppression of emotional expressions and (2) trended toward a significant association with how successfully participants suppressed their emotions. However, neural correlates of preparatory control for cognitive reappraisal were not observed, possibly because contextual cues about the upcoming emotional stimulus are necessary to proactively start to cognitively reinterpret the situation.

  13. Seeing the silver lining: cognitive reappraisal ability moderates the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Troy, Allison S; Wilhelm, Frank H; Shallcross, Amanda J; Mauss, Iris B

    2010-12-01

    Individuals differ in their adjustment to stressful life events, with some exhibiting impaired functioning, including depression, while others exhibit impressive resilience. The present study examined the hypothesis that the ability to deploy a particularly adaptive type of emotion regulation-cognitive reappraisal-may be a protective factor. It expands upon existing research in three ways. First, participants' ability to use reappraisal (cognitive reappraisal ability: CRA) was measured by using a behavioral challenge that assessed changes in experiential and physiological domains, rather than questionnaires. Second, all participants had been exposed to one or more recent stressful life events, a context in which emotion regulation may be particularly important. Third, a community sample of 78 women aged 20 to 60 was recruited, as opposed to undergraduates. Results indicate that, at low levels of stress, participants' CRA was not associated with depressive symptoms. However, at high levels of stress, women with high CRA exhibited less depressive symptoms than those with low CRA, suggesting that CRA may be an important moderator of the link between stress and depressive symptoms.

  14. The eyes have it: the role of attention in cognitive reappraisal of social stimuli.

    PubMed

    Manera, Valeria; Samson, Andrea C; Pehrs, Corinna; Lee, Ihno A; Gross, James J

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive reappraisal (CR) is a commonly used emotion-regulation strategy that has been shown to influence affective, cognitive, and social outcomes. Although progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms underlying CR, the role of attention remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of attention in CR by tracking participants' gazes during the presentation of videos depicting people in negative moods. Participants were asked to attend naturally or to use reappraisal to increase or decrease their emotions while viewing the videos. After each video, they rated their negative emotion experience. Results showed that participants spent more time looking at the emotional regions in the target's face (eyes and mouth) when asked to up-regulate their emotions, compared with when they simply attended to the videos. The reverse pattern was found for down-regulation of emotions. In addition, the effects of cognitive reappraisal on negative emotion experience were mediated by the time spent looking at the emotional regions, with a stronger effect for the down-regulation instruction. Finally, direct effects of regulation instruction on negative emotion were observed even when controlling for time spent viewing emotional regions, which suggests that attention and CR are distinct components that uniquely influence negative emotions. These results complement and extend previous findings on the role of attention in CR, and highlight the importance of taking attentional mechanisms into account when designing CR training.

  15. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy via CT scan in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Hua; Su, Bai-Yan; Liu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Mirjalili, S Ali; Ma, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. There are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings among and within contemporary anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in living Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). A total of 100 thoracic and 100 abdominal CT scans were examined. Our results indicated that the following key surface landmarks differed from current commonly-accepted descriptions: the positions of the tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein termination, and pulmonary trunk bifurcation (all below the plane of the sternal angle at vertebral level T5-T6 in most individuals); the superior vena cava formation and junction with the right atrium (most often behind the 1st and 4th intercostal spaces, respectively); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T10 and T11, respectively). The renal arteries were most commonly at L1; the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2; the 11th rib was posterior to the left kidney in only 29% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs. A number of significant sex- and age-related differences were noted. The Chinese population was also compared with western populations on the basis of published reports. Reappraisal of surface anatomy using modern imaging tools in vivo will provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence to facilitate the clinical application of these key surface landmarks.

  16. The role of the cervix in fertility: is it time for a reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Martyn, F; McAuliffe, F M; Wingfield, M

    2014-10-10

    Knowledge regarding the role of the cervix in fertility has expanded considerably over the past 20 years and in this article, we propose that it is now time for its function to be reappraised. First, we review the anatomy of the cervix and the vaginal ecosystem that it inhabits. Then, we examine the physiology and the role of the cervical mucus. The ongoing mystery of the exact mechanism of the sperm-cervical mucus interaction is reviewed and the key players that may unlock this mystery in the future are discussed. The soluble and cellular biomarkers of the lower female genital tract which are slowly being defined by contemporary research are reviewed. Attempts to standardize these markers, in this milieu, are hindered by the changes that may be attributed to endogenous or exogenous factors such as: age, hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, ectropion, infection, smoking and exposure to semen during sexual intercourse. We review what is known about the immunology of the cervix. With the widespread use of large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the anatomy of the cervix is changing for many women. While LLETZ surgery has had very positive effects in the fight against cervical cancer, we debate the impact it could have on a woman's fertility.

  17. Successful emotion regulation requires both conviction and skill: beliefs about the controllability of emotions, reappraisal, and regulation success.

    PubMed

    Gutentag, Tony; Halperin, Eran; Porat, Roni; Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2016-08-05

    To succeed in self-regulation, people need to believe that it is possible to change behaviour and they also need to use effective means to enable such a change. We propose that this also applies to emotion regulation. In two studies, we found that people were most successful in emotion regulation, the more they believed emotions can be controlled and the more they used an effective emotion regulation strategy - namely, cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal moderated the link between beliefs about the controllability of emotion and success in emotion regulation, when reappraisal was measured as a trait (Study 1) or manipulated (Study 2). Such moderation was found when examining the regulation of disgust elicited by emotion-inducing films (Study 1), and the regulation of anger elicited by real political events (Study 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice in emotion regulation.

  18. Autonomic effects of cognitive reappraisal and acceptance in social anxiety: evidence for common and distinct pathways for parasympathetic reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Ioana A; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Gentili, Claudio; David, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of emotion regulation strategies on autonomic parameters in socially anxious individuals. We asked 99 socially anxious participants to give an impromptu speech in front of an audience in a virtual reality environment. In the anticipation phase, they practiced an emotion regulation strategy: negative functional reappraisal, acceptance, negative dysfunctional reappraisal. All strategies led to decreases in parasympathetic activity and increases in heart rate during anticipation. Parasympathetic activity remained low in the recovery phase, while heart rate increased, indicating a possible rebound effect of social performance. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that for subjects with higher social anxiety, acceptance led to increased parasympathetic activity in the anticipation and recovery phases than negative functional reappraisal. Our results indicate that although globally parasympathetic reactivity seems to be a more general marker of simply attempting to regulate emotions, it could help distinguish between emotion regulation strategies for some participant subgroups.

  19. A reappraisal of the morphology and systematic position of the theropod dinosaur Sigilmassasaurus from the “middle” Cretaceous of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rauhut, Oliver W.M.; Milner, Angela C.; McFeeters, Bradley; Allain, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is an enigmatic theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, originally based on a few isolated cervical vertebrae. Ever since its original description, both its taxonomic validity and systematic affinities were contentious. Originally considered to represent its own family, Sigilmassasauridae, the genus has variously been suggested to represent a carcharodontosaurid, an ornithischian, and, more recently, a spinosaurid. Here we describe new remains referrable to this taxon and re-evaluate its taxonomic status and systematic affinities. Based on the new remains, a re-evaluation of the original materials, and comparisons with other spinosaurids, the holotype of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is identified as an anterior dorsal, rather than a cervical vertebra, and differences between elements referred to this taxon can be explained by different positions of the elements in question within the vertebral column. Many characters used previously to diagnose the genus and species are found to be more widespread among basal tetanurans, and specifically spinosaurids. However, the taxon shows several autapomorphies that support its validity, including the presence of a strongly rugose, ventrally offset triangular platform that is confluent with a ventral keel anteriorly in the mid-cervical vertebral centra and a strongly reduced lateral neural arch lamination, with no or an incomplete distinction between anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae in the posterior cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae. We argue furthermore that Spinosaurus maroccanus, also described on the basis of isolated cervical vertebrae from the same stratigraphic unit and in the same paper as Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis, is a subjective synonym of the latter. Both a detailed comparison of this taxon with other theropods and a formal phylogenetic analysis support spinosaurid affintities for Sigilmassasaurus. However, we reject the recently

  20. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Crowdsourced Peer-To-Peer Cognitive Reappraisal Platform for Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Stephen M; Picard, Rosalind W

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-guided, Web-based interventions for depression show promising results but suffer from high attrition and low user engagement. Online peer support networks can be highly engaging, but they show mixed results and lack evidence-based content. Objective Our aim was to introduce and evaluate a novel Web-based, peer-to-peer cognitive reappraisal platform designed to promote evidence-based techniques, with the hypotheses that (1) repeated use of the platform increases reappraisal and reduces depression and (2) that the social, crowdsourced interactions enhance engagement. Methods Participants aged 18-35 were recruited online and were randomly assigned to the treatment group, “Panoply” (n=84), or an active control group, online expressive writing (n=82). Both are fully automated Web-based platforms. Participants were asked to use their assigned platform for a minimum of 25 minutes per week for 3 weeks. Both platforms involved posting descriptions of stressful thoughts and situations. Participants on the Panoply platform additionally received crowdsourced reappraisal support immediately after submitting a post (median response time=9 minutes). Panoply participants could also practice reappraising stressful situations submitted by other users. Online questionnaires administered at baseline and 3 weeks assessed depression symptoms, reappraisal, and perseverative thinking. Engagement was assessed through self-report measures, session data, and activity levels. Results The Panoply platform produced significant improvements from pre to post for depression (P=.001), reappraisal (P<.001), and perseverative thinking (P<.001). The expressive writing platform yielded significant pre to post improvements for depression (P=.02) and perseverative thinking (P<.001), but not reappraisal (P=.45). The two groups did not diverge significantly at post-test on measures of depression or perseverative thinking, though Panoply users had significantly higher reappraisal scores

  1. Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Alice; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to be an effective strategy to regulate depressed mood in healthy and remitted depressed individuals. However, individuals currently suffering from a clinical depression often experience difficulties in utilizing this strategy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies. Thereby, explicit cognitive reappraisal refers to purposefully identifying, challenging, and modifying depressiogenic cognitions to reduce depressed mood. To test our hypotheses, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 54 participants (64.8% female; age M = 35.59, SD = 11.49 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to either wait, or employ self-compassion, acceptance, or reappraisal to regulate their depressed mood. Depressed mood was assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation period on a visual analog scale. Results indicated that participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal than those in the waiting condition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal is moderated by the precursory use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, they suggest that depressed individuals might benefit from using self-compassion to facilitate the subsequent use of explicit cognitive reappraisal.

  2. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  3. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  4. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Julian, Kristin; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence for the threat reappraisal…

  5. Towards clinical applications of anti-endotoxin antibodies; a re-appraisal of the disconnect.

    PubMed

    Hurley, James C

    2013-12-18

    Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this disconnect. Several new factors to consider in this reappraisal include the frequency and types of GN bacteremia and the underlying mortality risk in the various study populations. For a range of reasons, endotoxemia can no longer be considered as a single entity. There are old clinical trials which warrant a re-appraisal in light of these recent advances in the understanding of the structure-function relationship of endotoxin. Fundamentally however, the disconnect not only remains, it has enlarged.

  6. Neural Systems for Cognitive Reappraisal in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pitskel, Naomi B.; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Kaiser, Martha D.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial clinical and anecdotal evidence for emotion dysregulation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the neural substrates underlying this phenomenon. We sought to explore neural mechanisms for cognitive reappraisal in children and adolescents with ASD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied 16 youth with ASD and 15 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) comparison youth. Participants were instructed in the use of cognitive reappraisal strategies to increase and decrease their emotional responses to disgusting images. Participants in both groups displayed distinct patterns of brain activity for increasing versus decreasing their emotions. TD participants showed downregulation of bilateral insula and left amygdala on decrease trials, whereas ASD participants showed no modulation of insula and upregulation of left amygdala. Furthermore, TD youth exhibited increased functional connectivity between amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex compared to ASD participants when downregulating disgust, as well as decreased functional connectivity between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. These findings have important implications for our understanding of emotion dysregulation and its treatment in ASD. In particular, the relative lack of prefrontal-amygdala connectivity provides a potential target for treatment-related outcome measurements. PMID:25198094

  7. The Impact of Perspective Change As a Cognitive Reappraisal Strategy on Affect: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M. A.; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.

    2016-01-01

    The strategic or deliberate adoption of a cognitively distanced, third-person perspective is proposed to adaptively regulate emotions. However, studies of psychological disorders suggest spontaneous adoption of a third-person perspective reflects counter-productive avoidance. Here, we review studies that investigate the deliberate adoption of a third- or first-person vantage perspective and its impact on affect in healthy people, “sub-clinical” populations and those with psychological disorders. A systematic search was conducted across four databases. After exclusion criteria were applied, 38 studies were identified that investigated the impact of both imagery and verbal instructions designed to encourage adoption of a third-person perspective on self-reported affect. The identified studies examined a variety of outcomes related to recalling memories, imagining scenarios and mood induction. These were associated with specific negative emotions or mood states (dysphoria/sadness, anxiety, anger), mixed or neutral affect autobiographical memories, and self-conscious affect (e.g., guilt). Engaging a third-person perspective was generally associated with a reduction in the intensity of positive and negative affect. Studies that included measures of semantic change, suggested that this is a key mediator in reduction of affect following perspective change. Strategically adopting a “distanced,” third-person perspective is linked to a reduction in affect intensity across valence, but in addition has the potential to introduce new information that regulates emotion via semantic change. Such reappraisal distinguishes deliberate adoption of a distanced perspective from the habitual and/or spontaneous shift in perspective that occurs in psychopathology. PMID:27867366

  8. Reappraising the surface anatomy of the pterion and its relationship to the middle meningeal artery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siyan; Baillie, Louisa J M; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-04-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the surface anatomy of the pterion is inconsistently reported. This study reappraises the surface marking of the pterion and its relationship to the middle meningeal artery (MMA). The position and morphology of the pterion were analyzed in the Frankfurt plane in 76 adult skulls and 50 adult cranial cone beam CT scans. Relationship to the anterior branch of the MMA was examined in the skulls. Measurement reproducibility was assessed in a 20% randomly selected sample. In the skulls, the majority of pteria were sphenoparietal (78%), followed by epipteric (16%) and frontotemporal (5%). The center of the pterion was a mean of 26 ± 4 mm behind and 11 ± 4 mm above the posterolateral margin of the frontozygomatic suture; measurements were reproducible and consistent between sides and genders. Distances from the frontozygomatic suture were slightly greater (29 and 16 mm, respectively) in cranial CTs. A one centimeter circle centered on the midpoint of the pterion overlapped the anterior branch of the MMA in 68% of skulls; the artery was a few millimeters posterior in the remainder. Mean skull thickness at the midpoint of the pterion was 4.4 mm compared to 1 mm at its thinnest point in the squamous temporal bone. In conclusion, in most adults, the pterion lies within a one centimeter diameter circle 2.6 cm behind and 1.3 cm above the posterolateral margin of the frontozygomatic suture (which is easily palpable in vivo). This region overlaps the anterior branch of the MMA in two-thirds of cases.

  9. The Impact of Perspective Change As a Cognitive Reappraisal Strategy on Affect: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2016-01-01

    The strategic or deliberate adoption of a cognitively distanced, third-person perspective is proposed to adaptively regulate emotions. However, studies of psychological disorders suggest spontaneous adoption of a third-person perspective reflects counter-productive avoidance. Here, we review studies that investigate the deliberate adoption of a third- or first-person vantage perspective and its impact on affect in healthy people, "sub-clinical" populations and those with psychological disorders. A systematic search was conducted across four databases. After exclusion criteria were applied, 38 studies were identified that investigated the impact of both imagery and verbal instructions designed to encourage adoption of a third-person perspective on self-reported affect. The identified studies examined a variety of outcomes related to recalling memories, imagining scenarios and mood induction. These were associated with specific negative emotions or mood states (dysphoria/sadness, anxiety, anger), mixed or neutral affect autobiographical memories, and self-conscious affect (e.g., guilt). Engaging a third-person perspective was generally associated with a reduction in the intensity of positive and negative affect. Studies that included measures of semantic change, suggested that this is a key mediator in reduction of affect following perspective change. Strategically adopting a "distanced," third-person perspective is linked to a reduction in affect intensity across valence, but in addition has the potential to introduce new information that regulates emotion via semantic change. Such reappraisal distinguishes deliberate adoption of a distanced perspective from the habitual and/or spontaneous shift in perspective that occurs in psychopathology.

  10. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  11. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs.

  12. About hearsay - or reappraisal of the role of the anamnesis as an instrument of meaningful communication

    PubMed Central

    van Tellingen, C.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the ICT revolution and enhancement of diagnostic possibilities, the anamnesis, as an instrument of meaningful communication in disease and a cornerstone of medical practice throughout the ages, has lost in importance. Nowadays, we are on the brink of a more patient-tailored and individualised therapy, so there is a growing need for an open dialogue in the doctor-patient relationship, a situation very similar to the beginning of the professionalisation of assistance in disease in ancient medicine. Reappraisal of the anamnesis and awareness of the patient-doctor relationship are therefore warranted and for that reason its roots and evolution are discussed from a historic perspective. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:359-62.) PMID:18612389

  13. Morphological and molecular analysis calls for a reappraisal of the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Burchell, Mark J; Hogg, Stuart I

    2014-02-01

    Early studies on the coloured particles that fell as red rain over southern India identified them as unicellular eukaryotes such as members of the red algae or fungi; however, the results of the present investigation are not consistent with this designation. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have demonstrated significant differences in the ultrastructure when compared with representative species from these other groups. Most notably, the red rain cells show no evidence of typical eukaryotic internal structures such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition. The identity and origins of the red rain cells remain an enigma; however, our findings are more consistent with an unidentified prokaryote, and thus suggest that previous attempts at their identification should be reappraised.

  14. Regulation of negative affect in schizophrenia: the effectiveness of acceptance versus reappraisal and suppression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Yael; Henry, Julie D; Nangle, Matthew R; Grisham, Jessica R

    2012-01-01

    Although general emotion coping difficulties are well documented in schizophrenia, there has been limited study of specific regulatory strategies such as suppression, reappraisal, and acceptance. In the present study, clinical and control participants were asked to watch video clips selected to elicit negative affect while engaging in one of these three different emotion regulation strategies (counterbalanced), versus a passive viewing condition. The experiential and expressive components of emotion were quantified using self-report and facial electromyography, respectively. A major finding was that, in contrast to control participants, individuals with schizophrenia did not report a greater willingness to reexperience negative emotion after engaging in acceptance. These data are discussed in the context of evidence highlighting the potentially important role of acceptance in understanding affective abnormalities in clinical conditions such as schizophrenia.

  15. Judgment Deferred: Reappraisal of Rehabilitation Counseling Movement toward Licensure Parity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Leahy, Michael J.; Zanskas, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since an analysis of the position of rehabilitation counselors in the national counselor licensure movement by Tarvydas and Leahy. This article addresses the question of how well their efforts to achieve licensure parity with other counselors have fared. This question will be addressed by discussing (a) rehabilitation…

  16. Differences in Insula and Pre-/Frontal Responses during Reappraisal of Food in Lean and Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grundeis, Felicitas; Brand, Cristin; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Brain regions involved in the reappraisal of tasty but unhealthy foods are of special interest for the development of new therapeutic interventions for obesity, such as non-invasive brain stimulation or neurofeedback. Here, we visually presented food items (i.e., high/low caloric) to obese and lean individuals during electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, while they either admitted or regulated their food desire. During admitting the desire for low and high calorie foods, obese as well as lean individuals showed higher activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas the right frontal operculum was involved in the reappraisal of the same foods, suggesting interplay between executive control and gustatory regions. Only in lean participants, we found an interaction between calorie content and the regulate/admit conditions in bilateral anterior insular cortices, suggesting that the anterior insula, assumed to primarily host gustatory processes, also underpins higher cognitive processes involved in food choices, such as evaluating the foods’ calorie content for its reappraisal. PMID:27458355

  17. Cefepime: a reappraisal in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance

    PubMed Central

    Endimiani, Andrea; Perez, Federico; Bonomo, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Cefepime is a ‘fourth-generation’ cephalosporin with an in vitro extended-spectrum of activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. Cefepime is approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe infections, such as pneumonia, uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infections, intra-abdominal infections and febrile neutropenia. In this article, we provide a critical review of pharmacodynamics, clinical management, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamic target analyses, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of cefepime after more than a decade of clinical use. PMID:19053894

  18. Mississippian depositional history of the Texas Panhandle: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of subsurface Mississippian rocks of the Texas Panhandle indicates that previous interpretations of the sequence and timing of depositional events in the area need revision. Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian to Osagean) deposition in the area was restricted to the northeastern Panhandle (Anadarko Basin). The Texas Arch, a Devonian structure, remained positive and effectively limited sediment accumulation throughout the remainder of the area at this time. Major inundation of the southern Panhandle did not occur until the Meramecian. At that time shallow platform conditions developed in the area of the submerged Texas Arch; carbonate buildups formed locally on the outer ramp along the previous margin of the Arch. This marine transgression correlates with drowning of platform margins throughout the midcontinent region. The Texas Arch continued intermittently to control deposition until the end of the Mississippian Period. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Daan, Serge; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Deboer, Tom

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades the two-process model of sleep regulation has served as a major conceptual framework in sleep research. It has been applied widely in studies on fatigue and performance and to dissect individual differences in sleep regulation. The model posits that a homeostatic process (Process S) interacts with a process controlled by the circadian pacemaker (Process C), with time-courses derived from physiological and behavioural variables. The model simulates successfully the timing and intensity of sleep in diverse experimental protocols. Electrophysiological recordings from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) suggest that S and C interact continuously. Oscillators outside the SCN that are linked to energy metabolism are evident in SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals subjected to restricted feeding or methamphetamine administration, as well as in human subjects during internal desynchronization. In intact animals these peripheral oscillators may dissociate from the central pacemaker rhythm. A sleep/fast and wake/feed phase segregate antagonistic anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. A deficiency of Process S was proposed to account for both depressive sleep disturbances and the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. The model supported the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigms in psychiatry, based on manipulating circadian phase, sleep and light exposure. In conclusion, the model remains conceptually useful for promoting the integration of sleep and circadian rhythm research. Sleep appears to have not only a short-term, use-dependent function; it also serves to enforce rest and fasting, thereby supporting the optimization of metabolic processes at the appropriate phase of the 24-h cycle.

  20. Fighting food temptations: the modulating effects of short-term cognitive reappraisal, suppression and up-regulation on mesocorticolimbic activity related to appetitive motivation.

    PubMed

    Siep, Nicolette; Roefs, Anne; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Bonte, Milene; Jansen, Anita

    2012-03-01

    The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about health consequences), or suppress food palatability thoughts and cravings. We examined whether these strategies affect self-reported food craving and mesocorticolimbic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was hypothesized that cognitive reappraisal would most effectively inhibit the mesocorticolimbic activity and associated food craving as compared to suppression. In addition, it was hypothesized that suppression would lead to more prefrontal cortex activity, reflecting the use of more control resources, as compared to cognitive reappraisal. Self-report results indicated that up-regulation increased food craving compared to the other two conditions, but that there was no difference in craving between the suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategy. Corroborating self-report results, the neuroimaging results showed that up-regulation increased activity in important regions of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, operculum, posterior insular gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypothesis, suppression more effectively decreased activity in the core of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry (i.e., ventral tegmental area and ventral striatum) compared to cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the results support the contention that appetitive motivation can be modulated by the application of short-term cognitive control strategies.

  1. Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μCT-scanning techniques

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Luke A.; Manger, Paul R.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2017-01-01

    Euchambersia mirabilis is an iconic species of Permo-Triassic therapsid because of its unusually large external maxillary fossa linked through a sulcus to a ridged canine. This anatomy led to the commonly accepted conclusion that the large fossa accommodated a venom gland. However, this hypothesis remains untested so far. Here, we conducted a μCT scan assisted reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia, with a special focus on the anatomy of the maxillary fossa and canines. This study shows that the fossa, presumably for the venom-producing gland, is directly linked to the maxillary canal, which carries the trigeminal nerve (responsible for the sensitivity of the face). The peculiar anatomy of the maxillary canal suggests important reorganisation in the somatosensory system and that a ganglion could possibly have been present in the maxillary fossa instead of a venom gland. Nevertheless, the venom gland hypothesis is still preferred since we describe, for the first time, the complete crown morphology of the incisiform teeth of Euchambersia, which strongly suggests that the complete dentition was ridged. Therefore Euchambersia manifests evidence of all characteristics of venomous animals: a venom gland (in the maxillary fossa), a mechanism to deliver the venom (the maxillary canal and/or the sulcus located ventrally to the fossa); and an apparatus with which to inflict a wound for venom delivery (the ridged dentition). PMID:28187210

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal. PMID:20623919

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dennis L; Timpano, Kiara R; Wheaton, Michael G; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal.

  4. A reappraisal of classical archetype theory and its implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Merchant, John

    2009-06-01

    This paper begins with an overview of contemporary approaches to archetype theory and notes the radical nature of certain deductions. Some argue that there is no 'archetype-as-such' as a pre-existing entity at the core of a complex driving its formation whilst the findings of current neuroscience are calling into question one very thing on which the classical theory is built--innatism. Knox's argument for image schemas raises the question as to the extent to which archetypes can be conceived in any preformationist sense. The question is then posed--to what extent can Jung's classical theory of archetypes be read in light of these current models? The case examples Jung uses to evidence the existence of archetypes, his explications of synchronicity and his own Philemon experience are then reappraised. The conclusion is drawn that it is difficult to evidence the existence of autonomous archetypes unrelated to personal affective experience. Not only would this be expected by emergent/developmental models of archetype but it can explain many of Jung's disjunctive statements about archetype constellation; the difficulties in separating personal and collective psychic content and Jung's apparent Lamarckianism. The implications of these models for theory, clinical practice and analyst training are then offered for discussion.

  5. Reappraisal of the extinction of Canariomys bravoi, the giant rat from Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Galván, Bertila; Navarro, Juan Francisco

    2014-06-01

    All the Quaternary endemic rodents of the Canary Islands are currently extinct. The Lava Mouse Malpaisomys insularis inhabited the easternmost islands, whereas the giant rats Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani lived in the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, respectively. Bones of C. bravoi have appeared in archaeological sites together with shellfish and butchery remains. Traditionally, they have been considered as an evidence of the sporadic consumption of C. bravoi by the aboriginal people, in some instances as recently as the time of the first European contact (14th century AD). Accordingly, the extinction of C. bravoi has been linked to the European colonization of Tenerife. The plausibility of this extinction date has been explored through new radiocarbon dates obtained on selected C. bravoi bones and through a reappraisal of the published dates. Our analysis allowed us to establish an earlier last documented occurrence age for C. bravoi, prior to the third century cal BC, much earlier than previously assumed. The analysis of formerly published 14C dates of archaeological remains from Tenerife shows that samples with confidence intervals (95.54%) that are older or overlap with the last documented record of C. bravoi were performed on materials with large sources of error (such as wood, charcoal or bulk ash-sediments). Conversely, the new radiocarbon dates and analyses presented herein are in agreement with the occurrence of an earlier rapid extinction linked to the first human presence on the island.

  6. A reappraisal of the use of infrared thermal image analysis in medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, B F

    1998-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging of the skin has been used for several decades to monitor the temperature distribution of human skin. Abnormalities such as malignancies, inflammation, and infection cause localized increases in temperature which show as hot spots or as asymmetrical patterns in an infrared thermogram. Even though it is nonspecific, infrared thermology is a powerful detector of problems that affect a patient's physiology. While the use of infrared imaging is increasing in many industrial and security applications, it has declined in medicine probably because of the continued reliance on first generation cameras. The transfer of military technology for medical use has prompted this reappraisal of infrared thermology in medicine. Digital infrared cameras have much improved spatial and thermal resolutions, and libraries of image processing routines are available to analyze images captured both statically and dynamically. If thermographs are captured under controlled conditions, they may be interpreted readily to diagnose certain conditions and to monitor the reaction of a patient's physiology to thermal and other stresses. Some of the major areas where infrared thermography is being used successfully are neurology, vascular disorders, rheumatic diseases, tissue viability, oncology (especially breast cancer), dermatological disorders, neonatal, ophthalmology, and surgery.

  7. Functional connectivity of the amygdala and subgenual cingulate during cognitive reappraisal of emotions in children with MDD history is associated with rumination.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eric R; Barch, Deanna M; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C

    2016-04-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by poor emotion regulation. Rumination, a maladaptive strategy for dealing with negative emotions, is common in MDD, and is associated with impaired inhibition and cognitive inflexibility that may contribute to impaired emotion regulation abilities. However, it is unclear whether rumination is differently associated with emotion regulation in individuals with MDD history (MDD-ever) and healthy individuals. In this study, children (8-15 years old) performed a cognitive reappraisal task in which they attempted to decrease their emotional response to sad images during fMRI scanning. Functional connectivity (FC) between both the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (sACC) increased with cortical control regions during reappraisal as rumination increased in MDD-ever, while connectivity between those regions decreased during reappraisal as rumination increased in healthy controls. As the role of cortical control regions is to down-regulate activity of emotion processing regions during reappraisal, this suggests that rumination in MDD-ever, but not controls, is associated with inefficient regulation. This finding suggests that rumination may be particularly associated with poor emotion regulation in MDD-ever, and may also indicate qualitative group differences in whether rumination is maladaptive. These differences in rumination may provide important insight into depressive risk and potential avenues for treatment.

  8. Psychological Distress and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: The Mediating Roles of Rumination, Cognitive Reappraisal, and Expressive Suppression.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Sally; Hasking, Penelope; Meaney, Rebecca

    2017-01-02

    This study sought to explore the relationships between depression, anxiety, stress, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and the mediating roles of rumination and emotion regulation in this relationship. The sample comprised 1,586 Australian university students who completed a self-report questionnaire assessing the relevant variables. Of the sample, 8.9% engaged in NSSI in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Depression, anxiety, and stress each exerted a direct effect on NSSI, and each relationship was mediated by cognitive reappraisal. The relationship between stress and NSSI was also mediated by expressive suppression. The results imply intervention efforts aimed at teaching adaptive emotion regulation strategies for students experiencing high levels of psychological distress may reduce the frequency of NSSI.

  9. Antibiotic therapy of ventilator-associated pneumonia--a reappraisal of rationale in the era of bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Sintchenko, V; Iredell, J R; Gilbert, G L

    2001-09-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICU). Resistance patterns seen in ICUs suggest that prescribing recommendations should be reappraised to limit practices engendering resistance to large families of antibiotics. Despite concern surrounding the use of antibiotics in the management of VAP, there is limited evidence to assist the clinician in making decisions about the indications for such therapy, the selection of the correct antibiotic(s), the timing of initiation of therapy and its duration. The high amount of antibiotic use, in combination with the low grade colonisation of patients with multi-resistant pathogens at the time of admission, turns the ICU into an environment where antibiotic policy is likely to have an effect on the resistance problem. Opinions are changing as to the validity of invasive techniques in guiding prescribing decisions. Invasive and semi-invasive diagnostic testing increases physician confidence in the diagnosis and management of VAP and helps to limit or discontinue antibiotic treatment.

  10. DNA barcodes and citizen science provoke a diversity reappraisal for the "ring" butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia (Ypthima: Satyrinae: Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    The "rings" belonging to the genus Ypthima are amongst the most common butterflies in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the species can be difficult to tell apart, with keys relying on minor and often non-discrete ring characters found on the hindwing. Seven species have been reported from Peninsular Malaysia, but this is thought to be an underestimate of diversity. DNA barcodes of 165 individuals, and wing and genital morphology, were examined to reappraise species diversity of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia. DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects-School Butterfly Project and Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count-recently conducted in Peninsular Malaysia were included. The new DNA barcodes formed six groups with different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) representing four species reported in Peninsular Malaysia. When combined with public DNA barcodes from the Barcode Of Life Datasystems, several taxonomic issues arose. We consider the taxon Y. newboldi, formerly treated as a subspecies of Y. baldus, as a distinct species. DNA barcodes also supported an earlier suggestion that Y. nebulosa is a synonym under Y. horsfieldii humei. Two BINs of the genus Ypthima comprising DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects did not correspond to any species previously reported in Peninsular Malaysia.

  11. Could Carlos Chagas' assumption on the relationship between goiter and chronic Chagas heart disease be correct? A historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto; Restini, Carolina B A; Couto, Lucelio B

    2016-01-01

    In 1910, Chagas divided the clinical manifestations of the chronic form of Chagas disease according to heart, Central Nervous System, and thyroid involvement, particularly the presence of goiter. Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with poor houses infested with kissing bugs, the similarity of the clinical picture with that of patients underwent partial thyroidectomy, and with the presence of thyroid sclerosis (inflammation) on histological examination. In addition, Chagas observed that all people living in poor houses infested by sucking bugs had goiter, contrasting with persons who lived in the same region, drinking the same water, but living in good houses, which did not have goiter. Furthermore, Chagas stressed the fact that people without any evidence of thyroid disease that migrated to live in poor houses in areas infested by sucking bugs developed thyroid disease some time later. Finally, and more importantly, Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with cardiac abnormalities in 80% of patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. Despite this, other authors working in different regions did not confirm such an association. A reappraisal of data from a work published in 1949 clearly shows that the presence of goiter was statistically associated with chronic Chagas heart disease and with chronic Chagas disease. Our paper highlights once more the grandiosity of Chagas' work, which has been proved to be correct even in the history of goiter, and justifies our claim for a posthumous Nobel Prize inasmuch as his work was not perceived by the Karolinska Institute.

  12. A Genomic Reappraisal of Symbiotic Function in the Aphid/Buchnera Symbiosis: Reduced Transporter Sets and Variable Membrane Organisations

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Hubert; Balmand, Séverine; Lamelas, Araceli; Cottret, Ludovic; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Burdin, Béatrice; Latorre, Amparo; Febvay, Gérard; Colella, Stefano; Calevro, Federica; Rahbé, Yvan

    2011-01-01

    Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate symbiotic bacterium that sustains the physiology of aphids by complementing their exclusive phloem sap diet. In this study, we reappraised the transport function of different Buchnera strains, from the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum, Schizaphis graminum, Baizongia pistaciae and Cinara cedri, using the re-annotation of their transmembrane proteins coupled with an exploration of their metabolic networks. Although metabolic analyses revealed high interdependencies between the host and the bacteria, we demonstrate here that transport in Buchnera is assured by low transporter diversity, when compared to free-living bacteria, being mostly based on a few general transporters, some of which probably have lost their substrate specificity. Moreover, in the four strains studied, an astonishing lack of inner-membrane importers was observed. In Buchnera, the transport function has been shaped by the distinct selective constraints occurring in the Aphididae lineages. Buchnera from A. pisum and S. graminum have a three-membraned system and similar sets of transporters corresponding to most compound classes. Transmission electronic microscopic observations and confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular pH fields revealed that Buchnera does not show any of the typical structures and properties observed in integrated organelles. Buchnera from B. pistaciae seem to possess a unique double membrane system and has, accordingly, lost all of its outer-membrane integral proteins. Lastly, Buchnera from C. cedri revealed an extremely poor repertoire of transporters, with almost no ATP-driven active transport left, despite the clear persistence of the ancestral three-membraned system. PMID:22229056

  13. Beryllium natural background concentration and mobility: a reappraisal examining the case of high Be-bearing pyroclastic rocks.

    PubMed

    Armiento, Giovanna; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cremisini, Carlo; Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Nardi, Elisa; Pacifico, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium is widely distributed in soils at low levels, but it can also occur naturally in higher concentrations in a variety of materials exploited for many industrial applications. Beryllium is also one of the most toxic natural elements and is known to be a human carcinogen. A concise account of the literature data on baseline concentrations of Be in soils illustrates the possibility of worldwide presence of areas with a high natural background concentration of Be (up to 300 mg/kg), the crustal abundance of which is generally estimated to be in the range 2-6 mg/kg. Nevertheless, the number of available data is rather limited in comparison with those about other toxic elements such as Pb, Cd and Cr. This has probably caused the choice of low values of concentration level as the reference for the definition of soil contamination: these values are not always realistic and are not applicable to large areas. As a case study, we report and analyse a diffuse, unusually high (up to 80 mg/kg, average approximately 20 mg/kg), natural occurrence of beryllium in loose and poorly consolidated pyroclastic layers related to the Pleistocene activity of the Vico volcano. Additionally, the analysis of Be leachability has been carried out, providing evidence of a not negligible mobility in contrast with the scarce data presented in the literature that usually indicate beryllium as an element with low mobility in oxidising surface environmental conditions. This research marks the beginning of a possible reappraisal of beryllium geochemical behaviour and background levels, providing more realistic reference values for risk assessment and land management.

  14. Spermatophoric reaction reappraised: novel insights into the functioning of the loliginid spermatophore based on Doryteuthis plei (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Marian, José Eduardo A R

    2012-03-01

    During copulation, spermatophores produced by male coleoid cephalopods undergo the spermatophoric reaction, a complex process of evagination that culminates in the attachment of the spermatangium (everted spermatophore containing the sperm mass) on the female's body. To better understand this complicated phenomenon, the present study investigated the functional morphology of the spermatophore of the squid Doryteuthis plei applying in vitro analysis of the reaction, as well as light and electron microscopy investigation of spermatangia obtained either in vitro, or naturally attached on females. Hitherto unnoticed functional features of the loliginid spermatophore require a reappraisal of some important processes involved in the spermatophoric reaction. The most striking findings concern the attachment mechanism, which is not carried out solely by cement adhesive material, as previously believed, but rather by an autonomous, complex process performed by multiple structures during the spermatophoric reaction. During evagination, the ejaculatory apparatus provides anchorage on the targeted tissue, presumably due to the minute stellate particles present in the exposed spiral filament. Consequently, the ejaculatory apparatus maintains the attachment of the tip of the evaginating spermatophore until the cement body is extruded. Subsequently, the cement body passes through a complex structural rearrangement, which leads to the injection of both its viscid contents and pointed oral region onto the targeted tissue. The inner membrane at the oral region of the cement body contains numerous stellate particles attached at its inner side; eversion of this membrane exposes these sharp structures, which presumably adhere to the tissue and augment attachment. Several naturally attached spermatangia were found with their bases implanted at the deposition sites, and the possible mechanisms of perforation are discussed based on present evidence. The function of the complex squid

  15. [The regulation of negative and positive emotions during picture viewing: an ERP study].

    PubMed

    Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Korenek, V V; Loktev, K V; Tumialis, A V; Brak, I V; Aftanas, L I

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the effects of cognitive reappraisal on the event-related potentials (ERPs) to affective stimuli. Participants (n = 53) were asked either to attend affective images, or to down-regulate negative affect, or to up-regulate positive affect. Reappraisal of negative images was associated with attenuation of the P300 and late positive potential (LPP) over parietal regions, whereas reappraisal of positive images had no significant effect on ERP components. The weak P300 reduction correlated with high personality scores of negative affectivity. We assume that only down-regulation of negative emotions is associated with the changes in primary appraisals, and so far reflected in ERP modulation.

  16. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-11-15

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000.

  17. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-11-01

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000.

  18. A reappraisal of the reported dose equivalents at the boundary of the University of California Radiation Laboratory during the early days of Bevatron operation.

    PubMed

    Donahue, R J; Smith, A R; Thomas, R H; Zeman, G H

    2002-01-01

    The Bevatron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory operated with no permanent shielding-roof from 1954 to 1962. Neutron fluences measured at the laboratory perimeter reached a maximum in 1959, and were reported as an annual dose equivalent of 8.1 mSv (54% of the then operative radiation limit). The addition of temporary local shielding and improved operational techniques subsequently led to a steady decline in dose equivalent at the laboratory perimeter. A permanent concrete shielding-roof was constructed in 1962. In those early years of operation the reported dose equivalent, H, was derived from a measured total neutron fluence, phi, and an estimated spectrum-weighted fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficient, (g), where H= (g) phi. The uncertainty in H was almost entirely due to the uncertainty in (g). While the measurements of phi were accurate the estimates of (g) were quite crude and depended upon measurements of average neutron energy, on assumptions about the shape of the neutron energy spectrum, and primitive values of fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic neutrons. These early reported dose equivalents were known to be overestimated. This paper has reappraised the dose equivalents in the light of better information now available. Environmental neutron spectra have been calculated which more accurately correspond to the operational conditions of the Bevatron in the 1950s and early 1960s. than did those spectra available at that time. A new fluence to dose equivalent conversion function based on the latest data and for isotropic irradiation geometry was developed. From these two parameters better estimates of the coefficient (g) were determined and compared with the earlier values. From this reappraisal it is shown that the early reported dose equivalents were conservative by a factor of at least five.

  19. Autologous Serum and Plasma Skin Tests in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Muthu Sendhil; Mangal, Sonia; Narang, Tarun; Parsad, Davinder

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to assess autologous serum skin test (ASST) vs autologous plasma skin test (APST) response in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients and study the significance of intensity of positive responses in relation to clinicoepidemiological parameters. Materials and Methods: One hundred CSU patients and 100 age and sex-matched controls were recruited. The demographic and clinical features were recorded in all patients and routine investigations were performed. ASST and APST tests were performed as per the standard guidelines. Results: The mean duration of illness was 4.85 ± 5.07 years, 90% patients were APST (+), 68% ASST (+), and 22 patients were only APST (+). Positive predictive value (PPV) of ASST and APST was 90.7% and 95.7%, respectively. A significant inverse association was seen between thyroid status and serum IgE levels with APST and ASST positivity. Conclusion: APST appears to have better PPV and high intensity of positive response on autologous tests, and correlates with ANA positivity and angioedema.

  20. Reappraising the Importance of Class in Higher Education Entry and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John; Morgan-Klein, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Social class is a major determining factor of people's life chances. Much sociology-based research shows that socio-economic position is still one of the best predictors of who will achieve success, prosperity and social status and, in particular, who will enjoy the highest levels of educational outcomes. Survey data and qualitative studies alike…

  1. A molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae and Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes) with keys to world species

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, E.W.A.; Mugambi, G.K.; Miller, A.N.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Marincowitz, S.; Spatafora, J.W.; Schoch, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A reappraisal of the phylogenetic integrity of bitunicate ascomycete fungi belonging to or previously affiliated with the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae, Gloniaceae and Patellariaceae is presented, based on an analysis of 121 isolates and four nuclear genes, the ribosomal large and small subunits, transcription elongation factor 1 and the second largest RNA polymerase II subunit. A geographically diverse and high density taxon sampling strategy was employed, including multiple isolates/species from the following genera: Anteaglonium (6/4), Encephalographa (1/1), Farlowiella (3/1), Gloniopsis (8/4), Glonium (4/2), Hysterium (12/5), Hysterobrevium (14/3), Hysterographium (2/1), Hysteropatella (2/2), Lophium (4/2), Mytilinidion (13/10), Oedohysterium (5/3), Ostreichnion (2/2), Patellaria (1/1), Psiloglonium (11/3), Quasiconcha (1/1), Rhytidhysteron (8/3), and 24 outgroup taxa. Sequence data indicate that although the Hysteriales are closely related to the Pleosporales, sufficient branch support exists for their separation into separate orders within the Pleosporomycetidae. The Mytilinidiales are more distantly related within the subclass and show a close association with the Gloniaceae. Although there are examples of concordance between morphological and molecular data, these are few. Molecular data instead support the premise of a large number of convergent evolutionary lineages, which do not correspond to previously held assumptions of synapomorphy relating to spore morphology. Thus, within the Hysteriaceae, the genera Gloniopsis, Glonium, Hysterium and Hysterographium are highly polyphyletic. This necessitated the transfer of two species of Hysterium to Oedohysterium gen. nov. (Od. insidens comb. nov. and Od. sinense comb. nov.), the description of a new species, Hysterium barrianum sp. nov., and the transfer of two species of Gloniopsis to Hysterobrevium gen. nov. (Hb. smilacis comb. nov. and Hb. constrictum comb. nov.). While Hysterographium, with the type Hg

  2. Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhey S.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of shared conserved insertion or deletions (indels) in protein sequences is a special type of signature sequence that shows considerable promise for phylogenetic inference. An alternative model of microbial evolution based on the use of indels of conserved proteins and the morphological features of prokaryotic organisms is proposed. In this model, extant archaebacteria and gram-positive bacteria, which have a simple, single-layered cell wall structure, are termed monoderm prokaryotes. They are believed to be descended from the most primitive organisms. Evidence from indels supports the view that the archaebacteria probably evolved from gram-positive bacteria, and I suggest that this evolution occurred in response to antibiotic selection pressures. Evidence is presented that diderm prokaryotes (i.e., gram-negative bacteria), which have a bilayered cell wall, are derived from monoderm prokaryotes. Signature sequences in different proteins provide a means to define a number of different taxa within prokaryotes (namely, low G+C and high G+C gram-positive, Deinococcus-Thermus, cyanobacteria, chlamydia-cytophaga related, and two different groups of Proteobacteria) and to indicate how they evolved from a common ancestor. Based on phylogenetic information from indels in different protein sequences, it is hypothesized that all eukaryotes, including amitochondriate and aplastidic organisms, received major gene contributions from both an archaebacterium and a gram-negative eubacterium. In this model, the ancestral eukaryotic cell is a chimera that resulted from a unique fusion event between the two separate groups of prokaryotes followed by integration of their genomes. PMID:9841678

  3. A critical reappraisal of false negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Manca, G; Romanini, A; Rubello, D; Mazzarri, S; Boni, G; Chiacchio, S; Tredici, M; Duce, V; Tardelli, E; Volterrani, D; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) have completely changed the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma. This procedure has been accepted worldwide as a recognized method for nodal staging. SLNB is able to accurately determine nodal basin status, providing the most useful prognostic information. However, SLNB is not a perfect diagnostic test. Several large-scale studies have reported a relatively high false-negative rate (5.6-21%), correctly defined as the proportion of false-negative results with respect to the total number of "actual" positive lymph nodes. The main purpose of this review is to address the technical issues that nuclear physicians, surgeons, and pathologists should carefully consider to improve the accuracy of SLNB by minimizing its false-negative rate. In particular, SPECT/CT imaging has demonstrated to be able to identify a greater number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) than those found by planar lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, a unique definition in the international guidelines is missing for the operational identification of SLNs, which may be partly responsible for this relatively high false-negative rate of SLNB. Therefore, it is recommended for the scientific community to agree on the radioactive counting rate threshold so that the surgeon can be better radioguided to detect all the lymph nodes which are most likely to harbor metastases. Another possible source of error may be linked to the examination of the harvested SLNs by conventional histopathological methods. A more careful and extensive SLN analysis (e.g. molecular analysis by RT-PCR) is able to find more positive nodes, so that the false-negative rate is reduced. Older age at diagnosis, deeper lesions, histologic ulceration, head-neck anatomical location of primary lesions are the clinical factors associated with false-negative SLNBs in melanoma patients. There is still much controversy about the clinical significance of a false-negative SLNB on the prognosis

  4. Less than meets the eye: reappraising the clinical relevance of attentional bias in addiction.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Field, Matt

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in attentional bias in addiction, particularly its clinical relevance. Specifically, numerous articles claimed to demonstrate either that (1) attentional bias measured in treatment settings could predict subsequent relapse to substance use, or (2) direct modification of attentional bias reduced substance use and improved treatment outcomes. In this paper, we critically evaluate empirical studies that investigated these issues. We show that the evidence regarding both of these claims is decidedly mixed, and that many of the studies that appear to yield positive findings have serious methodological and statistical limitations. We contend that the available literature suggests that attentional bias for drug cues fluctuates within individuals because it is an output of the underlying motivational state at that moment in time, but there is no convincing evidence that it exerts a causal influence on substance use. Future research should make use of experience sampling methodology to characterise the clinical significance of fluctuations in attentional bias over time.

  5. Unhappy endings: a feminist reappraisal of the women's health movement from the vantage of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Layne, Linda L

    2003-05-01

    This essay contrasts the rosy birth scenarios of the natural childbirth movement with reproductive disaster stories of members of pregnancy loss support groups and women from toxically assaulted communities in the US who have suffered pregnancy loss. I argue that both biomedical obstetrics and the women's health movement critique of it share a belief in the ability to control reproduction so that there will be a positive outcome. I show that this emphasis on happy endings (whether believed to be the result of medical intervention, or women's natural inborn powers to reproduce) exacerbates the experience of those whose pregnancies do not end happily. I show how the women's health movement's emphasis on the importance of women being in control of their own bodies is related to a broader "culture of meritocracy" which contributes to maternal blame (and self-blame) when pregnancies are not perfect.

  6. Prophylactic salpingectomy and prophylactic salpingoophorectomy for adnexal high-grade serous epithelial carcinoma: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Oliver Perez, M Reyes; Magriñá, Javier; García, Alvaro Tejerizo; Jiménez Lopez, Jesus Salvador

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is no effective screening of ovarian cancer. Primary prevention may be the only strategy to decrease the mortality from ovarian cancer, not only in women at high risk but also at low risk. Several recent studies have identified the distal fimbriae end of the fallopian tubes as primary precursor of High-grade serous carcinoma. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and occult invasive serous carcinomas have been identified in 2-17% of the fallopian tubes of BRCA1/2 positive women undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Removal of the fallopian tubes with ovarian preservation has been suggested as a reasonable strategy that could reduce the risk of developing ovarian carcinoma in both low and high-risk women. It has been proposed after childbearing in women at high risk to be followed by bilateral oophorectomy at a later date. Bilateral salpingectomy is also suggested for low risk women, at the time of other benign gynaecologic surgery as a primary preventive strategy. Some studies have shown a risk reduction of ovarian cancer in women with bilateral prophylactic salpingectomy. Current research regarding bilateral salpingoophorectomy as primary prevention approach of ovarian cancer is reviewed here. In addition, the potential use of bilateral salpingectomy as prevention approach of ovarian cancer is discussed.

