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Sample records for reappraisal positive reappraisal

  1. The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adult Cognitive Reappraisal: Detached and Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control– shifting, updating or inhibition–might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults. PMID:28326024

  2. The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adult Cognitive Reappraisal: Detached and Positive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control- shifting, updating or inhibition-might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults.

  3. The Role of Mindfulness in Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric; Gaylord, Susan; Park, Jongbae

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation is increasingly well known for therapeutic efficacy in a variety of illnesses and conditions, but its mechanism of action is still under debate in scientific circles. In this paper we propose a hypothetical causal model that argues for the role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal coping. Positive reappraisal is a critical component of meaning-based coping that enables individuals to adapt successfully to stressful life events. Mindfulness, as a metacognitive form of awareness, involves the process of decentering, a shifting of cognitive sets that enables alternate appraisals of life events. We review the concept of positive reappraisal in transactional stress and coping theory; then describe research and traditional literature related to mindfulness and cognitive reappraisal, and detail the central role of mindfulness in the reappraisal process. With this understanding, we present a causal model explicating the proposed mechanism. The discussion has implications for clinical practice, suggesting how mindfulness-based integrative medicine interventions can be designed to support adaptive coping processes. PMID:19114262

  4. Effects of Aging on Experimentally Instructed Detached Reappraisal, Positive Reappraisal, and Emotional Behavior Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Michelle N.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion regulation includes multiple strategies that rely upon different underlying abilities, and that may be affected differently by aging. We assessed young, middle-aged, and older adults' ability to implement three emotion regulation strategies (detached reappraisal, positive reappraisal, and behavior suppression) in a laboratory setting, using standardized emotional stimuli and a multi-method approach to assessing regulation success. Results revealed age-related decline in ability to implement detached reappraisal, enhancement of ability to implement positive reappraisal, and maintenance of ability to implement behavior suppression. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for emotion theory and for promoting successful aging. PMID:20025404

  5. The temporal dynamics of detached versus positive reappraisal: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Senqing; Li, Yangping; Tang, Xuemei; Zeng, Qinghong; Diao, Liuting; Li, Xiying; Li, Hong; Hu, Weiping

    2017-01-23

    Detached reappraisal and positive reappraisal are regarded as two distinct types of cognitive reappraisal strategy, and the former is considered more disengaging than the latter. The conceptual framework of emotion regulation choice posits that strategies involving disengagement operate earlier and more efficiently than engagement strategies. Here, we compare for the first time the temporal dynamics of detached and positive reappraisal during the regulation and re-exposure phases thereof by measuring event-related potentials. During the regulation phase, pictures were viewed or regulated using detached or positive reappraisal. During the re-exposure phase, the same pictures were viewed again. Results showed that during regulation, central-parietal late positive potentials (LPPs) were greatly attenuated under both strategy types, with the regulation effect of detached reappraisal occurring earlier than that of positive reappraisal and resulting in a stronger attenuation of LPP amplitudes. Upon re-exposure, detached reappraisal exerted enduring effects on self-reported arousal and the central-parietal LPP, whereas positive reappraisal had an enduring effect only on pleasantness. These findings demonstrate the differential effects of detached and positive reappraisal on valence, arousal, and neural responses, and underline the striking differences in the temporal dynamics of these reappraisal strategies.

  6. Turn down the volume or change the channel? Emotional effects of detached versus positive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive reappraisal, or changing one's interpretation of an event in order to alter the emotional response to it, is thought to be a healthy and an effective emotion regulation strategy. Although researchers recognize several distinct varieties of reappraisal, few studies have explicitly compared the effects of multiple reappraisal strategies on emotional responding. The present study compares the effects of detached and positive reappraisal on thought content, subjective emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and facial expressions of emotion while viewing film clips evoking sadness and disgust. Although both forms of reappraisal reduced overall emotional responding to unpleasant stimuli, the effects of detached reappraisal were stronger in this regard, and positive reappraisal was more likely to maintain subjective experience and facial expression of stimulus-appropriate positive emotions. The two reappraisal strategies also produced somewhat different profiles of physiological responding. Differences between detached and positive reappraisal with respect to subjective experience and facial expression were more pronounced among men than women; the reverse was true for differences with respect to physiological responding. Beyond these effects on individual emotion response systems, detached and positive reappraisal also had somewhat different effects on coherence in change across response systems. Implications for our understanding of emotion regulation processes, and for emotion theory more broadly, are discussed.

  7. Turn Down the Volume or Change the Channel?: Emotional Effects of Detached Versus Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Michelle N.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal, or changing one’s interpretation of an event in order to alter the emotional response to it, is thought to be a healthy and effective emotion regulation strategy. Although researchers recognize several distinct varieties of reappraisal, few studies have explicitly compared the effects of multiple reappraisal strategies on emotional responding. The present study compares the effects of detached and positive reappraisal on thought content, subjective emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and facial expressions of emotion while viewing film clips evoking sadness and disgust. While both forms of reappraisal reduced overall emotional responding to unpleasant stimuli, the effects of detached reappraisal were stronger in this regard, and positive reappraisal was more likely to maintain subjective experience and facial expression of stimulus-appropriate positive emotions. The two reappraisal strategies also produced somewhat different profiles of physiological responding. Differences between detached and positive reappraisal with respect to subjective experience and facial expression were more pronounced among men than women; the reverse was true for differences with respect to physiological responding. Beyond these effects on individual emotion response systems, detached and positive reappraisal also had somewhat different effects on coherence in change across response systems. Implications for our understanding of emotion regulation processes, and for emotion theory more broadly, are discussed. PMID:22746676

  8. The impact of positive reappraisal on positive (and negative) emotion among older adults.

    PubMed

    Nowlan, Jamie S; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2016-04-01

    Positive reappraisal is an important cognitive strategy for older adults associated with wide-ranging improvements in psychological well-being. However, little is known about the relationship between positive reappraisal and positive and negative emotion, anxiety and depression, and whether positive reappraisal is associated with continued increases in positive emotion over time. In the first study, 61 participants aged 62 to 88 years (M = 72, SD = 5.8) completed current measures of cognitive emotion regulation, positive emotion, negative emotion, anxiety and depression regarding their most distressing aging-related adverse life event, and rated (retrospectively) positive reappraisal use at the time of the stressor. Utilizing a longitudinal design, in a second study 60 participants aged 62 to 88 years (M = 71.2, SD = 5.7) completed the same measures for a recent adverse life event and repeated the measures 3 and 6 months later. In the first study, positive reappraisal reported for both time periods was significantly correlated with current positive emotion, but not negative emotion with mixed findings for anxiety and depression, and positive reappraisal use increased with time since stressor onset. In the second study, positive reappraisal was significantly correlated with positive emotion and significantly predicted positive emotion from 3-month to 6-month follow-up, and was related to anxiety and depression but not general negative emotion. These findings indicate that positive reappraisal is related to positive emotion but not consistently with negative emotion, and continues to be beneficial over time in older adults who have experienced a stressor.

  9. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-varies with Self-Reported Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Adam W.; Garland, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that mindfulness is associated with positive reappraisal and that mindfulness practice may be a means of encouraging positive reappraisal capacities. These findings, linking mindfulness with the promotion of cognitive coping strategies, challenge traditional Western conceptualizations of mindfulness as non-discursive. This study explored the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported positive reappraisal across five distinct samples: a general sample of American adults, contemplative practitioners, college students chronic pain outpatients, and alcohol dependent inpatient. Results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is positively related with self-reported positive reappraisal in all five studies as well as in an aggregated analysis combining all five studies. Furthermore, a second set of analyses statistically controlling for factors previously associated with positive reappraisal (i.e., psychological well-being, positive affect, and positive refocusing), provided evidence that mindfulness is uniquely associated with self-reported positive reappraisal. While more research is needed to refine our understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and positive reappraisal, the present investigation contributes to the growing evidence base supporting the hypothesized link between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported reappraisal by demonstrating a significant association between these constructs across a variety of samples and in the largest combined dataset on this phenomenon collected to date (N=819). PMID:24904191

  10. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-varies with Self-Reported Positive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Adam W; Garland, Eric L

    2014-08-01

    Emerging research suggests that mindfulness is associated with positive reappraisal and that mindfulness practice may be a means of encouraging positive reappraisal capacities. These findings, linking mindfulness with the promotion of cognitive coping strategies, challenge traditional Western conceptualizations of mindfulness as non-discursive. This study explored the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported positive reappraisal across five distinct samples: a general sample of American adults, contemplative practitioners, college students chronic pain outpatients, and alcohol dependent inpatient. Results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is positively related with self-reported positive reappraisal in all five studies as well as in an aggregated analysis combining all five studies. Furthermore, a second set of analyses statistically controlling for factors previously associated with positive reappraisal (i.e., psychological well-being, positive affect, and positive refocusing), provided evidence that mindfulness is uniquely associated with self-reported positive reappraisal. While more research is needed to refine our understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and positive reappraisal, the present investigation contributes to the growing evidence base supporting the hypothesized link between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported reappraisal by demonstrating a significant association between these constructs across a variety of samples and in the largest combined dataset on this phenomenon collected to date (N=819).

  11. Trait Reappraisal Predicts Affective Reactivity to Daily Positive and Negative Events

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Gul; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Past research on emotion regulation has provided evidence that cognitive reappraisal predicts reactivity to affective stimuli and challenge tests in laboratory settings. However, little is known about how trait reappraisal might contribute to affective reactivity to everyday positive and negative events. Using a large, life-span sample of adults (N = 1755), the present study addressed this important gap in the literature. Respondents completed a measure of trait reappraisal and reported on their daily experiences of positive and negative events and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. Results showed that trait reappraisal predicted lower increases in negative affect in response to daily negative events and lower increases in positive affect in response to daily positive events. These findings advance our understanding of the role of reappraisal in emotion regulation by showing how individual differences in the use of this strategy relate to emotional reactions to both positive and negative events outside the laboratory. PMID:27445954

  12. Developmental changes in neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal: An ERP study using the late positive potential.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberge, Valerie; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R

    2017-01-27

    The reduction of the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) following cognitive reappraisal has been used as a neural marker of emotion regulation. However, studies employing this neural marker in children are scarce and findings are not conclusive, with most studies showing a lack of LPP modulation after reappraisal in children in the age range of 5-12 years. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate developmental changes in sensitivity of LPP modulation to cognitive reappraisal. To do so, LPP modulation due to cognitive reappraisal of negative pictures was compared between two age groups (8- to 11- versus 12- to 15-year-olds) and regression analyses were applied within the total sample to test whether sensitivity of LPP modulation shows a linear increase with age. In 63 children the LPP was measured after negative pictures that were either combined with a negative story or with a neutral, reappraising story. Although groups did not differ for self-reports on reappraisal, a significant reduction of LPP following cognitive reappraisal was only found in the older children, whereas such an effect was absent in the younger children. Findings were similar for boys and girls. Additional analyses showed a linear increase in sensitivity of LPP modulation with age. The results indicate that LPP modulation as measured in the current paradigm can be used as a valid index of emotion regulation in boys and girls but that caution is recommended using it in younger children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rethinking emotion: cognitive reappraisal is an effective positive and negative emotion regulation strategy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Hay, Aleena C; Gross, James J

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal. Positive, negative, and neutral films were used to elicit emotion, and participants were cued to watch the film carefully (i.e., uninstructed condition) or reappraise while measures of affect, behavior, and psychophysiology were obtained. Results showed that reappraisal was associated with reductions in emotion reactivity across subjective (i.e., positive and negative affect), behavioral (i.e., positive facial displays), and physiological (i.e., skin conductance) response domains across all participants. Results suggest that reappraisal may be an effective regulation strategy for both negative and positive emotion across both healthy adults and individuals with bipolar disorder. Discussion focuses on clinical and treatment implications for bipolar disorder.

  14. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  15. Role of Creativity in the Effectiveness of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Guo, Tingting; Tang, Tengteng; Shi, Baoguo; Luo, Jing

    2017-01-01

    As a well-recognized and widely adopted emotional regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal has generally been proven to be efficient. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying regulatory efficiency, particularly the role of creativity, in cognitive reappraisal is unclear. Although previous studies have evaluated the relationship between creativity and reappraisal from the perspectives of generation (i.e., generating cognitive reappraisals and generating creative ideas involve similar cognitive neural networks) and individual differences (i.e., the ability to generate different cognitive reappraisals can be predicted by scores on creativity-related tests), how cognitive reappraisal's efficiency can be related to creativity is still unknown. In this research, we assessed the relationship between cognitive reappraisal's creativity and its effectiveness in regulating negative emotion. In Study 1, participants were asked to generate reappraisals of negative stimuli and then evaluate the creativity and regulatory effectiveness of these reappraisals. The results indicated positive correlation between creativity rating and regulatory effectiveness, but we found that it was difficult for the participants to generate highly creative reappraisals on their own. Therefore, in Study 2, we showed participants well-prepared reappraisal materials that varied in their creativity and asked them to evaluate their regulatory effectiveness and creativity. The results suggested that creativity and appropriateness were significant predictors of the regulating effects of the reappraisal and that creativity was the most dominant predictor. In summary, both experiments found a positive correlation between reappraisal's creativity and effectiveness, thus implying that creativity plays an important role in reappraisal.

  16. Age differences in managing response to sadness elicitors using attentional deployment, positive reappraisal, and suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated age differences in the use of attentional deployment, positive reappraisal, and suppression while regulating responses to sadness-eliciting content. We also tested to what extent these emotion regulation strategies were useful for each age group in managing response to age-relevant sad information. Forty-two young participants (Mage = 18.5, SE = .15) and 48 older participants (Mage = 71.42, SE = 1.15) watched four sadness-eliciting videos (about death/illness, 4–5 minutes long) under four conditions - no-regulation (no regulation instructions), attentional deployment (divert attention away), positive reappraisal (focus on positive outcomes), and suppression (conceal emotional expressions). We assessed negative emotional experience, expression, skin conductance level, and visual fixations while participants watched the emotional clips and followed the instructions for each condition. Results suggest that older adults were more successful than younger adults at implementing both attentional deployment and positive reappraisal. Ability to suppress emotions appears to remain stable with age. Within age-group comparisons suggested that for the older adults, positive reappraisal was a more useful emotion regulation strategy than the others, while the pattern among younger adults was less conclusive. Age-relevant differences in motivation and successful emotion regulatory efforts based on theoretical and empirical literatures are discussed. PMID:24206128

  17. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  18. Effects of Regulating Positive Emotions through Reappraisal and Suppression on Verbal and Non-Verbal Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ortner, Catherine N. M.; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647

  19. Reappraisal but not suppression downregulates the experience of positive and negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    The emotion regulation literature is growing exponentially, but there is limited understanding of the comparative strengths of emotion regulation strategies in downregulating positive emotional experiences. The present research made the first systematic investigation examining the consequences of using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategies to downregulate positive and negative emotion within a single design. Two experiments with over 1,300 participants demonstrated that reappraisal successfully reduced the experience of negative and positive affect compared with suppression and control conditions. Suppression did not reduce the experience of either positive or negative emotion relative to the control condition. This finding provides evidence against the assumption that expressive suppression reduces the experience of positive emotion. This work speaks to an emerging literature on the benefits of downregulating positive emotion, showing that suppression is an appropriate strategy when one wishes to reduce positive emotion displays while maintaining the benefits of positive emotional experience.

  20. Prayer and pain: the mediating role of positive re-appraisal.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, Jessie; Wachholtz, Amy; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored in a sample of Flemish pain patients the role of prayer as a possible individual factor in pain management. The focus on prayer as a personal religious factor fits with the current religious landscape in Western-Europe where personal religious factors are more important than organizational dimensions of religion. Our study is framed in the transactional theory of stress and coping by testing first, whether prayer was related with pain severity and pain tolerance and second, whether cognitive positive re-appraisal was a mediating mechanism in the association between prayer and pain. We expected that prayer would be related to pain tolerance in reducing the impact of the pain on patient's daily life, but not necessarily to pain severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, prayer, pain outcomes (i.e., pain severity and pain tolerance), and cognitive positive re-appraisal. Two hundred and two chronic pain (CP) patients, all members of a Flemish national patients association, completed the questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed that prayer was significantly related with pain tolerance, but not with pain severity. However, ancillary analyses revealed a moderational effect of religious affiliation in the relationship between prayer and pain severity as well as pain tolerance. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that cognitive positive re-appraisal was indeed an underlying mechanism in the relationship between prayer and pain tolerance. This study affirms the importance to distinguish between pain severity and pain tolerance, and indicates that prayer can play a role in pain management, especially for religious pain patients. Further, the findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and coping as the results indicate that positive re-appraisal might be an important underlying mechanism in the association between prayer and pain.

  1. Role of Creativity in the Effectiveness of Cognitive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofei; Guo, Tingting; Tang, Tengteng; Shi, Baoguo; Luo, Jing

    2017-01-01

    As a well-recognized and widely adopted emotional regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal has generally been proven to be efficient. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying regulatory efficiency, particularly the role of creativity, in cognitive reappraisal is unclear. Although previous studies have evaluated the relationship between creativity and reappraisal from the perspectives of generation (i.e., generating cognitive reappraisals and generating creative ideas involve similar cognitive neural networks) and individual differences (i.e., the ability to generate different cognitive reappraisals can be predicted by scores on creativity-related tests), how cognitive reappraisal’s efficiency can be related to creativity is still unknown. In this research, we assessed the relationship between cognitive reappraisal’s creativity and its effectiveness in regulating negative emotion. In Study 1, participants were asked to generate reappraisals of negative stimuli and then evaluate the creativity and regulatory effectiveness of these reappraisals. The results indicated positive correlation between creativity rating and regulatory effectiveness, but we found that it was difficult for the participants to generate highly creative reappraisals on their own. Therefore, in Study 2, we showed participants well-prepared reappraisal materials that varied in their creativity and asked them to evaluate their regulatory effectiveness and creativity. The results suggested that creativity and appropriateness were significant predictors of the regulating effects of the reappraisal and that creativity was the most dominant predictor. In summary, both experiments found a positive correlation between reappraisal’s creativity and effectiveness, thus implying that creativity plays an important role in reappraisal. PMID:28966603

  2. Optimism and benefit finding in parents of children with developmental disabilities: The role of positive reappraisal and social support.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Éadaoin; McMahon, Jennifer; Gallagher, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Researchers have consistently documented the relationship between optimism and benefit finding; however, there is a dearth of research on the psychological mechanisms mediating their association. This cross-sectional study sought to elucidate the mediating role of positive reappraisal and social support in the optimism-benefit finding relationship in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities by testing a parallel multiple mediation model. One hundred and forty-six parents caring for children with developmental disabilities completed an online survey assessing optimism, positive reappraisal, social support and benefit finding. Optimism was not directly related to benefit finding but rather influenced it indirectly through positive reappraisal and social support. Specifically, higher levels of optimism predicted greater positive reappraisal and social support, which in turn led to greater benefit finding in parents. These results underscore the importance of targeting parents' perceptions of benefits through both positive reappraisal and social support in order to help them cope with the demands of the caregiving context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The value of "negative" appraisals for resilience. Is positive (re)appraisal always good and negative always bad?

    PubMed

    Freund, Alexandra M; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the PASTOR model by Kalisch et al. we point to the potential negative long-term effects of positive (re)appraisals of events for resilience. This perspective posits that emotional reactions to events provide important guidelines as to which events, environments, or social relations should be sought out and which ones should be avoided in the future.

  4. Reappraising the voices of wrath

    PubMed Central

    Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal recruits prefrontal and parietal cortical areas. Because of the near exclusive usage in past research of visual stimuli to elicit emotions, it is unknown whether the same neural substrates underlie the reappraisal of emotions induced through other sensory modalities. Here, participants reappraised their emotions in order to increase or decrease their emotional response to angry prosody, or maintained their attention to it in a control condition. Neural activity was monitored with fMRI, and connectivity was investigated by using psychophysiological interaction analyses. A right-sided network encompassing the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus and the inferior frontal gyrus was found to underlie the processing of angry prosody. During reappraisal to increase emotional response, the left superior frontal gyrus showed increased activity and became functionally coupled to right auditory cortices. During reappraisal to decrease emotional response, a network that included the medial frontal gyrus and posterior parietal areas showed increased activation and greater functional connectivity with bilateral auditory regions. Activations pertaining to this network were more extended on the right side of the brain. Although directionality cannot be inferred from PPI analyses, the findings suggest a similar frontoparietal network for the reappraisal of visually and auditorily induced negative emotions. PMID:25964502

  5. Reappraising the voices of wrath.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive reappraisal recruits prefrontal and parietal cortical areas. Because of the near exclusive usage in past research of visual stimuli to elicit emotions, it is unknown whether the same neural substrates underlie the reappraisal of emotions induced through other sensory modalities. Here, participants reappraised their emotions in order to increase or decrease their emotional response to angry prosody, or maintained their attention to it in a control condition. Neural activity was monitored with fMRI, and connectivity was investigated by using psychophysiological interaction analyses. A right-sided network encompassing the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus and the inferior frontal gyrus was found to underlie the processing of angry prosody. During reappraisal to increase emotional response, the left superior frontal gyrus showed increased activity and became functionally coupled to right auditory cortices. During reappraisal to decrease emotional response, a network that included the medial frontal gyrus and posterior parietal areas showed increased activation and greater functional connectivity with bilateral auditory regions. Activations pertaining to this network were more extended on the right side of the brain. Although directionality cannot be inferred from PPI analyses, the findings suggest a similar frontoparietal network for the reappraisal of visually and auditorily induced negative emotions.

  6. Neural basis of anticipatory anxiety reappraisals.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yoshino, Atsuo; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Machino, Akihiko; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2014-01-01

    Reappraisal is a well-known emotion regulation strategy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that reappraisal recruits both medial and lateral prefrontal brain regions. However, few studies have investigated neural representation of reappraisals associated with anticipatory anxiety, and the specific nature of the brain activity underlying this process remains unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activity associated with reappraisals of transient anticipatory anxiety. Although transient anxiety activated mainly subcortical regions, reappraisals targeting the anxiety were associated with increased activity in the medial and lateral prefrontal regions (including the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices). Reappraisal decreased fear circuit activity (including the amygdala and thalamus). Correlational analysis demonstrated that reductions in subjective anxiety associated with reappraisal were correlated with orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Reappraisal recruits medial and lateral prefrontal regions; particularly the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are associated with successful use of this emotion regulation strategy.

  7. Introduction: Reappraising Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew J; Kidd, Ian James

    2016-06-01

    This volume is devoted to a reappraisal of the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend. It has four aims. The first is to reassess his already well-known work from the 1960s and 1970s in light of contemporary developments in the history and philosophy of science. The second is to explore themes in his neglected later work, including recently published and previously unavailable writings. The third is to assess the contributions that Feyerabend can make to contemporary debate, on topics such as perspectivism, realism, and political philosophy of science. The fourth and final aim is to reconsider Feyerabend's place within the history of philosophy of science in the light of new scholarship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive Costs of Reappraisal Depend on Both Emotional Stimulus Intensity and Individual Differences in Habitual Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Ste Marie, Mark; Corno, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Recent models of emotion regulation suggest that the cognitive costs of reappraisal depend on stimulus intensity and habitual reappraisal. In the current experiment, we tested these hypotheses by manipulating the intensity of unpleasant and pleasant images, which participants reappraised, viewed, or suppressed their emotions to. To assess cognitive costs, we measured participants’ performance on a concurrent simple reaction time task. Participants also reported on their everyday use of reappraisal and suppression. Higher intensity stimuli were associated with greater cognitive costs of reappraisal, for unpleasant, but not pleasant pictures. Also, greater habitual reappraisal predicted lower cognitive costs of reappraisal and greater reductions in subjective feelings. Results support the role of stimulus intensity and habitual use of reappraisal in predicting the cognitive costs of reappraisal. PMID:27936022

  9. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    PubMed

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources.

  10. Relating dispositional mindfulness, contemplative practice, and positive reappraisal with posttraumatic cognitive coping, stress, and growth.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Adam W; Garland, Eric L; Tedeschi, Richard G

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical work suggests that mindfulness may support more positive posttraumatic outcomes by reducing posttraumatic stress (PTS) and encouraging posttraumatic growth (PTG). Positive reappraisal (PR), a cognitive coping correlate of dispositional mindfulness (DM) has also been linked with greater PTG. However, neither DM nor PR have been modeled in relation to core posttraumatic constructs such as core belief disruption, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, PTS and PTG. This study explored associations between these constructs in a sample of college students (N = 505), also investigating the impact of contemplative practice involvement on the relationships between the constructs. Results indicate that including DM and PR into established models of PTG increases the model's explanatory power, which distinct cognitive coping pathways connect DM and core belief disruption with PTS as well as PTG, and that contemplative practice involvement substantially alters relationships between the core PTG variables. The present study contributes to the growing reconceptualization of trauma as linked with both positive and pathogenic outcomes, emphasizing the need to better understand how posttraumatic cognitive coping strategies contribute to more positive outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Piece of cake. Cognitive reappraisal of food craving

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2013-01-01

    A common emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, involves altering the meaning of a situation so that the emotional response to the situation is changed. Most research on reappraisal has focused on down-regulation of negative emotion; few studies exist on reappraisal of positive affect, and even fewer have examined the cognitive reappraisal of craving for energy-dense (e.g., “junk”) foods. In the present study we examined this form of cognitive reappraisal using a new adaptation of a classic emotion regulation task. Subjects chose idiosyncratic categories of craved (and not craved) energy-dense foods as stimuli, and were instructed either to look at the stimulus or to reappraise it in a way that reduced desire to eat the depicted food using a strategy that could be used in the real world. A repeated-measures ANOVA and follow-up tests revealed that reappraisal significantly reduced self-reported desirability of both Craved and Not Craved foods, but for a greater degree in Craved foods. In addition, the degree to which subjects decreased their desire to consume Craved foods positively correlated with the cognitive restraint subscale of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, a measure of self-control of eating in everyday life. PMID:23313699

  12. Piece of cake. Cognitive reappraisal of food craving.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Nicole R; Calcott, Rebecca D; Berkman, Elliot T

    2013-05-01

    A common emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, involves altering the meaning of a situation so that the emotional response to the situation is changed. Most research on reappraisal has focused on down-regulation of negative emotion; few studies exist on reappraisal of positive affect, and even fewer have examined the cognitive reappraisal of craving for energy-dense (e.g., "junk") foods. In the present study we examined this form of cognitive reappraisal using a new adaptation of a classic emotion regulation task. Subjects chose idiosyncratic categories of craved (and not craved) energy-dense foods as stimuli, and were instructed either to look at the stimulus or to reappraise it in a way that reduced desire to eat the depicted food using a strategy that could be used in the real world. A repeated-measures ANOVA and follow-up tests revealed that reappraisal significantly reduced self-reported desirability of both Craved and Not Craved foods, but for a greater degree in Craved foods. In addition, the degree to which subjects decreased their desire to consume Craved foods positively correlated with the cognitive restraint subscale of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, a measure of self-control of eating in everyday life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reappraisal Modulates Attentional Bias to Angry Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Ah; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Heightened attentional bias to emotional information is one of the main characteristics of disorders related to emotion dysregulation such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. Although reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy, is known to effectively modulate subjective experience of emotions, it remains unknown whether reappraisal can alter attentional biases to emotional information. In the current research, we investigated the influence of instruction-induced state reappraisal (Study 1) and trait reappraisal (Study 2) on attentional biases to happy and angry faces. In Study 1, healthy young women were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: up-, down-, and no-regulation. Participants were instructed to reappraise their emotions to increase and decrease emotional experience while viewing an emotionally negative film clip. Attentional bias was assessed with a dot-probe task with pictures of angry and happy facial expressions. In Study 2, a separate group of healthy young men and women participated. Participants’ trait reappraisal and suppression as well as state and trait anxiety were assessed. A dot-probe task was completed by all participants. Statistical tests in Study 1 revealed that participants who reappraised to decrease negative emotions while viewing an emotionally negative film clip had reduced attentional bias to subsequently presented angry faces compared to participants who reappraised to increase negative emotions. Multiple regression analyses in Study 2 revealed that trait reappraisal predicted slower orienting toward angry faces, whereas state anxiety predicted slower disengagement from angry faces. Interestingly, trait suppression predicted slower disengagement from happy faces. Taken together, these results suggest that both instruction-induced state reappraisal and trait reappraisal are linked to reduced attentional bias to negative information and contribute to better understanding of how everyday emotion

  14. 36 CFR 228.49 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reappraisal. 228.49 Section 228.49 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.49 Reappraisal. If an extension of time is granted...

  15. The effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, acceptance, and distancing when thinking about a stressful event on affect states in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bögels, Susan M; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition. Manipulation checks revealed that the manipulations were successful, except for acceptance. The two most reported events were "a fight" and "death of loved one". Results showed that positive reappraisal (i.e., thinking about the benefits and personal growth) caused a significantly larger increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared to rumination, distancing, and acceptance. Current findings implicate that positive reappraisal seems an adequate coping strategy in the short-term, and therefore could be applied in interventions for youth experiencing difficulties managing negative affect. Future research should focus on long-term effects of these cognitive strategies and on more intensive training of acceptance.

  16. Cognitive reappraisal increases neuroendocrine reactivity to acute social stress and physical pain.

    PubMed

    Denson, Thomas F; Creswell, J David; Terides, Matthew D; Blundell, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive reappraisal can foster emotion regulation, yet less is known about whether cognitive reappraisal alters neuroendocrine stress reactivity. Some initial evidence suggests that although long-term training in cognitive behavioral therapy techniques (which include reappraisal as a primary training component) can reduce cortisol reactivity to stress, some studies also suggest that reappraisal is associated with heightened cortisol stress reactivity. To address this mixed evidence, the present report describes two experimental studies that randomly assigned young adult volunteers to use cognitive reappraisal while undergoing laboratory stressors. Relative to the control condition, participants in the reappraisal conditions showed greater peak cortisol reactivity in response to a socially evaluative speech task (Experiment 1, N=90) and to a physical pain cold pressor task (Experiment 2, N=94). Participants in the cognitive reappraisal group also reported enhanced anticipatory psychological appraisals of self-efficacy and control in Experiment 2 and greater post-stressor self-efficacy. There were no effects of the reappraisal manipulation on positive and negative subjective affect, pain, or heart rate in either experiment. These findings suggest that although cognitive reappraisal fosters psychological perceptions of self-efficacy and control under stress, this effortful emotion regulation strategy in the short-term may increase cortisol reactivity. Discussion focuses on promising psychological mechanisms for these cognitive reappraisal effects.

  17. Psychological Distress in Jordanian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Positive Reappraisal Coping.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2017-02-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report poor psychological well-being. Positive reappraisal coping (PRC) is a coping strategy which offers a protective effect from anxiety and depression. However, the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD has yet to be established. This study examines the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. In this descriptive correlational study, 104 parents of children with ASD completed measures of psychological distress and PRC. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents after controlling the influence of parental age and gender. The PRC was associated with the psychological distress in parents above and beyond the variance accounted for by parental age and gender. After controlling for parental age and gender, PRC had significant negative correlation with the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression in parents (Anxiety: β=-0.36, p<0.001; Stress: β=-0.21, p=0.03; Depression: β=- 0.37, p<0.001). Using positive reappraisal coping strategy may help to reduce psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  19. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  20. The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between prefrontal cortex, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction with reappraisal, and it thus remains unclear whether they draw upon different neural mechanisms and have different emotional consequences. The present fMRI study compared distraction and reappraisal, and found both similarities and differences between the two forms of emotion regulation. Both resulted in decreased negative affect, decreased activation in the amygdala, and increased activation in prefrontal and cingulate regions. Relative to distraction, reappraisal led to greater decreases in negative affect, and greater increases in a network of regions associated with processing affective meaning (medial prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices). Relative to reappraisal, distraction led to greater decreases in amygdala activation, and greater increases in activation in prefrontal and parietal regions. Taken together, these data suggest that distraction and reappraisal differentially engage neural systems involved in attentional deployment and cognitive reframing, and have different emotional consequences. PMID:19400679

  1. The neural bases of distraction and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D E; Gross, James J; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2010-02-01

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction with reappraisal, and it remains unclear whether they draw upon different neural mechanisms and have different emotional consequences. The present fMRI study compared distraction and reappraisal and found both similarities and differences between the two forms of emotion regulation. Both resulted in decreased negative affect, decreased activation in the amygdala, and increased activation in prefrontal and cingulate regions. Relative to distraction, reappraisal led to greater decreases in negative affect and to greater increases in a network of regions associated with processing affective meaning (medial prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices). Relative to reappraisal, distraction led to greater decreases in amygdala activation and to greater increases in activation in prefrontal and parietal regions. Taken together, these data suggest that distraction and reappraisal differentially engage neural systems involved in attentional deployment and cognitive reframing and have different emotional consequences.

  2. Regulating the blink: Cognitive reappraisal modulates attention.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ruth; Schönfelder, Sandra; Forneck, Johanna; Wessa, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Our brain is unable to fully process all the sensory signals we encounter. Attention is the process that helps selecting input from all available information for detailed processing and it is largely influenced by the affective value of the stimuli. This study examined if attentional bias toward emotional stimuli can be modulated by cognitively changing their emotional value. Participants were presented with negative and neutral images from four different scene-categories depicting humans ("Reading", "Working", "Crying" and "Violence"). Using cognitive reappraisal subjects decreased and increased the negativity of one negative (e.g., "Crying") and one neutral (e.g., "Reading") category respectively, whereas they only had to watch the other two categories (e.g., "Working" and "Violence") without changing their feelings. Subsequently, subjects performed the attentional blink paradigm. Two targets were embedded in a stream of distractors, with the previously seen human pictures serving as the first target (T1) and rotated landmark/landscape images as the second (T2). Subjects then reported T1 visibility and the orientation of T2. We investigated if the detection accuracy of T2 is influenced by the change of the emotional value of T1 due to the reappraisal manipulation. Indeed, T2 detection rate was higher when T2 was preceded by a negative image that was only viewed compared to negative images that were reappraised to be neutral. Thus, more resources were captured by images that have been reappraised before, i.e., their negativity has been reduced. This modulatory effect of reappraisal on attention was not found for neutral images. Possibly upon re-exposure to negative stimuli subjects had to recall the previously performed affective change. In this case resources may be allocated to maintain the reappraised value and therefore hinder the detection of a temporally close target. Complimentary self-reported ratings support the reappraisal manipulation of negative images.

  3. Reappraisal mitigates overestimation of remembered pain in anxious individuals.

    PubMed

    Hovasapian, Arpine; Levine, Linda J

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, a trait characterised by fear of anxiety-related body sensations, has been linked to heightened attention to pain, appraising body sensations as threatening, and remembering threat-related information. We assessed whether individuals with greater anxiety sensitivity overestimate in remembering pain. We also assessed whether emotion regulation strategies that direct attention away from pain (distraction), or alter appraisals of pain (reappraisal), alleviate memory bias. Participants (N = 137) were randomly assigned to one of two emotion regulation conditions or to a control condition before taking part in a cold pressor task. Greater anxiety sensitivity was associated with overestimation in remembering pain. Engaging in reappraisal mitigated this memory bias but engaging in distraction did not. This is the first study to examine the relations among anxiety sensitivity, emotion regulation and memory for pain. The findings suggest that health-care practitioners can encourage reappraisal to promote more positive memories of procedural pain, particularly in patients high in anxiety sensitivity.

  4. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Salas, Christian E; Gross, James J; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty - defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal - did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered.

  5. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  6. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under §...

  7. The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction…

  8. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a...

  9. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a...

  10. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONTRACT MODIFICATION-EXTENSION-ASSIGNMENT Extension of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a...

  11. The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction…

  12. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-05-13

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers.

  13. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers. PMID:27187437

  14. A Test for the Implementation–Maintenance Model of Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Paret, Christian; Brenninkmeyer, Jessica; Meyer, Benjamin; Yuen, Kenneth S. L.; Gartmann, Nina; Mechias, Marie-Luise; Kalisch, Raffael

    2011-01-01

    Reappraisal has been defined as a conscious, deliberate change in the way an emotional stimulus is interpreted, initiated in order to change its emotion-eliciting character (Gross, 2002). Reappraisal can be used to down-regulate negative emotions, including anxiety (reviewed in Kalisch, 2009). There is currently a strong interest in identifying the cognitive processes and neural substrates that mediate reappraisal. We have recently proposed a model (termed implementation–maintenance model or IMMO) that conceptualizes reappraisal as a temporally extended, dynamic, and multi-componential process (Kalisch, 2009). A key tenet of IMMO is that reappraisal episodes are marked by an early phase of implementation that may comprise strategy selection and retrieval of reappraisal material into working memory, and a later phase of maintenance that may comprise working memory and performance monitoring processes. These should be supported by dissociable neural networks. We here show, using a detachment-from-threat paradigm and concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging, that reappraisal-related brain activity shifts from left posterior to right anterior parts of the lateral frontal cortex during the course of a reappraisal episode. Our data provide first empirical evidence for the existence of two separable reappraisal stages. Implications for further model development are discussed. PMID:21922013

  15. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  16. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26085851

  17. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  18. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A; Froeliger, Brett E

    2015-04-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of "nonappraisal", yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 - 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal.

  19. God rest our hearts: Religiosity and cognitive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vishkin, Allon; Bigman, Yochanan E; Porat, Roni; Solak, Nevin; Halperin, Eran; Tamir, Maya

    2016-03-01

    Although religiosity is often accompanied by more intense emotions, we propose that people who are more religious may be better at using 1 of the most effective emotion regulation strategies-namely, cognitive reappraisal. We argue that religion, which is a meaning-making system, is linked to better cognitive reappraisal, which involves changing the meaning of emotional stimuli. Four studies (N = 2,078) supported our hypotheses. In Study 1, religiosity was associated with more frequent use of cognitive reappraisal in 3 distinct religions (i.e., Islam, Christianity, Judaism). In Studies 2A-2B, we replicated these findings using 2 indices of cognitive reappraisal and in a large representative sample. In Studies 3-4, individuals more (vs. less) religious were more effective in using cognitive reappraisal in the laboratory. We discuss how these findings inform our understanding of the psychology of religion and of emotion regulation.

  20. Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Robert; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Kashdan, Todd

    2017-03-01

    Most empirical studies of emotion regulation have relied on retrospective trait measures, and have not examined the link between daily regulatory strategies and every day emotional well-being. We used a daily diary methodology with multilevel modelling data analyses (n = 187) to examine the influence of three emotion regulation strategies (mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression) on the experience of daily negative and positive affect. Our results suggested that daily mindfulness was associated with lower negative and higher positive affect whereas the converse pattern was found for daily emotion suppression; cognitive reappraisal was related to daily positive, but not negative affect. When daily mindfulness, suppression and reappraisal were included in the same models, these strategies predicted unique variance in emotional well-being. Random slope analyses revealed substantial variability in the utility of these strategies. Indeed the presumably "adaptive" cognitive reappraisal strategy seemed to confer no benefit to the regulation of negative affect in approximately half the sample. Additional analyses revealed that age moderates the effect of cognitive reappraisal on daily negative affect: Higher use of reappraisal was associated with more negative affect for adolescents (aged 17 to 19) but became associated with less negative affect with increasing age. We interpret these results in line with a contextual view of emotion regulation where no strategy is inherently "good" or "bad".

  1. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on quality of life and positive reappraisal coping among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has supported mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) to enhance quality of life (QOL) in different populations, but no studies have been found to examine the effectiveness of MBIs on QOL among parents of children with ASD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of brief MBI on perceived QOL and positive stress reappraisal (PSR) among parents of children with ASD. A quasi-experimental, with nonequivalent control group design was used. One hundred and four parents of children with ASD were equally assigned to the intervention and control groups. The study groups were matched on measures of their gender and age, and level of severity of ASD in children. The intervention group participated in MBI program for 5 weeks, while the control group had not attended the program. After the intervention program, results of paired samples t-test indicated that parents in the intervention group demonstrated significant improvements in measures of psychological health domain of QOL, social health domain of QOL, mindfulness, and positive stress reappraisal with medium to large effect size (P<0.01). The control group demonstrated improvement in measures of the dependent variables with small effect size. MBI is culturally adaptable, acceptable, and effective method to improve QOL and PSR in parents of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotional intensity influences pre-implementation and implementation of distraction and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Roni; Schwartz, Naama; Blechert, Jens; Sheppes, Gal

    2015-10-01

    Although emotional intensity powerfully challenges regulatory strategies, its influence remains largely unexplored in affective-neuroscience. Accordingly, the present study addressed the moderating role of emotional intensity in two regulatory stages--implementation (during regulation) and pre-implementation (prior to regulation), of two major cognitive regulatory strategies--distraction and reappraisal. According to our framework, because distraction implementation involves early attentional disengagement from emotional information before it gathers force, in high-intensity it should be more effective in the short-term, relative to reappraisal, which modulates emotional processing only at a late semantic meaning phase. Supporting findings showed that in high (but not low) intensity, distraction implementation resulted in stronger modulation of negative experience, reduced neural emotional processing (centro-parietal late positive potential, LPP), with suggestive evidence for less cognitive effort (frontal-LPP), relative to reappraisal. Related pre-implementation findings confirmed that anticipating regulation of high-intensity stimuli resulted in distraction (over reappraisal) preference. In contrast, anticipating regulation of low-intensity stimuli resulted in reappraisal (over distraction) preference, which is most beneficial for long-term adaptation. Furthermore, anticipating cognitively demanding regulation, either in cases of regulating counter to these preferences or via the more effortful strategy of reappraisal, enhanced neural attentional resource allocation (Stimulus Preceding Negativity). Broad implications are discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia.

    PubMed

    Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.

  4. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  5. Reappraising antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kerbel, Robert S

    2011-10-01

    Phase III trials of antiangiogenic drugs for metastatic breast cancer have either had only limited success, e.g. the monoclonal anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab when used with various conventional chemotherapy regimens, or have failed altogether, e.g. the small molecule oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sunitinib. No phase III trial has yet demonstrated an overall survival benefit and the progression free survival (PFS) benefits, when attained with bevacizumab are short, with perhaps one exception. Together, these results call for a reappraisal of using antiangiogenic drugs for breast cancer and possible strategies to improve their efficacy. Among the reasons to help explain the limited benefits observed thus far include the possibility that angiogenesis may not be a major driver of breast cancer growth, compared to some other types of cancer; that acquired resistance may develop rapidly to VEGF-pathway targeting antiangiogenic drugs, in part due to angiogenic growth factor redundancy; that optimal chemotherapy regimens have not been used in conjunction with an antiangiogenic drug; and that antiangiogenic drugs may secondarily aggravate biologic aggressiveness of the tumors, thereby reducing their overall efficacy after inducing an initial benefit. Several possible strategies are discussed for improving the efficacy of antiangiogenic drugs, including combination with different chemotherapy regimens, e.g. long term and less toxic metronomic chemotherapy protocols; validation of predictive biomarkers to individualize patient therapy; development of improved preclinical therapy models, e.g. involving advanced metastatic breast cancer, and combination with other types of anti-cancer agents especially biologies such as trastuzumab for Her2-positive breast cancer. Reasons for the current concern regarding use of antiangiogenic drug treatments for early stage cancers, including breast cancer, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Get excited: reappraising pre-performance anxiety as excitement.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alison Wood

    2014-06-01

    Individuals often feel anxious in anticipation of tasks such as speaking in public or meeting with a boss. I find that an overwhelming majority of people believe trying to calm down is the best way to cope with pre-performance anxiety. However, across several studies involving karaoke singing, public speaking, and math performance, I investigate an alternative strategy: reappraising anxiety as excitement. Compared with those who attempt to calm down, individuals who reappraise their anxious arousal as excitement feel more excited and perform better. Individuals can reappraise anxiety as excitement using minimal strategies such as self-talk (e.g., saying "I am excited" out loud) or simple messages (e.g., "get excited"), which lead them to feel more excited, adopt an opportunity mind-set (as opposed to a threat mind-set), and improve their subsequent performance. These findings suggest the importance of arousal congruency during the emotional reappraisal process.

  7. Occipital posterior and occipital transverse positions: reappraisal of the obstetric risks.

    PubMed

    To, W W; Li, I C

    2000-08-01

    Malpositions in labour in a vertex-presenting fetus are known to be associated with increased risks of operative delivery A retrospective analysis of all deliveries over 4 years in a university teaching obstetric unit was performed using the available obstetric database. All cases of live births with cephalic presenting babies after 36 completed gestational weeks were analysed, and included 17,533 out of 20,533 total deliveries over the study period. The study group included those cases with occipital posterior and transverse positions, based on the documentation of the position of the vertex at the time of delivery, or at the last clinical examination before obstetric intervention, while occipital anterior cases constituted the control group. The overall incidence of malpositions was 14%, and operative delivery rate in the study group was 82.5% versus 20.7% in the control group. After excluding cases of operative delivery for non-mechanical indications, such as fetal distress, the adjusted odds ratio for the malposition group was 9.8 (95% CI 8.91-10.8) for total assisted delivery and 30.2 (95% CI 25.6-35.5) for Caesarean section compared to the occipital anterior group. Malpositions are definitely associated with a marked increase in the risk of operative delivery including Caesarean section. Labour complicated by malposition should be considered high risk, and should warrant due preparation for obstetric intervention.

  8. Time course of emotion-related responding during distraction and reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Schönfelder, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of emotion regulation (ER) discriminate various cognitive strategies to voluntarily modify emotional states. Amongst these, attentional deployment (i.e. distraction) and cognitive change (i.e. reappraisal), have been shown to successfully down-regulate emotions. Neuroimaging studies found that both strategies differentially engage neural structures associated with selective attention, working memory and cognitive control. The aim of this study was to further delineate similarities and differences between the ER strategies reappraisal and distraction by investigating their temporal brain dynamics using event-related potentials (ERPs) and their patterns of facial expressive behavior. Twenty-one participants completed an ER experiment in which they had to either passively view positive, neutral and negative pictures, reinterpret them to down-regulate affective responses (reappraisal), or solve a concurrently presented mathematical equation (distraction). Results demonstrate the efficacy of both strategies in the subjective control of emotion, accompanied by reductions of facial expressive activity (Corrugator supercilii and Zygomaticus major). ERP results indicated that distraction, compared with reappraisal, yielded a stronger and earlier attenuation of the late positive potential (LPP) magnitude for negative pictures. For positive pictures, only distraction but not reappraisal had significant effect on LPP attenuation. The results support the process model of ER, separating subtypes of cognitive strategies based on their specific time course. PMID:23988760

  9. A reappraisal of ocean wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yeli; Huang, Norden E.

    2012-11-01

    A reappraisal of wave theory from the beginning to the present day is made here. On the surface, the great progress in both theory and applications seems to be so successful that there would be no great challenge in wave studies anymore. On deeper examination, we found problems in many aspects of wave studies starting from the definition of frequency, the governing equations, the various source functions of wave models, the directional development of wind wavefield, the wave spectral form and finally the role of waves as they affect coastal and global ocean dynamics. This is a call for action for the wave research community. For future research, we have to consider these problems seriously and also to examine the basic physics of wave motion to determine their effects on other ocean dynamic processes quantitatively, rather than relying on parameterization in oceanic and geophysical applications.