  7. How does Stroop interference change with practice? A reappraisal from the musical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Laurent; Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2015-03-01

    Most earlier studies investigating the evolution of the Stroop effect with the amount of reading practice have reported data consistent with an inverted U-shaped curve, whereby the Stroop effect appears early during reading acquisition, reaches a peak after 2 or 3 years of practice, and then continuously decreases until adulthood. The downward component of the curve suggests that skilled performers would be able to control their performance better than less-skilled performers. However, in these studies, the level of reading practice entirely coincides with age due to obvious practical and ethical constraints, and it is possible that the observed reduction in the Stroop interference is due to a growing ability of older children to inhibit nonrelevant information. In the present study, word reading, as source of interference, was replaced by note naming in musicians. The major advantage is that musical training can be easily decoupled from age. In 2 experiments exploiting the musical Stroop paradigm (Grégoire, Perruchet, & Poulin-Charronnat, 2013), we observed an early appearance of the interference effect, as reported for the color-word and picture-word Stroop tasks, but we did not replicate the inverted U-shaped curve. Experiment 2 revealed a linear and positive relation between the amplitude of the musical Stroop effect and the amount of musical practice across 5 years of musical training. These results suggest that reading practice in itself does not lead to increased control over reading and that the usual pattern of results is most likely due to the strong correlation between age and reading practice.

  8. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7 % sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100 % sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8 %). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) ( = JCM 30273(T) = DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain.

  9. Osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma in children and adolescents: a clinicopathologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Briana C; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Kozakewich, Harry P; Connolly, Susan; Gebhardt, Mark C; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R

    2008-03-01

    Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) and adamantinoma are rare and most commonly arise in the tibia of young individuals. Although OFD has typical histopathologic features, areas resembling OFD have often been noted at the periphery of otherwise classic adamantinomas, and some have suggested that OFD may be either a precursor to or a regressive phase of adamantinoma. The so-called OFD-like adamantinoma encompasses some features of both OFD and adamantinoma. We studied the clinical, imaging, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features of 16 OFD and 8 adamantinomas (5 OFD-like and 3 classic) in an attempt to further define their morphology, clinical course, and relationship. Patients with OFD were generally younger than those with adamantinoma. Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity was more prominent in OFD than in OFD-like adamantinoma. In addition to the inconspicuous small clusters of epithelial cells in OFD-like adamantinoma, isolated keratin-positive cells with a unique ultrastructural hybrid fibroblastic-epithelial phenotype were found in the stroma of all OFD and OFD-like adamantinomas. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed trisomies 7, 8, and/or 12 in the spindle cell stroma of OFD, OFD-like, and classic adamantinoma, supporting a neoplastic origin of OFD and a common histogenesis for all 3 lesions. Trisomies were not observed in osteoblasts or osteoclasts suggesting that the osseous component is reactive and non-neoplastic. Of the 11 OFD patients with follow-up (median, 4.5 y), all 3 who underwent incisional biopsy had persistent, nonprogressive disease and 2 of 8 who underwent curettage or wide excision had recurrence; none developed adamantinoma. All 6 adamantinoma patients with follow-up (3 classic and 3 OFD-like) were treated with wide excision. One with classic adamantinoma died of pulmonary metastases 9 years after presentation; the other 5 were free of disease with a median follow-up of 12 years. None of the

  10. Chronology of Quaternary coastal aeolianite deposition and the drowned shorelines of southwestern Western Australia - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, B. P.; Olley, J. M.; Pietsch, T.; Playford, P. E.; Haines, P. W.; Murray-Wallace, C. V.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2014-06-01

    Aeolianite successions of low-gradient continental margins commonly show complex records of coastal dune deposition linked to a wide range of sea-level positions and climatic periods of the middle and late Pleistocene, recording both regional and broader-scale drivers of sediment production, coastal dune development and landform preservation. To better characterise the general pattern of sedimentation that occurs over Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles on low-gradient, temperate carbonate continental shelves we examine the morphology, stratigraphy and age of aeolianite deposits in the Perth region, Western Australia. This includes an analysis of well-defined drowned coastal landforms preserved on the adjacent shelf. New and previously published optical ages provide a preliminary timeframe for the deposition of aeolianite in the Perth region and on Rottnest Island, 17 km offshore. An extensive aeolianite ridge near Perth, representing a former barrier, has Optically Stimulated Luminesence (OSL) ages that range from 120 ± 12 to 103 ± 10 ka (MIS 5e-5a in the context of associated age uncertainties). OSL ages for an exposure in the same ridge 2.5 km inland, record the onlap of much older aeolianite, OSL age 415 ± 70 ka, by shell-rich estuarine beds, OSL age 290 ± 30 ka. A further 5.5 km inland from the coast, two thick aeolianite units, separated by a well-developed palaeosol, have stratigraphically consistent OSL ages of 310 ± 30 and 155 ± 20 ka. In contrast, aeolianite units that form the northern coast of Rottnest Island have OSL ages of 77 ± 12 ka and 27 ± 5 ka. The new OSL ages and previously reported TL and U/Th ages indicate that the bulk of the island comprises dunes deposited around the end of the Last Interglacial sensu lato (MIS 5a-4) and during the Last Glacial (MIS 4-2), accumulating over a Last Interglacial coral reef and basal calcarenite. Drowned barrier and dune landforms preserved on the adjacent continental shelf reveal that barriers were

  11. A reappraisal of Microthyriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai X.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chomnunti, Putarak

    2012-01-01

    The family Microthyriaceae sensu Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2010 is a poorly known but interesting family comprising 50 genera consisting of foliar epiphytes or saprobes on dead leaves and stems. We re-visited the family based on examinations of generic types where possible. Members are distributed in Aulographaceae, Asterinaceae, Microthyriaceae, Micropeltidaceae and Palmulariaceae and notes are provided on each of these families. Nine genera are transferred from Microthyriaceae to Asterinaceae, and two to Aulographaceae based on the splitting or dissolving nature of the thyriothecia to release ascospores. New sequence data for a number of species and genera are provided. Microthyriaceous members growing on other fungi and lichens differ from Microthyriaceae sensu stricto and the family Trichothyriaceae is reinstated to accommodate these taxa. Other genera of Microthyriaceae belong in Rhytismataceae, Stictidaceae, Venturiales incertae cedis, Dothideomyetes genera incertae cedis, Hypocreales incertae cedis and Ascomycota genera incertae cedis. The family Microthyriaceae is reduced to seven genera characterised by superficial, flattened thyriothecia, with the cells of the upper wall radiating in parallel arrangement from the distinct central ostiolar opening, while the lower peridium is generally poorly developed. Sequence data is provided for five species with thyriothecia and Paramicrothyrium and Neomicrothyrium are described as new genera and Micropeltis zingiberacicola is introduced as a new species. Our phylogenetic analysis underscores the high genetic diversity for thyriotheciate species and there is no clear clade that can be well defined as Microthyriales. Nuclear ribosomal data support multiple polyphyletic lineages within Microthyriaceae and Micropeltidaceae. Some unexpected DNA based phylogenetic relationships such as those between Muyocopron and Saccardoella will require corroboration with more complete taxon sampling as well as additional non ribosomal markers. There are few differences between Aulographaceae, Asterinaceae and Palmulariaceae and these families may need synonymising. PMID:22408574

  12. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  13. Reappraisal of spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): response to escitalopram treatment and basal serotonin transporter (SERT) density.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Brand, Linda; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2013-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent thoughts and repetitive motor actions. Hyposerotonergic signalling in the cortico-striatal circuitry is believed to be central to the pathology of OCD, while many patients only respond to chronic treatment with high dose selective serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Confined deer mice spontaneously develop two forms of stereotypy, namely vertical jumping and pattern running. The purpose of this investigation was to reappraise these behaviours and strengthen the validity of deer mouse stereotypy as an animal model of OCD within a framework of three study questions: (1) can the time spent executing stereotypical behaviours be employed as a measure of extent of stereotypy, (2) does deer mouse stereotypy only respond to chronic, but not sub-chronic treatment with a high-dose SSRI, and (3) is deer mouse stereotypy associated with altered cortico-striatal 5HT transporter (SERT) binding? The current study demonstrates that treatment naïve high stereotypical (HS) deer mice spend significantly more time executing stereotypical behaviours while significantly less time is spent indulging in stereotypy following chronic, but not sub-chronic, treatment with escitalopram. Furthermore, HS deer mice present with a significant decrease in striatal SERT density compared to non-stereotypical (NS) controls. Building on previous validation studies, we conclude that deer mouse stereotypy is a valid naturalistic animal model of OCD with robust face, construct and predictive validity.

  14. Regulating positive and negative emotions in daily life.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The present study examined how people regulate their emotions in daily life and how such regulation is related to their daily affective experience and psychological adjustment. Each day for an average of 3 weeks, participants described how they had regulated their emotions in terms of the reappraisal and suppression (inhibiting the expression) of positive and negative emotions, and they described their emotional experience, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment in terms of Beck's triadic model of depression. Reappraisal was used more often than suppression, and suppressing positive emotions was used less than the other three strategies. In general, regulation through reappraisal was found to be beneficial, whereas regulation by suppression was not. Reappraisal of positive emotions was associated with increases in positive affect, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, whereas suppressing positive emotions was associated with decreased positive emotion, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, and increased negative emotions. Moreover, relationships between reappraisal and psychological adjustment and self-esteem were mediated by experienced positive affect, whereas relationships between suppression of positive emotions and self-esteem adjustment were mediated by negative affect.

  15. The Late Positive Potential Predicts Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in School-Aged Children Concurrently and Two Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Babkirk, Sarah; Rios, Victor; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to use cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal may be a core component of emotional competence across development, but due to methodological challenges in measuring such strategies, they are rarely studied in young children. One neurophysiological measure, the late positive potential (LPP) has been examined in response to reappraisal as a potential neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in adults. The association between the LPP and emotion regulatory capacity in children is unknown. The present study examined whether the LPP during reappraisal could predict greater observed adaptive emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children over a two-year period. Thirty-two five- to seven- year- olds participated in two identical lab visits spaced two years apart. EEG was continuously recorded during a computerized reappraisal task in which children viewed unpleasant images paired with either reappraisal or negative stories. Next they completed a disappointing and a frustrating task during which emotion regulation strategies was observed. As predicted, children who showed reappraisal-induced reductions in the LPP at the first assessment used significantly more adaptive ER strategies concurrently and two years later. These findings provide observation-based evidence that the LPP may be a viable neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in children. PMID:25438825

  16. Defining the epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene phenotypic signature in myoclonus-dystonia: a reappraisal of genetic testing criteria.

    PubMed

    Carecchio, Miryam; Magliozzi, Monia; Copetti, Massimiliano; Ferraris, Alessandro; Bernardini, Laura; Bonetti, Monica; Defazio, Giovanni; Edwards, Mark J; Torrente, Isabella; Pellegrini, Fabio; Comi, Cristoforo; Bhatia, Kailash P; Valente, Enza Maria

    2013-06-01

    Mutations or exon deletions of the epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene cause myoclonus-dystonia (M-D), but a subset of M-D patients are mutation-negative and the sensitivity and specificity of current genetic testing criteria are unknown. We screened 46 newly enrolled M-D patients for SGCE mutations and deletions; moreover, 24 subjects previously testing negative for SGCE mutations underwent gene dosage analysis. In our combined cohorts, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and area under the curve of 2 published sets of M-D diagnostic criteria. A stepwise logistic regression was used to assess which patients' characteristics best discriminated mutation carriers and to calculate a new mutation predictive score ("new score"), which we validated in previously published cohorts. Nine of 46 (19.5%) patients of the new cohort carried SCGE mutations, including 5 novel point mutations and 1 whole-gene deletion; in the old cohort, 1 patient with a complex phenotype carried a 5.9-Mb deletion encompassing SGCE. Current diagnostic criteria had a poor ability to discriminate SGCE-positive from SGCE-negative patients in our cohort; conversely, age of onset, especially if associated with psychiatric features (as included in the new score), showed the best discriminatory power to individuate SGCE mutation carriers, both in our cohort and in the validation cohort. Our results suggest that young age at onset of motor symptoms, especially in association with psychiatric disturbance, are strongly predictive for SGCE positivity. We suggest performing gene dosage analysis by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to individuate large SGCE deletions that can be responsible for complex phenotypes.

  17. The Ban Don Mun artifacts: a chronological reappraisal of human occupations in the Lampang province of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Valery; Forestier, Hubert; Rasse, Michel; Auetrakulvit, Prasit; Kim, Jeongmin; Tiamtinkrit, Chaturaporn

    2013-07-01

    Despite recent stone tool evidence demonstrating a much older Early Pleistocene human presence in India, the timing and geography of human demographic expansions in continental Southeast Asia remains ambiguous. The recent discovery of a series of stone artifacts spread over a basalt level at Ban Don Mun in the Lampang province of northern Thailand presents an ideal opportunity for reevaluating lithic assemblages documented during the 1970s and 1980s in the same region. Both the position of these stone tools and new absolute dates indicate a Middle Pleistocene age and call into question the status of these artifacts as the oldest yet found in Southeast Asia. The uncertain geo-chronological context and technological analysis of the chopper industry from previous work in the Lampang area prompted us to undertake new surveys in continental Southeast Asia in order to help clarify the route and timing of Pleistocene human expansions in this part of the world.

  18. A further investigation and reappraisal of the thio effect in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinari, Koichi; Taira, Kazunari

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized three types of 11mer substrate, namely the natural substrate S11O and the thiosubstituted substrates S11SpS and S11RpS, in which the respective pro-Sp and pro-Rp oxygen atoms were replaced by sulfur, and subjected them to detailed kinetic analysis in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme. In agreement with previous findings, in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+ ions the rate of ribozyme-catalyzed cleavage of S11SpS was as high as that of S11O, whereas the corresponding rate for S11RpS was nearly four orders of magnitude lower than that for either S11O or S11SpS. However, the rate of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction with each of the three substrates was enhanced by Cd2+ ions. Such results have generally been taken as evidence that supports the direct interaction of the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the cleavage site with the added Cd2+ ion. However, our present analysis demonstrates that (i) the added Cd2+ ion binds at the P9 site; (ii) the bound Cd2+ ion at the P9 site replaces two Mg2+ or two Ca2+ ions, an observation that suggests a different mode of interaction with the added Cd2+ ion; and, most importantly and in contrast to the conclusion reached by other investigators, (iii) the Cd2+ ion does not interact with the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the scissile phosphate either in the ground state or in the transition state. PMID:10734192

  19. Reappraisal of bovril as a source of arginine in the arginine stimulation test for growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Loh, H H; Norlela, S; Nor Azmi, K

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this case study is to report the use of oral Bovril (a food supplement which contains arginine) as an alternative test for growth hormone stimulation test. We performed oral Bovril test in 3 patients -- one with suspected growth hormone deficiency in whom insulin tolerance test could not be performed (subject A), one sex-matched control (subject B), and one with confirmed growth hormone deficiency (subject C). 14g/m(2) of oral Bovril was mixed with 150ml of warm water and was given to all three subjects. Blood for growth hormone was taken at baseline, and every 30 minutes till 150 minutes after ingestion of oral Bovril. The ingestion of oral Bovril showed a positive response in subjects A and B, with highest growth hormone levels of 28.4mIU/L and 42.0mIU/L respectively at 150 minutes. Subject C had suppressed growth hormone throughout the test. Oral Bovril is readily available and is a safe alternative for standard growth hormone stimulation test.

  20. Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetism of the Miocene intramontane Pag and Drniš-Sinj basins, External Dinarides (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emő; Pavelić, Davor; Vranjković, Alan; Ćosović, Vlasta

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents palaeomagnetic results from the Miocene offshore Pag and the twin onshore (Drniš-Sinj) basins. Earlier magnetostratigraphic results were published from both basins, which documented that the lake sediments were good targets for palaeomagnetism. From the Pag basin, we sampled the oldest and youngest segments of the 1200 m long Crnika section and obtained statistically different palaeomagnetic directions from the two parts. During a repeated visit to the section it was revealed that modern gravity-driven creeping can account for this, i.e. the results from the Pag basin should be rejected from regional tectonic interpretation. The overall-mean palaeomagnetic direction for the Drniš-Sinj basin has excellent statistical parameters, its high quality is further supported by positive regional fold/tilt and reversal tests, based on seven geographically distributed localities. The results suggests 13-20° CCW rotation with respect to Africa and 21-27° with respect to stable Europe, during the last 15 million years. As the External Dinarides are the loci of a complicated network of Miocene and even younger tectonic zones, we cannot export the observed rotation for the whole unit, but consider our results as one step in obtaining robust kinematic constraints for the post-Oligocene tectonic history of the External Dinarides.

  1. Phylogenetic reappraisal of Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae) and related taxa, with a proposal of two new sections.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Qing; Yang, Jing-Tian; Zhou, Chun-Jing; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2014-03-01

    The phylogeny of subgenus Cyathophora and representatives of its closely related taxa within Allium were reconstructed based on nrDNA ITS and two plastid fragments (trnL-F and rpl32-trnL). The constructed phylogenies indicated that subgenus Cyathophora was not monophyletic and to be split in three parts positioned in different clusters. Allium kingdonii was unequivocally placed within subgenus Amerallium and formed an immediate sister relationship with New World Amerallium clade, suggesting an unexpected intercontinental disjunct distribution. For another, Allium trifurcatum was firmly nested within subgenus Butomissa next to A. tuberosum and A. ramosum, but it is distinctly different morphologically from the latter by thinly leathery bulb tunics, uniovulate locule and obviously 3-cleft stigma. Based on the geographic features, morphological and molecular evidences, two new sections, Kingdonia X.J.He et D.Q.Huang for A. kingdonii and Trifurcatum X.J.He et D.Q.Huang for A. trifurcatum, were proposed. The remaining three species of subgenus Cyathophora formed a well-defined clade, and the phylogenetic relationships among them recovered were consistent with previous findings. In addition, A. weschniakowii and A. subtilissimum were proven to be a member of subgenera Rhizirideum sensu stricto (s. str.) and Cepa, respectively, rather than subgenera Cepa and Polyprason previously proposed. Section Rhizomatosa represented by A. caespitosum should be subsumed within section Caespitosoprason of subgenus Rhizirideum s. str.

  2. Blood Lactate Levels Cutoff and Mortality Prediction in Sepsis—Time for a Reappraisal? a Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Roberto Rabello; Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Colombo, Giancarlo; Assuncao, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the initial value of blood lactate that best correlates with 28-day mortality in resuscitated septic shock patients. This was a retrospective cohort study including 443 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with severe sepsis or septic shock from the emergency department. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to obtain the best cutoff value for initial blood lactate associated with 28-day mortality. Patients were then dichotomized according to the chosen lactate cutoff, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Baseline blood lactate level more than 2.5 mmol/L showed the largest area under the ROC curve to predict 28-day mortality (ROC area, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62–0.79), with sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of 67.4%, 61.7%, and 94.2%, respectively. Mortality at 28 days was 16.9% (31/183) in patients with initial lactate more than 2.5 mmol/L and 5.8% (15/260) in patients with initial lactate at most 2.5 mmol/L (relative risk, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.63–5.28; P < 0.001). Initial blood lactate levels more than 2.5 mmol/L (hazard ratio [HR], 2.86; 95% CI, 1.53–5.33; P = 0.001) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09–1.27; P < 0.001) were associated with increased 28-day mortality in the adjusted Cox regression. In this retrospective cohort study, a lactate level more than 2.5 mmol/L was the best threshold to predict 28-day mortality among severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Further prospective studies should address the impact on morbidity and mortality of this threshold as a trigger to resuscitation in this population of critically ill patients. PMID:27380535

  3. Vascular Thalamic Amnesia: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided…

  4. Sudden cardiac death: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Christian; Laksman, Zachary W M; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is still among the leading causes of death in women and men, accounting for over 50% of all fatal cardiovascular events in the United States. Two arrhythmia mechanisms of SCD can be distinguished as follows: shockable rhythms (ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia) and non-shockable rhythms including asystole or pulseless electrical activity. The overall prognosis of cardiac arrest due to shockable rhythms is significantly better. While the majority of SCDs is attributed to coronary artery disease or other structural heart disease, no obvious cause can be identified in 5% of all events, and those events are labeled as sudden unexplained deaths (SUD). Those unexplained events are typically caused by rare hereditary electrical disorders or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. A systematic approach to the diagnosis of cardiac arrest followed by tailored therapy based on etiology has emerged in the last 10-15 years, with significant changes of medical practice and risk management of cardiac arrest victims. The aim of this review is to summarize our contemporary understanding of SCD/SUD in adults and to discuss current concepts of management and secondary prevention in cardiac arrest victims. A full discussion of the topic of primary prevention of SCD is beyond the scope of this article.

  5. Reappraisal of solid selective emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    New rare earth oxide emitters show greater efficiency than previous emitters. As a result, based on a simple model the efficiency of these emitters was calculated. Results indicate that the emission band of the selective emitter must be at relatively low energy (less than or equal to .52 eV) to obtain maximum efficiency at moderate emitter temperatures (less than or equal to 1500 K). Thus low bandgap energy PV materials are required to obtain an efficient thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. Of the 4 specific rare earths (Nd, Ho, Er, Yb) studied Ho has the largest efficiency at moderate temperatures (72 percent at 1500 K). A comparison was made between a selective emitter TPV system and a TPV system that uses a thermal emitter plus a band pass filter to make the thermal emitter behave like a selective emitter. Results of the comparison indicate that only for very optimistic filter and thermal emitter properties will the filter TPV system have a greater efficiency than the selective emitter system.

  6. What is 'manipulation'? A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Lucas, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Due primarily to its colloquial function, 'manipulation' is a poor term for distinguishing one healthcare intervention from another. With reports continuing to associate serious adverse events with manipulation, particularly relating to its use in the cervical spine, it is essential that the term be used appropriately and in accordance with a valid definition. The purpose of this paper is to identify empirically-derived features that we propose to be necessary and collectively sufficient for the formation of a valid definition for manipulation. A final definition is not offered. However, arguments for and against the inclusion of features are presented. Importantly, these features are explicitly divided into two categories: the 'action' (that which the practitioner does to the recipient) and the 'mechanical response' (that which occurs within the recipient). The proposed features are: 1) A force is applied to the recipient; 2) The line of action of this force is perpendicular to the articular surface of the affected joint; 3) The applied force creates motion at a joint; 4) This joint motion includes articular surface separation; 5) Cavitation occurs within the affected joint.

  7. Brief report: Attention to positive information mediates the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal. Findings of this study may inform the design of intervention research by highlighting the importance of hopeful thinking style and attention to positive information in mental health of adolescents.

  8. Against All Odds: Positive Life Experiences of People with Advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; McNicoll, Paule

    1998-01-01

    Describes the nature of positive life experiences of 13 people coping exceptionally well while living with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's, disease and the resulting significant physical disabilities. Emerging themes were the use of cognitive reappraisal, reframing, and intellectual stimulation as coping mechanisms;…

  9. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  10. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect.

  11. Lung cancer risk of low-level exposures to alpha emitters: critical reappraisal and experiments based on a new cytodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1999-02-20

    Ecologic U.S. county data suggest negative associations between residential radon exposure and lung cancer mortality (LCM)-inconsistent with clearly positive associations revealed by occupational data on individual miners, but perhaps explained by competing effects of cell killing vs. mutations in alpha-exposed bronchial epithelium. To assess the latter possibility, a biologically based "cytodynamic 2-stage" (CD2) cancer-risk model was fit to combined 1950-54 age- specific person-year data on lung cancer mortality (LCM) in white females of age 40+ y in 2,821 U.S. counties (-90% never-smokers), and in 5 cohorts of underground miners who never smoked. New estimates of household annual average radon exposure in U.S. counties were used, which were found to have a significant negative ecologic association with 1950-54 LCM in U.S. white females, adjusted for age and all subsets of two among 21 socioeconomic, climatic and other factors considered. A good CD2 fit was obtained to the combined residential/miner data, using biologically plausible parameter values. Without further optimization, the fit also predicted independent inverse dose-rate effects shown (for the first time) to occur in nonsmoking miners. Using the same U.S. county-level LCM data, a separate study revealed a positive ecologic association between LCM and bituminous coal use in the U.S., in agreement with epidemiological data on LCM in women in China. The modeling results obtained are consistent with the CD2-based hypothesis that residential radon exposure has a nonlinear U-shaped relation to LCM risk, and that current linear no-threshold extrapolation models substantially overestimate such risk. A U-shaped dose-response corresponds to a CD2-model prediction that alpha radiation kills more premalignant cells than it generates at low exposure levels, but not at higher levels. To test this hypothesis, groups of Japanese medaka (ricefish minnows) were exposed for 10 to 14 weeks to different concentrations of

  12. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene `Miacis' from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2016-10-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis. Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon, respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus, and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation.

  13. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene ‘Miacis’ from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis. Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon, respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus, and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation. PMID:27853569

  14. Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis of 16 cases with a reappraisal of clear cell sarcoma-like tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Stockman, David L; Miettinen, Markku; Suster, Saul; Spagnolo, Dominic; Dominguez-Malagon, Hugo; Hornick, Jason L; Adsay, Volkan; Chou, Pauline M; Amanuel, Benhur; Vantuinen, Peter; Zambrano, Eduardo V

    2012-06-01

    The clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, ultrastructural, and molecular features of a distinctive gastrointestinal tumor are described. Sixteen patients, 8 women and 8 men aged 17 to 77 years (mean age, 42 y; 63% less than 40 y) presented with abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and an abdominal mass. Mean tumor size was 5.2 cm (range, 2.4 to 15.0 cm). The tumors arose in the small bowel (10), stomach (4), and colon (2) and were histologically characterized by a sheet-like or nested population of epithelioid or oval-to-spindle cells with small nucleoli and scattered mitoses. Five cases showed focal clearing of the cytoplasm. Scattered osteoclast-type multinucleated giant cells were present in 8 cases. The tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, SOX10, and vimentin in 100% of cases, for CD56 in 70%, for synaptophysin in 56%, for NB84 in 50%, for NSE in 45%, and for neurofilament protein in 14% of cases. All cases tested were negative for specific melanocytic, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, epithelial, and myoid markers. Ultrastructural examination of 5 cases showed features of primitive neuroectodermal cells with clear secretory vesicles, dense-core granules, occasional gap junctions, and no evidence of melanogenesis. EWSR1 gene rearrangement was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 14 cases. Twelve cases (86%) showed split EWSR1 signal consistent with a chromosomal translocation involving EWSR1. One case showed extra intact signals, indicating that the nuclei possessed either extra copies of the EWSR1 gene or chromosome 22 polysomy. Only 1 case showed no involvement of the EWSR1 gene. Six cases demonstrated rearrangement of the partner fusion gene ATF1 (46%), and 3 showed rearrangement of CREB1 (23%); 2 cases lacked rearrangement of either partner gene. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients and ranged from 1.5 to 106 months. Six patients died of their tumors (mean survival, 32 mo; 83% less than 24 mo). At last follow-up, 4

  15. In the footsteps of Darwin at Santiago (Cape Verde Island): new insights from a field reappraisal of the (white sedimentary layer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertocchini, Federico; Chiesura, Guido; Bini, Monica; Cascella, Antonio; Ribolini, Adriano; Patacca, Etta; Casacchia, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    -rich deposits, characterized by the abundance of Oyster colony and Turritella, from a white limestone/sandstone layer that commonly shows at its base accumulation of rodholits (the "Nulliporae" of Darwin). This obviously implies that a significant chronological hiatus is recorded in the section. As a whole the white limestone/sandstone layer is organized in a fining and deepening upward sequence that is abruptly truncated by a subaerial basalt unit in the Eastern side of the Praia Harbour and by a subaqueous pillows lava unit to the West. In addition the limestone/sandstone layer outcrops patchily at different quotes, from more than 30 m above sea level down to plunge below the sea. Ours study highlights how the white sedimentary layer, that so much aroused the curiosity of Darwin, records more than one depositional event. At least the position of four palaeoshores can be identified, evidencing how the island undergone to several phases of relative sea-level variations driven by eustatic and/ or tectonic factors.

  16. The argument from potential: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Reichlin, Massimo

    1997-01-01

    Several criticisms of the argument from potential are reported. It is noted that such criticisms are inspired by two similarly wrong interpretations of potentiality, one confusing it with possibility and another with probability. A brief analysis of the original Aristotelian context in which the concept emerged shows that potentiality cannot be thought of as indicating the provision of some empirical facts in the future, but must rather be referred to the inherent ontological structure of the being in question. It is then argued that such an Aristotelian concept can be useful to express the dynamic structure of the person, as it must be understood according to contemporary phenomenological personalism. In the light of this philosophical tradition, the embryo can be viewed as a being already possessing the human nature and actively developing its potential for personhood: it also follows that human nature must not be understood as a static and predetermined essence, but rather as the principle of becoming and movement toward further achievements.

  17. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  18. A reappraisal of retrograde cerebral perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Brain protection during aortic arch surgery by perfusing cold oxygenated blood into the superior vena cava was first reported by Lemole et al. In 1990 Ueda and associates first described the routine use of continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in thoracic aortic surgery for the purpose of cerebral protection during the interval of obligatory interruption of anterograde cerebral flow. The beneficial effects of RCP may be its ability to sustain brain hypothermia during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and removal of embolic material from the arterial circulation of the brain. RCP can offer effective brain protection during HCA for about 40 to 60 minutes. Animal experiments revealed that RCP provided inadequate cerebral perfusion and that neurological recovery was improved with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP), however, both RCP and ACP provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding both the mortality and stroke rates by risk-adjusted and case-matched comparative study. RCP still remains a valuable adjunct for brain protection during aortic arch repair in particular pathologies and patients. PMID:23977600

  19. Jaw adductor muscles across lepidosaurs: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Daza, Juan Diego; Diogo, Rui; Johnston, Peter; Abdala, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The exact homologies of tetrapod jaw muscles remain unresolved, and this provides a barrier for phylogenetic analysis and tracing character evolution. Here, lepidosaur jaw muscles are surveyed using direct examination of species from 23 families and published descriptions of species from 10 families. A revised nomenclature is applied according to proposed homologies with Latimeria. Among lepidosaurs, variation was found in many aspects of jaw muscle anatomy. The superficial layers mm. levator and retractor anguli oris (LAO and RAO) are present in Sphenodon but not all squamates. The external jaw adductor muscles universally present in lepidosaurs are homologous with the main adductor muscle, A2, of Latimeria and include four layers: superficialis (A2-SUP), medialis (A2-M), profundus (A2-PRO), and posterior (A2-PVM). The A2-SUP appears divided in Agamidae, Gekkota, Xantusiidae, and Varanidae. The A2-M is layered lateromedial in lizards but anteroposterior in snakes. The names pseudotemporalis (PS) and pterygomandibularis (PTM) are recommended for subdivisions of the internal adductors of reptiles and amphibians, because the homology of this muscle with the A3' and A3 ″ of Latimeria remains inconclusive. The intramandibularis of lepidosaurs and Latimeria (A-ω) are homologous. The distribution of six jaw muscle characters was found to plot more parsimoniously on phylogenies based on morphological rather than and molecular data. Character mapping indicates that Squamata presents reduction in the divisions of the A2-M, Scincoidea presents reduction or loss of LAO, and two apomorphic features are found for the Gekkota.

  20. A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy. PMID:21245602

  1. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906

  2. Congenitally absent lumbar pedicle: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Wortzman, G.; Steinhardt, M.I.

    1984-09-01

    Three patients who had a diagnosis of congenitally absent lumbar pedicle underwent CT examination. Findings showed that each patient had an aberrant hypoplastic pedicle plus a retroisthmic defect in their ipsilateral lamina rather than an absent pedicle. Axial CT was the diagnostic modality of choice; reformated images were of little value. The differential diagnosis to be considered from the findings of plain film radiography includes pediculate thinning, neoplastic disease, neurofibroma, mesodermal dysplasia associated with neurofibromatosis, and vascular anomalies.

  3. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    PubMed

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  4. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo.

  5. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    PubMed Central

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  6. Bacterial Morphologies Supporting Cometary Panspermia: a Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  7. A reappraisal of the CHARGE association.

    PubMed Central

    Oley, C A; Baraitser, M; Grant, D B

    1988-01-01

    We describe 14 boys and six girls, including monozygotic twins, with the CHARGE association. All of the children had at least four of the seven major features included in the mnemonic CHARGE and all had ear anomalies or deafness or both and either coloboma or choanal atresia or both. All the boys had evidence of hypogonadism. A characteristic facial appearance (unusually shaped ears, unilateral facial palsy, square face, malar flattening, pinched nostrils) was observed in many of our cases. The aetiology remains unknown. All our cases are sporadic. Images PMID:3351900

  8. Activated charcoal for acute overdose: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Juurlink, David N

    2016-03-01

    Sometimes mistakenly characterized as a 'universal antidote,' activated charcoal (AC) is the most frequently employed method of gastrointestinal decontamination in the developed world. Typically administered as a single dose (SDAC), its tremendous surface area permits the binding of many drugs and toxins in the gastrointestinal lumen, reducing their systemic absorption. Like other decontamination procedures, the utility of SDAC attenuates with time, and, although generally safe, it is not free of risk. A large body of evidence demonstrates that SDAC can reduce the absorption of drugs and xenobiotics but most such studies involve volunteers and have little generalizability to clinical practice. Few rigorous clinical trials of SDAC have been conducted, and none validate or refute its utility in those patients who are intuitively most likely to benefit. Over the past decade, a growing body of observational data have demonstrated that SDAC can elicit substantial reductions in drug absorption in acutely poisoned patients. The challenge for clinicians rests in differentiating those patients most likely to benefit from SDAC from those in whom meaningful improvement is doubtful. This is often a difficult determination not well suited to an algorithmic approach. The present narrative review summarizes the data supporting the benefits and harms of SDAC, and offers pragmatic suggestions for clinical practice.

  9. Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken; Polly Tse

    2004-01-01

    Metadiscourse is self-reflective linguistic material referring to the evolving text and to the writer and imagined reader of that text. It is based on a view of writing as social engagement and in academic contexts reveals the ways that writers project themselves into their discourse to signal their attitude towards both the propositional content…

  10. Natal Teeth: A Case Report and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Ghadah A.; Al-Badawi, Emad A.; Dahlan, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of teeth at birth (natal teeth) or within a month after delivery (neonatal teeth) is a rare condition. Natal and neonatal teeth are conditions of significant importance to pediatric dentists and pediatricians. This report discusses a case in which a five-day-old infant required extraction of a mobile mandibular natal tooth to avoid the risk of aspiration and interference with feeding. Also, a review of the literature was conducted to discuss the etiology, clinical features, complications, and management of natal and neonatal teeth. PMID:25722895

  11. Disclinations, dislocations, and continuous defects: A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleman, M.; Friedel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Disclinations were first observed in mesomorphic phases. They were later found relevant to a number of ill-ordered condensed-matter media involving continuous symmetries or frustrated order. Disclinations also appear in polycrystals at the edges of grain boundaries; but they are of limited interest in solid single crystals, where they can move only by diffusion climb and, owing to their large elastic stresses, mostly appear in close pairs of opposite signs. The relaxation mechanisms associated with a disclination in its creation, motion, and change of shape involve an interplay with continuous or quantized dislocations and/or continuous disclinations. These are attached to the disclinations or are akin to Nye’s dislocation densities, which are particularly well suited for consideration here. The notion of an extended Volterra process is introduced, which takes these relaxation processes into account and covers different situations where this interplay takes place. These concepts are illustrated by a variety of applications in amorphous solids, mesomorphic phases, and frustrated media in their curved habit space. These often involve disclination networks with specific node conditions. The powerful topological theory of line defects considers only defects stable against any change of boundary conditions or relaxation processes compatible with the structure considered. It can be seen as a simplified case of the approach considered here, particularly suited for media of high plasticity or/and complex structures. It cannot analyze the dynamical properties of defects nor the elastic constants involved in their static properties; topological stability cannot guarantee energetic stability, and sometimes cannot distinguish finer details of the structure of defects.

  12. Bacterial morphologies supporting cometary panspermia: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology, other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  13. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-05-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  14. The decline in child mortality: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, O. B.; Lopez, A. D.; Inoue, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper examines, describes and documents country-specific trends in under-five mortality rates (i.e., mortality among children under five years of age) in the 1990s. Our analysis updates previous studies by UNICEF, the World Bank and the United Nations. It identifies countries and WHO regions where sustained improvement has occurred and those where setbacks are evident. A consistent series of estimates of under-five mortality rate is provided and an indication is given of historical trends during the period 1950-2000 for both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that 10.5 million children aged 0-4 years died in 1999, about 2.2 million or 17.5% fewer than a decade earlier. On average about 15% of newborn children in Africa are expected to die before reaching their fifth birthday. The corresponding figures for many other parts of the developing world are in the range 3-8% and that for Europe is under 2%. During the 1990s the decline in child mortality decelerated in all the WHO regions except the Western Pacific but there is no widespread evidence of rising child mortality rates. At the country level there are exceptions in southern Africa where the prevalence of HIV is extremely high and in Asia where a few countries are beset by economic difficulties. The slowdown in the rate of decline is of particular concern in Africa and South-East Asia because it is occurring at relatively high levels of mortality, and in countries experiencing severe economic dislocation. As the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues in Africa, particularly southern Africa, and in parts of Asia, further reductions in child mortality become increasingly unlikely until substantial progress in controlling the spread of HIV is achieved. PMID:11100613

  15. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness.

  16. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: effects of sociocultural context

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Sara A.; Heller, S. Megan; Lumian, Daniel S.; McRae, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae et al., 2011). In this sociocultural context, as compared to typically at home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes), and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy generally associated with adaptive outcomes). What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we replicated our previous findings, and found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we observe are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and typically at home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects. PMID:23840191

  17. Prolactin and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia: A Literature Review and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin can be significantly increased by antipsychotic drugs, leading to a range of adverse effects in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is evidence from a variety of studies that prolactin may also be related to symptom profile and treatment response in these patients, and recent work has identified variations in prolactin secretion even in drug-free patients. In this paper, a selective review of all relevant studies pertaining to prolactin and schizophrenia, including challenge and provocation studies, is presented. The implications of this work are discussed critically. A tentative model, which synthesizes these findings and argues for a significant role for prolactin in the development of schizophrenia, is outlined. PMID:24800074

  18. Reappraisal of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor for Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2011-05-20

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) enhancement factor of atomic Tl is of considerable interest as it has been used in determining the most accurate limit on the electron EDM to date. However, its value varies from -179 to -1041 in different approximations. In view of the large uncertainties associated with many of these calculations, we perform an accurate calculation employing the relativistic coupled-cluster theory and obtain -466, which in combination with the most accurate measurement of Tl EDM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002)] yields a new limit for the electron EDM: |d{sub e}|<2.0x10{sup -27}e cm.

  19. Reappraisal of role of angiotensin receptor blockers in cardiovascular protection.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have shown cardioprotective and renoprotective properties. These agents are recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of hypertension and the reduction of cardiovascular risk. Early studies pointed to the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of ARBs in high-risk patients. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) established the clinical equivalence of the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of telmisartan and ramipril, but did not find an added benefit of the combination over ramipril alone. Similar findings were observed in the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in aCE INtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) trial conducted in ACEI-intolerant patients. In ONTARGET, telmisartan had a better tolerability profile with similar renoprotective properties compared with ramipril, suggesting a potential clinical benefit over ramipril. The recently completed Olmesartan Reducing Incidence of Endstage Renal Disease in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (ORIENT) and Olmesartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) studies will further define the role of ARBs in cardioprotection and renoprotection for high-risk patients.

  20. Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Emiel

    2014-12-02

    Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products.

  1. Basement membrane proteins in the space of Disse: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M R; Keir, S; Burt, A D

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of two major basement membrane components, type IV collagen and laminin, was studied within the perisinusoidal space of Disse in normal human liver using (i) an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopy and (ii) immunogold labelling for ultrastructural localisation. Although immunoreactivity depended on the mode of tissue fixation, both proteins could be identified at this site using a panel of affinity purified antibodies. These findings indicate that these proteins are normal constituents of the perisinusoidal extracellular matrix, and refute the hypothesis that capillarization of the sinusoids in chronic liver disease results from neo-expression of laminin in the space of Disse. Images PMID:1890197

  2. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive transfusion requirements could allow early activation of blood bank protocols. Methods Datasets on trauma admissions over a 1 or 2-year period were obtained from the trauma registries of five large trauma research networks. A fractional polynomial was used to model the transfusion-associated probability of death. A logistic regression model for the prediction of massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of red cell transfusions, was developed. Results In total, 5,693 patient records were available for analysis. Mortality increased as transfusion requirements increased, but the model indicated no threshold effect. Mortality was 9% in patients who received none to five PRBC units, 22% in patients receiving six to nine PRBC units, and 42% in patients receiving 10 or more units. A logistic model for prediction of massive transfusion was developed and validated at multiple sites but achieved only moderate performance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81, with specificity of only 50% at a sensitivity of 90% for the prediction of 10 or more PRBC units. Performance varied widely at different trauma centers, with specificity varying from 48% to 91%. Conclusions No threshold for definition exists at which a massive transfusion specifically results in worse outcomes. Even with a large sample size across multiple trauma datasets, it was not possible to develop a transportable and clinically useful prediction model based on available admission parameters. Massive transfusion as a concept in trauma has limited utility, and emphasis should be placed on identifying patients with massive hemorrhage and acute traumatic coagulopathy. PMID:21192812

  3. Y-STR Frequency Surveying Method: A critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Willuweit, Sascha; Caliebe, Amke; Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Roewer, Lutz

    2011-03-01

    Reasonable formalized methods to estimate the frequencies of DNA profiles generated from lineage markers have been proposed in the past years and were discussed in the forensic community. Recently, collections of population data on the frequencies of variations in Y chromosomal STR profiles have reached a new quality with the establishment of the comprehensive neatly quality-controlled reference database YHRD. Grounded on such unrivalled empirical material from hundreds of populations studies the core assumption of the Haplotype Frequency Surveying Method originally described 10 years ago can be tested and improved. Here we provide new approaches to calculate the parameters used in the frequency surveying method: a maximum likelihood estimation of the regression parameters (r(1), r(2), s(1) and s(2)) and a revised Frequency Surveying framework with variable binning and a database preprocessing to take the population sub-structure into account. We found good estimates for 11 metapopulations using both approaches and demonstrate that the statistical basis of the method is well supported and independent of the population under study. The results of the estimation process are reliable and robust if the underlying datasets are large and representative and show small average and pairwise genetic distances.

  4. A reappraisal of azhdarchid pterosaur functional morphology and paleoecology.

    PubMed

    Witton, Mark P; Naish, Darren

    2008-05-28

    Azhdarchid pterosaurs were among the most widespread and successful of pterosaur clades, but their paleoecology remains controversial. Morphological features common to all azhdarchids include a long, shallow rostrum; elongate, cylindrical cervical vertebrae that formed a long and unusually inflexible neck; and proportionally short wings with an abbreviated fourth phalanx. While azhdarchids have been imagined as vulture-like scavengers, sediment probers, swimmers, waders, aerial predators, or stork-like generalists, most recent authors have regarded them as skim-feeders, trawling their lower jaws through water during flight and seizing aquatic prey from the water's surface. Although apparently widely accepted, the skim-feeding model lacks critical support from anatomy and functional morphology. Azhdarchids lack the many cranial specialisations exhibited by extant skim-feeding birds, most notably the laterally compressed lower jaw and shock absorbing apparatus required for this feeding style. Well-preserved azhdarchid skulls are rare, but their rostra and lower jaws appear to have been sub-triangular in cross-section, and thus dissimilar to those of skim-feeders and sediment probers. Taphonomic data indicates that azhdarchids predominately inhabited inland settings, and azhdarchid morphology indicates that they were poorly suited for all proposed lifestyles bar wading and terrestrial foraging. However, azhdarchid footprints show that their feet were relatively small, padded and slender, and thus not well suited for wading. We argue that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Proficient terrestrial abilities and a relatively inflexible neck are in agreement with this interpretation.

  5. Internet addiction: reappraisal of an increasingly inadequate concept.

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-02-01

    This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.

  6. Archean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Wladyslaw; Kazmierczak, Józef

    2003-11-01

    The oldest fossils found thus far on Earth are c. 3.49- and 3.46-billion-year-old filamentous and coccoidal microbial remains in rocks of the Pilbara craton, Western Australia, and c. 3.4-billion-year-old rocks from the Barberton region, South Africa. Their biogenicity was recently questioned and they were reinterpreted as contaminants, mineral artefacts or inorganic carbon aggregates. Morphological, geochemical and isotopic data imply, however, that life was relatively widespread and advanced in the Archean, between 3.5 and 2.5 billion years ago, with metabolic pathways analogous to those of recent prokaryotic organisms, including cyanobacteria, and probably even eukaryotes at the terminal Archean.

  7. A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

  8. Quantitation of the prominent medullary pyramid: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Paling, M R; Black, W C

    1986-06-01

    We propose a revised objective measurement of the size of the renal medullary pyramid in the assessment of the prominent renal pyramid: the medullary-renal ratio (MRR). (Formula: see text). This is a more accurate assessment of the size of the renal pyramid relative to the size of the kidney than the previously proposed medullary pyramid index, which fails to take into account the varying morphology of otherwise normal kidneys.

  9. Pure erythrocytosis: reappraisal of a study of 51 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Najean, Y.; Triebel, F.; Dresch, C.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-one cases of pure, primary erythrocytosis were identified and followed at Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris, and compared with 350 cases of polycythemia vera (PV) observed during the same period. At the initial evaluation, these cases did not differ from PV cases with respect to age, sex ratio, degree of red cell volume increase, and clinical symptoms. They did differ by the absence of splenomegaly, granulocytosis and thrombocytosis. At a late stage of evolution only a few cases developed classical criteria of PV. From this group of apparently homogeneous cases, two subgroups evolved. Sixty percent of the cases were highly responsive to myelosuppression with /sup 32/P. The median duration of the first remission was greater than five years, the mean yearly dose of /sup 32/P was very low, and there was a low incidence of complications. The other group (40% of cases) was relatively resistant to myelosuppressive agents. The development of better methods of investigate this disorder might help in discriminating these two groups from both an etiological and pathophysiological viewpoint. The thromboembolic risk of these diseases suggests that myelosuppressive therapy should be utilized in older patients with higher risk of vascular accidents, reserving phlebotomy for younger patients and those who are shown to be resistant to /sup 32/P therapy.

  10. Omental infarction: a reappraisal of conservative management in children.

    PubMed

    Estevão-Costa, José; Alvarenga, Ana Sofia; Fragoso, Ana Catarina; Garcia, Maria; Campos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A melhoria da acuidade diagnóstica do enfarte do omento resultou num incremento da atitude conservadora no seu tratamento. Com o objectivo de avaliar a eficácia e segurança da abordagem não-operatória, analisámos os casos de enfarte do omento tratados num hospital terciário. Material e Métodos: Incluímos os casos de enfarte do omento primários tratados entre 2004 e 2011. Os enfartes do omento diagnosticados por imagiologia foram submetidos a tratamento conservador que constou de analgésicos e antibioterapia intravenosa. Avaliámos os dados demográficos, apresentação clínica, dados laboratoriais, imagiologia e resultado. Resultados: Ocorreram nove casos de enfarte do omento. Oito pacientes (4 rapazes), com uma idade mediana de 8,5 anos, apresentaram- se na fase inicial da doença por dor abdominal à direita; a contagem leucocitária era normal ou ligeiramente elevada. Seis casos, diagnosticados por TC após ecografia suspeita de enfarte do omento em quatro, foram trados conservadoramente sem complicações, tendo alta ao terceiro dia (mediana). Dois doentes foram apenas diagnosticados durante a intervenção cirúrgica por suposta apendicite. O nono caso apresentou-se com uma obstrução intestinal devida a hérnia interna que foi resolvida por laparoscopia. Discussão: A imagiologia foi diagnóstica na maioria dos casos de enfarte do omento, permitindo a adoção de uma abordagem conservadora. O tratamento não-operatório foi eficaz e sem complicações em todos os doentes que se apresentaram na fase inicial da doença. Um doente apresentou-se com uma complicação grave que requereu intervenção cirúrgica. Conclusão: Na ausência de um tratamento consensual para o enfarte do omento, a abordagem não-operatória é uma alternativa não invasiva e eficaz, mas requer uma vigilância clínica ativa.

  11. Birth order and neural tube defects: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R

    2004-01-15

    There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For neural tube defects (NTDs) there is no consensus as to whether first or increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on NTDs was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children first born or of high birth order to have NTDs. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Children with higher birth order are more likely to have spina bifida but not anencephaly. This same effect was also seen for all NTDs combined, which probably reflects the association with spina bifida. These results suggest the compilation of anencephaly and spina bifida data can be the explanation for the controversies seen in the literature.

  12. Beta-blockers in COPD: time for reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Brian; Wedzicha, Jadwiga; Devereux, Graham; Vestbo, Jørgen; Dransfield, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    The combined effects on the heart of smoking and hypoxaemia may contribute to an increased cardiovascular burden in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The use of beta-blockers in COPD has been proposed because of their known cardioprotective effects as well as reducing heart rate and improving systolic function. Despite the proven cardiac benefits of beta-blockers post-myocardial infarction and in heart failure they remain underused due to concerns regarding potential bronchoconstriction, even with cardioselective drugs. Initiating treatment with beta-blockers requires dose titration and monitoring over a period of weeks, and beta-blockers may be less well tolerated in older patients with COPD who have other comorbidities. Medium-term prospective placebo-controlled safety studies in COPD are warranted to reassure prescribers regarding the pulmonary and cardiac tolerability of beta-blockers as well as evaluating their potential interaction with concomitant inhaled long-acting bronchodilator therapy. Several retrospective observational studies have shown impressive reductions in mortality and exacerbations conferred by beta-blockers in COPD. However, this requires confirmation from long-term prospective placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials. The real challenge is to establish whether beta-blockers confer benefits on mortality and exacerbations in all patients with COPD, including those with silent cardiovascular disease where the situation is less clear.

  13. The Nuremberg Code and the Nuremberg Trial. A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Katz, J

    1996-11-27

    The Nuremberg Code includes 10 principles to guide physician-investigators in experiments involving human subjects. These principles, particularly the first principle on "voluntary consent," primarily were based on legal concepts because medical codes of ethics existent at the time of the Nazi atrocities did not address consent and other safeguards for human subjects. The US judges who presided over the proceedings did not intend the Code to apply only to the case before them, to be a response to the atrocities committed by the Nazi physicians, or to be inapplicable to research as it is customarily carried on in medical institutions. Instead, a careful reading of the judgment suggests that they wrote the Code for the practice of human experimentation whenever it is being conducted.

  14. Douglas-fir rotations--Time for reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.O. ); Marshall, D.D. )

    1993-07-01

    The combination of social and political pressures (stemming largely from the visual impacts of current forest practices) and concerns raised by some scientists about certain biological aspects of current practices is forcing major changes in forest management practices, with increased emphasis on amenity, wildlife, and recreational values. A variety of alternative practices are being proposed or applied, often referred to under the collective name of New Forestry. A general shortcoming of many of these practices is that the authors have little basis for quantitative estimates of the long-term results--either costs or benefits (if any). For some, this is totally lacking. Yet, this is certainly a time to re-examine entrenched ideas. This paper discusses extended rotations as a possible means of reducing conflicts between timber production and other forest values.

  15. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M; Neel, J V

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  16. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  17. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  18. Digitalis reappraised: Still here today, but gone tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-12-15

    Digoxin is one of the oldest of drugs acting on the heart and still one of the most frequently used. While in atrial fibrillation digoxin continues to have a valid role in the control of ventricular rate when added to beta-blockers and calcium antagonists, digoxin for heart failure is no longer a supportable option in view of the negative recent meta-analysis.

  19. Radical re-appraisal of water structure in hydrophilic confinement☆

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Alan K.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of water confined in MCM41 silica cylindrical pores is studied to determine whether confined water is simply a version of the bulk liquid which can be substantially supercooled without crystallisation. A combination of total neutron scattering from the porous silica, both wet and dry, and computer simulation using a realistic model of the scattering substrate is used. The water in the pore is divided into three regions: core, interfacial and overlap. The average local densities of water in these simulations are found to be about 20% lower than bulk water density, while the density in the core region is below, but closer to, the bulk density. There is a decrease in both local and core densities when the temperature is lowered from 298 K to 210 K. The radical proposal is made here that water in hydrophilic confinement is under significant tension, around −100 MPa, inside the pore. PMID:25843963

  20. Leucocyte migration inhibition test in coeliac disease - a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, F G; Field, H P; Howdle, P D; Robertson, D A; Losowsky, M S

    1983-01-01

    Results of the direct leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test using gluten fraction III as antigen were unaffected by incorporation of puromycin into the culture medium at concentrations shown to prevent lymphokine mediated inhibition. Results of the LMI test performed with purified polymorphs were similar to and correlated with results of the standard LMI test using mixed leucocytes in both coeliacs and controls. The addition of purified T lymphocytes did not increase migration inhibition. Normal leucocytes incubated with serum from coeliac patients and washed showed marked migration inhibition when incubated with gluten fraction III. This sensitisation of normal leucocytes was prevented by preincubation with aggregated human IgG. These results suggest that leucocyte migration inhibition by gluten in coeliac disease is not due to lymphokine production by sensitised lymphocytes but is caused by cytophilic antibody. PMID:6832627

  1. A Reappraisal of Bennett Reimer and His Meanings of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett; Lewis, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Consistent throughout his writings on aesthetics and education, Bennett Reimer maintained the idea that music must be understood and studied as non-conceptual. Music's forms of knowing point to the subjective realms of life and operate effectively without the assistance or necessity of language. An education in the arts is an education in…

  2. The serotonergic appetite suppressant fenfluramine. Reappraisal and rejection.

    PubMed

    Curzon, G; Gibson, E L

    1999-01-01

    Medical and social pressures have led to increased emphasis on dieting. However, there has been a concurrent world wide increase of obesity. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the development of drugs which decrease appetite. The most extensively used drug of this type over the past three decades has been the serotonergic compound fenfluramine. Recent findings have cast doubt on the previously accepted view that its action requires the release of central 5-HT. Instead, it seems likely that action on specific 5-HT receptors independently of 5-HT stores is involved. It is ironic that these new developments in understanding its mechanism of action have coincided with the recognition of its cardiovascular side-effect apparent especially in patients treated with d-fenfluramine combined with phentermine. This has forced the withdrawal of fenfluramine (both as racemate and d-isomer) from clinical use. The implications of these developments are commented upon.

  3. A reappraisal of the possible seizures of Vincent van Gogh.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2005-06-01

    The tragic life of Vincent van Gogh is summarized, emphasizing his early departure from formal education, failure as a successful salesman in the art world, attempt at religious studies, difficulty with female and family relationships, return to the art world, and tendencies toward extremes of poor nutrition or near self-starvation and excessive drinking and smoking. In Paris he joined the Impressionists, but drank very heavily both absinthe and cognac. Southward he went to Arles and was joined by Paul Gauguin, with whom he had major personality problems, causing van Gogh to cut off part of his left ear. He experienced paranoid ideation and confinement in mental institutions in Arles, and then returned to Paris and onto Auvers-sur-Oise, where he committed suicide at age 37. Possible physical diagnoses include glaucoma, Meniere's disease, acute intermittent porphyria, and chronic lead poisoning, but these diagnoses seem unlikely. Possible psychiatric diagnoses include borderline personality disorder, anxiety-depressive disorder with episodes of depression and hypomania, and also paranoid schizophrenia. Van Gogh did not have spontaneous seizures and, therefore, did not have epilepsy. Before he began to drink heavily, when he was near starvation, he had "fainting fits," and after drinking, especially absinthe, a convulsant drug, he continued to have similar attacks. His episodes of unconsciousness can be well explained by chronic malnutrition and alcohol abuse, only possibly exacerbated by drinking large quantities of absinthe. Although van Gogh is an excellent example of the Geschwind syndrome, at times associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, this fact does not establish such an epilepsy. Thus, the syndrome is an orphan without the parent condition.

  4. Lateral diffusion of rhodopsin in photoreceptor membrane: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Korenyak, Darya A.; Shukolyukov, Sergei A.; Zueva, Lidia V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose In a series of works between 1972 and 1984, it was established that rhodopsin undergoes rotational and lateral Brownian motion in the plane of photoreceptor membrane. The concept of free movement of proteins of phototransduction cascade is an essential principle of the present scheme of vertebrate phototransduction. This has recently been challenged by findings that show that in certain conditions rhodopsin in the membrane may be dimeric and form extended areas of paracrystalline organization. Such organization seems incompatible with earlier data on free rhodopsin diffusion. Thus we decided to reinvestigate lateral diffusion of rhodopsin and products of its photolysis in photoreceptor membrane specifically looking for indications of possible oligomeric organization. Methods Diffusion exchange by rhodopsin and its photoproducts between bleached and unbleached halves of rod outer segment was traced using high-speed dichroic microspectrophotometer. Measurements were conducted on amphibian (frog, toad, and salamander) and gecko rods. Results We found that the curves that are supposed to reflect the process of diffusion equilibration of rhodopsin in nonuniformly bleached outer segment largely show production of long-lived bleaching intermediate, metarhodopsin III (Meta III). After experimental elimination of Meta III contribution, we observed rhodopsin equilibration time constant was threefold to tenfold longer than estimated previously. However, after proper correction for the geometry of rod discs, it translates into generally accepted value of diffusion constant of approximately 5×10−9 cm2 s−1. Yet, we found that there exists an immobile rhodopsin fraction whose size can vary from virtually zero to 100%, depending on poorly defined factors. Controls suggest that the formation of the immobile fraction is not due to fragmentation of rod outer segment discs but supposedly reflects oligomerization of rhodopsin. Conclusions Implications of the new findings for the present model of phototransduction are discussed. We hypothesize that formation of paracrystalline areas, if controlled physiologically, could be an extra mechanism of cascade regulation. PMID:19727341

  5. Sonography of fetal Dandy-Walker malformation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Pilu, G; Goldstein, I; Reece, E A; Perolo, A; Foschini, M P; Hobbins, J C; Bovicelli, L

    1992-05-01

    Thirty-four cases of fetal Dandy-Walker malformation recognized in utero with ultrasound between 16 and 37 weeks' gestation are reported. In each case a qualitative examination of the posterior fossa structures was performed, including the cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellar vermis, fourth ventricle and cisterna magna. In each case, the transverse cerebellar diameter and the depth of the cisterna magna were measured in a standard transcerebellar view of the fetal brain. The atrial width of the lateral ventricles was also assessed. The transverse cerebellar diameter was abnormal in 15 cases, the cisterna magna depth was abnormal in 33, and the atrial width was abnormal in 30. It is concluded that measurement of the transverse cerebellar diameter is unreliable in predicting fetal Dandy-Walker malformation. Measurements of the cisterna magna and atrium seem to be more valuable, although the real sensitivity remains unclear. In pregnancies at risk for fetal Dandy-Walker malformation, the sonographic examination should not be limited to the cerebral ventricles and transcerebellar view but should include a detailed evaluation of all the different anatomical components of the posterior fossa, especially the fourth ventricle and inferior cerebellar vermis.

  6. A Reappraisal of Azhdarchid Pterosaur Functional Morphology and Paleoecology

    PubMed Central

    Witton, Mark P.; Naish, Darren

    2008-01-01

    Azhdarchid pterosaurs were among the most widespread and successful of pterosaur clades, but their paleoecology remains controversial. Morphological features common to all azhdarchids include a long, shallow rostrum; elongate, cylindrical cervical vertebrae that formed a long and unusually inflexible neck; and proportionally short wings with an abbreviated fourth phalanx. While azhdarchids have been imagined as vulture-like scavengers, sediment probers, swimmers, waders, aerial predators, or stork-like generalists, most recent authors have regarded them as skim-feeders, trawling their lower jaws through water during flight and seizing aquatic prey from the water's surface. Although apparently widely accepted, the skim-feeding model lacks critical support from anatomy and functional morphology. Azhdarchids lack the many cranial specialisations exhibited by extant skim-feeding birds, most notably the laterally compressed lower jaw and shock absorbing apparatus required for this feeding style. Well-preserved azhdarchid skulls are rare, but their rostra and lower jaws appear to have been sub-triangular in cross-section, and thus dissimilar to those of skim-feeders and sediment probers. Taphonomic data indicates that azhdarchids predominately inhabited inland settings, and azhdarchid morphology indicates that they were poorly suited for all proposed lifestyles bar wading and terrestrial foraging. However, azhdarchid footprints show that their feet were relatively small, padded and slender, and thus not well suited for wading. We argue that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Proficient terrestrial abilities and a relatively inflexible neck are in agreement with this interpretation. PMID:18509539

  7. What Is Religious Education All about? A Hermeneutic Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, David

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited engagement with Gadamer in the pedagogy of English religious education (RE) to date. Currently there remains confusion about the subject matter of RE and the application of the National Framework attainment targets, learning about and learning from. Instrumental justifications of RE are in tension with the desire to defend…

  8. A Reappraisal of the 4/3/2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the 4/3/2 activity learners deliver the same talk three times under increasing time pressure. The activity is intended first and foremost to foster fluency, but accuracy and complexity have also been said to benefit from this activity. The present study investigates whether immediate repetition of monologues under increasing time pressure…

  9. Essential hypertension and risk of nephropathy: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Murea, Mariana; Freedman, Barry I.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the controversial relationship between hypertension and initiation of kidney disease. We focus on ethnic differences in renal histopathology and associated gene variants comprising the spectrum of MYH9-nephropathy. Purpose of review Treating mild to moderate essential hypertension in non-diabetic African Americans fails to halt nephropathy progression; while hypertension control slows nephropathy progression in European Americans. The pathogenesis of these disparate renal syndromes is reviewed. Recent findings The non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) is associated with a spectrum of kidney diseases in African Americans, including idiopathic focal global glomerulosclerosis historically attributed to hypertension, idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and the collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (HIV-associated nephropathy). Risk variants in MYH9 likely contribute to the failure of hypertension control to slow progressive kidney disease in non-diabetic African Americans. Summary Early and intensive hypertension control fails to halt progression of “hypertensive nephropathy” in African Americans. Genetic analyses in patients with essential hypertension and nephropathy attributed to hypertension, FSGS and HIVAN reveal that MYH9 gene polymorphisms are associated with a spectrum of kidney diseases in this ethnic group. Mild to moderate hypertension may cause nephropathy in European Americans with intra-renal vascular disease improved by the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking cessation. PMID:20051853

  10. Pion-Mass Dependence of the Nucleon Polarisabilities: A Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel R.; Griesshammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.

    2014-09-01

    The static electric and magnetic scalar dipole polarisabilities and the four spin polarisabilities parametrise the nucleon's two-photon response. At next-to-next-to-leading order in Chiral Effective Field Theory (χEFT) with dynamical Δ (1232) s, they have recently been extracted from Compton scattering data; ongoing experiments at HI γS, MAMI and MAXlab test proton-neutron differences and chiral symmetry breaking. Comparing lattice QCD simulations at pion masses mπ > 220 MeV to data and χEFT predictions requires a reliable extrapolation to the physical point. Since χEFT provides a systematically improvable, model-independent parametrisation of the polarisabilities, it is well-suited for that task. The relative theoretical uncertainties increase with increasing mπ: the magnitudes of the polarisabilities decrease; the χEFT expansion parameter itself increases; and the Δ (1232) becomes more important, leading to a re-ordering of contributions. After a review of χEFT, this presentation offers a method to quantitatively assess error-bands for chiral lattice extrapolations which can also be applied to other cases. Published errors appear to be underestimated. The static electric and magnetic scalar dipole polarisabilities and the four spin polarisabilities parametrise the nucleon's two-photon response. At next-to-next-to-leading order in Chiral Effective Field Theory (χEFT) with dynamical Δ (1232) s, they have recently been extracted from Compton scattering data; ongoing experiments at HI γS, MAMI and MAXlab test proton-neutron differences and chiral symmetry breaking. Comparing lattice QCD simulations at pion masses mπ > 220 MeV to data and χEFT predictions requires a reliable extrapolation to the physical point. Since χEFT provides a systematically improvable, model-independent parametrisation of the polarisabilities, it is well-suited for that task. The relative theoretical uncertainties increase with increasing mπ: the magnitudes of the polarisabilities decrease; the χEFT expansion parameter itself increases; and the Δ (1232) becomes more important, leading to a re-ordering of contributions. After a review of χEFT, this presentation offers a method to quantitatively assess error-bands for chiral lattice extrapolations which can also be applied to other cases. Published errors appear to be underestimated. Supported in part by US DoE Contracts DE-FG02-95ER-40907 and DE-FG02-93ER40756, and UK STFC Grant ST/J000159/1.

  11. A reappraisal of Polyptychodon (Plesiosauria) from the Cretaceous of England

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pliosauridae is a globally distributed clade of aquatic predatory amniotes whose fossil record spans from the Lower Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous. However, the knowledge of pliosaurid interrelationships remains limited. In part, this is a consequence of a few key taxa awaiting detailed reassessment. Among them, the taxon Polyptychodon is of special importance. It was established on isolated teeth from the mid-Cretaceous strata of East and South East England and subsequently associated with numerous finds of near-cosmopolitan distribution. Here the taxon is reassessed based on the original dental material from England, with special focus on a large collection of late Albian material from the Cambridge Greensand near Cambridge. The dental material is reviewed here from historical and stratigraphic perspective, described in detail, and discussed in terms of its diagnostic nature. The considerable morphological variability observed in the teeth attributed to Polyptychodon, together with a wide stratigraphic range of the ascribed material, possibly exceeding 35 Ma (early Aptian to ?middle Santonian), suggests that the taxon is based on a multispecies assemblage, possibly incorporating members of different plesiosaur clades. Due to the absence of any autapomorphic characters or unique character combinations in the original material, Polyptychodon interruptus, the type species of Polyptychodon, is considered nomen dubium. From a global perspective, Polyptychodon is viewed as a wastebasket taxon whose material originating from different localities should be reconsidered separately. PMID:27190712

  12. Lung cancer mortality among U. S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters (in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(-/sup 2/) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(-/sup 3/) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures.

  13. Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Cochen De Cock, Valérie; Bayard, Sophie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Charif, Mahmoud; Grini, Magda; Langenier, Muriel Croisier; Yu, Huan; Lopez, Regis; Geny, Christian; Carlander, Bertrand; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive daytime sleepiness is a frequent complaint in Parkinson’s disease (PD); however the frequency and risk factors for objective sleepiness remain mostly unknown. We investigated both the frequency and determinants of self-reported and objective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using a wide range of potential predictors. Methods One hundred and thirty four consecutive patients with PD, without selection bias for sleep complaint, underwent a semi-structured clinical interview and a one night polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Demographic characteristics, medical history, PD course and severity, daytime sleepiness, depressive and insomnia symptoms, treatment intake, pain, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder, and nighttime sleep measures were collected. Self-reported daytime sleepiness was defined by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score above 10. A mean sleep latency on MSLT below 8 minutes defined objective daytime sleepiness. Results Of 134 patients with PD, 46.3% had subjective and only 13.4% had objective sleepiness with a weak negative correlation between ESS and MSLT latency. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with both ESS and MSLT, a pain complaint with ESS, and a higher apnea/hypopnea index with MSLT. However, no associations were found between both objective and subjective sleepiness, and measures of motor disability, disease onset, medication (type and dose), depression, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder and nighttime sleep evaluation. Conclusion We found a high frequency of self-reported EDS in PD, a finding which is however not confirmed by the gold standard neurophysiological evaluation. Current treatment options for EDS in PD are very limited; it thus remains to be determined whether decreasing pain and BMI in association with the treatment of sleep apnea syndrome would decrease significantly daytime sleepiness in PD. PMID:25198548

  14. Phylogenetics and the correlates of mammalian sleep: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Lesku, John A; Roth, Timothy C; Rattenborg, Niels C; Amlaner, Charles J; Lima, Steven L

    2008-06-01

    The correlates of mammalian sleep have been investigated previously in at least eight comparative studies in an effort to illuminate the functions of sleep. However, all of these univariate analyses treated each species, or taxonomic Family, as a statistically independent unit, which is invalid due to the phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we reassess these influential correlates of mammalian sleep using the formal phylogenetic framework of independent contrasts. After controlling for phylogeny using this procedure, the interpretation of many of the correlates changed. For instance, and contrary to previous studies, we found interspecific support for a neurophysiological role for rapid-eye-movement sleep, such as memory consolidation. Also in contrast to previous studies, we did not find comparative support for an energy conservation function for slow-wave sleep. Thus, the incorporation of a phylogenetic control into comparative analyses of sleep yields meaningful differences that affect our understanding of why we sleep.

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy reappraisal: strategies, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a chronic disease that cannot be cured. Biologic agents have enabled good therapeutic successes; however, the response to biologic therapy depends on treatment history and, especially, disease duration. In general, the more drug-experienced the patients, the lower the response rates, although this limitation can be overcome by promptly adjusting or switching treatment in a treat-to-target approach. Another challenge is the question of how long therapy should be continued once the treatment target, which should be remission or at least a state of low disease activity, has been reached. The data available suggest that, in most patients with established disease, cessation of biologic therapy will be followed by disease flares, whereas a reduction of dose or an increase in the interval between doses enables maintenance of treatment success. Induction therapy very early in the disease course followed by withdrawal of the biologic agent might also be a feasible approach to attain sustained good outcomes, but currently available data are not strong enough to allow for such a conclusion to be reached. Taken together, this underscores the importance of research into the cause(s) of RA so that curative therapies can be developed.

  16. Health hazards and nitrous oxide: a time for reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Yagiela, J A

    1991-01-01

    Recent adoption by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists of a Threshold Limit Value of 50 ppm for an 8-hour average exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) increases the likelihood for its regulation by state and federal occupational health agencies. This review outlines current information on the health risks of N2O inhalation to provide a basis from which safe and reasonably attainable exposure limits can be proposed. Although N2O was for many years believed to have no toxicity other than that associated with its anesthetic action, bone marrow depression in patients administered N2O for extended periods of time and neurological abnormalities in health care workers who inhaled N2O recreationally have disproved this notion. Retrospective surveys of dental and medical personnel have also linked occupational exposure to N2O with a number of health problems and reproductive derangements. Nitrous oxide reacts with the reduced form of vitamin B12, thereby inhibiting the action of methionine synthase, an enzyme that indirectly supports methylation reactions and nucleic acid synthesis. Many, if not all, of the nonanesthetic-related adverse effects of N2O may be ascribed to this action. Animal and human studies indicate that the toxic effects of N2O are concentration- and time-dependent. It is suggested that a time-weighted average of 100 ppm for an 8-hour workday and/or a time-weighted average of 400 ppm per anesthetic administration would provide adequate protection of dental personnel and be achievable with existing pollution control methods.

  17. Clinical significance of recent inversion of the nipple: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, E M; Freeman, A H; Adiseshiah, M

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective survey of 63 cases of inverted nipple, unaccompanied by a palpable mass, 3 histologically confirmed carcinomas were found on combined clinical and mammographic examination - an incidence of 5%. No carcinoma was found in those patients under 50 years of age. The problem of the false negative mammogram is discussed. PMID:7069669

  18. Genes without prominence: a reappraisal of the foundations of biology

    PubMed Central

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome raises two intriguing questions: why has the prediction of the inheritance of common diseases from the presence of abnormal alleles proved so unrewarding in most cases and how can some 25 000 genes generate such a rich complexity evident in the human phenotype? It is proposed that light can be shed on these questions by viewing evolution and organisms as natural processes contingent on the second law of thermodynamics, equivalent to the principle of least action in its original form. Consequently, natural selection acts on variation in any mechanism that consumes energy from the environment rather than on genetic variation. According to this tenet cellular phenotype, represented by a minimum free energy attractor state comprising active gene products, has a causal role in giving rise, by a self-similar process of cell-to-cell interaction, to morphology and functionality in organisms, which, in turn, by a self-similar process entailing Darwin's proportional numbers are influencing their ecosystems. Thus, genes are merely a means of specifying polypeptides: those that serve free energy consumption in a given surroundings contribute to cellular phenotype as determined by the phenotype. In such natural processes, everything depends on everything else, and phenotypes are emergent properties of their systems. PMID:24554573

  19. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  20. Reappraisal of a model for deformed special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João

    2016-06-01

    We revisit one of the earliest proposals for deformed dispersion relations in the light of recent results on dynamical dimensional reduction and production of cosmological fluctuations. Depending on the specification of the measure of integration and the addition rule in momentum space the model may be completed so as to merely deform Lorentz invariance, or so as to introduce a preferred frame. Models which violate Lorentz invariance have a negative UV asymptotic dimension and a very red spectrum of quantum vacuum fluctuations. Instead, models which preserve frame independence can exhibit running to a UV dimension of two, and a scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations. The bispectrum of the fluctuations is another point of divergence between the two casings proposed here for the original model.

  1. Reappraisal of the Regulation of Lactococcal l-Lactate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    van Niel, Ed W. J.; Palmfeldt, Johan; Martin, Rani; Paese, Marco; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    2004-01-01

    Lactococcal lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) are coregulated at the substrate level by at least two mechanisms: the fructose-1,6-biphosphate/phosphate ratio and the NADH/NAD ratio. Among the Lactococcus lactis species, there are strains that are predominantly regulated by the first mechanism (e.g., strain 65.1) or by the second mechanism (e.g., strain NCDO 2118). A more complete model of the kinetics of the regulation of lactococcal LDH is discussed. PMID:15006814

  2. Origin of hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico basin: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Bissada, K.K.; Katz, B.J.; Barnicle, S.C.; Schunk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of hydrocarbons in the Gulf of Mexico basin has been a subject of controversy for many years. One argument invokes source rocks of average organic enrichment, pervasively distributed throughout the Tertiary sequence and closely associated with the reservoir system. Another argument invokes exceptionally rich, discrete source rocks not in contact with the reservoirs, possibly in pre-Tertiary sequences. Continued exploration success in the basin hinges on the resolution of this controversy because of implications on patterns of hydrocarbon migration within the basin and the timing of petroleum generation relative to reservoir and trap development. Geochemical analyses of hundreds of crude oils, natural gases, and nonreservoir rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic trends along the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate the general inadequacy of the Tertiary section to source the huge oil accumulations within Cenozoic reservoirs. Furthermore, other than the biogenic gas, isotopic data indicate that the majority of nonassociated gases found in Cenozoic accumulations have been thermogenically derived from much greater depths where maturation is consistent with dry gas generation. Geochemical data from several Mesozoic units in the basin, but outside the Cenozoic trend proper, indicate the existence of excellent Mesozoic source rocks. It is proposed that such units extend below the Cenozoic producing trends and are drained by deep-seated faults and piercement salt structures. Maturation history, structural style, and patterns of migration and remigration control the variable productivity along the various trends.

  3. Acute interstitial nephritis – a reappraisal and update

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an under recognized and under diagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is estimated to account for 15 – 20% of cases of AKI; it is the reported diagnosis in 2.8% of all kidney biopsies, and 13.5% of biopsies done specifically for acute renal failure. Considerable evidence implicates antigen initiated cell-mediated injury in the pathogenesis of AIN. Drugs account for 70% of all cases, with over 150 different agents incriminated. The remaining cases are due to infections, autoimmune diseases, and rarely idiopathic. The central component of renal injury in AIN is altered tubular function, which usually precedes decrements in filtration rate. The key to early diagnosis is vigilance for the presence of tubular dysfunction in non-oliguric individuals, especially in patients with modest but gradual increments in creatinine level. The utility of urinary biomarkers to diagnose AIN in its early nascent and potentially reversible stage remains to be determined. Prompt recognition, elimination of the offending source of antigen, and use of a limited course of steroid therapy where indicated, will result in complete resolution in ~ 65% of cases, partial resolution in up to 20%, and irreversible damage in the rest. PMID:25079860

  4. Reappraisal of biosafety risks posed by PERVs in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2008-01-01

    Donor materials of porcine origin could potentially provide an alternative source of cells, tissues or whole organs for transplantation to humans, but is hampered by the health risk posed by infection with porcine viruses. Although pigs can be bred in such a way that all known exogenous microorganisms are eliminated, this is not feasible for all endogenous pathogens, such as the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) which are present in the germline of pigs as proviruses. Upon transplantation, PERV proviruses would be transferred to the human recipient along with the xenograft. If xenotransplantation stimulates or facilitates replication of PERVs in the new hosts, a risk exists for adaptation of the virus to humans and subsequent spread of these viruses. In a worst-case scenario, this might result in the emergence of a new viral disease. Although the concerns for disease potential of PERVs are easing, only limited pre-clinical and clinical data are available. Small-scale, well-designed and carefully controlled clinical trials would provide more evidence on the safety of this approach and allow a better appreciation of the risks involved. It is therefore important to have a framework of protective measures and monitoring protocols in place to facilitate such initially small scale clinical trials. This framework will raise ethical and social considerations regarding acceptability.

  5. [Reappraisal role of locoregional radiation therapy in metastatic cancers].

    PubMed

    Rancoule, Chloé; Pacaut-Vassal, Cécile; Vallard, Alexis; Mery, Benoite; Trone, Jane-Chloé; El Meddeb Hamrouni, Anis; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Recent innovations in oncology area helped to improve the prognosis of certain cancers including metastatic ones with a decrease in mortality. Recommendations describe the treatment of metastatic cancer as systemic therapy or complementary care and the role of locoregional treatment in the treatment plan only occurs in a palliative context. Currently, in the clinical practice, out of "the evidence based medicine", an early locoregional therapy (surgery or radiation therapy) can be proposed in several cases of metastatic cancers. The aim of the present review is to describe the role of the primary tumor radiation therapy in metastatic disease. In metastatic breast, prostate, cervix, rectal or nasopharyngeal cancers, locoregional treatment including radiation therapy can, in some cases, be discussed and decided in MDT. Ongoing clinical trials in these locations should soon precise the benefit of this locoregional treatment. It will also be important to define the specific criteria in order to select patients who could benefit from this treatment.

  6. Welding and rheomorphism reappraised: valley-confined ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.

    2003-04-01

    Some pyroclastic density currents are so hot that the pyroclasts weld rapidly to form a layer of agglutinate that continues to flow in a ductile manner, a process known as rheomorphism. Previous studies of rheomorphic ignimbrites have inferred that folds are orientated with axes perpendicular to the direction of rheomorphic transport. For example, in a seminal study of the Wall Mountain Tuff in Gribbles Run palaeovalley, Colorado, Chapin and Lowell (1979) interpreted an apparently complex pattern of rheomorphic deformation structures as the product of two phases of deformation: (1) pyroclastic flow along the valley caused 'primary' welding and folding, with fold axes perpendicular to the valley axis; and (2) already deposited ignimbrite underwent 'secondary mass flowage'down local valley sides, poducing 'econdary'folds with axes parallel to the valley axis. A new structural analysis of the welding fabrics in the Wall Mountain Tuff has revealed the presence of abundant sheath folds, a structure hitherto little reported from pyroclastic rocks. The majority of sheathfold axes lie sub-parallel to the palaeovalley, and sub-arallel to a pervasive valley-arallel elongation lineation. There is no evidence of a second phase of deformation; valley-ormal lineations are absent and folds with axes at high angles to the valley axis are arkedly curvilinear. We interpret the latter as having developed within the same shearing system as the valley-arallel folds, but they nucleated slightly later and so were less transposed and attenuated. We conclude that the ignimbrite underwent only one deformation event. We then re-visited 10 classic examples of rheomorphic ignimbrites in the USA, Canary Islands and Italy. All exhibited abundant sheath folds. Structural analysis reveals a common pattern of progressive ductile deformation. Folds initiate at various angles to the flow direction and to the elongation lineations, such as prolate fiamme and stretched vesicles. Axial planes initiate at high angles to the welding fabric. As rheomorphism proceeds axial planes and fold axes progressively rotate towards the elongation direction. High shear strain produces transposed intrafolial sheath folds, exhibited as eye structures when viewed in the transport direction. Their orientation reflects the local transport direction. Late nucleated folds preserve axes at high angles to this. Thus, folds with contrasting orientations may develop within the same shearing regime. This simplifies the structural interpretation of rheomorphism - just one progressive phase of deformation is required. REF: Chapin CE and Lowell GR (1979). Geol. Soc. Am, Sp. Pap. 180: 466-483.

  7. Welding and rheomorphism reappraised: valley-confined ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.

    2003-04-01

    Some pyroclastic density currents are so hot that the pyroclasts weld rapidly to form a layer of agglutinate that continues to flow in a ductile manner, a process known as rheomorphism. Previous studies of rheomorphic ignimbrites have inferred that folds are orientated with axes perpendicular to the direction of rheomorphic transport. For example, in a seminal study of the Wall Mountain Tuff in Gribbles Run palaeovalley, Colorado, Chapin and Lowell (1979) interpreted an apparently complex pattern of rheomorphic deformation structures as the product of two phases of deformation: (1) pyroclastic flow along the valley caused "primary" welding and folding, with fold axes perpendicular to the valley axis; and (2) already deposited ignimbrite underwent "secondary mass flowage" down local valley sides, producing "secondary" folds with axes parallel to the valley axis. A new structural analysis of the welding fabrics in the Wall Mountain Tuff has revealed the presence of abundant sheath folds, a structure hitherto little reported from pyroclastic rocks. The majority of sheathfold axes lie sub-parallel to the palaeovalley, and sub-parallel to a pervasive valley-parallel elongation lineation. There is no evidence of a second phase of deformation; valley-normal lineations are absent and folds with axes at high angles to the valley axis are markedly curvilinear. We interpret the latter as having developed within the same shearing system as the valley-parallel folds, but they nucleated slightly later and so were less transposed and attenuated. We conclude that the ignimbrite underwent only one deformation event. We then re-visited 10 classic examples of rheomorphic ignimbrites in the USA, Canary Islands and Italy. All exhibited abundant sheath folds. Structural analysis reveals a common pattern of progressive ductile deformation. Folds initiate at various angles to the flow direction and to the elongation lineations, such as prolate fiamme and stretched vesicles. Axial planes initiate at high angles to the welding fabric. As rheomorphism proceeds axial planes and fold axes progressively rotate towards the elongation direction. High shear strain produces transposed intrafolial sheath folds, exhibited as eye structures when viewed in the transport direction. Their orientation reflects the local transport direction. Late nucleated folds preserve axes at high angles to this. Thus, folds with contrasting orientations may develop within the same shearing regime. This simplifies the structural interpretation of rheomorphism - just one progressive phase of deformation is required. REF: Chapin CE and Lowell GR (1979). Geol. Soc. Am, Sp. Pap. 180: 466-483.

  8. The entropy of the life table: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Oscar E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2015-09-01

    The life table entropy provides useful information for understanding improvements in mortality and survival in a population. In this paper we take a closer look at the life table entropy and use advanced mathematical methods to provide additional insights for understanding how it relates to changes in mortality and survival. By studying the entropy (H) as a functional, we show that changes in the entropy depend on both the relative change in life expectancy lost due to death (e(†)) and in life expectancy at birth (e0). We also show that changes in the entropy can be further linked to improvements in premature and older deaths. We illustrate our methods with empirical data from Latin American countries, which suggests that at high mortality levels declines in H (which are associated with survival increases) linked with larger improvements in e0, whereas at low mortality levels e(†) made larger contributions to H. We additionally show that among countries with low mortality level, contributions of e(†) to changes in the life table entropy resulted from averting early deaths. These findings indicate that future increases in overall survival in low mortality countries will likely result from improvements in e(†).

  9. Neocytolysis: none, one or many? A reappraisal and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Angela; Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Antonutto, Guglielmo; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Neocytolysis is the hypothesis formulated to explain experimental evidence of selective lysis of young red blood cells (RBCs) (neocytes) associated with decreased plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO). In humans, it appears to take place whenever a fast RBC mass reduction is required, i.e., in astronauts during the first days of spaceflight under weightlessness, where a fast reduction in plasma volume and increase in haematocrit occur. EPO plasma levels then decline and a decrease in RBC mass takes place, apparently because of the selective lysis of the youngest, recently generated RBCs (neocytes). The same process seems to occur in people descending to sea level after acclimatization at high altitude. After descent, the polycythaemia developed at high altitude must be abrogated, and a rapid reduction in the number of circulating RBCs is obtained by a decrease in EPO synthesis and the lysis of what seem to be young RBCs. In vivo, neocytolysis seems to be abolished by EPO administration. More recent research has ascribed to neocytolysis the RBC destruction that occurs under such disparate pathophysiologic conditions as nephropathy, severe obstructive pulmonary disease, blood doping, and even malaria anaemia. According to the theory, EPO's central role would be not only to stimulate the production of new RBCs in conditions of anaemia, as maintained by the orthodox view, but also that of a cytoprotective factor for circulating young RBCs. Why neocytes are specifically destroyed and how is this related to decreased EPO levels has not yet been elucidated. Changes in membrane molecules of young RBCs isolated from astronauts or mountain climbers upon return to normal conditions seem to indicate a higher susceptibility of neocytes to ingestion by macrophages. By limiting the context to space missions and high altitude expeditions, this review will address unresolved and critical issues that in our opinion have not been sufficiently highlighted in previous works. PMID:24592241

  10. Electromyography in musculoskeletal pain: A reappraisal and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and local tenderness in the back and extremities are frequently referred to electromyography (EMG) laboratory to assess the integrity of the spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and skeletal muscles. When focal muscle weakness and anatomical sensory deficits are clinically evident, this procedure is almost always abnormal. In some situations, when the presenting symptoms consist of local pain and tenderness without neuromuscular deficits, its diagnostic utility becomes questionable as illustrated in the present study. Methods: EMG findings of 75 patients referred for evaluation of local MSP and tenderness in the neck and lower back and in the upper and lower extremities were reviewed. These patients were selected from a group of 200 patients referred for evaluation of unilateral local pain and tenderness in various parts of the body. All EMG procedures and clinical neurologic examination were performed by the author and all underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the affected parts of the body prior to the procedure. None of the 75 patients studied had concurrent medical disorders or had previous spinal root injuries or surgeries to the spine. Results: All 75 patients in this study showed normal EMG of the affected extremities and normal peripheral nerve conduction study. Those with herniated disc in the cervical or lumbar spine presenting with local pain and tenderness in the neck and lower back but without neurologic deficits or clear radicular symptoms, had normal study also. The remaining 125 patients excluded from the study, had various EMG and peripheral nerve abnormalities that can be attributed to concurrent medical disorders and previous injuries to the spinal roots. Conclusions: Use of EMG in the diagnosis of local MSP, unless associated with clinical neurologic deficits, almost always yields negative results. The utility of this procedure is limited to pathology in the motor unit. It cannot assess the function of the sensory components of the spinal roots, small-diameter sensory nerves, and the sensory innervation of the spine via sinuvertebral nerve. Therefore, if the motor unit is anatomically and physiologically intact, the procedure is of little value in the diagnosis of MSP. Likewise, peripheral nerve conduction study is likely to be normal unless clear neurologic deficits are present. The present study illustrates that a good history and meticulous neurologic examination should be an integral part of an ideal electrodiagnostic procedure. PMID:26417485

  11. Implementation science: a reappraisal of our journal mission and scope.

    PubMed

    Foy, Robbie; Sales, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Aarons, Gregory A; Flottorp, Signe; Kent, Bridie; Michie, Susan; O'Connor, Denise; Rogers, Anne; Sevdalis, Nick; Straus, Sharon; Wilson, Paul

    2015-04-17

    The implementation of research findings into healthcare practice has become increasingly recognised as a major priority for researchers, service providers, research funders and policymakers over the past decade. Nine years after its establishment, Implementation Science, an international online open access journal, currently publishes over 150 articles each year. This is fewer than 30% of those submitted for publication. The majority of manuscript rejections occur at the point of initial editorial screening, frequently because we judge them to fall outside of journal scope. There are a number of common reasons as to why manuscripts are rejected on grounds of scope. Furthermore, as the field of implementation research has evolved and our journal submissions have risen, we have, out of necessity, had to become more selective in what we publish. We have also expanded our scope, particularly around patient-mediated and population health interventions, and will monitor the impact of such changes. We hope this editorial on our evolving priorities and common reasons for rejection without peer review will help authors to better judge the relevance of their papers to Implementation Science.

  12. Malnutrition in South Asia-A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a major public health challenge especially in South Asian developing countries. The aim of the present review is to spotlight the magnitude of the prevalence of malnutrition and its dynamics in South Asian region and to suggest potential approaches for the prevention and control of this issue of public health significance. An extensive review of literature, covering malnutrition and its determinants, health and economic consequences and pragmatic preventive strategies was performed on computer based bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline and Sciencedirect.com ) to retrieve abstracts and full texts for India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. All relevant titles and abstracts were examined and evaluated for malnutrition and its prevalence in South Asia. The results revealed malnutrition to be a major public health problem and a potential cause of high disease burden and mortality in South Asia. Compelling evidence suggests malnutrition to be the leading cause of stunting, wasting and underweight with drastic economic consequences among vulnerable populations. Reduced cognitive performance and low productivity have also been associated with micronutrients malnutrition. Suboptimal breastfeeding, inadequate food supply, micronutrient deficiencies, low household income, poor health care system, increased healthcare costs, illiteracy, unhygienic and substandard living, inappropriate child's care and the caregiver, food insecurity and on top of that vicious cycle of poverty, have been recognized as principal indicators for growing malnutrition prevalence in South Asia. Global organizations, local governments, program managers, NGOs, academia, industry in particular and the society at large need to take up the challenge to completely confiscate malnutrition from the region for economic prosperity and a healthier future.

  13. Reappraising entrapment neuropathies--mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annina B; Nee, Robert J; Coppieters, Michel W

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies can be difficult because symptoms and signs often do not follow textbook descriptions and vary significantly between patients with the same diagnosis. Signs and symptoms which spread outside of the innervation territory of the affected nerve or nerve root are common. This Masterclass provides insight into relevant mechanisms that may account for this extraterritorial spread in patients with entrapment neuropathies, with an emphasis on neuroinflammation at the level of the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, as well as changes in subcortical and cortical regions. Furthermore, we describe how clinical tests and technical investigations may identify these mechanisms if interpreted in the context of gain or loss of function. The management of neuropathies also remains challenging. Common treatment strategies such as joint mobilisation, neurodynamic exercises, education, and medications are discussed in terms of their potential to influence certain mechanisms at the site of nerve injury or in the central nervous system. The mechanism-oriented approach for this Masterclass seems warranted given the limitations in the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of entrapment neuropathies.

  14. Spinal fluid protein revisited: a reappraisal of the biuret procedure.

    PubMed

    Blijenberg, B G; Roetering, H A; Zwang, L; Leijnse, B

    1985-04-01

    In this study our previously described selected method, a biuret procedure with deproteinization, for the determination of spinal fluid protein is thoroughly discussed against the background of the results found with a number of Lowry modifications. The use of various separation techniques, i.e. deproteinization, ultrafiltration and chromatography (HPLC), for protein analysis led to the question as to whether low molecular weight proteins in cerebrospinal fluid play an important role or not with respect to the choice of a selected method for the determination of total protein.

  15. A reappraisal of economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals. Science or marketing?

    PubMed

    Drummond, M F

    1998-07-01

    In pharmacoeconomic research sponsored by companies, there is an obvious tension between the desire to undertake studies to show a marketing advantage and the desire to adhere to good scientific principles. This tension was explored in an early issue of PharmacoEconomics and is now revisited 5 years on. Bias is still perceived to be a major problem in industry-sponsored studies, both by healthcare decision-makers and journal editors. However, the debate about bias has matured over the years. Also, actual evidence of bias in study methodology is sparse, although biases in study topic selection and in the use, in promotion, of study results have been found. A number of constructive suggestions have been made in the last 5 years for reducing potential bias. These include developing methodological guidelines and standards, improving the peer review process, clarifying contractual relationships between sponsors and analysts, and ensuring appropriate use of studies in promotional activities. However, further initiatives could be undertaken. These include additional guidelines for specific detailed areas of economic evaluation methodology, changes in the structure of funding for pharmacoeconomic research, more education of consumers for pharmacoeconomic data and more research partnerships between industry and its customers.

  16. Abdominal aortic calcification: A reappraisal of epidemiological and pathophysiological data.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    In men and women, there is a significant association between the risk of cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke) and risk of major fragility fracture (hip, vertebra). Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) can be assessed using semiquantitative scores on spine radiographs and spine scans obtained by DXA. Severe AAC is associated with higher risk of major cardiovascular event. Not only does severe AAC reflect poor cardiovascular health status, but also directly disturbs blood flow in the vascular system. Severe (but not mild or moderate) AAC is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), faster bone loss and higher risk of major fragility fracture. The fracture risk remains increased after adjustment for BMD and other potential risk factors. The association between severe AAC and fracture risk was found in both sexes, mainly in the follow-ups of less than 10years. Many factors contribute to initiation and progression of AAC: lifestyle, co-morbidities, inorganic ions, dyslipidemia, hormones, cytokines (e.g. inflammatory cytokines, RANKL), matrix vesicles, microRNAs, structural proteins (e.g. elastin), vitamin K-dependent proteins, and medications (e.g. vitamin K antagonists). Osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and circulating osteoprogenitors penetrating into vascular wall plays a major role in the AAC initiation and progression. Vitamin K-dependent proteins protect vascular tunica media against formation of calcified deposits (matrix GLA protein, GLA-rich protein) and against VSMC apoptosis (Gas6). Further studies are needed to investigate clinical utility of AAC for the assessment of fracture and cardiovascular risk at the individual level and develop new medications permitting to prevent AAC progression.

  17. Selegiline: a reappraisal of its role in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Fabbrini, Giovanni; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Marconi, Stefano; Zappia, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Selegiline at the doses used in Parkinson disease is a selective irreversible monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor, which potentiates dopaminergic function in the brain, and is used as monotherapy in early Parkinson disease or in combination with levodopa in more advanced disease. A renewed interest in monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors in the treatment of Parkinson disease has emerged after recent clinical trials of agents in this class. The use of selegiline monotherapy in early Parkinson disease is supported by the results of a large well-controlled trial in 800 patients (DATATOP) and several other studies, which demonstrated a symptomatic benefit, a reduction in disability, and a delay in the need to start levodopa therapy. Administered with levodopa in studies of up to 5 years' duration in patients with more advanced disease, selegiline improved disease-related disability, reduced the end-of-dose motor fluctuations, and also led to a reduction of the dose and dose frequency of levodopa required.Selegiline was the first drug to be investigated as a possible neuroprotective agent in patients with Parkinson disease, based on preclinical studies indicating protection of dopaminergic neurons from damage. The results of the extensive body of clinical trials, including delayed and lower levodopa requirements, may indeed suggest that selegiline, in addition to conferring symptomatic benefit, may have other effects on disease progression. Selegiline is well tolerated, and initial fears of increased mortality with the drug have not been borne out by subsequent robust meta-analyses.

  18. Bronchial thermoplasty: reappraising the evidence (or lack thereof).

    PubMed

    Iyer, Vivek N; Lim, Kaiser G

    2014-07-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) involves the application of radiofrequency energy to visible proximal airways to selectively ablate airway smooth muscle. BT is the first nonpharmacologic interventional therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for severe asthma. This approval was based on the results of the pivotal Asthma Intervention Research (AIR)-2 trial, which is the only randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial of BT. The primary end point of the AIR-2 trial was improvement in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The results of the AIR-2 trial have generated enormous interest, controversy, and confusion regarding the true efficacy of BT for severe asthma. Current marketing of BT highlights its use for patients with "severe" asthma, which is interpreted by most practicing clinicians as meaning oral corticosteroid dependence, frequent exacerbations, or a significantly reduced FEV1 with a poor quality of life. Did the AIR-2 trial include patients with a low FEV1, oral steroid dependence, or frequent exacerbations? Did the trial show efficacy for any of the primary or secondary end points? The FDA approved the device based on the reduction in severe asthma exacerbations. However, were the rates of asthma exacerbations, ED visits, or hospitalizations truly different between the two groups, and was this type of analysis even justified given the original study design? This commentary is designed to specifically answer these questions and help the practicing clinician navigate the thermoplasty literature with confidence and clarity. We carefully dissect the design, conduct, and results of the AIR-2 trial and raise serious questions about the efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty.

  19. Deep space telecommunications and the solar cycle: A reappraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of density enhancement in the near corona at solar cycle (sunspot) maximum have rather uncritically been interpreted to apply equally well to the extended corona, thus generating concern about the quality of outer planet navigational data at solar cycle maximum. Spacecraft have been deployed almost continuously during the recently completed solar cycle 20, providing two powerful new coronal investigatory data sources: (1) in-situ spacecraft plasma measurements at approximately 1 AU, and (2) plasma effects on monochromatic spacecraft signals at all signal closest approach points. A comprehensive review of these (solar cycle 20) data lead to the somewhat surprising conclusions that for the region of interest of navigational data, the highest levels of charged particle corruption of navigational data can be expected to occur at solar cycle minimum, rather than solar cycle maximum, as previously believed.

  20. Adenosine and Preexcitation Variants: Reappraisal of Electrocardiographic Changes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous adenosine is a short-acting blocker of the atrioventricular node that has been used to unmask subtle or latent preexcitation, and also to enable catheter ablation in selected patients with absent or intermittent preexcitation. Depending on the accessory pathway characteristics, intravenous adenosine may produce specific electrocardiographic changes highly suggestive of the preexcitation variant. Herein, we view different ECG responses to this pharmacological test in various preexcitation patterns that were confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Careful analysis of electrocardiographic changes during adenosine test, with emphasis on P-delta interval, preexcitation degree, and atrioventricular block, can be helpful to diagnose the preexcitation variant/pattern.

  1. A reappraisal of the controversy of Dax and Broca.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Montagna, C G

    1994-10-01

    Paul Broca is unanimously recognized as the founder of neuropsychology. Helis development of the scientific method to map mental functions onto brain topographpy has been enormously influential. Nevertheless, Dax's paper on the left hemisphere dominance for speech was written and published before Broca explicitely proposed the same theory. Probably, Broca was aware of the paper prior to 1865, but he never acknowledged Dax's original theoretical contribution. On the contrary, he always claimed to be the first to espouse the theory of left hemisphere dominance for language and never quoted Marc Dax (Broca, 1877 p 536), 'I do not like dealing with the questions of priority concerning myself. That is the reason why I did not mention the name of Dax in my paper'. In our opinion, the weight of evidence reported here suggests that the theory of the left hemisphere dominance for speech must be attributed equally to Dax and Broca, and henceforth should be called 'the theory of Dax-Broca'.

  2. The meandering-braided river threshold: A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1984-08-01

    The concept of a threshold discharge-slope (Q-s) combination that separates braided from meandering streams is critically re-examined, partly by review of previous data, and partly by analysis of new data from South Island, New Zealand. It is argue d that discriminant functions that use mean annual discharge provide a poor physical basis for interpretations based on natural processes, while bankfull discharge is also deficient because it is not a fully independent variable. The common use of channel (rather than valley) slope adds a further misleading component because channel slope is partly dependent on channel pattern sinuosity. Most previous studies have inadequately treated the role of bed particle size in pattern discrimination, failing to recognize that active gravel streams must plot higher on a Q-s chart than sand-bed channels — irrespective of pattern — because of the greater power requirements for bed material movement. Within any one size class of bed material there is no evidence to indicate a clear discrimination between braiding and meandering, only a weak statistical association between pattern and slope-discharge values. While this association may be explicable in terms of the high shear stress and stream power (that accompany high Qs-values) promoting braiding, the real prerequisite for braiding appears to be high loads of bed-calibre material (producing wide shallow channels), a factor that is only partly controlled by stream power. Accordingly, the search for a pattern threshold based on discharge and slope seems to be a futile exercise. An interpretation of existing pattern discriminant functions from the perspective of the threshold shear stress for particle movement is made. It is concluded that, in effect, these functions merely state that gravel-bed streams are more likely to be braided than channels in finer sediment. Statistically this appears to be valid, and reasons for that difference are offered based on the balance between imposed bed material load and channel capacity.