  10. Negative attention bias and processing deficits during the cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant emotions in HIV+ women.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Roger C; Tartar, Jaime L; Widmayer, Susan; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional processing may be attributed to HIV disease or comorbid psychiatric disorders. Electrocortical markers of emotional attention, i.e., amplitude of the P2 and late positive potential (LPP), were compared between 26 HIV+ women and 25 healthy controls during an emotional regulation paradigm. HIV+ women showed early attention bias to negative stimuli indexed by greater P2 amplitude. In contrast, compared with the passive viewing of unpleasant images, HIV+ women demonstrated attenuation of the early and late LPP during positive reappraisal. This interaction remained significant after adjusting for individual differences in apathy, anxiety, and depression. Post hoc analyses implicated time since HIV diagnosis with LPP attenuation during positive reappraisal. Advancing HIV disease may disrupt neural generators associated with the cognitive reappraisal of emotions independent of psychiatric function.

  11. The role of cognitive reappraisal in placebo analgesia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Marian; Kamping, Sandra; Anton, Fernand

    2017-03-17

    Placebo analgesia (PA) depends crucially on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is assumed to be responsible for initiating the analgesic response. Surprisingly little research has focused on the psychological mechanisms mediated by the PFC and underlying PA. One increasingly accepted theory is that cognitive reappraisal - the reinterpretation of the meaning of adverse events - plays an important role, but no study has yet addressed the possible functional relationship with PA. We studied the influence of individual differences in reappraisal ability on PA and its prefrontal mediation. Participants completed a cognitive reappraisal ability (CRA) task, which compared negative affect evoked by pictures in a reappraise versus a control condition. In a subsequent fMRI session, PA was induced using thermal noxious stimuli and an inert skin cream. We found a region in the left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), which showed a positive correlation between placebo-induced activation and 1) the reduction in participants' pain intensity ratings; and 2) CRA scores. Moreover, this region showed increased placebo-induced functional connectivity with the periaqueductal grey, indicating its involvement in descending nociceptive control. These initial findings thus suggest that cognitive reappraisal mechanisms mediated by the DLPFC may play a role in initiating pain inhibition in placebo analgesia.

  12. Age-related changes in reappraisal of appetitive cravings during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to regulate temptation and manage appetitive cravings is an important aspect of healthy adolescent development, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In the present study, 60 healthy females evenly distributed from 10 to 23 years of age used reappraisal to regulate the desire to consume personally-craved and not craved unhealthy foods. Reappraisal elicited activity in common self-regulation regions including dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (specifically superior and inferior frontal gyri), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior parietal lobule. Viewing personally-craved foods (versus not craved foods) elicited activity in regions including the ventral striatum, as well as more rostral and ventral anterior cingulate cortex extending into orbitofrontal cortex. Age positively correlated with regulation-related activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, and negatively correlated with reactivity-related activity in the right superior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Age-adjusted BMI negatively correlated with regulation-related activity in predominantly left lateralized frontal and parietal regions. These results suggest that the age-related changes seen in the reappraisal of negative emotion may not be as pronounced in the reappraisal of food craving. Therefore, reappraisal of food craving in particular may be an effective way to teach teenagers to manage cravings for other temptations encountered in adolescence, including alcohol, drugs, and unhealthy food. PMID:25536500

  13. Neural mechanisms of cognitive reappraisal in remitted major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Smoski, Moria J; Keng, Shian-Ling; Schiller, Crystal Edler; Minkel, Jared; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2013-10-01

    Down-regulation of negative emotions by cognitive strategies relies on prefrontal cortical modulation of limbic brain regions, and impaired frontolimbic functioning during cognitive reappraisal has been observed in affective disorders. However, no study to date has examined cognitive reappraisal in unmedicated euthymic individuals with a history of major depressive disorder relative to symptom-matched controls. Given that a history of depression is a critical risk factor for future depressive episodes, investigating the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation in remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) may yield novel insights into depression risk. We assessed 37 individuals (18 rMDD, 19 controls) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a task requiring cognitive reappraisal of sad images. Both groups demonstrated decreased self-reported negative affect after cognitive reappraisal and no group differences in the effects of cognitive reappraisal on mood were evident. Functional MRI results indicated greater paracingulate gyrus (rostral anterior cingulate cortex, Brodmann area 32) activation and decreased right midfrontal gyrus (Brodmann area 6) activation during the reappraisal of sad images. Trial-by-trial ratings of pre-regulation affect were not collected, limiting the interpretation of post-regulation negative affect scores. Results suggest that activation of rostral anterior cingulate cortex, a region linked to the prediction of antidepressant treatment response, and of the right midfrontal gyrus, a region involved in cognitive control in the context of cognitive reappraisal, may represent endophenotypic markers of future depression risk. Future prospective studies will be needed to validate the predictive utility of these neural markers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inframammary fold: a histologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Muntan, C D; Sundine, M J; Rink, R D; Acland, R D

    2000-02-01

    The inframammary fold is a defining element in the shape and structure of the female breast. It should be preserved whenever possible in ablative procedures and recreated accurately when the breast is reconstructed after mastectomy. To date, no accurate anatomic description of this essential structure exists. Previous studies have suggested that the fold is produced by a supporting ligament running from the dermis in the fold region to a variety of locations on the rib cage. This clinic's experience with mastectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and breast reconstruction does not support the existence of a ligamentous structure. To define the structure of the inframammary fold, 10 female and 2 male cadavers were studied. The anterior chest wall was removed en bloc and frozen in orthostatic position. Parasagittal sections were made of the inframammary fold with the chest wall intact. After decalcification of the ribs and routine histologic preparation, thin sections were stained with Gomori's trichrome. On light microscopic examination, no demonstrable ligamentous structure of dense regular connective tissue could be identified in the fold region in any of the 12 specimens. Superficial and deep fascial layers were uniformly observed anterior to the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles. The superficial fascia was connected to the dermis in the fold region in a variety of configurations. In some cases, the deep fascia fused with the superficial fascia and dermis at the fold level. In other cases, bundles of collagen fibers arising from the superficial fascial layer were found to insert into the dermis at the inframammary fold, slightly inferior to it, or both. These bundles were observed consistently in sections from the sternum to the middle axillary line. They were distinct from Cooper's suspensory ligaments, which are seen more superiorly in the glandular tissue.

  15. Subjective responses to emotional stimuli during labeling, reappraisal, and distraction.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D; Inagaki, Tristen K; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Crockett, Molly J

    2011-06-01

    Although multiple neuroimaging studies suggest that affect labeling (i.e., putting feelings into words) can dampen affect-related responses in the amygdala, the consequences of affect labeling have not been examined in other channels of emotional responding. We conducted four studies examining the effect of affect labeling on self-reported emotional experience. In study one, self-reported distress was lower during affect labeling, compared to passive watching, of negative emotional pictures. Studies two and three added reappraisal and distraction conditions, respectively. Affect labeling showed similar effects on self-reported distress as both of these intentional emotion regulation strategies. In each of the first three studies, however, participant predictions about the effects of affect labeling suggest that unlike reappraisal and distraction, people do not believe affect labeling to be an effective emotion regulation strategy. Even after having the experience of affect labels leading to lower distress, participants still predicted that affect labeling would increase distress in the future. Thus, affect labeling is best described as an incidental emotion regulation process. Finally, study four employed positive emotional pictures and here, affect labeling was associated with diminished self-reported pleasure, relative to passive watching. This suggests that affect labeling tends to dampen affective responses in general, rather than specifically alleviating negative affect.

  16. Representation of Cognitive Reappraisal Goals in Frontal Gamma Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35–55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  17. Mechanical Ventilation in Sepsis: A Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fernando G; Mazza, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is the main cause of close to 70% of all cases of acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS). In addition, sepsis increases susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, the development of a ventilatory strategy that can achieve adequate oxygenation without injuring the lungs is highly sought after for patients with acute infection and represents an important therapeutic window to improve patient care. Suboptimal ventilatory settings cannot only harm the lung, but may also contribute to the cascade of organ failure in sepsis due to organ crosstalk.Despite the prominent role of sepsis as a cause for lung injury, most of the studies that addressed mechanical ventilation strategies in ARDS did not specifically assess sepsis-related ARDS patients. Consequently, most of the recommendations regarding mechanical ventilation in sepsis patients are derived from ARDS trials that included multiple clinical diagnoses. While there have been important improvements in general ventilatory management that should apply to all critically ill patients, sepsis-related lung injury might still have particularities that could influence bedside management.After revisiting the interplay between sepsis and ventilation-induced lung injury, this review will reappraise the evidence for the major components of the lung protective ventilation strategy, emphasizing the particularities of sepsis-related acute lung injury.

  18. Latex medical gloves: time for a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Palosuo, Timo; Antoniadou, Irini; Gottrup, Finn; Phillips, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves and a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of NRL allergies after interventions and education prompted us to revisit the basis for justifiable glove selection policies. The published Anglophone literature from 1990 to 2010 was reviewed for original articles and reviews dealing with the barrier and performance properties of NRL and synthetic gloves and the role of glove powder. The review shows that NRL medical gloves, when compared with synthetic gloves, tend to be stronger, more flexible and better accepted by clinicians. The introduction of powder-free gloves has been associated with reductions in protein content and associated allergies. Recently, new methods to quantify clinically relevant NRL allergens have enabled the identification of gloves with low allergenic potential. The use of low-protein, low-allergenic, powder-free gloves is associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of type I allergic reactions to NRL among healthcare workers. Given the excellent barrier properties and operating characteristics, dramatically reduced incidences of allergic reactions, availability of specific tests for selection of low-allergen gloves, competitive costs and low environmental impact, the use of NRL gloves within the hospital environment warrants reappraisal.

  19. High working memory load impairs the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional response: Evidence from an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Gan, Shuzhen; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Xuhai; Zhang, Xiuping; Yang, Yufang

    2017-02-03

    This study investigates how the working memory (WM) load influenced the efficacy of cognitive reappraisal, a frequently used strategy for emotion regulation. In a dual-task paradigm, the participants were required to perform a high-load or a low-load memory task and simultaneously reappraise aversive pictures with a negative or a neutral meaning. In the low-load condition, we found that the amplitude of emotion-enhanced late positive potential (LPP) was significantly decreased by neutral reappraisal compared to negative reappraisal. In the high-load condition, this regulatory effect of reappraisal disappeared. These results suggest that successful reappraisal relies on cognitive resources and WM processes. If the necessary resources involved in reappraisal are over-depleted by a concurrent memory task, the reappraisal effect will be impaired. Moreover, we found that emotion-enhanced LPP was significant in both of the high-load and low-load tasks, which suggests that emotional electrocortical response may not be susceptible to the available resources.

  20. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  1. Event-related induced frontal alpha as a marker of lateral prefrontal cortex activation during cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; MacNamara, Annmarie; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Electrocortical activity, typically used to track the effects of cognitive reappraisal on the processing of emotional stimuli, has not been used to index PFC-mediated regulatory mechanisms responsible for these effects. In the current study, we examined the novel possibility that induced frontal alpha (i.e., 8 – 13 Hz), shown to reflect the inhibition and disengagement of task-relevant cortical regions, may be quantified to explore cortical activation that is specifically enhanced during cognitive reappraisal. For this purpose, 44 participants viewed unpleasant and neutral pictures followed by auditory instructions to either continue viewing the picture or reduce emotional response to the picture by making the picture seem less emotional (i.e., cognitive reappraisal). In line with previous work, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures elicited a larger late positive potential (LPP). Also corroborating previous work, the mid-latency LPP was reduced when pictures were cognitively reappraised. However, the current study showed for the first time that whereas unpleasant pictures elicited higher frontal alpha power than the neutral pictures bilaterally, frontal alpha power was reduced (indicative of more activation and cognitive control) during cognitive reappraisal of both picture types over the left hemisphere. Taken together, the LPP and event-related induced frontal alpha findings contribute unique information about distinct neural substrates and cognitive processes underlying reappraisal. PMID:22773414

  2. Argument, Counterargument, and Integration? Patterns of Argument Reappraisal in Controversial Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronostay, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Being challenged by opposing views in a controversial discussion can stimulate the production of more elaborate and sophisticated argumentations. According to the model of argument reappraisal (Leitão, 2000), such processes require transactivity, meaning that students do not only give reasons to support their own position (e.g., pro/contra…

  3. Differential Effects of Goal Setting and Value Reappraisal on College Women's Motivation and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the differential effects of goal setting and value reappraisal on female students' self-efficacy beliefs, value perceptions, exam performance and continued interest in statistics. It was hypothesized that the Enhanced Goal Setting Intervention (GS-E) would positively impact students'…

  4. Differential Effects of Goal Setting and Value Reappraisal on College Women's Motivation and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the differential effects of goal setting and value reappraisal on female students' self-efficacy beliefs, value perceptions, exam performance and continued interest in statistics. It was hypothesized that the Enhanced Goal Setting Intervention (GS-E) would positively impact students'…

  5. Intergroup Contact and Ingroup Reappraisal: Examining the Deprovincialization Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Bekhuis, Hidde

    2010-01-01

    According to the deprovincialization thesis, interethnic contact involves a reappraisal and distancing from the ingroup. Contact can broaden one's horizon by acknowledging and recognizing the value of other cultures and thereby putting the taken-for-granted own cultural standards into perspective. The current research uses data from three surveys…

  6. Intergroup Contact and Ingroup Reappraisal: Examining the Deprovincialization Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Bekhuis, Hidde

    2010-01-01

    According to the deprovincialization thesis, interethnic contact involves a reappraisal and distancing from the ingroup. Contact can broaden one's horizon by acknowledging and recognizing the value of other cultures and thereby putting the taken-for-granted own cultural standards into perspective. The current research uses data from three surveys…

  7. G. Stanley Hall's Adolescence: A centennial reappraisal introduction.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; Cravens, Hamilton

    2006-08-01

    This article is an overview of the special issue "G. Stanley Hall's Adolescence: A Centennial Reappraisal." First, a brief biography of Hall is presented. Then each of the six articles in the special issue is summarized. Three of the articles are by historians and three are by psychologists, but all six articles integrate history and psychology.

  8. Elevated amygdala activity during reappraisal anticipation predicts anxiety in avoidant personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Ochsner, Kevin N; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; McMaster, Antonia; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W

    2015-02-01

    Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by pervasive anxiety, fear of criticism, disapproval, and rejection, particularly in anticipation of exposure to social situations. An important but underexplored question concerns whether anxiety in avoidant patients is associated with an impaired ability to engage emotion regulatory strategies in anticipation of and during appraisal of negative social stimuli. We examined the use of an adaptive emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, in avoidant patients. In addition to assessing individual differences in state and trait anxiety levels, self-reported affect as well as measures of neural activity were compared between 17 avoidant patients and 21 healthy control participants both in anticipation of and during performance of a reappraisal task. Avoidant patients showed greater state and trait-related anxiety relative to healthy participants. In addition, relative to healthy participants, avoidant patients showed pronounced amygdala hyper-reactivity during reappraisal anticipation, and this hyper-reactivity effect was positively associated with increasing self-reported anxiety levels. Our finding of exaggerated amygdala activity during reappraisal anticipation could reflect anxiety about the impending need to reappraise, anxiety about the certainty of an upcoming negative image, or anxiety relating to anticipated scrutiny of task responses by the experimenters. While we believe that all of these possibilities are consistent with the phenomenology of avoidant personality disorder, future research may clarify this ambiguity. These results suggest that amygdala reactivity in anticipation of receiving negative social information may represent a key component of the neural mechanisms underlying the heightened anxiety present in avoidant patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Autopoiesis: a review and a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2003-02-01

    the theory of autopoiesis had, and still has, a difficult time being accepted into the mainstream of life-science research. Finally, it is pointed out that the new interest in system biology and complexity theories may lead to a reappraisal of autopoiesis and related notions, as outlined also by other authors, such as Tibor Ganti and Stuart Kauffmann.

  10. The neural basis of cognitive change: reappraisal of emotional faces modulates neural source activity in a frontoparietal attention network.

    PubMed

    Wessing, Ida; Rehbein, Maimu A; Postert, Christian; Fürniss, Tilman; Junghöfer, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Emotions can be regulated effectively via cognitive change, as evidenced by cognitive behavioural therapy. The neural correlates of cognitive change were investigated using reappraisal, a strategy that involves the reinterpretation of emotional stimuli. Hemodynamic studies revealed cortical structures involved in reappraisal and highlighted the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating subcortical affective processing. Studies using event-related potentials elucidated the timing of reappraisal by showing effective modulation of the Late Positive Potential (LPP) after 300ms but also even earlier effects. The present study investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the cortical network underlying cognitive change via inverse source modelling based on whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG). During MEG recording, 28 healthy participants saw angry and neutral faces and followed instructions designed to down- or up-regulate emotions via reappraisal. Differences between angry and neutral face processing were specifically enhanced during up-regulation, first in the parietal cortex during M170 and across the whole cortex during LPP-M, with particular involvement of the parietal and dorsal prefrontal cortex regions. Thus, our data suggest that the reappraisal of emotional faces involves specific modulations in a frontoparietal attention network.

  11. Testing the effects of suppression and reappraisal on emotional concordance using a multivariate multilevel model.

    PubMed

    Butler, Emily A; Gross, James J; Barnard, Kobus

    2014-04-01

    In theory, the essence of emotion is coordination across experiential, behavioral, and physiological systems in the service of functional responding to environmental demands. However, people often regulate emotions, which could either reduce or enhance cross-system concordance. The present study tested the effects of two forms of emotion regulation (expressive suppression, positive reappraisal) on concordance of subjective experience (positive-negative valence), expressive behavior (positive and negative), and physiology (inter-beat interval, skin conductance, blood pressure) during conversations between unacquainted young women. As predicted, participants asked to suppress showed reduced concordance for both positive and negative emotions. Reappraisal instructions also reduced concordance for negative emotions, but increased concordance for positive ones. Both regulation strategies had contagious interpersonal effects on average levels of responding. Suppression reduced overall expression for both regulating and uninstructed partners, while reappraisal reduced negative experience. Neither strategy influenced the uninstructed partners' concordance. These results suggest that emotion regulation impacts concordance by altering the temporal coupling of phasic subsystem responses, rather than by having divergent effects on subsystem tonic levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reappraisal writing relieves social anxiety and may be accompanied by changes in frontal alpha asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Changming; Yin, Qin; Wang, Kui; Li, Dongdong; Mao, Mengchai; Zhu, Chaozhe; Huang, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that expressive writing can improve mental and physical health. However, to date, the neural correlates of expressive writing have not been reported. The current study examined the neural electrical correlates of expressive writing in a reappraisal approach. Three groups of participants were required to give a public speech. Before speaking, the reappraisal writing group was asked to write about the current stressful task in a reappraisal manner. The irrelevant writing group was asked to write about their weekly plan, and the non-writing group did not write anything. It was found that following the experimental writing manipulation, both reappraisal and irrelevant writing conditions decreased self-reported anxiety levels. But when re-exposed to the stressful situation, participants in the irrelevant writing group showed increased anxiety levels, while anxiety levels remained lower in the reappraisal group. During the experimental writing manipulation period, participants in the reappraisal group had lower frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. However, following re-exposure to stress, participants in the reappraisal group showed higher frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. Self-reported anxiety and frontal alpha asymmetry of the non-writing condition did not change significantly across these different stages. It is noteworthy that expressive writing in a reappraisal style seems not to be a fast-acting treatment but may instead take effect in the long run. PMID:26539146

  13. 27 CFR 72.41 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property... OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.41 Re-appraisal of property... official appraisal thereof immediately following seizure: Provided, however, That if the petitioner...

  14. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-02-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal's neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses.

  15. Emotion Regulation Strategies That Promote Learning: Reappraisal Enhances Children's Memory for Educational Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Levine, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds ("N" = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group…

  16. Reappraisal writing relieves social anxiety and may be accompanied by changes in frontal alpha asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Changming; Yin, Qin; Wang, Kui; Li, Dongdong; Mao, Mengchai; Zhu, Chaozhe; Huang, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that expressive writing can improve mental and physical health. However, to date, the neural correlates of expressive writing have not been reported. The current study examined the neural electrical correlates of expressive writing in a reappraisal approach. Three groups of participants were required to give a public speech. Before speaking, the reappraisal writing group was asked to write about the current stressful task in a reappraisal manner. The irrelevant writing group was asked to write about their weekly plan, and the non-writing group did not write anything. It was found that following the experimental writing manipulation, both reappraisal and irrelevant writing conditions decreased self-reported anxiety levels. But when re-exposed to the stressful situation, participants in the irrelevant writing group showed increased anxiety levels, while anxiety levels remained lower in the reappraisal group. During the experimental writing manipulation period, participants in the reappraisal group had lower frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. However, following re-exposure to stress, participants in the reappraisal group showed higher frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. Self-reported anxiety and frontal alpha asymmetry of the non-writing condition did not change significantly across these different stages. It is noteworthy that expressive writing in a reappraisal style seems not to be a fast-acting treatment but may instead take effect in the long run.

  17. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  18. Carbonates in Martian Meteorites - A Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, M. M.; Wright, I. P.; Douglas, C.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    The occurrence of carbonates in martian meteorites was first established after acid dissolution and stepped combustion analyses of whole-rock Nakhla [1]. The release of CO2 after a 24 hr. reaction with 100% H3PO4 at 25 degrees C was taken to imply that the carbonate mineral present was calcite, a proposal subsequently confirmed by petrographic examination [2]. The isotopic composition of the carbon comprising the calcite was enriched in 13C (isotopically heavy) with delta^(l3)C ~ +12 per mil. An extended period of acid attack, also at 25 degrees C, released small quantities of even more 13C-enriched CO2 (delta^(13)C ~ +49 per mil), but the isotopic data were considered uncertain, and thus little significance was attached to the result, beyond the suggestion that some carbonate was perhaps dolomite or iron-bearing. Now, however, following the analysis of Fe-Mg-rich carbonates in ALH 84001 [3-5], it is apparent that previously-reported data might underestimate the abundance and delta^(13)C of carbonates in SNCs [6], and that a much higher proportion might occur as siderite or dolomite end-members. Iron- and magnesium-rich carbonates are only partially attacked at 25 degrees C, even after extended exposure to H3PO4 [7]. Given that the delta^(13)C of carbonates in SNCs has been used to deduce both environmental conditions on Mars [4, 6], and the evolution of the martian atmosphere [8], it is desirable that correct delta^(l3)c values are known. We have undertaken a reappraisal of the chemical and isotopic composition of carbonates in martian meteorites, by a programme of high resolution stepped combustion analyses and high temperature (75 degrees C) acid dissolution . Carbonates in most martian meteorites are extremely fine-grained. and therefore not easv to identify by traditional optical microscopic methods; it is not possible to determine readily the mineralogical composition of the grains. Comparison of combustion data from SNCs with that from pure materials allows

  19. A feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial of the Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention, a novel supportive technique for recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah; Bailey, Chris; Boivin, Jacky; Cheong, Ying; Reading, Isabel; Macklon, Nick

    2015-04-15

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is diagnosed when a woman has had three or more miscarriages. Increased levels of distress and anxiety are common during the waiting period of any subsequent pregnancies, posing a significant threat to psychological well-being. However, only limited support and therapy are available for these women, and many are left to cope alone. The Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) is a novel self-administered supportive technique which has been shown to be effective in patients awaiting the outcome of in vitro fertilisation treatment. The primary objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the PRCI in improving quality of life in the difficult waiting period which women with previous RM endure before an ongoing pregnancy can be confirmed. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) feasibility study will establish the viability of conducting a multicentre RCT to definitively test the effects of the PRCI on the psychological well-being of women who have experienced RM during the initial waiting period of a subsequent pregnancy. A second component consists of a qualitative process evaluation exploring the initial experience of pregnancy following repeated miscarriages. Participants (n=50) will be randomised into one of two groups. The PRCI intervention group will receive the PRCI card and weekly questionnaires to assess their psychological well-being during the waiting period of their new pregnancy. The non-intervention group will be asked to complete the same weekly questionnaires. The qualitative process analysis will employ semistructured interviews (n=20) to address relevant aspects of the study objectives. Ethics approval has been obtained from the National Research Ethics Service Committee South Central-Hampshire A. Participating centres have given National Health Service R&D approval. Study findings will be disseminated through peer reviewed journals, national and international conferences and lay user groups

  20. A reappraisal of loop diuretic choice in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Buggey, Jonathan; Mentz, Robert J; Pitt, Bertram; Eisenstein, Eric L; Anstrom, Kevin J; Velazquez, Eric J; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    The health and economic burden of heart failure is significant and continues to grow each year. Loop diuretics are an integral part of symptom management in heart failure. Furosemide is used disproportionately compared with other loop diuretics, and there is currently no guidance for physicians regarding which agent to choose. However, there exist pharmacologic differences as well as other mechanistic differences that appear to favor torsemide use over furosemide. Compared with furosemide, torsemide improves surrogate markers of heart failure severity such as left ventricular function, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and New York Heart Association functional class and may also reduce hospitalizations, readmissions, and mortality. Data suggest that these benefits could be mediated through torsemide's ability to positively affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Specifically, torsemide has been shown to inhibit aldosterone secretion, synthesis, and receptor binding in vitro, as well as decrease transcardiac extraction of aldosterone, myocardial collagen production, and cardiac fibrosis in patients with heart failure. We identified pertinent literature using keyword MEDLINE searches and cross-referencing prior bibliographies. We summarize the available data suggesting potential benefits with torsemide over furosemide, and call attention to the need for a reappraisal of diuretic use in heart failure patients and also for a well-powered, randomized control trial assessing torsemide versus furosemide use.

  1. Gut check: reappraisal of disgust helps explain liberal-conservative differences on issues of purity.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Antonenko, Olga; Willer, Robb; Horberg, E J; John, Oliver P

    2014-06-01

    Disgust plays an important role in conservatives' moral and political judgments, helping to explain why conservatives and liberals differ in their attitudes on issues related to purity. We examined the extent to which the emotion-regulation strategy reappraisal drives the disgust-conservatism relationship. We hypothesized that disgust has less influence on the political and moral judgments of liberals because they tend to regulate disgust reactions through emotional reappraisal more than conservatives. Study 1a found that a greater tendency to reappraise disgust was negatively associated with conservatism, independent of disgust sensitivity. Study 1b replicated this finding, demonstrating that the effect of reappraisal is unique to disgust. In Study 2, liberals condemned a disgusting act less than conservatives, and did so to the extent that they reappraised their initial disgust response. Study 3 manipulated participants' use of reappraisal when exposed to a video of men kissing. Conservatives instructed to reappraise their emotional reactions subsequently expressed more support for same-sex marriage than conservatives in the control condition, demonstrating attitudes statistically equivalent to liberal participants.

  2. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal’s neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses. PMID:24603024

  3. Neural indicators of emotion regulation via acceptance vs reappraisal in remitted major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Smoski, Moria J; Keng, Shian-Ling; Ji, Jie Lisa; Moore, Tyler; Minkel, Jared; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2015-09-01

    Mood disorders are characterized by impaired emotion regulation abilities, reflected in alterations in frontolimbic brain functioning during regulation. However, little is known about differences in brain function when comparing regulatory strategies. Reappraisal and emotional acceptance are effective in downregulating negative affect, and are components of effective depression psychotherapies. Investigating neural mechanisms of reappraisal vs emotional acceptance in remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) may yield novel mechanistic insights into depression risk and prevention. Thirty-seven individuals (18 rMDD, 19 controls) were assessed during a functional magnetic resonance imaging task requiring reappraisal, emotional acceptance or no explicit regulation while viewing sad images. Lower negative affect was reported following reappraisal than acceptance, and was lower following acceptance than no explicit regulation. In controls, the acceptance > reappraisal contrast revealed greater activation in left insular cortex and right prefrontal gyrus, and less activation in several other prefrontal regions. Compared with controls, the rMDD group had greater paracingulate and right midfrontal gyrus (BA 8) activation during reappraisal relative to acceptance. Compared with reappraisal, acceptance is associated with activation in regions linked to somatic and emotion awareness, although this activation is associated with less reduction in negative affect. Additionally, a history of MDD moderated these effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A reappraisal of the morphology and systematic position of the theropod dinosaur Sigilmassasaurus from the "middle" Cretaceous of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Evers, Serjoscha W; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Milner, Angela C; McFeeters, Bradley; Allain, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is an enigmatic theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, originally based on a few isolated cervical vertebrae. Ever since its original description, both its taxonomic validity and systematic affinities were contentious. Originally considered to represent its own family, Sigilmassasauridae, the genus has variously been suggested to represent a carcharodontosaurid, an ornithischian, and, more recently, a spinosaurid. Here we describe new remains referrable to this taxon and re-evaluate its taxonomic status and systematic affinities. Based on the new remains, a re-evaluation of the original materials, and comparisons with other spinosaurids, the holotype of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is identified as an anterior dorsal, rather than a cervical vertebra, and differences between elements referred to this taxon can be explained by different positions of the elements in question within the vertebral column. Many characters used previously to diagnose the genus and species are found to be more widespread among basal tetanurans, and specifically spinosaurids. However, the taxon shows several autapomorphies that support its validity, including the presence of a strongly rugose, ventrally offset triangular platform that is confluent with a ventral keel anteriorly in the mid-cervical vertebral centra and a strongly reduced lateral neural arch lamination, with no or an incomplete distinction between anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae in the posterior cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae. We argue furthermore that Spinosaurus maroccanus, also described on the basis of isolated cervical vertebrae from the same stratigraphic unit and in the same paper as Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis, is a subjective synonym of the latter. Both a detailed comparison of this taxon with other theropods and a formal phylogenetic analysis support spinosaurid affintities for Sigilmassasaurus. However, we reject the recently

  5. Neural Systems Underlying the Reappraisal of Personally Craved Foods

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2014-01-01

    Craving of unhealthy food is a common target of self-regulation, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In this study, participants used cognitive reappraisal to regulate their desire to consume idiosyncratically craved or not craved energy-dense foods, and neural activity during regulation was compared with each other and with the activity during passive viewing of energy-dense foods. Regulation of both food types elicited activation in classic top–down self-regulation regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. This main effect of regulation was qualified by an interaction, such that activation in these regions was significantly greater during reappraisal of craved (versus not craved) foods and several regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, medial frontal, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices, were uniquely active during regulation of personally craved foods. Body mass index significantly negatively correlated with regulation-related activation in the right dorsolateral PFC, thalamus, and bilateral dorsal ACC and with activity in nucleus accumbens during passive viewing of craved (vs. neutral, low-energy density) foods. These results suggest that several of the brain regions involved in the self-regulation of food craving are similar to other kinds of affective self-regulation and that others are sensitive to the self-relevance of the regulation target. PMID:24392892

  6. The Unconscious Regulation of Emotion: Nonconscious Reappraisal Goals Modulate Emotional Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Bargh, John A.; Nocera, Christopher C.; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2009-01-01

    People often encounter difficulty when making conscious attempts to regulate their emotions. We propose that nonconscious self-regulatory processes may be of help in these difficult circumstances, because nonconscious processes are not subject to the same set of limitations as are conscious processes. Two experiments examined the effects of nonconsciously operating goals on people's emotion-regulatory success. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in an anxiety-eliciting task who had a reappraisal emotion-control goal primed and operating nonconsciously achieved the same decrease in physiological reactivity as those explicitly instructed to reappraise, compared to a control group. In Experiment 2, the effect of nonconscious reappraisal priming on physiological reactivity was shown to be most pronounced for those who do not habitually use reappraisal strategies. The findings highlight the potential importance of nonconscious goals for facilitating emotional control in complex real-world environments, and have implications for contemporary models of emotion-regulation. PMID:20001127

  7. Lead me not into temptation: using cognitive reappraisal to reduce goal inconsistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Véronique; Grégoire, Jacques; Magen, Eran; Gross, James J; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2012-01-01

    Temptations besiege us, and we must resist their appeal if we are to achieve our long-term goals. In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive reappraisal could be used to successfully maintain performance in a task embedded in temptation. In Study 1, 62 participants had to search for information on the Internet while resisting attractive task-irrelevant content on preselected sites. In Study 2, 58 participants had to count target words in a funny TV sequence. Compared to the no-reappraisal condition, participants who understood the situation as a test of willpower (the reappraisal condition) (1) performed better at the task (Studies 1 and 2), and (2) were less tempted by the attractive content of the TV sequence (Study 2). These findings suggest that, by making the temptation less attractive and the task more appealing, cognitive reappraisal can help us resist temptation.

  8. The unconscious regulation of emotion: nonconscious reappraisal goals modulate emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Bargh, John A; Nocera, Christopher C; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    People often encounter difficulty when making conscious attempts to regulate their emotions. We propose that nonconscious self-regulatory processes may be of help in these difficult circumstances because nonconscious processes are not subject to the same set of limitations as are conscious processes. Two experiments examined the effects of nonconsciously operating goals on people's emotion regulatory success. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in an anxiety-eliciting task. Participants who had a reappraisal emotion control goal primed and operating nonconsciously achieved the same decrease in physiological reactivity as those explicitly instructed to reappraise. In Experiment 2, the effect of nonconscious reappraisal priming on physiological reactivity was shown to be most pronounced for those who do not habitually use reappraisal strategies. The findings highlight the potential importance of nonconscious goals for facilitating emotional control in complex real-world environments and have implications for contemporary models of emotion regulation.

  9. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the link between child maltreatment and reappraisal ability.

    PubMed

    Miu, A C; Cărnuţă, M; Vulturar, R; Szekely-Copîndean, R D; Bîlc, M I; Chiş, A; Cioară, M; Fernandez, K C; Szentágotai-Tătar, A; Gross, J J

    2017-04-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for virtually all common mental disorders, but it is not yet clear why. One possible mechanism is emotion regulation ability. The present study investigated for the first time the influence of a BDNF Val66Met genotype × child maltreatment interaction on emotion regulation, and compared differential susceptibility and diathesis-stress models. A sample of N = 254 healthy volunteers were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and underwent an experimental assessment of reappraisal ability (i.e. the success of using reappraisal to downregulate negative affect). A self-report instrument previously validated against a clinical interview was used to investigate child maltreatment. There was a significant BDNF Val66Met genotype × child maltreatment interaction (B = -0.31, P < 0.015), with Met carriers showing both the lowest level of reappraisal ability in maltreated participants, and the highest level of reappraisal ability in non-maltreated participants. By assessing alternative models, we found that the best fitting model was in line with strong differential susceptibility. As expected, reappraisal ability was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. Therefore, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the link between child maltreatment and emotion regulation ability. Future studies could investigate whether improving reappraisal in maltreated BDNF Met carriers results in reduced risk for mental disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. The effect of cognitive reappraisal on the emotional memory trade-off.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Allie; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2011-11-01

    Emotional information is often remembered better than neutral information, but this enhancement can come at the cost of memory for non-emotional stimuli presented alongside emotionally salient items. Two encoding-related factors have been proposed to influence the magnitude of this trade-off: The intensity of the affective response to the scenes (which increases the trade-off) and the cognitive control exerted to process the scenes (which decreases the trade-off). The present study examined the relative importance of these two factors by assessing the effect of cognitive reappraisal on the magnitude of the trade-off effect. Cognitive reappraisal refers to the implementation of cognitive strategies to assist a person in changing the intensity of their response to an experience. Thus, reappraisal provides a way to assess both of the factors that are important for the elicitation of the trade-off. The results revealed that when participants were asked to view the scenes, without cognitive reappraisal, a robust memory trade-off occurred. But, when participants were asked to either heighten or decrease their emotional reactions via reappraisal, there was a reduction in the magnitude of the trade-off. These results suggest that the cognitive process of reappraising the scenes is sufficient to reduce the trade-off effect, even when such processing leads to an intensified affective response.

  11. Executive and semantic processes in reappraisal of negative stimuli: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Simone; Sambin, Marco; Viviani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled processes, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS) and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT). We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought. PMID:26217277

  12. The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gross, James J.; Weber, Jochen; Robertson, Elaine R.; Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Ray, Rebecca D.; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to use cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is an adaptive skill in adulthood, but little is known about its development. Because reappraisal is thought to be supported by linearly developing prefrontal regions, one prediction is that reappraisal ability develops linearly. However, recent investigations into socio-emotional development suggest that there are non-linear patterns that uniquely affect adolescents. We compared older children (10–13), adolescents (14–17) and young adults (18–22) on a task that distinguishes negative emotional reactivity from reappraisal ability. Behaviorally, we observed no age differences in self-reported emotional reactivity, but linear and quadratic relationships between reappraisal ability and age. Neurally, we observed linear age-related increases in activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, previously identified in adult reappraisal. We observed a quadratic pattern of activation with age in regions associated with social cognitive processes like mental state attribution (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex). In these regions, we observed relatively lower reactivity-related activation in adolescents, but higher reappraisal-related activation. This suggests that (i) engagement of the cognitive control components of reappraisal increases linearly with age and (ii) adolescents may not normally recruit regions associated with mental state attribution, but (iii) this can be reversed with reappraisal instructions. PMID:22228751

  13. [A reappraisal of the works of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross].

    PubMed

    Afonso, Selene Beviláqua Chaves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a reappraisal of part of the works of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, one of the most quoted authors addressing the end of life process, mourning and dying. Her work has contributed to a clearer understanding of these issues by health professionals, families, religious and lay people who handle and/or experience mourning. She has also been the subject of controversy related to ethical issues and the scientific rigor of her work. The books analyzed in this article are: On death and dying (1969); Questions and answers on death and dying (1971); Living with death and dying (1981); On children and death(1983); On life after death (1991) and Life lessons (2000).

  14. A basis for migraine therapy- the autonomic theory reappraised.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    The concept that migraine results from an initial vasoconstriction due to increased release of noradrenaline from the sympathetic nerves to cranial blood vessels has been reappraised in the light of recently acquired knowledge of the mechanisms of action of drugs used in the treatment of migraine, physiological and pharmacological evidence implicating noradrenaline, and the observations by others that several migraine variants may be associated with some degree of sympathetic overactivity. If the theory is correct, it suggests that both prophylaxis and management of the acute condition should be possible by means of selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism. The use of drugs with potentially dangerous vasoconstrictor properties appears to be unnecessary. The suggestion is made that the increased adrenergic activity might result from changes within the hypothalamus. PMID:26908

  15. Pericoronitis: a reappraisal of its clinical and microbiologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Nitzan, D W; Tal, O; Sela, M N; Shteyer, A

    1985-07-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease of the operculum overlying an erupting or semi-impacted tooth. It manifests itself mainly in late adolescence and young adulthood and nearly always occurs around the lower third molar. The distinctive location, age, clinical picture, and link with predisposing factors warranted a reappraisal of pericoronitis and its etiology. Spirochetes and fusobacteria proved prevalent at all stages of the disease. The presence of these microbacteria may provide a clue as to the late appearance, particular location, and singular clinical picture of pericoronitis. The fact that spirochetes and fusobacteria are also found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and have been associated with alveolar osteitis, indicates a possible relationship between these disorders and pericoronitis.

  16. Worrying about the Future: An Episodic Specificity Induction Impacts Problem Solving, Reappraisal, and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Helen G.; Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction – brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience – enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants’ performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i.e., more relevant steps) and an episodic reappraisal task (i.e., more episodic details) involving personally worrisome future events compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. Imagining constructive behaviors with increased episodic detail via the specificity induction was also related to significantly larger decreases in anxiety, perceived likelihood of a bad outcome, and perceived difficulty to cope with a bad outcome, as well as larger increases in perceived likelihood of a good outcome and indicated use of active coping behaviors compared with the control. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings using a more stringent control induction, and found preliminary evidence that the specificity induction was related to an increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared with the control. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in means-end problem solving and episodic reappraisal, and that increasing the episodic specificity of imagining constructive behaviors regarding worrisome events may be related to improved psychological well-being. PMID:26820166

  17. Depression, Antidepressants, and Neurogenesis: A Critical Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Nicola D; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    The neurogenesis hypothesis of depression posits (1) that neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus is regulated negatively by stressful experiences and positively by treatment with antidepressant drugs and (2) that alterations in the rate of neurogenesis play a fundamental role in the pathology and treatment of major depression. This hypothesis is supported by important experimental observations, but is challenged by equally compelling contradictory reports. This review summarizes the phenomenon of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the initial and continued evidence leading to the development of the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression, and the recent studies that have disputed and/or qualified those findings, to conclude that it can be affected by stress and antidepressants under certain conditions, but that these effects do not appear in all cases of psychological stress, depression, and antidepressant treatment. PMID:21937982

  18. Cognitive reappraisal fails when attempting to reduce the appetitive value of food: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Michela; Ubel, Sonja; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2013-12-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during the exposure to food cues. Thirty-three healthy, normal-weight women viewed images of high-caloric food and non-food items after an overnight fast. The participants were instructed to either passively look at the pictures, or to change (increase, decrease) the appetitive value of the food items. The P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) were higher across all conditions for food relative to non-food pictures. In the 'increase condition' the food images were rated as more appetizing and arousing than during passive viewing which was accompanied by increased amplitudes of the P300 and LPP. In contrast, the 'watch condition' and the 'decrease condition' did not differ with regard to appetite and arousal ratings as well as ERPs. Amplitudes of late positive potentials in the 'decrease condition' were positively correlated with scores on eating disorder scales indicating bulimic tendencies. The ERP data show that the appetitive value of food cues can easily be enhanced via reappraisal but is difficult to reduce, especially in women who display non-clinical forms of purging. The reduced ERP reactivity might constitute a risk factor for bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal-prospective studies should follow up on this aspect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence: a reappraisal].

    PubMed

    Covarrubías, Natalia; Hurtado, Carmen; Díaz, Alex; Mezzano, Gabriel; Brahm, Javier; Venegas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Reported seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in developed countries is between 0.3-53%. Published data relies on the assays used and its technical performance. Sensitivity on new available tests has improved, which has changed HEV seroprevalence around the world. We re-evaluated retrospectively, 178 serum samples of patients with previous anti HEV IgG determination between 2009 and 2012. Initial analysis was performed with ELISA kit Genelabs (Singapore), with 7.3% positivity. The reevaluation was done with ELISA kit AccuDiag TM HEV-IgG (Diagnostic Automation, United States), with reported sensitivity and specificity over 99.8%. With the new assay, 32.6% positive samples were found, significantly greater to the previous result (p<0.001) (4.5 times more). There were no differences in gender but a significant association between age and HEV IgG seropositivity was found (p<0.001). This suggests that previous testing might have underestimated HEV seroprevalence in Chile, which should be reevaluated using the new available test.

  20. HDL cholesterol: reappraisal of its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Scharnagl, Hubert; Speer, Timotheus; Zewinger, Stephen; Ritsch, Andreas; Parhofer, Klaus G; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-03-24

    While several lines of evidence prove that elevated concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) causally contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences, high-density lipoproteins are still widely believed to exert atheroprotective effects. Hence, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is in general still considered as "good cholesterol". Recent research, however, suggests that this might not always be the case and that a fundamental reassessment of the clinical significance of HDL-C is warranted. This review article is based on a selective literature review. In individuals without a history of cardiovascular events, low concentrations of HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events. This relationship may, however, not apply to patients with metabolic disorders or manifest cardiovascular disease. The classical function of HDL is to mobilise cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues for delivery to the liver for excretion. These roles in cholesterol metabolism as well as many other biological functions of HDL particles are dependent on the number as well as protein and lipid composition of HDL particles. They are poorly reflected by the HDL-C concentration. HDL can even exert negative vascular effects, if its composition is pathologically altered. High serum HDL-C is therefore no longer regarded protective. In line with this, recent pharmacological approaches to raise HDL-C concentration have not been able to show reductions of cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast to LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C correlates with cardiovascular risk only in healthy individuals. The calculation of the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C is not useful for all patients. Low HDL-C should prompt examination of additional metabolic and inflammatory pathologies. An increase in HDL-C through lifestyle change (smoking cessation, physical exercise) has positive effects and is recommended. However, HDL-C is currently not a valid target for drug therapy.

  1. A reappraisal of early hominid phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Strait, D S; Grine, F E; Moniz, M A

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the results of a new cladistic analysis of early hominid relationships. Ingroup taxa included Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster and Homo sapiens. Outgroup taxa included Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla. Sixty craniodental characters were selected for analysis. These were drawn from the trait lists of other studies and our own observations. Eight parsimony analyses were performed that differed with respect to the number of characters examined and the manner in which the characters were treated. Seven employed ordered characters, and included analyses in which (1) taxa that were variable with respect to a character were coded as having an intermediate state, (2) characters with variable states in any taxon were excluded; (3) a variable taxon was coded as having the state exhibited by the majority of its hypodigm, (4) variable taxa were coded as missing data for that character, (5) some characters were considered irreversible, (6) masticatory characters were excluded, and (7) characters whose states were unknown in some taxa were excluded. In the final analysis, (8) all characters were unordered. All analyses were performed using PAUP 3.0s. Despite the fact that the eight analyses differed with respect to methodology, they produced several consistent results. All agreed that the "robust" australopithecines form a clade, A. afarensis is the sister taxon of all other hominids, and the genus Australopithecus, as conventionally defined, is paraphyletic. All eight also supported trees in which A. africanus is the sister taxon of a joint Homo+ "robust" clade, although in one analysis an equally parsimonious topology found A. africanus to be the sister of the "robust" species. In most analyses, the relationships of A. africanus and H. habilis were unstable, in the sense that their positions vary in trees

  2. Impact of long-term meditation practice on cardiovascular reactivity during perception and reappraisal of affective images.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Sergei V; Reva, Natalia V; Loktev, Konstantin V; Korenyok, Vladimir V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2015-03-01

    Meditation has been found to be an efficient strategy for coping with stress in healthy individuals and in patients with psychosomatic disorders. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological mechanisms of beneficial effects of meditation on cardiovascular reactivity. We examined effects of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation on cardiovascular reactivity during affective image processing under "unregulated" and "emotion regulation" conditions. Twenty two experienced meditators and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Under "unregulated" conditions participants were shown neutral and affective images and were asked to attend to them. Under "emotion regulation" conditions they down-regulated negative affect through reappraisal of negative images or up-regulated positive affect through reappraisal of positive images. Under "unregulated" conditions while anticipating upcoming images meditators vs. controls did not show larger pre-stimulus total peripheral resistance and greater cardiac output for negative images in comparison with neutral and positive ones. Control subjects showed TPR decrease for negative images only when they consciously intended to reappraise them (i.e. in the "emotion regulation" condition). Both meditators and controls showed comparable cardiovascular reactivity during perception of positive stimuli, whereas up-regulating of positive affect was associated with more pronounced cardiac activation in meditators. The findings provide some insight into understanding the beneficial influence of meditation on top-down control of emotion and cardiovascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Negotiators' profit predicted by cognitive reappraisal, suppression of emotions, misrepresentation of information, and tolerance of ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative emotions and variables that affect negotiators' profit. Based on a simulated negotiation, this study induced emotions by providing negative feedback on how negotiating partners perceived and evaluated each other's behavior. Then relationships were examined between negative emotions and emotional regulation strategies, misrepresentation of information, tolerance of ambiguity, and negotiators' profit. A total of 228 undergraduate students enrolled in an economics course in the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Management at a university in Ankara participated. There were 130 students in the experimental group and 98 students in the control group; 102 were men and 126 were women, ages 17 to 35 years (M =22.6 yr., SD = 2.3). A simulated negotiation process was used. Regression coefficients suggested positive relation between Emotional Reaction and the use of a Suppression strategy and Misrepresentation of Information. Negative coefficients were obtained from scores between Emotional Reaction and Cognitive Reappraisal and Tolerance of Ambiguity. The regression also suggested there were negative regression coefficients linking Misrepresentation of Information and Suppression strategies to Negotiators' Profit. Positive regression coefficients linked Tolerance of Ambiguity to Negotiators' Profit. Mediating variables explained 55% of variance in Negotiators' Profit; the majority (43%) was explained by Cognitive Reappraisal.