  3. Electrophysiologic features of inherited demyelinating neuropathies: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R A; Sumner, A J

    1999-09-14

    The observation that inherited demyelinating neuropathies tend to have uniform conduction slowing and acquired disorders (CIDP and variants) have nonuniform or multifocal slowing was made before the identification of genetic defects of specific myelin constituents that cause the different forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth and other inherited disorders involving peripheral nerve myelin. It is becoming clear that the electrophysiologic aspects of these disorders are more complex than previously realized. We review the current information available on the electrophysiologic features of the inherited demyelinating neuropathies in hopes of clarifying the clinical electrodiagnostic features of these disorders as well as to shed light on the physiologic consequences of the different genetic mutations.

  4. Chapter 11. The Economics of Group Care Practice: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Martin

    2006-01-01

    For the past two decades, economic influences have significantly impacted the provision of health and welfare services for children, young people and their families in communities around the world. The dynamic of cost has reshaped both the nature and provision of group care services, promoting de-institutionalization and transforming the nature of…

  5. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  6. [Identification, during development, of a methodology targeted at determining the positioning of new drugs for therapeutic strategies: examples of rheumatoid arthritis and cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C; Plétan, Y; Boissel, J P

    2002-01-01

    The Marketing Authorization (MA) granted to a new molecular entity does not allow for proper anticipation of its future positioning within the therapeutic strategy. A specific methodology should be devised as early as during the pre-MA development phase that could result in an initial positioning that should be subjected to further reappraisal with regard to scientific advances, the arrival of new treatments and further developments with this molecule. A methodology is thus proposed, based on early optimisation of the development plan, the granting of subsequent MAs, and reappraisal of the positioning within the strategy, based on analysis of all available data. It should be possible to take into account the economic context, within an agreed system with pre-defined medico-economic criteria. This may in turn raise the issue of the role of the various parties involved in this assessment, as well as how to understand the respective opinions of stakeholders: authorities, sponsors, prescribers and patients, each of whom has a specific view of the definition of the strategic objective that should apply to the disease concerned.

  7. Spontaneous Emotion Regulation to Positive and Negative Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volokhov, Rachael N.; Demaree, Heath A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions is an integral part of human social behavior. One antecedent emotion regulation strategy, known as reappraisal, is characterized by cognitively evaluating an emotional stimulus to alter its emotional impact and one response-focused strategy, suppression, is aimed at reducing behavioral output. People are…

  8. Individual differences in positive and negative emotion regulation: Which strategies explain variability in loneliness?

    PubMed

    Kearns, Sinead M; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios. Regression analyses indicated that the regulation of positive and negative emotions explained comparable variance in loneliness, and associations were only partially reduced by the inclusion of social support. The specific strategies positive reappraisal, being present and negative mental time travel explained the most variance in loneliness. The findings are consistent with both the cognitive and the social needs models of loneliness and suggest that variability in ER strategies should be considered relevant to loneliness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Farb, Norman A.; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life. PMID:27087765

  10. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Farb, Norman A; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life.

  11. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin producing species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis. DN...

  12. History and clinical significance of mechanical symptoms in blistering dermatoses: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Grando, Sergei A; Grando, Alexander A; Glukhenky, Boris T; Doguzov, Vasiliy; Nguyen, Vu Thuong; Holubar, Karl

    2003-01-01

    In the era before the advent of routine microscopy and immunopathology, mechanical symptoms were described in an attempt to facilitate clinical diagnosis of blistering dermatoses. A plethora of eponyms and signs were described, but no proper original quotations exist. All the eponyms haunt the student and specialist. In the case of an ominous and, therefore, very important clinical phenomenon termed the Nikolskiy sign, this creates confusion about the specific meaning of the term, obscuring diagnosis and delaying initiation of an adequate treatment of pemphigus. We try to set this record straight and go to the sources. Russian, German, French, and English, at the least, are required to properly interpret the relevant descriptions. We provide an accurate interpretation of the major mechanical symptoms pathognomonic for acantholysis, dermoepidermal separation, and peeling of the entire epidermis. Correct performance of the tests and proper interpretation of the results can serve as an invaluable diagnostic tool to assist in the preliminary bedside diagnosis of serious and potentially lethal bullous dermatoses.

  13. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic reappraisal via the genostem experience.

    PubMed

    Charbord, Pierre; Livne, Erella; Gross, Gerhard; Häupl, Thomas; Neves, Nuno M; Marie, Pierre; Bianco, Paolo; Jorgensen, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Genostem (acronym for "Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From the bench to the bed side") has been an European consortium of 30 teams working together on human bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) biological properties and repair capacity. Part of Genostem activity has been dedicated to the study of basic issues on undifferentiated MSCs properties and on signalling pathways leading to the differentiation into 3 of the connective tissue lineages, osteoblastic, chondrocytic and tenocytic. We have evidenced that native bone marrow MSCs and stromal cells, forming the niche of hematopoietic stem cells, were the same cellular entity located abluminally from marrow sinus endothelial cells. We have also shown that culture-amplified, clonogenic and highly-proliferative MSCs were bona fide stem cells, sharing with other stem cell types the major attributes of self-renewal and of multipotential priming to the lineages to which they can differentiate (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells/pericytes). Extensive transcription profiling and in vitro and in vivo assays were applied to identify genes involved in differentiation. Thus we have described novel factors implicated in osteogenesis (FHL2, ITGA5, Fgf18), chondrogenesis (FOXO1A) and tenogenesis (Smad8). Another part of Genostem activity has been devoted to studies of the repair capacity of MSCs in animal models, a prerequisite for future clinical trials. We have developed novel scaffolds (chitosan, pharmacologically active microcarriers) useful for the repair of both bone and cartilage. Finally and most importantly, we have shown that locally implanted MSCs effectively repair bone, cartilage and tendon.

  14. The Edwin Smith papyrus: a clinical reappraisal of the oldest known document on spinal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gonzalo M.; Burridge, Alwyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options considerably changed over time, the documented rationale on spinal injuries can still be regarded as the state-of-the-art reasoning for modern clinical practice. PMID:20697750

  15. Surprising Arginine Biosynthesis: a Reappraisal of the Enzymology and Evolution of the Pathway in Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Labedan, Bernard; Glansdorff, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Major aspects of the pathway of de novo arginine biosynthesis via acetylated intermediates in microorganisms must be revised in light of recent enzymatic and genomic investigations. The enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), which used to be considered responsible for the first committed step of the pathway, is present in a limited number of bacterial phyla only and is absent from Archaea. In many Bacteria, shorter proteins related to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase family appear to acetylate l-glutamate; some are clearly similar to the C-terminal, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) binding domain of classical NAGS, while others are more distantly related. Short NAGSs can be single gene products, as in Mycobacterium spp. and Thermus spp., or fused to the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the pathway (argininosuccinase), as in members of the Alteromonas-Vibrio group. How these proteins bind glutamate remains to be determined. In some Bacteria, a bifunctional ornithine acetyltransferase (i.e., using both acetylornithine and acetyl-CoA as donors of the acetyl group) accounts for glutamate acetylation. In many Archaea, the enzyme responsible for glutamate acetylation remains elusive, but possible connections with a novel lysine biosynthetic pathway arose recently from genomic investigations. In some Proteobacteria (notably Xanthomonadaceae) and Bacteroidetes, the carbamoylation step of the pathway appears to involve N-acetylornithine or N-succinylornithine rather than ornithine. The product N-acetylcitrulline is deacetylated by an enzyme that is also involved in the provision of ornithine from acetylornithine; this is an important metabolic function, as ornithine itself can become essential as a source of other metabolites. This review insists on the biochemical and evolutionary implications of these findings. PMID:17347518

  16. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Lindauer, Susanne; Tomasto-Cagigao, Elsa; Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960's provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960's. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations.

  17. The reappraisal of benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Vladan

    2014-11-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) continue to be shrouded in controversy, mainly because of dependence associated with their long-term use and some of their side effects. Despite treatment recommendations favoring newer antidepressants, BDZs are still commonly prescribed for anxiety and related disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term use of BDZs for these conditions can be effective and safe and that BDZs can be combined with psychological therapy and antidepressants to produce optimal outcomes. Such findings, along with a failure to convincingly demonstrate the overall superiority of alternative pharmacotherapy for anxiety and related disorders, have given an impetus to a reconsideration of the role of BDZs. This article reviews BDZs and other pharmacotherapy options for anxiety and related disorders and suggests that treatment guidelines should acknowledge that BDZs can be used as first-line, long-term pharmacological treatment for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder.

  18. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obesity: A Meta-analytic Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment…

  19. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project: a reappraisal of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez‐Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida‐Mohien, Ceereena; Fabbri, Elisa; Scalzo, Paul; Højlund, Kurt; Dufresne, Craig; Lyashkov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and analysed publically available protein databases. A systematic search of peer‐reviewed studies was performed using PubMed. Search terms included ‘human’, ‘skeletal muscle’, ‘proteome’, ‘proteomic(s)’, and ‘mass spectrometry’, ‘liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS)’. A catalogue of 5431 non‐redundant muscle proteins identified by mass spectrometry‐based proteomics from 38 peer‐reviewed scientific publications from 2002 to November 2015 was created. We also developed a nosology system for the classification of muscle proteins based on localization and function. Such inventory of proteins should serve as a useful background reference for future research on changes in muscle proteome assessed by quantitative mass spectrometry‐based proteomic approaches that occur with ageing and diseases. This classification and compilation of the human skeletal muscle proteome can be used for the identification and quantification of proteins in skeletal muscle to discover new mechanisms for sarcopenia and specific muscle diseases that can be targeted for the prevention and treatment. PMID:27897395

  20. Lack of spontaneous age-related brain pathology in Octodon degus: a reappraisal of the model

    PubMed Central

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Dovero, Sandra; Thiolat, Marie-Laure; Bezard, Erwan; Dehay, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the degeneration of specific brain areas associated with accumulation of disease-related protein in extra- or intra-cellular deposits. Their preclinical investigations are mostly based on genetically-engineered animals. Despite their interest, these models are often based on high level of disease-related protein expression, thus questioning their relevance to human pathology and calling for the alternate use of ecological models. In the past few years, Octodon degus has emerged as a promising animal model displaying age-dependent Alzheimer’s disease-related pathology. As neurodegenerative-related proteins often co-deposit in the brain of patients, we assessed the occurrence of α-synuclein-related pathology in this model using state-of-the-art immunohistochemistry and biochemistry. Despite our efforts and in contrast with previously published results, our study argues against the use of Octodon degus as a suitable natural model of neurodegenerative disorder as we failed to identify either Parkinson’s disease- or Alzheimer’s disease-related brain pathologies. PMID:28374864

  1. Life and death in Freudian metapsychology: a reappraisal of the second instinctual dualism.

    PubMed

    Caropreso, Fátima; Simanke, Richard Theisen

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we re-examine the second instinctual dualism hypothesis introduced by Freud in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. We suggest that the life instinct hypothesis as something opposed to the death instinct does not seem to fit into this theory easily. On the other hand, death instinct turns out to be an internal necessity of Freudian metapsychological theory from the beginning of Freud's metapsychological writing. We shall argue, based on the ideas formulated in Beyond the Pleasure Principle and in later metapsychological texts, that Freud could not wholly justify the existence of an opposition and a symmetry between the two classes of instincts. Even though up to his last works Freud held on to this instinctual dualism, again and again his arguments lead to the idea that the life instincts should be regarded, ultimately, as death instincts.

  2. Self-disorders and Schizophrenia: A Phenomenological Reappraisal of Poor Insight and Noncompliance

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Mads G.

    2014-01-01

    Poor insight into illness is considered the primary cause of treatment noncompliance in schizophrenia. In this article, we critically discuss the predominant conceptual accounts of poor insight, which consider it as an ineffective self-reflection, caused either by psychological defenses or impaired metacognition. We argue that these accounts are at odds with the phenomenology of schizophrenia, and we propose a novel account of poor insight. We suggest that the reason why schizophrenia patients have no or only partial insight and consequently do not comply with treatment is rooted in the nature of their anomalous self-experiences (ie, self- disorders) and the related articulation of their psychotic symptoms. We argue that self-disorders destabilize the patients’ experiential framework, thereby weakening their basic sense of reality (natural attitude) and enabling another sense of reality (solipsistic attitude) to emerge and coexist. This coexistence of attitudes, which Bleuler termed “double bookkeeping,” is, in our view, central to understanding what poor insight in schizophrenia really is. We suggest that our phenomenologically informed account of poor insight may have important implications for early intervention, psychoeducation, and psychotherapy for schizophrenia. PMID:23798710

  3. One century after: a reappraisal of the gnathos (sensu Pierce, 1914)
    in Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-06-23

    One century ago, F.N. Pierce in his well-known monograph on the genitalia of Geometridae (Lepidoptera), divided the family into two major subdivisions, the Gnathoi and the Agnathoi, depending on the presence or absence of the gnathos in males. In his study, Pierce assigned the Larentiinae to the Agnathoi based on the apparent absence of the gnathos in this subfamily. A re-examination of the male genitalic characters of numerous larentiine species representing 14 different tribes provided, contrary to Pierce's results, evidence for the presence of the gnathos in Larentiinae. Illustrations of the gnathos (or its remnants) in male genitalia of selected species are provided and the value of the uncus and gnathos for inferring phylogenetic relationships is discussed.

  4. The Administration of Education for the Health Professions: A Time for Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogness, John R.

    Past and current practices as well as anticipated changes in administrative patterns in the health sciences are reviewed in the general context of the changing patterns of administration in higher education. The changes discussed include those in financial support, priorities, controls, and expectations. Several specific questions are addressed:…

  5. A reappraisal of humoral immunity based on mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2006-01-01

    Sometime in the mid to late twentieth century the study of antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) entered the doldrums, as many immunologists believed that the function of AMI was well understood, and was no longer deserving of intensive investigation. However, beginning in the 1990s studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) revealed new functions for antibodies, including direct antimicrobial effects and their ability to modify host inflammatory and cellular responses. Furthermore, the demonstration that mAbs to several intracellular bacterial and fungal pathogens were protective issued a serious challenge to the paradigm that host defense against such microbes was strictly governed by cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Hence, a new view of AMI is emerging. This view is based on the concept that a major function of antibody (Ab) is to amplify or subdue the inflammatory response to a microbe. In this regard, the "damage-response framework" of microbial pathogenesis provides a new conceptual viewpoint for understanding mechanisms of AMI. According to this view, the ability of an Ab to affect the outcome of a host-microbe interaction is a function of its capacity to modify the damage ensuing from such an interaction. In fact, it is increasingly apparent that the efficacy of an Ab cannot be defined either by immunoglobulin or epitope characteristics alone, but rather by a complex function of Ab variables, such as specificity, isotype, and amount, host variables, such as genetic background and immune status, and microbial variables, such as inoculum, mechanisms of avoiding host immune surveillance and pathogenic strategy. Consequently, far from being understood, recent findings in AMI imply a system with unfathomable complexity and the field is poised for a long overdue renaissance.

  6. The evolutionary biology of cryptic pregnancy: A re-appraisal of the "denied pregnancy" phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on 'denied pregnancy', i.e. lack of subjective awareness of pregnancy until the end of gestation in pregnant women, is reviewed and reinterpreted in an evolutionary biological framework. Recent epidemiological studies show that this condition has a much higher incidence than previously thought (about 1:475). Very often, bodily symptoms of pregnancy (nausea, amenorrhea and abdomen swelling) are absent or greatly reduced, and neonates tend to be underweight; in many cases, pregnancy goes undetected also by relatives and physicians. Current explanations in the clinical literature are based on psychodynamic hypotheses about pregnancy-related unconscious conflicts; the lack of symptoms is accounted for by 'somatic denial'. I argue that such psychodynamic accounts are misguided for two reasons: (1) they rest on a failure to recognize the active biological role of the fetus in determining the course of pregnancy, and (2) they ignore the many levels of mother-fetus conflict over resource allocation described by biological theories of parent-offspring conflict. Here I propose to redefine this condition as 'cryptic pregnancy', and begin to explore its possible physiological correlates and evolutionary significance. In the light of parent-offspring conflict theory, cryptic pregnancy appears to reduce the costs of pregnancy, both energetic and ecological (mobility, dependence on kin/mate, etc.), thus favoring the mother at the expense of the fetus. Reduced hCG production and/or effectiveness is likely to be involved in the process. I propose and discuss three nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses to account for this phenomenon: (1) cryptic pregnancy could be a nonadaptive outcome of conflict resolution processes over resource allocation in pregnancy, possibly related to minor disruptions of genomic imprinting mechanisms. (2) Cryptic pregnancy could result from missed spontaneous abortions of low-quality fetuses. (3) Finally, cryptic pregnancy could be an adaptive pattern of 'forced cooperation' between mother and fetus in stressful or threatening ecological circumstances, as suggested by the reported association with elevated psychosocial stress. In case of reduced survival probability, both mother and fetus would benefit if the mother reduced investment in pregnancy in order to maximize her chances of surviving and reaching delivery.

  7. Transfusion transmitted infections in thalassaemics: need for reappraisal of blood screening strategy in India.

    PubMed

    Shyamala, V

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the blood safety in India through prevalence in thalassaemic population. Safety of the blood supply is a subject of great concern for all recipients. This review attempts to assess the relevance and format of tests for viruses in the context of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) prevalence in India. Serological marker testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1/2 (HIV-1/2), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mandatory in India. Numerous TTI incidents in the repeat recipients supported by results from nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing indicate the deficiencies in blood safety. The β-thalassaemic population (3-17%) in India has been used to reflect on blood safety. The prevalence of HIV-1/2, HCV and HBV in the Indian donor population, the limitations in accessing safe donors, quality of serological tests and the impact on repeat recipients is evaluated. The reports point to prevalence of ˜2% of viral diseases in the blood donor population, and the insufficiency of serology testing resulting in up to 45% TTIs in thalassaemics. The revelation by individual donation (ID) NAT testing, of 1 per 310 units being serology negative-NAT reactive is alarming. Extrapolating the serology negative NAT reactive yields, for an annual blood supply of 7.9 million units, 23,700 units or nearly 100,000 blood components are likely to be infectious. Though the cost for ID-NAT testing is considered unaffordable for a medium development country such as India, the enormity of TTIs will place an unmanageable cost burden on the society.

  8. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  9. The anatomy of cerebral achromatopsia: a reappraisal and comparison of two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, Paolo; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2014-07-01

    Brain damage can produce acquired deficits of color perception, or cerebral achromatopsia. In these patients, lesions tend to overlap on a restricted region in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, close to the reported locations of the putative V4 complex and to foci of increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity related to color perception in normal participants. Unilateral lesions give rise to achromatopsia in the contralateral visual field (hemiachromatopsia). Here we present a partial English translation of the first case report of a hemiachromatopsic patient with detailed anatomical evidence (Madame R., Verrey, 1888), and discuss these results in relation to a more recent case report (Madame D., Bartolomeo et al., 1997) of a patient with two consecutive hemorrhagic lesions in the occipitotemporal regions of the two hemispheres. Strikingly, Madame D. developed full-field achromatopsia after the second lesion in the right hemisphere, without having shown any signs of hemiachromatopsia after the first lesion in the left hemisphere. Thanks to the comparison of the reconstructed lesion patterns between the two patients and with the putative location of color-related areas in the human brain, we offer a possible, if speculative, account of this puzzling pattern of anatomo-clinical correlations, based on intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity.

  10. A reappraisal of the unemployment-mortality relationship: transitory and permanent effects.

    PubMed

    Bender, Keith A; Theodossiou, Ioannis

    2015-02-01

    Using US state-level data for 1974 to 2003, this article estimates a relationship that describes both the transitory and permanent effects of unemployment rates on mortality. It shows that the transitory effect of increasing unemployment rates is to decrease mortality. The permanent effect of increasing unemployment rates is to increase mortality. The detrimental effects of higher unemployment rates on health take a long time to become visible. The permanent scars of unemployment on population health are detrimental and overwhelming. They dwarf any opposite and transitory effects.

  11. Deliberate termination of life of newborns with spina bifida, a critical reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objects Deliberate termination of life of newborns (involuntary euthanasia) with meningomyelocele (MMC) is practiced openly only in the Netherlands. ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ is the single most cited criterion for this termination, together with the notion that ‘there are no other proper medical means to alleviate this suffering’. In this paper, both (and other) statements are questioned, also by putting them in a broader perspective. Methods First, a historical overview of the treatment of newborns with MMC is presented, concentrating on the question of selection for treatment. Second, a thorough analysis is made of the criteria used for life termination. Third, a case of a newborn with a very severe MMC is presented as a ‘reference case’. Conclusion ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ cannot be applied to newborns with MMC. They are not ‘terminally ill’ and do have ‘prospects of a future’. In these end-of-life decisions, ‘quality of life judgments’ should not be applied. When such a newborn is not treated, modern palliative care always will suffice in eliminating possible discomfort. There is no reason whatsoever for active life-termination of these newborns. PMID:17929034

  12. Reappraisal of known malaria resistance loci in a large multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Kirk A.; Clarke, Geraldine M.; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Hubbart, Christina; Jeffreys, Anna E.; Rowlands, Kate; Craik, Rachel; Jallow, Muminatou; Conway, David J.; Bojang, Kalifa A.; Pinder, Margaret; Usen, Stanley; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Sirugo, Giorgio; Toure, Ousmane; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Konate, Salimata; Sissoko, Sibiry; Niangaly, Amadou; Poudiougou, Belco; Mangano, Valentina D.; Bougouma, Edith C.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Modiano, David; Amenga-Etego, Lucas N.; Ghansah, Anita; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Wilson, Michael D.; Enimil, Anthony; Evans, Jennifer; Amodu, Olukemi; Olaniyan, Subulade; Apinjoh, Tobias; Mugri, Regina; Ndi, Andre; Ndila, Carolyne M.; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alexander; Peshu, Norbert; Williams, Thomas N.; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris; Reyburn, Hugh; Nyirongo, Vysaul; Kachala, David; Molyneux, Malcolm; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Ngoc Quyen, Nguyen Thi; Thai, Cao Quang; Hien, Tran Tinh; Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Siba, Peter; Karunajeewa, Harin; Allen, Steve; Allen, Angela; Davis, Timothy M. E.; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo; Green, Angie; Molloy, Sile; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Kerasidou, Angeliki; Cornelius, Victoria; Hart, Lee; Vanderwal, Aaron; SanJoaquin, Miguel; Band, Gavin; Le, Si Quang; Pirinen, Matti; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Clark, Taane G.; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Achidi, Eric; Doumbo, Ogobara; Farrar, Jeremy; Marsh, Kevin; Taylor, Terrie; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

    2015-01-01

    Many human genetic associations with resistance to malaria have been reported but few have been reliably replicated. We collected data on 11,890 cases of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and 17,441 controls from 12 locations in Africa, Asia and Oceania. There was strong evidence of association with the HBB, ABO, ATP2B4, G6PD and CD40LG loci but previously reported associations at 22 other loci did not replicate in the multi-centre analysis. The large sample size made it possible to identify authentic genetic effects that are heterogeneous across populations or phenotypes, a striking example being the main African form of G6PD deficiency, which reduced the risk of cerebral malaria but increased the risk of severe malarial anaemia. The finding that G6PD deficiency has opposing effects on different fatal complications of P. falciparum infection indicates that the evolutionary origins of this common human genetic disorder are more complex than previously supposed. PMID:25261933

  13. Reappraising Positivism and Education: The Arguments of Philipp Frank and Herbert Feigl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michaelr.

    This paper documents some of the `bad press' that Positivism has received in science education; it delineates the varied, and sometimes contradictory, ways in which educationalists characterize positivism; it indicates that Constructivism shares the same philosophical commitments as the instrumentalist tradition in positivism; and it suggests that there is considerable educational gain in reconsidering the philosophical and educational commitments of the non-instrumentalist, logical empiricist, tradition in positivism. The paper proceeds by examining and elaborating upon two educational papers of Vienna Circle members Philipp Frank and Herbert Feigl. It is argued that a number of the philosophical and educational `principles' of these foundational positivists are of value to educators facing a worldwide drift from natural sciences in schools and universities, and an increasingly strident anti-science lobby in universities and society. There are at least some positivist babies that should not be thrown out with the educational bathwater.

  14. The 9-point hedonic scale and hedonic ranking in food science: some reappraisals and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

    2015-08-30

    The 9-point hedonic scale has been used routinely in food science, the same way for 60 years. Now, with advances in technology, data from the scale are being used for more and more complex programs for statistical analysis and modeling. Accordingly, it is worth reconsidering the presentation protocols and the analyses associated with the scale, as well as some alternatives. How the brain generates numbers and the types of numbers it generates has relevance for the choice of measurement protocols. There are alternatives to the generally used serial monadic protocol, which can be more suitable. Traditionally, the 'words' on the 9-point hedonic scale are reassigned as 'numbers', while other '9-point hedonic scales' are purely numerical; the two are not interchangeable. Parametric statistical analysis of scaling data is examined critically and alternatives discussed. The potential of a promising alternative to scaling itself, simple ranking with a hedonic R-Index signal detection analysis, is explored in comparison with the 9-point hedonic scale.

  15. More to the Story: A Reappraisal of U.S. Intelligence Prior to the Pacific War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Failure at Pearl Harbor. St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 2003. Levite , Ariel. Intelligence and Strategic Surprises. New York, NY: Columbia...Pearl Harbor, A Documentary: A Day of Infamy, December 7, 1941. Produced by Entertainment Distributing. Dastar Corp./Marathon Music & Video, 2001. 1

  16. Techniques for verifying human footprints: reappraisal of pre-Clovis footprints in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Sarita Amy; Bennett, Matthew R.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David

    2010-09-01

    Verification of human footprints within the geological record provides critical evidence of presence as well as information on the biomechanics of the individuals who made those prints. Consequently, the correct identification of human footprints is important, but is something for which critical and objective criteria do not exist. The current paper attempts to address this issue by presenting a new statistically based approach to the verification of human footprints. The importance of this is illustrated by the recent controversy surrounding a series of marks identified as human prints in the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico dated originally to 40 000 years ago. The dating of these marks remains highly controversial with some teams placing their age at 1.3 million years old. Irrespective of this debate the crucial question that must be addressed is whether or not they represent evidence of human presence. Using an objective statistically based methodology developed here, these controversial marks are re-examined and found to be of questionable origin, as they are inconsistent with a suite of other, known human and hominin prints. Consequently, we argue that they should be removed as evidence in the ongoing controversy surrounding the colonization of the Americas.

  17. A Reappraisal of the Purported Gastric Pellet with Pterosaurian Bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy.

    PubMed

    Holgado, Borja; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio Marco; Fortuny, Josep; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    A small accumulation of bones from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Seazza Brook Valley (Carnic Prealps, Northern Italy) was originally (1989) identified as a gastric pellet made of pterosaur skeletal elements. The specimen has been reported in literature as one of the very few cases of gastric ejecta containing pterosaur bones since then. However, the detailed analysis of the bones preserved in the pellet, their study by X-ray microCT, and the comparison with those of basal pterosaurs do not support a referral to the Pterosauria. Comparison with the osteology of a large sample of Middle-Late Triassic reptiles shows some affinity with the protorosaurians, mainly with Langobardisaurus pandolfii that was found in the same formation as the pellet. However, differences with this species suggest that the bones belong to a similar but distinct taxon. The interpretation as a gastric pellet is confirmed.

  18. Hypertension and Nephrosclerosis: A Reappraisal and a New Theory of Renal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean

    1967-01-01

    An observation in human autopsy material showing a statistically close relationship between complicated atherosclerosis of the aorta, at or above the renal artery take-off, and nephrosclerosis of usual type (i.e. the “granular kidney” of essential hypertension) led to a study of platelet aggregates as a cause of renal lesions. The renal cortical surface is peculiarly sensitive to ischemic damage. When an embolic source, which sheds repeatedly, was placed in the thoracic aorta of rabbits, they became hypertensive. The hypertension persisted for six months, at which time the kidneys showed nephrosclerosis characterized by surface cortical lesions consisting of shrunken glomeruli and atrophical tubules, subtended by arterioles whose intimas showed fibrous thickening. It is suggested that the renal component of the hypertension so induced is transitory, serving as a trigger mechanism for sustained hypertension. PMID:6020068

  19. Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Asian origin of Native Americans is largely accepted. However uncertainties persist regarding the source population(s) within Asia, the divergence and arrival time(s) of the founder groups, the number of expansion events, and migration routes into the New World. mtDNA data, presented over the past two decades, have been used to suggest a single-migration model for which the Beringian land mass plays an important role. Results In our analysis of 568 mitochondrial genomes, the coalescent age estimates of shared roots between Native American and Siberian-Asian lineages, calculated using two different mutation rates, are A4 (27.5 ± 6.8 kya/22.7 ± 7.4 kya), C1 (21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya), C4 (21.0 ± 4.6 kya/20.0 ± 6.4 kya), and D4e1 (24.1 ± 9.0 kya/17.9 ± 10.0 kya). The coalescent age estimates of pan-American haplogroups calculated using the same two mutation rates (A2:19.5 ± 1.3 kya/16.1 ± 1.5 kya, B2:20.8 ± 2.0 kya/18.1 ± 2.4 kya, C1:21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya and D1:17.2 ± 2.0 kya/14.9 ± 2.2 kya) and estimates of population expansions within America (~21-16 kya), support the pre-Clovis occupation of the New World. The phylogeography of sublineages within American haplogroups A2, B2, D1 and the C1b, C1c andC1d subhaplogroups of C1 are complex and largely specific to geographical North, Central and South America. However some sub-branches (B2b, C1b, C1c, C1d and D1f) already existed in American founder haplogroups before expansion into the America. Conclusions Our results suggest that Native American founders diverged from their Siberian-Asian progenitors sometime during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and expanded into America soon after the LGM peak (~20-16 kya). The phylogeography of haplogroup C1 suggest that this American founder haplogroup differentiated in Siberia-Asia. The situation is less clear for haplogroup B2, however haplogroups A2 and D1 may have differentiated soon after the Native American founders divergence. A moderate population bottle neck in American founder populations just before the expansion most plausibly resulted in few founder types in America. The similar estimates of the diversity indices and Bayesian skyline analysis in North America, Central America and South America suggest almost simultaneous (~ 2.0 ky from South to North America) colonization of these geographical regions with rapid population expansion differentiating into more or less regional branches across the pan-American haplogroups. PMID:21978175

  20. The "tectonic" Nature of the Eastern Margin of the Barotiya Group, Rajasthan India: a Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Tamoghno; Rakshit, Nibedita

    2014-05-01

    The polydeformed volcano-sedimentary rocks around Barr, Pali district Central Rajasthan, belong to the Barotiya Group (BG) and constitute the westernmost package of the Delhi Supergroup (DSG) within the South Delhi Fold Belt (SDFB) (Gupta 2004). The eastern and western boundaries of BG are high strain zones. The steep plunges of the lineations within BG are unique within the rocks exposed elsewhere within the DSG. Along the eastern margin, a thin marble band, named Nandna Marble (NM) separates BG from its immediate neighbour Sendra Group (SG) (Dasgupta et al., 2012). The NM sandwiched between the BG and SG holds the key to the understanding of the mechanics of juxtaposition of the two rock sequences and therefore is the purpose of the present study. NM is a laminated fine grained marble showing evidence of mylonitisation. Tectonic inclusions of biotite, muscovite, quartz, epidote, sphene and rock fragments are present within NM. The micro-banding within NM is composed of alternating bands of finer and coarser grained carbonates. The relatively coarser carbonate grains show deformation twins and lack a definite grain boundary. The calcite crystals show different types of e-twin morphologies: thin, straight twin (type-I), thick, straight twin (type-II) and a few curved thick twin (type-III) following Ferril et al (2004). Thin lenses of micaceous quartzites associated with Nm also show evidences of crystal plastic deformation. Syn-tectonic veins of coarser carbonates and quartz re emplaced within NM which rotate with the progressive deformation the entire rock package of BG was subjected to (Dasgupta et al., 2012). It is therefore interpreted that Nm lies within a high strain zone and is a calcareous mylonite. NM was probed through FE-SEM for an EBSD analysis using OIM 5.1 version software. Grain boundary and grain orientation spread maps were prepared to delineate the boundaries of the different twin sets across the grains. The c-axis has a bimodal distribution along a plane whose orientation is 63o / 57o SE. Equal area projection of the e-twins measured shows a vertical conical distribution with a semi-apical angle of 45o. The twin plane thicknesses were measured and twin intensity was calculated from which a moderate-temperature high-stress deformation is postulated. References cited: Dasgupta, N., Mukhopadhyay, D., & Bhattacharyya, T. (2012). Analysis of superposed strain: A case study from Barr Conglomerate in the South Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Structural Geology, 34, 30-42. Ferrill, D. A., Morris, A. P., Evans, M. A., Burkhard, M., Groshong, R. H., & Onasch, C. M. (2004). Calcite twin morphology: a low-temperature deformation geothermometer. Journal of Structural Geology, 26(8), 1521-1529. Gupta P., 2004, Ancient Orogens of Aravalli Region; Geological Survey of India Sp. Publication, 84 150-205

  1. Celiac Disease and Wheat Intolerance Syndrome: A Critical Update and Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Jericho, Hilary; Assiri, Asaad; Guandalini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Since the first description of celiac disease (CeD) by Samuel Gee in 1888 and the later "miraculous discovery" that bread was responsible for this condition following World War II in Europe, there has been an exponential growth of knowledge regarding CeD. Just when we thought that we knew everything there was to know about it, the disease is, however, offering new challenges, with its presentation having significantly morphed over the years from cases of overt gastrointestinal symptoms, malnutrition, and atrophic villi on duodenal biopsies to that of largely extraintestinal, subtle, or mild symptoms. Along with these changes, unexpectedly a new parallel entity appeared a few years ago and is gaining ground: the so-called nonceliac gluten sensitivity, an improper name because it should actually be referred to as wheat intolerance syndrome given that the role of gluten in all such cases is far from demonstrated and the implication of an immune involvement suggested by the term "sensitivity" is still unfounded. Lastly, wheat can be an offender also through an immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy, whose presence must also be evaluated and ruled out in selected cases.The practicing physician is therefore now challenged with the task of discerning which patients need to be assessed for one or the other of these disorders, and how.This review aims at providing an updated, critical reassessment of these 2 entities.

  2. Reappraised list of historical earthquakes that affected Israel and its close surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Motti; Salamon, Amos; Rubin, Rehav

    2016-07-01

    Numerous historical reports of damaging earthquakes in the Levant have accumulated over the last 3000 years. Here, we screen that information and focus on the damaging earthquakes that affected Israel from the second millennia BCE to the 1927 CE Jericho earthquake and list the earthquakes by date, of major damage, type of sequence, and degree of size. The compilation results in three different lists: (i) 71 reliable earthquakes that in our opinion were most probably associated with the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and affected Israel and its close surroundings; (ii) 41 questionable earthquakes that should be re-evaluated or ignored; and (iii) 46 earthquakes that probably occurred but were erroneously associated with damage in Israel. What emerges from the list of the reliable earthquakes is that (i) Israel and its close surroundings suffered damage about 32 times during the last two millennia, that is, once in about 60 years, although not regularly; (ii) 21 of the earthquakes occurred during the last millennia, i.e., an event every ˜45 years; and (iii) three intervals of increased reporting are noticed: between the fourth and the mid-eighth century, from the beginning of the eleventh to the end of the thirteenth century, and from the end of the eighteenth century up to the last entry in 1927, though this period may be extended until today. In-depth evaluation of the changing regimes over time within the study area, the historical reports of earthquake damage outside of Israel, and comparison with physical paleo- and archaeo-seismology evidence, such as the "137-206" and "165-236" paleoseismic earthquakes for which there is no historical match, indicates that the historical list is far from being complete. Thus, we argue that the apparent cycles of historical reporting do not necessarily reflect the actual rate of seismic activity and further investigation is needed to establish a compiled, multi-sourced list to decipher the true nature of cycles of strong earthquakes in this region during historical times.

  3. Do metformin a real anticarcinogen? A critical reappraisal of experimental data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has emerged that antidiabetic biguanides [phenformin (PF), buformin (BF) and metformin (MF)] are promising candidates for prevention of cancer. It was shown that antidiabetic biguanides postpone spontaneous carcinogenesis as well as inhibit carcinogenesis induced by chemical, radiation and biological factors (virus, transgene, genetic modifications, special diet, etc.) in a number of organs and tissues in various strains of mice and rats. The present review focused on some details of experiments such as design of studies, dose and route of administration of biguanide, and age of animals at start of treatment etc. Conclusion may be done that there are rather sufficient evidence of cancer-preventive activity of antidiabetic biguanides in experimental animals. PMID:25333035

  4. Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    There exists substantial debate about how to best assess pathological narcissism with a variety of measures designed to assess grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 based conceptualizations of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Wright and colleagues published correlations between several narcissism measures (Narcissistic Personality Inventory [NPI]; Pathological Narcissism Inventory [PNI]; Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire [PDQ] NPD) with the traits comprising the DSM-5 Section III personality trait model. In the current study, we examine the agreement manifested by Wright and colleagues' narcissism-DSM-5 trait profiles with expert ratings of the DSM-5 traits most relevant to descriptions of DSM-IV NPD. Despite concerns regarding the NPI's ability to measure pathological narcissism, its trait profile was strongly correlated with expert ratings, as was PDQ NPD's profile. Conversely, the trait profiles associated with the PNI were primarily uncorrelated with the expert rated NPD profile. The implications of these findings with regard to the assessment of narcissism are discussed.

  5. Reappraisal of Regional Growth Charts in the Era of WHO Growth Standards.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jin Soo

    2013-09-01

    After the WHO Growth Standards (WHOGS) was published in 2006, many countries in the world endorsed and adopted the new growth references as a standard measure for the growth of infants and young children. Certainly, the WHOGS has an impact on the global policy about obesity and underweight in children. Such WHOGS innovation has influenced many regional health authorities and academies, which have managed their own growth charts for a long time, in changing their strategies to develop and use regional growth charts. In Korea, along with the tradition to create a national growth chart every decade, we now face a new era of advancing with the WHOGS.

  6. The sulfocyanic theory on the origin of life: towards a critical reappraisal of an autotrophic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perezgasga, L.; Silva, E.; Lazcano, A.; Negrin-Mendoza, A.

    2003-10-01

    In the early 1930s, Alfonso L. Herrera proposed his so-called sulfocyanic theory on the origin of life, an autotrophic proposal on the first living beings according to which NH4SCN and H2CO acted as raw materials for the synthesis of bio-organic compounds inside primordial photosynthetic protoplasmic structures. Although the work of Herrera is frequently cited in historical analysis of the development of the origin of life studies, very little attention has been given to the chemical significance of the reactions he published. In this paper we report the results of our search for amino acids obtained from a reactive mixture used by Herrera from 1933 onwards. Chromatograms using the high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique suggest the presence of several amino acids, the total yield being 2% of the initial thiocyanate used. Preliminary identification based on HPLC retention times suggests the presence of glycine, alanine, cysteine and methionine. Alanine was the most abundant amino acid in all samples of fractionated material analysed. Although the starting materials used by Herrera were determined by his autotrophic hypothesis on the origin of cells, our results show that his experiments may provide insights into the abiotic synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids within the framework of a heterotrophic emergence of life.

  7. Reappraisal of the 20th-century version of amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Masayuki; Nakamura, Masahiko

    2003-12-05

    In this article, we advocate the radical revision of the 20th-century version of amino acid metabolism as follows. (1) Classic studies on the incorporation of [15N]ammonia into glutamate, once considered to be an epoch-making event, are not distinctive proof of the ability of animals to utilize ammonia for the synthesis of alpha-amino nitrogen. (2) Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase has been implicated to function as a glutamate-synthesizing enzyme albeit lack of convincing proof. This enzyme, in combination with aminotransferases, is now known to play an exclusive role in the metabolic removal of amino nitrogen and energy production from excess amino acids. (3) Dr. William C Rose's "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" are, of course, essential in cellular metabolism; the nutritional nonessentiality is related to their carbon skeletons, many of which are intermediates of glycolysis or the TCA cycle. Obviously, the prime importance of amino acid nutrition should be the means of obtaining amino nitrogen. (4) Because there is no evidence of the presence of any glutamate-synthesizing enzymes in mammalian tissues, animals must depend on plants and microorganisms for preformed alpha-amino nitrogen. This is analogous to the case of carbohydrates. (5) In contrast, individual essential amino acids, similar to vitamins and essential fatty acids, should be considered important nutrients that must be included regularly in sufficient amounts in the diet.

  8. Reappraisal of the clinical use of leflunomide in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter BB; White, Douglas HN

    2010-01-01

    Leflunomide is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) that has been in routine clinical use for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis for a decade. In RA, clinical trials of up to two years’ duration showed that leflunomide monotherapy was equivalent to methotrexate in clinical and radiographic disease outcomes (tender and swollen joint counts, physician and patient global assessments, American College of Rheumatology and Disease Activity Score responses, slowing or halting of radiographic progression). In a number of studies, quality of life measurements indicated that leflunomide is superior to methotrexate. Leflunomide has been studied in combination with methotrexate and shows efficacy in patients only partly responsive to this agent. Recent trials have shown that leflunomide can be used safely with biologic DMARDs, including antitumor necrosis factor agents and rituximab as part of the treatment algorithm in place of methotrexate as a cotherapy. Leflunomide has demonstrated efficacy as a monotherapy in psoriatic arthritis, and it also has a beneficial effect in psoriasis. Postmarketing studies have shown that retention on treatment with leflunomide is equal to methotrexate and superior to other DMARDs. In general, its side effect profile is acceptable compared with other DMARDS, with nausea, diarrhea, and hair fall occurring commonly, but only rarely leading to discontinuation. Liver toxicity is the most significant problem in clinical use although it is uncommon. Peripheral neuropathy, hypertension, pneumonitis, and cytopenia occur more rarely. Leflunomide is contraindicated in pregnancy and should be used with caution in women during child-bearing years. In this review, the place of leflunomide in therapy is discussed and practical advice informed by evidence is given regarding dosing regimens, safety monitoring, and managing side effects. Leflunomide remains one of the most useful of the nonbiologic DMARDs. PMID:27789998

  9. Sir Fred Clarke: A Reappraisal of His Early Years 1880-1911

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Frank Mitchell's biography of Sir Fred Clarke, one of the most influential British educationists of the first half of the twentieth century, was published in 1967. This article by Claudia Clarke draws upon previously unknown material and her own recollections to provide new insights into her father's personal and professional lives and to modify…

  10. A re-appraisal of nunatak survival in arctic-alpine phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A long standing and at times fervid debate in biogeography revolves around the question whether arctic and high alpine organisms survived Pleistocene ice ages on small island-like areas protruding above the ice-sheet, socalled nunataks, or whether they did so in peripheral nonglaciated refugial areas. A common picture emerging from a plethora of molecular phylogeographic studies in the last decade is that both in the Arctic and in temperate mountain ranges such as the European Alps nunatak survival needs to be only rarely invoked to explain observed genetic patterns (for a rare example see Stehlik et al. 2002). As two studies in this issue show, depreciation of the nunatak hypothesis is, however, not warranted. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Westergaard et al. (2011) investigate genetic patterns of two arctic-alpine plant species distributed on both sides of the Atlantic exclusively in areas that were mostly covered by ice-sheets during Pleistocene glacial advances. In both species, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data identified divergent and partly genetically diverse groups east and west of the Atlantic. This suggests, for the first time in Arctic plants, in situ survival on nunataks. In an entirely different geographic setting and on a different geographic scale, Lohse et al. (2011, this issue) study the colonization of high alpine areas in the Orobian Alps, situated within and adjacent to a prominent peripheral refugial area (massif de refuge) in the Southern Alps of northern Italy, by dispersal-limited carabid ground beetles. Using explicit hypothesis testing and inference of ancestral locations in a Bayesian framework, stepwise colonization from two separate southern refugia is found to shape the genetic pattern of these beetles, but at the northern edge, populations survived at least parts of the last glaciation in situ on nunataks.

  11. Elasticity, composition and temperature of the Earth's lower mantle: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Ian

    1998-07-01

    The interpretation of seismological models for the Earth's lower mantle in terms of chemical composition and temperature is sensitive both to the details of the methodology employed and also to uncertainties in key thermoelastic parameters, especially for the dominant (Mg, Fe)SiO3 perovskite phase. Here the alternative approaches-adiabatic decompression of the lower mantle for comparison at zero pressure with laboratory data, and the projection of laboratory data to lower-mantle P-T conditions for direct comparison with seismological observations-are assessed, along with the equations of state on which they are based. It is argued that adiabatic decompression of the lower mantle is best effected by a strategy in which consistent third-order finite-strain expressions are required simultaneously to fit the strain dependence of both the seismic parameter and the density. This procedure accords due weight to the most robust seismological observations, namely the wave speeds, and reduces to an acceptable level the otherwise very strong covariance among the fitted coefficients. It is demonstrated that this approach can readily be adapted to include the effects of relaxation, from the Hill average to the Reuss lower bound, of the aggregate bulk modulus which governs the radial variation of density. For the projection of laboratory thermoelastic data to lower-mantle P-T conditions, the preferred equation of state is of the Mie-Grüneisen type, involving the addition at constant volume of the pressure along a finite-strain principal (300 K) isotherm and the thermal pressure calculated from the Debye approximation to the lattice vibrational energy. A high degree of consistency is demonstrated between these alternative equations of state. Possible departures of the lower mantle from conditions of adiabaticity and large-scale homogeneity are assessed; these are negligible for the PREM model (Bullen parameter ɛB = 0.99 +/- 0.01) but significant for ak135 (ɛB ~ 0.94 +/- 0.02), reviving the possibility of a substantially superadiabatic temperature gradient. Experimentally determined thermoelastic properties of the major (Mg, Fe)SiO3 perovskite and (Mg, Fe)O magnesiowüstite phases are used to constrain the equation-of-state parameters employed in the analysis of seismological information, although the scarcity of information concerning the pressure and temperature dependence of the elastic moduli for the perovskite phase remains a serious impediment. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that the combination of a pyrolite composition simplified to the three-component system (SiO2-MgO-FeO) with molar XPv = 0.67 and XMg = 0.89, and a lower-mantle adiabat with a potential temperature of 1600 K-consistent with the preferred geotherm for the upper mantle and transition zone-is compatible with the PREM seismological model, within the residual uncertainties of the thermoelastic parameters for the perovskite phase. In particular, such consistency requires values for the perovskite phase of KS' = (∂KS /∂P)T and Q = (∂ ln γ/∂ ln V)T of approximately 3.8 and 2, and ∂G/∂T near -0.022 GPa K-1 for the lower-mantle assemblage. More silicic models, which have sometimes been advocated, can also be reconciled with the seismological data, but require lower-mantle temperatures which are much higher-by about 700 K for pyroxene stoichiometry. However, the absence of seismological and rheological evidence for the pair of thermal boundary layers separating convection above and below, which is implied by such models, remains a formidable difficulty. Under these circumstances, the simplest possible model, that of grossly uniform chemical composition throughout the mantle, is preferred.

  12. Reappraisal of field dynamics of motor cortex during self-paced finger movements

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Wasaka, Toshiaki; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2013-01-01

    Background The exact origin of neuronal responses in the human sensorimotor cortex subserving the generation of voluntary movements remains unclear, despite the presence of characteristic but robust waveforms in the records of electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG). Aims To clarify this fundamental and important problem, we analyzed MEG in more detail using a multidipole model during pulsatile extension of the index finger, and made some important new findings. Results Movement-related cerebral fields (MRCFs) were confirmed over the sensorimotor region contralateral to the movement, consisting of a temporal succession of the first premovement component termed motor field, followed by two or three postmovement components termed movement evoked fields. A source analysis was applied to separately model each of these field components. Equivalent current diploes of all components of MRCFs were estimated to be located in the same precentral motor region, and did not differ with respect to their locations and orientations. The somatosensory evoked fields following median nerve stimulation were used to validate these findings through comparisons of the location and orientation of composite sources with those specified in MRCFs. The sources for the earliest components were evoked in Brodmann's area 3b located lateral to the sources of MRCFs, and those for subsequent components in area 5 and the secondary somatosensory area were located posterior to and inferior to the sources of MRCFs, respectively. Another component peaking at a comparable latency with the area 3b source was identified in the precentral motor region where all sources of MRCFs were located. Conclusion These results suggest that the MRCF waveform reflects a series of responses originating in the precentral motor area. PMID:24363977

  13. Reappraising Defense Organization: An Analysis Based on the Defense Organization Study of 1977-1980,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    deterrent and maintain its technological advantage over the Soviet Union after the Sputnik launching. President Eisenhower, Congressional leaders, and...realized its objective when the Soviet Union agreed to remove offensive missiles from Cuba. That out- come was achieved in part through the imposition...activities of organiza- tions in pursuing their interests. That is true whether the interests involved are businesses or labor unions , environmentalists

  14. A critical reappraisal of allopurinol dosing, safety, and efficacy for hyperuricemia in gout.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jeannie; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Allopurinol, the first-line drug for serum urate-lowering therapy in gout, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a dose up to 800 mg/d and is available as a low-cost generic drug. However, the vast majority of allopurinol prescriptions are for doses < or = 300 mg/d, which often fails to adequately treat hyperuricemia in gout. This situation has been promoted by longstanding, non-evidence-based guidelines for allopurinol use calibrated to renal function (and oxypurinol levels) and designed, without proof of efficacy, to avoid allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. Severe allopurinol hypersensitivity reactions are not necessarily dose-dependent and do not always correlate with serum oxypurinol levels. Limiting allopurinol dosing to < or = 300 mg/d suboptimally controls hyperuricemia and fails to adequately prevent hypersensitivity reactions. However, the long-term safety of elevating allopurinol dosages in chronic kidney disease requires further study. The emergence of novel urate-lowering therapeutic options, such as febuxostat and uricase, makes timely this review of current allopurinol dosing guidelines, safety, and efficacy in gout hyperuricemia therapy, including patients with chronic kidney disease.

  15. A Hollow Army Reappraised: President Carter, Defense Budgets, and the Politics of Military Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Lyndon John - son had refused to do during the Vietnam War.43 In a series of studies that the Ford administration commissioned during its 2 and 1/2-year...House initiatives.”119 Although the Democrats held a major- ity on the committee, Republican Senator John Tower with assistance from some hard-line anti...Communist Democrats such as Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson 40 continuously chipped away at the power of committee chairman Senator John Stennis

  16. Reappraisal of primary balloon angioplasty without stenting for patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hideo; Terada, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Yuko; Tomura, Nagatsuki; Kono, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Ryo; Shintani, Aki

    2015-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the safety and efficacy of intracranial stenting. We describe our experience with primary balloon angioplasty without stenting for symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. All patients who underwent balloon angioplasty without stenting for MCA stenosis between 1996 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated technical success rates, degrees of stenosis, and stroke or death within 30 days. Among patients who were followed-up for > 1 year we evaluated latest functional outcomes, stroke recurrence at 1 year, and restenosis. In total 45/47 patients (95.7%) were successfully treated. Average pre- and postprocedure stenosis rates were 79.9% and 39.5%, respectively. Three neurological complications occurred within 30 days: one thromboembolism during the procedure; one lacunar infarction; and one fatal intraparenchymal hemorrhage after the procedure. Stroke or death rate within 30 days was 6.4%. Thirty-three patients were available for follow-up analysis with a mean period of 51.5 months. The combined rate of stroke or death within 30 days and ipsilateral ischemic stroke of the followed-up patients within 1 year beyond 30 days was 9.4%. Restenosis was observed in 26.9% of patients and all remained asymptomatic. In our retrospective series, balloon angioplasty without stenting was a safe, effective modality for symptomatic MCA stenosis. For patients refractory to medical therapy, primary balloon angioplasty may offer a better supplemental treatment option.

  17. A reappraisal of the ileo-rectal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, Pär; Øresland, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Colectomy is still frequently required in the care of ulcerative colitis. The most common indications are either non-responding colitis in the emergency setting, chronic active disease, steroid-dependent disease or neoplastic change like dysplasia or cancer. The use of the ileal pouch anal anastomosis has internationally been the gold standard, substituting the rectum with a pouch. Recently the use of the ileorectal anastomosis has increased in frequency as reconstructive method after subtotal colectomy. Data from centres using ileorectal anastomosis have shown the method to be safe, with functionality and risk of failure comparable to the ileal pouch anal anastomosis. The methods have different advantages as well as disadvantages, depending on a number of patient factors and where in life the patient is at time of reconstruction. The ileorectal anastomosis could, together with the Kock continent ileostomy, in selected cases be a complement to the ileal pouch anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis and should be discussed with the patient before deciding on reconstructive method.

  18. From the discovery of monoclonal antibodies to their therapeutic application: an historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Vertebrate make billions of different antibodies, each with a binding site that recognizes a specific region of a macromolecule. The hybridoma technique allows monoclonal antibodies, highly specific antibodies produced in the laboratory by a variety of methods. In the last 35 years since the first process for creating monoclonal antibodies was introduced, their application have improved the growing biotechnology industry, but the most important application concerns the therapy of human malignancies.

  19. Five-aminosalicylic Acid: an update for the reappraisal of an old drug.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Cristiana; Pellegrino, Paolo; Moroni, Eliana; De Palma, Clara; Cervia, Davide; Danelli, Piergiorgio; Clementi, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises several conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal apparatus, of which ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the commonest forms. This disease has a significant prevalence and it is of an unknown aethiology. Five-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and its derivatives are among the oldest drugs approved for the treatment of the IBD. In this review we reapprise aspects of 5-ASA mechanism of action, safety, and efficacy that in our opinion make it a valuable drug that can be fruitfully tailored in personalised treatments as a therapeutic option alongside other immune-modifying agents.

  20. Reappraising the Relationships between Physics Students' Mental Models and Predictions: An Example of Heat Convection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Guo-Li

    2013-01-01

    Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students' mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between…

  1. Transcriptomic reappraisal identifies MGLL overexpression as an unfavorable prognosticator in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ko-Chin; Chen, Yen-Yang; Fang, Fu-Min; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Yu, Shih-Chen; Lan, Jui; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The role of deregulated cellular metabolism, particularly lipid metabolism, in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) remains unclear. Through data mining of published transcriptomes, we examined lipid metabolism-regulating drivers differentially upregulated in high-risk cases and identified monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) as the top-ranking candidate involved in GIST progression. MGLL expression status was examined in three GIST cell lines and two independent sets of primary localized GISTs. MGLL mRNA abundance and immunoexpression was determined in 70 cases through the QuantiGene assay and H-scoring on whole sections, respectively. H-scoring was extended to another cohort for evaluating MGLL immunoexpression on tissue microarrays, yielding 350 informative cases, with KIT/PDGFRA mutation genotypes noted in 213 of them. Both imatinib-sensitive (GIST882) and -resistant (GIST48 and GIST430) cell lines exhibited increased MGLL expression. MGLL mRNA levels significantly increased from adjacent normal tissue to the non-high-risk group (p = 0.030) and from the non-high-risk group to high-risk GISTs (p = 0.012), and were associated with immunoexpression levels (p < 0.001, r = 0.536). MGLL overexpression was associated with the nongastric location (p = 0.022) and increased size (p = 0.017), and was strongly related to mitosis and risk levels defined by NIH and NCCN criteria (all p ≤ 0.001). Univariately, MGLL overexpression was strongly predictive of poorer disease-free and overall survival (both p < 0.001), which remained prognostically independent for both endpoints, along with higher risk levels. Conclusively, MGLL is a lipid metabolic enzyme causatively implicated in GIST progression given its association with unfavorable clincopathological factors and independent negative prognostic effects. PMID:27366945

  2. Coexpression of intermediate filaments in normal and neoplastic human tissues: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Coggi, G; Dell'Orto, P; Braidotti, P; Coggi, A; Viale, G

    1989-01-01

    The current view that coexpression of intermediate filaments (IFs) must be considered a bizarre and unpredictable phenomenon, which seriously jeopardizes the use of their localization in diagnostic applications, is critically reviewed in light of the evidence so far acquired by investigations in vivo and in vitro. A less dogmatic approach, which considers IF expression the result of a series of interactions between cells and their microenvironment instead of a function of their histogenesis, not only justifies the complex variety of coexpressions observed in normal and neoplastic tissues but also confirms the usefulness of IF expression in diagnostic applications and offers new opportunities for investigations, with special regard to immunoelectron microscopy.

  3. Follow-up and diagnostic reappraisal of 75 patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Lambert, S R; Kriss, A; Taylor, D; Coffey, R; Pembrey, M

    1989-06-15

    We reexamined 75 children in whom Leber's congenital amaurosis had been previously diagnosed. On review, 30 of these patients had an ocular or systemic disorder other than Leber's congenital amaurosis. The most common of these revised diagnoses were congenital stationary night blindness, achromatopsia, infantile-onset retinitis pigmentosa, Joubert's syndrome, Zellweger syndrome, and infantile Refsum's disease. Of the 45 patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis, mental retardation occurred in six patients, and visual deterioration in six patients. Leber's congenital amaurosis should only be diagnosed if other known ocular and systemic disorders have been carefully excluded.

  4. Mechanistic reappraisal of early stage photochemistry in the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Derren J; Hardman, Samantha J O; Mansell, David; Gardiner, John M; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2012-01-01

    The light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). This reaction is a key step in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Ultrafast photochemical processes within the Pchlide molecule are required for catalysis and previous studies have suggested that a short-lived excited-state species, known as I675*, is the first catalytic intermediate in the reaction and is essential for capturing excitation energy to drive subsequent hydride and proton transfers. The chemical nature of the I675* excited state species and its role in catalysis are not known. Here, we report time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy measurements to study the involvement of the I675* intermediate in POR photochemistry. We show that I675* is not unique to the POR-catalyzed photoreduction of Pchlide as it is also formed in the absence of the POR enzyme. The I675* species is only produced in samples that contain both Pchlide substrate and Chlide product and its formation is dependent on the pump excitation wavelength. The rate of formation and the quantum yield is maximized in 50∶50 mixtures of the two pigments (Pchlide and Chlide) and is caused by direct energy transfer between Pchlide and neighboring Chlide molecules, which is inhibited in the polar solvent methanol. Consequently, we have re-evaluated the mechanism for early stage photochemistry in the light-driven reduction of Pchlide and propose that I675* represents an excited state species formed in Pchlide-Chlide dimers, possibly an excimer. Contrary to previous reports, we conclude that this excited state species has no direct mechanistic relevance to the POR-catalyzed reduction of Pchlide.

  5. The Angola-Gabon rifted margin: reappraisal of the upper- and lower-plate concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Manatschal, Gianreto; Masini, Emmanuel; Sutra, Emilie; Flament, Jean Marie; Haupert, Isabelle; Unternehr, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we summarize observations from the South Atlantic Angola-Gabon rifted margin. Our study is based on interpretation of a selection of deep penetration depth migrated seismic reflection profiles. We describe the dip architecture of the margin under five structural domains (proximal, necking, distal, outer and oceanic), listing their characteristics. We further explain the necking domain and discuss the architecture of the distal domain as a combination of hyper-extended crust and exhumed mantle. The mapping and characterization of these domains permit to illustrate the along strike structural and stratigraphic variability of the margin. We interpret this variability as the result of a shift from an upper-plate setting (central segment, South Congo to North Angola) to lower-plate settings (southward with the inner Kwanza Basin, and northward with the Gabon Basin). The transfer from one setting to the other is either sharp, typified by a major regional normal fault on the northern flank of a (residual) H-block, identified offshore Cabinda-Zaire, or more diffuse southward. First order screening of conjugate profiles confirmed the segmentation and the structural characteristics of the transfer zones. The studied dataset also permitted identifying key sections that can be considered as type-examples of upper-plate and lower-plate settings, what permits us reviewing the characteristics of upper- and lower-plate rifted margins.

  6. Reappraisal of the Jianchuan Cenozoic basin stratigraphy and its implications on the SE Tibetan plateau evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbet, Loraine; Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Sorrel, Philippe; Maheo, Gweltaz; Wang, GuoCan; Yadong, Xu; Cao, Kai; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Eymard, Inès; Liu, Wei; Lu, Haijian; Replumaz, Anne; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Kexin, Zhang; Jing, Wu; Shen, Tianyi

    2017-03-01

    We present a new stratigraphy of the Jianchuan basin, one of the largest Cenozoic sedimentary basins in southeastern Tibet. This basin was regarded as recording sedimentation from the Eocene up to the Pliocene, and as such has been the focus of several studies aiming at constraining the environmental, tectonic and topographic evolution of the area. Within the Shuanghe and Jianchuan formations thirteen new zircon U/Pb ages and one biotite 40Ar/39Ar age of interbedded and cross-cutting ultrapotassic magmatic rocks show that a brief magmatic event occurred from 35.7 to 34.5 Ma (35.2 ± 0.4 Ma on average). The uppermost formation (Jianchuan Fm), supposedly Pliocene in age, is related to this magmatic event and is 35.4 ± 0.8 Ma old. All sedimentary formations are thus Eocene in age, with neither Oligocene nor Miocene sediments. The coal-bearing Shuanghe Formation yields a fossil of a large amynodontid typical of the Upper Eocene Ergilian interval (37.2 to 33.9 Ma). Sedimentation of the Shuanghe Formation took place in a short time interval at 35.9 ± 0.9 Ma, after a large-scale drainage reorganization that induced the abandonment of a large braided-river system. This reorganization was possibly linked with the initiation of the left-lateral Ailao-Shan Red River fault and/or to widespread magmatism in the Jianchuan basin. Previous high paleoaltitude estimates for the Jianchuan basin are thoroughly re-evaluated and yield a value of 1200 ± 1200 m.a.s.l. for the Upper Eocene.

  7. Toward a Reappraisal of the Bonds between Emotional Intelligence and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavinia, Parviz; Ahmadzadeh, Tala

    2012-01-01

    Though several researchers have thus far attempted to address the viable relationship between EI and burnout, it seems that few have approached the notion of burnout by considering the influence of teachers' coping resources such as EI especially in an EFL context. Thus, in an attempt to bridge this gap, the present study sought to explore the…

  8. Reappraisal of known malaria resistance loci in a large multicenter study.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Many human genetic associations with resistance to malaria have been reported, but few have been reliably replicated. We collected data on 11,890 cases of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and 17,441 controls from 12 locations in Africa, Asia and Oceania. We tested 55 SNPs in 27 loci previously reported to associate with severe malaria. There was evidence of association at P < 1 × 10(-4) with the HBB, ABO, ATP2B4, G6PD and CD40LG loci, but previously reported associations at 22 other loci did not replicate in the multicenter analysis. The large sample size made it possible to identify authentic genetic effects that are heterogeneous across populations or phenotypes, with a striking example being the main African form of G6PD deficiency, which reduced the risk of cerebral malaria but increased the risk of severe malarial anemia. The finding that G6PD deficiency has opposing effects on different fatal complications of P. falciparum infection indicates that the evolutionary origins of this common human genetic disorder are more complex than previously supposed.

  9. Gingival recession. Reappraisal of an enigmatic condition and a new index for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G

    1997-03-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is an intriguing condition. This brief communication, after proposing a definition for GR, considers the possible relevance of anatomical, physiological, pathological and traumatic factors in its etiology. It is probable that no one factor in isolation leads to the development of GR. Because of the possible influence of several factors, not necessarily acting synchronously, the occurrence of GR at a given site may be difficult to explain fully, and any subsequent changes may be hard to predict. The importance of the CEJ (or other fixed point) in assessment of GR severity is discussed. A new two-figure Index of Recession (IR) (e.g., F2-4asterisk) is also described, in which the 1st digit relates to the proportional evaluation of the horizontal extent of GR at the level of CEJ, and the 2nd digit is the vertical extent of GR from CEJ in millimetres; the asterisk denotes involvement of the MGJ. The prefixed F (or L) denotes whether GR is facial (or lingual) to the involved root.

  10. Timing of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease: a need for reappraisal?

    PubMed

    deSouza, Ruth-Mary; Moro, Elena; Lang, Anthony E; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2013-05-01

    We review the current application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) and consider the evidence that earlier use of DBS confers long-term symptomatic benefit for patients compared to best medical therapy. Electronic searches were performed of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all article types relating to the timing of DBS in PD. Current evidence suggests that DBS is typically performed in late stage PD, a mean of 14 to 15 years after diagnosis. Current guidelines recommend that PD patients who are resistant to medical therapies, have significant medication side effects and lengthening off periods, but are otherwise cognitively intact and medically fit for surgery be considered for DBS. If these criteria are rigidly interpreted, it may be that, by the time medical treatment options have been exhausted, the disease has progressed to the point that the patient may no longer be fit for neurosurgical intervention. From the evidence available, we conclude that surgical management of PD alone or in combination with medical therapy results in greater improvement of motor symptoms and quality of life than medical treatment alone. There is evidence to support the use of DBS in less advanced PD and that it may be appropriate for earlier stages of the disease than for which it is currently used. The improving short and long-term safety profile of DBS makes early application a realistic possibility.

  11. Victor of Aveyron: A Reappraisal in Light of More Recent Cases of Feral Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Yvan

    1980-01-01

    The language development of children who have experienced malnutrition and varying degrees of speech and sensory deprivation is examined. In language learning, such children attend only when directly addressed, cannot control pitch and intonation and lack an understanding of the relational linguistic material and the sociolinguistic rules of…

  12. A Review and Reappraisal of Adaptive Human-Computer Interfaces in Complex Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    composed of 3 stages: 1) EEG , ECG, and changing rate of SPR, are measured as original biological signals and physiological indices are extracted by...This portable Adaptive Brain Interface (ABI) is based on the on-line analysis of spontaneous electroencephalogram ( EEG ) signals measured with eight...computer interface (BCI) is based on the analysis of EEG signals associated with spontaneous mental activity. The analysis is concerned with local

  13. Critical reappraisal confirms that Mitofusin 2 is an endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria tether

    PubMed Central

    Naon, Deborah; Zaninello, Marta; Giacomello, Marta; Varanita, Tatiana; Grespi, Francesca; Lakshminaranayan, Sowmya; Serafini, Annalisa; Semenzato, Martina; Herkenne, Stephanie; Hernández-Alvarez, Maria Isabel; Zorzano, Antonio; De Stefani, Diego; Dorn, Gerald W.; Scorrano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the multiple roles of mitochondria–endoplasmic reticulum (ER) juxtaposition in cell biology often relied upon the exploitation of Mitofusin (Mfn) 2 as an ER–mitochondria tether. However, this established Mfn2 function was recently questioned, calling for a critical re-evaluation of Mfn2’s role in ER–mitochondria cross-talk. Electron microscopy and fluorescence-based probes of organelle proximity confirmed that ER–mitochondria juxtaposition was reduced by constitutive or acute Mfn2 deletion. Functionally, mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ released from the ER was reduced following acute Mfn2 ablation, as well as in Mfn2−/− cells overexpressing the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate and extent were normal in isolated Mfn2−/− liver mitochondria, consistent with the finding that acute or chronic Mfn2 ablation or overexpression did not alter mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex component levels. Hence, Mfn2 stands as a bona fide ER–mitochondria tether whose ablation decreases interorganellar juxtaposition and communication. PMID:27647893

  14. Resurrecting Van Leeuwenhoek's rotifers: a reappraisal of the role of disaccharides in anhydrobiosis.

    PubMed

    Tunnacliffe, A; Lapinski, J

    2003-10-29

    In 1702, Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis in a species of bdelloid rotifer, Philodina roseola. It is the purpose of this review to examine what has been learned since then about the extreme desiccation tolerance in rotifers and how this compares with our understanding of anhydrobiosis in other organisms. Remarkably, much of what is known today about the requirements for successful anhydrobiosis, and the degree of biostability conferred by the dry state, was already determined in principle by the time of Spallanzani in the late 18th century. Most modern research on anhydrobiosis has emphasized the importance of the non-reducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose, one or other sugar being present at high concentrations during desiccation of anhydrobiotic nematodes, brine shrimp cysts, bakers' yeast, resurrection plants and plant seeds. These sugars are proposed to act as water replacement molecules, and as thermodynamic and kinetic stabilizers of biomolecules and membranes. In apparent contradiction of the prevailing models, recent experiments from our laboratory show that bdelloid rotifers undergo anhydrobiosis without producing trehalose or any analogous molecule. This has prompted us to critically re-examine the association of disaccharides with anhydrobiosis in the literature. Surprisingly, current hypotheses are based almost entirely on in vitro data: there is very limited information which is more than simply correlative in the literature on living systems. In many species, disaccharide accumulation occurs at approximately the same time as desiccation tolerance is acquired. However, several studies indicate that these sugars are not sufficient for anhydrobiosis; furthermore, there is no conclusive evidence, through mutagenesis or functional knockout experiments, for example, that sugars are necessary for anhydrobiosis. Indeed, some plant seeds and micro-organisms, like the rotifer, exhibit excellent desiccation tolerance in the absence of high intracellular sugar concentrations. Accordingly, it seems appropriate to call for a re-evaluation of our understanding of anhydrobiosis and to embark on new experimental programmes to determine the key molecular mechanisms involved.

  15. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, A.; Siegel, V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Jessopp, M. J.; Loeb, V.

    2009-05-01

    Despite much research on Euphausia superba, estimates of their total biomass and production are still very uncertain. Recently, circumpolar krill databases, combined with growth models and revisions in acoustics have made it possible to refine previous estimates. Net-based databases of density and length frequency (KRILLBASE) yield a summer distributional range of ˜19×10 6 km 2 and a mean total abundance of 8×10 14 post-larvae with biomass of 379 million tonnes (Mt). These values are based on a standardised net sampling method but they average over the period 1926-2004, during which krill abundance has fluctuated. To estimate krill biomass at the end of last century we combined the KRILLBASE map of relative krill density around Antarctica with an acoustics-derived biomass estimate of 37.3 Mt derived for the Scotia Sea area in 2000 by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). Thus the CCAMLR 2000 survey area contains 28% of the total stock, with total biomass of ˜133 Mt in January-February 2000. Gross postlarval production is estimated conservatively at 342-536 Mt yr -1, based on three independent methods. These are high values, within the upper range of recent estimates, but consistent with the concept of high energy throughput for a species of this size. The similarity between the three production estimates reflects a broad agreement between the three growth models used, plus the fact that, for a given population size, production is relatively insensitive to the size distribution of krill at the start of the growth season. These production values lie within the envelope of what can be supported from the Southern Ocean primary production system and what is required to support an estimated predator consumption of 128-470 Mt yr -1. Given the range of recent acoustics estimates, plus the need for precautionary management of the developing krill fishery, our net-based data provide an alternative estimate of total krill biomass.

  16. Resting state respiration of mitochondria: Reappraisal of the role of passive ion fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Zolkiewska, A.; Zablocka, B.; Duszynski, J.; Wojtczak, L. )

    1989-12-01

    Rat liver mitochondria respiring under resting state conditions in the presence of oligomycin were rapidly blocked with cyanide and the dissipation of the membrane potential, measured with a tetraphenylphosphonium-sensitive electrode, was followed over time. The plot of the rate of membrane potential dissipation versus the actual value of the membrane potential was nonlinear and identical to the plot of resting state respiration (titrated with small amounts of a respiratory inhibitor) versus the membrane potential. The relationship between the respiratory chain activity and the proton-motive force in mitochondria oxidizing succinate with either oxygen or ferricyanide as electron acceptors was also found to be identical. These results are interpreted as an indication that the passive permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane toward ions is far more significant in maintaining resting state respiration than is the molecular slippage of the pumps in the respiratory chain. These results also confirm the non-ohmic characteristics of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  17. Comments on the diphoton excess: critical reappraisal of effective field theory interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenik, Jernej F.; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Soreq, Yotam; Zupan, Jure

    2016-07-01

    We consider the diphoton excess observed by ATLAS and CMS using the most up-to-date data and estimate the preferred enhancement in the production rate between 8 TeV and 13 TeV. Within the framework of effective field theory (EFT), we then show that for both spin-0 and spin-2 Standard Model (SM) gauge-singlet resonances, two of the three processes S → ZZ, S → Zγ, and S → W W must occur with a non-zero rate. Moreover, we demonstrate that these branching ratios are highly correlated in the EFT. Couplings of S to additional SM states may be constrained and differentiated by comparing the S production rates with and without the vector-boson fusion (VBF) cuts. We find that for a given VBF to inclusive production ratio there is maximum rate of S to gauge bosons, boverline{b} , and lighter quark anti-quark pairs. Simultaneous measurements of the width and the VBF ratio may be able to point towards the existence of hidden decays.

  18. Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganai, Rubeni T.; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.

    2016-11-01

    Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures, that were exploited by Late Archaean and Proterozoic mafic intrusions. There was interplay between vertical and horizontal tectonics as seen in similar terrains worldwide.

  19. B → K∗ ℓ + ℓ - decays at large recoil in the Standard Model: a theoretical reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Mishima, Satoshi; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    We critically reassess the theoretical uncertainties in the Standard Model calculation of the B → K ∗ ℓ + ℓ - observables, focusing on the low q 2 region. We point out that even optimized observables are affected by sizable uncertainties, since hadronic contributions generated by current-current operators with charm are difficult to estimate, especially for q 2 ˜ 4 m c 2 ≃ 6.8 GeV2. We perform a detailed numerical analysis and present both predictions and results from the fit obtained using most recent data. We find that non-factorizable power corrections of the expected order of magnitude are sufficient to give a good description of current experimental data within the Standard Model. We discuss in detail the q 2 dependence of the corrections and their possible interpretation as shifts of the Standard Model Wilson coefficients.

  20. The 750 GeV diphoton resonance as an sgoldstino: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Byakti, Pritibhajan; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Sharma, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Among the various explanations of the possible 750 GeV diphoton resonance, the possibility of it being an sgoldstino is an attractive one, as it is related to the spontaneous breaking of global supersymmetry. We discuss this possibility in this paper and point out the various theoretical issues associated with it. In particular, we indicate the difficulties of this explanation in realistic models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking.

  1. Reappraisal of the limit on the variation in α implied by the Oklo natural fission reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Edward D.; Hamdan, Leila

    2015-07-01

    Background: A signature of many dynamical models of dark energy is that they admit variation in the fine structure constant α over cosmological time scales. Purpose: We reconsider the analysis of the sensitivity of neutron resonance energies Ei to changes in α with a view to resolving uncertainties that plague earlier treatments. Methods: We point out that with more appropriate choices of nuclear parameters, the standard estimate (from Damour and Dyson) of the sensitivity for resonances in Sm is increased by a factor of 2.5. We go on to identify and compute excitation, Coulomb, and deformation corrections. To this end, we use deformed Fermi density distributions fitted to the output of Hartree-Fock (HF) + BCS calculations (with both the SLy4 and SkM* Skyrme functionals), the energetics of the surface diffuseness of nuclei, and thermal properties of their deformation. We also invoke the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, performing the requisite microcanonical averages with two phenomenological level densities which, via the leptodermous expansion of the level density parameter, include the effect of increased surface diffuseness. Theoretical uncertainties are assessed with the inter-model prescription of Dobaczewski et al. [J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 41, 074001 (2014), 10.1088/0954-3899/41/7/074001]. Results: The corrections diminish the revised Sm sensitivity but not by more than 25%. Subject to a weak and testable restriction on the change in mq/Λ (relative to the change in α ) since the time when the Oklo reactors were active (mq is the average of the u and d current quark masses, and Λ is the mass scale of quantum chromodynamics), we deduce that | αOklo-αnow|<1.1 × 10-8αnow (95% confidence level). The corresponding bound on the present-day time variation of α is tighter than the best limit to date from atomic clock experiments. Conclusions: The order of magnitude of our Oklo bound on changes in α is reliable. It is one order of magnitude lower than the Oklo-based bound most commonly adopted in earlier attempts to identify phenomenologically successful models of α variation.

  2. Searching for new physics with Bs0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0 - A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; Imbeault, Maxime; London, David

    2012-10-01

    The effective phase 2 βseff can be extracted from the indirect CP-violating asymmetry in Bs0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0. In the standard model, 2 βseff is expected to vanish, and so its measurement can potentially reveal the presence of new physics. However, there is a theoretical error if the second amplitude, Vub* Vus Puc‧ , is non-negligible. Ciuchini, Pierini and Silvestrini (CPS) have suggested measuring Puc in Bd0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0, and relating it to Puc‧ using SU(3). For their choice of Cd and Sd, the direct and indirect CP asymmetries in Bd0→ K(*) 0Kbar (*) 0, they find that the error on 2 βseff is very small, even allowing for 100% SU(3) breaking. In this Letter, we re-examine the CPS method, allowing for a large range of the Bd,s0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0 observables. We find that, if √{ Cd2 + Sd2 } is measured to be ≲ 0.4- 0.5, the theoretical error on 2 βseff is indeed small, 2-3°. However, for other values of these observables, this error can be quite large, up to 14.9°. This problem can be ameliorated if the values of SU(3) breaking were known, and we discuss different experimental ways of determining this quantity.

  3. False and mycoplasma-contaminated leukemia-lymphoma cell lines: time for a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Hans G; Dirks, Wilhelm G; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Uphoff, Cord C

    2017-03-01

    Leukemia-lymphoma cell lines are important research tools in a variety of fields. To represent adequate model systems it is of utmost importance that cell lines faithfully model the primary tumor material and are not cross-contaminated with unrelated cell material (or contaminated with mycoplasma). As it has been previously reported that cross-contaminated cell lines represent a significant problem, it is of interest to know whether any improvement in the prevalence of such "false cell lines" had occurred since we called the alert in 1999. A retrospective review of our data archives covered 848 cell lines received from 1990 to 2014 from 290 laboratories in 23 countries spanning the spectrum of leukemia-lymphoma entities. Two variables were considered: authenticity and freedom from mycoplasma infection. Regarding provenance, we separately considered primary sources (original investigators having established the cell lines or reference repositories) and secondary sources. The percentages of mycoplasma-contaminated cell lines decreased significantly over the 25-year timespan. Among primary sourced material: mycoplasma-contamination fell from 23% to 0%; among secondary sourced: from 48% to 21%. The corresponding figures for cross-contamination declined from 15% to 6%, while among material obtained from secondary sources prevalence remained remarkably high, throughout the time periods at 14-18%. Taken together, our data indicate that using non-authenticated cell lines from secondary sources carries a risk of about 1:6 for obtaining a false cell line. The use of authentic leukemia-lymphoma cell lines holds important translational value for their model character and the reproducibility of the laboratory data in the clinical arena.

  4. Balint reassessed: the doctor, his patient, and the illness: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Sowerby, P

    1977-10-01

    Psychoanalytical theories seek to explain human behaviour. I believe that they are not scientific, whereas it appears that Balint thought they were. I suggest instead that they are better regarded as myths and part of an artistic discipline. Whereas most of the problems brought by patients to general practitioners can be understood in scientific terms, others can be understood only in artistic terms.These two terms reflect fundamentally different kinds of problems, and different language must be used to discuss them. Neither the two sets of terms nor the two kinds of problem can be confused without giving rise to error. I argue that Michael Balint came to a false conclusion about the nature of the general practitioner's task, about the way the problems posed by his difficult patients may be identified, and about some of the training doctors should receive.Balint's main contribution remains. He showed us that scientific skills alone are not enough if we are to understand our patients fully. He also showed us how a descriptive science of human behaviour in the consulting room was possible.To these insights must be added new understanding. Popper (1963) has provided us with a clear line of demarcation between science and the rest of our knowledge. This idea suggests that general practitioners should reaffirm the importance to them of the intellectual discipline of science. If they wish their understanding and practice to be comprehensive they must also affirm the importance of the arts. What they must not do is to confuse one with the other.

  5. Reappraisal of Regional Growth Charts in the Era of WHO Growth Standards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    After the WHO Growth Standards (WHOGS) was published in 2006, many countries in the world endorsed and adopted the new growth references as a standard measure for the growth of infants and young children. Certainly, the WHOGS has an impact on the global policy about obesity and underweight in children. Such WHOGS innovation has influenced many regional health authorities and academies, which have managed their own growth charts for a long time, in changing their strategies to develop and use regional growth charts. In Korea, along with the tradition to create a national growth chart every decade, we now face a new era of advancing with the WHOGS. PMID:24224146

  6. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of... extent of the relief to be afforded a petitioner pursuant to § 403.44 the value of the property with respect to which the petition has been allowed is the value of such property as determined by...

  7. A Reappraisal of the Purported Gastric Pellet with Pterosaurian Bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy

    PubMed Central

    Holgado, Borja; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio Marco; Fortuny, Josep; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    A small accumulation of bones from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Seazza Brook Valley (Carnic Prealps, Northern Italy) was originally (1989) identified as a gastric pellet made of pterosaur skeletal elements. The specimen has been reported in literature as one of the very few cases of gastric ejecta containing pterosaur bones since then. However, the detailed analysis of the bones preserved in the pellet, their study by X-ray microCT, and the comparison with those of basal pterosaurs do not support a referral to the Pterosauria. Comparison with the osteology of a large sample of Middle-Late Triassic reptiles shows some affinity with the protorosaurians, mainly with Langobardisaurus pandolfii that was found in the same formation as the pellet. However, differences with this species suggest that the bones belong to a similar but distinct taxon. The interpretation as a gastric pellet is confirmed. PMID:26560101

  8. CLASS D β-LACTAMASES: A RE-APPRAISAL AFTER FIVE DECADES

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, David A.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Powers, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Despite 70 years of clinical use, β-lactam antibiotics still remain at the forefront of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The major challenge to these life-saving therapeutics is the presence of bacterial enzymes (i.e., β-lactamases) that can hydrolyze the β-lactam bond and inactivate the antibiotic. These enzymes can be grouped into 4 classes (A-D). Among the most genetically diverse are the class D β-lactamases. In this class are β-lactamases that can inactivate the entire spectrum of β- lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems). Class D β-lactamases are mostly found in Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The active-sites of class D β-lactamases contain an unusual N-carboxylated lysine post-translational modification. A strongly hydrophobic active-site helps create the conditions that allow the lysine to combine with CO2, and the resulting carbamate is stabilized by a number of hydrogen bonds. The carboxy-lysine plays a symmetric role in the reaction, serving as a general base to activate the serine nucleophile in the acylation reaction, and the deacylating water in the second step. There are more than 250 class D β-lactamases described, and the full set of variants shows remarkable diversity with regard to substrate binding and turnover. Narrow-spectrum variants are most effective against the earliest generation penicillins and cephalosporins such as ampicillin and cephalothin. Extended-spectrum variants (also known as extended-spectrum β-lactamases, ESBLs) pose a more dangerous clinical threat as they possess a small number of substitutions that allow them to bind and hydrolyze later generation cephalosporins that contain bulkier side-chain constituents (eg. cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime). Mutations that permit this versatility seem to cluster in the area surrounding an active-site tryptophan resulting in a widened active-site to accommodate the oxyimino side-chains of these cephalosporins. More concerning are the class D β-lactamases that hydrolyze clinically-important carbapenem β-lactam drugs (e.g., imipenem). Whereas carbapenems irreversibly acylate and inhibit narrow- spectrum β-lactamases, class D carbapenemases are able to recruit and activate a deacylating water. The rotational orientation of the C6 hydroxyethyl group found on all carbapenem antibiotics likely plays a role in whether the deacylating water is effective or not. Inhibition of class D β-lactamases is a current challenge. Commercially available inhibitors that are active against other classes of β-lactamases are ineffective against class D enzymes. On the horizon are several compounds, consisting of both β-lactam derivatives and non-β-lactams, that have the potential of providing novel leads to design new mechanism-based inactivators that are effective against the class D enzymes. Several act synergistically when given in combination with a β-lactam antibiotic, and others show a unique mechanism of inhibition that is distinct from the traditional β-lactamase inhibitors. These studies will bolster structure-based inhibitor design efforts to facilitate the optimization and development of these compounds as class D inactivators. PMID:23902256

  9. Vulval and Vaginal Rhabdomyosarcoma in Children: Update and Reappraisal of Institut Gustave Roussy Brachytherapy Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Magne, Nicolas; Oberlin, Odile; Martelli, Helene; Gerbaulet, Alain; Chassagne, Daniel; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To report the Institut Gustave Roussy brachytherapy (BT) experience in the management of vulval and vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma with special emphasis on long-term outcome. Patients and Methods: Between 1971 and 2005, the data concerning 39 girls who had undergone BT as a part of their treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 39 girls, 20 had been treated before 1990, when the BT volume encompassed the initial tumor extension. After 1990, only residual disease was included in the BT volume. Side effects were classified using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: The median age was 16.3 months at diagnosis. Vaginal or vulvar rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed in 26 and 6 patients, respectively. The median follow-up was 8.4 years. The 5-year overall survival rate was 91%. Of the 39 patients, 6 developed a relapse. Of the 20 patients treated before 1990, 6 experienced Grade 1-2 renal/genitourinary function symptoms and 75% developed sequelae, in the form of vaginal or urethral sclerosis or stenosis. Four patients received follow-up treatment for psychological disorders. Of the 19 patients treated after 1990, 2 developed acute side effects, with maximal Grade 1-2 renal/genitourinary function symptoms, and 20% developed vaginal or urethral sclerosis or stenosis. Two cases of psychological disturbances were also documented. Conclusion: Reducing the BT volume coverage, better indications for surgery, and more efficient chemotherapy, all combined within a multidisciplinary approach, tended to improve results in terms of both survival and long-term sequelae.

  10. Reappraising Stress Arousal Improves Performance and Reduces Evaluation Anxiety in Classroom Exam Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Peters, Brett J.; Greenwood, Emily J.; Altose, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    For students to thrive in the U.S. educational system, they must successfully cope with omnipresent demands of exams. Nearly all students experience testing situations as stressful, and signs of stress (e.g., racing heart) are typically perceived negatively. This research tested the efficacy of a psychosituational intervention targeting cognitive…

  11. Reappraisal of the Immunogenicity and Safety of Three Hepatitis A Vaccines in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Hee; Kim, Han Wool; Ahn, Jong Gyun; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Although the overall incidence of hepatitis A in Korea has been decreasing, adolescents remain highly vulnerable to its outbreaks. This study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of three hepatitis A vaccines in Korean adolescents. Healthy anti-hepatitis A virus seronegative subjects aged 13 to 19 yr were randomized in three equal groups to receive two doses of Avaxim™, Epaxal®, or Havrix®, 6 to 12 months apart. Seroconversion rates one month after the first dose were 98%, 95%, and 93% for Avaxim™, Epaxal®, and Havrix®, respectively. Seroconversion rates reached 100% for all vaccine groups one month after the second dose. Anti-HAV geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 7,207.7 mIU/mL (95% CI, 6023.1-8684.7), 1,750.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1362.9-2248.3), and 1,953.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1459.4-2614.7) after two doses of Avaxim™, Epaxal®, and Havrix® respectively. Avaxim™ was significantly more immunogenic than Epaxal® and Havrix®, whereas there were no significant differences in antibody responses between Epaxal® and Havrix®. Local and systemic solicited adverse events (AEs) were mostly of mild-to-moderate intensity and resolved within 5 days. No serious AEs were reported. In conclusion, all three vaccines are highly immunogenic and well-tolerated in Korean adolescents. (Clinical Trial Registry NCT00483470).

  12. Chloroplast DNA in Mature and Senescing Leaves: A Reappraisal[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Greiner, Stephan; Wanner, Gerhard; Weihe, Andreas; Bock, Ralph; Börner, Thomas; Herrmann, Reinhold G.

    2014-01-01

    The fate of plastid DNA (ptDNA) during leaf development has become a matter of contention. Reports on little change in ptDNA copy number per cell contrast with claims of complete or nearly complete DNA loss already in mature leaves. We employed high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, semithin sectioning of leaf tissue, and real-time quantitative PCR to study structural and quantitative aspects of ptDNA during leaf development in four higher plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, sugar beet [Beta vulgaris], tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum], and maize [Zea mays]) for which controversial findings have been reported. Our data demonstrate the retention of substantial amounts of ptDNA in mesophyll cells until leaf necrosis. In ageing and senescent leaves of Arabidopsis, tobacco, and maize, ptDNA amounts remain largely unchanged and nucleoids visible, in spite of marked structural changes during chloroplast-to-gerontoplast transition. This excludes the possibility that ptDNA degradation triggers senescence. In senescent sugar beet leaves, reduction of ptDNA per cell to ∼30% was observed reflecting primarily a decrease in plastid number per cell rather than a decline in DNA per organelle, as reported previously. Our findings are at variance with reports claiming loss of ptDNA at or after leaf maturation. PMID:24668747

  13. Sequential developmental programmes for retractor muscles of a caenogastropod: reappraisal of evolutionary homologues

    PubMed Central

    Page, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in the development of shell-attached retractor muscles in gastropods are of fundamental importance to theories about the early evolution and subsequent diversification of this molluscan class. Development of the shell-attached retractor muscle (columellar muscle) in a caenogastropod has been studied at the ultrastructural level to test the hypothesis of homology with the post-torsional left retractor muscle (larval velar retractor) in vetigastropod larvae. The vetigastropod muscle has been implicated in the generation of ontogenetic torsion, a morphogenetic twist between body regions that is important to theories about early gastropod evolution. Two shell-attached retractor muscles develop sequentially in the caenogastropod, Polinices lewisii, which is a pattern that has been also identified in previous ultrastructural studies on a vetigastropod and several nudibranch gastropods. The pattern may be a basal and conserved characteristic of gastropods. I found that the first-formed retractor in larvae of P. lewisii is comparable to the larval velar retractor that exists at the time of ontogenetic torsion in the vetigastropod, Haliotis kamtschatkana. However, the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii is derived exclusively from part of the second-formed muscle, which is comparable to the second-formed pedal muscle system in the vetigastropod. I conclude that the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii, is not homologous to the larval velar retractor of the vetigastropod, H. kamtschatkana.

  14. The topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in localized neuropathic pain: a reappraisal of the clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    de León-Casasola, Oscar A; Mayoral, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Topical 5% lidocaine medicated plasters represent a well-established first-line option for the treatment of peripheral localized neuropathic pain (LNP). This review provides an updated overview of the clinical evidence (randomized, controlled, and open-label clinical studies, real-life daily clinical practice, and case series). The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster effectively provides pain relief in postherpetic neuralgia, and data from a large open-label controlled study indicate that the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is as effective as systemic pregabalin in postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic polyneuropathy but with an improved tolerability profile. Additionally, improved analgesia and fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated synchronously with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, further demonstrating the value of multimodal analgesia in LNP. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster provides continued benefit after long-term (≤7 years) use and is also effective in various other LNP conditions. Minor application-site reactions are the most common adverse events associated with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster; there is minimal risk of systemic adverse events and drug–drug interactions. Although further well-controlled studies are warranted, the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is efficacious and safe in LNP and may have particular clinical benefit in elderly and/or medically compromised patients because of the low incidence of adverse events. PMID:26929664

  15. Quantitative Reappraisal of the Helmholtz-Guyton Resonance Theory of Frequency Tuning in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Babbs, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the fundamental biomechanics of sound frequency transduction in the cochlea, a two-dimensional analytical model of the basilar membrane was constructed from first principles. Quantitative analysis showed that axial forces along the membrane are negligible, condensing the problem to a set of ordered one-dimensional models in the radial dimension, for which all parameters can be specified from experimental data. Solutions of the radial models for asymmetrical boundary conditions produce realistic deformation patterns. The resulting second-order differential equations, based on the original concepts of Helmholtz and Guyton, and including viscoelastic restoring forces, predict a frequency map and amplitudes of deflections that are consistent with classical observations. They also predict the effects of an observation hole drilled in the surrounding bone, the effects of curvature of the cochlear spiral, as well as apparent traveling waves under a variety of experimental conditions. A quantitative rendition of the classical Helmholtz-Guyton model captures the essence of cochlear mechanics and unifies the competing resonance and traveling wave theories. PMID:22028708

  16. Plausibility Reappraisals and Shifts in Middle School Students' Climate Change Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plausibility is a central but under-examined topic in conceptual change research. Climate change is an important socio-scientific topic; however, many view human-induced climate change as implausible. When learning about climate change, students need to make plausibility judgments but they may not be sufficiently critical or reflective. The…

  17. Oral Midazolam Sedation For Uncooperative Children In Outpatient Paedodontics: Time For Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Aditi; Jain, Kajal; Goyal, A; Mahoney, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Sedation is frequently desired to facilitate dental procedures in uncooperative paediatric patients. Oromucosal Midazolam sedation is a popular choice among paediatric dentists world wide due to its many advantages such as ease of administration, good efficacy, presence of reversal agents and a wide margin of safety. On the other hand, many investigators have reported that midazolam sedation may not be successful for carrying out all types of dental procedures. This may be attributed to diverse nature of various treatment plans coupled with the extent of behavioural changes in the child and operator's experience. Due to the heterogeneity involved in treatment of paediatric dental procedures, the specific indications for oral midazolam use that ensure its success rate, probably need to be defined. This may enable the clinicians to have a convenient and quicker option for managing the cases rather than facing sedation failure or at times, ending up giving general anaesthetics. This article therefore brings forth the possible causes of midazolam sedation failure and proposes a 'case selection criterion'.

  18. Mutation and mutation rates at Y chromosome specific Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRs): a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Nádia; Gusmão, Leonor; Amorim, António

    2014-03-01

    Mutation is a topic of intense research and raises important problems in forensics. Since the markers of choice in current forensic genetics analyses are microsatellites or Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRs), mutation is sufficiently common to cause difficulties in evaluating DNA evidence in a significant proportion of cases but at the same time rare enough to turn the estimation of the corresponding probability of occurrence into a hard task. We address these issues using the simplest model of transmission: the Y chromosome specific STRs. Within this model, and under an explicit set of definitions and involved assumptions, we developed the theoretical framework required for the study of allelic transitions in gametogenesis, identifying the required parameters and associated probabilities and finally we discuss the estimation of these parameters and their application in forensics. We conclude that (i) for forensic casework the relevant parameter for incorporation in a likelihood ratio is biallelic specific (i.e. the mutation rate estimate corresponds to the probability of the specific allelic transition observed) and (ii) for these estimates as well as in order to provide data for testing mutation models the absolute frequency of mutated and non-mutated transmissions per allele, along with the description of the observed mutations should be reported.

  19. Ethylene oxide does not extinguish the osteoinductive capacity of demineralized bone. A reappraisal in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Cornu, O; Delloye, C

    1997-04-01

    We examined the influence of ethylene oxide (EO) and gamma irradiation on the osteoinductive capacity of demineralized bone. Demineralized bone powder prepared from Wistar rats was exposed to EO (55 degrees C or 40 degrees C) or gamma irradiation (25 KGy) or was preserved in ethanol. Sterilely-prepared bones served as controls. The powder was packed in a gelatin capsule and implanted for 6 weeks in muscles of 6-week-old female rats. Exposure of demineralized bone particles to EO 55 degrees C resulted in an almost complete loss of osteoinductivity. Irradiated bones lost about 40% of their osteoinductive capacity, while sterilization with EO at 40 degrees C resulted in only a slight alteration of the osteoinductivity, as assessed by the recovered weight ratio, calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity measurements and histomorphometry. Ethanol treatment had no influence on the new bone yield when compared to controls. As EO exposure at 40 degrees C is a true sterilization procedure, it can be recommended in a clinical setting for its small effect on osteoinductive capacity as assessed experimentally in rats.

  20. How Does Stroop Interference Change with Practice? A Reappraisal from the Musical Stroop Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grégoire, Laurent; Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Most earlier studies investigating the evolution of the Stroop effect with the amount of reading practice have reported data consistent with an inverted U-shaped curve, whereby the Stroop effect appears early during reading acquisition, reaches a peak after 2 or 3 years of practice, and then continuously decreases until adulthood. The downward…

  1. A taxonomic and phylogenetic re-appraisal of the genus Curvularia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Curvularia are important plant and human pathogens worldwide. In this study, the genus Curvularia is re-assessed based on molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphological observations of available isolates and specimens. A multi-gene phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS, TEF and GPDH gene...

  2. Removal of urea in a wearable dialysis device: a reappraisal of electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wester, Maarten; Simonis, Frank; Lachkar, Nadia; Wodzig, Will K; Meuwissen, Frank J; Kooman, Jeroen P; Boer, Walther H; Joles, Jaap A; Gerritsen, Karin G

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for a wearable dialysis device is removal of urea, as urea is difficult to adsorb while daily production is very high. Electro-oxidation (EO) seems attractive because electrodes are durable, small, and inexpensive. We studied the efficacy of urea oxidation, generation of chlorine by-products, and their removal by activated carbon (AC). EO units were designed. Three electrode materials (platinum, ruthenium oxide, and graphite) were compared in single pass experiments using urea in saline solution. Chlorine removal by AC in series with EO by graphite electrodes was tested. Finally, urea-spiked bovine blood was dialyzed and dialysate was recirculated in a dialysate circuit with AC in series with an EO unit containing graphite electrodes. Platinum electrodes degraded more urea (21 ± 2 mmol/h) than ruthenium oxide (13 ± 2 mmol/h) or graphite electrodes (13 ± 1 mmol/h). Chlorine generation was much lower with graphite (13 ± 4 mg/h) than with platinum (231 ± 22 mg/h) or ruthenium oxide electrodes (129 ± 12 mg/h). Platinum and ruthenium oxide electrodes released platinum (4.1 [3.9-8.1] umol/h) and ruthenium (83 [77-107] nmol/h), respectively. AC potently reduced dialysate chlorine levels to < 0.10 mg/L. Urea was removed from blood by EO at constant rate (9.5 ± 1.0 mmol/h). EO by graphite electrodes combined with AC shows promising urea removal and chlorine release complying with Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards, and may be worth further exploring for dialysate regeneration in a wearable system.

  3. Toward a Reappraisal of Foreign Language Instruction, or Can Culture Kill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollerbach, Wolf

    The current crisis in foreign language instruction is largely the result of a general disillusionment with methods, objectives, and achievements, in fact with the whole philosophy that has determined foreign language programs in the U.S. for the last 15-20 years. Today, the primary goal of foreign language instruction must be reemphasized. This…

  4. The orbit: A re-appraisal of the surgical landmarks of the medial and lateral walls.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jisoo; Pather, Nalini

    2016-11-01

    The anterior ethmoidal foramen (AEF) and posterior ethmoidal foramina (AEF and PEF, respectively) on the medial wall and the cranio-orbital foramen (COF) on the lateral wall are used as landmarks in orbital surgeries. In surgery these foramina, the neurovascular structures they transmit and other orbital structures in close proximity need to be identified to minimise their risk of damage. Despite the clinical importance, the current understandings lack consistency in the precise location, microanatomy and morphology of the foramina. This study therefore aimed to document and analyze the microanatomy, location, and morphometric relations of the EF and COF to determine a standardized guideline to accessing the foramina. One hundred dry orbits were morphometrically analyzed, and a further six orbits were micro-dissected to determine the locations of the EF and COF. The orbital size dimensions were measured for each dry orbit and correlated with the morphometric distances. A complete morphometric and quantitative analysis showed the distances of the EF and COF to be variable, with greater variations observed in the incidence of the accessory EF and PEF distances in the medial wall, and in the presence of the COF and the accessory COF in the lateral orbital wall. Significant correlations were observed between the length of the medial orbital wall and some EF distances. This study is the first to suggest a standardized method of locating these foramina in the orbit irrespective of population and sex differences, in order to help improve clinical applications in crucial orbital surgeries. Clin. Anat. 29:998-1010, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. "Melanocytic Nests Arising in Lichenoid Inflammation": Reappraisal of the Terminology "Melanocytic Pseudonests".