  4. Habitual reappraisal in context: peer victimisation moderates its association with physiological reactivity to social stress

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kara A.; Aldao, Amelia; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Although the emotion regulation strategy of reappraisal has been associated with adaptive outcomes, there is a growing evidence that it may not be adaptive in all contexts. In the present study, adolescents reported their use of habitual reappraisal and their experiences with peer victimisation, a chronic stressor that is associated with reduced well-being in this population. We examined how these variables predicted physiological reactivity (vagal withdrawal and changes in pre-ejection period) during a social stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Task). In line with previous research, at high levels of victimisation, habitual reappraisal predicted adaptive physiological reactivity (i.e., greater vagal withdrawal). Conversely, at low levels of victimisation, habitual reappraisal predicted maladaptive physiological reactivity (i.e., blunted vagal withdrawal). These findings were specific to parasympathetic reactivity. They suggest that habitual reappraisal may exert different effects on parasympathetic reactivity depending on the presence of stressors, and highlight the importance of examining the role of contextual factors in determining the adaptiveness of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:26654477

  5. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and brain activity involved in reappraisal of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of negative emotion through reappraisal has been shown to induce increased prefrontal activity and decreased amygdala activity. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness reflect differences in typical recognition, detachment and regulation of current experience, thought to also operate as top–down control mechanism. We sought to investigate whether such individual differences would be associated with brain activity elicited during reappraisal of negative emotion. Eighteen healthy participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that involved attending to or reappraising negative stimuli, and provided emotion experience ratings after each trial. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed with a self-report questionnaire. Reappraisal induced activity in a brain network involving predominantly dorsal portions of the prefrontal cortex, replicating previous studies. A voxelwise regression analysis showed that individual differences in the tendency to be mindful predicted activity in neural regions underlying reappraisal, with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activation increasing with more mindfulness traits. Notably, this prefrontal activation was inversely correlated with the amygdala response to negative scenes, further supporting its role in down-regulating emotion-generation regions. These findings suggest that individual differences in dispositional mindfulness, which reflect the tendency to recognize and regulate current states, may modulate activity in neural systems involved in the effective cognitive control of negative emotion. PMID:20147457

  6. Reappraisal and suppression mediate the contribution of regulatory focus to anxiety in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Dolcos, Sanda; Iordan, Alexandru D; Rudolph, Karen D; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-08-01

    Theory and research link regulatory focus (RF) in the form of promotion and prevention goal orientation with internalizing symptoms (e.g., anxiety), but the relevant mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of two emotion regulation (ER) strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) as possible mediators. Path analysis using data from 179 healthy young participants (110 women, 69 men) revealed that stronger promotion orientation was significantly associated with less anxiety, and that the use of reappraisal and suppression partially mediated this association. Prevention was associated with more suppression but was not directly associated with anxiety. There were no gender differences in these effects. Collectively, these findings suggest that effective ER, through heightened use of reappraisal and dampened use of suppression, serves as a mechanism through which promotion confers protection against anxiety. This research provides empirical support to initiatives aimed at promoting healthy psychological adjustment and preventing anxiety, by optimizing ER strategies with respect to RF goal orientations.

  7. Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E.; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one’s group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women’s math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women’s performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants’ math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  8. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  9. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Burklund, Lisa J.; Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one's own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 39). Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes. PMID:24715880

  10. The impact of empathy and reappraisal on emotional intensity recognition.

    PubMed

    Naor, Navot; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Sheppes, Gal; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2017-09-11

    Empathy represents a fundamental ability that allows for the creation and cultivation of social bonds. As part of the empathic process, individuals use their own emotional state to interpret the content and intensity of other people's emotions. Therefore, the current study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) empathy for the pain of another will result in biased emotional intensity judgment; and (2) changing one's emotion via emotion regulation will modulate these biased judgments. To test these hypotheses, in experiment one we used a modified version of a well-known task that triggers an empathic reaction We found that empathy resulted in biased emotional intensity judgment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a bias in the recognition of emotional facial expressions as a function of empathy for pain. In experiment two, we replicated these findings in an independent sample, and further found that this biased emotional intensity judgment can be moderated via reappraisal. Taken together, our findings suggest that the novel task used here can be employed to further explore the relation between emotion regulation and empathy.

  11. Functional overlap of top-down emotion regulation and generation: an fMRI study identifying common neural substrates between cognitive reappraisal and cognitively generated emotions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri

    2014-09-01

    One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation.

  12. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems.

  13. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND A REAPPRAISAL OF THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REQUA, ELOISE; THOMASINE, SISTER M.

    A CONFERENCE WAS HELD TO PROVIDE 30 PARTICIPATING SCHOLARS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF UNDERDEVELOPED NATIONS IN RELATION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF BIENNIAL CONFERENCES, IT POOLED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESOURCES FOR REAPPRAISAL OF THE MOST RECENT FINDINGS, AND PROVIDED THE ATMOSPHERE FOR AN…

  14. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  15. Resisting the Sirens of Temptation while Studying: Using Reappraisal to Increase Focus, Enthusiasm, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy, Veronique; Gregoire, Jacques; Magen, Eran; Gross, James J.; Mikolajczak, Moira

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in the learning process is temptation, which has the power to divert students from even their most important goals (e.g. getting a degree). In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive reappraisal could be used to successfully resist temptation. Participants had to memorize tedious material while being tempted…

  16. U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, David E., Ed.

    The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed…

  17. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation.

  18. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  19. Effects of a Value-Reappraisal Intervention on Statistics Students' Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an exploratory value-reappraisal intervention on students' motivation and performance in an undergraduate introductory statistics course. They sampled 82 students from 2 instructors' sections during both the fall and spring semesters. Students were randomly assigned within each section to either the…

  20. How Do Work Stress and Coping Work? Toward a Fundamental Theoretical Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briner, Rob B.; Harris, Claire; Daniels, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make the case for why a fundamental reappraisal rather than incremental development of work stress and coping theory is required. In order to do this we present, in simplified form, some of the basic tenets of theory in this field. These tenets are questioned and their limitations identified in two ways. The first…

  1. Habitual exercise is associated with cognitive control and cognitive reappraisal success.

    PubMed

    Giles, Grace E; Cantelon, Julie A; Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Urry, Heather L; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-10-03

    Habitual exercise is associated with enhanced domain-general cognitive control, such as inhibitory control, selective attention, and working memory, all of which rely on the frontal cortex. However, whether regular exercise is associated with more specific aspects of cognitive control, such as the cognitive control of emotion, remains relatively unexplored. The present study employed a correlational design to determine whether level of habitual exercise was related to performance on the Stroop test measuring selective attention and response inhibition, the cognitive reappraisal task measuring cognitive reappraisal success, and associated changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. 74 individuals (24 men, 50 women, age 18-32 years) participated. Higher habitual physical activity was associated with lower Stroop interference (indicating greater inhibitory control) and enhanced cognitive reappraisal success. Higher habitual exercise was also associated with lower oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) in the PFC in response to emotional information. However, NIRS data indicated that exercise was not associated with cognitive control-associated O2Hb in the PFC. Behaviorally, the findings support and extend the previous findings that habitual exercise relates to more successful cognitive control of neutral information and cognitive reappraisal of emotional information. Future research should explore whether habitual exercise exerts causal benefits to cognitive control and PFC oxygenation, as well as isolate specific cognitive control processes sensitive to change through habitual exercise.

  2. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  3. Effects of a Value-Reappraisal Intervention on Statistics Students' Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an exploratory value-reappraisal intervention on students' motivation and performance in an undergraduate introductory statistics course. They sampled 82 students from 2 instructors' sections during both the fall and spring semesters. Students were randomly assigned within each section to either the…

  4. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    PubMed

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  5. Reappraisal of the Validity of WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Data from the WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Standardization samples were used to reappraise validity of all short forms of two, three, four, and five subtests. Results were compared with those given by McNemar's formula. The corrected formula gave lower values and selected "best short forms that differed from McNemar's formula. (Author)

  6. Creative ways to well-being: Reappraisal inventiveness in the context of anger-evoking situations.

    PubMed

    Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Schwarzl, Ursula; Weber, Hannelore; de Assunção, Vera Loureiro; Rominger, Christian; Schulter, Günter; Lackner, Helmut K; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-02-01

    Neuroscientific studies in the field of creativity mainly focused on tasks drawing on basic verbal divergent thinking demands. This study took a step further by investigating brain mechanisms in response to other types of creative behavior, involving more "real-life" creativity demands in the context of emotion regulation and well-being. Specifically, functional patterns of EEG alpha activity were investigated while participants were required to generate as many and as different ways as possible to reappraise presented anger-eliciting situations in a manner that reduces their anger. Cognitive reappraisal involves some of the same cognitive processes as in conventional verbal creativity tasks, inasmuch as it requires an individual to inhibit or disengage from an emotional event, to shift attention between different perspectives, and to flexibly adopt new solutions. To examine whether alpha oscillations during cognitive reappraisal are different from those during conventional creative ideation, the EEG was also assessed during performance of the Alternative Uses task, requiring individuals to generate as many and as original uses of an object as possible. While cognitive reappraisal was associated with a similar pattern of alpha power as observed in conventional verbal creative ideation, the former yielded significantly stronger alpha power increases at prefrontal sites, along with lower alpha increases at more posterior cortical sites, indicating higher cognitive control and less spontaneous imaginative thought processes in the generation of effective strategies to regulate an ongoing negative emotional state.

  7. John Dewey, William Wirt and the Gary Schools Plan: A Centennial Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    A century on from the height of John Dewey's educational writings and the reputation of the Gary Schools Plan as a model of progressive education, the paper reappraises two key matters: the relationship between John Dewey and William Wirt, the first superintendent of the Gary Schools in Gary Indiana, and the coherence between John Dewey's…

  8. Resisting the Sirens of Temptation while Studying: Using Reappraisal to Increase Focus, Enthusiasm, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy, Veronique; Gregoire, Jacques; Magen, Eran; Gross, James J.; Mikolajczak, Moira

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in the learning process is temptation, which has the power to divert students from even their most important goals (e.g. getting a degree). In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive reappraisal could be used to successfully resist temptation. Participants had to memorize tedious material while being tempted…

  9. The interactive effects of emotional clarity and cognitive reappraisal on problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gross, James J; Babson, Kimberly A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-03-01

    This study examined whether emotional clarity (i.e., the extent to which one can identify and understand the type and source of emotions one experiences) and cognitive reappraisal (i.e., altering how potentially emotion-eliciting situations are construed to change their emotional impact) would individually or jointly be associated with problematic cannabis use among individuals receiving cannabis for medical reasons (n=153). Findings indicated that problematic cannabis use was predicted by the interaction between emotional clarity and cognitive reappraisal. In particular, low levels of emotional clarity combined with high levels of cognitive reappraisal predicted problematic cannabis use. The current study is the first to demonstrate the interactive effects of emotional clarity and the use of cognitive reappraisal in predicting substance use disorder outcomes. Such findings are important given the lack of empirical data demonstrating for whom and for which conditions cannabis is either beneficial or detrimental. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Reappraising foreground contamination in the COBE-DMR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banday, A. J.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Górski, K. M.

    2003-11-01

    With the advent of all-sky Hα surveys it is possible to determine a reliable free-free template of the diffuse interstellar medium which can be used in conjunction with the synchrotron and dust templates to correct cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations for diffuse Galactic foregrounds. We have used the COBE-DMR data at 31.5, 53 and 90 GHz and employed cross-correlation techniques to re-evaluate the foreground contributions, particularly that due to dust which is known to be partially correlated with Hα (and free-free) emission. The DMR microwave maps are found to contain, as well as the expected synchrotron and free-free components, a component tightly correlated to the COBE-DIRBE 140-μm dust map. At 31.5, 53 and 90 GHz this emission is 6.3 +/- 0.6, 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 2.2 +/- 0.4 μK MJy-1 sr at 140 μm, respectively. When corrected for the contribution from thermal dust, a strong anomalous dust-correlated emission component remains, which is well fitted by a frequency spectrum of the form ν-β where β~ 2.5 in the DMR frequency range; this is the dominant foreground at 31.5 GHz. The result implies the presence of an emission component with a dust-like morphology but a synchrotron-like spectrum. We discuss the possible origins of this component and compare it with the recent WMAP interpretation. The better knowledge of the individual foregrounds provided by the present study enables a larger area of the sky (|b| > 15°) to be used to reappraise the CMB quadrupole normalization, Qrms-PS, and the scalar perturbations spectral index, n. We find Qrms-PS= 15.2+2.8-2.3 with a power-law spectral index of n= 1.2 +/- 0.2. These values are consistent with previous COBE-DMR analyses and the WMAP 1-yr analysis.

  11. Regulating Anger under Stress via Cognitive Reappraisal and Sadness

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Fan, Jin; Guo, Jianyou; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Jun; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film) could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA)] (Zhan et al., 2015). Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants’ subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one’s ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER induction was

  12. Regulating Anger under Stress via Cognitive Reappraisal and Sadness.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Fan, Jin; Guo, Jianyou; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Jun; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film) could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., "sadness counteracts anger" (SCA)] (Zhan et al., 2015). Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants' subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one's ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER induction was found to

  13. Investigating the effectiveness of brief cognitive reappraisal training to reduce fear in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shore, Tim; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lommen, Miriam; Cooper, Myra; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2017-06-01

    As adolescent anxiety is common and costly, identifying effective strategies to reduce symptoms is a priority. This study tested whether adolescents could learn to use cognitive reappraisal strategies to attenuate fear during extinction learning. Fifty-seven participants (12-15 years) viewed images of two neutral faces, one which was paired with a fearful expression and shrieking scream (conditioned threat stimulus) and the other that was never paired with the aversive outcome (conditioned safety stimulus) during fear acquisition. Before extinction, participants either received cognitive appraisal training, which explored alternative, benign meanings associated with the scream or a control activity. Self-reported fear ratings in the cognitive reappraisal group were significantly lower to both the conditioned threat and safety stimuli after extinction than the control group. These findings did not characterise fear-potentiated startle data. Potential reasons for the lack of consistency between measures are considered.

  14. Reappraisal and Distraction Emotion Regulation Strategies Are Associated with Distinct Patterns of Visual Attention and Differing Levels of Cognitive Demand

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Ossenfort, Kathryn L.; Whearty, Kayla M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple emotion regulation strategies have been identified and found to differ in their effectiveness at decreasing negative emotions. One reason for this might be that individual strategies are associated with differing levels of cognitive demand and require distinct patterns of visual attention to achieve their effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a sample of psychiatrically healthy participants (n = 25) who attempted to down-regulate negative emotion to photographs from the International Affective Picture System using cognitive reappraisal or distraction. Eye movements, pupil dilation, and subjective reports of negative emotionality were obtained for reappraisal, distraction, unpleasant passive viewing, and neutral passive viewing conditions. Behavioral results indicated that reappraisal and distraction successfully decreased self-reported negative affect relative to unpleasant passive viewing. Successful down regulation of negative affect was associated with different patterns of visual attention across regulation strategies. During reappraisal, there was an initial increase in dwell time to arousing scene regions and a subsequent shift away from these regions during later portions of the trial, whereas distraction was associated with reduced total dwell time to arousing interest areas throughout the entire stimulus presentation. Pupil dilation was greater for reappraisal than distraction or unpleasant passive viewing, suggesting that reappraisal may recruit more effortful cognitive control processes. Furthermore, greater decreases in self-reported negative emotion were associated with a lower proportion of dwell time within arousing areas of interest. These findings suggest that different emotion regulation strategies necessitate different patterns of visual attention to be effective and that individual differences in visual attention predict the extent to which individuals can successfully decrease negative emotion using reappraisal

  15. Individual differences in cognitive reappraisal usage modulate the time course of brain activation during symptom provocation in specific phobia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extinction learning is proposed to be one key mechanism of action underlying exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in specific phobia. Beyond that, cognitive reappraisal, one important strategy to regulate negative emotions, is a crucial component of CBT interventions, but has been disregarded in previous studies investigating neural change processes in specific phobia. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of individual differences in habitual/dispositional cognitive reappraisal usage and the time course of brain activation during phobic stimulation in specific phobia. Methods Dental phobic patients and healthy control subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study whilst being confronted with phobic, disgust, fear and neutral pictures. Individual differences in cognitive reappraisal usage were assessed via a self-report questionnaire and correlated with activation decreases over the course of time. Results Phobic individuals with higher dispositional cognitive reappraisal scores showed a more pronounced activation decline in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) which might be associated with a diminution of explicit cognitive emotion regulation over the course of time. Less decrease of activation in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) over time in subjects with higher cognitive reappraisal scores might be related to a stronger automatic regulation of emotions or even emotional relearning. Additionally, phobic subjects compared with healthy controls showed a stronger habituation of the left dmPFC over the course of symptom provocation. Conclusions The results of this study show for the first time that individual differences in cognitive reappraisal usage are associated with the time course of brain activation during symptom provocation in specific phobia. Additionally, the present study gives first indications for the

  16. Re-appraisal of negative emotions in cocaine dependence: dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Asensio, Samuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with pronounced elevations of negative affect and deficient regulation of negative emotions. We aimed to investigate the neural substrates of negative emotion regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI), as compared to non-drug-using controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a re-appraisal task. Seventeen CDI abstinent for at least 15 days and without other psychiatric co-morbidities and 18 intelligence quotient-matched non-drug-using controls participated in the study. Participants performed the re-appraisal task during fMRI scanning: they were exposed to 24 blocks of negative affective or neutral pictures that they should Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Suppress (regulate the emotion elicited by negative pictures through previously trained re-appraisal techniques). Task-related activations during two conditions of interest (Maintain>Observe and Suppress>Maintain) were analyzed using the general linear model in SPM8 software. We also performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) seed-based analyses based on one region from each condition: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC-Maintain>Observe) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG-Suppress>Maintain). Results showed that cocaine users had increased right dlPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction activations during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased right IFG, posterior cingulate cortex, insula and fusiform gyrus activations during Suppress>Maintain. PPI analyses showed that cocaine users had increased functional coupling between the dlPFC and emotion-related regions during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased functional coupling between the right IFG and the amygdala during Suppress>Maintain. These findings indicate that CDI have dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity during negative emotion experience and re-appraisal.

  17. The Effects of Distraction and Reappraisal On Children's Parasympathetic Regulation of Sadness and Fear

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Quiñones-Camacho, Laura; Buss, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Children commonly experience negative emotions like sadness and fear, and much recent empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the factors supporting and predicting effective emotion regulation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac index of parasympathetic function, has emerged as a key physiological correlate of children's self-regulation. But, little is known about how children's use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies corresponds to concurrent parasympathetic regulation (i.e., RSA reactivity while watching an emotion-eliciting video). The current study describes an experimental paradigm in which 101 5- to 6-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of three different emotion regulation conditions (Control, Distraction, Reappraisal). All children watched a sad and a scary film (order counterbalanced), and children in the Distraction and Reappraisal conditions received instructions to deploy the target strategy to manage sadness/fear while they watched. Consistent with predictions, children assigned to use either emotion regulation strategy showed greater RSA augmentation from baseline than children in the Control condition (all children showed an overall increase in RSA levels from baseline), suggesting enhanced parasympathetic calming when children used Distraction or Reappraisal to regulate sadness and fear. But, this pattern was found only among children who viewed the sad film before the scary film. Among children who viewed the scary film first, Reappraisal promoted marginally better parasympathetic regulation of fear (no condition differences emerged for parasympathetic regulation of sadness when the sad film was viewed second). Results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of children's emotion regulation and affective physiology. PMID:26601786

  18. Face it or hide it: parental socialization of reappraisal and response suppression

    PubMed Central

    Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Fäsche, Anika; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Mastery of cognitive emotion regulation strategies is an important developmental task. This paper focuses on two strategies that occur from preschool age onwards (Stegge and Meerum Terwogt, 2007): reappraisal and response suppression. Parental socialization of these strategies was investigated in a sample of N = 219 parents and their children. Informed by the tripartite model of family impact on children's emotion regulation, direct relations of emotion socialization components (modeling and reactions to the child's negative emotions) and indirect relations of parental emotion-related beliefs (such as parental emotion regulation self-efficacy) were examined. Data on emotion socialization components and parental beliefs on emotion regulation were collected via self-report. Data on children's emotion regulation strategies were collected via parent report. Findings showed direct effects of parental modeling and parenting practices on children's emotion regulation strategies, with distinct socialization paths for reappraisal and response suppression. An indirect effect of parental emotion regulation self-efficacy on children's reappraisal was found. These associations were not moderated by parent sex. Findings highlight the importance of both socialization components and parental emotion-related beliefs for the socialization of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and suggest a domain-specific approach to the socialization of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:24427150

  19. Double Dissociation: Circadian Off-Peak Times Increase Emotional Reactivity; Aging Impairs Emotion Regulation Via Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Feuerstein, Rebecca; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how the effectiveness of specific emotion regulation strategies might be influenced by aging and by time of day, given that in older age the circadian peak in cognitive performance is earlier in the day. We compared the benefit gained by 40 older (60–78 years; 20 women) and 40 younger (18–30 years; 20 women) adults during either on-peak or off-peak circadian times on 2 specific types of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: distraction and reappraisal. Participants rated their negative emotional responses to negative and neutral images under 3 conditions: a baseline nonregulation condition, a distraction condition involving a working memory task, and a reappraisal condition that involved reinterpreting the situation displayed using specific preselected strategies. First, as hypothesized, there was a crossover interaction such that participants in each age group reported more negative reactivity at their off-peak time of day. Second, a double dissociation was observed as circadian rhythms affected only negative reactivity—with reactivity highest at off-peak times—and aging diminished reappraisal but not distraction ability or reactivity. These findings add to growing evidence that understanding the effects of aging on emotion and emotion regulation depends on taking both time of day and type of regulatory strategy into account. PMID:22642354

  20. Relative Effectiveness of Reappraisal and Distraction in Regulating Emotion in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smoski, Moria J.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Steffens, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study compares the effectiveness of two strategies, reappraisal and distraction, in reducing negative affect in older adults induced by focusing on personally relevant negative events and stressors. Participants included 30 adults with MDD and 40 never-depressed (ND) comparison participants ages 60 and over (mean age = 69.7 years). Design and Measurements Participants underwent three affect induction trials, each followed by a different emotion regulation strategy: distraction, reappraisal, and a no-instruction control condition. Self-reported affect was recorded pre- and post-affect induction, and at one-minute intervals during regulation. Results Across groups, participants reported greater reductions in negative affect with distraction than reappraisal or the no-instruction control condition. An interaction between group and regulation condition indicated that distraction was more effective in reducing negative affect in the MDD group than the ND group. Conclusions These results suggest that distraction is an especially effective strategy for reducing negative affect in older adults with MDD. Finding ways to incorporate distraction skills into psychotherapeutic interventions for late-life MDD may improve their effectiveness, especially for short-term improvement of affect following rumination. PMID:24021222

  1. Seeing the silver lining: cognitive reappraisal ability moderates the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Troy, Allison S; Wilhelm, Frank H; Shallcross, Amanda J; Mauss, Iris B

    2010-12-01

    Individuals differ in their adjustment to stressful life events, with some exhibiting impaired functioning, including depression, while others exhibit impressive resilience. The present study examined the hypothesis that the ability to deploy a particularly adaptive type of emotion regulation-cognitive reappraisal-may be a protective factor. It expands upon existing research in three ways. First, participants' ability to use reappraisal (cognitive reappraisal ability: CRA) was measured by using a behavioral challenge that assessed changes in experiential and physiological domains, rather than questionnaires. Second, all participants had been exposed to one or more recent stressful life events, a context in which emotion regulation may be particularly important. Third, a community sample of 78 women aged 20 to 60 was recruited, as opposed to undergraduates. Results indicate that, at low levels of stress, participants' CRA was not associated with depressive symptoms. However, at high levels of stress, women with high CRA exhibited less depressive symptoms than those with low CRA, suggesting that CRA may be an important moderator of the link between stress and depressive symptoms.

  2. 'Put on your poker face': neural systems supporting the anticipation for expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Kühn, Simone; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-12-01

    It is a unique human ability to regulate negative thoughts and feelings. Two well-investigated emotion-regulation strategies (ERSs), cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, are associated with overlapping prefrontal neural correlates, but differ temporally during the emotion-generation process. Although functional imaging studies have mainly investigated these ERS as a reaction to an emotion-inducing event, the intention to regulate upcoming negative emotions might already be associated with differences in neural activity. Hence, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was recorded in 42 participants while they completed an emotion-regulation paradigm. During this task, participants were instructed to proactively prepare to use a specific ERS knowing that a negative, high-arousing image would appear after the preparation period. As expected, the results demonstrated prefrontal and parietal activation while participants were suppressing or reappraising their emotions (family-wise error (FWE)-corrected). The intention to suppress emotions was associated with increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral putamen, pre-supplementary motor area and right supramarginal gyrus (FWE-corrected). This enhanced proactive inhibitory control: (i) predicted decreased motoric activity during the actual suppression of emotional expressions and (2) trended toward a significant association with how successfully participants suppressed their emotions. However, neural correlates of preparatory control for cognitive reappraisal were not observed, possibly because contextual cues about the upcoming emotional stimulus are necessary to proactively start to cognitively reinterpret the situation.

  3. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  4. The eyes have it: the role of attention in cognitive reappraisal of social stimuli.

    PubMed

    Manera, Valeria; Samson, Andrea C; Pehrs, Corinna; Lee, Ihno A; Gross, James J

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive reappraisal (CR) is a commonly used emotion-regulation strategy that has been shown to influence affective, cognitive, and social outcomes. Although progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms underlying CR, the role of attention remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of attention in CR by tracking participants' gazes during the presentation of videos depicting people in negative moods. Participants were asked to attend naturally or to use reappraisal to increase or decrease their emotions while viewing the videos. After each video, they rated their negative emotion experience. Results showed that participants spent more time looking at the emotional regions in the target's face (eyes and mouth) when asked to up-regulate their emotions, compared with when they simply attended to the videos. The reverse pattern was found for down-regulation of emotions. In addition, the effects of cognitive reappraisal on negative emotion experience were mediated by the time spent looking at the emotional regions, with a stronger effect for the down-regulation instruction. Finally, direct effects of regulation instruction on negative emotion were observed even when controlling for time spent viewing emotional regions, which suggests that attention and CR are distinct components that uniquely influence negative emotions. These results complement and extend previous findings on the role of attention in CR, and highlight the importance of taking attentional mechanisms into account when designing CR training.

  5. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy via CT scan in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Hua; Su, Bai-Yan; Liu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Mirjalili, S Ali; Ma, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. There are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings among and within contemporary anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in living Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). A total of 100 thoracic and 100 abdominal CT scans were examined. Our results indicated that the following key surface landmarks differed from current commonly-accepted descriptions: the positions of the tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein termination, and pulmonary trunk bifurcation (all below the plane of the sternal angle at vertebral level T5-T6 in most individuals); the superior vena cava formation and junction with the right atrium (most often behind the 1st and 4th intercostal spaces, respectively); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T10 and T11, respectively). The renal arteries were most commonly at L1; the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2; the 11th rib was posterior to the left kidney in only 29% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs. A number of significant sex- and age-related differences were noted. The Chinese population was also compared with western populations on the basis of published reports. Reappraisal of surface anatomy using modern imaging tools in vivo will provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence to facilitate the clinical application of these key surface landmarks.

  6. The role of the cervix in fertility: is it time for a reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Martyn, F; McAuliffe, F M; Wingfield, M

    2014-10-10

    Knowledge regarding the role of the cervix in fertility has expanded considerably over the past 20 years and in this article, we propose that it is now time for its function to be reappraised. First, we review the anatomy of the cervix and the vaginal ecosystem that it inhabits. Then, we examine the physiology and the role of the cervical mucus. The ongoing mystery of the exact mechanism of the sperm-cervical mucus interaction is reviewed and the key players that may unlock this mystery in the future are discussed. The soluble and cellular biomarkers of the lower female genital tract which are slowly being defined by contemporary research are reviewed. Attempts to standardize these markers, in this milieu, are hindered by the changes that may be attributed to endogenous or exogenous factors such as: age, hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, ectropion, infection, smoking and exposure to semen during sexual intercourse. We review what is known about the immunology of the cervix. With the widespread use of large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the anatomy of the cervix is changing for many women. While LLETZ surgery has had very positive effects in the fight against cervical cancer, we debate the impact it could have on a woman's fertility.

  7. Autonomic effects of cognitive reappraisal and acceptance in social anxiety: evidence for common and distinct pathways for parasympathetic reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Ioana A; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Gentili, Claudio; David, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of emotion regulation strategies on autonomic parameters in socially anxious individuals. We asked 99 socially anxious participants to give an impromptu speech in front of an audience in a virtual reality environment. In the anticipation phase, they practiced an emotion regulation strategy: negative functional reappraisal, acceptance, negative dysfunctional reappraisal. All strategies led to decreases in parasympathetic activity and increases in heart rate during anticipation. Parasympathetic activity remained low in the recovery phase, while heart rate increased, indicating a possible rebound effect of social performance. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that for subjects with higher social anxiety, acceptance led to increased parasympathetic activity in the anticipation and recovery phases than negative functional reappraisal. Our results indicate that although globally parasympathetic reactivity seems to be a more general marker of simply attempting to regulate emotions, it could help distinguish between emotion regulation strategies for some participant subgroups.

  8. Successful emotion regulation requires both conviction and skill: beliefs about the controllability of emotions, reappraisal, and regulation success.

    PubMed

    Gutentag, Tony; Halperin, Eran; Porat, Roni; Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2016-08-05

    To succeed in self-regulation, people need to believe that it is possible to change behaviour and they also need to use effective means to enable such a change. We propose that this also applies to emotion regulation. In two studies, we found that people were most successful in emotion regulation, the more they believed emotions can be controlled and the more they used an effective emotion regulation strategy - namely, cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal moderated the link between beliefs about the controllability of emotion and success in emotion regulation, when reappraisal was measured as a trait (Study 1) or manipulated (Study 2). Such moderation was found when examining the regulation of disgust elicited by emotion-inducing films (Study 1), and the regulation of anger elicited by real political events (Study 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice in emotion regulation.

  9. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  10. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

  11. A reappraisal of the morphology and systematic position of the theropod dinosaur Sigilmassasaurus from the “middle” Cretaceous of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rauhut, Oliver W.M.; Milner, Angela C.; McFeeters, Bradley; Allain, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is an enigmatic theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, originally based on a few isolated cervical vertebrae. Ever since its original description, both its taxonomic validity and systematic affinities were contentious. Originally considered to represent its own family, Sigilmassasauridae, the genus has variously been suggested to represent a carcharodontosaurid, an ornithischian, and, more recently, a spinosaurid. Here we describe new remains referrable to this taxon and re-evaluate its taxonomic status and systematic affinities. Based on the new remains, a re-evaluation of the original materials, and comparisons with other spinosaurids, the holotype of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is identified as an anterior dorsal, rather than a cervical vertebra, and differences between elements referred to this taxon can be explained by different positions of the elements in question within the vertebral column. Many characters used previously to diagnose the genus and species are found to be more widespread among basal tetanurans, and specifically spinosaurids. However, the taxon shows several autapomorphies that support its validity, including the presence of a strongly rugose, ventrally offset triangular platform that is confluent with a ventral keel anteriorly in the mid-cervical vertebral centra and a strongly reduced lateral neural arch lamination, with no or an incomplete distinction between anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae in the posterior cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae. We argue furthermore that Spinosaurus maroccanus, also described on the basis of isolated cervical vertebrae from the same stratigraphic unit and in the same paper as Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis, is a subjective synonym of the latter. Both a detailed comparison of this taxon with other theropods and a formal phylogenetic analysis support spinosaurid affintities for Sigilmassasaurus. However, we reject the recently

  12. Large-scale network functional interactions during distraction and reappraisal in remitted bipolar and unipolar patients.

    PubMed

    Lois, Giannis; Gerchen, Martin F; Kirsch, Peter; Kanske, Philipp; Schönfelder, Sandra; Wessa, Michèle

    2017-09-27

    The human brain is organized into large-scale networks that dynamically interact with each other. Extensive evidence has shown characteristic changes in certain large-scale networks during transitions from internally directed to externally directed attention. The aim of the present study was to compare these context-dependent network interactions during emotion regulation and to examine potential alterations in remitted unipolar and bipolar disorder patients. We employed a multi-region generalized psychophysiological interactions analysis to quantify connectivity changes during distraction vs reappraisal pair-wise across 90 regions placed throughout the four networks of interest (default-mode, frontoparietal, salience, and dorsal attention networks). Using network contingency analysis and permutation testing, we estimated the likelihood that the number of significant condition-dependent connectivity changes in every pair of networks exceeds the number expected by chance. We first examined the pattern of functional connectivity in 42 healthy subjects (sample I) and then compared these connectivity patterns across healthy individuals (n=23) and remitted bipolar (n=21) and unipolar disorder patients (n=21) in an independent sample II. In sample I, distraction compared to reappraisal was characterized by reduced connectivity within the default-mode network and between the default-mode and two cognitive control networks and increased connectivity among the cognitive control networks. In sample II, both patient groups exhibited abnormally increased default-mode intra- and inter-network connectivity during distraction compared to reappraisal. The present study highlights the role of large-scale network interactions in emotion regulation and provides preliminary evidence of default-mode inter- and intra-network connectivity impairments in remitted bipolar and unipolar patients during emotion regulation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Crowdsourced Peer-To-Peer Cognitive Reappraisal Platform for Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Stephen M; Picard, Rosalind W

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-guided, Web-based interventions for depression show promising results but suffer from high attrition and low user engagement. Online peer support networks can be highly engaging, but they show mixed results and lack evidence-based content. Objective Our aim was to introduce and evaluate a novel Web-based, peer-to-peer cognitive reappraisal platform designed to promote evidence-based techniques, with the hypotheses that (1) repeated use of the platform increases reappraisal and reduces depression and (2) that the social, crowdsourced interactions enhance engagement. Methods Participants aged 18-35 were recruited online and were randomly assigned to the treatment group, “Panoply” (n=84), or an active control group, online expressive writing (n=82). Both are fully automated Web-based platforms. Participants were asked to use their assigned platform for a minimum of 25 minutes per week for 3 weeks. Both platforms involved posting descriptions of stressful thoughts and situations. Participants on the Panoply platform additionally received crowdsourced reappraisal support immediately after submitting a post (median response time=9 minutes). Panoply participants could also practice reappraising stressful situations submitted by other users. Online questionnaires administered at baseline and 3 weeks assessed depression symptoms, reappraisal, and perseverative thinking. Engagement was assessed through self-report measures, session data, and activity levels. Results The Panoply platform produced significant improvements from pre to post for depression (P=.001), reappraisal (P<.001), and perseverative thinking (P<.001). The expressive writing platform yielded significant pre to post improvements for depression (P=.02) and perseverative thinking (P<.001), but not reappraisal (P=.45). The two groups did not diverge significantly at post-test on measures of depression or perseverative thinking, though Panoply users had significantly higher reappraisal scores

  14. Efficacy of a Web-based, crowdsourced peer-to-peer cognitive reappraisal platform for depression: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert R; Schueller, Stephen M; Picard, Rosalind W

    2015-03-30

    Self-guided, Web-based interventions for depression show promising results but suffer from high attrition and low user engagement. Online peer support networks can be highly engaging, but they show mixed results and lack evidence-based content. Our aim was to introduce and evaluate a novel Web-based, peer-to-peer cognitive reappraisal platform designed to promote evidence-based techniques, with the hypotheses that (1) repeated use of the platform increases reappraisal and reduces depression and (2) that the social, crowdsourced interactions enhance engagement. Participants aged 18-35 were recruited online and were randomly assigned to the treatment group, "Panoply" (n=84), or an active control group, online expressive writing (n=82). Both are fully automated Web-based platforms. Participants were asked to use their assigned platform for a minimum of 25 minutes per week for 3 weeks. Both platforms involved posting descriptions of stressful thoughts and situations. Participants on the Panoply platform additionally received crowdsourced reappraisal support immediately after submitting a post (median response time=9 minutes). Panoply participants could also practice reappraising stressful situations submitted by other users. Online questionnaires administered at baseline and 3 weeks assessed depression symptoms, reappraisal, and perseverative thinking. Engagement was assessed through self-report measures, session data, and activity levels. The Panoply platform produced significant improvements from pre to post for depression (P=.001), reappraisal (P<.001), and perseverative thinking (P<.001). The expressive writing platform yielded significant pre to post improvements for depression (P=.02) and perseverative thinking (P<.001), but not reappraisal (P=.45). The two groups did not diverge significantly at post-test on measures of depression or perseverative thinking, though Panoply users had significantly higher reappraisal scores (P=.02) than expressive writing. We also

  15. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  16. Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Alice; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to be an effective strategy to regulate depressed mood in healthy and remitted depressed individuals. However, individuals currently suffering from a clinical depression often experience difficulties in utilizing this strategy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies. Thereby, explicit cognitive reappraisal refers to purposefully identifying, challenging, and modifying depressiogenic cognitions to reduce depressed mood. To test our hypotheses, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 54 participants (64.8% female; age M = 35.59, SD = 11.49 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to either wait, or employ self-compassion, acceptance, or reappraisal to regulate their depressed mood. Depressed mood was assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation period on a visual analog scale. Results indicated that participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal than those in the waiting condition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal is moderated by the precursory use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, they suggest that depressed individuals might benefit from using self-compassion to facilitate the subsequent use of explicit cognitive reappraisal.

  17. Age-related differences in neural recruitment during the use of cognitive reappraisal and selective attention as emotion regulation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Eric S.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in the timing and neural recruitment within lateral and medial PFC while younger and older adults hedonically regulated their responses to unpleasant film clips. When analyses focused on activity during the emotional peak of the film clip (the most emotionally salient portion of the film), several age differences emerged. When comparing regulation to passive viewing (combined effects of selective attention and reappraisal) younger adults showed greater regulation related activity in lateral PFC (DLPFC, VLPFC, OFC) and medial PFC (ACC) while older adults showed greater activation within a region DLPFC. When assessing distinct effects of the regulation conditions, an ANOVA revealed a significant Age × Regulation Condition interaction within bilateral DLPFC and ACC; older adults but not young adults showed greater recruitment within these regions for reappraisal than selective attention. When examining activity at the onset of the film clip and at its emotional peak, the timing of reappraisal-related activity within VLPFC differed between age groups: younger adults showed greater activity at film onset while older adults showed heightened activity during the peak. Our results suggest that older adults rely more heavily on PFC recruitment when engaging cognitively demanding reappraisal strategies while PFC-mediated regulation might not be as task-specific for younger adults. Older adults' greater reliance on cognitive control processing during emotion regulation may also be reflected in the time needed to implement these strategies. PMID:24782800

  18. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  19. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Julian, Kristin; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence for the threat reappraisal…

  20. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  1. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Julian, Kristin; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence for the threat reappraisal…

  2. Towards clinical applications of anti-endotoxin antibodies; a re-appraisal of the disconnect.

    PubMed

    Hurley, James C

    2013-12-18

    Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this disconnect. Several new factors to consider in this reappraisal include the frequency and types of GN bacteremia and the underlying mortality risk in the various study populations. For a range of reasons, endotoxemia can no longer be considered as a single entity. There are old clinical trials which warrant a re-appraisal in light of these recent advances in the understanding of the structure-function relationship of endotoxin. Fundamentally however, the disconnect not only remains, it has enlarged.

  3. Towards Clinical Applications of Anti-endotoxin Antibodies; A Re-appraisal of the Disconnect

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this disconnect. Several new factors to consider in this reappraisal include the frequency and types of GN bacteremia and the underlying mortality risk in the various study populations. For a range of reasons, endotoxemia can no longer be considered as a single entity. There are old clinical trials which warrant a re-appraisal in light of these recent advances in the understanding of the structure-function relationship of endotoxin. Fundamentally however, the disconnect not only remains, it has enlarged. PMID:24351718

  4. Neural Systems for Cognitive Reappraisal in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pitskel, Naomi B.; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Kaiser, Martha D.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial clinical and anecdotal evidence for emotion dysregulation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the neural substrates underlying this phenomenon. We sought to explore neural mechanisms for cognitive reappraisal in children and adolescents with ASD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied 16 youth with ASD and 15 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) comparison youth. Participants were instructed in the use of cognitive reappraisal strategies to increase and decrease their emotional responses to disgusting images. Participants in both groups displayed distinct patterns of brain activity for increasing versus decreasing their emotions. TD participants showed downregulation of bilateral insula and left amygdala on decrease trials, whereas ASD participants showed no modulation of insula and upregulation of left amygdala. Furthermore, TD youth exhibited increased functional connectivity between amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex compared to ASD participants when downregulating disgust, as well as decreased functional connectivity between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. These findings have important implications for our understanding of emotion dysregulation and its treatment in ASD. In particular, the relative lack of prefrontal-amygdala connectivity provides a potential target for treatment-related outcome measurements. PMID:25198094

  5. Reappraising the surface anatomy of the pterion and its relationship to the middle meningeal artery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siyan; Baillie, Louisa J M; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-04-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the surface anatomy of the pterion is inconsistently reported. This study reappraises the surface marking of the pterion and its relationship to the middle meningeal artery (MMA). The position and morphology of the pterion were analyzed in the Frankfurt plane in 76 adult skulls and 50 adult cranial cone beam CT scans. Relationship to the anterior branch of the MMA was examined in the skulls. Measurement reproducibility was assessed in a 20% randomly selected sample. In the skulls, the majority of pteria were sphenoparietal (78%), followed by epipteric (16%) and frontotemporal (5%). The center of the pterion was a mean of 26 ± 4 mm behind and 11 ± 4 mm above the posterolateral margin of the frontozygomatic suture; measurements were reproducible and consistent between sides and genders. Distances from the frontozygomatic suture were slightly greater (29 and 16 mm, respectively) in cranial CTs. A one centimeter circle centered on the midpoint of the pterion overlapped the anterior branch of the MMA in 68% of skulls; the artery was a few millimeters posterior in the remainder. Mean skull thickness at the midpoint of the pterion was 4.4 mm compared to 1 mm at its thinnest point in the squamous temporal bone. In conclusion, in most adults, the pterion lies within a one centimeter diameter circle 2.6 cm behind and 1.3 cm above the posterolateral margin of the frontozygomatic suture (which is easily palpable in vivo). This region overlaps the anterior branch of the MMA in two-thirds of cases.

  6. The Impact of Perspective Change As a Cognitive Reappraisal Strategy on Affect: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M. A.; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.

    2016-01-01

    The strategic or deliberate adoption of a cognitively distanced, third-person perspective is proposed to adaptively regulate emotions. However, studies of psychological disorders suggest spontaneous adoption of a third-person perspective reflects counter-productive avoidance. Here, we review studies that investigate the deliberate adoption of a third- or first-person vantage perspective and its impact on affect in healthy people, “sub-clinical” populations and those with psychological disorders. A systematic search was conducted across four databases. After exclusion criteria were applied, 38 studies were identified that investigated the impact of both imagery and verbal instructions designed to encourage adoption of a third-person perspective on self-reported affect. The identified studies examined a variety of outcomes related to recalling memories, imagining scenarios and mood induction. These were associated with specific negative emotions or mood states (dysphoria/sadness, anxiety, anger), mixed or neutral affect autobiographical memories, and self-conscious affect (e.g., guilt). Engaging a third-person perspective was generally associated with a reduction in the intensity of positive and negative affect. Studies that included measures of semantic change, suggested that this is a key mediator in reduction of affect following perspective change. Strategically adopting a “distanced,” third-person perspective is linked to a reduction in affect intensity across valence, but in addition has the potential to introduce new information that regulates emotion via semantic change. Such reappraisal distinguishes deliberate adoption of a distanced perspective from the habitual and/or spontaneous shift in perspective that occurs in psychopathology. PMID:27867366

  7. The Impact of Perspective Change As a Cognitive Reappraisal Strategy on Affect: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2016-01-01

    The strategic or deliberate adoption of a cognitively distanced, third-person perspective is proposed to adaptively regulate emotions. However, studies of psychological disorders suggest spontaneous adoption of a third-person perspective reflects counter-productive avoidance. Here, we review studies that investigate the deliberate adoption of a third- or first-person vantage perspective and its impact on affect in healthy people, "sub-clinical" populations and those with psychological disorders. A systematic search was conducted across four databases. After exclusion criteria were applied, 38 studies were identified that investigated the impact of both imagery and verbal instructions designed to encourage adoption of a third-person perspective on self-reported affect. The identified studies examined a variety of outcomes related to recalling memories, imagining scenarios and mood induction. These were associated with specific negative emotions or mood states (dysphoria/sadness, anxiety, anger), mixed or neutral affect autobiographical memories, and self-conscious affect (e.g., guilt). Engaging a third-person perspective was generally associated with a reduction in the intensity of positive and negative affect. Studies that included measures of semantic change, suggested that this is a key mediator in reduction of affect following perspective change. Strategically adopting a "distanced," third-person perspective is linked to a reduction in affect intensity across valence, but in addition has the potential to introduce new information that regulates emotion via semantic change. Such reappraisal distinguishes deliberate adoption of a distanced perspective from the habitual and/or spontaneous shift in perspective that occurs in psychopathology.