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Jin; Simkin, A David; Bhawan, Jag; Wolpowitz, Deon

    2015-12-01

    Pseudonests or pseudomelanocytic nests represent aggregates of cells and cell fragments, including keratinocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and occasional melanocytes. Pseudomelanocytic nests in the setting of lichenoid inflammation can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations. Several reports documented nonspecific staining of pseudonests with melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, which can be detected in the cytoplasm of nonmelanocytic cells. In contrast, nuclear stains, such as MITF and SOX10, avoid this nonmelanocyte cytoplasmic staining. The authors have previously proposed the term melanocytic pseudonests to describe junctional nests with numerous (>2) true melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, SOX10, and MITF in a nonmelanocytic lesion with lichenoid inflammation (unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus/erythema dyschromicum perstans). In this study, the authors report another case of this phenomenon arising in a different lichenoid inflammatory dermatitis (lichen planus). The immunophenotype and number of clustered true melanocytes indicate that these dermoepidermal aggregates represent true melanocytic nests and not pseudonests of any type. Therefore, the authors propose the revised terminology of "melanocytic nests arising in lichenoid inflammation" to describe this novel pattern of benign melanocytic reorganization or proliferation in a subset of lichenoid dermatitides. Because this phenomenon can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations, clinicopathologic correlation is essential for the correct diagnosis.

  6. “Melanocytic Nests Arising in Lichenoid Inflammation”: Reappraisal of the Terminology “Melanocytic Pseudonests”

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hye Jin; Simkin, A. David; Bhawan, Jag

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Pseudonests or pseudomelanocytic nests represent aggregates of cells and cell fragments, including keratinocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and occasional melanocytes. Pseudomelanocytic nests in the setting of lichenoid inflammation can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations. Several reports documented nonspecific staining of pseudonests with melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, which can be detected in the cytoplasm of nonmelanocytic cells. In contrast, nuclear stains, such as MITF and SOX10, avoid this nonmelanocyte cytoplasmic staining. The authors have previously proposed the term melanocytic pseudonests to describe junctional nests with numerous (>2) true melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, SOX10, and MITF in a nonmelanocytic lesion with lichenoid inflammation (unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus/erythema dyschromicum perstans). In this study, the authors report another case of this phenomenon arising in a different lichenoid inflammatory dermatitis (lichen planus). The immunophenotype and number of clustered true melanocytes indicate that these dermoepidermal aggregates represent true melanocytic nests and not pseudonests of any type. Therefore, the authors propose the revised terminology of “melanocytic nests arising in lichenoid inflammation” to describe this novel pattern of benign melanocytic reorganization or proliferation in a subset of lichenoid dermatitides. Because this phenomenon can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations, clinicopathologic correlation is essential for the correct diagnosis. PMID:26588340

  7. Research in hand osteoarthritis: time for reappraisal and demand for new strategies. An opinion paper

    PubMed Central

    Kloppenburg, Margreet; Stamm, Tanja; Watt, Iain; Kainberger, Franz; Cawston, Tim E; Birrell, Fraser N; Petersson, Ingemar F; Saxne, Tore; Kvien, Tore K; Slatkowsky‐Christensen, Barbara; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Smolen, Josef S

    2007-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the hands is a prevalent musculoskeletal disease with a considerable effect on patients' lives, but knowledge and research results in the field of hand osteoarthritis are limited. Therefore, the Disease Characteristics in Hand OA (DICHOA) initiative was founded in early 2005 with the aim of addressing key issues and facilitating research into hand osteoarthritis. Objective To review and discuss current knowledge on hand osteoarthritis with regard to aetiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, biomarkers and clinical outcome measures. Methods Recommendations were made based on a literature review. Results Outcomes of hand osteoarthritis should be explored, including patient perspective on the separate components of disease activity, damage and functioning. All imaging techniques should be cross‐validated for hand osteoarthritis with clinical status, including disease activity, function and performance, biomarkers and long‐term outcome. New imaging modalities are available and need scoring systems and validation. The role of biomarkers in hand osteoarthritis has to be defined. Conclusion Future research in hand osteoarthritis is warranted. PMID:17360780

  8. Canities Subita: A Reappraisal of Evidence Based on 196 Case Reports Published in the Medical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Michael; Navarini, Alexander A; Kelly, Emily Williams

    2013-01-01

    We have reviewed the medical literature on unusually rapid Canities of body hair to assess whether the reported clinical evidence can be explained with the current hypotheses of pathogenetic mechanisms. We screened the medical literature from 1800 onward, searching for as many case reports as possible. We assessed literature in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian and Spanish and included all cases, which contained an explicit mention or description of unusually rapid graying or whitening of hair. Case reports were classified into three categories: Cases are “authenticated” when the authors personally observed the rapid color change, “non-authenticated” when they saw the subject only after the alleged color change and “anecdotal” when authors were told about the case by a third party. In total, we found 196 cases of which 44 were authenticated. These studies reported the graying of human hair in the context of aging, somatic diseases, emotional trauma or stress and psychiatric disorders. Numerous cases involved not only scalp hair, but also beards, eyelashes and other body hair. Several authors stressed that there was no alopecia. Although plausible explanations exist to explain Canities subita occurring together with an effluvium, the observation of viable hair losing color along the axis within a timespan shorter than its growth rate remain as yet unexplained. PMID:24403766

  9. Resting state respiration of mitochondria: reappraisal of the role of passive ion fluxes.

    PubMed

    Zółkiewska, A; Zabłocka, B; Duszyński, J; Wojtczak, L

    1989-12-01

    Rat liver mitochondria respiring under resting state conditions in the presence of oligomycin were rapidly blocked with cyanide and the dissipation of the membrane potential, measured with a tetraphenylphosphonium-sensitive electrode, was followed over time. The plot of the rate of membrane potential dissipation versus the actual value of the membrane potential was nonlinear and identical to the plot of resting state respiration (titrated with small amounts of a respiratory inhibitor) versus the membrane potential. The relationship between the respiratory chain activity and the proton-motive force in mitochondria oxidizing succinate with either oxygen or ferricyanide as electron acceptors was also found to be identical. These results are interpreted as an indication that the passive permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane toward ions is far more significant in maintaining resting state respiration than is the molecular slippage of the pumps in the respiratory chain. These results also confirm the non-ohmic characteristics of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  10. A systematic review of contemporary trials of anticoagulants in orthopaedic thromboprophylaxis: suggestions for a radical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Noel C; Siegal, Deborah; Lauw, Mandy N; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S; Eikelboom, John W; Guyatt, Gordon H; Hirsh, Jack

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, major advances in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery have included the development of new anticoagulants that are poised to replace low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and improvements in operative and perioperative care that have likely led to a decline in the rates of symptomatic VTE and mortality independent of anticoagulant use. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify phase III randomized controlled trials of VTE prevention that compared new anticoagulants (fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) with LMWH (enoxaparin) in major elective orthopaedic surgery. Our aims were to obtain best estimates of the rates of patient important events (symptomatic VTE, mortality, and bleeding) in contemporary trials of VTE prevention, and to consider the implications of these contemporary rates for clinical practice and future research. Fourteen studies, which enrolled 40,285 patients, were included in the analyses. The combined median rates (ranges) for all five anticoagulants for symptomatic VTE and mortality to the end of follow-up were 0.99 % (0.15-2.58 %) and 0.26 % (0-0.92 %) respectively, whereas the median rate (range) of clinically important bleeding was 3.44 % (2.25-7.74 %). In contemporary trials of anticoagulants, the rates of symptomatic VTE and mortality are low, but the rates of clinically important post-operative bleeding remain relatively high. Based on these results, we propose that approaches that minimize bleeding without substantially reducing efficacy merit investigation, particularly if improvement in surgical and perioperative care have also resulted in falling baseline patient important VTE rates independent of anticoagulant use.

  11. Rural Development: Patchwork of Federal Programs Needs To Be Reappraised. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    This report identifies factors that influence a rural area's economic success or failure, and evaluates whether federal programs efficiently address rural economic problems. Data collection included a review of federal programs that provide funding to rural areas, and interviews with federal and state agency officials involved with rural…

  12. Timing of Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: A Need for Reappraisal?

    PubMed Central

    deSouza, Ruth-Mary; Moro, Elena; Lang, Anthony E; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2013-01-01

    We review the current application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) and consider the evidence that earlier use of DBS confers long-term symptomatic benefit for patients compared to best medical therapy. Electronic searches were performed of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all article types relating to the timing of DBS in PD. Current evidence suggests that DBS is typically performed in late stage PD, a mean of 14 to 15 years after diagnosis. Current guidelines recommend that PD patients who are resistant to medical therapies, have significant medication side effects and lengthening off periods, but are otherwise cognitively intact and medically fit for surgery be considered for DBS. If these criteria are rigidly interpreted, it may be that, by the time medical treatment options have been exhausted, the disease has progressed to the point that the patient may no longer be fit for neurosurgical intervention. From the evidence available, we conclude that surgical management of PD alone or in combination with medical therapy results in greater improvement of motor symptoms and quality of life than medical treatment alone. There is evidence to support the use of DBS in less advanced PD and that it may be appropriate for earlier stages of the disease than for which it is currently used. The improving short and long-term safety profile of DBS makes early application a realistic possibility. Ann Neurol 2013;73:565–575 PMID:23483564

  13. Reappraisal of Primary Balloon Angioplasty without Stenting for Patients with Symptomatic Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Hideo; TERADA, Tomoaki; TANAKA, Yuko; TOMURA, Nagatsuki; KONO, Kenichi; YOSHIMURA, Ryo; SHINTANI, Aki

    2015-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the safety and efficacy of intracranial stenting. We describe our experience with primary balloon angioplasty without stenting for symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. All patients who underwent balloon angioplasty without stenting for MCA stenosis between 1996 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated technical success rates, degrees of stenosis, and stroke or death within 30 days. Among patients who were followed-up for > 1 year we evaluated latest functional outcomes, stroke recurrence at 1 year, and restenosis. In total 45/47 patients (95.7%) were successfully treated. Average pre- and postprocedure stenosis rates were 79.9% and 39.5%, respectively. Three neurological complications occurred within 30 days: one thromboembolism during the procedure; one lacunar infarction; and one fatal intraparenchymal hemorrhage after the procedure. Stroke or death rate within 30 days was 6.4%. Thirty-three patients were available for follow-up analysis with a mean period of 51.5 months. The combined rate of stroke or death within 30 days and ipsilateral ischemic stroke of the followed-up patients within 1 year beyond 30 days was 9.4%. Restenosis was observed in 26.9% of patients and all remained asymptomatic. In our retrospective series, balloon angioplasty without stenting was a safe, effective modality for symptomatic MCA stenosis. For patients refractory to medical therapy, primary balloon angioplasty may offer a better supplemental treatment option. PMID:25746307

  14. Quantitative reappraisal of the helmholtz-guyton resonance theory of frequency tuning in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Babbs, Charles F

    2011-01-01

    To explore the fundamental biomechanics of sound frequency transduction in the cochlea, a two-dimensional analytical model of the basilar membrane was constructed from first principles. Quantitative analysis showed that axial forces along the membrane are negligible, condensing the problem to a set of ordered one-dimensional models in the radial dimension, for which all parameters can be specified from experimental data. Solutions of the radial models for asymmetrical boundary conditions produce realistic deformation patterns. The resulting second-order differential equations, based on the original concepts of Helmholtz and Guyton, and including viscoelastic restoring forces, predict a frequency map and amplitudes of deflections that are consistent with classical observations. They also predict the effects of an observation hole drilled in the surrounding bone, the effects of curvature of the cochlear spiral, as well as apparent traveling waves under a variety of experimental conditions. A quantitative rendition of the classical Helmholtz-Guyton model captures the essence of cochlear mechanics and unifies the competing resonance and traveling wave theories.

  15. Reappraisal of the historic 1959 cat experiment in Minamata by the Chisso Factory.

    PubMed

    Eto, K; Yasutake, A; Nakano, A; Akagi, H; Tokunaga, H; Kojima, T

    2001-08-01

    Autopsy specimens from the historic cat experiment were recently discovered in a storage area at the Kumamoto University School of Medicine. The specimens were from an experiment prompted by physicians in the Chisso Minamata Plant following the announcement made by the Study Group for Minamata disease. On July 14, 1959 the Group announced that the disease was most likely caused by a kind of organic mercury. In order to prove or disprove that industrial waste from the Chisso Factory was the culprit in Minamata disease, a total of ten cats were fed food mixed with industrial waste produced in the acetaldehyde-producing plant. One of the ten cats, No. 717, was subsequently autopsied but the autopsy findings have never been published or recorded in the literature despite their historic significance. The rediscovered specimens were studied pathologically and biochemically, and were analyzed chemically with currently available techniques. Characteristic lesions of methylmercury poisoning were observed in the central nervous system, and the mercury levels in the cerebrum, cerebellum, liver and kidney were found to be markedly elevated in this animal.

  16. Reappraisal of disparities between osmolality estimates by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit methods.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J

    2004-02-15

    As a response to recent expression of concern about possible unreliability of vapor pressure deficit measurements (K. Kiyosawa, Biophys. Chem. 104 (2003) 171-188), the results of published studies on the temperature dependence of the osmotic pressure of aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions are shown to account for the observed discrepancies between osmolality estimates obtained by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit osmometry--the cause of the concern.

  17. Resurrecting Van Leeuwenhoek's rotifers: a reappraisal of the role of disaccharides in anhydrobiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Tunnacliffe, A; Lapinski, J

    2003-01-01

    In 1702, Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis in a species of bdelloid rotifer, Philodina roseola. It is the purpose of this review to examine what has been learned since then about the extreme desiccation tolerance in rotifers and how this compares with our understanding of anhydrobiosis in other organisms. Remarkably, much of what is known today about the requirements for successful anhydrobiosis, and the degree of biostability conferred by the dry state, was already determined in principle by the time of Spallanzani in the late 18th century. Most modern research on anhydrobiosis has emphasized the importance of the non-reducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose, one or other sugar being present at high concentrations during desiccation of anhydrobiotic nematodes, brine shrimp cysts, bakers' yeast, resurrection plants and plant seeds. These sugars are proposed to act as water replacement molecules, and as thermodynamic and kinetic stabilizers of biomolecules and membranes. In apparent contradiction of the prevailing models, recent experiments from our laboratory show that bdelloid rotifers undergo anhydrobiosis without producing trehalose or any analogous molecule. This has prompted us to critically re-examine the association of disaccharides with anhydrobiosis in the literature. Surprisingly, current hypotheses are based almost entirely on in vitro data: there is very limited information which is more than simply correlative in the literature on living systems. In many species, disaccharide accumulation occurs at approximately the same time as desiccation tolerance is acquired. However, several studies indicate that these sugars are not sufficient for anhydrobiosis; furthermore, there is no conclusive evidence, through mutagenesis or functional knockout experiments, for example, that sugars are necessary for anhydrobiosis. Indeed, some plant seeds and micro-organisms, like the rotifer, exhibit excellent desiccation tolerance in the absence of high intracellular sugar concentrations. Accordingly, it seems appropriate to call for a re-evaluation of our understanding of anhydrobiosis and to embark on new experimental programmes to determine the key molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:14561331

  18. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    PubMed

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  19. Essential Psychoanalysis: Toward a Re-Appraisal of the Relationship between Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Bhaskar

    2015-09-01

    Freud stated that any line of investigation which recognizes transference and resistance, regardless of its results, was entitled to call itself psychoanalysis (Freud, 1914a, p. 16). Separately he wrote that psychoanalysis was the science of unconscious mental processes (Freud, 1925, p. 70). Combining these two ideas defines Essential Psychoanalysis: Any line of treatment, theory, or science which recognizes the facts of unconscious, transference, or resistance, and takes them as the starting point of its work, regardless of its results, is psychoanalysis. Freud formulated two conflicting definitions of psychoanalysis: Essential Psychoanalysis, applicable to all analysts regardless of their individuality and Extensive Psychoanalysis, modeled on his individuality. They differ in how psychoanalytic technique is viewed. For Essential Psychoanalysis, flexible recommendations constitute psychoanalytic technique, whereas for Extensive Psychoanalysis, rules constitute a key part of psychoanalytic technique.

  20. Mechanistic Reappraisal of Early Stage Photochemistry in the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Derren J.; Hardman, Samantha J. O.; Mansell, David; Gardiner, John M.; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2012-01-01

    The light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). This reaction is a key step in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Ultrafast photochemical processes within the Pchlide molecule are required for catalysis and previous studies have suggested that a short-lived excited-state species, known as I675*, is the first catalytic intermediate in the reaction and is essential for capturing excitation energy to drive subsequent hydride and proton transfers. The chemical nature of the I675* excited state species and its role in catalysis are not known. Here, we report time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy measurements to study the involvement of the I675* intermediate in POR photochemistry. We show that I675* is not unique to the POR-catalyzed photoreduction of Pchlide as it is also formed in the absence of the POR enzyme. The I675* species is only produced in samples that contain both Pchlide substrate and Chlide product and its formation is dependent on the pump excitation wavelength. The rate of formation and the quantum yield is maximized in 50∶50 mixtures of the two pigments (Pchlide and Chlide) and is caused by direct energy transfer between Pchlide and neighboring Chlide molecules, which is inhibited in the polar solvent methanol. Consequently, we have re-evaluated the mechanism for early stage photochemistry in the light-driven reduction of Pchlide and propose that I675* represents an excited state species formed in Pchlide-Chlide dimers, possibly an excimer. Contrary to previous reports, we conclude that this excited state species has no direct mechanistic relevance to the POR-catalyzed reduction of Pchlide. PMID:23049830

  1. The Northern Cheyenne Exodus: A Reappraisal of the Army’s Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    called Cheyenne Outbreak, as it was called at the time. Ironically, the Northern Cheyenne either forced the withdrawal of, or escaped, every...Structure, and Tribal Split In their native language, the Cheyenne call themselves Tsistsista, which means “the People.” Cheyenne is a derivative of...the Sioux word shahiyena, meaning “red talkers,” or “people of alien speech.1 The Sioux called people they could better understand, “white talkers.”2

  2. Education and State Formation Reappraised--Chinese School Identity in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2007-01-01

    After World War II the Singapore government, wishing to blend the island's several ethnic communities into a national whole, endeavored to replace Chinese schools, which imparted students with cultural-linguistic traits sharply different from those promoted in other schools. This policy, nevertheless, elicited tough resistance from Singapore's…

  3. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  4. Regulation of the ecdysteroid titer of Manduca sexta: reappraisal of the role of the prothoracic glands.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J T; Sakurai, S; Rountree, D B; Gilbert, L I; Lee, S S; Nakanishi, K

    1988-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the prothoracic glands of insects produce ecdysone, which is converted by a 20-monooxygenase in peripheral tissues to the major molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Incubation in vitro of the prothoracic glands of larval or pupal Manduca sexta in the presence of a hemolymph protein fraction (HPF) increased the ecdysteroid content of the medium almost 8-fold. A comparable increase was noted when HPF was added to medium preconditioned with prothoracic glands but from which the glands had been removed. We used a differential RIA to show that a major product of the prothoracic glands in vitro cross-reacts with antiserum (20-hydroxyecdysone-2-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-2) that retains affinity to ecdysteroids having a modified A ring. However, this product did not bind to antiserum (ecdysone-22-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-22) that has affinity mainly for ecdysteroids modified at the side chain. We employed radiolabeled precursor studies with prothoracic glands in vitro and a combination of analytical techniques (NMR, CD, MS) to demonstrate that the major ecdysteroid release from the glands is a mixture of 2-dehydroecdysone and 3-dehydroecdysone (1:2), which is rapidly reduced to ecdysone in the presence of HPF. We postulate that the active component of HPF is 3 beta 3 beta (2 beta)-formin-3(2)-ketoecdysteroid reductase. These results may explain several anomalous observations pertaining to the molting of insect fragments in the absence of prothoracic glands and suggest a complex system for the control of insect molting and metamorphosis. PMID:3422473

  5. The use of amalgam in pediatric dentistry: new insights and reappraising the tradition.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Anna B

    2015-01-01

    The debate on amalgam led to its being phased out in some countries. Results of clinical trials report failure rates of amalgams ranging from 12 percent to over 70 percent. Treatment of caries should meet the needs of each particular patient, based on his/her caries risk. In general, for small occlusal lesions, a conservative preventive resin restoration would be more appropriate than the classic Class I amalgam preparation. For proximal lesions, amalgam would be indicated for two-surface Class II preparations that do not extend beyond the line angles of primary teeth. This recommendation might not be appropriate for high-risk patients or restoring primary first molars in children four years old and younger where stainless steel crowns have demonstrated better longevity. Currently, amalgam demonstrates the best clinical success for Class II restorations that extend beyond the proximal line angles of permanent molars. The need to reduce the use of amalgam as a mercury-containing material is inevitable when aiming to reduce environmental contamination. It is important always to praise prevention and constantly search for biologically safe materials regarding health, clinical work, and environment. The purpose of this report was to summarize several factors that affect the effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages of using dental amalgam in primary teeth.

  6. Basal cell carcinoma vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Webb, David V; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Verduin, Lindsey; Brill, Louis B; Wick, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    Typical cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are morphologically dissimilar. It is well known, however, that poorly differentiated SCC may assume a basaloid phenotype, complicating the histologic distinction between these 2 neoplasms. Selected immunohistochemical stains have been used in the past to aid in that differential diagnosis. In the current study, additional markers were evaluated to determine whether they would be helpful in that regard. Twenty-nine cases of metatypical (squamoid) BCC (MBCC) and 25 examples of basaloid SCC (BSCC) were studied using the antibodies Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 as well as a plant lectin preparation from Ulex europaeus I (UEA-1). The resulting immunostains were interpreted independently by 3 pathologists, and the results showed that MBCCs demonstrated strong and diffuse staining for Ber-EP4 (25/29) and MOC-31 (29/29). In contrast, BSCCs tended to be only sporadically reactive for both markers (4/25 and 1/25 cases, respectively). Labeling for UEA-1 was observed in almost all BSCCs (24/25), but only 6 of 29 cases of MBCC showed limited, focal staining with that lectin. These data suggest that MOC-31 is a useful marker in the specified differential diagnosis, especially when used together with UEA-1.

  7. Reappraising FDR’s Approach to World War II in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Strategy in a Certain Eventuality,” May 25, 1940, W.P. 40(168), CAB 66/7, Public Record Office, Kew . 12 Draft of Roosevelt’s Message to Congress...Diaries, FDRL. 23 Robert Murphy, Diplomat Among Warriors ( Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1964), 68. 24 Franklin D. Roosevelt to Harry

  8. Reappraisal of twinning: epidemiology and outcome in the early neonatal period

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Goel, Neerja; Zaidi, Zeashan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology, maternal complications and adverse neonatal outcomes associated with twin births at a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS A prospective observational study was conducted on all successively born twin pairs (≥ 23 weeks of gestation) and their mothers from January to September 2005. Main outcome measures included maternal medical/obstetric complications, labour characteristics and the morbidities/mortality observed during the early neonatal period. RESULTS The twinning rate was 1 in 54 deliveries. Around 10% of mothers had a predisposition for twinning in the form of familial tendency or consumption of clomiphene. Anaemia (85%) was the most common maternal complication, followed by gestational hypertension (17%). Nearly one-third of births were delivered via Caesarean section. Prematurity (61%) was the most common neonatal complication followed by early-onset neonatal sepsis (21%). The risk of early neonatal death was 27%. Shorter gestation and low birth weight were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcome (p < 0.05). Factors such as chorionicity, mode of delivery, birth order, inter-twin delivery time interval, gender and intra-pair birth weight discordance did not affect neonatal morbidity or mortality (p ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSION The rates of maternal complications and early neonatal morbidities/mortality were quite high in twin gestations. Except for the prematurity and low birth weight, none of the other factors, including inter-twin delivery time interval of more than 15 mins, were found to affect neonatal outcome. PMID:25017406

  9. A re-appraisal of the conventional history of antibiosis and Penicillin.

    PubMed

    Arseculeratne, S N; Arseculeratne, G

    2017-02-01

    The popular perception of the history of antibiosis and penicillin is that Alexander Fleming was the sole researcher on penicillin. The literature, however, has documentation of preceding persons who reported definitively on these topics, from the late 19(th) century. Divergent reports on "firsts" in the discovery of antimicrobial activity of Penicillium and on the use of penicillin as a therapeutic agent, are present. This review adds knowledge from diverse sources, and restores historical priorities to the conventional story of Penicillin.

  10. A reappraisal of the definition and pathophysiology of the transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Hadjiev, Dimiter Ivanov; Mineva, Petya Pencheva

    2007-03-01

    Recent data on the pathophysiology of brain ischemia obtained by neuroimaging methods and the new concept of transient ischemic attack (TIA) emergency have called for a redefinition of TIA. According to the new definition proposed by the TIA Working Group, TIA is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain or retinal ischemia with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than one hour and without evidence of acute brain infarction. This new definition leads to a discussion on the duration of the neurological dysfunction and the availability of appropriate neuroimaging for all patients. It has been reported that the diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities could be seen in TIA patients with durations of the neurological symptoms of less than 30 minutes, but they were not detected in 29% of patients with transient deficit lasting as much as 6 to 24 hours. Persisting perfusion abnormalities in TIA patients are also observed. Therefore, a cutoff period of any duration of TIA is inaccurate. From the pathophysiological viewpoint, TIA may be considered an ischemic penumbra of varied duration, which could proceed to cerebral infarction or reduce to benign oligemia. TIA, characterized as an ischemic penumbra, presents an ideal target for rapid reperfusion and neuroprotection. Follow-up perfusion imaging can guide and individualize its treatment.

  11. Epidemiologic and clinical impact of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Villar, Macarena; Cano, María E; Gato, Eva; Garnacho-Montero, José; Miguel Cisneros, José; Ruíz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Vila, Jordi; Pascual, Alvaro; Tomás, María; Bou, Germán; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important antibiotic-resistant nosocomial bacteria. We investigated changes in the clinical and molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii over a 10-year period. We compared the data from 2 prospective multicenter cohort studies in Spain, one performed in 2000 (183 patients) and one in 2010 (246 patients), which included consecutive patients infected or colonized by A. baumannii. Molecular typing was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The incidence density of A. baumannii colonization or infection increased significantly from 0.14 in 2000 to 0.52 in 2010 in medical services (p < 0.001). The number of non-nosocomial health care-associated cases increased from 1.2% to 14.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Previous exposure to carbapenems increased in 2010 (16.9% in 2000 vs 27.3% in 2010, p = 0.03). The drugs most frequently used for definitive treatment of patients with infections were carbapenems in 2000 (45%) and colistin in 2010 (50.3%). There was molecular-typing evidence of an increase in the frequency of A. baumannii acquisition in non-intensive care unit wards in 2010 (7.6% in 2000 vs 19.2% in 2010, p = 0.01). By MSLT, the ST2 clonal group predominated and increased in 2010. This epidemic clonal group was more frequently resistant to imipenem and was associated with an increased risk of sepsis, although not with severe sepsis or mortality. Some significant changes were noted in the epidemiology of A. baumannii, which is increasingly affecting patients admitted to conventional wards and is also the cause of non-nosocomial health care-associated infections. Epidemic clones seem to combine antimicrobial resistance and the ability to spread, while maintaining their clinical virulence.

  12. Reappraisal of the F/M amplitude ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ginanneschi, F; Mondelli, M; Aretini, A; Rossi, Alessandro

    The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls. Fand M-wave amplitudes and F-wave chronodispersion were analyzed for the median and ulnar nerves. The F/M-amp ratio of the median nerve in CTS subjects with moderate-severe nerve damage was significantly higher than that of mild CTS subjects and controls. Chronodispersion of the median nerve F-wave increased with increasing CTS severity. We conclude that the relative preservation of the median nerve F-wave is due to damage to the large diameter muscle afferent fibers responsible for the monosynaptic response. Absence of the monosynaptic response makes the small motoneurons, usually inaccessible to the antidromic volley because of its collision with the orthodromic reflex volley, able to fire in the F-wave.

  13. Reappraisal of the inferior epigastric flap: a new neurovascular flap model in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hirigoyen, M B; Rhee, J S; Weisz, D J; Zhang, W X; Urken, M L; Weinberg, H

    1996-09-01

    An anatomic, histologic, and electrophysiologic study was carried out in order to determine the distribution and cutaneous sensory territory of the epigastric nerve in the rat. Results for nerve staining (Sihler's method) and electrophysiologic nerve mapping indicate that the neurosome of the epigastric nerve has a different autonomy than the vascular territory of the inferior epigastric artery. Based on these findings, an experimental model for neurovascular free-tissue transfer is proposed.

  14. An auroral VxO: A reappraisal of need and call for community input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germany, G. A.

    2007-12-01

    Space-based auroral imagery provides our best way of specifying the global deposition of energy in the coupled ionosphere-thermosphere via precipitation, as well as the global state of the magnetosphere. These images complement global data products built from networks of ground-based radars, all-sky imagers, magnetometers, riometers, etc. There is thus a perceived need to develop ways to intercompare and integrate data from different imagers, and to compare image data with other data products. Virtual observatories (VxO's) provide an opportunity to share data and to provide a framework for intercomparison of auroral image data with other data sources. The author, working with international collaborators, has previously proposed to build on existing collaborations with online data providers to develop a virtual observatory for space-based auroral image data that will work with, and complement, existing VxO efforts. The proposed efforts would allow researchers and other virtual observatories to survey and access data from all space-based auroral imagers, to integrate data from different imagers with each other, and to set the technical stage for ultimate integration with other global data products (such as SuperDARN, SuperMag, VGMO, Gloria, etc). The proposed work would also complement other online efforts, such as the efforts of the Canadian Space Sciences Data Portal (CSSDP), SuperDARN, and the evolving network of NASA supported virtual observatories. While the auroral VxO concept has been well-received, previous efforts to make that concept a reality have faced questions about the degree to which an auroral VxO is needed and the degree to which the auroral imaging community is willing to participate in such an observatory. This paper presents the expected advantages of an auroral VxO, discusses potential tools and architectures needed in such an observatory, and outlines the level of community involvement needed to make it a reality. The paper is intended to open discussion on this topic and initiate a broad-based community effort in support of a future auroral VxO effort.

  15. A Multidimensional Reappraisal of Language in Autism: Insights from a Discourse Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language--notably…

  16. A Multidimensional Reappraisal of Language in Autism: Insights from a Discourse Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language-notably pronoun atypicality, pragmatic deficit, and echolalia-might conceal competencies and interactional processes that are largely invisible in mainstream research. Our findings offer a complex picture of children with autism in their use of language to communicate, interact and experience others. Such a picture also deepens our understanding of the interactional underpinnings of autistic children's speech. Finally, we describe how our findings offer fruitful suggestions for clinical intervention.

  17. Efficacy of rational emotive therapy (RET) with children: a critical re-appraisal.

    PubMed

    Gossette, R L; O'Brien, R M

    1993-03-01

    Proponents of rational-emotive therapy (RET) advocate its use within the school curriculum to forestall future maladjustment through the early detection and eradication of irrational beliefs. A review of 33 unpublished dissertations and four published reports found RET effective in about 25% of comparisons with wait-list, placebo, and other treatment conditions. The major effects of RET were changes in scores on self-report measures of irrational beliefs, less on emotional distress, and little or no change in behavior; essentially the same pattern of effects previously found in a similar analysis of RET in adult populations. Little justification was found for continued use of RET in schools.

  18. Reappraising the relationships between physics students' mental models and predictions: An example of heat convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Guo-Li

    2013-06-01

    Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena. A series of semistructured interviews was conducted to probe the participants’ mental models and predictions of heat convection, and the constant comparative method was adopted for data analysis. The results reveal that the participants held a variety of mental models of heat convection, and nearly half held flawed mental models rather than a scientifically compatible one. In addition, while many participants attempted to run their mental models to make a prediction at the beginning stage of solving an interview problem, the relationship between the models and predictions became increasingly complex as the problem solving process continued. The relationships between mental models and predictions, however, could be better understood by considering the completeness of a mental model, the scale of analyzing mental models, and the retrieval of different formats of mental representations.

  19. Electrophysiological features of inherited demyelinating neuropathies: A reappraisal in the era of molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R A; Sumner, A J; Shy, M E

    2000-10-01

    The observation that inherited demyelinating neuropathies have uniform conduction slowing and that acquired disorders have nonuniform or multifocal slowing was made prior to the identification of mutations in myelin-specific genes which cause many of the inherited disorders involving peripheral nerve myelin. It is now clear that the electrophysiological aspects of these disorders are more complex than previously realized. Specifically, certain mutations appear to induce nonuniform slowing of conduction which resemble the findings in acquired demyelinating neuropathies. It is clinically important to recognize the different electrodiagnostic patterns of the various inherited demyelinating neuropathies. In addition, an understanding of the relationship between mutations of specific genes and their associated neurophysiological findings is likely to facilitate understanding of the role of these myelin proteins in peripheral nerve function and of how abnormalities in myelin proteins lead to neuropathy. We therefore review the current information on the electrophysiological features of the inherited demyelinating neuropathies in hopes of clarifying their electrodiagnostic features and to shed light on the physiological consequences of the different genetic mutations.

  20. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P.; Palazzo, A.; Silk, J.; Slosar, A.

    2007-03-01

    In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

  1. The tectono-metamorphic evolution of gneiss complexes in the Middle Urals, Russia: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtler, H. P.; Ivanov, K. S.; Ronkin, Y. L.; Karsten, L. A.; Hetzel, R.; Noskov, A. G.

    1997-07-01

    The Middle Urals are characterized by a major virgation in the linear trend of the Urals orogen, and represent the most highly contracted part of the late Palaeozoic collisional belt. This part of the orogen is dominated by metamorphic complexes and major fault and shear zones. The Main Uralian Fault zone (MUF), the east-dipping suture of the orogen containing low-grade metamorphic rocks, separates the Sysert Complex in the east from the Ufaley Complex in the west. The Sysert Complex in the hanging wall of the MUF consists of intensely deformed gneisses, granitic intrusions and a metamorphosed mélange zone. Tectonic and isotopic investigations suggest the following stages for the evolution of the Sysert Complex: (a) pre-orogenic rifting and magmatism during Ordovician and Silurian times; (b) oceanic closure, island arc formation related to convergence and subduction during Devonian times; (c) major ductile deformation under amphibolite facies conditions related to NW-directed thrusting associated with crustal stacking during collision in Carboniferous times; (d) exhumation and contractional intracontinental tectonics during Permian times; and (e) closing of isotope systems related to cooling and the end of orogenic shortening through Triassic times. The Ufaley Complex, in the footwall of the MUF, is interpreted as an east-dipping crustal stack that records an amphibolite facies Uralian metamorphism. Lithologically the complex can be divided into pre-orogenic European basement (West Ufaley) and intensely deformed Palaeozoic metasediments and amphibolites (East Ufaley). High-pressure relics in the East Ufaley Complex are interpreted to be the result of subduction, whereas intense ductile deformation is related to overthrusting onto West Ufaley. The West Ufaley Complex is composed of gneisses, amphibolites, migmatites and granitic intrusions and has been thrust onto Devonian limestones along a major shear zone. In both Sysert and Ufaley Complexes, NW-trending stretching lineations and top-to-the-NW kinematic indicators suggest an oblique plate convergence with a significant sinistral component. The MUF is interpreted as a major normal fault that developed congruent with continental subduction and that compensated lithospheric thickening and the rapid exhumation of subducted crust in the footwall.

  2. A reappraisal of the habitability of planets around M dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Tarter, Jill C; Backus, Peter R; Mancinelli, Rocco L; Aurnou, Jonathan M; Backman, Dana E; Basri, Gibor S; Boss, Alan P; Clarke, Andrew; Deming, Drake; Doyle, Laurance R; Feigelson, Eric D; Freund, Friedmann; Grinspoon, David H; Haberle, Robert M; Hauck, Steven A; Heath, Martin J; Henry, Todd J; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L; Joshi, Manoj M; Kilston, Steven; Liu, Michael C; Meikle, Eric; Reid, I Neill; Rothschild, Lynn J; Scalo, John; Segura, Antigona; Tang, Carol M; Tiedje, James M; Turnbull, Margaret C; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; Weber, Arthur L; Young, Richard E

    2007-02-01

    Stable, hydrogen-burning, M dwarf stars make up about 75% of all stars in the Galaxy. They are extremely long-lived, and because they are much smaller in mass than the Sun (between 0.5 and 0.08 M(Sun)), their temperature and stellar luminosity are low and peaked in the red. We have re-examined what is known at present about the potential for a terrestrial planet forming within, or migrating into, the classic liquid-surface-water habitable zone close to an M dwarf star. Observations of protoplanetary disks suggest that planet-building materials are common around M dwarfs, but N-body simulations differ in their estimations of the likelihood of potentially habitable, wet planets that reside within their habitable zones, which are only about one-fifth to 1/50th of the width of that for a G star. Particularly in light of the claimed detection of the planets with masses as small as 5.5 and 7.5 M(Earth) orbiting M stars, there seems no reason to exclude the possibility of terrestrial planets. Tidally locked synchronous rotation within the narrow habitable zone does not necessarily lead to atmospheric collapse, and active stellar flaring may not be as much of an evolutionarily disadvantageous factor as has previously been supposed. We conclude that M dwarf stars may indeed be viable hosts for planets on which the origin and evolution of life can occur. A number of planetary processes such as cessation of geothermal activity or thermal and nonthermal atmospheric loss processes may limit the duration of planetary habitability to periods far shorter than the extreme lifetime of the M dwarf star. Nevertheless, it makes sense to include M dwarf stars in programs that seek to find habitable worlds and evidence of life. This paper presents the summary conclusions of an interdisciplinary workshop (http://mstars.seti.org) sponsored by the NASA Astrobiology Institute and convened at the SETI Institute.

  3. A reappraisal of postglacial decay times from Richmond Gulf and James Bay, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Forte, A. M.; Simons, M.

    2000-09-01

    Decay times inferred from relative sea-level (RSL) histories of previously glaciated regions provide a potentially important constraint on mantle rheology. We present a new compilation of RSL data from Richmond Gulf and James Bay, Canada. This recompilation reveals errors in previous compilations that led to inaccurate estimates for the Richmond Gulf decay time in a series of recently published articles. We derive updated estimates for the decay time at Richmond Gulf and James Bay using a methodology that incorporates errors in both the age and the height of the sea-level markers. This exercise is guided by a series of synthetic RSL calculations that show that decay time estimates in the region can be significantly biased if the RSL time-series are not corrected for global eustatic sea-level trends, or if the estimates are based on composite RSL histories derived by combining data from both the Richmond Gulf and the James Bay regions. Our decay time analysis for Richmond Gulf applies the pioneering approach of Walcott (1980) to a large database and we derive a value of 4.0-6.6kyr, where the range is defined by a misfit tolerance 10 per cent higher than the minimum. Our analysis for James Bay is based on the uplift curve derived by Hardy (1976), and we estimate a decay time of about 2.0-2.8kyr. The difference between our estimates for Richmond Gulf and James Bay may be due to errors in the observational record from these regions, but could also be influenced by lateral variations in lithospheric structure associated with the assembly of Laurentia.

  4. A molecular, morphological and ecological re-appraisal of Venturiales—a new order of Dothideomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Crous, Pedro W.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Guo, Liang Dong

    2012-01-01

    The Venturiaceae was traditionally assigned to Pleosporales although its diagnostic characters readily distinguish it from other pleosporalean families. These include a parasitic or saprobic lifestyle, occurring on leaves or stems of dicotyledons; small to medium-sized ascomata, often with setae; deliquescing pseudoparaphyses; 8-spored, broadly cylindrical to obclavate asci; 1-septate, yellowish, greenish or pale brown to brown ascospores; and hyphomycetous anamorphs. Phylogenetically, core genera of Venturiaceae form a monophyletic clade within Dothideomycetes, and represent a separate sister lineage from current orders, thus a new order—Venturiales is introduced. A new family, Sympoventuriaceae, is introduced to accommodate taxa of a well-supported subclade within Venturiales, which contains Sympoventuria, Veronaeopsis simplex and Fusicladium-like species. Based on morphology and DNA sequence analysis, eight genera are included in Venturiaceae, viz. Acantharia, Apiosporina (including Dibotryon), Caproventuria, Coleroa, Pseudoparodiella, Metacoleroa, Tyrannosorus and Venturia. Molecular phylogenetic information is lacking for seven genera previously included in Venturiales, namely Arkoola, Atopospora, Botryostroma, Lasiobotrys, Trichodothella, Trichodothis and Rhizogenee and these are discussed, but their inclusion in Venturiaceae is doubtful. Crotone, Gibbera, Lineostroma, Phaeocryptopus, Phragmogibbera, Platychora, Polyrhizon, Rosenscheldiella, Uleodothis and Xenomeris are excluded from Venturiales, and their ordinal placement needs further investigation. Zeuctomorpha is treated as a synonym of Acantharia. PMID:22368534

  5. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Is it Time to Reappraise the Role of Sugar Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Gold, Mark S.; Johnson, David R.; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Zahniser, Nancy R.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects nearly 10% of children in the United States, and the prevalence of this disorder has increased steadily over the past decades. The cause of ADHD is unknown, although recent studies suggest that it may be associated with a disruption in dopamine signaling whereby dopamine D2 receptors are reduced in reward-related brain regions. This same pattern of reduced dopamine-mediated signaling is observed in various reward-deficiency syndromes associated with food or drug addiction, as well as in obesity. While genetic mechanisms are likely contributory to cases of ADHD, the marked frequency of the disorder suggests that other factors are involved in the etiology. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that excessive sugar intake may have an underlying role in ADHD. We review preclinical and clinical data suggesting overlaps among ADHD, sugar and drug addiction, and obesity. Further, we present the hypothesis that the chronic effects of excessive sugar intake may lead to alterations in mesolimbic dopamine signaling, which could contribute to the symptoms associated with ADHD. We recommend further studies to investigate the possible relationship between chronic sugar intake and ADHD. PMID:21904085

  6. A reappraisal of the uncanny valley: categorical perception or frequency-based sensitization?

    PubMed

    Burleigh, Tyler J; Schoenherr, Jordan R

    2014-01-01

    The uncanny valley (UCV) hypothesis describes a non-linear relationship between perceived human-likeness and affective response. The "uncanny valley" refers to an intermediate level of human-likeness that is associated with strong negative affect. Recent studies have suggested that the uncanny valley might result from the categorical perception of human-like stimuli during identification. When presented with stimuli sharing human-like traits, participants attempt to segment the continuum in "human" and "non-human" categories. Due to the ambiguity of stimuli located at a category boundary, categorization difficulty gives rise to a strong, negative affective response. Importantly, researchers who have studied the UCV in terms of categorical perception have focused on categorization responses rather than affective ratings. In the present study, we examined whether the negative affect associated with the UCV might be explained in terms of an individual's degree of exposure to stimuli. In two experiments, we tested a frequency-based model against a categorical perception model using a category-learning paradigm. We manipulated the frequency of exemplars that were presented to participants from two categories during a training phase. We then examined categorization and affective responses functions, as well as the relationship between categorization and affective responses. Supporting previous findings, categorization responses suggested that participants acquired novel category structures that reflected a category boundary. These category structures appeared to influence affective ratings of eeriness. Crucially, participants' ratings of eeriness were additionally affected by exemplar frequency. Taken together, these findings suggest that the UCV is determined by both categorical properties as well as the frequency of individual exemplars retained in memory.

  7. A reappraisal of the uncanny valley: categorical perception or frequency-based sensitization?

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, Tyler J.; Schoenherr, Jordan R.

    2015-01-01

    The uncanny valley (UCV) hypothesis describes a non-linear relationship between perceived human-likeness and affective response. The “uncanny valley” refers to an intermediate level of human-likeness that is associated with strong negative affect. Recent studies have suggested that the uncanny valley might result from the categorical perception of human-like stimuli during identification. When presented with stimuli sharing human-like traits, participants attempt to segment the continuum in “human” and “non-human” categories. Due to the ambiguity of stimuli located at a category boundary, categorization difficulty gives rise to a strong, negative affective response. Importantly, researchers who have studied the UCV in terms of categorical perception have focused on categorization responses rather than affective ratings. In the present study, we examined whether the negative affect associated with the UCV might be explained in terms of an individual's degree of exposure to stimuli. In two experiments, we tested a frequency-based model against a categorical perception model using a category-learning paradigm. We manipulated the frequency of exemplars that were presented to participants from two categories during a training phase. We then examined categorization and affective responses functions, as well as the relationship between categorization and affective responses. Supporting previous findings, categorization responses suggested that participants acquired novel category structures that reflected a category boundary. These category structures appeared to influence affective ratings of eeriness. Crucially, participants' ratings of eeriness were additionally affected by exemplar frequency. Taken together, these findings suggest that the UCV is determined by both categorical properties as well as the frequency of individual exemplars retained in memory. PMID:25653623

  8. Neuromyelitis optica: a positive appraisal of seronegative cases.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Valnet, R; Liblau, R S; Vukusic, S; Marignier, R

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. The hallmark of NMO is the presence of specific autoantibodies directed against aquaporin 4 (AQP4-IgG). AQP4-IgG, included in diagnostic criteria, has enlarged the clinical spectrum of NMO and serves to predict relapses. Moreover AQP4-IgG has provided unprecedented insight in the immunopathology of NMO, representing a rationale for therapeutic intervention with relevant novel treatment strategies specific for NMO. However, some patients remain seronegative for AQP4-IgG despite a definite diagnosis of NMO and the use of the finest methods for antibody detection. Interestingly, seronegative NMO (NMO(neg)) patients exhibit different demographic and disease-related characteristics in comparison to seropositive patients. The recent association with autoantibodies specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is the main indication that disease mechanisms might differ in NMO(pos) and NMO(neg), challenging the position of NMO(neg) patients in the spectrum of demyelinating diseases and therapeutic strategies to be adopted. Thus, a reappraisal of the NMO(neg) population is needed to improve NMO care. Here the current knowledge regarding NMO(neg) is reviewed and hypotheses on its pathogenesis are made including a comprehensive description of detection methods and the prevalence of AQP4-IgG and a review of the epidemiological, clinical and paraclinical characteristics of NMO(neg); finally an integrated view of the general pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NMO(neg) is provided.

  9. Positive experiences for participants in suicide bereavement groups: a grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Groos, Anita D; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Grounded Theory was used to examine the experiences of 13 participants who had attended psycho-educational support groups for those bereaved by suicide. Results demonstrated core and central categories that fit well with group therapeutic factors developed by I. D. Yalom (1995) and emphasized the importance of universality, imparting information and instilling hope, catharsis and self-disclosure, and broader meaning-making processes surrounding acceptance or adjustment. Participants were commonly engaged in a lengthy process of oscillating between loss-oriented and restoration-focused reappraisals. The functional experience of the group comprised feeling normal within the group, providing a sense of permission to feel and to express emotions and thoughts and to bestow meaning. Structural variables of information and guidance and different perspectives on the suicide and bereavement were gained from other participants, the facilitators, group content, and process. Personal changes, including in relationships and in their sense of self assisted participants to develop an altered and more positive personal narrative.

  10. Family functioning and posttraumatic growth among parents and youth following wildfire disasters.

    PubMed

    Felix, Erika; Afifi, Tamara; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Laurel; Afifi, Walid; Reyes, Gil

    2015-03-01

    A conceptual model was used to investigate how demographic characteristics, perceived fire stress, aspects of the recovery environment (life stressors since the disaster, social support), mental health, and coping influences parent and youth reports of family functioning and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following multiple wildfires. Participants included 50 parent-youth dyads (M = 14.5 years) who had been evacuated because of the fire, many of whom had homes that were damaged (60%) or destroyed (30%). For youth, younger age, being female, greater fire stress, more life stressors, and those using more positive reappraisal coping reported greater PTG. For parents, family type and perceived fire stress were positively related to PTG, and positive reappraisal approached significance. For family functioning, only the youth model was significant. Younger age and more life stressors were negatively related, and positive reappraisal coping was positively related, to family functioning. Overall, the results support the important role of positive reappraisal in postdisaster outcomes.

  11. On the Leptocytheridae Ostracods of the Long-Lived Lake Ohrid: A Reappraisal of their Taxonomic Assignment and Biogeographic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Namiotko, Tadeusz; Danielopol, Dan L.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Gross, Martin; Von Grafenstein, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Leptocythere karamani Klie, one of few non-marine species of the family Leptocytheridae (Ostracoda), is redescribed from specimens recently collected from the long-lived Lake Ohrid on the Albanian-Macedonian border. Detailed morphologies of valves and limbs of this species were compared with those of other Ohrid-Prespa leptocytherids, of some recent marine representatives of the genera Leptocythere Sars and Callistocythere Ruggieri from the Mediterranean, Irish and Baltic seas as well as with that of fossil non-marine species from the Miocene palaeo-Lake Pannon belonging to the genera Amnicythere Devoto and Euxinocythere Stancheva. Comparison with other species of Leptocytheridae inhabiting fresh to brackish waters of the Black-Azov, Caspian and Aral seas were also carried out using descriptions provided in the literature. Based on the comparative morphological studies it is shown that L. karamani and other Ohrid leptocytherids have a number of characters distinguishing them from other members of the genus Leptocythere but demonstrating a relationship with species of the genus Amnicythere. The most reliable of these characters are: a) anterior valve vestibulum from where mostly uni-ramified pore canals start, b) the entomodont hinge type with a strong anterior anti-slip tooth, a smooth posterior anti-slip bar on the left valve, and c) the hemipenis with underdeveloped lateral lobe and reduced clasping organ. From this strong evidence, the Ohrid leptocytherid species are allocated to the genus Amnicythere. Finally, a biogeographic scenario on the origin of the Ohrid leptocytherids is proposed which matches the “Lake Pannon derivate hypothesis”. Close relationship of the Ohrid Amnicythere species with the non-marine leptocytherid taxa from the Neogene lakes of Central and Eastern Europe and with extant taxa from the Black and Caspian seas may indicate that the Ohrid Amnicythere derived from Lake Pannon species which were able to colonise lakes in Southern Europe through a stepping-stone process and subsequently to adapt to freshwater environment. PMID:28090189

  12. A Reappraisal of the Mechanism of Pion Exchange and Its Implications for the Teaching of Particle Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The origins of the pion exchange model of nuclear forces are described and the exchange process is reinterpreted in the light of current views on the quark-gluon structure of nucleons. It is suggested that the reinterpretation might provide a picture of cohesive nuclear forces that is more intellectually satisfying than that produced by the…

  13. Reappraisal of the relationship between the northern Nevada rift and Miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Nevada rift is a prominent mafic dike swarm and magnetic anomaly in north-central Nevada inferred to record the Middle Miocene (16.5-15.0 Ma) extension direction in the northern Basin and Range province in the western United States. From the 245°-250° rift direction, Basin and Range extension is inferred to have shifted 45° clockwise to a modern direction of 290°-300° during the late Miocene. The region surrounding the northern Nevada rift was actively extending while the rift formed, and these domains are all characterized by extension oriented 280°-300°. This direction is distinctly different from the rift direction and nearly identical to the modern Basin and Range direction. Although the rate, structural style, and distribution of Basin and Range extension appear to have undergone a significant change in the late Miocene (ca. 10 Ma), the overall spreading direction does not. Middle Miocene extension was directed perpendicular to the axis of the thickest crust formed during Mesozoic shortening and this orientation may reflect gravitational collapse of this thick crust. Orientation of northern Nevada rift dikes may reflect a short-lived regional stress field related to the onset of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism.

  14. Short-period circumnutations found in sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit. A reappraisal of data from Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardal, Tom Kr; Johnsson, Anders; Chapman, David K.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have further analysed data from an experiment performed in satellite orbit, in Spacelab-1. In micro-gravity the hypocotyls of Helianthus annuus, cv. "Teddy Bear", showed short period circumnutations (periods around 30 minutes) as well as the already reported long period nutations (with an average period of about 115 minutes). We applied various types of signal analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) to the data series. The long period circumnutations have a larger amplitude than the short term circumnutations. Both short and long period circumnutations exist in one and the same hypocotyl. (This is in contrast to our ground control experiments, where were found only the long-period nutations.) The period of the nutations changed throughout the experiment. These results are extending the conclusions drawn after the Spacelab experiment (Brown et al. 1990). In particular they emphasize the existence of both short- and long-period circumnutations in micro-gravity.

  15. A reappraisal of Theroteinus (Haramiyida, Mammaliaformes) from the Upper Triassic of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (France)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The earliest mammaliaforms are difficult to assess because the fossil record is poor and because their distinctive morphologies cannot be directly compared with more recent mammaliaforms. This is especially true for the haramiyid genus Theroteinus, only known in the Saint-Nicolas-de-Port locality (Rhaetian, France). This study presents a new definition of the type-species Theroteinus nikolai. A new species Theroteinus rosieriensis, sp. nov., is named and distinguished by the lingual shift of distal cusps, a larger size, and a stockier occlusal outline. Comparisons with Eleutherodon, Megaconus and Millsodon suggest that Theroteinus has potential close relatives among the Jurassic haramiyids. PMID:27781174

  16. A reappraisal of Darwin's fission hypothesis and a possible limit to the primordial angular momentum of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, W. B.; Mueller, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    G. H. Darwin proposed that the primordial Earth may have rotated fast enough that the solar tidal period was nearly resonant with the fundamental free oscillation period of a fluid Earth and that a large and unstable tidal oscillation split off to become the moon. Jeffreys argumented that dissipation during resonance would be sufficient to prevent such an unstable oscillation greater than the tidal frequency (period - 2.68 hr). It is considered that solar tides have extracted angular momentum from the Earth-Moon system over 4.5 b.y. The correspondence of the primordial tidal and resonant frequencies is nearly exact. (The effect of central condensation of the proto earth is to increase both frequencies by a similar amount, though the resonance is not precisely known. This result, was unknown to Darwin or Jeffreys. The effects of resonance were evaluated. The resonance is likely to be too damped for fission. This argument is more general than Jeffreys', who considered friction between the oscillating mantle and a rigid core. It is argued that the fact that Q must be so great for fission that equilibrium can not be maintained; the fluid proto Earth passes so quickly through resonance that maximum amplitude is not reached. It is suggested that solar resonant tides acted as a brake on the spin of the primordial partially molten Earth. Certain proposed origins for the Moon do not necessarily involve addition of substantial amounts of angular momentum to the Earth-Moon system. The primordial Earth-Moon system may have had nearly the same angular momentum as it has today.

  17. Reappraisal of Darwin's fission hypothesis and a possible limit to the primordial angular momentum of the Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Mckinnon, W.B.; Mueller, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    G. H. Darwin proposed that the primordial Earth may have rotated fast enough that the solar tidal period was nearly resonant with the fundamental free oscillation period of a fluid Earth and that a large and unstable tidal oscillation split off to become the moon. Jeffreys argumented that dissipation during resonance would be sufficient to prevent such an unstable oscillation greater than the tidal frequency (period - 2.68 hr). It is considered that solar tides have extracted angular momentum from the Earth-Moon system over 4.5 b.y. The correspondence of the primordial tidal and resonant frequencies is nearly exact. (The effect of central condensation of the proto earth is to increase both frequencies by a similar amount, though the resonance is not precisely known. This result, was unknown to Darwin or Jeffreys. The effects of resonance were evaluated. The resonance is likely to be too damped for fission. This argument is more general than Jeffreys, who considered friction between the oscillating mantle and a rigid core. It is argued that the fact that Q must be so great for fission that equilibrium can not be maintained. The fluid proto Earth passes so quickly through resonance that maximum amplitude is not reached. It is suggested that solar resonant tides acted as a brake on the spin of the primordial partially molten Earth. Certain proposed origins for the Moon do not necessarily involve addition of substantial amounts of angular momentum to the Earth-Moon system. The primordial Earth-Moon system may have had nearly the same angular momentum as it has today.

  18. A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated in Campi Flegrei caldera. Receipt for the application to risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The civil defense of Italy and the European community have planned to reformulate the volcanic risk in several volcanic areas of Italy, among which Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events. Necessary to achieve this goal is the detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present note, we make a survey of the estimates of seismic quality factor (the inverse is proportional to the attenuation coefficient with distance) reported in literature for the area of Campi Flegrei where many, but sometimes contradictory results have been published on this topic. We try to review these results in order to give indications for their correct use when calculating the attenuation laws for this area.

  19. A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated at Mt. Etna volcano. Receipt for the application to risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    A new approach in dealing with seismic risk in the volcanic areas of Italy, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events, is exciting the scientific interest and is actually the topic developed in several research projects funded by the European Community (e.g., UPStrat-MAFA, www.upstrat-mafa.ov.ingv.it/UPstrat/) and the Civil Defense Department of Italy. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present paper, we make a survey of the estimates of the seismic quality factor of the medium reported in literature for the Etna area. In the framework of a similar paper published for the Campi Flegrei zone in Southern Italy, we first review the results on seismic attenuation already obtained for Etna and then apply a standard technique to separately measure intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients from passive seismic data recorded by the Etna seismological network. Indications are then given for the correct utilization of the attenuation parameters to obtain the best candidate quality factor Q to be used in this area for seismic risk purposes.

  20. A Critical Reappraisal of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and NETosis Mimics Based on Differential Requirements for Protein Citrullination

    PubMed Central

    Konig, Maximilian F.; Andrade, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    NETosis, an antimicrobial form of neutrophil cell death, is considered a primary source of citrullinated autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and immunogenic DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Activation of the citrullinating enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4) is believed to be essential for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and NETosis. PAD4 is therefore viewed as a promising therapeutic target to inhibit the formation of NETs in both diseases. In this review, we examine the evidence for PAD4 activation during NETosis and provide experimental data to suggest that protein citrullination is not a universal feature of NETs. We delineate two distinct biological processes, leukotoxic hypercitrullination (LTH) and defective mitophagy, which have been erroneously classified as “NETosis.” While these NETosis mimics share morphological similarities with NETosis (i.e., extracellular DNA release), they are biologically distinct. As such, these processes can be readily classified by their stimuli, activation of distinct biochemical pathways, the presence of hypercitrullination, and antimicrobial effector function. NETosis is an antimicrobial form of cell death that is NADPH oxidase-dependent and not associated with hypercitrullination. In contrast, LTH is NADPH oxidase-independent and not bactericidal. Rather, LTH represents a bacterial strategy to achieve immune evasion. It is triggered by pore-forming pathways and equivalent signals that cumulate in calcium-dependent hyperactivation of PADs, protein hypercitrullination, and neutrophil death. The generation of citrullinated autoantigens in RA is likely driven by LTH, but not NETosis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expulsion, the result of a constitutive defect in mitophagy, represents a second NETosis mimic. In the presence of interferon-α and immune complexes, this process can generate highly interferogenic oxidized mtDNA, which has previously been mistaken for NETosis in SLE. Distinguishing NETosis from LTH and defective mitophagy is paramount to understanding the role of neutrophil damage in immunity and the pathogenesis of human diseases. This provides a framework to design specific inhibitors of these distinct biological processes in human disease. PMID:27867381

  1. Towards a Critical Re-Appraisal of Ecology Education: Scheduling an Educational Intervention to Revisit the "Balance of Nature" Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovardas, Tasos; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The "Balance of Nature" metaphor is a pervasive idea in ecology. However, the scientific community acknowledged during the last decades that equilibrium conditions are rare, while disturbance events are not uncommon. We suggest that the exclusive teaching of the "Balance of Nature" metaphor produces cultural, scientific and learning misconceptions…

  2. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care.

  3. Vacuolar Protein Sorting Genes in Parkinson's Disease: A Re-appraisal of Mutations Detection Rate and Neurobiology of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gambardella, Stefano; Biagioni, Francesca; Ferese, Rosangela; Busceti, Carla L.; Frati, Alessandro; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian retromers play a critical role in protein trans-membrane sorting from endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Recently, retromer alterations have been related to the onset of Parkinson's Disease (PD) since the variant p.Asp620Asn in VPS35 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 35) was identified as a cause of late onset PD. This variant causes a primary defect in endosomal trafficking and retromers formation. Other mutations in VPS genes have been reported in both sporadic and familial PD. These mutations are less defined. Understanding the specific prevalence of all VPS gene mutations is key to understand the relevance of retromers impairment in the onset of PD. A number of PD-related mutations despite affecting different biochemical systems (autophagy, mitophagy, proteasome, endosomes, protein folding), all converge in producing an impairment in cell clearance. This may explain how genetic predispositions to PD may derive from slightly deleterious VPS mutations when combined with environmental agents overwhelming the clearance of the cell. This manuscript reviews genetic data produced in the last 5 years to re-define the actual prevalence of VPS gene mutations in the onset of PD. The prevalence of p.Asp620Asn mutation in VPS35 is 0.286 of familial PD. This increases up to 0.548 when considering mutations affecting all VPS genes. This configures mutations in VPS genes as the second most frequent autosomal dominant PD genotype. This high prevalence, joined with increased awareness of the role played by retromers in the neurobiology of PD, suggests environmentally-induced VPS alterations as crucial in the genesis of PD. PMID:27932943

  4. Vacuolar Protein Sorting Genes in Parkinson's Disease: A Re-appraisal of Mutations Detection Rate and Neurobiology of Disease.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Stefano; Biagioni, Francesca; Ferese, Rosangela; Busceti, Carla L; Frati, Alessandro; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian retromers play a critical role in protein trans-membrane sorting from endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Recently, retromer alterations have been related to the onset of Parkinson's Disease (PD) since the variant p.Asp620Asn in VPS35 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 35) was identified as a cause of late onset PD. This variant causes a primary defect in endosomal trafficking and retromers formation. Other mutations in VPS genes have been reported in both sporadic and familial PD. These mutations are less defined. Understanding the specific prevalence of all VPS gene mutations is key to understand the relevance of retromers impairment in the onset of PD. A number of PD-related mutations despite affecting different biochemical systems (autophagy, mitophagy, proteasome, endosomes, protein folding), all converge in producing an impairment in cell clearance. This may explain how genetic predispositions to PD may derive from slightly deleterious VPS mutations when combined with environmental agents overwhelming the clearance of the cell. This manuscript reviews genetic data produced in the last 5 years to re-define the actual prevalence of VPS gene mutations in the onset of PD. The prevalence of p.Asp620Asn mutation in VPS35 is 0.286 of familial PD. This increases up to 0.548 when considering mutations affecting all VPS genes. This configures mutations in VPS genes as the second most frequent autosomal dominant PD genotype. This high prevalence, joined with increased awareness of the role played by retromers in the neurobiology of PD, suggests environmentally-induced VPS alterations as crucial in the genesis of PD.

  5. Serum Therapy for Tuberculosis Revisited: Reappraisal of the Role of Antibody-Mediated Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Casadevall, Arturo

    1998-01-01

    Fifty years after the introduction of the first effective antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this pathogen continues to be a tremendous public health problem. The rise in the number of resistant strains and the difficulties involved in the therapy of tuberculosis in immunocompromised AIDS patients have renewed the interest in the development of effective vaccines. To evaluate whether a potential vaccine against tuberculosis could prevent infection by eliciting a protective antibody response, we reviewed the history of antibody-mediated immunity against tuberculosis. Review of the literature of the past 100 years demonstrates that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that antibody-mediated immunity can modify the course of infection in certain situations. Based on our findings and on what is known in other systems, we propose that the role of antibody-mediated immunity to M. tuberculosis be reexamined, using advanced technology. PMID:9665981

  6. The claim that China's fertility restrictions contributed to the use of prenatal sex selection: A sceptical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most observers assume that China's fertility restrictions contribute to the use of prenatal sex selection. I question the logic and evidence underlying that assumption. Experts often stress that China's low fertility is largely voluntary, and that fertility restrictions are an unneeded safety valve. Others claim that China's '1.5-child' loophole, common throughout rural areas, reinforces son preference or intensifies prenatal sex discrimination by hardening fertility constraints. These claims defy logic upon closer examination. Moreover, almost two-thirds of the exceptional distortion of the sex ratio in 1.5-child areas results from excess underreporting of daughters and enforced sex-specific stopping. Prenatal sex selection may explain the remaining third but probably reflects the stronger rural son preference that led to the 1.5-child loophole itself. The recent surge in sex selection of first births that has perpetuated the distortions also seems unrelated to policy. Some son-preferring parents who formerly wanted two children may now genuinely want only one.

  7. A reappraisal of the age, origin and structural setting of sulphide mineralisation in the UK North Pennines Orefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Bob; Dempsey, Eddie; Selby, David; Le Cornu, Chris; Young, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The North Pennines Orefield (NPO) is centred on the Alston block, a structural high of fractured Carboniferous sedimentary rocks that unconformably overlie a Devonian age (ca. 399 Ma) granite pluton buried at shallow depths (<0.5 km). The orefield has long been considered to be a classic example of a Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) deposit where the source of the metals and sulphur are derived by hydrothermal leaching of the host sedimentary (carbonate-rich) rocks. The vein-hosted part of the orefield consists of linked systems of shear and tensile fractures with a variety of regionally recognised orientations (ESE-WNW Quarter Point, NE-SW, NW-SE Cross Veins). These are associated with lead (galena), iron (pyrite, pyrrhotite, marcasite), copper (chalcopyrite), zinc (sphalerite), fluorite, barite and quartz mineralization. New Rhenium-Osmium (Re-Os) isotope geochemical analysis of the vein-hosted pyrite mineralization suggests that: (i) the metalliferous ores of the NPO formed ca. 294Ma (earliest Permian); and (ii) that they carry an initial Os ratio indicative of a mantle source similar to that indicated by the initial Os ratio of the Whin Sill dolerite suite (emplacement ages ca. 297-294 Ma). New field observations and stress inversion analyses show that at least two regional deformation events are recognised in the Carboniferous host rocks of the NPO. A initial phase of Late Carboniferous ('Variscan') N-S compression pre-dates mineralisation and leads to formation of the NW-SE fractures, initiation of the Burtreeford Disturbance as a N-S fault and compressional reactivation of the previously extensional E-W Lunedale Fault. A later phase of dextral transtension (NNE-SSW extension, ESE-WNW compression) leads to the formation of the ESE-WNW and NE-SW veins, together with compressional reactivation of the Burtreeford Disturbance and Lunedale Fault. Field and microstructural analyses show that the transtensional deformation is synchronous with the main phases of NPO mineralisation and also with emplacement of the Whin Sill and associated intrusions. We conclude that: (i) the main phase of NPO mineralization occurred synchronously with regional dextral transtension during the earliest Permian; (ii) that mineralization is genetically linked to a mantle source and (iii) that the genesis of the NPO is closely linked to that of the broadly penecontemporaneous Whin Sill and associated intrusions in northern England. Our new findings are consistent with structural histories recognised in adjacent regions (e.g. Dent-Pennine Fault systems; Northumberland Basin) and point to a major regional phase of mantle-sourced mineralization, igneous intrusion and transtensional deformation in the early Permian. Previous models suggesting that the NPO is a classic example of a MVT mineral deposit or that the mineralizing fluids are related to the influx of Mesozoic brines are largely incorrect.

  8. Lack of Support for the Association between Facial Shape and Aggression: A Reappraisal Based on a Worldwide Population Genetics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Paschetta, Carolina; de Azevedo, Soledad; González, Marina F.; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Pucciarelli, Héctor M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bau, Claiton H. D.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; González-José, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial and criminal behaviors are multifactorial traits whose interpretation relies on multiple disciplines. Since these interpretations may have social, moral and legal implications, a constant review of the evidence is necessary before any scientific claim is considered as truth. A recent study proposed that men with wider faces relative to facial height (fWHR) are more likely to develop unethical behaviour mediated by a psychological sense of power. This research was based on reports suggesting that sexual dimorphism and selection would be responsible for a correlation between fWHR and aggression. Here we show that 4,960 individuals from 94 modern human populations belonging to a vast array of genetic and cultural contexts do not display significant amounts of fWHR sexual dimorphism. Further analyses using populations with associated ethnographical records as well as samples of male prisoners of the Mexico City Federal Penitentiary condemned by crimes of variable level of inter-personal aggression (homicide, robbery, and minor faults) did not show significant evidence, suggesting that populations/individuals with higher levels of bellicosity, aggressive behaviour, or power-mediated behaviour display greater fWHR. Finally, a regression analysis of fWHR on individual's fitness showed no significant correlation between this facial trait and reproductive success. Overall, our results suggest that facial attributes are poor predictors of aggressive behaviour, or at least, that sexual selection was weak enough to leave a signal on patterns of between- and within-sex and population facial variation. PMID:23326328

  9. Pharmacological and genetic reappraisals of protease and oxidative stress pathways in a mouse model of obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kamei, Shunsuke; Nohara, Hirofumi; Fujikawa, Haruka; Tasaki, Yukihiro; Sugahara, Takuya; Ono, Tomomi; Matsumoto, Chizuru; Sakaguchi, Yuki; Maruta, Kasumi; Nakashima, Ryunosuke; Kawakami, Taisei; Suico, Mary Ann; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ishigami, Akihito; Takeo, Toru; Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nakagata, Naomi; Uchimura, Kohei; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Li, Jian-Dong; Kai, Hirofumi

    2016-12-16

    Protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidative stress are considered to be major pathophysiological hallmarks of severe obstructive lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), but limited information is available on their direct roles in the regulation of pulmonary phenotypes. Here, we utilized βENaC-transgenic (Tg) mice, the previously established mouse model of severe obstructive lung diseases, to produce lower-mortality but pathophysiologically highly useful mouse model by backcrossing the original line with C57/BL6J mice. C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice showed higher survival rates and key pulmonary abnormalities of COPD/CF, including mucous hypersecretion, inflammatory and emphysematous phenotypes and pulmonary dysfunction. DNA microarray analysis confirmed that protease- and oxidative stress-dependent pathways are activated in the lung tissue of C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice. Treatments of C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice with a serine protease inhibitor ONO-3403, a derivative of camostat methylate (CM), but not CM, and with an anti-oxidant N-acetylcystein significantly improved pulmonary emphysema and dysfunction. Moreover, depletion of a murine endogenous antioxidant vitamin C (VC), by genetic disruption of VC-synthesizing enzyme SMP30 in C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice, exaggerated pulmonary phenotypes. Thus, these assessments clarified that protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidative stress are critical pathways that exacerbate the pulmonary phenotypes of C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice, consistent with the characteristics of human COPD/CF.

  10. Constraining the link between spherulite growth and silicate minerals: insights from the reappraisal of East Kirkton Limestone (Lower Carboniferous, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes-Martin, Ramon; Rogerson, Mike; Brasier, Alex; Pedley, Martyn; Vonhof, Hubert; Reijmer, John

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the geochemical origin and timing of formation of unusual non-marine carbonate precipitates formed in highly alkaline and saline sublacustrine settings is a hot topic of research in carbonate sedimentology. The East Kirkton Limestone (West Lothian, Lower Carboniferous, Scotland) is constituted by an interesting array of uncommon freshwater calcium carbonate components (spherulites, botryoidal crusts, shrub-like forms, and oncoids) growing in close association with organic-rich argillaceous matrices, primary fine-grained chert, and volcaniclastic tuffs. These sediments display petrographical, sedimentological and textural features suggesting a sequential origin for their silicate and carbonate phases likely generated from contemporaneous solutions characterized by high carbonate alkalinities and salinities. The drainage of alkali olivine-basalt (basanite) terrains, coupled with the syn-sedimentary fault-related thermal to ambient hydrolysis of the volcanic basement may have produced unique lake chemistries responsible for this facies spectrum. Despite the lacking of actualistic analogues for East Kirkton limestone sediments, similar biogeochemical processes and hydrochemistry compositions may have occurred in modern lake systems such as Mono Lake in California.

  11. LMC S63: a historical reappraisal of the outburst behaviour of a deeply eclipsing Magellanic symbiotic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iłkiewicz, Krystian; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Miszalski, Brent; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Whitelock, Patricia A.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of multi-epoch low-resolution spectrophotometry, complemented by the light curves provided by massive photometric surveys spanning over 100 yr, of the symbiotic binary LMC S63. We showed that it is an eclipsing binary with the orbital period of 1050 d. We also found evidence of outbursts in history of the white dwarf. If it was a Z And-type outburst, as is most likely, it would be a second such outburst recorded in the Magellanic Cloud symbiotic system. We confirmed that the red giant is enhanced in carbon, and estimated C/O ≃ 1.2 by fitting a model atmosphere to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) spectrum. We also found bi-periodic pulsations of the red giant, and demonstrated that it is similar to other carbon variables with confirmed bi-periodicity.

  12. A Reappraisal of Developing Permanent Tooth Length as an Estimate of Age in Human Immature Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Spake, Laure; Liversidge, Helen M

    2016-09-01

    This study expands on existing juvenile age prediction models from tooth length by increasing sample size and using classical calibration. A sample of 178 individuals from two European known sex and age skeletal samples was used to calculate prediction formulae for each tooth for each sex separately and combined. Prediction errors, residuals, and percentage of individuals whose real age fell within the 95% prediction interval were calculated. An ANCOVA was used to test sex and sample differences. Tooth length for age does not differ between the samples except for the canine and second premolar, and no statistically significant sex differences were detected. The least prediction error was found in the incisors and the first molar, and the highest prediction error was found in the third molar. Age prediction formulae provided here can be easily used in a variety of contexts where tooth length is measured from any isolated tooth.

  13. Reappraisal of the intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in patients with the so-called "normal pressure hydrocephalus" syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahuquillo, J; Rubio, E; Codina, A; Molins, A; Guitart, J M; Poca, M A; Chasampi, A

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four shunt-responsive patients were selected from a prospective protocol directed to study patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Patients with gait disturbances, dementia, non-responsive L-Dopa Parkinsonism, urinary or faecal incontinence and an Evans ratio greater or equal to 0.30 on the CT scan were included in the study. As a part of their work-up all patients underwent intracranial pressure monitoring and hydrodynamic studies using Marmarou's bolus test. According to mean intracranial pressure (ICP) and the percentage of high amplitude B-waves, patients were subdivided in the following categories: 1) Active hydrocephalus (mean ICP above 15 mmHg), which is in fact no tone normal pressure hydrocephalus; 2) Compensated unstable hydrocephalus, when mean ICP was below 15 mmHg and B-waves were present in more than 25% of the total recording time and 3) Compensated stable hydrocephalus when ICP was lower or equal to 15 mmHg and beta waves were present in less than 25% of the total recording time. The majority of the patients in this study (70%) presented continuous high or intermittently raised ICP (active or unstable compensated hydrocephalus group). Mean resistance to outflow of CSF (Rout) was 38.8 mm Hg/ml/min in active hydrocephalus and 23.5 mm Hg/ml/min in the compensated group (Students t-test, p less than 0.05). Higher resistance to outflow was found in patients with obliterated cortical sulci and obliterated Sylvian cisterns in the CT scan. No statistically significant correlation was found when plotting the percentage of beta waves against pressure volume index (PVI), compliance or Rout. An exponential correlation was found when plotting beta waves against the sum of conductance to outflow and compliance calculated by PVI method (r = 0.79). Patients with the so-called normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome have different ICP and CSF dynamic profiles. Additional studies taking into consideration these differences are necessary before defining the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of ICP monitoring and CSF studies in selecting appropriate candidates for shunting.

  14. Evaluation of factors controlling the distribution of organic matter and phosphorus in the Eastern Arabian Shelf: A geostatistical reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The Eastern Arabian Shelf (EAS) is a region of high primary production and a part of an intense oxygen minimum zone as well. The EAS is a zone of significant accumulation of organic matter that is ascribable to either the prevalent anoxic condition or high primary productivity, There has been a considerable amount of debate on the dominant factor responsible for the enrichment of organic matter in the sediments in EAS. The present study is an attempt to resolve the issue through robust geostatistical analysis of published and unpublished data. Results of Empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) of available data help to get a refined distribution of organic carbon and phosphorus in the Eastern Arabian Shelf as compared to the earlier known distribution patterns. The primary productivity, evaluated through the latest satellite dataset using Vertically Generalized Production Model, does not show any similarity with the distribution pattern of either organic carbon (Corg) or phosphorus, that was determined based on the in situ data. The negative correlations of primary production with Corg (r=-0.14) and P (r=-0.4) indicate that primary productivity is the most unlikely modulator of organic matter accumulation in the EAS. The negative correlation of bottom water oxygen concentration with Corg (r=-0.39) and Ti-normalized fraction of organic carbon (r=-0.56) indicates that anoxia plays a major role in the preservation of organic matter in the EAS. The mass accumulation rates of Corg and phosphorus show a strong dependency on sedimentation rate (r>0.88), which indicates that the accumulation rate of sediments outweighs the other depositional parameters in controlling the accumulation of organic matter in the EAS.

  15. Understanding vulnerability for depression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective: A reappraisal of attentional factors and a new conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    De Raedt, Rudi; Koster, Ernst H W

    2010-03-01

    We propose a framework to understand increases in vulnerability for depression after recurrent episodes that links attention processes and schema activation to negative mood states, by integrating cognitive and neurobiological findings. Depression is characterized by a mood-congruent attentional bias at later stages of information processing. The basic idea of our framework is that decreased activity in prefrontal areas, mediated by the serotonin metabolism which the HPA axis controls, is associated with an impaired attenuation of subcortical regions, resulting in prolonged activation of the amygdala in response to stressors in the environment. Reduced prefrontal control in interaction with depressogenic schemas leads to impaired ability to exert attentional inhibitory control over negative elaborative processes such as rumination, leading in turn to sustained negative affect. These elaborative processes are triggered by the activation of negative schemas after confrontation with stressors. In our framework, attentional impairments are postulated as a crucial process in explaining the increasing vulnerability after depressive episodes, linking cognitive and biological vulnerability factors. We review the empirical data on the biological factors associated with the attentional impairments and detail how they are associated with rumination and mood regulation. The aim of our framework is to stimulate translational research.

  16. Reappraisal of the geology of Kangimut Sammisoq, Ameralik Fjord, Southern West Greenland: Crustal structure and interpretation of isotopic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutman, Allen P.; Friend, Clark R. L.; Mcgregor, Vic R.

    1988-01-01

    In Godthabsfjord, in the North Atlantic Archean Craton, early Archean Amitsoq gneisses are found in association with the mid to late Archean Nuk gneisses. The Amitsoq gneisses contain the Ameralik dykes, now subconcordant strips of amphibolite. The Nuk and Amitsoq gneisses have amphibolite facies polymetamorphic assemblages. To the southeast of Godthabsfjord, there is an extensive region affected by granulite facies metamorphism at 2800 Ma. Early models of crustal evolution for Godthabsfjord and the region to the SE are discussed. Recent detailed mapping combined with U-Pb zircon dating is examined.

  17. The rat as an animal model for fetoplacental development: a reappraisal of the post-implantation period.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Bruno M; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Teixeira, Natércia A

    2012-07-01

    Following implantation in rodents, the uterine stromal fibroblasts differentiate into densely packed decidual cells. This process, called decidualization, is well-orchestrated and progresses both antimesometrially and mesometrially, creating two regions with distinctive cellular morphologies. In addition, subsequent placental development is dependent on the invasion of the trophoblast, the process intimately linked to the endometrial tissue remodelling and depending largely on the environment created by the decidua; this phenomenon is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The key mechanisms underlying the maternal tissue remodelling and trophoblast invasion remain poorly understood. The rat, just like human beings, exhibits a highly invasive type of placental development, the haemochorial placentation. For obvious ethical reasons, the studies of endometrial tissue remodelling throughout pregnancy in humans are greatly limited. Although the rat differs somewhat from humans with regards to the implantation process, it is an appropriate model for studying the mechanisms of decidualization as well as subsequent remodelling of the uterine tissues and fetoplacental development. As decidual remodelling is very closely linked to placentation and the maternal-fetal interactions in the rat show several important similarities to human placentation, the morphological alterations occurring during the post-implantation period in the rat have been addressed in the present review.

  18. A re-appraisal of the stratigraphy and volcanology of the Cerro Galán volcanic system, NW Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folkes, Christopher B.; Wright, Heather M.; Cas, Ray A.F.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Lesti, Chiara; Viramonte, Jose G.

    2011-01-01

    From detailed fieldwork and biotite 40Ar/39Ar dating correlated with paleomagnetic analyses of lithic clasts, we present a revision of the stratigraphy, areal extent and volume estimates of ignimbrites in the Cerro Galán volcanic complex. We find evidence for nine distinct outflow ignimbrites, including two newly identified ignimbrites in the Toconquis Group (the Pitas and Vega Ignimbrites). Toconquis Group Ignimbrites (~5.60–4.51 Ma biotite ages) have been discovered to the southwest and north of the caldera, increasing their spatial extents from previous estimates. Previously thought to be contemporaneous, we distinguish the Real Grande Ignimbrite (4.68 ± 0.07 Ma biotite age) from the Cueva Negra Ignimbrite (3.77 ± 0.08 Ma biotite age). The form and collapse processes of the Cerro Galán caldera are also reassessed. Based on re-interpretation of the margins of the caldera, we find evidence for a fault-bounded trapdoor collapse hinged along a regional N-S fault on the eastern side of the caldera and accommodated on a N-S fault on the western caldera margin. The collapsed area defines a roughly isosceles trapezoid shape elongated E-W and with maximum dimensions 27 × 16 km. The Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI; 2.08 ± 0.02 Ma sanidine age) outflow sheet extends to 40 km in all directions from the inferred structural margins, with a maximum runout distance of ~80 km to the north of the caldera. New deposit volume estimates confirm an increase in eruptive volume through time, wherein the Toconquis Group Ignimbrites increase in volume from the ~10 km3 Lower Merihuaca Ignimbrite to a maximum of ~390 km3 (Dense Rock Equivalent; DRE) with the Real Grande Ignimbrite. The climactic CGI has a revised volume of ~630 km3 (DRE), approximately two thirds of the commonly quoted value.

  19. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. They are used to estimate the minimum e'ective infectious dose (ID50), compare between di'erent agents and quantify the e'ect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose-response data typica...

  20. The Vredefort Pseudotachylytes: A Centennial Reappraisal of S. J. Shand (1916). Shaken, not Stirred by Meteorite Impacting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garde, A. A.; Klausen, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    The famous pseudotachylytes in theVredefort Dome were formed by impact-induced seismic shaking, a common but overlooked deformation process in terrestrial cratering. Seismic shaking is a fundamental geophysical process and well-known from the moon.

  1. Reappraisal of the Ångerman River decay time estimate and its application to determine uncertainty in Earth viscosity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, Maaria; Milne, Glenn; Tarasov, Lev

    2015-05-01

    Relative sea level histories from previously glaciated areas have been used to study Earth rheology and ice sheet evolution during the last glacial cycle. The analysis of postglacial decay times has been used to place estimates on Earth viscosity structure that are relatively independent of uncertainty in the local ice history. Reconstructed sea levels from Ångermanland, Sweden have been commonly adopted for this purpose. We have assessed and compiled an updated relative sea level curve for this region, combining both varve-dated and radiocarbon dated index points. We fitted an exponential curve to the observations, taking into account estimates of eustatic sea level rise, elevation uncertainties as well as the geographical spread of the data sites to arrive at a decay time range (2σ) of 4.2-4.9 kyr for the whole record length (0-8 kyr) and 4.2-6.2 when 0-7 kyr fits are included. We computed model decay times using a large suite of over 900 ice and earth model combinations based on over 400 three-layer Earth viscosity models and more than 30 ice history reconstructions. Based on these extensive results, we confirm that decay time estimates are relatively independent of the regional ice model (at least within the range of ice chronology uncertainties) and so this data parametrization provides a relatively robust measure of Earth viscosity structure. We find that the observational constraints listed above are satisfied by 29 (8 kyr record) and 52 (7 and 8 kyr record) of the viscosity models considered. These subsets define uncertainty ranges in upper and lower mantle viscosity that are interdependent (Fig. 5). Consistent with previous analyses, we find that the observational decay time estimate does not provide useful constraints on model lithospheric thickness (within the range explored; 46-146 km).

  2. Re-appraisal of the hyperfine-structure constants in YbF: relativistic configuration interaction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Deepali; Sikarwar, Manu; Nayak, Malaya K.; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2014-11-01

    Ab initio calculation of the spin rotational Hamiltonian parameters A and Ad has been performed using a fully-relativistic restricted active space (RAS) configuration interaction (CI) method for the YbF molecule. These calculations lead to the results for the hyperfine-structure constants as A = 6725 MHz, and Ad = 86 MHz, which agree favorably well with some previous correlated calculations and experimental findings. The convergence behavior of the parameters A and Ad with respect to the size of the active space and basis set has been tested satisfactorily for the reliability of the present results (within an uncertainty of ˜7%). Further, we believe that the theoretical estimates of some symmetry violating interaction constants like Wd can also be predicted with similar accuracy using the RASCI method.

  3. L-Carnitine moiety assay: an up-to-date reappraisal covering the commonest methods for various applications.

    PubMed

    Marzo, A; Curti, S

    1997-11-21

    L-Carnitine and its esters are typical endogenous substances. Their homeostatic equilibria are effectively controlled by various mechanisms which include rate-limiting enteral absorption, a multicomponent endogenous pool which is regulated according to a mammillary metabolism, an asymmetric body distribution and a saturable tubular reabsorption process leading to renal thresholds. In formal pharmacokinetic and metabolic investigations, the whole L-carnitine pool should be investigated, owing to the rapid interchange process between the various components of the pool. Free L-carnitine, as well as its acyl esters, must therefore be considered from an analytical viewpoint. L-Carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and total L-carnitine (the latter as an expression of the whole pool) can easily be assayed by enzyme or radioenzyme methods. Propionyl-L-carnitine and other esters containing fatty acids with more than three carbon atoms can be assayed using various HPLC approaches. Tandem mass spectrometry is another excellent approach to the assay of carnitine and its short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain esters. As L-carnitine contains a chiral carbon atom, the enantioselectivity of the assays is also considered in this review. Metabolites produced by enteral bacteria, namely tri-, di- and mono-methylamine, gamma-butyrobetaine, along with other systemic metabolites, namely trimethylamine N-oxide and N-nitroso dimethylamine, are very important in quantitative and toxicokinetic terms and require specific assay methods. This review covers the commonest methods of assaying carnitine and its esters, their impurities and pre-systemic and systemic metabolites and gives analytical details and information on their applications in pharmaceutics, biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics.

  4. On the orientation of pre-islamic temples of north Africa: a re-appraisal (new data in Africa proconsularis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, J. A.; Gaspar, A. T.; Betancort, A. P.; Marrero, R.

    Since the late 1990s, our research group has embarked on a systematic archaeoastronomical study of archaeological sites in the Maghreb. Earlier campaigns were devoted to Tunisia, Morocco and Libya (see e.g. Belmonte et. Al.1998, 1999 and 2002). In this short report we will present part of the data obtained in a field campaign carried out in winter 2002, analyzing the results yielded on early 50 ancient sacred structures (temples, churches, earlier mosques and mausoleums) of an extended area in Northern Tunisia (ancient Africa Proconsularis). These data were not discussed in previous reports on similar structures (e.g. Esteban at.al.2001) , although in a previous paper (Belmonte et.al.2003) we reported our results on the contemporary measured megalithic monuments. This paper will present the data of more than 30 temples and mausoleums of Roman era, 10 pre-Islamic Christian churches and a few earlier mosques. These new data will be discussed together with those obtained in previous campaigns in an attempt to shed some light on the possibility of astronomical alignments within this extended set of monuments (more than a hundred). Our results show that some astronomical patterns could be interpreted as solar ones. Interestingly, this solar tendency was continued by Christian churches until the arrival of Islam. This is a common feature to the other regions of early Christianity (see e.g. Romano 1992). Other curious patterns, including the planning of important cities could presumably be associated to the brightest stars of the sky, Sirius and Canopus. Finally, we will analyse how this astronomical tendencies managed to survive within the first Islamic orienting traditions.

  5. Reappraisal of effects of serum chemerin and adiponectin levels and nutritional status on cardiovascular outcomes in prevalent hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Chiu, Yen-Lin; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Although chemerin, an adipokine, increases the cardiovascular (CV) risk in obese people, it is associated with a survival advantage in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. We explored the potential effects of chemerin on CV outcomes in prevalent HD patients. This prospective study included 343 prevalent HD patients. The composite outcome was the occurrence of CV events and death during follow-up. We used multivariate Cox regression analysis to test the predictive power of different chemerin and adiponectin levels and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) for the outcomes. HD patients with higher chemerin levels (≥211.4 ng/mL) had a lower risk of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.98) and composite CV outcome (adjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45–0.99) than those with lower chemerin levels (<211.4 ng/mL). When evaluating CV outcomes, we identified an interaction between chemerin levels and GNRI, but not between chemerin and adiponectin levels. The findings remained robust in the sensitivity analysis. Thus, in prevalent HD patients with negligible residual renal function, higher chemerin levels predict more favourable CV outcomes. PMID:27667092

  6. Fibrinoid necrosis of small brain arteries and arterioles and miliary aneurysms as causes of hypertensive hemorrhage: a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, William I

    2008-10-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage in hypertensive patients is still an important source of morbidity and death. Understanding its underlying pathological basis is essential for the development of fact-based attempts to prevent the hemorrhage. Fibrinoid necrosis and miliary aneurysms are associated with and are the probable underlying causative lesions. Unfortunately much misunderstanding and confusion surrounds understanding of both lesions. This review clarifies several points. These include the following: the nature of fibrinoid necrosis and the susceptibility of small brain arteries and arterioles to this lesion even in the so-called benign hypertension; the relationship of fibrinoid necrosis to lipohyalinosis and the reasons for preferring the term fibrinoid; the existence of miliary aneurysms; the distinction between these aneurysms and pseudo-aneurysms or fibrin globes; the importance of, and basis for, recognizing healed miliary aneurysms; the relationship of fibrinoid necrosis to these aneurysms.

  7. Clinical outcomes of advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a need for reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical features and patient outcomes for advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The study was restricted to cases in which the glassy cell features constituted at least 95% of the biopsied specimen. During the study period, 675 patients were diagnosed with primary cervical carcinoma. Five (0.7%) of the 675 patients had cervical glassy cell carcinoma; of these, three were premenopausal, and two were postmenopausal. Abnormal vaginal bleeding was the most frequent presenting symptom. Glassy cell carcinoma presented as a fungating, exophytic, or infiltrative mass. The greatest tumor dimension ranged from 3 to 9 cm. All patients had parametrial extension. Four patients had stage IIB tumors, and one had a stage IIIB tumor. All patients received concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The patient with a stage IIIB tumor died of hypovolemic shock caused by upper gastrointestinal bleeding during radiation therapy. Three patients with stage IIB tumors survived for more than 8 years without tumor recurrence or metastasis. One of these three patients died of pelvic recurrence 10 years after the initial diagnosis. Cervical glassy cell carcinoma has traditionally been considered an aggressive, highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, but our data suggest that patient survival is not significantly decreased compared with other histological types of cervical carcinoma. It will be necessary to analyze patient outcomes using a larger number of cervical glassy cell carcinoma cases to confirm our findings. PMID:27793022

  8. Reappraisal of nuclear quadrupole moments of atomic halogens via relativistic coupled cluster linear response theory for the ionization process.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rajat K; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Mahapatra, Uttam Sinha

    2013-11-27

    The coupled cluster based linear response theory (CCLRT) with four-component relativistic spinors is employed to compute the electric field gradients (EFG) of (35)Cl, (79)Br, and (127)I nuclei. The EFGs resulting from these calculations are combined with experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCC) to determine the nuclear quadrupole moments (NQM), Q of the halide nuclei. Our estimated NQMs [(35)Cl = -81.12 mb, (79)Br = 307.98 mb, and (127)I = -688.22 mb] agree well with the new atomic values [(35)Cl = -81.1(1.2), (79)Br = 302(5), and (127)I = -680(10) mb] obtained via Fock space multireference coupled cluster method with the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. Although our estimated Q((79)Br) value deviates from the accepted reference value of 313(3) mb, it agrees well with the recently recommended value, Q((79)Br) = 308.7(20) mb. Good agreement with current reference data indicates the accuracy of the proposed value for these halogen nuclei and lends credence to the results obtained via CCLRT approach. The electron affinities yielded by this method with no extra cost are also in good agreement with experimental values, which bolster our belief that the NQMs values for halogen nuclei derived here are reliable.

  9. A reappraisal of instrumental magnetic measurements made in Western Europe before AD 1750: confronting historical geomagnetism and archeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Maxime; Gallet, Yves

    2017-02-01

    We present a new compilation and analysis of historical geomagnetic measurements made in Western Europe before AD 1750. The dataset in its ensemble provides a coherent evolution of magnetic field directions. Several data points excluded from previous analyses actually appear very consistent with most of the present compilation. A new average historical curve is computed for Paris, which is in very good agreement with the archeomagnetic data obtained in France, while significantly differing from the directional curve expected for Paris before AD 1675 based on the gufm1 model (Jackson et al. in Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 358:957-990, 2000). This finding suggests that the older segment of the gufm1 model lacks reliability and should be improved. Similarly, the historical part of the regional geomagnetic field model built for Europe by Pavón-Carrasco et al. (Geochem Geophys Geosyst 10:Q03013, 2009) should be revised because it erroneously incorporates directions derived from the gufm1 model.

  10. Transmission and dose-response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Andrew J K; Line, John E; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M; Stevens, Mark P; Jones, Michael A; Gog, Julia R; Maskell, Duncan J

    2011-12-07

    Dose-response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected-the ID(50). In turn, the ID(50) is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose-response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose-response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID(50) and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose-response models that allows us to estimate dose-response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID(50) and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose-response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose-response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose-response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of the differing response of chickens with respect to host-age and in vivo passage of bacteria. Our findings suggest that the age-dependence of transmissibility between hosts-rather than their susceptibility to colonization-is the mechanism behind the 'lag-phase' reported in commercial flocks, which are typically found to be Campylobacter free for the first 14-21 days of life.

  11. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  12. Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanoff, Dmitry V.; Wolsan, Mieczysław; Marciszak, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in Węże 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from Węże 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in Węże 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals.

  13. Centenarians' offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible.

  14. The geological links of the ancient Delphic Oracle (Greece): A reappraisal of natural gas occurrence and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, G.; Papatheodorou, G.; Christodoulou, D.; Geraga, M.; Favali, P.

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies have speculated that the prophetic powers of Pythia, the woman of the Delphic Oracle, at the Temple of Apollo in Greece, were induced by hydrocarbon vapors, specifically ethylene, rising from bedrock fissures at the intersection of the E-W Delphi fault with the NNW-SSE Kerna fault, and producing neurotoxic effects, including trance and delirium. New surveys including gas flux from soil, gas in groundwater, and isotopic analyses of spring scales, provide the experimental confirmation of the gas release in the Delphi area. Presently, methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide are being released from a thermogenic (catagenetic) hydrocarbon-prone environment. This environment is not prone to biogenic production of ethylene in amounts inducing neurotoxic effects (hundreds or thousands of ppmv). A WNW-ESE trending subsidiary fault within the Delphi fault zone, extending for ˜2 km, passes under the Temple of Apollo and shrine of Athena. The Temple of Apollo, located above this fault, may have been the site of enhanced degassing in the past. If gas-linked neurotoxic effects upon Pythia need to be invoked, they should be sought in the possibility of oxygen depletion due to CO2-CH4 exhalation in the indoor temple. Alternatively, a plausible geological explanation behind the natural presence of sweet scents could be the occurrence of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, dissolved in the groundwater spring.

  15. Centenarians’ offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  16. The inverted Triassic rift of the Marrakech High Atlas: A reappraisal of basin geometries and faulting histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Mireia; Teixell, Antonio; Babault, Julien; Arboleya, Maria-Luisa

    2015-11-01

    The High Atlas of Morocco is an aborted rift developed during the Triassic-Jurassic and moderately inverted during the Cenozoic. The Marrakech High Atlas, with large exposures of basement and Triassic early syn-rift deposits, is ideal to investigate the geometries of the deepest parts of a rift, constituting a good analogue for pre-salt domains. It allows unraveling geometries and kinematics of the extensional and compressional structures and the influence that they exert over one another. A detailed structural study of the main Triassic basins and basin-margin faults of the Marrakech High Atlas shows that only a few rift faults were reactivated during the Cenozoic compressional stage in contrast to previous interpretations, and emphasizes that fault reactivation cannot be taken for granted in inverted rift systems. Preserved extensional features demonstrate a dominant dip-slip opening kinematics with strike-slip playing a minor role, at variance to models proposing a major strike-slip component along the main basin-bounding faults, including faults belonging to the Tizi n'Test fault zone. A new Middle Triassic paleogeographic reconstruction shows that the Marrakech High Atlas was a narrow and segmented orthogonal rift (sub-perpendicular to the main regional extension direction which was ~ NW-SE), in contrast to the central and eastern segments of the Atlas rift which developed obliquely. This difference in orientation is attributed to the indented Ouzellarh Precambrian salient, part of the West African Craton, which deflected the general rift trend in the area evidencing the major role of inherited lithospheric anisotropies in rift direction and evolution. As for the Cenozoic inversion, total orogenic shortening is moderate (~ 16%) and appears accommodated by basement-involved large-scale folding, and by newly formed shortcut and by-pass thrusting, with rare left-lateral strike-slip indicators. Triassic faults commonly acted as buttresses.

  17. A reappraisal of the blood glucose homeostat which comprehensively explains the type 2 diabetes mellitus–syndrome X complex

    PubMed Central

    Koeslag, Johan H; Saunders, Peter T; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose concentrations are unaffected by exercise despite very high rates of glucose flux. The plasma ionised calcium levels are even more tightly controlled after meals and during lactation. This implies ‘integral control’. However, pairs of integral counterregulatory controllers (e.g. insulin and glucagon, or calcitonin and parathyroid hormone) cannot operate on the same controlled variable, unless there is some form of mutual inhibition. Flip-flop functional coupling between pancreatic α- and β-cells via gap junctions may provide such a mechanism. Secretion of a common inhibitory chromogranin by the parathyroids and the thyroidal C-cells provides another. Here we describe how the insulin:glucagon flip-flop controller can be complemented by growth hormone, despite both being integral controllers. Homeostatic conflict is prevented by somatostatin-28 secretion from both the hypothalamus and the pancreatic islets. Our synthesis of the information pertaining to the glucose homeostat that has accumulated in the literature predicts that disruption of the flip-flop mechanism by the accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes mellitus will lead to hyperglucagonaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and impaired insulin responsiveness to elevated blood glucose levels. It explains syndrome X (or metabolic syndrome) as incipient type 2 diabetes in which the glucose control system, while impaired, can still maintain blood glucose at the desired level. It also explains why it is characterised by high plasma insulin levels and low plasma growth hormone levels, despite normoglycaemia, and how this leads to central obesity, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease in both syndrome X and type 2 diabetes. PMID:12717005

  18. Reappraisal of the role of vegetables in the vitamin A status of mothers in Central Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    de Pee, S; Bloem, M W; Gorstein, J; Sari, M; Satoto; Yip, R; Shrimpton, R; Muhilal

    1998-11-01

    Food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, such as increased mortality, more severe morbidity, and anemia, have become increasingly important, thus prompting a reassessment of the relation between vitamin A intake and status. A nutrition surveillance system in Central Java, Indonesia, assessed the vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of women with a child < or =24 mo old with a semiquantitative 24-h recall method that categorized vitamin A-containing foods into 3 categories of plant foods and into 2 categories of animal foods and identified portions as small, medium, or large. Median vitamin A intake was 335 retinol equivalents (RE)/d (n = 600) and vitamin A intake from plant foods was 8 times higher than from animal foods. Serum retinol concentration was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-response manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration greater than the observed median (> or = 1.37 micromol/L) included physiologic factors, vitamin A intake from plant [odds ratio (95% CI) per quartile: 1st, 1.00: 2nd, 1.23 (0.75, 2.02); 3rd, 1.60 (0.97, 2.63); and 4th, 2.06 (1.25, 3.40)] and animal [1st and 2nd, 1.00; 3rd, 1.31 (0.86, 2.02); and 4th, 2.18 (1.40. 3.42)] foods, home gardening [(no, 1.00; yes, 1.71 (1.12, 2.60)], and woman's education level [< or =primary school, 1.00; > or =secondary school, 1.51 (1.02, 2.22)]. Despite the fact that plant foods contributed 8 times as much vitamin A as did animal foods, serum retinol concentrations did not reflect this large difference. Home gardening and woman's education level seemed to reflect longer-term consumption of vitamin A-rich plant and animal foods, respectively.