  8. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  9. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself. PMID:23055994

  10. Emotion regulation in mood and anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of fMRI cognitive reappraisal studies.

    PubMed

    Picó-Pérez, Maria; Radua, Joaquim; Steward, Trevor; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2017-10-03

    Emotion regulation by means of cognitive reappraisal has been widely studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To date, several meta-analyses of studies using cognitive reappraisal tasks in healthy volunteers have been carried out, but no meta-analyses have yet been performed on the fMRI data of clinical populations with identified alterations in emotion regulation capacity. We provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of cognitive reappraisal fMRI studies in populations of patients with mood or anxiety disorders, yielding a pooled sample of 247 patients and 262 controls from thirteen independent studies. As a distinguishing feature of this meta-analysis, original statistical brain maps were obtained from six of these studies. Our primary results demonstrated that patients with mood and anxiety disorders recruited the regulatory fronto-parietal network involved in cognitive reappraisal to a lesser extent in comparison to healthy controls. Conversely, they presented increased activation in regions that may be associated with the emotional experience (i.e., insula, cerebellum, precentral and inferior occipital gyri) and in regions whose activation may be the consequence of compensatory mechanisms (i.e., supramarginal gyri and superior parietal lobule). Moreover, activations in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the left superior temporal gyrus were associated with reinterpretation emotion regulation strategies, whereas medial frontal and parietal activations were associated with the deployment of distancing strategies. The regions revealed by this meta-analysis conform to a pattern of dysfunctional brain activation during cognitive reappraisal common to mood and anxiety disorders. As such, this neural pattern may reflect a transdiagnostic feature of these disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. About hearsay - or reappraisal of the role of the anamnesis as an instrument of meaningful communication

    PubMed Central

    van Tellingen, C.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the ICT revolution and enhancement of diagnostic possibilities, the anamnesis, as an instrument of meaningful communication in disease and a cornerstone of medical practice throughout the ages, has lost in importance. Nowadays, we are on the brink of a more patient-tailored and individualised therapy, so there is a growing need for an open dialogue in the doctor-patient relationship, a situation very similar to the beginning of the professionalisation of assistance in disease in ancient medicine. Reappraisal of the anamnesis and awareness of the patient-doctor relationship are therefore warranted and for that reason its roots and evolution are discussed from a historic perspective. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:359-62.) PMID:18612389

  12. Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Forster, P; Harding, R; Torroni, A; Bandelt, H J

    1996-10-01

    The timing and number of prehistoric migrations involved in the settlement of the American continent is subject to intense debate. Here, we reanalyze Native American control region mtDNA data and demonstrate that only an appropriate phylogenetic analysis accompanied by an appreciation of demographic factors allows us to discern different migrations and to estimate their ages. Reappraising 574 mtDNA control region sequences from aboriginal Siberians and Native Americans, we confirm in agreement with linguistic, archaeological and climatic evidence that (i) the major wave of migration brought one population, ancestral to the Amerinds, from northeastern Siberia to America 20,000-25,000 years ago and (ii) a rapid expansion of a Beringian source population took place at the end of the Younger Dryas glacial phase approximately 11,300 years ago, ancestral to present Eskimo and Na-Dene populations.

  13. Morphological and molecular analysis calls for a reappraisal of the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Burchell, Mark J; Hogg, Stuart I

    2014-02-01

    Early studies on the coloured particles that fell as red rain over southern India identified them as unicellular eukaryotes such as members of the red algae or fungi; however, the results of the present investigation are not consistent with this designation. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have demonstrated significant differences in the ultrastructure when compared with representative species from these other groups. Most notably, the red rain cells show no evidence of typical eukaryotic internal structures such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition. The identity and origins of the red rain cells remain an enigma; however, our findings are more consistent with an unidentified prokaryote, and thus suggest that previous attempts at their identification should be reappraised.

  14. On nonlinear viscoelastic deformations: a reappraisal of Fung's quasi-linear viscoelastic model

    PubMed Central

    De Pascalis, Riccardo; Abrahams, I. David; Parnell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a reappraisal of Fung's model for quasi-linear viscoelasticity. It is shown that a number of negative features exhibited in other works, commonly attributed to the Fung approach, are merely a consequence of the way it has been applied. The approach outlined herein is shown to yield improved behaviour and offers a straightforward scheme for solving a wide range of models. Results from the new model are contrasted with those in the literature for the case of uniaxial elongation of a bar: for an imposed stretch of an incompressible bar and for an imposed load. In the latter case, a numerical solution to a Volterra integral equation is required to obtain the results. This is achieved by a high-order discretization scheme. Finally, the stretch of a compressible viscoelastic bar is determined for two distinct materials: Horgan–Murphy and Gent. PMID:24910527

  15. Regulation of negative affect in schizophrenia: the effectiveness of acceptance versus reappraisal and suppression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Yael; Henry, Julie D; Nangle, Matthew R; Grisham, Jessica R

    2012-01-01

    Although general emotion coping difficulties are well documented in schizophrenia, there has been limited study of specific regulatory strategies such as suppression, reappraisal, and acceptance. In the present study, clinical and control participants were asked to watch video clips selected to elicit negative affect while engaging in one of these three different emotion regulation strategies (counterbalanced), versus a passive viewing condition. The experiential and expressive components of emotion were quantified using self-report and facial electromyography, respectively. A major finding was that, in contrast to control participants, individuals with schizophrenia did not report a greater willingness to reexperience negative emotion after engaging in acceptance. These data are discussed in the context of evidence highlighting the potentially important role of acceptance in understanding affective abnormalities in clinical conditions such as schizophrenia.

  16. On nonlinear viscoelastic deformations: a reappraisal of Fung's quasi-linear viscoelastic model.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Riccardo; Abrahams, I David; Parnell, William J

    2014-06-08

    This paper offers a reappraisal of Fung's model for quasi-linear viscoelasticity. It is shown that a number of negative features exhibited in other works, commonly attributed to the Fung approach, are merely a consequence of the way it has been applied. The approach outlined herein is shown to yield improved behaviour and offers a straightforward scheme for solving a wide range of models. Results from the new model are contrasted with those in the literature for the case of uniaxial elongation of a bar: for an imposed stretch of an incompressible bar and for an imposed load. In the latter case, a numerical solution to a Volterra integral equation is required to obtain the results. This is achieved by a high-order discretization scheme. Finally, the stretch of a compressible viscoelastic bar is determined for two distinct materials: Horgan-Murphy and Gent.

  17. Emotion regulation in violent conflict: reappraisal, hope, and support for humanitarian aid to the opponent in wartime.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Eran; Gross, James J

    2011-11-01

    It is well known that negative intergroup emotions such as anger, fear, and hatred play a major role in initiating and maintaining intergroup conflicts. It is far less clear, however, what factors promote the resolution of intergroup conflicts. Using an emotion regulation- framework, we hypothesised that one form of emotion regulation-namely cognitive reappraisal-should play a salutary role in such conflicts, and be associated with increased hope as well as greater support for humanitarian aid to out-group members. To test these hypotheses, we used a nationwide survey of Jewish-Israeli adults, conducted during the war in Gaza between Israelis and Palestinians. Results obtained via structural equation modelling revealed that Israelis who regulated their negative emotions during the war through reappraisal were more supportive in providing humanitarian aid to innocent Palestinian citizens and that this relation was partially mediated by an enhanced feeling of hope.

  18. Judgment Deferred: Reappraisal of Rehabilitation Counseling Movement toward Licensure Parity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Leahy, Michael J.; Zanskas, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since an analysis of the position of rehabilitation counselors in the national counselor licensure movement by Tarvydas and Leahy. This article addresses the question of how well their efforts to achieve licensure parity with other counselors have fared. This question will be addressed by discussing (a) rehabilitation…

  19. Judgment Deferred: Reappraisal of Rehabilitation Counseling Movement toward Licensure Parity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Leahy, Michael J.; Zanskas, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since an analysis of the position of rehabilitation counselors in the national counselor licensure movement by Tarvydas and Leahy. This article addresses the question of how well their efforts to achieve licensure parity with other counselors have fared. This question will be addressed by discussing (a) rehabilitation…

  20. Impact of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder on the neural dynamics of cognitive reappraisal of negative self-beliefs: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Philippe R; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Hahn, Kevin; Heimberg, Richard; Gross, James J

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is thought to enhance cognitive reappraisal in patients with SAD. Such improvements should be evident in cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex responses. To determine whether CBT for SAD modifies cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex neural signal magnitude and timing when implementing cognitive reappraisal with negative self-beliefs. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial of CBT for SAD vs wait-list control group during a study that enrolled patients from 2007 to 2010. University psychology department. Seventy-five patients with generalized SAD randomly assigned to CBT or wait list. Sixteen sessions of individual CBT for SAD. Negative emotion ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen-level dependent signal when reacting to and cognitively reappraising negative self-beliefs embedded in autobiographical social anxiety situations. RESULTS During reactivity trials, compared with wait list, CBT produced (1) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings and (2) greater blood oxygen-level dependent signal magnitude in the medial prefrontal cortex. During cognitive reappraisal trials, compared with wait list, CBT produced (3) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings, (4) greater blood oxygen level-dependent signal magnitude in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, (5) earlier temporal onset of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity, and (6) greater dorsomedial prefrontal cortex-amygdala inverse functional connectivity. Modulation of cognitive reappraisal-related brain responses, timing, and functional connectivity may be important brain changes that contribute to the effectiveness of CBT for social anxiety. This study demonstrates that clinically applied neuroscience investigations can elucidate neurobiological mechanisms of change in psychiatric conditions. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00380731.

  1. Cefepime: a reappraisal in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance

    PubMed Central

    Endimiani, Andrea; Perez, Federico; Bonomo, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Cefepime is a ‘fourth-generation’ cephalosporin with an in vitro extended-spectrum of activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. Cefepime is approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe infections, such as pneumonia, uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infections, intra-abdominal infections and febrile neutropenia. In this article, we provide a critical review of pharmacodynamics, clinical management, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamic target analyses, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of cefepime after more than a decade of clinical use. PMID:19053894

  2. Biofabrication: reappraising the definition of an evolving field.

    PubMed

    Groll, Jürgen; Boland, Thomas; Blunk, Torsten; Burdick, Jason A; Cho, Dong-Woo; Dalton, Paul D; Derby, Brian; Forgacs, Gabor; Li, Qing; Mironov, Vladimir A; Moroni, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Makoto; Shu, Wenmiao; Takeuchi, Shoji; Vozzi, Giovanni; Woodfield, Tim B F; Xu, Tao; Yoo, James J; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-08

    Biofabrication is an evolving research field that has recently received significant attention. In particular, the adoption of Biofabrication concepts within the field of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine has grown tremendously, and has been accompanied by a growing inconsistency in terminology. This article aims at clarifying the position of Biofabrication as a research field with a special focus on its relation to and application for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Within this context, we propose a refined working definition of Biofabrication, including Bioprinting and Bioassembly as complementary strategies within Biofabrication.

  3. Minireview: Translocator Protein (TSPO) and Steroidogenesis: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Douglas M.; Tu, Lan N.

    2015-01-01

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is a transmembrane protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane. TSPO has long been described as being indispensable for mitochondrial cholesterol import that is essential for steroid hormone production. In contrast to this initial proposition, recent experiments reexamining TSPO function have demonstrated that it is not involved in steroidogenesis. This fundamental change has forced a reexamination of the functional interpretations made for TSPO that broadly impacts both basic and clinical research across multiple fields. In this minireview, we recapitulate the key studies from 25 years of TSPO research and concurrently examine their limitations that perhaps led towards the incorrect association of TSPO and steroid hormone production. Although this shift in understanding raises new questions regarding the molecular function of TSPO, these recent developments are poised to have a significant positive impact for research progress in steroid endocrinology. PMID:25730708

  4. Mississippian depositional history of the Texas Panhandle: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of subsurface Mississippian rocks of the Texas Panhandle indicates that previous interpretations of the sequence and timing of depositional events in the area need revision. Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian to Osagean) deposition in the area was restricted to the northeastern Panhandle (Anadarko Basin). The Texas Arch, a Devonian structure, remained positive and effectively limited sediment accumulation throughout the remainder of the area at this time. Major inundation of the southern Panhandle did not occur until the Meramecian. At that time shallow platform conditions developed in the area of the submerged Texas Arch; carbonate buildups formed locally on the outer ramp along the previous margin of the Arch. This marine transgression correlates with drowning of platform margins throughout the midcontinent region. The Texas Arch continued intermittently to control deposition until the end of the Mississippian Period. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Differences in Insula and Pre-/Frontal Responses during Reappraisal of Food in Lean and Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grundeis, Felicitas; Brand, Cristin; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Brain regions involved in the reappraisal of tasty but unhealthy foods are of special interest for the development of new therapeutic interventions for obesity, such as non-invasive brain stimulation or neurofeedback. Here, we visually presented food items (i.e., high/low caloric) to obese and lean individuals during electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, while they either admitted or regulated their food desire. During admitting the desire for low and high calorie foods, obese as well as lean individuals showed higher activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas the right frontal operculum was involved in the reappraisal of the same foods, suggesting interplay between executive control and gustatory regions. Only in lean participants, we found an interaction between calorie content and the regulate/admit conditions in bilateral anterior insular cortices, suggesting that the anterior insula, assumed to primarily host gustatory processes, also underpins higher cognitive processes involved in food choices, such as evaluating the foods’ calorie content for its reappraisal. PMID:27458355

  6. The effects of safety-seeking behavior and guided threat reappraisal on fear reduction during exposure: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Tracy; Telch, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    We examined the effects of safety-seeking behavior and guided threat focus and reappraisal on fear reduction during exposure. Participants (N=46) displaying marked claustrophobic fear were randomized to one of three 30-min exposure conditions: (a) guided threat focus and reappraisal; (b) safety-behavior utilization; or (c) exposure only control. Tripartite outcome assessments during a behavioral approach test, along with measures of suffocation and restriction fears were obtained at pre- and post-treatment, and at a 2-week follow-up. Treatment process measures were collected throughout treatment and consisted of indices of fear activation; within and between-trial fear habituation; and suffocation and entrapment expectancies. Measures of safety behavior utilization and attentional focus were also collected to assess the integrity of the experimental manipulations. Consistent with prediction, those encouraged to utilize safety-behaviors during exposure showed significantly more fear at post-treatment and follow-up relative to those encouraged to focus and reevaluate their core threat(s) during exposure. Moreover, growth curve analyses of treatment process data analyses revealed that safety-behavior utilization exerted a detrimental effect on between-trial habituation; whereas guided threat reappraisal enhanced between-trial habituation.

  7. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Daan, Serge; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Deboer, Tom

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades the two-process model of sleep regulation has served as a major conceptual framework in sleep research. It has been applied widely in studies on fatigue and performance and to dissect individual differences in sleep regulation. The model posits that a homeostatic process (Process S) interacts with a process controlled by the circadian pacemaker (Process C), with time-courses derived from physiological and behavioural variables. The model simulates successfully the timing and intensity of sleep in diverse experimental protocols. Electrophysiological recordings from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) suggest that S and C interact continuously. Oscillators outside the SCN that are linked to energy metabolism are evident in SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals subjected to restricted feeding or methamphetamine administration, as well as in human subjects during internal desynchronization. In intact animals these peripheral oscillators may dissociate from the central pacemaker rhythm. A sleep/fast and wake/feed phase segregate antagonistic anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. A deficiency of Process S was proposed to account for both depressive sleep disturbances and the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. The model supported the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigms in psychiatry, based on manipulating circadian phase, sleep and light exposure. In conclusion, the model remains conceptually useful for promoting the integration of sleep and circadian rhythm research. Sleep appears to have not only a short-term, use-dependent function; it also serves to enforce rest and fasting, thereby supporting the optimization of metabolic processes at the appropriate phase of the 24-h cycle.

  8. Radionuclide esophageal transit of a liquid bolus: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, R.H.; Lange, R.C.; Magyar, L.; Greene, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of radionuclide esophageal transit (RT) using a liquid bolus has been suggested as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders (EMD). The authors prospectively evaluated RT in 49 patients referred for esophageal manometry. Ten subjects with normal manometry served as controls. RT was performed using two 10 ml boluses of water labeled with 250 ..mu..Ci /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. Patients were studied supine and the swallow sequences framed in 1 second intervals. Transit time was measured from the time of entry to the time of exit from the esophagus. Mean transit time in normal subjects was 9.1 +- 2.1 (SD) sec. The test was abnormal if the transit time was prolonged (> 15 sec) in at least 1 of 2 swallows. RT agreed with manometry in 36/49 patients (75%), including 9/9 achalasics, 3/3 diffuse esophageal spasm, 3/7 'nutcracker esophagus' and 7/8 non-specific motor disorders (NSMD). 4/18 patients with normal manometry had abnormal RT. 9/31 patients with abnormal manometry had normal RT, including 4/7 nutcracker esophagus, 3/3 hypertrensive LES, 1/1 scleroderma and 1/8 NSMD. Sensitivity of RT was 70% and specificity 77%. The false positive rate was 15% and the false negative rate 39%. The authors conclude the following: 1) RT identifies patients with absent or impaired peristalsis; 2) There is substantial incidence of false negatives among patients with manometric disorders but normal peristalsis; and 3) Abnormal RT did occur in some patients with normal menometry. RT using a liquid bolus may not be sensitive enough as a screening test for EMD, but it may be an important adjunct to manometry.

  9. Clinical reappraisal of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales (CIDI-SC) in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Santiago, Patcho N.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Dempsey, Catherine L.; First, Michael B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Stein, Murray B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gruber, Michael J.; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A clinical reappraisal study was carried out in conjunction with the Army STARRS All-Army Study (AAS) to evaluate concordance of DSM-IV diagnoses based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview screening scales (CIDI-SC) and PTSD Checklist (PCL) with diagnoses based on independent clinical reappraisal interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]). Diagnoses included: lifetime mania/hypomania, panic disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder; 6-month adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; and 30-day major depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD, and substance (alcohol or drug) use disorder (abuse or dependence). The sample (n=460) was weighted for over-sampling CIDI-SC/PCL screened positives. Diagnostic thresholds were set to equalize false positives and false negatives. Good individual-level concordance was found between CIDI-SC/PCL and SCID diagnoses at these thresholds (AUC = .69–.79). AUC was considerably higher for continuous than dichotomous screening scale scores (AUC = .80–.90), arguing for substantive analyses using not only dichotomous case designations but also continuous measures of predicted probabilities of clinical diagnoses. PMID:24318219

  10. Fighting food temptations: the modulating effects of short-term cognitive reappraisal, suppression and up-regulation on mesocorticolimbic activity related to appetitive motivation.

    PubMed

    Siep, Nicolette; Roefs, Anne; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Bonte, Milene; Jansen, Anita

    2012-03-01

    The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about health consequences), or suppress food palatability thoughts and cravings. We examined whether these strategies affect self-reported food craving and mesocorticolimbic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was hypothesized that cognitive reappraisal would most effectively inhibit the mesocorticolimbic activity and associated food craving as compared to suppression. In addition, it was hypothesized that suppression would lead to more prefrontal cortex activity, reflecting the use of more control resources, as compared to cognitive reappraisal. Self-report results indicated that up-regulation increased food craving compared to the other two conditions, but that there was no difference in craving between the suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategy. Corroborating self-report results, the neuroimaging results showed that up-regulation increased activity in important regions of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, operculum, posterior insular gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypothesis, suppression more effectively decreased activity in the core of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry (i.e., ventral tegmental area and ventral striatum) compared to cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the results support the contention that appetitive motivation can be modulated by the application of short-term cognitive control strategies.

  11. Continuing professional development: researching non-technical competencies can support cognitive reappraisal and reduced stress in clinicians.

    PubMed

    Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen

    2017-09-09

    Generic professional capabilities (non-technical competencies) are increasingly valued for their links to patient outcomes and clinician well-being. This study explores the emotional change, and practice-related outcomes, of participants of a veterinary professional key skills (PKS) continuing professional development (CPD) module. Reflective summaries produced by participants were analysed. A change in emotion, from 'negative' to 'positive', was the focus of analysis. Sections regarding these emotions were thematically analysed. Analysis was performed on 46 summaries. Three themes were identified: 'the PKS module' (centred on reluctance becoming surprise and stimulation), 'developing non-technical competencies' (unease to confidence) and 'stress and coping through a reflective focus' (anxiety to harmony). The changing emotions were connected to positive cognitive reappraisal and often behaviour changes, benefitting self, practice, clients and patients. The PKS module teaches participants to reflect; a new and challenging concept. The consequences of this enabled participants to understand the importance of professional topics, to be appreciative as well as critical, and to enjoy their job. Importantly, the module stimulated coping responses. Better understanding of roles led to participants having more reasonable expectations of themselves, more appreciation of their work and reduced stress. This research supports more attention to professional skills CPD for health professions. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Protein-phytate interactions in pig and poultry nutrition: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Selle, Peter H; Cowieson, Aaron J; Cowieson, Nathan P; Ravindran, V

    2012-06-01

    Protein-phytate interactions are fundamental to the detrimental impact of phytate on protein/amino acid availability. The inclusion of exogenous phytase in pig and poultry diets degrades phytate to more innocuous esters and attenuates these negative influences. The objective of the present review is to reappraise the underlying mechanisms of these interactions and reassess their implications in pig and poultry nutrition. Protein digestion appears to be impeded by phytate in the following manner. Binary protein-phytate complexes are formed at pH levels less than the isoelectric point of proteins and complexed proteins are refractory to pepsin digestion. Once the protein isoelectric points are exceeded binary complexes dissociate; however, the isoelectric point of proteins in cereal grains may be sufficiently high to permit these complexes to persist in the small intestine. Ternary protein-phytate complexes are formed at pH levels above the isoelectric point of proteins where a cationic bridge links the protein and phytate moieties. The molecular weights of protein and polypeptides in small-intestinal digesta may be sufficient to allow phytate to bind nutritionally important amounts of protein in ternary complexes. Thus binary and ternary complexes may impede protein digestion and amino acid absorption in the small intestine. Alternatively, phytate may interact with protein indirectly. Myo-inositol hexaphosphate possesses six phosphate anionic moieties (HPO(4)(2-)) that have strong kosmotropic effects and can stabilise proteins by interacting with the surrounding water medium. Phytate increases mucin secretions into the gut, which increases endogenous amino acid flows as the protein component of mucin remains largely undigested. Phytate promotes the transition of Na(+) into the small-intestinal lumen and this suggests that phytate may interfere with glucose and amino acid absorption by compromising Na(+)-dependent transport systems and the activity of the Na pump (Na

  13. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a critical reappraisal of the internal mammary chain issue.

    PubMed

    Manca, G; Volterrani, D; Mazzarri, S; Duce, V; Svirydenka, A; Giuliano, A; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Although, like the axilla, the internal mammary nodes (IMNs) are a first-echelon nodal drainage site in breast cancer, the importance of their treatment has long been debated. Seminal randomized trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit from surgical IMN dissection, and several retrospective studies have shown that IMNs are rarely the first site of recurrence. However, the recent widespread adoption of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has stimulated a critical reappraisal of such early results. Furthermore, the higher proportion of screening-detected cancers, improved imaging and techniques (i.e., lymphoscintigraphy for radioguided SLN biopsy) make it possible to visualize lymphatic drainage to the IMNs. The virtually systematic application of adjuvant systemic and/or loco-regional radiotherapy encourages re-examination of the significance of IMN metastases. Moreover, randomized trials testing the value of postmastectomy irradiation and a meta-analysis of 78 randomized trials have provided high levels of evidence that local-regional tumor control is associated with long-term survival improvements. This benefit was limited to trials that used systemic chemotherapy, which was not routinely administered in the earlier studies. However, the contribution from IMN treatment is unclear. Lymphoscintigraphic studies have shown that a significant proportion of breast cancers have primary drainage to the IMNs, including approximately 30% of medial tumors and 15% of lateral tumors. In the few studies where IMN biopsy was performed, 20% of sentinel IMNs were metastatic. The risk of IMN involvement is higher in patients with medial tumors and positive axillary nodes. IMN metastasis has prognostic significance, as recognized by its inclusion in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria, and seems to have similar prognostic importance as axillary nodal involvement. Although routine IMN evaluation might be indicated, it has not been routinely performed

  15. Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μCT-scanning techniques

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Luke A.; Manger, Paul R.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2017-01-01

    Euchambersia mirabilis is an iconic species of Permo-Triassic therapsid because of its unusually large external maxillary fossa linked through a sulcus to a ridged canine. This anatomy led to the commonly accepted conclusion that the large fossa accommodated a venom gland. However, this hypothesis remains untested so far. Here, we conducted a μCT scan assisted reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia, with a special focus on the anatomy of the maxillary fossa and canines. This study shows that the fossa, presumably for the venom-producing gland, is directly linked to the maxillary canal, which carries the trigeminal nerve (responsible for the sensitivity of the face). The peculiar anatomy of the maxillary canal suggests important reorganisation in the somatosensory system and that a ganglion could possibly have been present in the maxillary fossa instead of a venom gland. Nevertheless, the venom gland hypothesis is still preferred since we describe, for the first time, the complete crown morphology of the incisiform teeth of Euchambersia, which strongly suggests that the complete dentition was ridged. Therefore Euchambersia manifests evidence of all characteristics of venomous animals: a venom gland (in the maxillary fossa), a mechanism to deliver the venom (the maxillary canal and/or the sulcus located ventrally to the fossa); and an apparatus with which to inflict a wound for venom delivery (the ridged dentition). PMID:28187210

  16. Reappraisal of the extinction of Canariomys bravoi, the giant rat from Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Galván, Bertila; Navarro, Juan Francisco

    2014-06-01

    All the Quaternary endemic rodents of the Canary Islands are currently extinct. The Lava Mouse Malpaisomys insularis inhabited the easternmost islands, whereas the giant rats Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani lived in the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, respectively. Bones of C. bravoi have appeared in archaeological sites together with shellfish and butchery remains. Traditionally, they have been considered as an evidence of the sporadic consumption of C. bravoi by the aboriginal people, in some instances as recently as the time of the first European contact (14th century AD). Accordingly, the extinction of C. bravoi has been linked to the European colonization of Tenerife. The plausibility of this extinction date has been explored through new radiocarbon dates obtained on selected C. bravoi bones and through a reappraisal of the published dates. Our analysis allowed us to establish an earlier last documented occurrence age for C. bravoi, prior to the third century cal BC, much earlier than previously assumed. The analysis of formerly published 14C dates of archaeological remains from Tenerife shows that samples with confidence intervals (95.54%) that are older or overlap with the last documented record of C. bravoi were performed on materials with large sources of error (such as wood, charcoal or bulk ash-sediments). Conversely, the new radiocarbon dates and analyses presented herein are in agreement with the occurrence of an earlier rapid extinction linked to the first human presence on the island.

  17. History of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Is Associated with Increased Cognitive Reappraisal Ability

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Allison S.; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Davis, Tchiki S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for mood and anxiety disorders. Little is known, however, about the specific psychological skills that may improve with MBCT. The present study investigated the relationship between history of MBCT and emotion regulation ability. Specifically, we examined cognitive reappraisal ability (CRA) in a sample of individuals with a history of MBCT compared with two control groups: a group without a history of any type of therapy and a group with a history of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Groups were matched on key variables including age, sex, education, working memory, emotional reactivity, and life stress. CRA was measured using a standardized laboratory challenge. Results indicated that participants with a history of MBCT demonstrated higher CRA than both the no-therapy control group and the CBT control group. These results suggest that, by guiding people to accept thoughts and feelings without judgment and to focus on the present moment, MBCT may lay the foundation for increased CRA. PMID:26005504

  18. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dennis L; Timpano, Kiara R; Wheaton, Michael G; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal.

  19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal. PMID:20623919

  20. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy in Iranians in vivo using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pak, Neda; Patel, Shilpan G; Hashemi Taheri, Amir P; Hashemi, Fariba; Eftekhari Vaghefi, Raana; Naybandi Atashi, Sara; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy is a core component of human anatomy in clinical practice. It allows clinicians to assess patients accurately and quickly; however, recent studies have revealed variability among individuals and ethnicities. The aim of this study is to investigate possible variations in adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in an Iranian population. This study used 100 thoracoabdominal CT scans (mean age: 47 ± 17 years, age range: 20-77 years, 47% females), noted the most common locations of clinically relevant surface markings, and analyzed correlations between these variables and age or gender. While many common surface markings in Iranians were consistent with the evidence-based literature, there were some differences. In relation to the corresponding segments of the vertebral column, the superior vena cava formation and the lower border of the pleura adjacent to the vertebral column and right kidney tended to be at higher levels in adult Iranians than a Caucasian population. There were also discrepancies between the Iranian population and commonly-referenced medical textbooks and recent evidence-based literature concerning the vertebral levels of the diaphragmatic openings of the esophagus, aorta, and inferior vena cava. This study emphasizes the need to consider evidence-based reappraisals of surface anatomy to guide clinical practice. Much of our current knowledge of surface anatomy is based on older studies of cadavers rather than living people, and does not take ethnic and individual variations into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A reappraisal of classical archetype theory and its implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Merchant, John

    2009-06-01

    This paper begins with an overview of contemporary approaches to archetype theory and notes the radical nature of certain deductions. Some argue that there is no 'archetype-as-such' as a pre-existing entity at the core of a complex driving its formation whilst the findings of current neuroscience are calling into question one very thing on which the classical theory is built--innatism. Knox's argument for image schemas raises the question as to the extent to which archetypes can be conceived in any preformationist sense. The question is then posed--to what extent can Jung's classical theory of archetypes be read in light of these current models? The case examples Jung uses to evidence the existence of archetypes, his explications of synchronicity and his own Philemon experience are then reappraised. The conclusion is drawn that it is difficult to evidence the existence of autonomous archetypes unrelated to personal affective experience. Not only would this be expected by emergent/developmental models of archetype but it can explain many of Jung's disjunctive statements about archetype constellation; the difficulties in separating personal and collective psychic content and Jung's apparent Lamarckianism. The implications of these models for theory, clinical practice and analyst training are then offered for discussion.

  2. A reappraisal of the 1835 eruption of Cosigüina and its atmospheric impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Rampino, M. R.; Carr, M. J.

    1989-10-01

    In the “great” January 1835 eruption of Cosigüina volcano, Nicaragua, andesitic magma and lithic material were erupted over a period of at least three days. Proximal facies consist of clastogenic lava, scoria-fall, and lithic ash-fall produced by phreatomagmatic to vulcanian or plinian activity, together with surge deposits and lithic block-falls. Pyroclastic flow deposits covered some flanks of the volcano and entered the sea in the Gulf of Fonseca. Little record exists of the distal ash-fall, thus the total bulk volume erupted can only be roughly constrained to 2.9 5.6 km3. Furthermore, the amount of juvenile material is thought to be small. A recent study of volatiles in 1835 scoria suggests sulfur release from the magma was negligible. This reappraisal indicates that the Cosigüina eruption probably had little global climatic impact. Despite its violent nature, the magnitude of the eruption was modest. The eruption occurred too late to initiate the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend form 1828 1836. Dry fogs and other atmospheric optical phenomena usually observed after eruptions that contribute significantly to the stratospheric aerosol burden were not recorded after 1835.

  3. Honey revisited: a reappraisal of honey in pre-industrial diets.

    PubMed

    Allsop, K A; Miller, J B

    1996-04-01

    In pre-industrial times, honey was the main source of concentrated sweetness in the diets of many peoples. There are no precise figures for per capita consumption during most periods in history because honey was part of either a hunter-gatherer or subsistence economy. Until now, historians and food writers have proposed that it was a scarce commodity available only to a wealthy few. We do know, however, that in a cash economy honey was sold in large units (gallons and even barrels) and it was present in such abundance that mead, made from honey, was a common alcoholic drink. A reappraisal of the evidence from the Stone Age, Antiquity, the Middle Ages and early Modern times suggests that ordinary people ate much larger quantities of honey than has previously been acknowledged. Intakes at various times during history may well have rivalled our current consumption of refined sugar. There are implications therefore for the role of sugar in modern diets. Refined sugar may not have displaced more nutrient-rich items from our present-day diets but only the nutritionally comparable food, honey.

  4. Deconstructing sickle cell disease: Reappraisal of the role of hemolysis in the development of clinical subphenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Hemolysis, long discounted as a critical measure of sickle cell disease severity when compared with sickle vaso-occlusion, may be the proximate cause of some disease complications. New mechanistic information about hemolysis and its effects on nitric oxide (NO) biology and further examination of the subphenotypes of disease requires a reappraisal and deconstruction of the clinical features of sickle cell disease. The biology underlying clinical phenotypes linked to hemolysis may increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of other chronic hemolytic diseases while providing new insights into treating sickle cell disease. The pathophysiological roles of dysregulated NO homeostasis and sickle reticulocyte adherence have linked hemolysis and hemolytic rate to sickle vasculopathy. Nitric oxide binds soluble guanylate cyclase which converts GTP to cGMP, relaxing vascular smooth muscle and causing vasodilatation. When plasma hemoglobin liberated from intravascularly hemolyzed sickle erythrocytes consumes NO, the normal balance of vasoconstriction:vasodilation is skewed toward vasoconstriction. Pulmonary hypertension, priapism, leg ulceration and stroke, all subphenotypes of sickle cell disease, can be linked to the intensity of hemolysis. Hemolysis plays less of a role in the vaso-occlusive-viscosity complications of disease like the acute painful episode, osteonecrosis of bone and the acute chest syndrome. Agents that decrease hemolysis or restore NO bioavailability or responsiveness may have potential to reduce the incidence and severity of the hemolytic subphenotypes of sickle cell disease. Some of these drugs are now being studied in clinical trials. PMID:17084951

  5. A reappraisal of the use of infrared thermal image analysis in medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, B F

    1998-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging of the skin has been used for several decades to monitor the temperature distribution of human skin. Abnormalities such as malignancies, inflammation, and infection cause localized increases in temperature which show as hot spots or as asymmetrical patterns in an infrared thermogram. Even though it is nonspecific, infrared thermology is a powerful detector of problems that affect a patient's physiology. While the use of infrared imaging is increasing in many industrial and security applications, it has declined in medicine probably because of the continued reliance on first generation cameras. The transfer of military technology for medical use has prompted this reappraisal of infrared thermology in medicine. Digital infrared cameras have much improved spatial and thermal resolutions, and libraries of image processing routines are available to analyze images captured both statically and dynamically. If thermographs are captured under controlled conditions, they may be interpreted readily to diagnose certain conditions and to monitor the reaction of a patient's physiology to thermal and other stresses. Some of the major areas where infrared thermography is being used successfully are neurology, vascular disorders, rheumatic diseases, tissue viability, oncology (especially breast cancer), dermatological disorders, neonatal, ophthalmology, and surgery.

  6. Reappraisal of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): comparative analysis between EBV-positive and EBV-negative DLBCL with EBV-positive bystander cells.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Akiko; Kato, Seiichi; Okamoto, Akinao; Inaguma, Yoko; Satou, Akira; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Emi, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Masataka; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2017-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified is defined as monoclonal EBV+ B-cell proliferation affecting patients without any known immunosuppression. Non-neoplastic EBV+ cells proliferating in or adjacent to EBV- DLBCL were reported recently, but their clinical significance is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of EBV+ cells in DLBCL. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics of 30 EBV+ DLBCL patients and 29 and 604 EBV- DLBCL patients with and without EBV+ bystander cells (median age of onset 71, 67 and 62 years, respectively). Both EBV+ DLBCL patients and EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells tended to have high and high-intermediate International Prognostic Index scores (60% and 59%, respectively), as compared with only 46% of EBV- DLBCL patients without EBV+ bystander cells. EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells showed a significantly higher incidence of lung involvement than those without EBV+ bystander cells (10% versus 2%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, EBV+ DLBCL patients and EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells had a poorer prognosis than patients without any detectable EBV+ cells [median overall survival (OS) of 100 months and 40 months versus not reached, P < 0.01]. Notably, EBV+ DLBCL patients and EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells treated with rituximab showed overlapping survival curves (OS, P = 0.77; progression-free survival, P = 1.0). EBV- DLBCL with bystander EBV+ cells has similar clinical characteristics to EBV+ DLBCL. DLBCL with EBV+ bystander cells may be related to both age-related and microenvironment-related immunological deterioration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Pilot Randomized Trial of a Cognitive Reappraisal Obesity Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evaluate a selective obesity prevention program promoting use of cognitive reappraisals to reduce reward region response and increase inhibitory region response to high-fat/high-sugar foods and reduce intake of fat and sugar to prevent blunted reward region response to intake of such foods. Subjects/Methods Young adults at risk for future weight gain by virtue of weight concerns (N = 148) were randomized to this new prevention program (Minding Health), an alternative prevention program promoting participant-driven gradual reductions in caloric intake and increases in physical activity (Healthy Weight), or an obesity education video control condition, completing assessments at pre, post, and 6-month follow-up. A subset of Minding Health and control participants completed an fMRI scan at pre and post assessing neural response to images of high-fat/sugar foods and to receipt and anticipated receipt of a high-fat/sugar food. Results Minding Health participants showed significantly greater reductions in body fat than controls and caloric intake from fat and sugar than Healthy Weight participants. However, Healthy Weight participants showed greater reductions in BMI and eating disorder symptoms than Minding Health participants and Minding Health participants showed greater activation of an inhibitory control region and reduced activation of an attention/expectation region in response to palatable food images relative to pretest and controls. Conclusions Although the Minding Health intervention produced some of the hypothesized effects, it did not produce lasting reductions in body fat or BMI and showed limited effects on neural responsivity, implying it will be vital to increase the efficacy of this new prevention program. PMID:25447334

  8. Functional connectivity of the amygdala and subgenual cingulate during cognitive reappraisal of emotions in children with MDD history is associated with rumination.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eric R; Barch, Deanna M; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C

    2016-04-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by poor emotion regulation. Rumination, a maladaptive strategy for dealing with negative emotions, is common in MDD, and is associated with impaired inhibition and cognitive inflexibility that may contribute to impaired emotion regulation abilities. However, it is unclear whether rumination is differently associated with emotion regulation in individuals with MDD history (MDD-ever) and healthy individuals. In this study, children (8-15 years old) performed a cognitive reappraisal task in which they attempted to decrease their emotional response to sad images during fMRI scanning. Functional connectivity (FC) between both the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (sACC) increased with cortical control regions during reappraisal as rumination increased in MDD-ever, while connectivity between those regions decreased during reappraisal as rumination increased in healthy controls. As the role of cortical control regions is to down-regulate activity of emotion processing regions during reappraisal, this suggests that rumination in MDD-ever, but not controls, is associated with inefficient regulation. This finding suggests that rumination may be particularly associated with poor emotion regulation in MDD-ever, and may also indicate qualitative group differences in whether rumination is maladaptive. These differences in rumination may provide important insight into depressive risk and potential avenues for treatment.

  9. Corrigendum: A Person-by-Situation Approach to Emotion Regulation: Cognitive Reappraisal Can Either Help or Hurt, Depending on the Context.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Troy, A. S., Shallcross, A. J., & Mauss, I. B. (2013). A person-by-situation approach to emotion regulation: Cognitive reappraisal can either help or hurt, depending on the context. Psychological Science, 24, 2505-2514. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613496434). © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Over diagnosis and rising rates of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS) - time for reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Sioutis, Dimos; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2016-09-19

    To identify the accuracy of clinically diagnosed OASIS using 3D endoanal ultrasound and compare symptoms and anal manometry measurements between those whose anal sphincters were adequately repaired to those who had persistent anal sphincter defects. The endoanal scan images of women who sustained OASIS and attended the perineal clinic over a 10 year period (2003 - 2013) were re-analysed from data entered prospectively of women with clinically diagnosed and repaired OASIS. The St Mark's Incontinence Score (SMIS) as well as anal manometry measurements were included in the analysis. The images of 908 women were re-analysed. We found that there was no evidence of OASIS (Group A) = 64 (7%); external anal sphincter (EAS) scar alone (Group B) = 520 (57.3%); anal sphincter defect (Group C) = 324 (35.7%). Of the 324 women with a defect, 112 had an EAS defect and 90 had an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect and 122 had a combined IAS + EAS defect. The SMIS was significantly higher in women with a defect (p = 0.018) but there was no significant difference in scores between women with an intact sphincter and women with a scar. Compared to the intact group, both the maximum resting (median and range [55 (29-86) vs 43.5 (8-106) mmHg; p < 0.001] and maximum squeeze pressures [103 (44-185) vs 73.5, (23-180); p < 0.001] were significantly lower in women with a defect but less so with a scar. The anal length was significantly shorter in woman with a defect [25 (10-40) vs 20 (10-40) mm]. Seven percent of women who had a clinical diagnosis of OASIS were wrongly diagnosed as they only had a second degree tear. We believe that this rate may differ from other units but training methods and competency assessment tools for the diagnosis and repair of OASIS need urgent reappraisal. The role of anal ultrasound in the immediate post-partum period needs further evaluation as it will be dependent on the expertise of the staff available to accurately interpret the

  11. Psychological Distress and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: The Mediating Roles of Rumination, Cognitive Reappraisal, and Expressive Suppression.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Sally; Hasking, Penelope; Meaney, Rebecca

    2017-01-02

    This study sought to explore the relationships between depression, anxiety, stress, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and the mediating roles of rumination and emotion regulation in this relationship. The sample comprised 1,586 Australian university students who completed a self-report questionnaire assessing the relevant variables. Of the sample, 8.9% engaged in NSSI in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Depression, anxiety, and stress each exerted a direct effect on NSSI, and each relationship was mediated by cognitive reappraisal. The relationship between stress and NSSI was also mediated by expressive suppression. The results imply intervention efforts aimed at teaching adaptive emotion regulation strategies for students experiencing high levels of psychological distress may reduce the frequency of NSSI.

  12. Detaching from the negative by reappraisal: the role of right superior frontal gyrus (BA9/32).

    PubMed

    Falquez, Rosalux; Couto, Blas; Ibanez, Agustin; Freitag, Martin T; Berger, Moritz; Arens, Elisabeth A; Lang, Simone; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself), i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and gray matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI). Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) analysis was run, in which healthy participant's REAPPself ability scores were correlated with gray matter intensities. Results showed that (1) regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32), were associated with patient's impaired down-regulation of arousal, (2) a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, (3) REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased gray matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32) might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research are

  13. Detaching from the negative by reappraisal: the role of right superior frontal gyrus (BA9/32)

    PubMed Central

    Falquez, Rosalux; Couto, Blas; Ibanez, Agustin; Freitag, Martin T.; Berger, Moritz; Arens, Elisabeth A.; Lang, Simone; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself), i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and gray matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI). Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) analysis was run, in which healthy participant's REAPPself ability scores were correlated with gray matter intensities. Results showed that (1) regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32), were associated with patient's impaired down-regulation of arousal, (2) a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, (3) REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased gray matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32) might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research are

  14. DNA barcodes and citizen science provoke a diversity reappraisal for the "ring" butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia (Ypthima: Satyrinae: Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    The "rings" belonging to the genus Ypthima are amongst the most common butterflies in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the species can be difficult to tell apart, with keys relying on minor and often non-discrete ring characters found on the hindwing. Seven species have been reported from Peninsular Malaysia, but this is thought to be an underestimate of diversity. DNA barcodes of 165 individuals, and wing and genital morphology, were examined to reappraise species diversity of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia. DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects-School Butterfly Project and Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count-recently conducted in Peninsular Malaysia were included. The new DNA barcodes formed six groups with different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) representing four species reported in Peninsular Malaysia. When combined with public DNA barcodes from the Barcode Of Life Datasystems, several taxonomic issues arose. We consider the taxon Y. newboldi, formerly treated as a subspecies of Y. baldus, as a distinct species. DNA barcodes also supported an earlier suggestion that Y. nebulosa is a synonym under Y. horsfieldii humei. Two BINs of the genus Ypthima comprising DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects did not correspond to any species previously reported in Peninsular Malaysia.

  15. Could Carlos Chagas' assumption on the relationship between goiter and chronic Chagas heart disease be correct? A historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto; Restini, Carolina B A; Couto, Lucelio B

    2016-01-01

    In 1910, Chagas divided the clinical manifestations of the chronic form of Chagas disease according to heart, Central Nervous System, and thyroid involvement, particularly the presence of goiter. Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with poor houses infested with kissing bugs, the similarity of the clinical picture with that of patients underwent partial thyroidectomy, and with the presence of thyroid sclerosis (inflammation) on histological examination. In addition, Chagas observed that all people living in poor houses infested by sucking bugs had goiter, contrasting with persons who lived in the same region, drinking the same water, but living in good houses, which did not have goiter. Furthermore, Chagas stressed the fact that people without any evidence of thyroid disease that migrated to live in poor houses in areas infested by sucking bugs developed thyroid disease some time later. Finally, and more importantly, Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with cardiac abnormalities in 80% of patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. Despite this, other authors working in different regions did not confirm such an association. A reappraisal of data from a work published in 1949 clearly shows that the presence of goiter was statistically associated with chronic Chagas heart disease and with chronic Chagas disease. Our paper highlights once more the grandiosity of Chagas' work, which has been proved to be correct even in the history of goiter, and justifies our claim for a posthumous Nobel Prize inasmuch as his work was not perceived by the Karolinska Institute.

  16. Antibiotic therapy of ventilator-associated pneumonia--a reappraisal of rationale in the era of bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Sintchenko, V; Iredell, J R; Gilbert, G L

    2001-09-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICU). Resistance patterns seen in ICUs suggest that prescribing recommendations should be reappraised to limit practices engendering resistance to large families of antibiotics. Despite concern surrounding the use of antibiotics in the management of VAP, there is limited evidence to assist the clinician in making decisions about the indications for such therapy, the selection of the correct antibiotic(s), the timing of initiation of therapy and its duration. The high amount of antibiotic use, in combination with the low grade colonisation of patients with multi-resistant pathogens at the time of admission, turns the ICU into an environment where antibiotic policy is likely to have an effect on the resistance problem. Opinions are changing as to the validity of invasive techniques in guiding prescribing decisions. Invasive and semi-invasive diagnostic testing increases physician confidence in the diagnosis and management of VAP and helps to limit or discontinue antibiotic treatment.

  17. A Genomic Reappraisal of Symbiotic Function in the Aphid/Buchnera Symbiosis: Reduced Transporter Sets and Variable Membrane Organisations

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Hubert; Balmand, Séverine; Lamelas, Araceli; Cottret, Ludovic; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Burdin, Béatrice; Latorre, Amparo; Febvay, Gérard; Colella, Stefano; Calevro, Federica; Rahbé, Yvan

    2011-01-01

    Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate symbiotic bacterium that sustains the physiology of aphids by complementing their exclusive phloem sap diet. In this study, we reappraised the transport function of different Buchnera strains, from the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum, Schizaphis graminum, Baizongia pistaciae and Cinara cedri, using the re-annotation of their transmembrane proteins coupled with an exploration of their metabolic networks. Although metabolic analyses revealed high interdependencies between the host and the bacteria, we demonstrate here that transport in Buchnera is assured by low transporter diversity, when compared to free-living bacteria, being mostly based on a few general transporters, some of which probably have lost their substrate specificity. Moreover, in the four strains studied, an astonishing lack of inner-membrane importers was observed. In Buchnera, the transport function has been shaped by the distinct selective constraints occurring in the Aphididae lineages. Buchnera from A. pisum and S. graminum have a three-membraned system and similar sets of transporters corresponding to most compound classes. Transmission electronic microscopic observations and confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular pH fields revealed that Buchnera does not show any of the typical structures and properties observed in integrated organelles. Buchnera from B. pistaciae seem to possess a unique double membrane system and has, accordingly, lost all of its outer-membrane integral proteins. Lastly, Buchnera from C. cedri revealed an extremely poor repertoire of transporters, with almost no ATP-driven active transport left, despite the clear persistence of the ancestral three-membraned system. PMID:22229056

  18. The strategy does not matter: Effects of acceptance, reappraisal, and distraction on the course of anticipatory anxiety in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; Rusch, Silke; Rief, Winfried; Lincoln, Tania M

    2015-12-01

    Anticipatory anxiety is a core feature of social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, there is a paucity of data on effective strategies for dealing with this affective state. The present study examined the effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and distraction on the course of anticipatory anxiety. The study used an experimental design, randomly assigning participants to one of three strategy groups. Participants were instructed to employ these strategies during the anticipation of an impromptu speech. Participants with SAD (n = 67) and healthy controls (n = 72) were compared with regard to their ability to adopt the prescribed strategies and with regard to the effects of strategy use on self-reported and psychophysiological markers of arousal. SAD participants reported more problems in adopting the assigned strategies than controls, although the time spent with each strategy did not differ by group. In both groups, acceptance was rated as more difficult to adopt than reappraisal and distraction. Subjective ratings of anxiety decreased during the first 10 min of anticipation regardless of diagnostic group or strategy, but anxiety increased again immediately prior to the speech. Psychophysiological parameters were largely unaffected by group or strategy. The results question whether there are differential benefits of different emotion regulation (ER) strategies in dealing with anticipatory anxiety. The observed rebound of anxiety prior to the social event calls into doubt the long-term effectiveness of these strategies, at least during the regulation of anticipatory anxiety. Coping with anticipatory anxiety is an important issue in treating SAD. Compared to healthy controls, individuals diagnosed with SAD experienced more problems in adopting prescribed ER strategies for dealing with anticipatory anxiety. We found no differences between acceptance, reappraisal, and distraction, calling into question that one strategy should be generally recommended by clinicians. © 2015

  19. Beryllium natural background concentration and mobility: a reappraisal examining the case of high Be-bearing pyroclastic rocks.

    PubMed

    Armiento, Giovanna; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cremisini, Carlo; Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Nardi, Elisa; Pacifico, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium is widely distributed in soils at low levels, but it can also occur naturally in higher concentrations in a variety of materials exploited for many industrial applications. Beryllium is also one of the most toxic natural elements and is known to be a human carcinogen. A concise account of the literature data on baseline concentrations of Be in soils illustrates the possibility of worldwide presence of areas with a high natural background concentration of Be (up to 300 mg/kg), the crustal abundance of which is generally estimated to be in the range 2-6 mg/kg. Nevertheless, the number of available data is rather limited in comparison with those about other toxic elements such as Pb, Cd and Cr. This has probably caused the choice of low values of concentration level as the reference for the definition of soil contamination: these values are not always realistic and are not applicable to large areas. As a case study, we report and analyse a diffuse, unusually high (up to 80 mg/kg, average approximately 20 mg/kg), natural occurrence of beryllium in loose and poorly consolidated pyroclastic layers related to the Pleistocene activity of the Vico volcano. Additionally, the analysis of Be leachability has been carried out, providing evidence of a not negligible mobility in contrast with the scarce data presented in the literature that usually indicate beryllium as an element with low mobility in oxidising surface environmental conditions. This research marks the beginning of a possible reappraisal of beryllium geochemical behaviour and background levels, providing more realistic reference values for risk assessment and land management.

  20. Spermatophoric reaction reappraised: novel insights into the functioning of the loliginid spermatophore based on Doryteuthis plei (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Marian, José Eduardo A R

    2012-03-01

    During copulation, spermatophores produced by male coleoid cephalopods undergo the spermatophoric reaction, a complex process of evagination that culminates in the attachment of the spermatangium (everted spermatophore containing the sperm mass) on the female's body. To better understand this complicated phenomenon, the present study investigated the functional morphology of the spermatophore of the squid Doryteuthis plei applying in vitro analysis of the reaction, as well as light and electron microscopy investigation of spermatangia obtained either in vitro, or naturally attached on females. Hitherto unnoticed functional features of the loliginid spermatophore require a reappraisal of some important processes involved in the spermatophoric reaction. The most striking findings concern the attachment mechanism, which is not carried out solely by cement adhesive material, as previously believed, but rather by an autonomous, complex process performed by multiple structures during the spermatophoric reaction. During evagination, the ejaculatory apparatus provides anchorage on the targeted tissue, presumably due to the minute stellate particles present in the exposed spiral filament. Consequently, the ejaculatory apparatus maintains the attachment of the tip of the evaginating spermatophore until the cement body is extruded. Subsequently, the cement body passes through a complex structural rearrangement, which leads to the injection of both its viscid contents and pointed oral region onto the targeted tissue. The inner membrane at the oral region of the cement body contains numerous stellate particles attached at its inner side; eversion of this membrane exposes these sharp structures, which presumably adhere to the tissue and augment attachment. Several naturally attached spermatangia were found with their bases implanted at the deposition sites, and the possible mechanisms of perforation are discussed based on present evidence. The function of the complex squid

  1. What's Tramadol Got to Do with It? A Case Report of Rebound Hypoglycemia, a Reappraisal and Review of Potential Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Odonkor, Charles A; Chhatre, Akhil

    2016-01-01

    Tramadol has gained traction as an analgesic of choice among pain practicing physicians. However some concerns regarding a previously unlabeled adverse reaction - hypoglycemia - have cast it in a dim light. Prior reports have noted an associated risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia after tramadol use, but whether tramadol is the main causal agent is poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms are not well delineated. We present a unique case of rebound hypoglycemia as a variation of the theme of tramadol's adverse effect profile in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and reappraise potential mechanisms underlying this underappreciated phenomenon. A 71-year-old woman presented with right buttock pain and right lateral leg discomfort of 9-month duration. Her physical exam suggested sacroiliac joint (SIJ) etiology, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She was scheduled for an SIJ-diagnostic and therapeutic block and started on tramadol 50 mg 3 times daily on as needed basis. The patient subsequently developed severe hypoglycemia initially resistant to euglycemia restorative interventions with a rebound episode. Hypoglycemia resolved with oral ingestion of high levels of glucose and the patient was taken off tramadol. Fortunately, she did not require hospitalization. The clinical scenario described is a case of rebound hypoglycemia after tramadol use in a patient with type-1 diabetes naïve to opioid analgesics. The episodes of hypoglycemia aligned perfectly with the anticipated pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of tramadol. The specificity and temporality of events after tramadol use in this patient fulfilled causality criteria. Tramadol may cause rebound hypoglycemia in patients via interference of the intrinsic euglycemia-restoration pathways and a blunted autonomic counter-regulatory response to antecedent hypoglycemia. Its use must be tempered by this underappreciated adverse effect profile.Key words: Tramadol, hypoglycemia

  2. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression: Links to racial-ethnic discrimination and adjustment among Latino/a and Asian-heritage college students.

    PubMed

    Juang, Linda P; Moffitt, Ursula; Kim, Su Yeong; Lee, Richard M; Soto, José Angel; Hurley, Eric; Weisskirch, Robert S; Blozis, Shelley A; Castillo, Linda G; Huynh, Que-Lam; Whitborne, Susan Krauss

    2016-12-01

    We examined whether two key emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, moderated the relations between discrimination (i.e., foreigner objectification and general denigration) and adjustment. Participants were U.S. Latino/a and Asian-heritage college students (N = 1,279, 67% female, 72% U.S. born) from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC). Students completed online self-report surveys in 2009. Multi-group path analysis demonstrated that a fully constrained model fit well for both Latino/a and Asian-heritage student data. The results showed that with increasing levels of denigration (but not foreigner objectification), the combination of lower cognitive reappraisal and higher expressive suppression was related to greater depressive symptoms, anxiety, and aggression. Our findings highlight the importance of examining multiple emotion regulation strategies simultaneously-considering what strategies are available to individuals and in what combination they are used-to understand how best to deal with negative emotions resulting from experiencing discrimination. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-11-15

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000.

  4. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-11-01

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000.

  5. A reappraisal of the reported dose equivalents at the boundary of the University of California Radiation Laboratory during the early days of Bevatron operation.

    PubMed

    Donahue, R J; Smith, A R; Thomas, R H; Zeman, G H

    2002-01-01

    The Bevatron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory operated with no permanent shielding-roof from 1954 to 1962. Neutron fluences measured at the laboratory perimeter reached a maximum in 1959, and were reported as an annual dose equivalent of 8.1 mSv (54% of the then operative radiation limit). The addition of temporary local shielding and improved operational techniques subsequently led to a steady decline in dose equivalent at the laboratory perimeter. A permanent concrete shielding-roof was constructed in 1962. In those early years of operation the reported dose equivalent, H, was derived from a measured total neutron fluence, phi, and an estimated spectrum-weighted fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficient, (g), where H= (g) phi. The uncertainty in H was almost entirely due to the uncertainty in (g). While the measurements of phi were accurate the estimates of (g) were quite crude and depended upon measurements of average neutron energy, on assumptions about the shape of the neutron energy spectrum, and primitive values of fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic neutrons. These early reported dose equivalents were known to be overestimated. This paper has reappraised the dose equivalents in the light of better information now available. Environmental neutron spectra have been calculated which more accurately correspond to the operational conditions of the Bevatron in the 1950s and early 1960s. than did those spectra available at that time. A new fluence to dose equivalent conversion function based on the latest data and for isotropic irradiation geometry was developed. From these two parameters better estimates of the coefficient (g) were determined and compared with the earlier values. From this reappraisal it is shown that the early reported dose equivalents were conservative by a factor of at least five.

  6. [The regulation of negative and positive emotions during picture viewing: an ERP study].

    PubMed

    Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Korenek, V V; Loktev, K V; Tumialis, A V; Brak, I V; Aftanas, L I

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the effects of cognitive reappraisal on the event-related potentials (ERPs) to affective stimuli. Participants (n = 53) were asked either to attend affective images, or to down-regulate negative affect, or to up-regulate positive affect. Reappraisal of negative images was associated with attenuation of the P300 and late positive potential (LPP) over parietal regions, whereas reappraisal of positive images had no significant effect on ERP components. The weak P300 reduction correlated with high personality scores of negative affectivity. We assume that only down-regulation of negative emotions is associated with the changes in primary appraisals, and so far reflected in ERP modulation.

  7. Autologous Serum and Plasma Skin Tests in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Muthu Sendhil; Mangal, Sonia; Narang, Tarun; Parsad, Davinder

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to assess autologous serum skin test (ASST) vs autologous plasma skin test (APST) response in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients and study the significance of intensity of positive responses in relation to clinicoepidemiological parameters. Materials and Methods: One hundred CSU patients and 100 age and sex-matched controls were recruited. The demographic and clinical features were recorded in all patients and routine investigations were performed. ASST and APST tests were performed as per the standard guidelines. Results: The mean duration of illness was 4.85 ± 5.07 years, 90% patients were APST (+), 68% ASST (+), and 22 patients were only APST (+). Positive predictive value (PPV) of ASST and APST was 90.7% and 95.7%, respectively. A significant inverse association was seen between thyroid status and serum IgE levels with APST and ASST positivity. Conclusion: APST appears to have better PPV and high intensity of positive response on autologous tests, and correlates with ANA positivity and angioedema. PMID:28405547

  8. Reappraising the Importance of Class in Higher Education Entry and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John; Morgan-Klein, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Social class is a major determining factor of people's life chances. Much sociology-based research shows that socio-economic position is still one of the best predictors of who will achieve success, prosperity and social status and, in particular, who will enjoy the highest levels of educational outcomes. Survey data and qualitative studies alike…

  9. Reappraising the Importance of Class in Higher Education Entry and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John; Morgan-Klein, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Social class is a major determining factor of people's life chances. Much sociology-based research shows that socio-economic position is still one of the best predictors of who will achieve success, prosperity and social status and, in particular, who will enjoy the highest levels of educational outcomes. Survey data and qualitative studies alike…

  10. A molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae and Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes) with keys to world species

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, E.W.A.; Mugambi, G.K.; Miller, A.N.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Marincowitz, S.; Spatafora, J.W.; Schoch, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A reappraisal of the phylogenetic integrity of bitunicate ascomycete fungi belonging to or previously affiliated with the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae, Gloniaceae and Patellariaceae is presented, based on an analysis of 121 isolates and four nuclear genes, the ribosomal large and small subunits, transcription elongation factor 1 and the second largest RNA polymerase II subunit. A geographically diverse and high density taxon sampling strategy was employed, including multiple isolates/species from the following genera: Anteaglonium (6/4), Encephalographa (1/1), Farlowiella (3/1), Gloniopsis (8/4), Glonium (4/2), Hysterium (12/5), Hysterobrevium (14/3), Hysterographium (2/1), Hysteropatella (2/2), Lophium (4/2), Mytilinidion (13/10), Oedohysterium (5/3), Ostreichnion (2/2), Patellaria (1/1), Psiloglonium (11/3), Quasiconcha (1/1), Rhytidhysteron (8/3), and 24 outgroup taxa. Sequence data indicate that although the Hysteriales are closely related to the Pleosporales, sufficient branch support exists for their separation into separate orders within the Pleosporomycetidae. The Mytilinidiales are more distantly related within the subclass and show a close association with the Gloniaceae. Although there are examples of concordance between morphological and molecular data, these are few. Molecular data instead support the premise of a large number of convergent evolutionary lineages, which do not correspond to previously held assumptions of synapomorphy relating to spore morphology. Thus, within the Hysteriaceae, the genera Gloniopsis, Glonium, Hysterium and Hysterographium are highly polyphyletic. This necessitated the transfer of two species of Hysterium to Oedohysterium gen. nov. (Od. insidens comb. nov. and Od. sinense comb. nov.), the description of a new species, Hysterium barrianum sp. nov., and the transfer of two species of Gloniopsis to Hysterobrevium gen. nov. (Hb. smilacis comb. nov. and Hb. constrictum comb. nov.). While Hysterographium, with the type Hg

  11. Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhey S.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of shared conserved insertion or deletions (indels) in protein sequences is a special type of signature sequence that shows considerable promise for phylogenetic inference. An alternative model of microbial evolution based on the use of indels of conserved proteins and the morphological features of prokaryotic organisms is proposed. In this model, extant archaebacteria and gram-positive bacteria, which have a simple, single-layered cell wall structure, are termed monoderm prokaryotes. They are believed to be descended from the most primitive organisms. Evidence from indels supports the view that the archaebacteria probably evolved from gram-positive bacteria, and I suggest that this evolution occurred in response to antibiotic selection pressures. Evidence is presented that diderm prokaryotes (i.e., gram-negative bacteria), which have a bilayered cell wall, are derived from monoderm prokaryotes. Signature sequences in different proteins provide a means to define a number of different taxa within prokaryotes (namely, low G+C and high G+C gram-positive, Deinococcus-Thermus, cyanobacteria, chlamydia-cytophaga related, and two different groups of Proteobacteria) and to indicate how they evolved from a common ancestor. Based on phylogenetic information from indels in different protein sequences, it is hypothesized that all eukaryotes, including amitochondriate and aplastidic organisms, received major gene contributions from both an archaebacterium and a gram-negative eubacterium. In this model, the ancestral eukaryotic cell is a chimera that resulted from a unique fusion event between the two separate groups of prokaryotes followed by integration of their genomes. PMID:9841678

  12. A critical reappraisal of false negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Manca, G; Romanini, A; Rubello, D; Mazzarri, S; Boni, G; Chiacchio, S; Tredici, M; Duce, V; Tardelli, E; Volterrani, D; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) have completely changed the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma. This procedure has been accepted worldwide as a recognized method for nodal staging. SLNB is able to accurately determine nodal basin status, providing the most useful prognostic information. However, SLNB is not a perfect diagnostic test. Several large-scale studies have reported a relatively high false-negative rate (5.6-21%), correctly defined as the proportion of false-negative results with respect to the total number of "actual" positive lymph nodes. The main purpose of this review is to address the technical issues that nuclear physicians, surgeons, and pathologists should carefully consider to improve the accuracy of SLNB by minimizing its false-negative rate. In particular, SPECT/CT imaging has demonstrated to be able to identify a greater number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) than those found by planar lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, a unique definition in the international guidelines is missing for the operational identification of SLNs, which may be partly responsible for this relatively high false-negative rate of SLNB. Therefore, it is recommended for the scientific community to agree on the radioactive counting rate threshold so that the surgeon can be better radioguided to detect all the lymph nodes which are most likely to harbor metastases. Another possible source of error may be linked to the examination of the harvested SLNs by conventional histopathological methods. A more careful and extensive SLN analysis (e.g. molecular analysis by RT-PCR) is able to find more positive nodes, so that the false-negative rate is reduced. Older age at diagnosis, deeper lesions, histologic ulceration, head-neck anatomical location of primary lesions are the clinical factors associated with false-negative SLNBs in melanoma patients. There is still much controversy about the clinical significance of a false-negative SLNB on the prognosis

  13. Psychogenic palatal tremor may be underrecognized: reappraisal of a large series of cases.

    PubMed

    Stamelou, Maria; Saifee, Tabish A; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2012-08-01

    Palatal tremor is characterized by rhythmic movements of the soft palate and can be essential or symptomatic. Some patients can have palatal movements as a special skill or due to palatal tics. Psychogenic palatal tremor is recognized but rarely reported in the literature. We retrospectively evaluated all patients with palatal tremor seen in our center over a period of 10 years. Of 17 patients with palatal tremor, we identified 10 patients with isolated palatal tremor. In 70% of those the diagnosis of psychogenic palatal tremor could be made. Of the remainder, 2 had palatal tics and 1 essential palatal tremor. We suggest that psychogenic palatal tremor may be underrecognized and propose that targeted clinical examination of positive signs for psychogenic movement disorders in these patients is essential. The correct identification of such patients has important clinical and scientific implications. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Unhappy endings: a feminist reappraisal of the women's health movement from the vantage of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Layne, Linda L

    2003-05-01

    This essay contrasts the rosy birth scenarios of the natural childbirth movement with reproductive disaster stories of members of pregnancy loss support groups and women from toxically assaulted communities in the US who have suffered pregnancy loss. I argue that both biomedical obstetrics and the women's health movement critique of it share a belief in the ability to control reproduction so that there will be a positive outcome. I show that this emphasis on happy endings (whether believed to be the result of medical intervention, or women's natural inborn powers to reproduce) exacerbates the experience of those whose pregnancies do not end happily. I show how the women's health movement's emphasis on the importance of women being in control of their own bodies is related to a broader "culture of meritocracy" which contributes to maternal blame (and self-blame) when pregnancies are not perfect.

  15. Less than meets the eye: reappraising the clinical relevance of attentional bias in addiction.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Field, Matt

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in attentional bias in addiction, particularly its clinical relevance. Specifically, numerous articles claimed to demonstrate either that (1) attentional bias measured in treatment settings could predict subsequent relapse to substance use, or (2) direct modification of attentional bias reduced substance use and improved treatment outcomes. In this paper, we critically evaluate empirical studies that investigated these issues. We show that the evidence regarding both of these claims is decidedly mixed, and that many of the studies that appear to yield positive findings have serious methodological and statistical limitations. We contend that the available literature suggests that attentional bias for drug cues fluctuates within individuals because it is an output of the underlying motivational state at that moment in time, but there is no convincing evidence that it exerts a causal influence on substance use. Future research should make use of experience sampling methodology to characterise the clinical significance of fluctuations in attentional bias over time.

  16. The Concept of Thinking: A Reappraisal of Ryle’s Work

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    In The Concept of Mind, Ryle’s official position seems to be that mental acts cannot be intrinsically private. In The Concept of Mind as well as his later work on thinking, Ryle views thinking as an activity that terminates in a thought, which is a state of being prepared for a performance. Thinking is characterised by what Ryle calls intention-parasitism; for it is, insofar as its underlying motive is concerned, parasitic on the final performance which will take place later. Ryle shows that acts of thinking, owing to their intention-parasitism, can be described in a tactical idiom, with reference to the final performance for which it was intended. However, this framework of intention-parasitism is not adequate to describe all instances of thinking in all their aspects, which therefore remain inextricably private. The task of this paper is to accommodate such privacy within the theoretical framework suggested in The Concept of Mind. PMID:21694977

  17. Mechanics of gravity instability in offshore deltas, with reappraisal of fluid overpressures in the Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillot, Bertrand; Leroy, Yves; Yuan, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    Gravity instabilities in offshore deltas often involve three structural domains in interaction by the weak detachment plane: an upslope extensional region, a transitional domain sliding seaward, and a downslope compressive region. We provide the fluid pressure conditions for the occurrence of gravity instabilities due to the interaction of these three domains. For that purpose, we apply the kinematic approach of Limit Analysis which relies on the mechanical equilibrium and on the assumption that the onset of the instability is indeed triggered by the motion of the three domains if the Coulomb criterion is met on all slipping faults. For any given topographic profile, the Limit Analysis predicts the normal fault position and dip, marking the extensional domain, the activation length of the detachment defining the transitional sliding domain, and the thrust fault position and dip delimiting the compressive domain. The frontal thrusting occuring on the downslope compressive region works against gravity and therefore stabilizes the upslope gravity collapse. As a consequence, the critical topographic slope at the onset of the instability is found to be several degrees larger than predicted with the Critical Coulomb Wedge (CCW) theory, which can account for either the upslope extensional region, or the downslope compressive region, but does not account for the interaction of the three domains. The difference in predictions between the two theoretical approaches is important when the downslope sediment thickness above the detachment is more than a hundredth of the detachment activated length. The above length ratio is in the range 1/30 to 1/70 in the offshore Niger Delta. Neglecting cohesion, we found that, for the gravity instability to occur, the effective friction coefficient μ'B is less than 0.27 within the bulk material and μ'D is less than 0.017 in the detachment. These values are lower than those previously determined (μ'B = 0.5 - 0.9, μ'D = 0.- 0.2) by

  18. Prophylactic salpingectomy and prophylactic salpingoophorectomy for adnexal high-grade serous epithelial carcinoma: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Oliver Perez, M Reyes; Magriñá, Javier; García, Alvaro Tejerizo; Jiménez Lopez, Jesus Salvador

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is no effective screening of ovarian cancer. Primary prevention may be the only strategy to decrease the mortality from ovarian cancer, not only in women at high risk but also at low risk. Several recent studies have identified the distal fimbriae end of the fallopian tubes as primary precursor of High-grade serous carcinoma. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and occult invasive serous carcinomas have been identified in 2-17% of the fallopian tubes of BRCA1/2 positive women undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Removal of the fallopian tubes with ovarian preservation has been suggested as a reasonable strategy that could reduce the risk of developing ovarian carcinoma in both low and high-risk women. It has been proposed after childbearing in women at high risk to be followed by bilateral oophorectomy at a later date. Bilateral salpingectomy is also suggested for low risk women, at the time of other benign gynaecologic surgery as a primary preventive strategy. Some studies have shown a risk reduction of ovarian cancer in women with bilateral prophylactic salpingectomy. Current research regarding bilateral salpingoophorectomy as primary prevention approach of ovarian cancer is reviewed here. In addition, the potential use of bilateral salpingectomy as prevention approach of ovarian cancer is discussed.

  19. Reappraisal of Displacement of Northern Cordilleran Terranes Since the Triassic and Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, D. V.; Irving, E.

    2008-12-01

    moving to the vicinity of Nunivak Island by the end of the Jurassic (and then boomerangs to the Cretaceous standstill position in the Chukchi Sea). Cordilleran magnetizations always have inclinations that are shallower than expected from the reference path. There is therefore no ambiguity about the sense of displacements - they are always from the south relative to cratonic North America. However, within these structurally disrupted terranes, only individual poles and not their paths can be constructed and there are uncertainties in relating individual results to the global polarity time-scale, and so we cannot say, from the paleomagnetic evidence alone, whether the terranes were in the southern or the northern hemisphere during the early Mesozoic. Assuming the closest (northern hemisphere) position, all the Cordilleran terrane strata nevertheless give displacements of about 1000 km or more. The Nicolai of Alaska yields a displacement of ~2500 km which reflects the strong northward motion of SE Alaska in the Tertiary. We believe this settles the debate: Triassic and Jurassic rocks of Wrangellia and Stikinia all have been displaced significantly from the south. Notable also are the strong anticlockwise rotations of 40°-60° from the Nicolai (Triassic), Bonanza and Hazelton (Jurassic), which have been observed also by Enkin throughout the stratigraphy of the Skeena fold- belt of central Stikinia. The Karmutsen (Triassic) of Vancouver Island shows a huge 150° anticlockwise rotation, perhaps a composite of several deformation phases.

  20. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7 % sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100 % sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8 %). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) ( = JCM 30273(T) = DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain.

  1. How does Stroop interference change with practice? A reappraisal from the musical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Laurent; Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2015-03-01

    Most earlier studies investigating the evolution of the Stroop effect with the amount of reading practice have reported data consistent with an inverted U-shaped curve, whereby the Stroop effect appears early during reading acquisition, reaches a peak after 2 or 3 years of practice, and then continuously decreases until adulthood. The downward component of the curve suggests that skilled performers would be able to control their performance better than less-skilled performers. However, in these studies, the level of reading practice entirely coincides with age due to obvious practical and ethical constraints, and it is possible that the observed reduction in the Stroop interference is due to a growing ability of older children to inhibit nonrelevant information. In the present study, word reading, as source of interference, was replaced by note naming in musicians. The major advantage is that musical training can be easily decoupled from age. In 2 experiments exploiting the musical Stroop paradigm (Grégoire, Perruchet, & Poulin-Charronnat, 2013), we observed an early appearance of the interference effect, as reported for the color-word and picture-word Stroop tasks, but we did not replicate the inverted U-shaped curve. Experiment 2 revealed a linear and positive relation between the amplitude of the musical Stroop effect and the amount of musical practice across 5 years of musical training. These results suggest that reading practice in itself does not lead to increased control over reading and that the usual pattern of results is most likely due to the strong correlation between age and reading practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma in children and adolescents: a clinicopathologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Briana C; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Kozakewich, Harry P; Connolly, Susan; Gebhardt, Mark C; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R

    2008-03-01

    Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) and adamantinoma are rare and most commonly arise in the tibia of young individuals. Although OFD has typical histopathologic features, areas resembling OFD have often been noted at the periphery of otherwise classic adamantinomas, and some have suggested that OFD may be either a precursor to or a regressive phase of adamantinoma. The so-called OFD-like adamantinoma encompasses some features of both OFD and adamantinoma. We studied the clinical, imaging, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features of 16 OFD and 8 adamantinomas (5 OFD-like and 3 classic) in an attempt to further define their morphology, clinical course, and relationship. Patients with OFD were generally younger than those with adamantinoma. Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity was more prominent in OFD than in OFD-like adamantinoma. In addition to the inconspicuous small clusters of epithelial cells in OFD-like adamantinoma, isolated keratin-positive cells with a unique ultrastructural hybrid fibroblastic-epithelial phenotype were found in the stroma of all OFD and OFD-like adamantinomas. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed trisomies 7, 8, and/or 12 in the spindle cell stroma of OFD, OFD-like, and classic adamantinoma, supporting a neoplastic origin of OFD and a common histogenesis for all 3 lesions. Trisomies were not observed in osteoblasts or osteoclasts suggesting that the osseous component is reactive and non-neoplastic. Of the 11 OFD patients with follow-up (median, 4.5 y), all 3 who underwent incisional biopsy had persistent, nonprogressive disease and 2 of 8 who underwent curettage or wide excision had recurrence; none developed adamantinoma. All 6 adamantinoma patients with follow-up (3 classic and 3 OFD-like) were treated with wide excision. One with classic adamantinoma died of pulmonary metastases 9 years after presentation; the other 5 were free of disease with a median follow-up of 12 years. None of the

  3. Imipenem/Cilastatin : A Reappraisal of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Therapeutic Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Micaela M; Brogden, Rex N; Barradell, Lee B; Goa, Karen L

    1992-09-01

    Imipenem is an antibacterial agent of the carbapenem class of β-lactams, with a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, aerobes and anaerobes, and with marked activity against species producing β-lactamases. It is coadministered with cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase inhibitor that prevents renal metabolism of imipenem. As initial monotherapy, imipenem/cilastatin provides effective and well-tolerated treatment of moderate to severe infections in various body systems, including intr-abdominal, obstetric and gynaecological, lower respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue, and urinary tract infections, and also in bacteraemia and septicaemia, and in patients with malignancy-related febrile neutropenia. It is likely to be of particular benefit in cases where bacterial pathogens have not yet been identified, such as in the treatment of serious infections in immunocompromised patients, or in an intensive care setting. Thus, imipenem/cilastatin is effective as initial monotherapy of a variety of infections, including infections in neutropenic patients, with a clear role in empirical treatment of mixed infection. Data published since the earlier review in the Journal confirm the in vitro activity of imipenem against a wide range of Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative aerobic bacteria (except Xanthomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas cepacia), Gram-positive aerobic bacteria and anaerobic microorganisms. Imipenem is generally more active than third-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii and of similar activity to these antibacterial agents against other Enterobacteriaceae, but is generally less active than ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli, Klebsieila pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Serratia marcescens. Recent studies confirm the excellent activity of imipenem against methicillin-susceptible strains of commonly isolated Gram-positive aerobic bacteria as well as less common

  4. Chronology of Quaternary coastal aeolianite deposition and the drowned shorelines of southwestern Western Australia - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, B. P.; Olley, J. M.; Pietsch, T.; Playford, P. E.; Haines, P. W.; Murray-Wallace, C. V.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2014-06-01

    Aeolianite successions of low-gradient continental margins commonly show complex records of coastal dune deposition linked to a wide range of sea-level positions and climatic periods of the middle and late Pleistocene, recording both regional and broader-scale drivers of sediment production, coastal dune development and landform preservation. To better characterise the general pattern of sedimentation that occurs over Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles on low-gradient, temperate carbonate continental shelves we examine the morphology, stratigraphy and age of aeolianite deposits in the Perth region, Western Australia. This includes an analysis of well-defined drowned coastal landforms preserved on the adjacent shelf. New and previously published optical ages provide a preliminary timeframe for the deposition of aeolianite in the Perth region and on Rottnest Island, 17 km offshore. An extensive aeolianite ridge near Perth, representing a former barrier, has Optically Stimulated Luminesence (OSL) ages that range from 120 ± 12 to 103 ± 10 ka (MIS 5e-5a in the context of associated age uncertainties). OSL ages for an exposure in the same ridge 2.5 km inland, record the onlap of much older aeolianite, OSL age 415 ± 70 ka, by shell-rich estuarine beds, OSL age 290 ± 30 ka. A further 5.5 km inland from the coast, two thick aeolianite units, separated by a well-developed palaeosol, have stratigraphically consistent OSL ages of 310 ± 30 and 155 ± 20 ka. In contrast, aeolianite units that form the northern coast of Rottnest Island have OSL ages of 77 ± 12 ka and 27 ± 5 ka. The new OSL ages and previously reported TL and U/Th ages indicate that the bulk of the island comprises dunes deposited around the end of the Last Interglacial sensu lato (MIS 5a-4) and during the Last Glacial (MIS 4-2), accumulating over a Last Interglacial coral reef and basal calcarenite. Drowned barrier and dune landforms preserved on the adjacent continental shelf reveal that barriers were

  5. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  6. Triglycerides: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Philipp; Watson, Karol E

    2017-08-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels are clearly independently associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Another class of lipid particles, triglycerides, is also abundant in the human body and has been found in atherosclerotic plaques. Recent observational studies have demonstrated an association between elevated triglyceride levels and increased risk for future cardiovascular events. With this knowledge and the discovery of effective agents to lower triglyceride levels, the management of triglycerides is currently undergoing a renaissance. Unfortunately, no randomized, controlled clinical trials have been completed to date, proving that lowering triglycerides will reduce cardiovascular events. In this review we highlight some of the evidence that led to this stage and discuss the current data on pharmacologic intervention of triglyceride levels and the effect on clinical outcomes. Lastly, we want to give the reader insight on what the most recent lipid guidelines state about clinical triglyceride management, mention new pharmacological agents, and highlight the clinical evidence for safe and effective lowering of triglycerides levels with life style modification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Endometrial proteins: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Riittinen, L; Koistinen, R

    1992-06-01

    Uterine factors influence reproduction at the macro-anatomy level, and the effects of hormonal steroids on endometrial morphology are well recognized in the histopathological diagnosis of dysfunctional bleeding and infertility. During the past decade, attention has been paid to endometrial protein synthesis and secretion with respect to endocrine stimuli and implantation, and to the paracrine/autocrine effects of endometrial peptide growth factors, their binding proteins and other factors. The emphasis of this presentation is on protein secretion of the secretory endometrium, in which progesterone plays a pivotal role. Insulin-like growth factors have receptors on the endometrium, and IGF-binding proteins, stimulated by progesterone, modulate the effects of IGFs locally. Also other protein products of the secretory endometrium have been reviewed in this communication, with special emphasis on studies of a progesterone-associated endometrial protein which has many names in the literature, such as PEP, PP14, alpha 2-PEG and AUP. Extensive studies are ongoing in many laboratories to elucidate the regulation, function, interplay at tissue and cellular levels, and clinical significance of these proteins.

  8. A reappraisal of Microthyriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai X.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chomnunti, Putarak

    2012-01-01

    The family Microthyriaceae sensu Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2010 is a poorly known but interesting family comprising 50 genera consisting of foliar epiphytes or saprobes on dead leaves and stems. We re-visited the family based on examinations of generic types where possible. Members are distributed in Aulographaceae, Asterinaceae, Microthyriaceae, Micropeltidaceae and Palmulariaceae and notes are provided on each of these families. Nine genera are transferred from Microthyriaceae to Asterinaceae, and two to Aulographaceae based on the splitting or dissolving nature of the thyriothecia to release ascospores. New sequence data for a number of species and genera are provided. Microthyriaceous members growing on other fungi and lichens differ from Microthyriaceae sensu stricto and the family Trichothyriaceae is reinstated to accommodate these taxa. Other genera of Microthyriaceae belong in Rhytismataceae, Stictidaceae, Venturiales incertae cedis, Dothideomyetes genera incertae cedis, Hypocreales incertae cedis and Ascomycota genera incertae cedis. The family Microthyriaceae is reduced to seven genera characterised by superficial, flattened thyriothecia, with the cells of the upper wall radiating in parallel arrangement from the distinct central ostiolar opening, while the lower peridium is generally poorly developed. Sequence data is provided for five species with thyriothecia and Paramicrothyrium and Neomicrothyrium are described as new genera and Micropeltis zingiberacicola is introduced as a new species. Our phylogenetic analysis underscores the high genetic diversity for thyriotheciate species and there is no clear clade that can be well defined as Microthyriales. Nuclear ribosomal data support multiple polyphyletic lineages within Microthyriaceae and Micropeltidaceae. Some unexpected DNA based phylogenetic relationships such as those between Muyocopron and Saccardoella will require corroboration with more complete taxon sampling as well as additional non ribosomal markers. There are few differences between Aulographaceae, Asterinaceae and Palmulariaceae and these families may need synonymising. PMID:22408574

  9. Non-invasive Prefrontal/Frontal Brain Stimulation Is Not Effective in Modulating Food Reappraisal Abilities or Calorie Consumption in Obese Females.

    PubMed

    Grundeis, Felicitas; Brand, Cristin; Kumar, Saurabh; Rullmann, Michael; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies suggest that non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the prefrontal cortex modulates food choices and calorie intake in obese humans. Participants/Methods: In the present fully randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject and double-blinded study, we applied single sessions of anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and contralateral frontal operculum in 25 hungry obese women and investigated possible influences on food reappraisal abilities as well as calorie intake. We hypothesized that tDCS, (i) improves the ability to regulate the desire for visually presented foods and, (ii) reduces their consumption. Results: We could not confirm an effect of anodal or cathodal tDCS, neither on the ability to modulate the desire for visually presented foods, nor on calorie consumption. Conclusions: The present findings do not support the notion of prefrontal/frontal tDCS as a promising treatment option for obesity.

  10. Age Estimate of the N370S Mutation Causing Gaucher Disease in Ashkenazi Jews and European Populations: A Reappraisal of Haplotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Summary The N370S mutation at the GBA locus on human chromosome 1q21, which causes Gaucher disease (GD), has a high frequency in the Ashkenazim and is the second-most-widespread GD mutation in the European non-Jewish population. A common ancient origin for the N370S mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish and Spanish populations has been proposed on the basis of both a similar haplotype for associated markers and an age estimate that suggests that this mutation appeared several thousand years ago. However, a reappraisal of haplotype data, using the Risch formula properly along with a Luria-Delbrück setting of the genetic clock, allows identification of the likely origin of the N370S mutation in Ashkenazi Jews between the 11th and 13th centuries. This result is consistent with the estimated ages of other mutations that are frequent among Ashkenazim, with the exception of type II (Glu117Stop) factor XI deficiency, which is deemed to be >3000 years old, predating the separation of the Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jews. The present finding supports the hypothesis of a more recent origin for the N370S mutation and is consistent with both a founder chromosome transfer from Ashkenazim who assimilated in some European populations and a non-Jewish origin of the European N370S-bearing chromosomes. PMID:10677327

  11. Reappraisal of spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): response to escitalopram treatment and basal serotonin transporter (SERT) density.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Brand, Linda; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2013-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent thoughts and repetitive motor actions. Hyposerotonergic signalling in the cortico-striatal circuitry is believed to be central to the pathology of OCD, while many patients only respond to chronic treatment with high dose selective serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Confined deer mice spontaneously develop two forms of stereotypy, namely vertical jumping and pattern running. The purpose of this investigation was to reappraise these behaviours and strengthen the validity of deer mouse stereotypy as an animal model of OCD within a framework of three study questions: (1) can the time spent executing stereotypical behaviours be employed as a measure of extent of stereotypy, (2) does deer mouse stereotypy only respond to chronic, but not sub-chronic treatment with a high-dose SSRI, and (3) is deer mouse stereotypy associated with altered cortico-striatal 5HT transporter (SERT) binding? The current study demonstrates that treatment naïve high stereotypical (HS) deer mice spend significantly more time executing stereotypical behaviours while significantly less time is spent indulging in stereotypy following chronic, but not sub-chronic, treatment with escitalopram. Furthermore, HS deer mice present with a significant decrease in striatal SERT density compared to non-stereotypical (NS) controls. Building on previous validation studies, we conclude that deer mouse stereotypy is a valid naturalistic animal model of OCD with robust face, construct and predictive validity.

  12. Nondialytic therapy for end-stage renal disease is an underutilized care paradigm in the United States: time for a more robust reappraisal of this treatment option.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay A C

    2013-01-01

    Nondialytic therapy (NDT)--also calledconservative kidney management--is a growing modality of treatment for select chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients globally. Nevertheless, NDT is rarely practiced in the United States. We set out to investigate NDT activity before initiation of renal replacement therapy in a Northwestern Wisconsin Mayo Clinic ESRD population. Records of all prevalent ESRD patients on chronic hemodialysis in our practice were retrospectively reviewed in May 2012. Dialysis nurses and social workers were informally interviewed to augment the review process. Of the 166 ESRD patients reviewed, 82 (49%) were 70 years of age or older, 46 (28%) were 70-79 years, and 36 (22%) were 80-89 years. Most of these older patients had multiple significant comorbidities ("multimorbidity"). Evidence for NDT activity before initiation of renal replacement therapy was virtually nonexistent. The older ESRD patients with multimorbidity experienced frequent hospitalizations. Our preliminary review suggests that their quality of life may have been better with NDT. Almost one half of our ESRD population was made up of people more than 70 years of age, most with multimorbidity. In our practice, NDT is a neglected paradigm, as it is in most U.S. nephrology practices. The place of NDT, actively provided by a specialized multidisciplinary team, for U.S. ESRD patients demands urgent attention and robust reappraisal by U.S. nephrologists.

  13. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5): procedural validity of substance use disorders modules through clinical re-appraisal in a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Greenstein, Eliana; Aivadyan, Christina; Stohl, Malka; Aharonovich, Efrat; Saha, Tulshi; Goldstein, Rise; Nunes, Edward V.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the procedural validity of the substance disorder modules of the lay-administered Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Version (AUDADIS-5) through clinician re-appraisal re-interviews. Methods The study employed a test-retest design among 712 respondents from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). A clinician-administered, semi-structured interview, the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders, DSM-5 version (PRISM-5) was used as the re-appraisal. Kappa coeffients indicated concordance of the AUDADIS-5 and PRISM-5 for DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses, while intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated concordance on dimensional scales indicating the DSM-5 criteria count for each disorder. Results With few exceptions, concordance of the AUDADIS-5 and the PRISM-5 for DSM-5 diagnoses of substance use disorders ranged from fair to good (κ=0.40–0.72). Concordance on dimensional scales was excellent (ICC≥0.75) for the majority of DSM-5 SUD diagnoses, and fair to good (ICC=0.43–0.72) for most of the rest. Conclusions As indicated by concordance with a semi-structured clinician-administered re-appraisal, the procedural validity of the AUDADIS-5 DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses found in this study indicates that these AUDADIS-5 diagnoses are useful tools in epidemiologic studies. The considerably stronger concordance of the AUDADIS-5 and PRISM-5 dimensional DSM-5 SUD measures supports a current movement to place more emphasis on dimensional measures of psychopathology, and suggests that such measures may be more informative than binary diagnoses for research, and possibly for clinical purposes as well. PMID:25604321

  14. Regulating positive and negative emotions in daily life.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The present study examined how people regulate their emotions in daily life and how such regulation is related to their daily affective experience and psychological adjustment. Each day for an average of 3 weeks, participants described how they had regulated their emotions in terms of the reappraisal and suppression (inhibiting the expression) of positive and negative emotions, and they described their emotional experience, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment in terms of Beck's triadic model of depression. Reappraisal was used more often than suppression, and suppressing positive emotions was used less than the other three strategies. In general, regulation through reappraisal was found to be beneficial, whereas regulation by suppression was not. Reappraisal of positive emotions was associated with increases in positive affect, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, whereas suppressing positive emotions was associated with decreased positive emotion, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, and increased negative emotions. Moreover, relationships between reappraisal and psychological adjustment and self-esteem were mediated by experienced positive affect, whereas relationships between suppression of positive emotions and self-esteem adjustment were mediated by negative affect.

  15. The Late Positive Potential Predicts Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in School-Aged Children Concurrently and Two Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Babkirk, Sarah; Rios, Victor; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to use cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal may be a core component of emotional competence across development, but due to methodological challenges in measuring such strategies, they are rarely studied in young children. One neurophysiological measure, the late positive potential (LPP) has been examined in response to reappraisal as a potential neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in adults. The association between the LPP and emotion regulatory capacity in children is unknown. The present study examined whether the LPP during reappraisal could predict greater observed adaptive emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children over a two-year period. Thirty-two five- to seven- year- olds participated in two identical lab visits spaced two years apart. EEG was continuously recorded during a computerized reappraisal task in which children viewed unpleasant images paired with either reappraisal or negative stories. Next they completed a disappointing and a frustrating task during which emotion regulation strategies was observed. As predicted, children who showed reappraisal-induced reductions in the LPP at the first assessment used significantly more adaptive ER strategies concurrently and two years later. These findings provide observation-based evidence that the LPP may be a viable neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in children. PMID:25438825

  16. A Reappraisal of the Minimum Duration of Antibiotic Treatment Before Approval of Return to School for Children With Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard H; Kim, Danica; Martin, Michael; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether a single dose of amoxicillin administered to a symptomatic child with confirmed strep throat might allow the child to return to school as little as 12 hours later. We enrolled 111 evaluable children with sore throat plus a positive streptococcal rapid antigen detection test (RADT) as well as a positive result for group A Streptococci (GAS). After throat swab specimens were obtained, all participants received a single dose of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg). Twelve to 23 hours after the first dose of amoxicillin, all participants returned in the morning of day 2 for a second throat swab specimen. At the day 2 visit, a nurse or medical assistant obtained an interval history, tympanic membrane temperature, and a pediatrician or nurse practitioner examined the oropharynx. On the morning of day 2, only 10 of 111 participants continued to have a positive RADT result, confirmed by overnight throat culture. GAS were not detectable on the day 2 throat specimen by RADT and also by culture in 91% of the study participants (confidence interval: 86-96%). Seven of 10 failures had a marked decrease in number of β-hemolytic colonies, which were 3+ to 4+ on the initial overnight culture plate and decreased to 1+ on the follow-up (obtained on day 2) throat culture plate. Two participants continued to have 3+ or 4+ GAS after incubation of the second throat culture specimen. Even in the late afternoon, a full dose of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg) administered after notification of positive RADT results for GAS resulted in nondetection of GAS in 91% of children the next morning. All children treated with amoxicillin for "strep throat" by 5 PM of day 1 may, if afebrile and improved, attend school on day 2.

  17. Defining the epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene phenotypic signature in myoclonus-dystonia: a reappraisal of genetic testing criteria.