  19. Accounting for Regressive Eye-Movements in Models of Sentence Processing: A Reappraisal of the Selective Reanalysis Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Don C.; Shen, Xingjia; Green, Matthew J.; Hodgson, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    When people read temporarily ambiguous sentences, there is often an increased prevalence of regressive eye-movements launched from the word that resolves the ambiguity. Traditionally, such regressions have been interpreted at least in part as reflecting readers' efforts to re-read and reconfigure earlier material, as exemplified by the Selective…

  20. High-temperature metamorphism during extreme thinning of the continental crust: a reappraisal of the North Pyrenean passive paleomargin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, C.; Lahfid, A.; Monié, P.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Chopin, C.; Poujol, M.; Boulvais, P.; Ringenbach, J.-C.; Masini, E.; de St Blanquat, M.

    2015-06-01

    An increasing number of field examples in mountain belts show that the formation of passive margins during extreme continent thinning may occur under conditions of high to very high thermal gradient beneath a thin cover of syn-rift sediments. Orogenic belts resulting from the tectonic inversion of distal margins and regions of exhumed continental mantle may exhibit high-temperature, low-pressure (HT-LP) metamorphism and coeval syn-extensional, ductile deformation. Recent studies have shown that the northern flank of the Pyrenean belt, especially the North Pyrenean Zone, is one of the best examples of such inverted hot, passive margin. In this study, we provide a map of HT-LP metamorphism based on a data set of more than 100 peak-temperature estimates obtained using Raman spectroscopy of the carbonaceous material (RSCM). This data set is completed by previous PT (pressure and temperature) estimates based on mineral assemblages, and new 40Ar-39Ar (amphibole, micas) and U-Pb (titanite) ages from metamorphic and magmatic rocks of the North Pyrenean Zone. The implications on the geological evolution of the Cretaceous Pyrenean paleomargins are discussed. Ages range mainly from 110 to 90 Ma, and no westward or eastward propagation of the metamorphism and magmatism can be clearly identified. In contrast, the new data reveal a progressive propagation of the thermal anomaly from the base to the surface of the continental crust. Focusing on the key localities of the Mauléon basin, Arguenos-Moncaup, Lherz, Boucheville and the Bas-Agly, we analyze the thermal conditions prevailing during the Cretaceous crustal thinning. The results are synthetized into a series of three regional thematic maps and into two detailed maps of the Arguenos-Moncaup and Lherz areas. The results indicate a first-order control of the thermal gradient by the intensity of crustal thinning. The highest grades of metamorphism are intimately associated with the areas where subcontinental mantle rocks have been unroofed or exhumed.

  1. Toward better early-phase brain tumor clinical trials: a reappraisal of current methods and proposals for future strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Frederick F.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Levin, Victor A.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Sawaya, Raymond; Fuller, Gregory N.; Conrad, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Although no optimal treatment is currently available for malignant brain tumors, as the molecular mechanisms underlying brain tumor development have been delineated, new chemotherapeutic agents that act directly on specific molecular targets have become available. Defining a specific molecular target raises the possibility that the molecular effects of a given agent can be analyzed in patients in a clinical trial. Specifically, whereas standard phase I and II clinical trials classically determine the safety and efficacy of agents by using indirect global end points, these new biological agents afford the opportunity to incorporate molecular end points into phase I and II clinical trials to determine whether the agent under investigation is actually doing what it was intended to do. This work presents avenues for improving current brain tumor clinical trial designs based on the molecular specificity of new agents and the unique features of brain tumors. Specifically, the authors recommend brain-applicable phase I and II clinical trial strategies that take advantage of the targeted nature of new agents to maximize information about their efficacy, toxicity, and molecular effects. PMID:12356357

  2. Conflict, Retrenchment, and Reappraisal: The Administration of Higher Education. The David D. Henry Lectures, 1972-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    The first five David D. Henry lectures, and discussion and response to the first four, are presented in this book. Following a brief introduction by John E. Corbally and a biography of David Dobbs Henry, Clark Kerr's paper, "The Administration of Higher Education in an Era of Change and Conflict" (presented in October, 1972) focuses on…

  3. Lack of support for the association between facial shape and aggression: a reappraisal based on a worldwide population genetics perspective.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Paschetta, Carolina; de Azevedo, Soledad; González, Marina F; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Salzano, Francisco M; Bau, Claiton H D; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; González-José, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial and criminal behaviors are multifactorial traits whose interpretation relies on multiple disciplines. Since these interpretations may have social, moral and legal implications, a constant review of the evidence is necessary before any scientific claim is considered as truth. A recent study proposed that men with wider faces relative to facial height (fWHR) are more likely to develop unethical behaviour mediated by a psychological sense of power. This research was based on reports suggesting that sexual dimorphism and selection would be responsible for a correlation between fWHR and aggression. Here we show that 4,960 individuals from 94 modern human populations belonging to a vast array of genetic and cultural contexts do not display significant amounts of fWHR sexual dimorphism. Further analyses using populations with associated ethnographical records as well as samples of male prisoners of the Mexico City Federal Penitentiary condemned by crimes of variable level of inter-personal aggression (homicide, robbery, and minor faults) did not show significant evidence, suggesting that populations/individuals with higher levels of bellicosity, aggressive behaviour, or power-mediated behaviour display greater fWHR. Finally, a regression analysis of fWHR on individual's fitness showed no significant correlation between this facial trait and reproductive success. Overall, our results suggest that facial attributes are poor predictors of aggressive behaviour, or at least, that sexual selection was weak enough to leave a signal on patterns of between- and within-sex and population facial variation.

  4. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akinobu; Eugenia Leone Gold, Maria; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Choiniere, Jonah; Davidson, Amy; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1) highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3) apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4) a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird-line archosaurs. Beyond providing a comprehensive view of vertebral pneumaticity in a non-avian coelurosaur, this study demonstrates the utility and need of CT imaging for further clarifying the early evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity. PMID:26682888

  5. CD20-Mimotope Peptide Active Immunotherapy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and a Reappraisal of Vaccination Strategies in Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Favoino, Elvira; Prete, Marcella; Marzullo, Andrea; Millo, Enrico; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Perosa, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which any organs can be potential targets of autoimmune aggression. Although the pathogenic auto-antibodies have been well characterized, the role of B cells goes far beyond that of antibodies production, and B cell-targeted therapy may be an interesting therapeutic approach. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has been successfully used to control the most severe form of SLE, and even if two controlled clinical trials failed to demonstrate its superiority compared to conventional immunosuppressants, off-label use of rituximab is still commonly adopted in clinical practice in SLE nephritis resistant to immunosuppressants. Different protocols have stipulated heterogeneous dosages but all of them included repeated injections of the drug, exposing the patient to the risk of adverse reactions and to tachyphylaxis (loss of the therapeutic effect). Stimulation of the host's immune system to develop a CD20 antigen-specific immune response by means of CD20-mimotope molecules may offer an approach that can overcome these drawbacks. This study provides a critical overview of vaccination therapy in rheumatic diseases and reports the design of a vaccination strategy in (New Zealand Black/New Zealand White) F1 SLE-prone mice using CD20-mimotope peptides. By week 47, this vaccine induces a B- cell depletion by 74 % (cell number, mean ± SD, 0.57 ± 0.38) as compared to week 29 (2.19 ± 0.55) (p = 0.005) and prolongs survival in peptide-treated mice (median, 46.71 weeks; 95 % CI, 39.78-53.64) as compared to the control group (median 39.85; 95 % CI, 37.41-42.30) (Kaplan-Meier p = 0.002), although no differences between the peptide group and control group were detected in terms of proteinuria and auto-antibodies titers. These data indicate the feasibility of this approach, and the mouse model described here may be useful to optimize vaccination protocol and to define the mechanism(s) underlying B- cell depletion.

  6. A reappraisal of the stratigraphy and chronology of Early Pliocene palaeontological sites from Lanzarote Island containing fossil terrestrial animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Huertas, María José; Betancort, Juan F.; Isern, Arnau; Sanz, Elena; Meco, Joaquín

    2016-11-01

    The Famara massif, in the north of Lanzarote Island, constitutes the remains of a former island inhabited by the oldest known vertebrate fauna of the Canary archipelago off the coast of Africa. In this study, new ages are offered for the underlying and overlying basaltic lava flows of two paleontological sites. The island's three major palaeontological sites, which contain remains of this ancient fauna (Valle Grande, Valle Chico and Fuente de Gusa), are intercorrelated according to their lithologies, sedimentology, palaeontological content and geochronology. The new K/Ar age interval for the fossiliferous sedimentary deposits ranges between 4.3 ± 0.7 and 3.78 ± 0.71 Ma, within the Early Pliocene, and shows that the first known terrestrial animals in Lanzarote were present on the island for about 500 ka. The principal component of the deposits is a bioclastic calcarenite of aeolian origin (sand sheet deposits), which is present in all three sites and constitutes 65% of the beds. The remaining 35% is of fluvial-aeolian origin (mainly stream deposits). All the beds contain the same fossils (insect egg pods, land snails, avian eggshells and tortoise eggshells). The local palaeogeography and the formation of the deposits were conditioned by a flat plain, larger than 16 km2, over which aeolian sands moved freely with a prevailing NNE-WSW wind direction. In agreement with previous investigations, the palaeoclimate in this interval (ca. 4.3 to 3.8 Ma) must have been mainly dry with some rainy episodes.

  7. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin

    PubMed Central

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G. J. Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin’s diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  8. Revisiting the Sheepbed Mudstone of Gale Crater, Mars - A comprehensive reappraisal of its depositional, diagenetic, and burial history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, J.; Bish, D. L.; Coleman, M. L.; Reed, M. H.; Edgett, K. S.; Malin, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Sheepbed mudstone forms the base of the succession examined by the Curiosity rover and is also the first bona fide mudstone known on another planet. Many initial papers have discussed a lacustrine depositional setting, geochemical features, and implications for habitability. Careful review of all collected images and associated data prompts us to update interpretations of depositional regime, diagenesis, and burial history. The lake basin received sediment pulses associated with localized scouring, lateral thinning of beds, and decelerating flows. Bed cross sections suggest mm-cm scale layering to be the norm, probably recording distal pulses of fluvial sediment injections (fine grained hyperpycnites), fall-out from river plumes, and some eolian supply. Prior diagenesis studies focused on synaeresis cracks and mm-scale nodules but contrary to other genetic models we consider centrifugal diffusion could have formed hollow nodule shells, some continuing until filled. There is also an element of stratiform cementation and formation of thin, laterally extensive concretions that establish outcrop appearance of the uppermost meter of the Sheepbed mudstone. Typical surface mud with 80 vol% water has a water/rock ratio of about 1.4 (assuming basaltic debris), and this ratio declines with further compaction. Given that clay formation is thought to require rather higher w/r, the observation of around 20% clays in these rocks seems to argue against in situ clay generation, and instead suggests that they were derived from the crater's periphery and carried into the basin by fluvial discharge. This view is also supported by the presence of significant amounts (>30%) of likely highly reactive amorphous component(s) and Fe-forsterite in John Klein, and the need for an initial presence of clay minerals to enable synaeresis. The virtual lack of Fe-forsterite in Cumberland is more supportive of in situ alteration, although significant amorphous material exists in Cumberland.

  9. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Line, John E.; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M.; Stevens, Mark P.; Jones, Michael A.; Gog, Julia R.; Maskell, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    Dose–response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected—the ID50. In turn, the ID50 is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose–response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose–response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID50 and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose–response models that allows us to estimate dose–response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID50 and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose–response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose–response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose–response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of the differing response of chickens with respect to host-age and in vivo passage of bacteria. Our findings suggest that the age-dependence of transmissibility between hosts—rather than their susceptibility to colonization—is the mechanism behind the ‘lag-phase’ reported in commercial flocks, which are typically found to be Campylobacter free for the first 14–21 days of life. PMID:21593028

  10. Systematic reappraisal of Coniella and Pilidiella, with specific reference to species occurring on Eucalyptus and Vitis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Jan M; Groenewald, J Z Ewald; Verkley, Gerard J M; Fourie, Paul H; Wingfield, Michael J; Crous, Pedro W

    2004-03-01

    The genus Pilidiella, including its teleomorphs in Schizoparme, has a cosmopolitan distribution and is associated with disease symptoms on many plants. In the past, conidial pigmentation has been used as a character to separate Pilidiella (hyaline to pale brown conidia) from Coniella (dark brown conidia). In recent years, however, the two genera have been regarded as synonymous, the older name Coniella having priority. To address the generic question, sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, ITS2), 5.8S gene, large subunit (LSU) and elongation factor 1-alpha gene (EF 1-alpha) were analysed to compare the type species of Pilidiella and Coniella. All three gene regions supported the separation of Coniella from Pilidiella, with the majority of taxa residing in Pilidiella. Pilidiella is characterised by having species with hyaline to pale brown conidia (avg. length:width > 1.5), in contrast to the dark brown conidia of Coniella (avg. length:width < or = 1.5). Pilidiella diplodiella, which is a pathogen associated with white rot of grapevines, was shown to be an older name for C. petrakii. To delineate species in the P. diplodiella species complex, isolates were also compared based on histone (H3) gene sequences. Analyses derived from these sequence data separated P. diplodiella from a newly described species, P. diplodiopsis. The new species P. eucalyptorum sp. nov. is proposed for isolates formerly treated as C. fragariae and associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus spp. This species clustered basal to Pilidiella, and may represent yet a third genus within this complex. Pilidiella destruens sp. nov. is newly described as anamorph of Schizoparme destruens, which is associated with twig dieback of Eucalyptus spp. in Hawaii. A key based on morphological characteristics is provided to separate the taxa treated in this study.

  11. Short-period circumnutations found in sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit. A reappraisal of data from Spacelab-1.

    PubMed

    Bardal, Tom Kr; Johnsson, Anders; Chapman, David K

    2003-12-01

    We have further analysed data from an experiment performed in satellite orbit, in Spacelab-1. In micro-gravity the hypocotyls of Helianthus annuus, cv. "Teddy Bear", showed short period circumnutations (periods around 30 minutes) as well as the already reported long period nutations (with an average period of about 115 minutes). We applied various types of signal analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) to the data series. The long period circumnutations have a larger amplitude than the short term circumnutations. Both short and long period circumnutations exist in one and the same hypocotyl. (This is in contrast to our ground control experiments, where were found only the long-period nutations.) The period of the nutations changed throughout the experiment. These results are extending the conclusions drawn after the Spacelab experiment (Brown et al. 1990). In particular they emphasize the existence of both short- and long-period circumnutations in micro-gravity.

  12. Reappraisal of the outcome of healthcare-associated and community-acquired bacteramia: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare-associated (HCA) bloodstream infections (BSI) have been associated with worse outcomes, in terms of higher frequencies of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and inappropriate therapy than strict community-acquired (CA) BSI. Recent changes in the epidemiology of community (CO)-BSI and treatment protocols may have modified this association. The objective of this study was to analyse the etiology, therapy and outcomes for CA and HCA BSI in our area. Methods A prospective multicentre cohort including all CO-BSI episodes in adult patients was performed over a 3-month period in 2006–2007. Outcome variables were mortality and inappropriate empirical therapy. Adjusted analyses were performed by logistic regression. Results 341 episodes of CO-BSI were included in the study. Acquisition was HCA in 56% (192 episodes) of them. Inappropriate empirical therapy was administered in 16.7% (57 episodes). All-cause mortality was 16.4% (56 patients) at day 14 and 20% (71 patients) at day 30. After controlling for age, Charlson index, source, etiology, presentation with severe sepsis or shock and inappropriate empirical treatment, acquisition type was not associated with an increase in 14-day or 30-day mortality. Only an stratified analysis of 14th-day mortality for Gram negatives BSI showed a statically significant difference (7% in CA vs 17% in HCA, p = 0,05). Factors independently related to inadequate empirical treatment in the community were: catheter source, cancer, and previous antimicrobial use; no association with HCA acquisition was found. Conclusion HCA acquisition in our cohort was not a predictor for either inappropriate empirical treatment or increased mortality. These results might reflect recent changes in therapeutic protocols and epidemiological changes in community pathogens. Further studies should focus on recognising CA BSI due to resistant organisms facilitating an early and adequate treatment in patients with CA resistant BSI. PMID:23883281

  13. Encephalopathy with calcifications of the basal ganglia in children. A reappraisal of Fahr's syndrome with respect to 14 new cases.

    PubMed

    Billard, C; Dulac, O; Bouloche, J; Echenne, B; Lebon, P; Motte, J; Robain, O; Santini, J J

    1989-02-01

    Calcifications of the basal ganglia are described under the heading of "Fahr's syndrome". The clinical pattern is variable and the syndrome may be sporadic or familial. This study describes a personal series of 14 cases of encephalopathy with calcification of the basal ganglia and reviews the literature cases. A four-group classification is proposed. The first group includes encephalopathy, microcephaly, dwarfism, retinal degeneration or optic atrophy, symmetrical patchy demyelination with calcifications and probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Some cases have an early onset, a rapid evolution. Others have a later onset, longer course and retinal degeneration. In the second group, the children suffer from a congenital encephalopathy or a cerebral palsy without clear deterioration, without short stature, ocular impairment or persistent CSF abnormalities. This group has not been reported in the literature. The cases do not seem to be genetic. The precise cause in unknown but a sporadic non progressive anoxo-ischemic, or viral prenatal disease is suggested. In the third group, the association of encephalopathy, microcephaly, and persistent CSF lymphocytosis, has a high recurrence rate. The pathogenesis is still a matter of dispute. The fourth group is characterized by autosomal dominant calcifications of the basal ganglia with or without neurological abnormalities. Finally calcium metabolism disorders and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy may be associated with calcifications of the basal ganglia.

  14. Reappraisal of the geothermal potential at Colli Albani volcano (Italy): a new approach to the volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Ramazzotti, P.; Bonamico, A.; Mattei, M.

    2012-04-01

    High enthalpy geothermal reservoirs are usually associated with fractured rocks. Secondary permeability is however difficult to be predicted thus making it difficult to locate the most productive volumes of the reservoirs. The calculation of the energetic potential in geothermal areas suffers of the large uncertainties associated with secondary permeability issues, facing the task of the interplay between stratification and fracturing on the anisotropic distribution of secondary permeability. The object of this work is the research and informatization of available data for the Colli Albani (Latium, Central Italy) geothermal system, in order to propose a qualitative approach and quantitative identification and description of geothermal systems, applied to the Colli Albani area as a case history. The identification of the rock volumes most promising in terms of industrial exploitation needs the definition of an evaluation matrix. The considered data can be placed in a three dimensional matrix with A axis that accounts for the modeling of the depth of the top of the reservoirs based on geophysical and direct data, and a B axis that accounts for the thermal modeling of the crust (i.e. T with depth) based on measured thermal gradients. Both A and B data are strongly influenced by the geological model therefore, as for the case of Colli Albani, there is certainly a lot of scope into revising existing geological reconstructions of the reservoirs in Central Italy and accordingly reconsidering the interpolation and modeling of both thermal and geophysical data. For the scope of this work, we have taken into account the maps descriptive the thermal structure and the deep distribution of the top of the geothermal reservoirs produced by ENEL and AGIP between the 1970s and 1990s for Cental Italy, and we have detailed the internal structure of the substrate, considering more recent direct and indirect data on the nature of the substratum. Finally, we discuss the implementation of a C axis which aims at evaluating the surface data that are evidence of geothermal fluid circulation in the geothermal reservoir. We considered datasets on: i) distribution and density of tectonic lineaments (ENEL, 1972 and original data); ii) temperature and electric conductivity of groundwaters (Capelli and Mazza, 2005); iii) partial pressure of dissolved CO2 in the groundwaters (Chiodini and Frondini, 2001). These data may give guidance on areas where the cap rocks are affected by permeable faults and fractures, and on the presence at depth of permeable fractured volumes and fluid circulation inside the reservoir. All data sets on the A, B and C axes of the conceptual matrix have been treated in a GIS platform, and thematic maps have been calculated over a grid with 200 meters side, from a proposed general formula able to approach the feasibility of geothermal exploration on each grid cell.

  15. Cognitive dysfunction in the dystrophin-deficient mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A reappraisal from sensory to executive processes.

    PubMed

    Chaussenot, Rémi; Edeline, Jean-Marc; Le Bec, Benoit; El Massioui, Nicole; Laroche, Serge; Vaillend, Cyrille

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with language disabilities and deficits in learning and memory, leading to intellectual disability in a patient subpopulation. Recent studies suggest the presence of broader deficits affecting information processing, short-term memory and executive functions. While the absence of the full-length dystrophin (Dp427) is a common feature in all patients, variable mutation profiles may additionally alter distinct dystrophin-gene products encoded by separate promoters. However, the nature of the cognitive dysfunctions specifically associated with the loss of distinct brain dystrophins is unclear. Here we show that the loss of the full-length brain dystrophin in mdx mice does not modify the perception and sensorimotor gating of auditory inputs, as assessed using auditory brainstem recordings and prepulse inhibition of startle reflex. In contrast, both acquisition and long-term retention of cued and trace fear memories were impaired in mdx mice, suggesting alteration in a functional circuit including the amygdala. Spatial learning in the water maze revealed reduced path efficiency, suggesting qualitative alteration in mdx mice learning strategy. However, spatial working memory performance and cognitive flexibility challenged in various behavioral paradigms in water and radial-arm mazes were unimpaired. The full-length brain dystrophin therefore appears to play a role during acquisition of associative learning as well as in general processes involved in memory consolidation, but no overt involvement in working memory and/or executive functions could be demonstrated in spatial learning tasks.

  16. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  17. Students' Conceptions about Climate Change: Using Critical Evaluation to Influence Plausibility Reappraisals and Knowledge Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Douglas Adler

    2012-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) reported a greater than 90% chance that human activities are responsible for global temperature increases over the last 50 years, as well as other climatic changes. The scientific report also states that alternative explanations (e.g., increasing energy received from the Sun) are less plausible…

  18. Reappraising the link between peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD symptom severity: evidence from a longitudinal study of community violence survivors.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L

    2002-11-01

    Cross-lagged panel analysis of longitudinal data collected from young adult survivors of community violence was used to examine the relationship between recall of peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Recollections of peritraumatic dissociation assessed within days of exposure differed from recollections measured at 3- and 12-month follow-up interviews. Peritraumatic dissociation was highly correlated with PTSD symptoms within each wave of data collection. Baseline recollections of peritraumatic dissociation were not predictive of follow-up PTSD symptom severity after controlling for baseline PTSD symptom severity. This pattern of results replicates previous work demonstrating a correlation between peritraumatic dissociation and subsequent symptom severity. However, findings are not consistent with the prevailing view that peritraumatic dissociation leads to increased PTSD symptom severity.

  19. Clinical reappraisal of SHORT syndrome with PIK3R1 mutations: towards recommendation for molecular testing and management.

    PubMed

    Avila, Magali; Dyment, David A; Sagen, Jørn V; St-Onge, Judith; Moog, Ute; Chung, Brian H Y; Mansour, Sahar; Albanese, Assunta; Garcia, Sixto; Ortiz Martin, David; Lopez, Ainhoa Abad; Claudi, Tor; König, Rainer; White, Susan M; Sawyer, Sarah L; Bernstein, Jon A; Slattery, Leah; Jobling, Rebekah K; Yoon, Grace; Curry, Cynthia J; Le Merrer, Martine; Le Luyer, Bernard; Héron, Delphine; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Bitoun, Pierre; Odent, Sylvie; Amiel, Jeanne; Kuentz, Paul; Thevenon, Julien; Laville, Martine; Reznik, Yves; Fagour, Cédric; Nunes, Marie-Laure; Delesalle, Dorothée; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Lascols, Olivier; Huet, Frédéric; Binquet, Christine; Faivre, Laurence; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Vigouroux, Corinne; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Innes, A Micheil; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2015-10-24

    SHORT syndrome has historically been defined by its acronym: short stature (S), hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia (H), ocular depression (O), Rieger abnormality (R) and teething delay (T). More recently several research groups have identified PIK3R1 mutations as responsible for SHORT syndrome. Knowledge of the molecular etiology of SHORT syndrome has permitted a reassessment of the clinical phenotype. The detailed phenotypes of 32 individuals with SHORT syndrome and PIK3R1 mutation, including eight newly ascertained individuals, were studied to fully define the syndrome and the indications for PIK3R1 testing. The major features described in the SHORT acronym were not universally seen and only half (52%) had 4 or more of the classic features. The commonly observed clinical features of SHORT syndrome seen in the cohort included IUGR < 10(th) percentile, postnatal growth restriction, lipoatrophy and the characteristic facial gestalt. Anterior chamber defects and insulin resistance or diabetes were also observed but were not as prevalent. The less specific, or minor features of SHORT syndrome include teething delay, thin wrinkled skin, speech delay, sensorineural deafness, hyperextensibility of joints and inguinal hernia. Given the high risk of diabetes mellitus, regular monitoring of glucose metabolism is warranted. An echocardiogram, ophthalmological and hearing assessments are also recommended.

  20. Pharmacological and genetic reappraisals of protease and oxidative stress pathways in a mouse model of obstructive lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kamei, Shunsuke; Nohara, Hirofumi; Fujikawa, Haruka; Tasaki, Yukihiro; Sugahara, Takuya; Ono, Tomomi; Matsumoto, Chizuru; Sakaguchi, Yuki; Maruta, Kasumi; Nakashima, Ryunosuke; Kawakami, Taisei; Suico, Mary Ann; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ishigami, Akihito; Takeo, Toru; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nakagata, Naomi; Uchimura, Kohei; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Li, Jian-Dong; Kai, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidative stress are considered to be major pathophysiological hallmarks of severe obstructive lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), but limited information is available on their direct roles in the regulation of pulmonary phenotypes. Here, we utilized βENaC-transgenic (Tg) mice, the previously established mouse model of severe obstructive lung diseases, to produce lower-mortality but pathophysiologically highly useful mouse model by backcrossing the original line with C57/BL6J mice. C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice showed higher survival rates and key pulmonary abnormalities of COPD/CF, including mucous hypersecretion, inflammatory and emphysematous phenotypes and pulmonary dysfunction. DNA microarray analysis confirmed that protease- and oxidative stress-dependent pathways are activated in the lung tissue of C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice. Treatments of C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice with a serine protease inhibitor ONO-3403, a derivative of camostat methylate (CM), but not CM, and with an anti-oxidant N-acetylcystein significantly improved pulmonary emphysema and dysfunction. Moreover, depletion of a murine endogenous antioxidant vitamin C (VC), by genetic disruption of VC-synthesizing enzyme SMP30 in C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice, exaggerated pulmonary phenotypes. Thus, these assessments clarified that protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidative stress are critical pathways that exacerbate the pulmonary phenotypes of C57/BL6J-βENaC-Tg mice, consistent with the characteristics of human COPD/CF. PMID:27982104

  1. Evidence for yeast autophagy during simulation of sparkling wine aging: a reappraisal of the mechanism of yeast autolysis in wine.

    PubMed

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    Yeast autolysis is the source of several molecules responsible for the quality of wines aged in contact with yeast cells. However, the mechanisms of yeast autolysis during wine aging are not completely understood. All descriptions of yeast autolysis in enological conditions emphasize the disturbance of cell organization as the starting event in the internal digestion of the cell, while no reference to autophagy is found in wine-related literature. By using yeast mutants defective in the autophagic or the Cvt pathways we have demonstrated that autophagy does take place in wine production conditions. This finding has implications for the genetic improvement of yeasts for accelerated autolysis.

  2. 3-Fluoro-2,4-dioxa-3-phosphadecalins as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. A reappraisal of kinetic mechanisms and diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Baici, Antonio; Schenker, Patricia; Wächter, Michael; Rüedi, Peter

    2009-03-01

    A systematic survey of the acetylcholine-mimetic 2,4-dioxa-3-phosphadecalins as irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase revealed hitherto overlooked properties as far as the kinetic mechanisms of interaction are concerned. As a support to past and future work in this field, we describe the kinetics of eight reaction schemes that may be found in irreversible enzyme modification and compare them with two mechanism of reversible, slow-binding inhibition. The relevant kinetic equations and their associated graphical representations are given for all mechanisms, and concrete examples illustrate their practical use. Since irreversible inhibition is a time-dependent phenomenon, kinetic analysis is greatly facilitated by fitting the appropriate integrated rate equations to reaction-progress curves by nonlinear regression. This primary scrutiny provides kinetic parameters that are indispensable tools for diagnosing the kinetic mechanism and for calculating inhibition constants. Numerical integration of sets of differential equations is an additional useful investigation tool in critical situations, e.g., when inhibitors are unstable and/or act as irreversible modifiers only temporarily.

  3. A reappraisal of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle: what can we learn by extracting concepts from Gaia theory?

    PubMed

    Cresser, Malcolm S; Aitkenhead, Matthew J; Mian, Ishaq A

    2008-08-01

    Although soil scientists and most environmental scientists are acutely aware of the interactions between the cycling of carbon and nitrogen, for conceptual convenience when portraying the nitrogen cycle in text books the N cycle tends to be considered in isolation from its interactions with the cycling of other elements and water, usually as a snap shot at the current time; the origins of dinitrogen are rarely considered, for example. The authors suggest that Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis provides a useful and stimulating framework for consideration of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle. If it is used, it suggests that urbanization and management of sewage, and intensive animal rearing are probably bigger global issues than nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and that plant evolution may be driven by the requirement of locally sustainable and near optimal soil mineral N supply dynamics. This may, in turn, be partially regulating global carbon and oxygen cycles. It is suggested that pollutant N deposition may disrupt this essential natural plant and terrestrial ecosystem evolutionary process, causing biodiversity change. Interactions between the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, and possibly beyond, also need to be considered in the context of the global N cycle over geological time scales. This is because of direct potential impacts on the nitrogen content of the atmosphere, potential long-term impacts of past boloid collisions on plate tectonics and thus on global N cycling via subduction and volcanic emissions, and indirect effects upon C, O and water cycling that all may impact upon the N cycle in the long term.

  4. Re-appraisal of old and new diagnostic tools in the current management of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a very complex and intricate DNA structure associated with a particular genomic organization and replication cycle. However, many years of investigations allowed clarification of the real HBV natural history, through a deeper knowledge of the behavior of HBV antigens and viral structures. Several of the old diagnostic tools, such as HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) determinations, gained prominence now, since the variation of both HBsAg and HBeAg plasma levels was shown to predict treatment response. In addition, the availability of more sensitive methods, such as HBV DNA detection by real-time PCR, has improved the current knowledge of the relationships between HBV replication levels and the natural history of the disease. It is now well established that some HBV genotypes are associated with a better response to treatment with pegylated interferon. Despite the widely accepted value of liver biopsy as a staging tool, transient elastography is being increasingly acknowledged as a non-invasive method to assess liver stiffness, chiefly for detection of advanced fibrosis. Current international guidelines for the management of chronic hepatitis B have provided several accurate biochemical and serological criteria for selecting patients for treatment, allowing a higher number of cases to be enrolled into antiviral therapy. This review describes the different serological markers used for the study of HBV and their clinical significance. It also deals with methods used for detection of genotypes and HBV DNA, emphasizing the effectiveness of such determinations for both patient selection and chronic hepatitis B therapy/monitoring.

  5. After the Gold Rush: Questioning the "Gold Standard" and Reappraising the Status of Experiment and Randomized Controlled Trials in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a resurgence of faith in experimentation in education inquiry, and particularly in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Proponents of such research have succeeded in bringing into common parlance the term "gold standard," which suggests that research emerging from any other design frame fails to achieve the…

  6. Ruthenium-106 brachytherapy for thick uveal melanoma: reappraisal of apex and base dose radiation and dose rate

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi, Ramin; Sedaghat, Ahad; Azma, Zohreh; Nojomi, Marzieh; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Nazari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of ruthenium-106 (106Ru) brachytherapy in terms of radiation parameters in patients with thick uveal melanomas. Material and methods Medical records of 51 patients with thick (thickness ≥ 7 mm and < 11 mm) uveal melanoma treated with 106Ru brachytherapy during a ten-year period were reviewed. Radiation parameters, tumor regression, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and treatment-related complications were assessed. Results Fifty one eyes of 51 consecutive patients including 25 men and 26 women with a mean age of 50.5 ± 15.2 years were enrolled. Patients were followed for 36.1 ± 26.5 months (mean ± SD). Mean radiation dose to tumor apex and to sclera were 71 (± 19.2) Gy and 1269 (± 168.2) Gy. Radiation dose rates to tumor apex and to sclera were 0.37 (± 0.14) Gy/h and 6.44 (± 1.50) Gy/h. Globe preservation was achieved in 82.4%. Preoperative mean tumor thickness of 8.1 (± 0.9) mm decreased to 4.5 (± 1.6) mm, 3.4 (± 1.4) mm, and 3.0 (± 1.46) mm at 12, 24, and 48 months after brachytherapy (p = 0.03). Four eyes that did not show regression after 6 months of brachytherapy were enucleated. Secondary enucleation was performed in 5 eyes because of tumor recurrence or neovascular glaucoma. Tumor recurrence was evident in 6 (11.8%) patients. Mean Log MAR (magnification requirement) visual acuity declined from 0.75 (± 0.63) to 0.94 (± 0.5) (p = 0.04). Best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse was recorded in 37% of the patients at the time of diagnosis and 61.7% of the patients at last exam (p = 0.04). Non-proliferative and proliferative radiation-induced retinopathy was observed in 20 and 7 eyes. Conclusions Thick uveal melanomas are amenable to 106Ru brachytherapy with less than recommended apex radiation dose and dose rates. PMID:26985199

  7. The Effectiveness of Daily Mindful Breathing Practices on Test Anxiety of Students

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyunju; Ryu, Seokjin; Noh, Jeeae; Lee, Jongsun

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of daily mindful breathing practices on test anxiety of university students. A total of 36 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a training mindful breathing condition (n = 12), a training cognitive reappraisal condition (contrast group, n = 12), and a non-training condition (control group, n = 12). Each of the participants trained by themselves for 6 days after they had taken one session of education for mindful or cognitive reappraisal practices. They wrote their experiences on daily worksheets and sent it by mobile with taking pictures that were confirmed by the researcher. Before and after training, each of the participants completed a questionnaire to assess: test anxiety, positive thought, and positive affect. The results of the study showed that both mindful breathing practice and cognitive reappraisal practice yielded large effect sizes in reducing test anxiety. In addition, the mindful breathing condition scored significantly higher on positive thoughts than the cognitive reappraisal and control conditions. The findings of this study suggest that both daily mindful breathing and cognitive reappraisal practices were effective in reducing test anxiety; however, mindful breathing increased positive automatic thoughts to a greater extent than cognitive reappraisal. PMID:27764151

  8. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  9. Enhancing Emotion Regulation During Driving in OEF/OIF Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    behavioral intervention combining breathing retraining/heart rate variability biofeedback and cognitive reappraisal. Both components are compatible...combining breathing retraining/heart rate variability biofeedback and cognitive reappraisal. Both components are compatible with on-road driving

  10. The dynamic nature of the stress appraisal process and the infusion of affect.

    PubMed

    Eschleman, Kevin J; Alarcon, Gene M; Lyons, Joseph B; Stokes, Charlene K; Schneider, Tamera

    2012-05-01

    Very little is known about the process in which people reappraise a stressful environment or the factors that may influence this process. In the current study, we address the several limitations to previous research regarding stress reappraisals and explore the role of affect on this process. A total of 320 participants (mean age = 20 years, 60% male) completed an increasingly demanding team-based coordination task. Mood and stress appraisals were assessed at three time points using self-report surveys during four different waves of data collection. The longitudinal design enabled us to assess primary and secondary reappraisals (change in appraisals during the experiment), task-irrelevant affect (affect assessed prior to experiment participation), and task-relevant affect (change in affect experienced during the experiment). Guided by the Transactional Theory of Stress, we argue that the relationship between primary reappraisal and secondary reappraisal is an accurate representation of a dynamic stress appraisal process. We found that participants were more likely to engage in the stress appraisal process when they experienced less task-irrelevant positive affect and greater task-relevant positive affect. Both task-irrelevant and task-relevant negative affect were not found to influence the stress appraisal process.

  11. Emotion regulation moderates the association between empathy and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi

    2014-01-01

    Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred-and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal.

  12. Suppression Benefits Boys in Taiwan: The Relation between Gender, Emotional Regulation Strategy, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Bedford, Olwen; Wu, Chih-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yi; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2017-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) strategies have a clear impact on mental health outcomes. In 2 studies (N = 695, N = 433) we investigated gender differences in the use of 2 ER strategies (reappraisal and suppression) to handle parent-child conflict in Taiwanese adolescents. We also identified the implications of these differences for some negative emotions (self-blame and resentment) and internalizing problems (psychosomatic symptoms and social withdrawal). Results of the correlation analyses in both studies indicated that reappraisal and suppression ER strategies are positively correlated only in male Taiwanese adolescents. Hierarchical regression analyses in the second study confirmed that reappraisal buffers male but not female adolescents against the negative effects of suppression on the arousal of negative affect and internalizing problems. PMID:28220099

  13. Reappraisal of Europe’s most complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian: Brancasaurus brancai Wegner, 1914 from the “Wealden facies” of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Jahn J.; Kear, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    The holotype of Brancasaurus brancai is one of the most historically famous and anatomically complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian fossils. It derived from the Gerdemann & Co. brickworks clay pit near Gronau (Westfalen) in North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Germany. Stratigraphically this locality formed part of the classic European “Wealden facies,” but is now more formally attributed to the upper-most strata of the Bückeberg Group (upper Berriasian). Since its initial description in 1914, the type skeleton of B. brancai has suffered damage both during, and after WWII. Sadly, these mishaps have resulted in the loss of substantial information, in particular many structures of the cranium and limb girdles, which are today only evidenced from published text and/or illustrations. This non-confirmable data has, however, proven crucial for determining the relationships of B. brancai within Plesiosauria: either as an early long-necked elasmosaurid, or a member of the controversial Early Cretaceous leptocleidid radiation. To evaluate these competing hypotheses and compile an updated osteological compendium, we undertook a comprehensive examination of the holotype as it is now preserved, and also assessed other Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian fossils to establish a morphological hypodigm. Phylogenetic simulations using the most species-rich datasets of Early Cretaceous plesiosaurians incorporating revised scores for B. brancai, together with a second recently named Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian Gronausaurus wegneri (Hampe, 2013), demonstrated that referral of these taxa to Leptocleididae was not unanimous, and that the topological stability of this clade is tenuous. In addition, the trait combinations manifested by B. brancai and G. wegneri were virtually identical. We therefore conclude that these monotypic individuals are ontogenetic morphs and G. wegneri is a junior synonym of B. brancai. Finally, anomalies detected in the diagnostic features for other “Wealden” plesiosaurians have prompted reconsiderations of interspecies homology versus intraspecific variability. We therefore propose that the still unresolved taxonomy of B. brancai should emphasize only those character states evident in the examinable fossil material, and specifically accommodate for growth-related modifications delimited via osteologically mature referred specimens. PMID:28028478

  14. The chronostratigraphic framework of the South-Pyrenean Maastrichtian succession reappraised: Implications for basin development and end-Cretaceous dinosaur faunal turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fondevilla, Víctor; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Oms, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of the end-Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems and faunas outside of North America is largely restricted to the European Archipelago. The information scattered in this last area can only be integrated in a chronostratigraphic framework on the basis of robust age constraints and stratigraphy. Therefore, we have revisited the puzzling age calibration of the sedimentary infilling from the Isona sector in the Tremp syncline (South-Central Pyrenees), an area renowned for its rich Maastrichtian dinosaur fossil record. Aiming to shed light to existing controversial age determinations, we carried out a new magnetostratigraphic study along the ~ 420 m long Orcau and Nerets sections of that area. Our results reveal that most of the succession correlates to the early Maastrichtian (mostly chron C31r) in accordance to ages proposed by recent planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy. The resulting chronostratigraphic framework of the entire Maastrichtian basin recorded in the Tremp syncline shows that a significant sedimentary hiatus of about 3 My characterizes most of the late Maastrichtian in the study area. This hiatus, related to an abrupt migration of the basin depocenter, is temporally close to similar hiatuses, decreases in sedimentary rates and facies shifts recorded in other southwestern European areas. The present chronologic framework sets the basis for a thorough assessment of end-Cretaceous terrestrial faunal turnover and extinction patterns, and the establishment of a more rigorous Pyrenean basin evolution analysis.

  15. Child sexual abuse in religiously affiliated and secular institutions: a retrospective descriptive analysis of data provided by victims in a government-sponsored reappraisal program in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The disclosure of widespread sexual abuse committed by professional educators and clergymen in institutions in Germany ignited a national political debate, in which special attention was paid to church-run institutions. We wanted to find out whether the nature of the abuse and its effect on victims differed depending on whether the abuse had been experienced in religiously affiliated versus secular institutions. Methods In 2010, the German government established a hotline that victims could contact anonymously to describe their experiences of sexual abuse. The information provided by callers was documented and categorized. Our analysis looked at a subset of the data collected, in order to compare the nature of the abuse experienced at three types of institutions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and non–religiously affiliated. Non-parametric tests were used to compare frequency distributions, and qualitative data were analyzed descriptively. Results Of the 1050 victims in our sample, 404 had been in Roman Catholic, 130 in Protestant, and 516 in non-religious institutions. The overall mean age at the time of reporting was 52.2 years. Males (59.8%) outnumbered females. Victims who had been in religiously affiliated institutions were significantly older than those who had been in secular institutions. Almost half the victims had been abused physically as well as sexually, and most victims reported that the abuse had occurred repeatedly and that the assaults had been committed by males. Patterns of abuse (time, type, and extent), and the gender of the offenders did not differ between the three groups. Intercourse was more frequently reported by older victims and by females. Similar percentages of victims in all groups reported current psychiatric diagnoses (depression, anxiety disorders, PTSD). Significantly more victims from Protestant institutions reported having current psychosocial problems. Conclusion The results suggest that child sexual abuse in institutions is attributable to the nature of institutional structures and to societal assumptions about the rights of children more than to the attitudes towards sexuality of a specific religion. The exploratory data arising from this study may serve as a starting point for building hypotheses, and may point the way toward improvements in prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24669770

  16. Archeomagnetic dating of the eruption of Xitle volcano (Mexico) from a reappraisal of the paleointensity with the MSP-DSC protocol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Ayala, Manuel; Camps, Pierre; Alva-Valdivia, Luis; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The Xitle volcano, located south of Mexico City, is a monogenic volcano that has provided seven lava flows in a time interval of a few years. The age of these eruptions, estimated by means of radiocarbon dates on charcoal from beneath the flows, is still very poorly known, ranging from 4765±90 BC to 520±200 AD (see Siebe, JVGR, 2000 for a review). This lava field was emplaced over the archaeological city of Cuicuilco whose occupation is estimated between 700 BC and 150 AD. Thus a question is still pending: Is the downfall of Cuicuilco directly attributable to the eruption of Xitle? It seems that the answer is negative if we consider the latest radiocarbon dating by Siebe (2000), which sets the age of the eruption to 280±35 AD, that is significantly younger to the abandon of the city. Because this new age has direct implications on the history of the movements of ancient populations in the Central Valley of Mexico, we propose in the present study to check this estimate by archaeomagnetic dating. Xitle lava have been investigated several times for paleomagnetism, including directional analyses and absolute paleointensity determinations (see Alva, EPS, 57, 839-853, 2005 for a review). The characteristic Remanence direction is precisely determined. It is much more difficult to estimate precisely the paleointensity with the Thellier method: values scatter between 40 and 90 μT in a single flow (Alva, 2005). We propose here to estimate the paleointensity by means of the MSP-DSC protocol (Fabian and Leonhardt, 2010) with the new ultra-fast heating furnace FUReMAG developed in Montpellier (France). The sampling was performed along four profiles, one vertical through the entire thickness of the flow and three horizontal (at the top, middle and the bottom of the flow). Our preliminary results show that there is no difference between the values found in the different profiles, all providing a value around 62 μT. The comparison of our results (Dec = 359.0°, Inc = 35.2°, F=62.8±1.1 μT) with the model CALS3K.4 for secular variation provided an Archaeomagnetic age between 176 BC and 58 BC at 95% significance value. This age is consistent with the hypothesis of archaeological destruction and the abandonment of Cuicuilco during the eruption of the Xitle volcano.

  17. "Compound blue nevus": a reappraisal of "superficial blue nevus with prominent intraepidermal dendritic melanocytes" with emphasis on dermoscopic and histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zgavec, Borut; Bartenjev, Igor; Staibano, Stefania; De Rosa, Gaetano; Soyer, H Peter

    2002-01-01

    We describe 5 cases of "compound blue nevus" (CBN) ("superficial blue nevus with prominent intraepidermal dendritic melanocytes," "Kamino nevus"). Dermoscopically in 2 of 4 cases the bluish pigmentation characteristic of blue nevi was centrally replaced by a black lamella, with black dots and brown globules also observed in one case, thus revealing a structural asymmetry suggestive of melanoma. Histopathologically, pigmented parakeratosis was the underlying histopathologic finding of black lamella and dots/globules. Immunohistochemistry highlighted the unique histopathologic feature of CBN, namely, single dendritic melanocytes at the dermoepidermal junction with striking intraepidermal prolongations. Our findings confirm that CBN is a distinctive variant of blue nevus that may mimic cutaneous melanoma both clinically and dermoscopically.

  18. Phosphorylation of eIF4GII and 4E-BP1 in response to nocodazole treatment: a reappraisal of translation initiation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, Mark J; Cowan, Joanne L; Vlasak, Markete; Mead, Abbie; Willett, Mark; Perry, Lisa S; Morley, Simon J

    2013-12-01

    Translation mechanisms at different stages of the cell cycle have been studied for many years, resulting in the dogma that translation rates are slowed during mitosis, with cap-independent translation mechanisms favored to give expression of key regulatory proteins. However, such cell culture studies involve synchronization using harsh methods, which may in themselves stress cells and affect protein synthesis rates. One such commonly used chemical is the microtubule de-polymerization agent, nocodazole, which arrests cells in mitosis and has been used to demonstrate that translation rates are strongly reduced (down to 30% of that of asynchronous cells). Using synchronized HeLa cells released from a double thymidine block (G 1/S boundary) or the Cdk1 inhibitor, RO3306 (G 2/M boundary), we have systematically re-addressed this dogma. Using FACS analysis and pulse labeling of proteins with labeled methionine, we now show that translation rates do not slow as cells enter mitosis. This study is complemented by studies employing confocal microscopy, which show enrichment of translation initiation factors at the microtubule organizing centers, mitotic spindle, and midbody structure during the final steps of cytokinesis, suggesting that translation is maintained during mitosis. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of translation in response to extended times of exposure to nocodazole reflects increased eIF2α phosphorylation, disaggregation of polysomes, and hyperphosphorylation of selected initiation factors, including novel Cdk1-dependent N-terminal phosphorylation of eIF4GII. Our work suggests that effects on translation in nocodazole-arrested cells might be related to those of the treatment used to synchronize cells rather than cell cycle status.

  19. A re-appraisal of the widely-distributed freshwater crab genus Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, from China, with establishment of a new genus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Huang, Chao; Ng, Peter K L

    2016-07-15

    Freshwater crabs of the genus Sinopotamon Bott, 1967 (family Potamidae) are widely distributed along the Yangtze River (= Chang Jiang) drainage and are endemic to China. Two distinct clades can be distinguished within Sinopotamon s. lato. on the basis of morphological and molecular data. One clade corresponds to Sinopotamon s. str., with the type species Potamon (Potamon) davidi Rathbun, 1904, and 11 other species, all which occur in the Sichuan Basin (including Sichuan Province and Chongqing City) and reach the border areas of adjacent Shaanxi, Hubei, and Guizhou provinces. A new genus, Longpotamon gen. nov., is proposed for the second clade, with Sinopotamon exiguum Dai, 1997, designated as the type species. Sinopotamon s. str. can be distinguished from Longpotamon gen. nov. by the shape of the male telson and by characters of the male first gonopod and the female vulvae. These differences are supported by the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genetic data. Longpotamon gen. nov. is the largest clade, with 73 known species and a wide distribution along the Yangtze River drainage extending north to the Yellow River drainage and south to the eastern side of Wuyishan Range. The two genera overlap in the Sichuan Basin and the adjacent provinces.

  20. A critical reappraisal of dietary practices in methylmalonic acidemia raises concerns about the safety of medical foods. Part 2: Cobalamin C deficiency (cblC).¶

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Irini; Myles, Jennifer G.; Sloan, Jennifer L.; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Morava, Eva; Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, Holmes; Venditti, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency impairs the biosynthesis of adenosyl- and methylcobalamin resulting in methylmalonic acidemia combined with hyperhomocysteinemia and hypomethioninemia. However, some patients with cblC deficiency are treated with medical foods, devoid of methionine and high in leucine content, that are formulated for patients with isolated propionate oxidative defects. We examined the effects of imbalanced branched-chain amino acid intake on growth outcomes in cblC patients. METHODS Dietary intake was correlated with biochemical, anthropometric, body composition measurements and other disease parameters in a cohort of 28 early-onset cblC patients. RESULTS Protein restricted diets were followed by 21% of the patients, while 32% received medical foods. Patients on protein-restricted diets had lower height-for-age Z-score (P=0.034), while patients consuming medical foods had lower head-circumference Z-scores (P=0.037), plasma methionine concentrations (P=0.001) and predicted methionine influx through the blood brain barrier Z-score (−1.29 vs. −0.0617, P=0.007). The combination of age of diagnosis, a history of seizures and the leucine/valine dietary intake ratio best predicted head circumference Z-score based on multiple regression modeling (R2= 0.945). CONCLUSIONS Patients with cblC deficiency treated with medical foods designed for isolated methylmalonic acidemia are at risk for iatrogenic methionine deficiency that could adversely affect brain growth and development. TRIAL REGISTRATION This clinical study is registered in www.clinicaltrials.gov with the ID: NCT00078078. Study URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00078078 PMID:26270766