    PubMed

    Carecchio, Miryam; Magliozzi, Monia; Copetti, Massimiliano; Ferraris, Alessandro; Bernardini, Laura; Bonetti, Monica; Defazio, Giovanni; Edwards, Mark J; Torrente, Isabella; Pellegrini, Fabio; Comi, Cristoforo; Bhatia, Kailash P; Valente, Enza Maria

    2013-06-01

    Mutations or exon deletions of the epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene cause myoclonus-dystonia (M-D), but a subset of M-D patients are mutation-negative and the sensitivity and specificity of current genetic testing criteria are unknown. We screened 46 newly enrolled M-D patients for SGCE mutations and deletions; moreover, 24 subjects previously testing negative for SGCE mutations underwent gene dosage analysis. In our combined cohorts, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and area under the curve of 2 published sets of M-D diagnostic criteria. A stepwise logistic regression was used to assess which patients' characteristics best discriminated mutation carriers and to calculate a new mutation predictive score ("new score"), which we validated in previously published cohorts. Nine of 46 (19.5%) patients of the new cohort carried SCGE mutations, including 5 novel point mutations and 1 whole-gene deletion; in the old cohort, 1 patient with a complex phenotype carried a 5.9-Mb deletion encompassing SGCE. Current diagnostic criteria had a poor ability to discriminate SGCE-positive from SGCE-negative patients in our cohort; conversely, age of onset, especially if associated with psychiatric features (as included in the new score), showed the best discriminatory power to individuate SGCE mutation carriers, both in our cohort and in the validation cohort. Our results suggest that young age at onset of motor symptoms, especially in association with psychiatric disturbance, are strongly predictive for SGCE positivity. We suggest performing gene dosage analysis by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to individuate large SGCE deletions that can be responsible for complex phenotypes.

  18. The Ban Don Mun artifacts: a chronological reappraisal of human occupations in the Lampang province of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Valery; Forestier, Hubert; Rasse, Michel; Auetrakulvit, Prasit; Kim, Jeongmin; Tiamtinkrit, Chaturaporn

    2013-07-01

    Despite recent stone tool evidence demonstrating a much older Early Pleistocene human presence in India, the timing and geography of human demographic expansions in continental Southeast Asia remains ambiguous. The recent discovery of a series of stone artifacts spread over a basalt level at Ban Don Mun in the Lampang province of northern Thailand presents an ideal opportunity for reevaluating lithic assemblages documented during the 1970s and 1980s in the same region. Both the position of these stone tools and new absolute dates indicate a Middle Pleistocene age and call into question the status of these artifacts as the oldest yet found in Southeast Asia. The uncertain geo-chronological context and technological analysis of the chopper industry from previous work in the Lampang area prompted us to undertake new surveys in continental Southeast Asia in order to help clarify the route and timing of Pleistocene human expansions in this part of the world.

  19. A further investigation and reappraisal of the thio effect in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinari, Koichi; Taira, Kazunari

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized three types of 11mer substrate, namely the natural substrate S11O and the thiosubstituted substrates S11SpS and S11RpS, in which the respective pro-Sp and pro-Rp oxygen atoms were replaced by sulfur, and subjected them to detailed kinetic analysis in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme. In agreement with previous findings, in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+ ions the rate of ribozyme-catalyzed cleavage of S11SpS was as high as that of S11O, whereas the corresponding rate for S11RpS was nearly four orders of magnitude lower than that for either S11O or S11SpS. However, the rate of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction with each of the three substrates was enhanced by Cd2+ ions. Such results have generally been taken as evidence that supports the direct interaction of the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the cleavage site with the added Cd2+ ion. However, our present analysis demonstrates that (i) the added Cd2+ ion binds at the P9 site; (ii) the bound Cd2+ ion at the P9 site replaces two Mg2+ or two Ca2+ ions, an observation that suggests a different mode of interaction with the added Cd2+ ion; and, most importantly and in contrast to the conclusion reached by other investigators, (iii) the Cd2+ ion does not interact with the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the scissile phosphate either in the ground state or in the transition state. PMID:10734192

  20. Reappraisal of bovril as a source of arginine in the arginine stimulation test for growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Loh, H H; Norlela, S; Nor Azmi, K

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this case study is to report the use of oral Bovril (a food supplement which contains arginine) as an alternative test for growth hormone stimulation test. We performed oral Bovril test in 3 patients -- one with suspected growth hormone deficiency in whom insulin tolerance test could not be performed (subject A), one sex-matched control (subject B), and one with confirmed growth hormone deficiency (subject C). 14g/m(2) of oral Bovril was mixed with 150ml of warm water and was given to all three subjects. Blood for growth hormone was taken at baseline, and every 30 minutes till 150 minutes after ingestion of oral Bovril. The ingestion of oral Bovril showed a positive response in subjects A and B, with highest growth hormone levels of 28.4mIU/L and 42.0mIU/L respectively at 150 minutes. Subject C had suppressed growth hormone throughout the test. Oral Bovril is readily available and is a safe alternative for standard growth hormone stimulation test.

  1. Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetism of the Miocene intramontane Pag and Drniš-Sinj basins, External Dinarides (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emő; Pavelić, Davor; Vranjković, Alan; Ćosović, Vlasta

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents palaeomagnetic results from the Miocene offshore Pag and the twin onshore (Drniš-Sinj) basins. Earlier magnetostratigraphic results were published from both basins, which documented that the lake sediments were good targets for palaeomagnetism. From the Pag basin, we sampled the oldest and youngest segments of the 1200 m long Crnika section and obtained statistically different palaeomagnetic directions from the two parts. During a repeated visit to the section it was revealed that modern gravity-driven creeping can account for this, i.e. the results from the Pag basin should be rejected from regional tectonic interpretation. The overall-mean palaeomagnetic direction for the Drniš-Sinj basin has excellent statistical parameters, its high quality is further supported by positive regional fold/tilt and reversal tests, based on seven geographically distributed localities. The results suggests 13-20° CCW rotation with respect to Africa and 21-27° with respect to stable Europe, during the last 15 million years. As the External Dinarides are the loci of a complicated network of Miocene and even younger tectonic zones, we cannot export the observed rotation for the whole unit, but consider our results as one step in obtaining robust kinematic constraints for the post-Oligocene tectonic history of the External Dinarides.

  2. Phylogenetic reappraisal of Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae) and related taxa, with a proposal of two new sections.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Qing; Yang, Jing-Tian; Zhou, Chun-Jing; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2014-03-01

    The phylogeny of subgenus Cyathophora and representatives of its closely related taxa within Allium were reconstructed based on nrDNA ITS and two plastid fragments (trnL-F and rpl32-trnL). The constructed phylogenies indicated that subgenus Cyathophora was not monophyletic and to be split in three parts positioned in different clusters. Allium kingdonii was unequivocally placed within subgenus Amerallium and formed an immediate sister relationship with New World Amerallium clade, suggesting an unexpected intercontinental disjunct distribution. For another, Allium trifurcatum was firmly nested within subgenus Butomissa next to A. tuberosum and A. ramosum, but it is distinctly different morphologically from the latter by thinly leathery bulb tunics, uniovulate locule and obviously 3-cleft stigma. Based on the geographic features, morphological and molecular evidences, two new sections, Kingdonia X.J.He et D.Q.Huang for A. kingdonii and Trifurcatum X.J.He et D.Q.Huang for A. trifurcatum, were proposed. The remaining three species of subgenus Cyathophora formed a well-defined clade, and the phylogenetic relationships among them recovered were consistent with previous findings. In addition, A. weschniakowii and A. subtilissimum were proven to be a member of subgenera Rhizirideum sensu stricto (s. str.) and Cepa, respectively, rather than subgenera Cepa and Polyprason previously proposed. Section Rhizomatosa represented by A. caespitosum should be subsumed within section Caespitosoprason of subgenus Rhizirideum s. str.

  3. PET and PET/CT with radiolabeled choline in prostate cancer: a critical reappraisal of 20 years of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Leoncini, Rossella; Riondato, Mattia; Ciarmiello, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    We here aim to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the literature concerning the clinical applications of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). We will initially briefly summarize the historical context that brought to the synthesis of [(11)C]choline, which occurred exactly 20 years ago. We have arbitrarily grouped the clinical studies in three different periods, according to the year in which they were published and according to their relation with their applications in urology, radiotherapy and oncology. Studies at initial staging and, more extensively, studies in patients with biochemical failure, as well as factors predicting positive PET/CT will be reviewed. The capability of PET/CT with radiolabeled choline to provide prognostic information on PCa-specific survival will also be examined. The last sections will be devoted to the use of radiolabeled choline for monitoring the response to androgen deprivation therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The accuracy and the limits of the technique will be discussed according to the information available from standard validation processes, including biopsy or histology. The clinical impact of the technique will be discussed on the basis of changes induced in the management of patients and in the evaluation of the response to therapy. Current indications to PET/CT, as officially endorsed by guidelines, or as routinely performed in the clinical practice will be illustrated. Emphasis will be made on methodological factors that might have influenced the results of the studies or their interpretation. Finally, we will briefly highlight the potential role of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance and of new radiotracers for PCa imaging.

  4. Blood Lactate Levels Cutoff and Mortality Prediction in Sepsis—Time for a Reappraisal? a Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Roberto Rabello; Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Colombo, Giancarlo; Assuncao, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the initial value of blood lactate that best correlates with 28-day mortality in resuscitated septic shock patients. This was a retrospective cohort study including 443 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with severe sepsis or septic shock from the emergency department. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to obtain the best cutoff value for initial blood lactate associated with 28-day mortality. Patients were then dichotomized according to the chosen lactate cutoff, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Baseline blood lactate level more than 2.5 mmol/L showed the largest area under the ROC curve to predict 28-day mortality (ROC area, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62–0.79), with sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of 67.4%, 61.7%, and 94.2%, respectively. Mortality at 28 days was 16.9% (31/183) in patients with initial lactate more than 2.5 mmol/L and 5.8% (15/260) in patients with initial lactate at most 2.5 mmol/L (relative risk, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.63–5.28; P < 0.001). Initial blood lactate levels more than 2.5 mmol/L (hazard ratio [HR], 2.86; 95% CI, 1.53–5.33; P = 0.001) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09–1.27; P < 0.001) were associated with increased 28-day mortality in the adjusted Cox regression. In this retrospective cohort study, a lactate level more than 2.5 mmol/L was the best threshold to predict 28-day mortality among severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Further prospective studies should address the impact on morbidity and mortality of this threshold as a trigger to resuscitation in this population of critically ill patients. PMID:27380535

  5. Vascular Thalamic Amnesia: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided…

  6. Vascular Thalamic Amnesia: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided…

  7. Reappraisal of solid selective emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    New rare earth oxide emitters show greater efficiency than previous emitters. As a result, based on a simple model the efficiency of these emitters was calculated. Results indicate that the emission band of the selective emitter must be at relatively low energy (less than or equal to .52 eV) to obtain maximum efficiency at moderate emitter temperatures (less than or equal to 1500 K). Thus low bandgap energy PV materials are required to obtain an efficient thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. Of the 4 specific rare earths (Nd, Ho, Er, Yb) studied Ho has the largest efficiency at moderate temperatures (72 percent at 1500 K). A comparison was made between a selective emitter TPV system and a TPV system that uses a thermal emitter plus a band pass filter to make the thermal emitter behave like a selective emitter. Results of the comparison indicate that only for very optimistic filter and thermal emitter properties will the filter TPV system have a greater efficiency than the selective emitter system.

  8. Sudden cardiac death: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Christian; Laksman, Zachary W M; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is still among the leading causes of death in women and men, accounting for over 50% of all fatal cardiovascular events in the United States. Two arrhythmia mechanisms of SCD can be distinguished as follows: shockable rhythms (ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia) and non-shockable rhythms including asystole or pulseless electrical activity. The overall prognosis of cardiac arrest due to shockable rhythms is significantly better. While the majority of SCDs is attributed to coronary artery disease or other structural heart disease, no obvious cause can be identified in 5% of all events, and those events are labeled as sudden unexplained deaths (SUD). Those unexplained events are typically caused by rare hereditary electrical disorders or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. A systematic approach to the diagnosis of cardiac arrest followed by tailored therapy based on etiology has emerged in the last 10-15 years, with significant changes of medical practice and risk management of cardiac arrest victims. The aim of this review is to summarize our contemporary understanding of SCD/SUD in adults and to discuss current concepts of management and secondary prevention in cardiac arrest victims. A full discussion of the topic of primary prevention of SCD is beyond the scope of this article.

  9. What is 'manipulation'? A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Lucas, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Due primarily to its colloquial function, 'manipulation' is a poor term for distinguishing one healthcare intervention from another. With reports continuing to associate serious adverse events with manipulation, particularly relating to its use in the cervical spine, it is essential that the term be used appropriately and in accordance with a valid definition. The purpose of this paper is to identify empirically-derived features that we propose to be necessary and collectively sufficient for the formation of a valid definition for manipulation. A final definition is not offered. However, arguments for and against the inclusion of features are presented. Importantly, these features are explicitly divided into two categories: the 'action' (that which the practitioner does to the recipient) and the 'mechanical response' (that which occurs within the recipient). The proposed features are: 1) A force is applied to the recipient; 2) The line of action of this force is perpendicular to the articular surface of the affected joint; 3) The applied force creates motion at a joint; 4) This joint motion includes articular surface separation; 5) Cavitation occurs within the affected joint.

  10. Sir Busick Harwood: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Sir Busick Harwood was Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge from 1785 to 1814 and simultaneously Downing Professor of Medicine from 1800 to 1814. Some historical accounts suggest that he was not highly regarded either as a scientist or a teacher, and this note attempts to restore his academic reputation and show how his achievements helped to initiate improvements in medical education at that time. PMID:6358728

  11. Brief report: Attention to positive information mediates the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal. Findings of this study may inform the design of intervention research by highlighting the importance of hopeful thinking style and attention to positive information in mental health of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  13. Against All Odds: Positive Life Experiences of People with Advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; McNicoll, Paule

    1998-01-01

    Describes the nature of positive life experiences of 13 people coping exceptionally well while living with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's, disease and the resulting significant physical disabilities. Emerging themes were the use of cognitive reappraisal, reframing, and intellectual stimulation as coping mechanisms;…

  14. Against All Odds: Positive Life Experiences of People with Advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; McNicoll, Paule

    1998-01-01

    Describes the nature of positive life experiences of 13 people coping exceptionally well while living with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's, disease and the resulting significant physical disabilities. Emerging themes were the use of cognitive reappraisal, reframing, and intellectual stimulation as coping mechanisms;…

  15. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect.

  16. Reappraisal of Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) in the management of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A retrospective analysis from a reference center in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro Javier; Almazan, Maria Cristina; Quipildor, Marcelo; Juarez, Marisa; Gil, Jose Fernando; Espinosa, Marco; Canabire, Maria; Cajal, Silvana Pamela

    2017-10-05

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently implicated with cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas; its diagnosis is based on the identification of amastigotes in lesions, which is limited by low parasite burden. Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) is a support tool for diagnosis, based on delayed type hypersensitivity responses to Leishmania antigens injected intradermally, used in endemic areas as a complement to diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of individuals evaluated for their first episode of tegumentary leishmaniasis at a reference center in Argentina during the period 2006-2015 was performed, with the goal of assessing its usefulness as a support tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Demographic, clinical and diagnostic work-up were analyzed in individuals with clinically compatible lesions, lesion`s smear and LST. A total of 733 cases that met the case definition were included in the analysis; 678 (93%) localized cutaneous cases, 50 (7%) with mucosal involvement and 5 (<1%) disseminated. Diagnostic confirmation was reached in 474 (65%) cases through positive smears from skin or mucosal lesions, with only 6 cases among this group having negative LST. Among smear negative cases, 190 were negative also by LST, but in 69 instances LST was positive. Across age groups, similar ratios of sensitivity between smear and LST were calculated. Lesions older than 21 days-old were found to correlate with positive results both for smear and LST significantly more than younger lesions. These findings support the clinical use of LST as a diagnostic complement for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis across all age groups even in endemic areas. In this analysis, the correlation with smear was high. Standardization of this technique and further research into its most adequate preparation and utilization protocols across different sites will help in the management of suspicious clinical cases.

  17. Current state of HIV/AIDS in Taiwan and reappraisal of early diagnostic value of serial and comparative analyses of western blot patterns of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao-Yuan; Chuang, Che-Yen

    2002-02-01

    Since Taiwan is not a member of the World Health Organization (WHO), the problems of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Taiwan are not well known to the world. In this report we summarize the trend and current status of HIV/AIDS in Taiwan and also analyze Western blot (WB) patterns. The application of serial and comparative WB analyses is important in establishing an early diagnosis of neonatal HIV infection. These analyses will be useful as well in evaluating the clinical status of adults infected with HIV in developing countries. When there are "indeterminate" WBs in adults with recent HIV infection, it is imperative to perform a WB weekly to attain the earliest possible diagnosis and treatment. Usually anti-gag antibodies, most frequently the anti-p24, are followed by anti-env and anti-pol antibodies. When the set point is attained, WB studies may also be repeated if the clinical status changes or if the patients are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the advanced stages of HIV infection, usually the anti-gag antibodies will fade first and then disappear, this occurs next in the anti-pol and in the anti-env antibodies. During HAART, viral replication is usually controlled and there will thus be a partial restoration of the immunological function that will induce changes in the antigen-antibody ratio and, in the end, this will result in changes in the WB patterns. In the mid 1980s all the hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) used in Taiwan was anti-HIV positive. However, follow-up ELISA and WB studies of the HBIG injected newborns proved that HBIG was anti-HIV positive but that there was no replicable HIV in HBIG. Monthly WB tests of newborns and anti-HIV positive mothers were used to differentiate HIV infection from the passive placental transference by comparing their WB patterns. Comparative WB analyses was also done between blood donors and recipients, and also between husbands and wives

  18. Reappraisal of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: novel morphologic observations of the hyaline cartilage and endochondral ossification and beta-catenin, Sox9, and osteocalcin immunostaining of 22 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanburg-Smith, Julie C; Auerbach, Aaron; Marwaha, Jayson S; Wang, Zengfeng; Rushing, Elisabeth J

    2010-05-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a rare malignant round cell and hyaline cartilage tumor, is most commonly intraosseous but can occur in extraskeletal sites. We intensively observed the morphology and applied Sox9 (master regulator of chondrogenesis), beta-catenin (involved in bone formation, thought to inhibit chondrogenesis in a Sox9-dependent manner), and osteocalcin (a marker for osteoblastic phenotype) to 22 central nervous system and musculoskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma were retrieved and reviewed from our files. Immunohistochemistry and follow-up were obtained on mesenchymal chondrosarcoma and tumor controls. Twenty-two mesenchymal chondrosarcomas included 5 central nervous system (all female; mean age, 30.2; mean size, 7.8 cm; in frontal lobe [n = 4] and spinal cord [n = 1]) and 17 musculoskeletal (female-male ratio, 11:6; mean age, 31.1; mean size, 6.2 cm; 3 each of humerus and vertebrae; 2 each of pelvis, rib, tibia, neck soft tissue; one each of femur, unspecified bone, and elbow soft tissue). The hyaline cartilage in most tumors revealed a consistent linear progression of chondrocyte morphology, from resting to proliferating to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Sixty-seven percent of cases demonstrated cell death and acquired osteoblastic phenotype, cells positive for osteocalcin at the site of endochondral ossification. Small round cells of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma were negative for osteocalcin. SOX9 was positive in both components of 21 of 22 cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. beta-Catenin highlighted rare nuclei at the interface between round cells and hyaline cartilage in 35% cases. Control skull and central nervous system cases were compared, including chondrosarcomas and small cell osteosarcoma, the latter positive for osteocalcin in small cells. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma demonstrates centrally located hyaline cartilage with a linear progression of chondrocytes from resting to proliferative to hypertrophic

  19. Primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphomas: reappraisal of a provisional entity in the 2016 WHO classification of cutaneous lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Joan; Martinez-Escala, M Estela; Subtil, Antonio; Duvic, Madeleine; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Olsen, Elise A; Kim, Ellen; Rook, Alain H; Samimi, Sara S; Wood, Gary S; Girardi, Michael; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline; Ivan, Doina S; Selim, M Angelica; Sable, Kimberly A; Virmani, Pooja; Pincus, Laura B; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Kim, Jinah; Kim, Youn H

    2017-05-01

    Primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic T-cell lymphoma is a rare and poorly characterized variant of cutaneous lymphoma still considered a provisional entity in the latest 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Cutaneous lymphomas. We sought to better characterize and provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance of this rare cutaneous lymphoma. Thirty-four patients with a median age of 77 years (range 19-89 years) presented primarily with extensive annular necrotic plaques or tumor lesions with frequent mucous membrane involvement. The 5-year survival was 32% with a median survival of 12 months. A subset of 17 patients had a prodrome of chronic patches prior to the development of aggressive ulcerative lesions. We identified cases with lack of CD8 or αβ T-cell receptor expression yet with similar clinical and pathological presentation. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation provided partial or complete remissions in 5/6 patients. We recommend the term primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma as this more broad designation better describes this clinical-pathologic presentation, which allows the inclusion of cases with CD8 negative and/or αβ/γδ T-cell receptor chain double-positive or double-negative expression. We have identified early skin signs of chronic patch/plaque lesions that are often misdiagnosed as eczema, psoriasis, or mycosis fungoides. Our experience confirms the poor prognosis of this entity and highlights the inefficacy of our standard therapies with the exception of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in selected cases.

  20. Lung cancer risk of low-level exposures to alpha emitters: critical reappraisal and experiments based on a new cytodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1999-02-20

    Ecologic U.S. county data suggest negative associations between residential radon exposure and lung cancer mortality (LCM)-inconsistent with clearly positive associations revealed by occupational data on individual miners, but perhaps explained by competing effects of cell killing vs. mutations in alpha-exposed bronchial epithelium. To assess the latter possibility, a biologically based "cytodynamic 2-stage" (CD2) cancer-risk model was fit to combined 1950-54 age- specific person-year data on lung cancer mortality (LCM) in white females of age 40+ y in 2,821 U.S. counties (-90% never-smokers), and in 5 cohorts of underground miners who never smoked. New estimates of household annual average radon exposure in U.S. counties were used, which were found to have a significant negative ecologic association with 1950-54 LCM in U.S. white females, adjusted for age and all subsets of two among 21 socioeconomic, climatic and other factors considered. A good CD2 fit was obtained to the combined residential/miner data, using biologically plausible parameter values. Without further optimization, the fit also predicted independent inverse dose-rate effects shown (for the first time) to occur in nonsmoking miners. Using the same U.S. county-level LCM data, a separate study revealed a positive ecologic association between LCM and bituminous coal use in the U.S., in agreement with epidemiological data on LCM in women in China. The modeling results obtained are consistent with the CD2-based hypothesis that residential radon exposure has a nonlinear U-shaped relation to LCM risk, and that current linear no-threshold extrapolation models substantially overestimate such risk. A U-shaped dose-response corresponds to a CD2-model prediction that alpha radiation kills more premalignant cells than it generates at low exposure levels, but not at higher levels. To test this hypothesis, groups of Japanese medaka (ricefish minnows) were exposed for 10 to 14 weeks to different concentrations of

  1. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene ‘Miacis’ from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis. Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon, respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus, and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation. PMID:27853569

  2. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene `Miacis' from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2016-10-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis. Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon, respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus, and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation.

  3. A reappraisal of the role of Gram's stains of tracheal aspirates in guiding antibiotic selection in the surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Namias, N; Harvill, S; Ball, S; McKenney, M G; Sleeman, D; Ladha, A; Civetta, J

    1998-01-01

    Tracheal aspirate Gram's stains are used to guide antibiotic selection in empiric pneumonia treatment in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). We questioned whether Gram's stains predict the organism cultured. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Gram's stains correlated with the cultured organism in 284 of 543 (52%) SICU cultures and in 226 of 403 (56%) trauma intensive care unit (TICU) cultures. Gram-negative rod (GNR) stains yielded GNR organisms in 182 of 205 (89%) SICU cultures and in 160 of 176 (91%) TICU cultures. Gram-positive coccus (GPC) stains yielded GPC organisms in 75 of 228 (33%) SICU cultures and in 52 of 149 (35%) TICU cultures. Noncorrelates in the GPC group were predominantly GNRs (185 of 250 (74%)). When the clinical decision has been made that empiric antibiotic coverage is necessary, GNR coverage should be instituted regardless of Gram's stain result. The decision to institute GPC coverage needs to be supported by clinical data other than the Gram's stain.

  4. Reappraisal of the extinct seal “Phoca” vitulinoides from the Neogene of the North Sea Basin, with bearing on its geological age, phylogenetic affinities, and locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Louwye, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, “Phoca” vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of “Phoca” vitulinoides is lost. Methods “Phoca” vitulinoides is redescribed. Its phylogenetic position among Phocinae is assessed through phylogenetic analysis. Dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy is used to determine and reassess the geological age of the species. Myological descriptions of extant taxa are used to infer muscle attachments, and basic comparative anatomy of the gross morphology and biomechanics are applied to reconstruct locomotion. Results Detailed redescription of “Phoca” vitulinoides indicates relatively little affinities with the genus Phoca, but rather asks for the establishment of a new genus: Nanophoca gen. nov. Hence, “Phoca” vitulinoides is recombined into Nanophoca vitulinoides. This reassignment is confirmed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouping the genus Nanophoca and other extinct phocine taxa as stem phocines. Biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy expand the known stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides from the late Langhian to the late Serravallian. The osteological anatomy of N. vitulinoides indicates a relatively strong development of muscles used for fore flipper propulsion and increased flexibility for the hind flipper. Discussion The extended stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides into the middle Miocene confirms relatively early diversification of Phocinae in the North Atlantic. Morphological features on the fore- and hindlimb of the species point toward an increased use of the fore flipper and greater flexibility of the hind flipper as compared to extant Phocinae, clearly

  5. Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis of 16 cases with a reappraisal of clear cell sarcoma-like tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Stockman, David L; Miettinen, Markku; Suster, Saul; Spagnolo, Dominic; Dominguez-Malagon, Hugo; Hornick, Jason L; Adsay, Volkan; Chou, Pauline M; Amanuel, Benhur; Vantuinen, Peter; Zambrano, Eduardo V

    2012-06-01

    The clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, ultrastructural, and molecular features of a distinctive gastrointestinal tumor are described. Sixteen patients, 8 women and 8 men aged 17 to 77 years (mean age, 42 y; 63% less than 40 y) presented with abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and an abdominal mass. Mean tumor size was 5.2 cm (range, 2.4 to 15.0 cm). The tumors arose in the small bowel (10), stomach (4), and colon (2) and were histologically characterized by a sheet-like or nested population of epithelioid or oval-to-spindle cells with small nucleoli and scattered mitoses. Five cases showed focal clearing of the cytoplasm. Scattered osteoclast-type multinucleated giant cells were present in 8 cases. The tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, SOX10, and vimentin in 100% of cases, for CD56 in 70%, for synaptophysin in 56%, for NB84 in 50%, for NSE in 45%, and for neurofilament protein in 14% of cases. All cases tested were negative for specific melanocytic, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, epithelial, and myoid markers. Ultrastructural examination of 5 cases showed features of primitive neuroectodermal cells with clear secretory vesicles, dense-core granules, occasional gap junctions, and no evidence of melanogenesis. EWSR1 gene rearrangement was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 14 cases. Twelve cases (86%) showed split EWSR1 signal consistent with a chromosomal translocation involving EWSR1. One case showed extra intact signals, indicating that the nuclei possessed either extra copies of the EWSR1 gene or chromosome 22 polysomy. Only 1 case showed no involvement of the EWSR1 gene. Six cases demonstrated rearrangement of the partner fusion gene ATF1 (46%), and 3 showed rearrangement of CREB1 (23%); 2 cases lacked rearrangement of either partner gene. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients and ranged from 1.5 to 106 months. Six patients died of their tumors (mean survival, 32 mo; 83% less than 24 mo). At last follow-up, 4

  6. In the footsteps of Darwin at Santiago (Cape Verde Island): new insights from a field reappraisal of the (white sedimentary layer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertocchini, Federico; Chiesura, Guido; Bini, Monica; Cascella, Antonio; Ribolini, Adriano; Patacca, Etta; Casacchia, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    -rich deposits, characterized by the abundance of Oyster colony and Turritella, from a white limestone/sandstone layer that commonly shows at its base accumulation of rodholits (the "Nulliporae" of Darwin). This obviously implies that a significant chronological hiatus is recorded in the section. As a whole the white limestone/sandstone layer is organized in a fining and deepening upward sequence that is abruptly truncated by a subaerial basalt unit in the Eastern side of the Praia Harbour and by a subaqueous pillows lava unit to the West. In addition the limestone/sandstone layer outcrops patchily at different quotes, from more than 30 m above sea level down to plunge below the sea. Ours study highlights how the white sedimentary layer, that so much aroused the curiosity of Darwin, records more than one depositional event. At least the position of four palaeoshores can be identified, evidencing how the island undergone to several phases of relative sea-level variations driven by eustatic and/ or tectonic factors.

  7. Haemophilus ducreyi infections--time for reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    McEntegart, M. G.; Hafiz, S.; Kinghorn, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    As the literature on Haemophilus ducreyi and clinical chancroid is reviewed, it becomes obvious that many significant findings have been forgotten over the years. As a result, from the time of Ducrey's original description of the organism in 1890 until about 1977, both clinical and laboratory experts in the United Kingdom believed that H. ducreyi infections were rare, generally acquired abroad, and almost impossible to confirm in the routine laboratory! In consequence it was a common view that it was not worth looking for H. ducreyi until all other possible causes of genital ulceration had been excluded. Moreover, the search for such an infection stopped as soon as any other cause for the patient's lesions had been found. A decision to ignore this 'rule' in Sheffield led to our looking for H. ducreyi in specimens from an unselected series of patients with genital ulceration including a number with herpes genitalis infections. The surprise finding of H. ducreyi in circumstances suggesting that it was a secondary invader made us re-examine the whole question of H. ducreyi infections and chancroid and wonder if the same organism can act as a primary pathogen and as a secondary invader. An account of the media and methods we used and of the characteristics of the organism is presented. In an attempt to find out more about the characteristic coherent colonies of H. ducreyi we studied them with the scanning electron microscope. It is clear that the whole subject of H. ducreyi infections has been neglected in the United Kingdom, but we believe that interest has now been aroused and progress will surely follow. Some areas for further investigation are suggested. Images Plate 1 PMID:7153512

  8. Altitude exposures during commercial flight: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B; Kregenow, David A; Mahoney, Anne M; Kirtland, Steven H; Horan, Kathleen L; Holm, James R; Gerbino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia during commercial air travel has the potential to cause or worsen hypoxemia in individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary compromise. Knowledge of cabin altitude pressures aboard contemporary flights is essential to counseling patients accurately about flying safety. The objective of the study was to measure peak cabin altitudes during U.S. domestic commercial flights on a variety of aircraft. A handheld mountaineering altimeter was carried by the investigators in the plane cabin during commercial air travel and peak cabin altitude measured. The values were then compared between aircraft models, aircraft classes, and distances flown. The average peak cabin altitude on 207 flights aboard 17 different aircraft was 6341 +/- 1813 ft (1933 m +/- 553 m), significantly higher than when measured in a similar fashion in 1988. Peak cabin altitude was significantly higher for flights longer than 750 mi (7085 +/- 801 ft) compared to shorter flights (5160 +/- 2290 ft/1573 +/- 698 m). Cabin altitude increased linearly with flight distance for flights up to 750 mi in length, but was independent of flight distance for flights exceeding 750 mi. Peak cabin altitude was less than 5000 ft (1524 m) in 70% of flights shorter than 500 mi. Peak cabin altitudes greater than 8000 ft (2438 m) were measured on approximately 10% of the total flights. Peak cabin altitude on commercial aircraft flights has risen over time. Cabin altitude is lower with flights of shorter distance. Physicians should take these factors into account when determining an individual's need for supplemental oxygen during commercial air travel.

  9. Disclinations, dislocations, and continuous defects: A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleman, M.; Friedel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Disclinations were first observed in mesomorphic phases. They were later found relevant to a number of ill-ordered condensed-matter media involving continuous symmetries or frustrated order. Disclinations also appear in polycrystals at the edges of grain boundaries; but they are of limited interest in solid single crystals, where they can move only by diffusion climb and, owing to their large elastic stresses, mostly appear in close pairs of opposite signs. The relaxation mechanisms associated with a disclination in its creation, motion, and change of shape involve an interplay with continuous or quantized dislocations and/or continuous disclinations. These are attached to the disclinations or are akin to Nye’s dislocation densities, which are particularly well suited for consideration here. The notion of an extended Volterra process is introduced, which takes these relaxation processes into account and covers different situations where this interplay takes place. These concepts are illustrated by a variety of applications in amorphous solids, mesomorphic phases, and frustrated media in their curved habit space. These often involve disclination networks with specific node conditions. The powerful topological theory of line defects considers only defects stable against any change of boundary conditions or relaxation processes compatible with the structure considered. It can be seen as a simplified case of the approach considered here, particularly suited for media of high plasticity or/and complex structures. It cannot analyze the dynamical properties of defects nor the elastic constants involved in their static properties; topological stability cannot guarantee energetic stability, and sometimes cannot distinguish finer details of the structure of defects.

  10. A reappraisal of retrograde cerebral perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Brain protection during aortic arch surgery by perfusing cold oxygenated blood into the superior vena cava was first reported by Lemole et al. In 1990 Ueda and associates first described the routine use of continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in thoracic aortic surgery for the purpose of cerebral protection during the interval of obligatory interruption of anterograde cerebral flow. The beneficial effects of RCP may be its ability to sustain brain hypothermia during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and removal of embolic material from the arterial circulation of the brain. RCP can offer effective brain protection during HCA for about 40 to 60 minutes. Animal experiments revealed that RCP provided inadequate cerebral perfusion and that neurological recovery was improved with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP), however, both RCP and ACP provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding both the mortality and stroke rates by risk-adjusted and case-matched comparative study. RCP still remains a valuable adjunct for brain protection during aortic arch repair in particular pathologies and patients. PMID:23977600

  11. Recency effect in Alzheimer's disease: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, G A; Fadda, L; Sabbadini, M; Caltagirone, C

    1996-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that discrepant results regarding the recency effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are due to the different scoring procedures used by various authors and/or to the different number of terminal items attributed to the recency part of the curve. Our results indicate that the last two processed words are available to AD patients for recall, just as they are to controls. Words processed slightly earlier are less available to AD patients than to controls, presumably because of the accelerated forgetting rate in demented patients.

  12. Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken; Polly Tse

    2004-01-01

    Metadiscourse is self-reflective linguistic material referring to the evolving text and to the writer and imagined reader of that text. It is based on a view of writing as social engagement and in academic contexts reveals the ways that writers project themselves into their discourse to signal their attitude towards both the propositional content…

  13. Sandakan basin prospects rise following modern reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T. )

    1993-05-10

    Borneo is fringed by six large Neogene deltaic basins, all but one producing substantial hydrocarbons. The Sandakan basin off Northeast Borneo is the exception, but the latest exploration results suggest that it will not remain so. The paper describes its complex history; its exploration history; exploration results; stratigraphy; and geologic structures and traps. The Sandakan basin is conservatively estimated to contain 1 billion bbl of oil and 3tcf of gas.

  14. Activated charcoal for acute overdose: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Juurlink, David N

    2016-03-01

    Sometimes mistakenly characterized as a 'universal antidote,' activated charcoal (AC) is the most frequently employed method of gastrointestinal decontamination in the developed world. Typically administered as a single dose (SDAC), its tremendous surface area permits the binding of many drugs and toxins in the gastrointestinal lumen, reducing their systemic absorption. Like other decontamination procedures, the utility of SDAC attenuates with time, and, although generally safe, it is not free of risk. A large body of evidence demonstrates that SDAC can reduce the absorption of drugs and xenobiotics but most such studies involve volunteers and have little generalizability to clinical practice. Few rigorous clinical trials of SDAC have been conducted, and none validate or refute its utility in those patients who are intuitively most likely to benefit. Over the past decade, a growing body of observational data have demonstrated that SDAC can elicit substantial reductions in drug absorption in acutely poisoned patients. The challenge for clinicians rests in differentiating those patients most likely to benefit from SDAC from those in whom meaningful improvement is doubtful. This is often a difficult determination not well suited to an algorithmic approach. The present narrative review summarizes the data supporting the benefits and harms of SDAC, and offers pragmatic suggestions for clinical practice.

  15. Natal teeth: a case report and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Malki, Ghadah A; Al-Badawi, Emad A; Dahlan, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    The presence of teeth at birth (natal teeth) or within a month after delivery (neonatal teeth) is a rare condition. Natal and neonatal teeth are conditions of significant importance to pediatric dentists and pediatricians. This report discusses a case in which a five-day-old infant required extraction of a mobile mandibular natal tooth to avoid the risk of aspiration and interference with feeding. Also, a review of the literature was conducted to discuss the etiology, clinical features, complications, and management of natal and neonatal teeth.

  16. Natal Teeth: A Case Report and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Ghadah A.; Al-Badawi, Emad A.; Dahlan, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of teeth at birth (natal teeth) or within a month after delivery (neonatal teeth) is a rare condition. Natal and neonatal teeth are conditions of significant importance to pediatric dentists and pediatricians. This report discusses a case in which a five-day-old infant required extraction of a mobile mandibular natal tooth to avoid the risk of aspiration and interference with feeding. Also, a review of the literature was conducted to discuss the etiology, clinical features, complications, and management of natal and neonatal teeth. PMID:25722895

  17. Reappraisal of the significance of volcanic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    "Volcanic field" is a term commonly used to loosely describe a group of volcanoes. Often, it is implicitly assumed that the volcanoes on a volcanic field are small, monogenetic and dominantly basaltic, but none of those attributes is indispensable on some definitions of the term. Actually, the term "volcanic field" can be used to describe a group of purely monogenetic edifices, a group of mixed monogenetic and polygenetic edifices, or even a group formed only by purely polygenetic edifices. Differences between each of those alternatives might be important, but the extent to which those differences are truly relevant remains still to be explored. Furthermore, there are several limitations on the current knowledge of this type of volcanic activity that explain the lack of a comprehensive effort to study volcanic fields in global contexts. In this work, issues concerning current definitions of a volcanic field are examined, and some criteria that can be used to distinguish volcanic fields from non-field volcanoes are suggested. Special attention is given to the role played by spatial scale on such a distinction. Also, the tectonic implications of their spatial distribution are explored. In particular, it is shown that volcanic fields are an important component of volcanic activity at a global scale that is closely associated to diffuse plate boundaries, and might well be considered the archetypical volcanic form of such tectonic scenarios.

  18. Bacterial Morphologies Supporting Cometary Panspermia: a Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  19. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    PubMed Central

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  20. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo.

  1. A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy. PMID:21245602

  2. A reappraisal of mortality after epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Michael R; Barshow, Suzanne; Nei, Maromi; Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2016-05-24

    To assess whether epilepsy surgery is associated with a reduction in mortality rate and if postoperative seizure frequency and severity affect mortality. A total of 1,110 patients were evaluated (1,006 surgically and 104 nonsurgically treated) for a total follow-up of 8,126.62 person-years from 1986 to 2013. Deaths were ascertained through database and Social Security Death Index query. Patients were grouped by surgery type and seizure status; standardized mortality ratio and deaths per 1,000 person-years were calculated. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed. Eighty-nine deaths were observed. Surgically treated patients had a lower mortality rate (8.6 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.58-11.15]) than nonsurgically treated patients (25.3 per 1,000 person-years [14.50-41.17]; p < 0.001). Seizure-free patients had a lower mortality rate (5.2 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI 2.67-9.02]) than non-seizure-free patients (10.4 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI 7.67-13.89] p = 0.03). More frequent postoperative tonic-clonic seizures (>2 per year) were associated with increased mortality (p = 0.006) whereas complex partial seizure frequency was not related to death rate. Mortality was similar in temporal and extratemporal epilepsy patients (p = 0.7). Brain surgery is associated with a reduction in mortality rate in drug-resistant epilepsy, both when seizures are abolished and when it results in significant palliation of tonic-clonic seizure frequency. These observations provide further rationale for earlier consideration of epilepsy surgery. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Chlorambucil--still not bad: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Catovsky, Daniel; Else, Monica; Richards, Sue

    2011-06-01

    Although chlorambucil has been used in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) for 55 years, the optimal dose and treatment duration have not been established. We summarized data from 4 UK randomized CLL trials over the past 30 years in which chlorambucil, as a single agent, was one of the study arms. Overall response rates (ORR) ranged from 57% to 75% when using doses of 60-70 mg/m(2) per 28-day cycle. This compares favorably with an ORR of 31% to 55% in other studies that used lower doses. Response rates improved when patients received 6 or more courses. Studies that used chlorambucil as a comparator, at lower doses or with fewer courses, resulted in consistently lower ORR. Comparisons with single-agent fludarabine in 2 randomized trials (LRF CLL4 and German CLL5) showed similar progression-free survival. Chlorambucil compares favorably with fludarabine and bendamustine with respect to myelotoxicity, neutropenia, and fever, even at 70 mg/m(2) per cycle and in the elderly. Resistance to chlorambucil does not preclude a good response to newer treatments used as second-line treatment, which explains the good survival after progression observed in patients randomized to chlorambucil in LRF CLL4. Chlorambucil is currently being combined with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in several phase II and III trials. It remains a useful drug for patients unfit to receive more intensive combinations. However, both the dose and duration of treatment are important. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The argument from potential: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Reichlin, Massimo

    1997-01-01

    Several criticisms of the argument from potential are reported. It is noted that such criticisms are inspired by two similarly wrong interpretations of potentiality, one confusing it with possibility and another with probability. A brief analysis of the original Aristotelian context in which the concept emerged shows that potentiality cannot be thought of as indicating the provision of some empirical facts in the future, but must rather be referred to the inherent ontological structure of the being in question. It is then argued that such an Aristotelian concept can be useful to express the dynamic structure of the person, as it must be understood according to contemporary phenomenological personalism. In the light of this philosophical tradition, the embryo can be viewed as a being already possessing the human nature and actively developing its potential for personhood: it also follows that human nature must not be understood as a static and predetermined essence, but rather as the principle of becoming and movement toward further achievements.

  5. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  6. A Reappraisal of Moral Development Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Evelyn B.; Cameron, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    After describing the moral development "stage" theories of Piaget and, particularly, Kohlberg, the authors critique assertions that such stages are universal and sequential. Using findings from anthropology and other disciplines, they demonstrate that morality is culture-specific and that one person can simultaneously demonstrate…

  7. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906

  8. Jaw adductor muscles across lepidosaurs: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Daza, Juan Diego; Diogo, Rui; Johnston, Peter; Abdala, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The exact homologies of tetrapod jaw muscles remain unresolved, and this provides a barrier for phylogenetic analysis and tracing character evolution. Here, lepidosaur jaw muscles are surveyed using direct examination of species from 23 families and published descriptions of species from 10 families. A revised nomenclature is applied according to proposed homologies with Latimeria. Among lepidosaurs, variation was found in many aspects of jaw muscle anatomy. The superficial layers mm. levator and retractor anguli oris (LAO and RAO) are present in Sphenodon but not all squamates. The external jaw adductor muscles universally present in lepidosaurs are homologous with the main adductor muscle, A2, of Latimeria and include four layers: superficialis (A2-SUP), medialis (A2-M), profundus (A2-PRO), and posterior (A2-PVM). The A2-SUP appears divided in Agamidae, Gekkota, Xantusiidae, and Varanidae. The A2-M is layered lateromedial in lizards but anteroposterior in snakes. The names pseudotemporalis (PS) and pterygomandibularis (PTM) are recommended for subdivisions of the internal adductors of reptiles and amphibians, because the homology of this muscle with the A3' and A3 ″ of Latimeria remains inconclusive. The intramandibularis of lepidosaurs and Latimeria (A-ω) are homologous. The distribution of six jaw muscle characters was found to plot more parsimoniously on phylogenies based on morphological rather than and molecular data. Character mapping indicates that Squamata presents reduction in the divisions of the A2-M, Scincoidea presents reduction or loss of LAO, and two apomorphic features are found for the Gekkota.

  9. Reappraisal of Conventional Diagnosis for Dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Pihet, Marc; Le Govic, Yohann

    2017-02-01

    Dermatophytoses include a wide variety of diseases involving glabrous skin, nails and hair. These superficial infections are a common cause of consultation in dermatology. In many cases, their diagnosis is not clinically obvious, and mycological analysis therefore is required. Direct microscopic examination of the samples using clearing agents provides a quick response to the clinician and is usually combined with cultures on specific media, which must be used to overcome the growth of contaminating moulds that may hamper the recovery of dermatophytes. Accurate identification of the causative agent (i.e. at the species level), currently based on morphological criteria, is necessary not only to initiate an appropriate treatment but also for setting prophylactic measures. However, conventional methods often lack sensitivity and species identification may require up to 4 weeks if subcultures are needed. Histological analysis, which is considered the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of onychomycoses, is seldom performed, and as direct examination, it does not allow precise identification of the pathogen. Nevertheless, a particular attention to the quality of clinical specimens is warranted. Moreover, the sensitivity of direct examination may be greatly enhanced by the use of fluorochromes such as calcofluor white. Likewise, sensitivity of the cultures could be enhanced by the use of culture media containing antifungal deactivators. With the generalization of molecular identification by gene sequencing or MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the contribution of historical biochemical or physiological tests to species identification of atypical isolates is now limited. Nevertheless, despite the recent availability of several PCR-based kits and an extensive literature on molecular methods allowing the detection of fungal DNA or both detection and direct identification of the main dermatophyte species, the biological diagnosis of dermatophytosis in 2016 still relies on both direct examination and cultures of appropriate clinical specimens.

  10. A reappraisal of the CHARGE association.

    PubMed Central

    Oley, C A; Baraitser, M; Grant, D B

    1988-01-01

    We describe 14 boys and six girls, including monozygotic twins, with the CHARGE association. All of the children had at least four of the seven major features included in the mnemonic CHARGE and all had ear anomalies or deafness or both and either coloboma or choanal atresia or both. All the boys had evidence of hypogonadism. A characteristic facial appearance (unusually shaped ears, unilateral facial palsy, square face, malar flattening, pinched nostrils) was observed in many of our cases. The aetiology remains unknown. All our cases are sporadic. Images PMID:3351900

  11. A current reappraisal of Berry's hospital typology.

    PubMed

    Klastorin, T D; Watts, C A

    1982-05-01

    In an earlier article, Berry published the results of a study that examined possible relationships among hospital facilities and services. In general, Berry found that hospitals behaved in a reasonably consistent fashion; that is, hospitals added facilities and services in a well-defined order, and these facilities and services were added in distinct groups. Berry defined five such groups and hypothesized that each group represents an increasing level of case-mix complexity. Given the current interest in using Berry's results to measure hospital case mix, this study attempted to replicate Berry's results using recent data from the American Hospital Association. Using a number of statistical methodologies (including cluster analysis and Guttman scale analysis), we found that hospitals continue to add facilities and services in a well-defined order (although this order contains some notable differences from the order found by Berry). However, our results indicate that hospitals no longer add facilities and services in well-defined groups but in a more continuous fashion. Thus, it would appear that hospitals have become more differentiated.

  12. A reappraisal of generic bisphosphonates in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Reginster, J-Y; Kaufman, J-M; Ringe, J-D; Adachi, J D; Hiligsmann, M; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C

    2012-01-01

    The competitive price of generic bisphosphonates has had a marked effect on practice guidelines, but an increasing body of evidence suggests that they have more limited effectiveness than generally assumed. The purpose of this study is to review the impact of generic bisphosphonates on effectiveness in the treatment of osteoporosis. This study is a literature review. A substantial body of evidence indicates that many generic formulations of alendronate are more poorly tolerated than the proprietary preparations which results in significantly poorer adherence and thus effectiveness. Poorer effectiveness may result from faster disintegration times of many generics that increase the likelihood of adherence of particulate matter to the oesophageal mucosa. Unfortunately, market authorisation, based on the bioequivalence of generics with a proprietary formulation, does not take into account the potential concerns about safety. The poor adherence of many generic products has implications for guideline development, cost-effectiveness and impact of treatment on the burden of disease. The impact of generic bisphosphonates requires formal testing to re-evaluate their role in the management of osteoporosis.

  13. Pavlov as a psychologist. A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1987-01-01

    American psychologists are informed on Pavlov's work on conditional reflexes but not on the full development of his theory of higher nervous activity. This article shows that Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity dealt with concepts that concerned contemporary psychologists. Pavlov used the conditioning of the salivary reflex for methodological purposes. Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity encompassed overt behavior, neural processes, and the conscious experience. The strong Darwinian element of Pavlov's theory, with its stress on the higher organisms' adaptation, is described. With regard to learning, Pavlov, at the end of his scholarly career, proposed that although all learning involves the formation of associations, the organism's adaptation to the environment is established through conditioning, but the accumulation of knowledge is established by trial and error.

  14. Congenitally absent lumbar pedicle: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Wortzman, G.; Steinhardt, M.I.

    1984-09-01

    Three patients who had a diagnosis of congenitally absent lumbar pedicle underwent CT examination. Findings showed that each patient had an aberrant hypoplastic pedicle plus a retroisthmic defect in their ipsilateral lamina rather than an absent pedicle. Axial CT was the diagnostic modality of choice; reformated images were of little value. The differential diagnosis to be considered from the findings of plain film radiography includes pediculate thinning, neoplastic disease, neurofibroma, mesodermal dysplasia associated with neurofibromatosis, and vascular anomalies.

  15. Morphologic reappraisal of serrated colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina; Skovlund, Eva; Snover, Dale C; Torlakovic, Goran; Nesland, Jahn M

    2003-01-01

    The "hyperplastic polyp" is considered a benign lesion with no malignant potential, whereas "serrated adenoma" is a precursor of adenocarcinoma. The morphologic complexity of the serrated adenoma varies from being clearly adenomatous to being difficult to distinguish from hyperplastic polyp, which creates a need for more detailed morphologic analysis of all serrated polyps. We evaluated 24 morphologic variables in 289 serrated polyps from the colon and rectum. Cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were performed. A subset of polyps was immunostained for hMLH1 and hMSH2. Major differences were found between right-sided and left-sided polyps. A distinct group of serrated polyps with abnormal proliferation was identified throughout the colon and rectum. These polyps demonstrated decreased expression of hMHL1 and hMSH2 compared with polyps with normal proliferation. Left-sided serrated polyps with normal proliferation further clustered into three groups: vesicular cell-type, goblet cell-type, and mucin-poor-type. We recommend evaluation of the localization, size, and morphologic features when serrated polyps are included in colorectal carcinogenesis research. Polyps with abnormal proliferation are similar to the polyps in "hyperplastic polyposis" and, because of their decreased expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2, may be the subset of polyps associated with the development of colorectal carcinoma via the microsatellite instability pathway.

  16. The decline in child mortality: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, O. B.; Lopez, A. D.; Inoue, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper examines, describes and documents country-specific trends in under-five mortality rates (i.e., mortality among children under five years of age) in the 1990s. Our analysis updates previous studies by UNICEF, the World Bank and the United Nations. It identifies countries and WHO regions where sustained improvement has occurred and those where setbacks are evident. A consistent series of estimates of under-five mortality rate is provided and an indication is given of historical trends during the period 1950-2000 for both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that 10.5 million children aged 0-4 years died in 1999, about 2.2 million or 17.5% fewer than a decade earlier. On average about 15% of newborn children in Africa are expected to die before reaching their fifth birthday. The corresponding figures for many other parts of the developing world are in the range 3-8% and that for Europe is under 2%. During the 1990s the decline in child mortality decelerated in all the WHO regions except the Western Pacific but there is no widespread evidence of rising child mortality rates. At the country level there are exceptions in southern Africa where the prevalence of HIV is extremely high and in Asia where a few countries are beset by economic difficulties. The slowdown in the rate of decline is of particular concern in Africa and South-East Asia because it is occurring at relatively high levels of mortality, and in countries experiencing severe economic dislocation. As the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues in Africa, particularly southern Africa, and in parts of Asia, further reductions in child mortality become increasingly unlikely until substantial progress in controlling the spread of HIV is achieved. PMID:11100613

  17. A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary osteoplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy.

  18. Reappraisal of somatosensory disorders in methylmercury poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kuwahata, Misako; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Susa, Mari; Ekino, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    The first well-documented methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan in 1953. MeHg had dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea. The temporal changes in MeHg in the umbilical cords indicate that residents living around that Sea had been exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). They have complained of paresthesia at the distal parts of the extremities and around the lip even 30 years after the cessation of exposure to anthropogenic MeHg. The thresholds of touch and two-point discrimination of those residents and Minamata disease (MD) patients were examined using the quantifiable instruments. They could perceive the stimulation of touch although their touch thresholds significantly increased in comparison to those of the control people. Their touch thresholds increased at the proximal extremities and the trunks as well as at the distal extremities. The evenly distributed increases at both distal and proximal parts revealed that the persistent somatosensory disturbances were not caused by the injuries to their peripheral nerves. The thresholds of two-point discrimination, which are associated with the function of the somatosensory cortex, increased at both forefingers and the lip in both groups. Taking into consideration that, the apraxia limb kinetics, astereognosis and disorder of active sensation, which are all associated with damage to the somatosensory cortex, were detected, it is proposed that the persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex.

  19. Bacterial morphologies supporting cometary panspermia: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology, other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  20. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    PubMed

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  1. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-05-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  2. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness.

  3. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: Spillover effects on positive and negative social events

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributes to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  4. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: effects of sociocultural context

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Sara A.; Heller, S. Megan; Lumian, Daniel S.; McRae, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae et al., 2011). In this sociocultural context, as compared to typically at home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes), and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy generally associated with adaptive outcomes). What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we replicated our previous findings, and found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we observe are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and typically at home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects. PMID:23840191

  5. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the associations of positive and negative affect to upper extremity physical function.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipophyllodes of the breast. A reappraisal of fat-rich tumors of the breast based on 22 cases integrated by immunohistochemical study, molecular pathology insights, and clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Carlos E; Wludarski, Sheila C; Lamovec, Janez; Ben Dor, David; Ober, Elisa; Salviato, Tiziana; Zanconati, Fabrizio; De Maglio, Giovanna; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Sioletic, Stefano; Falconieri, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    We have studied 22 cases of mammary lipophyllodes tumors (LPT), analyzing their clinicopathologic features along with available follow-up. All cases were tested for cytokeratins, S100 protein, and MDM2, and in selected cases for estrogen receptor, smooth muscle actin, bcl2, desmin, and myogenin. Patients were women aged 21 to 69 years (average, 45 years), and LPT size ranged from 1.6 to 30 cm (average, 9.7 cm). Microscopically, LPT segregated as follows: atypical lipoma-like tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDL), 8 cases; myxoid, 6; and pleomorphic/poorly differentiated/round cell, 8, including a case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Immunohistochemistry studies showed focal positive staining for S100 and CD34 in most ALT/WDL, and desmin and myogenin in 2 cases with evidence of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. MDM2 positivity was focally seen in 1 case. Follow-up was available in 8 cases. Multiple recurrent tumors were seen in 2 patients, and metastatic disease to the lung was seen in 2 patients. In 4 patients with a follow-up between 2 and 15 years there was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. Patients with ALT/WDL (2/2) were alive with no evidence of disease; 2 of 4 patients with myxoid liposarcoma component experienced tumor recurrence, whereas pleomorphic liposarcoma LPT pursued a less favorable course although only 1 patient died of the condition. Absence of MDM2 reactivity in most cases seems not as meaningful as in fatty tumors of somatic soft parts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  8. Prolactin and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia: A Literature Review and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin can be significantly increased by antipsychotic drugs, leading to a range of adverse effects in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is evidence from a variety of studies that prolactin may also be related to symptom profile and treatment response in these patients, and recent work has identified variations in prolactin secretion even in drug-free patients. In this paper, a selective review of all relevant studies pertaining to prolactin and schizophrenia, including challenge and provocation studies, is presented. The implications of this work are discussed critically. A tentative model, which synthesizes these findings and argues for a significant role for prolactin in the development of schizophrenia, is outlined. PMID:24800074

  9. Reappraisal of TDP-43 pathology in FTLD-U subtypes.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R; Neumann, Manuela

    2017-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau-negative, ubiquitin-immunoreactive (-ir) pathology (FTLD-U) is subclassified based on the type and cortical laminar distribution of neuronal inclusions. Following the discovery of the transactive response DNA-binding protein Mr 43 kD (TDP-43) as the ubiquitinated protein in most FTLD-U, the same pathological criteria have been used to classify FTLD cases based on TDP-43-ir changes. However, the fact that immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ubiquitin and TDP-43 each recognizes slightly different pathological changes in these cases means that the original FTLD-U subtype criteria may not be directly applicable for use with TDP-43 IHC. We formally re-evaluated the TDP-43-ir pathological features that characterize the different FTLD-U subtypes to see if the current classification could be refined. In our series of 78 cases, 81% were classified as one of the common FTLD-U subtypes (29% A, 35% B, 17% C). With TDP-43 IHC, each subtype demonstrated consistent intra-group pathological features and clear inter-group differences. The TDP-43-ir changes that characterized type A and C cases were similar to those seen with ubiquitin IHC; specifically, compact neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), short thick dystrophic neurites (DN), and lentiform neuronal intranuclear inclusions concentrated in cortical layer II in type A cases, and a predominance of long thick DN in type C. However, type B cases showed significant differences with TDP-43 compared with ubiquitin IHC; with many diffuse granular NCI and wispy thread and dots-like profiles in all cortical layers. The remaining 15 cases (12 with C9orf72 mutations) showed changes that were consistent with combined type A and type B pathology. These findings suggest that the pathological criteria for subtyping FTLD cases based on TDP-43 IHC might benefit from some refinement that recognizes differences in the morphologies of NCI and neurites. Furthermore, there is a significant subset of cases (most with the C9orf72 mutation) with the pathological features of multiple FTLD-TDP subtypes for which appropriate classification is difficult.

  10. Radioisotope cisternography in acute viral encephalitis. A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, H.; Kawamura, J.

    1982-05-01

    Five cases of presumed acute viral encephalitis with convulsions were examined with radioisotope (RI) cisternography six and 24 hours after an intrathecal injection of 1 mCi of pentetic acid labeled with either /sup 169/Yb or /sup 111/In. All cases showed abnormalities with this study. The cold areas observed with RI cisternography were well correlated with abnormal foci on the EEG. Although the findings are nonspecific, the CSF dynamics and patency of the subarachnoid space are easily examined by RI cisternography without appreciable complications. It is a useful supplementary diagnostic method to depict the extent of lobar abnormalities of cerebral cortex, particularly at an early stage, that either narrow or obliterate subarachnoid space and CSF pathways.

  11. Spinal fluid protein revisited: a reappraisal of the biuret procedure.

    PubMed

    Blijenberg, B G; Roetering, H A; Zwang, L; Leijnse, B

    1985-04-01

    In this study our previously described selected method, a biuret procedure with deproteinization, for the determination of spinal fluid protein is thoroughly discussed against the background of the results found with a number of Lowry modifications. The use of various separation techniques, i.e. deproteinization, ultrafiltration and chromatography (HPLC), for protein analysis led to the question as to whether low molecular weight proteins in cerebrospinal fluid play an important role or not with respect to the choice of a selected method for the determination of total protein.

  12. Selegiline: a reappraisal of its role in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Fabbrini, Giovanni; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Marconi, Stefano; Zappia, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Selegiline at the doses used in Parkinson disease is a selective irreversible monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor, which potentiates dopaminergic function in the brain, and is used as monotherapy in early Parkinson disease or in combination with levodopa in more advanced disease. A renewed interest in monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors in the treatment of Parkinson disease has emerged after recent clinical trials of agents in this class. The use of selegiline monotherapy in early Parkinson disease is supported by the results of a large well-controlled trial in 800 patients (DATATOP) and several other studies, which demonstrated a symptomatic benefit, a reduction in disability, and a delay in the need to start levodopa therapy. Administered with levodopa in studies of up to 5 years' duration in patients with more advanced disease, selegiline improved disease-related disability, reduced the end-of-dose motor fluctuations, and also led to a reduction of the dose and dose frequency of levodopa required.Selegiline was the first drug to be investigated as a possible neuroprotective agent in patients with Parkinson disease, based on preclinical studies indicating protection of dopaminergic neurons from damage. The results of the extensive body of clinical trials, including delayed and lower levodopa requirements, may indeed suggest that selegiline, in addition to conferring symptomatic benefit, may have other effects on disease progression. Selegiline is well tolerated, and initial fears of increased mortality with the drug have not been borne out by subsequent robust meta-analyses.

  13. Reappraising entrapment neuropathies--mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annina B; Nee, Robert J; Coppieters, Michel W

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies can be difficult because symptoms and signs often do not follow textbook descriptions and vary significantly between patients with the same diagnosis. Signs and symptoms which spread outside of the innervation territory of the affected nerve or nerve root are common. This Masterclass provides insight into relevant mechanisms that may account for this extraterritorial spread in patients with entrapment neuropathies, with an emphasis on neuroinflammation at the level of the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, as well as changes in subcortical and cortical regions. Furthermore, we describe how clinical tests and technical investigations may identify these mechanisms if interpreted in the context of gain or loss of function. The management of neuropathies also remains challenging. Common treatment strategies such as joint mobilisation, neurodynamic exercises, education, and medications are discussed in terms of their potential to influence certain mechanisms at the site of nerve injury or in the central nervous system. The mechanism-oriented approach for this Masterclass seems warranted given the limitations in the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of entrapment neuropathies.

  14. A reappraisal of economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals. Science or marketing?

    PubMed

    Drummond, M F

    1998-07-01

    In pharmacoeconomic research sponsored by companies, there is an obvious tension between the desire to undertake studies to show a marketing advantage and the desire to adhere to good scientific principles. This tension was explored in an early issue of PharmacoEconomics and is now revisited 5 years on. Bias is still perceived to be a major problem in industry-sponsored studies, both by healthcare decision-makers and journal editors. However, the debate about bias has matured over the years. Also, actual evidence of bias in study methodology is sparse, although biases in study topic selection and in the use, in promotion, of study results have been found. A number of constructive suggestions have been made in the last 5 years for reducing potential bias. These include developing methodological guidelines and standards, improving the peer review process, clarifying contractual relationships between sponsors and analysts, and ensuring appropriate use of studies in promotional activities. However, further initiatives could be undertaken. These include additional guidelines for specific detailed areas of economic evaluation methodology, changes in the structure of funding for pharmacoeconomic research, more education of consumers for pharmacoeconomic data and more research partnerships between industry and its customers.

  15. Welding and rheomorphism reappraised: valley-confined ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.

    2003-04-01

    Some pyroclastic density currents are so hot that the pyroclasts weld rapidly to form a layer of agglutinate that continues to flow in a ductile manner, a process known as rheomorphism. Previous studies of rheomorphic ignimbrites have inferred that folds are orientated with axes perpendicular to the direction of rheomorphic transport. For example, in a seminal study of the Wall Mountain Tuff in Gribbles Run palaeovalley, Colorado, Chapin and Lowell (1979) interpreted an apparently complex pattern of rheomorphic deformation structures as the product of two phases of deformation: (1) pyroclastic flow along the valley caused 'primary' welding and folding, with fold axes perpendicular to the valley axis; and (2) already deposited ignimbrite underwent 'secondary mass flowage'down local valley sides, poducing 'econdary'folds with axes parallel to the valley axis. A new structural analysis of the welding fabrics in the Wall Mountain Tuff has revealed the presence of abundant sheath folds, a structure hitherto little reported from pyroclastic rocks. The majority of sheathfold axes lie sub-parallel to the palaeovalley, and sub-arallel to a pervasive valley-arallel elongation lineation. There is no evidence of a second phase of deformation; valley-ormal lineations are absent and folds with axes at high angles to the valley axis are arkedly curvilinear. We interpret the latter as having developed within the same shearing system as the valley-arallel folds, but they nucleated slightly later and so were less transposed and attenuated. We conclude that the ignimbrite underwent only one deformation event. We then re-visited 10 classic examples of rheomorphic ignimbrites in the USA, Canary Islands and Italy. All exhibited abundant sheath folds. Structural analysis reveals a common pattern of progressive ductile deformation. Folds initiate at various angles to the flow direction and to the elongation lineations, such as prolate fiamme and stretched vesicles. Axial planes initiate at high angles to the welding fabric. As rheomorphism proceeds axial planes and fold axes progressively rotate towards the elongation direction. High shear strain produces transposed intrafolial sheath folds, exhibited as eye structures when viewed in the transport direction. Their orientation reflects the local transport direction. Late nucleated folds preserve axes at high angles to this. Thus, folds with contrasting orientations may develop within the same shearing regime. This simplifies the structural interpretation of rheomorphism - just one progressive phase of deformation is required. REF: Chapin CE and Lowell GR (1979). Geol. Soc. Am, Sp. Pap. 180: 466-483.

  16. Welding and rheomorphism reappraised: valley-confined ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.

    2003-04-01

    Some pyroclastic density currents are so hot that the pyroclasts weld rapidly to form a layer of agglutinate that continues to flow in a ductile manner, a process known as rheomorphism. Previous studies of rheomorphic ignimbrites have inferred that folds are orientated with axes perpendicular to the direction of rheomorphic transport. For example, in a seminal study of the Wall Mountain Tuff in Gribbles Run palaeovalley, Colorado, Chapin and Lowell (1979) interpreted an apparently complex pattern of rheomorphic deformation structures as the product of two phases of deformation: (1) pyroclastic flow along the valley caused "primary" welding and folding, with fold axes perpendicular to the valley axis; and (2) already deposited ignimbrite underwent "secondary mass flowage" down local valley sides, producing "secondary" folds with axes parallel to the valley axis. A new structural analysis of the welding fabrics in the Wall Mountain Tuff has revealed the presence of abundant sheath folds, a structure hitherto little reported from pyroclastic rocks. The majority of sheathfold axes lie sub-parallel to the palaeovalley, and sub-parallel to a pervasive valley-parallel elongation lineation. There is no evidence of a second phase of deformation; valley-normal lineations are absent and folds with axes at high angles to the valley axis are markedly curvilinear. We interpret the latter as having developed within the same shearing system as the valley-parallel folds, but they nucleated slightly later and so were less transposed and attenuated. We conclude that the ignimbrite underwent only one deformation event. We then re-visited 10 classic examples of rheomorphic ignimbrites in the USA, Canary Islands and Italy. All exhibited abundant sheath folds. Structural analysis reveals a common pattern of progressive ductile deformation. Folds initiate at various angles to the flow direction and to the elongation lineations, such as prolate fiamme and stretched vesicles. Axial planes initiate at high angles to the welding fabric. As rheomorphism proceeds axial planes and fold axes progressively rotate towards the elongation direction. High shear strain produces transposed intrafolial sheath folds, exhibited as eye structures when viewed in the transport direction. Their orientation reflects the local transport direction. Late nucleated folds preserve axes at high angles to this. Thus, folds with contrasting orientations may develop within the same shearing regime. This simplifies the structural interpretation of rheomorphism - just one progressive phase of deformation is required. REF: Chapin CE and Lowell GR (1979). Geol. Soc. Am, Sp. Pap. 180: 466-483.

  17. Neocytolysis: none, one or many? A reappraisal and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Angela; Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Antonutto, Guglielmo; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Neocytolysis is the hypothesis formulated to explain experimental evidence of selective lysis of young red blood cells (RBCs) (neocytes) associated with decreased plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO). In humans, it appears to take place whenever a fast RBC mass reduction is required, i.e., in astronauts during the first days of spaceflight under weightlessness, where a fast reduction in plasma volume and increase in haematocrit occur. EPO plasma levels then decline and a decrease in RBC mass takes place, apparently because of the selective lysis of the youngest, recently generated RBCs (neocytes). The same process seems to occur in people descending to sea level after acclimatization at high altitude. After descent, the polycythaemia developed at high altitude must be abrogated, and a rapid reduction in the number of circulating RBCs is obtained by a decrease in EPO synthesis and the lysis of what seem to be young RBCs. In vivo, neocytolysis seems to be abolished by EPO administration. More recent research has ascribed to neocytolysis the RBC destruction that occurs under such disparate pathophysiologic conditions as nephropathy, severe obstructive pulmonary disease, blood doping, and even malaria anaemia. According to the theory, EPO's central role would be not only to stimulate the production of new RBCs in conditions of anaemia, as maintained by the orthodox view, but also that of a cytoprotective factor for circulating young RBCs. Why neocytes are specifically destroyed and how is this related to decreased EPO levels has not yet been elucidated. Changes in membrane molecules of young RBCs isolated from astronauts or mountain climbers upon return to normal conditions seem to indicate a higher susceptibility of neocytes to ingestion by macrophages. By limiting the context to space missions and high altitude expeditions, this review will address unresolved and critical issues that in our opinion have not been sufficiently highlighted in previous works. PMID:24592241

  18. The dual systems model: Review, reappraisal, and reaffirmation.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Smith, Ashley R; Silva, Karol; Icenogle, Grace; Duell, Natasha; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    According to the dual systems perspective, risk taking peaks during adolescence because activation of an early-maturing socioemotional-incentive processing system amplifies adolescents' affinity for exciting, pleasurable, and novel activities at a time when a still immature cognitive control system is not yet strong enough to consistently restrain potentially hazardous impulses. We review evidence from both the psychological and neuroimaging literatures that has emerged since 2008, when this perspective was originally articulated. Although there are occasional exceptions to the general trends, studies show that, as predicted, psychological and neural manifestations of reward sensitivity increase between childhood and adolescence, peak sometime during the late teen years, and decline thereafter, whereas psychological and neural reflections of better cognitive control increase gradually and linearly throughout adolescence and into the early 20s. While some forms of real-world risky behavior peak at a later age than predicted, this likely reflects differential opportunities for risk-taking in late adolescence and young adulthood, rather than neurobiological differences that make this age group more reckless. Although it is admittedly an oversimplification, as a heuristic device, the dual systems model provides a far more accurate account of adolescent risk taking than prior models that have attributed adolescent recklessness to cognitive deficiencies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep space telecommunications and the solar cycle: A reappraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of density enhancement in the near corona at solar cycle (sunspot) maximum have rather uncritically been interpreted to apply equally well to the extended corona, thus generating concern about the quality of outer planet navigational data at solar cycle maximum. Spacecraft have been deployed almost continuously during the recently completed solar cycle 20, providing two powerful new coronal investigatory data sources: (1) in-situ spacecraft plasma measurements at approximately 1 AU, and (2) plasma effects on monochromatic spacecraft signals at all signal closest approach points. A comprehensive review of these (solar cycle 20) data lead to the somewhat surprising conclusions that for the region of interest of navigational data, the highest levels of charged particle corruption of navigational data can be expected to occur at solar cycle minimum, rather than solar cycle maximum, as previously believed.

  20. Interruptions and Distractions in Healthcare: Review and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare settings can be hectic, demanding, time-constrained environments. Within these environments, health care professionals (HCP) are expected to perform tasks that often require their undivided attention. However, HCPs are frequently interrupted, which can distract their attention and add to the complexity of their work. That said, not all interruptions are bad; many interruptions are essential to the patient care process and provide HCPs with necessary information. This paper systematically reviews the peer-reviewed literature on interruptions in healthcare settings to determine the state of the science and to identify gaps. It then provides a complex sociotechnical systems approach to understanding interruptions in healthcare. PMID:20378621

  1. Interruptions and distractions in healthcare: review and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rodriguez, A J; Karsh, B-T

    2010-08-01

    To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature on interruptions in healthcare settings to determine the state of the science and to identify the gaps in research. Inclusion criteria were determined, and the online databases PubMed and Web of Knowledge-CrossSearch were searched. Thirty-three papers were reviewed. Several important findings were identified: (1) interruptions occur frequently in all healthcare settings, (2) an important gap exists: only seven studies examined outcomes related to interruptions, (3) interruptions in healthcare have only been studied from the viewpoint of the person being interrupted and (4) few studies explicitly or implicitly examined the cognitive implications of interruptions. The high frequency of interruptions coupled with information content may simply be indicative of the high need for constant communication and coordination in healthcare. Many interruptions may be necessary for safe, high-quality care; thus, trying to eliminate all interruptions is unwise. That said, there may be situations, such as during high-risk procedures, when limiting interruptions may be warranted. Taking a complex sociotechnical systems approach will help researchers view interruptions more holistically and will result in more comprehensive studies that take into account the complexity of interruptions and the many variables in healthcare settings.

  2. Internet addiction: reappraisal of an increasingly inadequate concept.

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-02-01

    This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.

  3. Bronchial thermoplasty: reappraising the evidence (or lack thereof).

    PubMed

    Iyer, Vivek N; Lim, Kaiser G

    2014-07-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) involves the application of radiofrequency energy to visible proximal airways to selectively ablate airway smooth muscle. BT is the first nonpharmacologic interventional therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for severe asthma. This approval was based on the results of the pivotal Asthma Intervention Research (AIR)-2 trial, which is the only randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial of BT. The primary end point of the AIR-2 trial was improvement in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The results of the AIR-2 trial have generated enormous interest, controversy, and confusion regarding the true efficacy of BT for severe asthma. Current marketing of BT highlights its use for patients with "severe" asthma, which is interpreted by most practicing clinicians as meaning oral corticosteroid dependence, frequent exacerbations, or a significantly reduced FEV1 with a poor quality of life. Did the AIR-2 trial include patients with a low FEV1, oral steroid dependence, or frequent exacerbations? Did the trial show efficacy for any of the primary or secondary end points? The FDA approved the device based on the reduction in severe asthma exacerbations. However, were the rates of asthma exacerbations, ED visits, or hospitalizations truly different between the two groups, and was this type of analysis even justified given the original study design? This commentary is designed to specifically answer these questions and help the practicing clinician navigate the thermoplasty literature with confidence and clarity. We carefully dissect the design, conduct, and results of the AIR-2 trial and raise serious questions about the efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty.

  4. The entropy of the life table: A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Oscar E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2015-09-01

    The life table entropy provides useful information for understanding improvements in mortality and survival in a population. In this paper we take a closer look at the life table entropy and use advanced mathematical methods to provide additional insights for understanding how it relates to changes in mortality and survival. By studying the entropy (H) as a functional, we show that changes in the entropy depend on both the relative change in life expectancy lost due to death (e(†)) and in life expectancy at birth (e0). We also show that changes in the entropy can be further linked to improvements in premature and older deaths. We illustrate our methods with empirical data from Latin American countries, which suggests that at high mortality levels declines in H (which are associated with survival increases) linked with larger improvements in e0, whereas at low mortality levels e(†) made larger contributions to H. We additionally show that among countries with low mortality level, contributions of e(†) to changes in the life table entropy resulted from averting early deaths. These findings indicate that future increases in overall survival in low mortality countries will likely result from improvements in e(†). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Jefferson Davis as Secretary of War: A Reappraisal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-02

    clothing , equipments, camp-equipage, medical and hospital stores, barracks, quarters, transportation, fortifications, Military Academy, pay and...War Department A. Capitol extension (3.5) B. Aquaduct (0.9) C. Acquisition of fireproof War Department (0.6) building VIII. Introduction and...the War Department A. Capitol extension (1.8) B. Aquaduct (0.8) C. Acquisition of fireproof War Department (3.2) building VIII. Introduction and

  6. A reappraisal of the controversy of Dax and Broca.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Montagna, C G

    1994-10-01

    Paul Broca is unanimously recognized as the founder of neuropsychology. Helis development of the scientific method to map mental functions onto brain topographpy has been enormously influential. Nevertheless, Dax's paper on the left hemisphere dominance for speech was written and published before Broca explicitely proposed the same theory. Probably, Broca was aware of the paper prior to 1865, but he never acknowledged Dax's original theoretical contribution. On the contrary, he always claimed to be the first to espouse the theory of left hemisphere dominance for language and never quoted Marc Dax (Broca, 1877 p 536), 'I do not like dealing with the questions of priority concerning myself. That is the reason why I did not mention the name of Dax in my paper'. In our opinion, the weight of evidence reported here suggests that the theory of the left hemisphere dominance for speech must be attributed equally to Dax and Broca, and henceforth should be called 'the theory of Dax-Broca'.

  7. The Murder of Leonora De Guzman: A Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggie, Benjamin F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the historical significance of Leonora de Guzman--longtime mistress of Alfonso IX--in the political developments of fourteenth century Castilian Spain. The events leading up to her execution are examined. (AM)

  8. A reappraisal of Cerebavis cenomanica (Aves, Ornithurae), from Melovatka, Russia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stig A; Milner, Angela C; Bourdon, Estelle

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the avian brain is of crucial importance to studies of the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to modern birds, but very few avian fossils provide information on brain morphological development during the Mesozoic. An isolated specimen from the Cenomanian of Melovatka in Russia was described by Kurochkin and others as a fossilized brain, designated the holotype of Cerebavis cenomanica Kurochkin and Saveliev and tentatively referred to Enantiornithes. We have previously highlighted that this specimen is an incomplete skull, rendering the diagnostic characters invalid and Cerebavis cenomanica a nomen dubium. We provide here a revised diagnosis of Cerebavis cenomanica based on osteological characters, and a reconstruction of the endocranial morphology (= brain shape) based on μCT investigation of the braincase. Absence of temporal fenestrae indicates an ornithurine affinity for Cerebavis. The brain of this taxon was clearly closer to that of modern birds than to Archaeopteryx and does not represent a divergent evolutionary pathway as originally concluded by Kurochkin and others. No telencephalic wulst is present, suggesting that this advanced avian neurological feature was not recognizably developed 93 million years ago. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  9. Pion-Mass Dependence of the Nucleon Polarisabilities: A Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel R.; Griesshammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.

    2014-09-01

    The static electric and magnetic scalar dipole polarisabilities and the four spin polarisabilities parametrise the nucleon's two-photon response. At next-to-next-to-leading order in Chiral Effective Field Theory (χEFT) with dynamical Δ (1232) s, they have recently been extracted from Compton scattering data; ongoing experiments at HI γS, MAMI and MAXlab test proton-neutron differences and chiral symmetry breaking. Comparing lattice QCD simulations at pion masses mπ > 220 MeV to data and χEFT predictions requires a reliable extrapolation to the physical point. Since χEFT provides a systematically improvable, model-independent parametrisation of the polarisabilities, it is well-suited for that task. The relative theoretical uncertainties increase with increasing mπ: the magnitudes of the polarisabilities decrease; the χEFT expansion parameter itself increases; and the Δ (1232) becomes more important, leading to a re-ordering of contributions. After a review of χEFT, this presentation offers a method to quantitatively assess error-bands for chiral lattice extrapolations which can also be applied to other cases. Published errors appear to be underestimated. The static electric and magnetic scalar dipole polarisabilities and the four spin polarisabilities parametrise the nucleon's two-photon response. At next-to-next-to-leading order in Chiral Effective Field Theory (χEFT) with dynamical Δ (1232) s, they have recently been extracted from Compton scattering data; ongoing experiments at HI γS, MAMI and MAXlab test proton-neutron differences and chiral symmetry breaking. Comparing lattice QCD simulations at pion masses mπ > 220 MeV to data and χEFT predictions requires a reliable extrapolation to the physical point. Since χEFT provides a systematically improvable, model-independent parametrisation of the polarisabilities, it is well-suited for that task. The relative theoretical uncertainties increase with increasing mπ: the magnitudes of the polarisabilities decrease; the χEFT expansion parameter itself increases; and the Δ (1232) becomes more important, leading to a re-ordering of contributions. After a review of χEFT, this presentation offers a method to quantitatively assess error-bands for chiral lattice extrapolations which can also be applied to other cases. Published errors appear to be underestimated. Supported in part by US DoE Contracts DE-FG02-95ER-40907 and DE-FG02-93ER40756, and UK STFC Grant ST/J000159/1.

  10. Essential hypertension and risk of nephropathy: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Murea, Mariana; Freedman, Barry I.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the controversial relationship between hypertension and initiation of kidney disease. We focus on ethnic differences in renal histopathology and associated gene variants comprising the spectrum of MYH9-nephropathy. Purpose of review Treating mild to moderate essential hypertension in non-diabetic African Americans fails to halt nephropathy progression; while hypertension control slows nephropathy progression in European Americans. The pathogenesis of these disparate renal syndromes is reviewed. Recent findings The non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) is associated with a spectrum of kidney diseases in African Americans, including idiopathic focal global glomerulosclerosis historically attributed to hypertension, idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and the collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (HIV-associated nephropathy). Risk variants in MYH9 likely contribute to the failure of hypertension control to slow progressive kidney disease in non-diabetic African Americans. Summary Early and intensive hypertension control fails to halt progression of “hypertensive nephropathy” in African Americans. Genetic analyses in patients with essential hypertension and nephropathy attributed to hypertension, FSGS and HIVAN reveal that MYH9 gene polymorphisms are associated with a spectrum of kidney diseases in this ethnic group. Mild to moderate hypertension may cause nephropathy in European Americans with intra-renal vascular disease improved by the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking cessation. PMID:20051853

  11. A Reappraisal of the 4/3/2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the 4/3/2 activity learners deliver the same talk three times under increasing time pressure. The activity is intended first and foremost to foster fluency, but accuracy and complexity have also been said to benefit from this activity. The present study investigates whether immediate repetition of monologues under increasing time pressure…

  12. A reappraisal of Polyptychodon (Plesiosauria) from the Cretaceous of England

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pliosauridae is a globally distributed clade of aquatic predatory amniotes whose fossil record spans from the Lower Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous. However, the knowledge of pliosaurid interrelationships remains limited. In part, this is a consequence of a few key taxa awaiting detailed reassessment. Among them, the taxon Polyptychodon is of special importance. It was established on isolated teeth from the mid-Cretaceous strata of East and South East England and subsequently associated with numerous finds of near-cosmopolitan distribution. Here the taxon is reassessed based on the original dental material from England, with special focus on a large collection of late Albian material from the Cambridge Greensand near Cambridge. The dental material is reviewed here from historical and stratigraphic perspective, described in detail, and discussed in terms of its diagnostic nature. The considerable morphological variability observed in the teeth attributed to Polyptychodon, together with a wide stratigraphic range of the ascribed material, possibly exceeding 35 Ma (early Aptian to ?middle Santonian), suggests that the taxon is based on a multispecies assemblage, possibly incorporating members of different plesiosaur clades. Due to the absence of any autapomorphic characters or unique character combinations in the original material, Polyptychodon interruptus, the type species of Polyptychodon, is considered nomen dubium. From a global perspective, Polyptychodon is viewed as a wastebasket taxon whose material originating from different localities should be reconsidered separately. PMID:27190712

  13. A reappraisal of the caloric requirements of men.

    PubMed

    Owen, O E; Holup, J L; D'Alessio, D A; Craig, E S; Polansky, M; Smalley, K J; Kavle, E C; Bushman, M C; Owen, L R; Mozzoli, M A

    1987-12-01

    The resting metabolic rates (RMR) of 60 lean and obese men, aged 18-82 y and weighing 60-171 kg, were measured and body compositions were determined. Body compositional variables reflecting active protoplasmic tissue were all highly interrelated. Body weight alone gave prediction values for RMR that were comparable to those of other variables of active protoplasmic tissue mass. Regional distribution of fat had no influence on the RMR and the influence of age on RMR was trivial. The classic prediction equations and tables overestimate RMR of men. The 95%-confidence limits for both lean and obese men were broad. This conclusively demonstrates that metabolic efficiency is not necessarily or exclusively related to obesity. New regression equations for predicting the RMR based on weight and fat-free mass were developed: RMR = 879 + 10.2 WT kg and RMR = 290 + 22.3 FFMD kg, where FFMD is fat-free mass from densitometry measurements.

  14. A Reappraisal of Azhdarchid Pterosaur Functional Morphology and Paleoecology

    PubMed Central

    Witton, Mark P.; Naish, Darren

    2008-01-01

    Azhdarchid pterosaurs were among the most widespread and successful of pterosaur clades, but their paleoecology remains controversial. Morphological features common to all azhdarchids include a long, shallow rostrum; elongate, cylindrical cervical vertebrae that formed a long and unusually inflexible neck; and proportionally short wings with an abbreviated fourth phalanx. While azhdarchids have been imagined as vulture-like scavengers, sediment probers, swimmers, waders, aerial predators, or stork-like generalists, most recent authors have regarded them as skim-feeders, trawling their lower jaws through water during flight and seizing aquatic prey from the water's surface. Although apparently widely accepted, the skim-feeding model lacks critical support from anatomy and functional morphology. Azhdarchids lack the many cranial specialisations exhibited by extant skim-feeding birds, most notably the laterally compressed lower jaw and shock absorbing apparatus required for this feeding style. Well-preserved azhdarchid skulls are rare, but their rostra and lower jaws appear to have been sub-triangular in cross-section, and thus dissimilar to those of skim-feeders and sediment probers. Taphonomic data indicates that azhdarchids predominately inhabited inland settings, and azhdarchid morphology indicates that they were poorly suited for all proposed lifestyles bar wading and terrestrial foraging. However, azhdarchid footprints show that their feet were relatively small, padded and slender, and thus not well suited for wading. We argue that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Proficient terrestrial abilities and a relatively inflexible neck are in agreement with this interpretation. PMID:18509539

  15. What Is Religious Education All about? A Hermeneutic Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, David

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited engagement with Gadamer in the pedagogy of English religious education (RE) to date. Currently there remains confusion about the subject matter of RE and the application of the National Framework attainment targets, learning about and learning from. Instrumental justifications of RE are in tension with the desire to defend…

  16. Electromyography in musculoskeletal pain: A reappraisal and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and local tenderness in the back and extremities are frequently referred to electromyography (EMG) laboratory to assess the integrity of the spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and skeletal muscles. When focal muscle weakness and anatomical sensory deficits are clinically evident, this procedure is almost always abnormal. In some situations, when the presenting symptoms consist of local pain and tenderness without neuromuscular deficits, its diagnostic utility becomes questionable as illustrated in the present study. Methods: EMG findings of 75 patients referred for evaluation of local MSP and tenderness in the neck and lower back and in the upper and lower extremities were reviewed. These patients were selected from a group of 200 patients referred for evaluation of unilateral local pain and tenderness in various parts of the body. All EMG procedures and clinical neurologic examination were performed by the author and all underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the affected parts of the body prior to the procedure. None of the 75 patients studied had concurrent medical disorders or had previous spinal root injuries or surgeries to the spine. Results: All 75 patients in this study showed normal EMG of the affected extremities and normal peripheral nerve conduction study. Those with herniated disc in the cervical or lumbar spine presenting with local pain and tenderness in the neck and lower back but without neurologic deficits or clear radicular symptoms, had normal study also. The remaining 125 patients excluded from the study, had various EMG and peripheral nerve abnormalities that can be attributed to concurrent medical disorders and previous injuries to the spinal roots. Conclusions: Use of EMG in the diagnosis of local MSP, unless associated with clinical neurologic deficits, almost always yields negative results. The utility of this procedure is limited to pathology in the motor unit. It cannot assess the function of the sensory components of the spinal roots, small-diameter sensory nerves, and the sensory innervation of the spine via sinuvertebral nerve. Therefore, if the motor unit is anatomically and physiologically intact, the procedure is of little value in the diagnosis of MSP. Likewise, peripheral nerve conduction study is likely to be normal unless clear neurologic deficits are present. The present study illustrates that a good history and meticulous neurologic examination should be an integral part of an ideal electrodiagnostic procedure. PMID:26417485

  17. Abdominal aortic calcification: A reappraisal of epidemiological and pathophysiological data.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    In men and women, there is a significant association between the risk of cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke) and risk of major fragility fracture (hip, vertebra). Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) can be assessed using semiquantitative scores on spine radiographs and spine scans obtained by DXA. Severe AAC is associated with higher risk of major cardiovascular event. Not only does severe AAC reflect poor cardiovascular health status, but also directly disturbs blood flow in the vascular system. Severe (but not mild or moderate) AAC is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), faster bone loss and higher risk of major fragility fracture. The fracture risk remains increased after adjustment for BMD and other potential risk factors. The association between severe AAC and fracture risk was found in both sexes, mainly in the follow-ups of less than 10years. Many factors contribute to initiation and progression of AAC: lifestyle, co-morbidities, inorganic ions, dyslipidemia, hormones, cytokines (e.g. inflammatory cytokines, RANKL), matrix vesicles, microRNAs, structural proteins (e.g. elastin), vitamin K-dependent proteins, and medications (e.g. vitamin K antagonists). Osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and circulating osteoprogenitors penetrating into vascular wall plays a major role in the AAC initiation and progression. Vitamin K-dependent proteins protect vascular tunica media against formation of calcified deposits (matrix GLA protein, GLA-rich protein) and against VSMC apoptosis (Gas6). Further studies are needed to investigate clinical utility of AAC for the assessment of fracture and cardiovascular risk at the individual level and develop new medications permitting to prevent AAC progression.

  18. Malnutrition in South Asia-A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a major public health challenge especially in South Asian developing countries. The aim of the present review is to spotlight the magnitude of the prevalence of malnutrition and its dynamics in South Asian region and to suggest potential approaches for the prevention and control of this issue of public health significance. An extensive review of literature, covering malnutrition and its determinants, health and economic consequences and pragmatic preventive strategies was performed on computer based bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline and Sciencedirect.com ) to retrieve abstracts and full texts for India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. All relevant titles and abstracts were examined and evaluated for malnutrition and its prevalence in South Asia. The results revealed malnutrition to be a major public health problem and a potential cause of high disease burden and mortality in South Asia. Compelling evidence suggests malnutrition to be the leading cause of stunting, wasting and underweight with drastic economic consequences among vulnerable populations. Reduced cognitive performance and low productivity have also been associated with micronutrients malnutrition. Suboptimal breastfeeding, inadequate food supply, micronutrient deficiencies, low household income, poor health care system, increased healthcare costs, illiteracy, unhygienic and substandard living, inappropriate child's care and the caregiver, food insecurity and on top of that vicious cycle of poverty, have been recognized as principal indicators for growing malnutrition prevalence in South Asia. Global organizations, local governments, program managers, NGOs, academia, industry in particular and the society at large need to take up the challenge to completely confiscate malnutrition from the region for economic prosperity and a healthier future.

  19. Sonography of fetal Dandy-Walker malformation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Pilu, G; Goldstein, I; Reece, E A; Perolo, A; Foschini, M P; Hobbins, J C; Bovicelli, L

    1992-05-01

    Thirty-four cases of fetal Dandy-Walker malformation recognized in utero with ultrasound between 16 and 37 weeks' gestation are reported. In each case a qualitative examination of the posterior fossa structures was performed, including the cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellar vermis, fourth ventricle and cisterna magna. In each case, the transverse cerebellar diameter and the depth of the cisterna magna were measured in a standard transcerebellar view of the fetal brain. The atrial width of the lateral ventricles was also assessed. The transverse cerebellar diameter was abnormal in 15 cases, the cisterna magna depth was abnormal in 33, and the atrial width was abnormal in 30. It is concluded that measurement of the transverse cerebellar diameter is unreliable in predicting fetal Dandy-Walker malformation. Measurements of the cisterna magna and atrium seem to be more valuable, although the real sensitivity remains unclear. In pregnancies at risk for fetal Dandy-Walker malformation, the sonographic examination should not be limited to the cerebral ventricles and transcerebellar view but should include a detailed evaluation of all the different anatomical components of the posterior fossa, especially the fourth ventricle and inferior cerebellar vermis.

  20. Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Cochen De Cock, Valérie; Bayard, Sophie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Charif, Mahmoud; Grini, Magda; Langenier, Muriel Croisier; Yu, Huan; Lopez, Regis; Geny, Christian; Carlander, Bertrand; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive daytime sleepiness is a frequent complaint in Parkinson’s disease (PD); however the frequency and risk factors for objective sleepiness remain mostly unknown. We investigated both the frequency and determinants of self-reported and objective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using a wide range of potential predictors. Methods One hundred and thirty four consecutive patients with PD, without selection bias for sleep complaint, underwent a semi-structured clinical interview and a one night polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Demographic characteristics, medical history, PD course and severity, daytime sleepiness, depressive and insomnia symptoms, treatment intake, pain, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder, and nighttime sleep measures were collected. Self-reported daytime sleepiness was defined by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score above 10. A mean sleep latency on MSLT below 8 minutes defined objective daytime sleepiness. Results Of 134 patients with PD, 46.3% had subjective and only 13.4% had objective sleepiness with a weak negative correlation between ESS and MSLT latency. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with both ESS and MSLT, a pain complaint with ESS, and a higher apnea/hypopnea index with MSLT. However, no associations were found between both objective and subjective sleepiness, and measures of motor disability, disease onset, medication (type and dose), depression, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder and nighttime sleep evaluation. Conclusion We found a high frequency of self-reported EDS in PD, a finding which is however not confirmed by the gold standard neurophysiological evaluation. Current treatment options for EDS in PD are very limited; it thus remains to be determined whether decreasing pain and BMI in association with the treatment of sleep apnea syndrome would decrease significantly daytime sleepiness in PD. PMID:25198548

  1. Lung cancer mortality among U. S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters (in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(-/sup 2/) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(-/sup 3/) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures.

  2. Health hazards and nitrous oxide: a time for reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Yagiela, J A

    1991-01-01

    Recent adoption by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists of a Threshold Limit Value of 50 ppm for an 8-hour average exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) increases the likelihood for its regulation by state and federal occupational health agencies. This review outlines current information on the health risks of N2O inhalation to provide a basis from which safe and reasonably attainable exposure limits can be proposed. Although N2O was for many years believed to have no toxicity other than that associated with its anesthetic action, bone marrow depression in patients administered N2O for extended periods of time and neurological abnormalities in health care workers who inhaled N2O recreationally have disproved this notion. Retrospective surveys of dental and medical personnel have also linked occupational exposure to N2O with a number of health problems and reproductive derangements. Nitrous oxide reacts with the reduced form of vitamin B12, thereby inhibiting the action of methionine synthase, an enzyme that indirectly supports methylation reactions and nucleic acid synthesis. Many, if not all, of the nonanesthetic-related adverse effects of N2O may be ascribed to this action. Animal and human studies indicate that the toxic effects of N2O are concentration- and time-dependent. It is suggested that a time-weighted average of 100 ppm for an 8-hour workday and/or a time-weighted average of 400 ppm per anesthetic administration would provide adequate protection of dental personnel and be achievable with existing pollution control methods.

  3. Phylogenetics and the correlates of mammalian sleep: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Lesku, John A; Roth, Timothy C; Rattenborg, Niels C; Amlaner, Charles J; Lima, Steven L

    2008-06-01

    The correlates of mammalian sleep have been investigated previously in at least eight comparative studies in an effort to illuminate the functions of sleep. However, all of these univariate analyses treated each species, or taxonomic Family, as a statistically independent unit, which is invalid due to the phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we reassess these influential correlates of mammalian sleep using the formal phylogenetic framework of independent contrasts. After controlling for phylogeny using this procedure, the interpretation of many of the correlates changed. For instance, and contrary to previous studies, we found interspecific support for a neurophysiological role for rapid-eye-movement sleep, such as memory consolidation. Also in contrast to previous studies, we did not find comparative support for an energy conservation function for slow-wave sleep. Thus, the incorporation of a phylogenetic control into comparative analyses of sleep yields meaningful differences that affect our understanding of why we sleep.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy reappraisal: strategies, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a chronic disease that cannot be cured. Biologic agents have enabled good therapeutic successes; however, the response to biologic therapy depends on treatment history and, especially, disease duration. In general, the more drug-experienced the patients, the lower the response rates, although this limitation can be overcome by promptly adjusting or switching treatment in a treat-to-target approach. Another challenge is the question of how long therapy should be continued once the treatment target, which should be remission or at least a state of low disease activity, has been reached. The data available suggest that, in most patients with established disease, cessation of biologic therapy will be followed by disease flares, whereas a reduction of dose or an increase in the interval between doses enables maintenance of treatment success. Induction therapy very early in the disease course followed by withdrawal of the biologic agent might also be a feasible approach to attain sustained good outcomes, but currently available data are not strong enough to allow for such a conclusion to be reached. Taken together, this underscores the importance of research into the cause(s) of RA so that curative therapies can be developed.

  5. Reappraisal of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor for Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2011-05-20

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) enhancement factor of atomic Tl is of considerable interest as it has been used in determining the most accurate limit on the electron EDM to date. However, its value varies from -179 to -1041 in different approximations. In view of the large uncertainties associated with many of these calculations, we perform an accurate calculation employing the relativistic coupled-cluster theory and obtain -466, which in combination with the most accurate measurement of Tl EDM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002)] yields a new limit for the electron EDM: |d{sub e}|<2.0x10{sup -27}e cm.

  6. Reappraisal of guidelines for pharmacokinetic monitoring of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Yee, G C; Evans, W E

    1981-01-01

    The rationale for pharmacokinetic monitoring of aminoglycosides is critically reviewed. Retrospective studies suggest that for optimal antibacterial effect, peak serum gentamicin concentrations should exceed 5 micrograms/ml, despite the fact that these concentrations are indirect measures of the concentration of drug at the site of infection. When quantitative results of antimicrobial susceptibility are known (e.g. MIC or MBC), limited data suggest that for most infections, the peak serum aminoglycoside concentration should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration by four-fold. However, the optimal duration for which the serum concentration should exceed the MIC or MBC during each dosing interval and the detrimental effect of prolonged subinhibitory drug concentrations have not been evaluated. Furthermore, the immunological competence of the host and the pathogenicity of the infecting organism are important factors in achieving antibacterial response. Using serum creatinine as an indirect and relatively late indicator of nephrotoxicity, nadir gentamicin concentrations greater than 2 micrograms/ml may predispose patients to develop nephrotoxicity. In addition, recent information indicates that patients who accumulate excessive amounts of aminoglycosides in their tissues may be at higher risk for developing nephrotoxicity; these patients may be identified based on the extent of accumulation in their nadir concentrations with continuous dosing. The aminoglycosides diffuse into the inner ear fluids slowly and diffuse out with a half-life of decline in inner ear fluid concentrations slower than that in serum. High transient peak serum concentrations probably do not contribute significantly to the risk of ototoxicity. However, there is evidence from early clinical trials, studies using continuous infusions of aminoglycosides, and animal studies indicating that elevated nadir serum concentrations relate to the development of ototoxicity. There is considerable interpatient variability in the peak serum concentration, even when identical dosages based on body weight or surface area are administered. Similarly, the half-life for decline in serum concentrations is highly variable from patient to patient, even in patients with stable normal renal function. Absorption after intramuscular administration is reliable in most patients, although critically ill patients may experience erratic absorption. The distribution of aminoglycosides is altered in obese patients because of differences in extracellular fluid content between fat and other tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

  8. Clinical reappraisal of vasculobiliary anatomy relevant to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldip; Singh, Ranbir; Kaur, Manjot

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has many advantages as compared to open cholecystectomy. However, vasculobiliary injuries still continue to be a matter of concern despite advances in laparoscopic techniques. Misidentification and misperception of vasculobiliary structures is considered to be a pivotal factor leading to injuries. Although many studies since time immemorial have stressed on the importance of anatomy, an insight into laparoscopic anatomy is what essentially constitutes the need of the hour. To assess the frequency and the relevance of anatomical variations of extrahepatic biliary system in patients undergoing LC. The present study is an observational study performed for a period of 2 years from August 2014 to August 2016. It included all diagnosed patients of cholelithiasis undergoing routine LC performed by a single surgeon by achieving a critical view of safety. During dissection, vascular and ductal anomalies were noted and assessed for their relevance in LC. Seven hundred forty cases of cholelithiasis, irrespective of pathology, comprising 280 (37.83%) men and 460 (62.16%) females with a mean age of 39.85 ± 18.82 years were included in the study. Photodocumentation and operative recordings were available in 93% of cases. Operative findings revealed 197 (26.62%) vascular anomalies and 90 (12.16%) ductal anomalies. A single cystic artery was seen in 340 cases, and a normal cystic duct was seen in 650 cases. Variations in ductal anatomy were fewer than variations in vascular anatomy. Extra-biliary anatomy relevant to LC is unpredictable and varies from patient to patient. Vascular anomalies are more frequent than the ductal anomalies, and surgeon should be alert regarding their presence.

  9. A reappraisal of azhdarchid pterosaur functional morphology and paleoecology.

    PubMed

    Witton, Mark P; Naish, Darren

    2008-05-28

    Azhdarchid pterosaurs were among the most widespread and successful of pterosaur clades, but their paleoecology remains controversial. Morphological features common to all azhdarchids include a long, shallow rostrum; elongate, cylindrical cervical vertebrae that formed a long and unusually inflexible neck; and proportionally short wings with an abbreviated fourth phalanx. While azhdarchids have been imagined as vulture-like scavengers, sediment probers, swimmers, waders, aerial predators, or stork-like generalists, most recent authors have regarded them as skim-feeders, trawling their lower jaws through water during flight and seizing aquatic prey from the water's surface. Although apparently widely accepted, the skim-feeding model lacks critical support from anatomy and functional morphology. Azhdarchids lack the many cranial specialisations exhibited by extant skim-feeding birds, most notably the laterally compressed lower jaw and shock absorbing apparatus required for this feeding style. Well-preserved azhdarchid skulls are rare, but their rostra and lower jaws appear to have been sub-triangular in cross-section, and thus dissimilar to those of skim-feeders and sediment probers. Taphonomic data indicates that azhdarchids predominately inhabited inland settings, and azhdarchid morphology indicates that they were poorly suited for all proposed lifestyles bar wading and terrestrial foraging. However, azhdarchid footprints show that their feet were relatively small, padded and slender, and thus not well suited for wading. We argue that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Proficient terrestrial abilities and a relatively inflexible neck are in agreement with this interpretation.

  10. Implementation science: a reappraisal of our journal mission and scope.

    PubMed

    Foy, Robbie; Sales, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Aarons, Gregory A; Flottorp, Signe; Kent, Bridie; Michie, Susan; O'Connor, Denise; Rogers, Anne; Sevdalis, Nick; Straus, Sharon; Wilson, Paul

    2015-04-17

    The implementation of research findings into healthcare practice has become increasingly recognised as a major priority for researchers, service providers, research funders and policymakers over the past decade. Nine years after its establishment, Implementation Science, an international online open access journal, currently publishes over 150 articles each year. This is fewer than 30% of those submitted for publication. The majority of manuscript rejections occur at the point of initial editorial screening, frequently because we judge them to fall outside of journal scope. There are a number of common reasons as to why manuscripts are rejected on grounds of scope. Furthermore, as the field of implementation research has evolved and our journal submissions have risen, we have, out of necessity, had to become more selective in what we publish. We have also expanded our scope, particularly around patient-mediated and population health interventions, and will monitor the impact of such changes. We hope this editorial on our evolving priorities and common reasons for rejection without peer review will help authors to better judge the relevance of their papers to Implementation Science.

  11. Digitalis reappraised: Still here today, but gone tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-12-15

    Digoxin is one of the oldest of drugs acting on the heart and still one of the most frequently used. While in atrial fibrillation digoxin continues to have a valid role in the control of ventricular rate when added to beta-blockers and calcium antagonists, digoxin for heart failure is no longer a supportable option in view of the negative recent meta-analysis.

  12. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  13. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M; Neel, J V

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  14. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  15. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  16. [Reappraisal role of locoregional radiation therapy in metastatic cancers].

    PubMed

    Rancoule, Chloé; Pacaut-Vassal, Cécile; Vallard, Alexis; Mery, Benoite; Trone, Jane-Chloé; El Meddeb Hamrouni, Anis; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Recent innovations in oncology area helped to improve the prognosis of certain cancers including metastatic ones with a decrease in mortality. Recommendations describe the treatment of metastatic cancer as systemic therapy or complementary care and the role of locoregional treatment in the treatment plan only occurs in a palliative context. Currently, in the clinical practice, out of "the evidence based medicine", an early locoregional therapy (surgery or radiation therapy) can be proposed in several cases of metastatic cancers. The aim of the present review is to describe the role of the primary tumor radiation therapy in metastatic disease. In metastatic breast, prostate, cervix, rectal or nasopharyngeal cancers, locoregional treatment including radiation therapy can, in some cases, be discussed and decided in MDT. Ongoing clinical trials in these locations should soon precise the benefit of this locoregional treatment. It will also be important to define the specific criteria in order to select patients who could benefit from this treatment.

  17. Reappraisal of biosafety risks posed by PERVs in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2008-01-01

    Donor materials of porcine origin could potentially provide an alternative source of cells, tissues or whole organs for transplantation to humans, but is hampered by the health risk posed by infection with porcine viruses. Although pigs can be bred in such a way that all known exogenous microorganisms are eliminated, this is not feasible for all endogenous pathogens, such as the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) which are present in the germline of pigs as proviruses. Upon transplantation, PERV proviruses would be transferred to the human recipient along with the xenograft. If xenotransplantation stimulates or facilitates replication of PERVs in the new hosts, a risk exists for adaptation of the virus to humans and subsequent spread of these viruses. In a worst-case scenario, this might result in the emergence of a new viral disease. Although the concerns for disease potential of PERVs are easing, only limited pre-clinical and clinical data are available. Small-scale, well-designed and carefully controlled clinical trials would provide more evidence on the safety of this approach and allow a better appreciation of the risks involved. It is therefore important to have a framework of protective measures and monitoring protocols in place to facilitate such initially small scale clinical trials. This framework will raise ethical and social considerations regarding acceptability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  18. Birth order and neural tube defects: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R

    2004-01-15

    There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For neural tube defects (NTDs) there is no consensus as to whether first or increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on NTDs was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children first born or of high birth order to have NTDs. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Children with higher birth order are more likely to have spina bifida but not anencephaly. This same effect was also seen for all NTDs combined, which probably reflects the association with spina bifida. These results suggest the compilation of anencephaly and spina bifida data can be the explanation for the controversies seen in the literature.

  19. A reappraisal of the possible seizures of Vincent van Gogh.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2005-06-01

    The tragic life of Vincent van Gogh is summarized, emphasizing his early departure from formal education, failure as a successful salesman in the art world, attempt at religious studies, difficulty with female and family relationships, return to the art world, and tendencies toward extremes of poor nutrition or near self-starvation and excessive drinking and smoking. In Paris he joined the Impressionists, but drank very heavily both absinthe and cognac. Southward he went to Arles and was joined by Paul Gauguin, with whom he had major personality problems, causing van Gogh to cut off part of his left ear. He experienced paranoid ideation and confinement in mental institutions in Arles, and then returned to Paris and onto Auvers-sur-Oise, where he committed suicide at age 37. Possible physical diagnoses include glaucoma, Meniere's disease, acute intermittent porphyria, and chronic lead poisoning, but these diagnoses seem unlikely. Possible psychiatric diagnoses include borderline personality disorder, anxiety-depressive disorder with episodes of depression and hypomania, and also paranoid schizophrenia. Van Gogh did not have spontaneous seizures and, therefore, did not have epilepsy. Before he began to drink heavily, when he was near starvation, he had "fainting fits," and after drinking, especially absinthe, a convulsant drug, he continued to have similar attacks. His episodes of unconsciousness can be well explained by chronic malnutrition and alcohol abuse, only possibly exacerbated by drinking large quantities of absinthe. Although van Gogh is an excellent example of the Geschwind syndrome, at times associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, this fact does not establish such an epilepsy. Thus, the syndrome is an orphan without the parent condition.

  20. Quantitation of the prominent medullary pyramid: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Paling, M R; Black, W C

    1986-06-01

    We propose a revised objective measurement of the size of the renal medullary pyramid in the assessment of the prominent renal pyramid: the medullary-renal ratio (MRR). (Formula: see text). This is a more accurate assessment of the size of the renal pyramid relative to the size of the kidney than the previously proposed medullary pyramid index, which fails to take into account the varying morphology of otherwise normal kidneys.

  1. Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Emiel

    2014-12-02

    Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products.

  2. No Service to Learning: "Service-Learning" Reappraised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, John B.

    2008-01-01

    "Service-learning" has been adopted by many colleges and universities as a way of instilling in students an ethic of community service. Its advocates typically distinguish it from simple volunteering, which lacks an academic component, and from internships, in which students acquire practical skills. The author argues that the rationales for…

  3. Personalized medical education: Reappraising clinician-scientist training.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Gabriele C; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-13

    Revitalizing the Oslerian ideal of the clinician-scientist-teacher may help in the training of the next generation of translational researchers. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. The serotonergic appetite suppressant fenfluramine. Reappraisal and rejection.

    PubMed

    Curzon, G; Gibson, E L

    1999-01-01

    Medical and social pressures have led to increased emphasis on dieting. However, there has been a concurrent world wide increase of obesity. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the development of drugs which decrease appetite. The most extensively used drug of this type over the past three decades has been the serotonergic compound fenfluramine. Recent findings have cast doubt on the previously accepted view that its action requires the release of central 5-HT. Instead, it seems likely that action on specific 5-HT receptors independently of 5-HT stores is involved. It is ironic that these new developments in understanding its mechanism of action have coincided with the recognition of its cardiovascular side-effect apparent especially in patients treated with d-fenfluramine combined with phentermine. This has forced the withdrawal of fenfluramine (both as racemate and d-isomer) from clinical use. The implications of these developments are commented upon.

  5. Leucocyte migration inhibition test in coeliac disease - a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, F G; Field, H P; Howdle, P D; Robertson, D A; Losowsky, M S

    1983-01-01

    Results of the direct leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test using gluten fraction III as antigen were unaffected by incorporation of puromycin into the culture medium at concentrations shown to prevent lymphokine mediated inhibition. Results of the LMI test performed with purified polymorphs were similar to and correlated with results of the standard LMI test using mixed leucocytes in both coeliacs and controls. The addition of purified T lymphocytes did not increase migration inhibition. Normal leucocytes incubated with serum from coeliac patients and washed showed marked migration inhibition when incubated with gluten fraction III. This sensitisation of normal leucocytes was prevented by preincubation with aggregated human IgG. These results suggest that leucocyte migration inhibition by gluten in coeliac disease is not due to lymphokine production by sensitised lymphocytes but is caused by cytophilic antibody. PMID:6832627

  6. Radical re-appraisal of water structure in hydrophilic confinement☆

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Alan K.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of water confined in MCM41 silica cylindrical pores is studied to determine whether confined water is simply a version of the bulk liquid which can be substantially supercooled without crystallisation. A combination of total neutron scattering from the porous silica, both wet and dry, and computer simulation using a realistic model of the scattering substrate is used. The water in the pore is divided into three regions: core, interfacial and overlap. The average local densities of water in these simulations are found to be about 20% lower than bulk water density, while the density in the core region is below, but closer to, the bulk density. There is a decrease in both local and core densities when the temperature is lowered from 298 K to 210 K. The radical proposal is made here that water in hydrophilic confinement is under significant tension, around −100 MPa, inside the pore. PMID:25843963

  7. Reappraisal of the Regulation of Lactococcal l-Lactate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    van Niel, Ed W. J.; Palmfeldt, Johan; Martin, Rani; Paese, Marco; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    2004-01-01

    Lactococcal lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) are coregulated at the substrate level by at least two mechanisms: the fructose-1,6-biphosphate/phosphate ratio and the NADH/NAD ratio. Among the Lactococcus lactis species, there are strains that are predominantly regulated by the first mechanism (e.g., strain 65.1) or by the second mechanism (e.g., strain NCDO 2118). A more complete model of the kinetics of the regulation of lactococcal LDH is discussed. PMID:15006814

  8. Y-STR Frequency Surveying Method: A critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Willuweit, Sascha; Caliebe, Amke; Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Roewer, Lutz

    2011-03-01

    Reasonable formalized methods to estimate the frequencies of DNA profiles generated from lineage markers have been proposed in the past years and were discussed in the forensic community. Recently, collections of population data on the frequencies of variations in Y chromosomal STR profiles have reached a new quality with the establishment of the comprehensive neatly quality-controlled reference database YHRD. Grounded on such unrivalled empirical material from hundreds of populations studies the core assumption of the Haplotype Frequency Surveying Method originally described 10 years ago can be tested and improved. Here we provide new approaches to calculate the parameters used in the frequency surveying method: a maximum likelihood estimation of the regression parameters (r(1), r(2), s(1) and s(2)) and a revised Frequency Surveying framework with variable binning and a database preprocessing to take the population sub-structure into account. We found good estimates for 11 metapopulations using both approaches and demonstrate that the statistical basis of the method is well supported and independent of the population under study. The results of the estimation process are reliable and robust if the underlying datasets are large and representative and show small average and pairwise genetic distances.

  9. Acute interstitial nephritis – a reappraisal and update

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an under recognized and under diagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is estimated to account for 15 – 20% of cases of AKI; it is the reported diagnosis in 2.8% of all kidney biopsies, and 13.5% of biopsies done specifically for acute renal failure. Considerable evidence implicates antigen initiated cell-mediated injury in the pathogenesis of AIN. Drugs account for 70% of all cases, with over 150 different agents incriminated. The remaining cases are due to infections, autoimmune diseases, and rarely idiopathic. The central component of renal injury in AIN is altered tubular function, which usually precedes decrements in filtration rate. The key to early diagnosis is vigilance for the presence of tubular dysfunction in non-oliguric individuals, especially in patients with modest but gradual increments in creatinine level. The utility of urinary biomarkers to diagnose AIN in its early nascent and potentially reversible stage remains to be determined. Prompt recognition, elimination of the offending source of antigen, and use of a limited course of steroid therapy where indicated, will result in complete resolution in ~ 65% of cases, partial resolution in up to 20%, and irreversible damage in the rest. PMID:25079860

  10. Omental infarction: a reappraisal of conservative management in children.

    PubMed

    Estevão-Costa, José; Alvarenga, Ana Sofia; Fragoso, Ana Catarina; Garcia, Maria; Campos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A melhoria da acuidade diagnóstica do enfarte do omento resultou num incremento da atitude conservadora no seu tratamento. Com o objectivo de avaliar a eficácia e segurança da abordagem não-operatória, analisámos os casos de enfarte do omento tratados num hospital terciário. Material e Métodos: Incluímos os casos de enfarte do omento primários tratados entre 2004 e 2011. Os enfartes do omento diagnosticados por imagiologia foram submetidos a tratamento conservador que constou de analgésicos e antibioterapia intravenosa. Avaliámos os dados demográficos, apresentação clínica, dados laboratoriais, imagiologia e resultado. Resultados: Ocorreram nove casos de enfarte do omento. Oito pacientes (4 rapazes), com uma idade mediana de 8,5 anos, apresentaram- se na fase inicial da doença por dor abdominal à direita; a contagem leucocitária era normal ou ligeiramente elevada. Seis casos, diagnosticados por TC após ecografia suspeita de enfarte do omento em quatro, foram trados conservadoramente sem complicações, tendo alta ao terceiro dia (mediana). Dois doentes foram apenas diagnosticados durante a intervenção cirúrgica por suposta apendicite. O nono caso apresentou-se com uma obstrução intestinal devida a hérnia interna que foi resolvida por laparoscopia. Discussão: A imagiologia foi diagnóstica na maioria dos casos de enfarte do omento, permitindo a adoção de uma abordagem conservadora. O tratamento não-operatório foi eficaz e sem complicações em todos os doentes que se apresentaram na fase inicial da doença. Um doente apresentou-se com uma complicação grave que requereu intervenção cirúrgica. Conclusão: Na ausência de um tratamento consensual para o enfarte do omento, a abordagem não-operatória é uma alternativa não invasiva e eficaz, mas requer uma vigilância clínica ativa.

  11. Origin of hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico basin: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Bissada, K.K.; Katz, B.J.; Barnicle, S.C.; Schunk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of hydrocarbons in the Gulf of Mexico basin has been a subject of controversy for many years. One argument invokes source rocks of average organic enrichment, pervasively distributed throughout the Tertiary sequence and closely associated with the reservoir system. Another argument invokes exceptionally rich, discrete source rocks not in contact with the reservoirs, possibly in pre-Tertiary sequences. Continued exploration success in the basin hinges on the resolution of this controversy because of implications on patterns of hydrocarbon migration within the basin and the timing of petroleum generation relative to reservoir and trap development. Geochemical analyses of hundreds of crude oils, natural gases, and nonreservoir rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic trends along the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate the general inadequacy of the Tertiary section to source the huge oil accumulations within Cenozoic reservoirs. Furthermore, other than the biogenic gas, isotopic data indicate that the majority of nonassociated gases found in Cenozoic accumulations have been thermogenically derived from much greater depths where maturation is consistent with dry gas generation. Geochemical data from several Mesozoic units in the basin, but outside the Cenozoic trend proper, indicate the existence of excellent Mesozoic source rocks. It is proposed that such units extend below the Cenozoic producing trends and are drained by deep-seated faults and piercement salt structures. Maturation history, structural style, and patterns of migration and remigration control the variable productivity along the various trends.

  12. Cyclic antibiotic therapy for diverticular disease: a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Maconi, Giovanni; Manes, Gianpiero; Tammaro, Gianfranco; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Annibale, Bruno; Ficano, Leonardo; Buri, Luigi; Gatto, Giovanni; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Campo, Salvatore M; Ierardi, Enzo; Pace, Fabio; Morini, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Different symptoms have been attributed to uncomplicated diverticular disease (DD). Poor absorbable antibiotics are largely used for uncomplicated DD, mainly for symptom treatment and prevention of diverticulitis onset. Controlled trials on cyclic administration of rifaximin in DD patients were evaluated. Four controlled, including 1 double-blind and 3 open-label, randomized studies were available. Following a long-term cyclic therapy, a significant difference emerged in the global symptoms score (range: 0-18) between rifaximin plus fibers (from 6-6.5 to 1-2) and fibers alone (from 6.7 to 2-3.8), although the actual clinically relevance of such a very small difference remains to be ascertained. Moreover, a similar global symptom score reduction (from 6 to 2.4) can be achieved by simply recommending an inexpensive high-fiber diet. Current data suggest that cyclic rifaximin plus fibers significantly reduce the incidence of the first episode of acute diverticulitis as compared to fibers alone (1.03% vs 2.75%), but a cost-efficacy analysis is needed before this treatment can be routinely recommended. The available studies have been hampered by some limitations, and definite conclusions could not be drawn. The cost of a long-life, cyclic rifaximin therapy administered to all symptomatic DD patients would appear prohibitive.

  13. Reappraising Einstein's 1909 application of fluctuation theory to Planckian radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, F. E.

    2004-08-01

    Einstein's 1909 application of fluctuation theory to Planckian radiation is challenged by the fact that radiation within a completely reflecting cavity is not in thermal equilibrium and therefore should not qualify as a candidate for analysis by Einstein's theory. We offer an alternative interpretation wherein Planck's function, to which Einstein applied his theory, represents the source function in the wall material surrounding a real, partially reflecting cavity. The source function experiences thermal fluctuations and radiation within the cavity (which originates in the wall material and has an intensity equal to the source function) fluctuates in concert. That is, blackbody radiation within a real cavity exhibits the thermal fluctuations predicted by Einstein, but the fluctuations have their origin in the wall material and are not intrinsic to radiation.

  14. Reappraising Einstein's 1905 application of thermodynamics and statistics to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, F. E.

    2004-03-01

    Einstein's 1905 application of thermodynamics and statistics to radiation, which led to the hypothesis of the corpuscular light quantum, is rendered uncertain by a lack of information as to how radiation behaves when undergoing a statistical fluctuation of volume. The paper examines this issue and appraises the particular assumption made by Einstein. We find that Einstein assumed for radiation a type of behaviour normally reserved for a gas of particles, in which case a conclusion about radiation behaving thermodynamically as though it consisted of particles (of energy) is not surprising.

  15. A Reappraisal of Bennett Reimer and His Meanings of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett; Lewis, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Consistent throughout his writings on aesthetics and education, Bennett Reimer maintained the idea that music must be understood and studied as non-conceptual. Music's forms of knowing point to the subjective realms of life and operate effectively without the assistance or necessity of language. An education in the arts is an education in…

  16. Reappraisal of role of angiotensin receptor blockers in cardiovascular protection.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have shown cardioprotective and renoprotective properties. These agents are recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of hypertension and the reduction of cardiovascular risk. Early studies pointed to the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of ARBs in high-risk patients. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) established the clinical equivalence of the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of telmisartan and ramipril, but did not find an added benefit of the combination over ramipril alone. Similar findings were observed in the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in aCE INtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) trial conducted in ACEI-intolerant patients. In ONTARGET, telmisartan had a better tolerability profile with similar renoprotective properties compared with ramipril, suggesting a potential clinical benefit over ramipril. The recently completed Olmesartan Reducing Incidence of Endstage Renal Disease in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (ORIENT) and Olmesartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) studies will further define the role of ARBs in cardioprotection and renoprotection for high-risk patients.

  17. Genes without prominence: a reappraisal of the foundations of biology

    PubMed Central

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome raises two intriguing questions: why has the prediction of the inheritance of common diseases from the presence of abnormal alleles proved so unrewarding in most cases and how can some 25 000 genes generate such a rich complexity evident in the human phenotype? It is proposed that light can be shed on these questions by viewing evolution and organisms as natural processes contingent on the second law of thermodynamics, equivalent to the principle of least action in its original form. Consequently, natural selection acts on variation in any mechanism that consumes energy from the environment rather than on genetic variation. According to this tenet cellular phenotype, represented by a minimum free energy attractor state comprising active gene products, has a causal role in giving rise, by a self-similar process of cell-to-cell interaction, to morphology and functionality in organisms, which, in turn, by a self-similar process entailing Darwin's proportional numbers are influencing their ecosystems. Thus, genes are merely a means of specifying polypeptides: those that serve free energy consumption in a given surroundings contribute to cellular phenotype as determined by the phenotype. In such natural processes, everything depends on everything else, and phenotypes are emergent properties of their systems. PMID:24554573

  18. Regional flaps in head and neck reconstruction: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Giacomo; Tewfik, Karim; Bardazzi, Alessandro; Allevi, Fabiana; Chiapasco, Matteo; Mandalà, Marco; Rabbiosi, Dimitri

    2015-03-01

    Starting from our experience with 45 consecutive cases of regional pedicled flaps, we have underlined the effectiveness and reliability of a variety of flaps. The marketing laws as applied to surgical innovations are reviewed to help in the understanding of why regional flaps are regaining wide popularity in head and neck reconstruction. From January 2009 to January 2014, 45 regional flaps were harvested at San Paolo Hospital to reconstruct head and neck defects. These included 35 pectoralis major muscular and myocutaneous flaps, 4 lower trapezius island or pedicled flaps, 3 supraclavicular flaps, 2 latissimus dorsi pedicled flaps, and 1 fasciocutaneous temporal flap. The basic literature of marketing regarding the diffusion of new products was also reviewed. Two myocutaneous pectoralis major flaps were complicated by necrosis of the cutaneous paddle (one complete and one partial). No complete loss of any of the 45 flaps was observed. At 6 months of follow-up, 2 patients had died of multiple organ failure after prolonged sepsis. The 43 remaining patients had acceptable morphologic and functional results. Regional and free flaps appear to compete in many cases for the same indications. From the results of the present case series, regional flaps can be considered reliable reconstructive choices that are less expensive than their free flap alternatives. The "resurrection" of regional flaps can be partially justified by the changes in the global economy and the required adaptation of developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trigeminocardiac Reflex: A Reappraisal with Relevance to Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Darpan; Thomas, Shaji; Chakravorty, Nupur; Dutt, Ashutosh

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to undertake a review of literature on trigeminocardiac reflex in oral and maxillofacial online data-base and discuss the pathophysiology, risk factor assessment, presentation of the reflex, prevention, management with emphasis on the role of the attending anaesthetist and the maxillofacial surgeon. The available literature relevant to oral and maxillofacial surgery in online data-base of the United States National Library of Medicine: Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) was searched. The inclusion criterion was to review published clinical papers, abstracts and evidence based reviews on trigeminocardiac reflex relevant to oral and maxillofacial surgery. Sixty-five articles were found with the search term "trigeminocardiac reflex" in the literature searched. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria for this study. The relevant data was extracted, tabulated and reviewed to draw evidence based conclusions for the management of trigeminocardiac reflex. Conclusions were drawn and discussed based on the reviewed maxillofacial literature with emphasis on the anaesthetist's and the surgeon's role in the management of this detrimental event in maxillofacial surgical practice.

  20. A Reappraisal of the 4/3/2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the 4/3/2 activity learners deliver the same talk three times under increasing time pressure. The activity is intended first and foremost to foster fluency, but accuracy and complexity have also been said to benefit from this activity. The present study investigates whether immediate repetition of monologues under increasing time pressure…

  1. Douglas-fir rotations--Time for reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.O. ); Marshall, D.D. )

    1993-07-01

    The combination of social and political pressures (stemming largely from the visual impacts of current forest practices) and concerns raised by some scientists about certain biological aspects of current practices is forcing major changes in forest management practices, with increased emphasis on amenity, wildlife, and recreational values. A variety of alternative practices are being proposed or applied, often referred to under the collective name of New Forestry. A general shortcoming of many of these practices is that the authors have little basis for quantitative estimates of the long-term results--either costs or benefits (if any). For some, this is totally lacking. Yet, this is certainly a time to re-examine entrenched ideas. This paper discusses extended rotations as a possible means of reducing conflicts between timber production and other forest values.

  2. Beta-blockers in COPD: time for reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Brian; Wedzicha, Jadwiga; Devereux, Graham; Vestbo, Jørgen; Dransfield, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    The combined effects on the heart of smoking and hypoxaemia may contribute to an increased cardiovascular burden in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The use of beta-blockers in COPD has been proposed because of their known cardioprotective effects as well as reducing heart rate and improving systolic function. Despite the proven cardiac benefits of beta-blockers post-myocardial infarction and in heart failure they remain underused due to concerns regarding potential bronchoconstriction, even with cardioselective drugs. Initiating treatment with beta-blockers requires dose titration and monitoring over a period of weeks, and beta-blockers may be less well tolerated in older patients with COPD who have other comorbidities. Medium-term prospective placebo-controlled safety studies in COPD are warranted to reassure prescribers regarding the pulmonary and cardiac tolerability of beta-blockers as well as evaluating their potential interaction with concomitant inhaled long-acting bronchodilator therapy. Several retrospective observational studies have shown impressive reductions in mortality and exacerbations conferred by beta-blockers in COPD. However, this requires confirmation from long-term prospective placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials. The real challenge is to establish whether beta-blockers confer benefits on mortality and exacerbations in all patients with COPD, including those with silent cardiovascular disease where the situation is less clear.

  3. The Nuremberg Code and the Nuremberg Trial. A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Katz, J

    1996-11-27

    The Nuremberg Code includes 10 principles to guide physician-investigators in experiments involving human subjects. These principles, particularly the first principle on "voluntary consent," primarily were based on legal concepts because medical codes of ethics existent at the time of the Nazi atrocities did not address consent and other safeguards for human subjects. The US judges who presided over the proceedings did not intend the Code to apply only to the case before them, to be a response to the atrocities committed by the Nazi physicians, or to be inapplicable to research as it is customarily carried on in medical institutions. Instead, a careful reading of the judgment suggests that they wrote the Code for the practice of human experimentation whenever it is being conducted.

  4. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive transfusion requirements could allow early activation of blood bank protocols. Methods Datasets on trauma admissions over a 1 or 2-year period were obtained from the trauma registries of five large trauma research networks. A fractional polynomial was used to model the transfusion-associated probability of death. A logistic regression model for the prediction of massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of red cell transfusions, was developed. Results In total, 5,693 patient records were available for analysis. Mortality increased as transfusion requirements increased, but the model indicated no threshold effect. Mortality was 9% in patients who received none to five PRBC units, 22% in patients receiving six to nine PRBC units, and 42% in patients receiving 10 or more units. A logistic model for prediction of massive transfusion was developed and validated at multiple sites but achieved only moderate performance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81, with specificity of only 50% at a sensitivity of 90% for the prediction of 10 or more PRBC units. Performance varied widely at different trauma centers, with specificity varying from 48% to 91%. Conclusions No threshold for definition exists at which a massive transfusion specifically results in worse outcomes. Even with a large sample size across multiple trauma datasets, it was not possible to develop a transportable and clinically useful prediction model based on available admission parameters. Massive transfusion as a concept in trauma has limited utility, and emphasis should be placed on identifying patients with massive hemorrhage and acute traumatic coagulopathy. PMID:21192812

  5. Archean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Wladyslaw; Kazmierczak, Józef

    2003-11-01

    The oldest fossils found thus far on Earth are c. 3.49- and 3.46-billion-year-old filamentous and coccoidal microbial remains in rocks of the Pilbara craton, Western Australia, and c. 3.4-billion-year-old rocks from the Barberton region, South Africa. Their biogenicity was recently questioned and they were reinterpreted as contaminants, mineral artefacts or inorganic carbon aggregates. Morphological, geochemical and isotopic data imply, however, that life was relatively widespread and advanced in the Archean, between 3.5 and 2.5 billion years ago, with metabolic pathways analogous to those of recent prokaryotic organisms, including cyanobacteria, and probably even eukaryotes at the terminal Archean.

  6. Basement membrane proteins in the space of Disse: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M R; Keir, S; Burt, A D

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of two major basement membrane components, type IV collagen and laminin, was studied within the perisinusoidal space of Disse in normal human liver using (i) an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopy and (ii) immunogold labelling for ultrastructural localisation. Although immunoreactivity depended on the mode of tissue fixation, both proteins could be identified at this site using a panel of affinity purified antibodies. These findings indicate that these proteins are normal constituents of the perisinusoidal extracellular matrix, and refute the hypothesis that capillarization of the sinusoids in chronic liver disease results from neo-expression of laminin in the space of Disse. Images PMID:1890197

  7. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-03-15

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34(+)/CD117(+)/CD13(+)multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lateral diffusion of rhodopsin in photoreceptor membrane: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Korenyak, Darya A.; Shukolyukov, Sergei A.; Zueva, Lidia V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose In a series of works between 1972 and 1984, it was established that rhodopsin undergoes rotational and lateral Brownian motion in the plane of photoreceptor membrane. The concept of free movement of proteins of phototransduction cascade is an essential principle of the present scheme of vertebrate phototransduction. This has recently been challenged by findings that show that in certain conditions rhodopsin in the membrane may be dimeric and form extended areas of paracrystalline organization. Such organization seems incompatible with earlier data on free rhodopsin diffusion. Thus we decided to reinvestigate lateral diffusion of rhodopsin and products of its photolysis in photoreceptor membrane specifically looking for indications of possible oligomeric organization. Methods Diffusion exchange by rhodopsin and its photoproducts between bleached and unbleached halves of rod outer segment was traced using high-speed dichroic microspectrophotometer. Measurements were conducted on amphibian (frog, toad, and salamander) and gecko rods. Results We found that the curves that are supposed to reflect the process of diffusion equilibration of rhodopsin in nonuniformly bleached outer segment largely show production of long-lived bleaching intermediate, metarhodopsin III (Meta III). After experimental elimination of Meta III contribution, we observed rhodopsin equilibration time constant was threefold to tenfold longer than estimated previously. However, after proper correction for the geometry of rod discs, it translates into generally accepted value of diffusion constant of approximately 5×10−9 cm2 s−1. Yet, we found that there exists an immobile rhodopsin fraction whose size can vary from virtually zero to 100%, depending on poorly defined factors. Controls suggest that the formation of the immobile fraction is not due to fragmentation of rod outer segment discs but supposedly reflects oligomerization of rhodopsin. Conclusions Implications of the new findings for the present model of phototransduction are discussed. We hypothesize that formation of paracrystalline areas, if controlled physiologically, could be an extra mechanism of cascade regulation. PMID:19727341

  9. Health hazards and nitrous oxide: a time for reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Yagiela, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent adoption by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists of a Threshold Limit Value of 50 ppm for an 8-hour average exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) increases the likelihood for its regulation by state and federal occupational health agencies. This review outlines current information on the health risks of N2O inhalation to provide a basis from which safe and reasonably attainable exposure limits can be proposed. Although N2O was for many years believed to have no toxicity other than that associated with its anesthetic action, bone marrow depression in patients administered N2O for extended periods of time and neurological abnormalities in health care workers who inhaled N2O recreationally have disproved this notion. Retrospective surveys of dental and medical personnel have also linked occupational exposure to N2O with a number of health problems and reproductive derangements. Nitrous oxide reacts with the reduced form of vitamin B12, thereby inhibiting the action of methionine synthase, an enzyme that indirectly supports methylation reactions and nucleic acid synthesis. Many, if not all, of the nonanesthetic-related adverse effects of N2O may be ascribed to this action. Animal and human studies indicate that the toxic effects of N2O are concentration- and time-dependent. It is suggested that a time-weighted average of 100 ppm for an 8-hour workday and/or a time-weighted average of 400 ppm per anesthetic administration would provide adequate protection of dental personnel and be achievable with existing pollution control methods. PMID:1809046

  10. A Reappraisal of Bennett Reimer and His Meanings of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett; Lewis, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Consistent throughout his writings on aesthetics and education, Bennett Reimer maintained the idea that music must be understood and studied as non-conceptual. Music's forms of knowing point to the subjective realms of life and operate effectively without the assistance or necessity of language. An education in the arts is an education in…

  11. Augmentation of seizure induction in electroconvulsive therapy: a clinical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Datto, Catherine; Rai, Anil K; Ilivicky, Howard J; Caroff, Stanley N

    2002-09-01

    Missed or abortive seizures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may preclude completion of an effective course of treatment in some cases. Seizure augmentation, using proconvulsant agents, has been used to overcome resistance to the induction and continuation of seizure activity. In this review, we analyze published clinical data on the effects and safety of seizure augmentation techniques. Clinical studies and case reports were obtained through a MEDLINE literature search from 1966 to 2001, cross-referencing ECT and proconvulsant agents. Article references were also scanned for relevant studies. Data from clinical trials indicate that augmentation facilitates seizure induction when maximal electrical stimuli fail. Anesthetic modifications, including hyperventilation and substitution with etomidate, ketamine, or other agents, often are successful in overcoming seizure resistance and compare favorably with the use of caffeine. In a few studies, augmentation enabled the use of lower stimulus intensities and fewer treatments without loss of efficacy, even in patients not resistant to seizure induction. However, effects of proconvulsants must be reconciled with increasing evidence of the importance of stimulus dosing relative to seizure threshold and other parameters, now considered key to the efficacy of ECT. Further investigations of pharmacologic augmentation could facilitate the administration of ECT and could provide further insights concerning parameters of seizure efficacy and the mechanism of action underlying convulsive therapies.

  12. A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

  13. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  14. Chapter 11. The Economics of Group Care Practice: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Martin

    2006-01-01

    For the past two decades, economic influences have significantly impacted the provision of health and welfare services for children, young people and their families in communities around the world. The dynamic of cost has reshaped both the nature and provision of group care services, promoting de-institutionalization and transforming the nature of…

  15. Adenosine and Preexcitation Variants: Reappraisal of Electrocardiographic Changes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous adenosine is a short-acting blocker of the atrioventricular node that has been used to unmask subtle or latent preexcitation, and also to enable catheter ablation in selected patients with absent or intermittent preexcitation. Depending on the accessory pathway characteristics, intravenous adenosine may produce specific electrocardiographic changes highly suggestive of the preexcitation variant. Herein, we view different ECG responses to this pharmacological test in various preexcitation patterns that were confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Careful analysis of electrocardiographic changes during adenosine test, with emphasis on P-delta interval, preexcitation degree, and atrioventricular block, can be helpful to diagnose the preexcitation variant/pattern.

  16. Psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities in epilepsy: A critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anne T; Altalib, Hamada H; Devinsky, Orrin

    2017-07-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral disorders are important aspects of epilepsy and have received increasing attention in the last several years. The literature upon which most of the field relies contains some biases that must be carefully examined and resolved in future studies. First, in the pediatric epilepsy literature, many reports find that children with epilepsy have high levels of behavioral and psychiatric disorders when compared to appropriate controls. Most of these studies rely on parent-proxy completed instruments to assess these behavioral endpoints. Parents' reports are not objective but reflect parents' reactions and emotions. Increasing evidence suggests inherent biases in proxy reports and highlights the need to assess children directly. Second, periictal phenomena may be mischaracterized as underlying mood disorders. Third, many studies report elevated levels of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of epilepsy, suggesting an inherent relation between the two types of disorders. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, while widely recognized as posing a diagnostic dilemma in the clinic, may account for some of these research findings. Diagnostic errors between epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures need careful consideration when evaluating studies demonstrating associations between psychiatric disorders and epilepsy or poorer seizure control in association with psychiatric disorders in people who have epilepsy. Mental health concerns are important for everyone. An accurate, undistorted understanding of the relation between mental health disorders and epilepsy is essential to ensure appropriate therapy and to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful treatments and common misconceptions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. The meandering-braided river threshold: A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1984-08-01

    The concept of a threshold discharge-slope (Q-s) combination that separates braided from meandering streams is critically re-examined, partly by review of previous data, and partly by analysis of new data from South Island, New Zealand. It is argue d that discriminant functions that use mean annual discharge provide a poor physical basis for interpretations based on natural processes, while bankfull discharge is also deficient because it is not a fully independent variable. The common use of channel (rather than valley) slope adds a further misleading component because channel slope is partly dependent on channel pattern sinuosity. Most previous studies have inadequately treated the role of bed particle size in pattern discrimination, failing to recognize that active gravel streams must plot higher on a Q-s chart than sand-bed channels — irrespective of pattern — because of the greater power requirements for bed material movement. Within any one size class of bed material there is no evidence to indicate a clear discrimination between braiding and meandering, only a weak statistical association between pattern and slope-discharge values. While this association may be explicable in terms of the high shear stress and stream power (that accompany high Qs-values) promoting braiding, the real prerequisite for braiding appears to be high loads of bed-calibre material (producing wide shallow channels), a factor that is only partly controlled by stream power. Accordingly, the search for a pattern threshold based on discharge and slope seems to be a futile exercise. An interpretation of existing pattern discriminant functions from the perspective of the threshold shear stress for particle movement is made. It is concluded that, in effect, these functions merely state that gravel-bed streams are more likely to be braided than channels in finer sediment. Statistically this appears to be valid, and reasons for that difference are offered based on the balance between imposed bed material load and channel capacity.

  18. Electrophysiologic features of inherited demyelinating neuropathies: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R A; Sumner, A J

    1999-09-14

    The observation that inherited demyelinating neuropathies tend to have uniform conduction slowing and acquired disorders (CIDP and variants) have nonuniform or multifocal slowing was made before the identification of genetic defects of specific myelin constituents that cause the different forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth and other inherited disorders involving peripheral nerve myelin. It is becoming clear that the electrophysiologic aspects of these disorders are more complex than previously realized. We review the current information available on the electrophysiologic features of the inherited demyelinating neuropathies in hopes of clarifying the clinical electrodiagnostic features of these disorders as well as to shed light on the physiologic consequences of the different genetic mutations.

  19. Meteorite falls in Bulgaria: Reappraisal of mineralogy, chemistry, and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekov, Vesselin; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe

    2017-08-01

    We present a summary of the mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and magnetic characteristics of all the five Bulgarian meteorite falls. We report the first mineralogical descriptions, chemical analyses, and magnetic measurements of the Konevo (1931) and Silistra (1917) meteorites. We classify Konevo as LL5, and Silistra as an ungrouped achondrite with HED affinities. Pavel (1966; previously classified as an H5) is reclassified as H3-anomalous. We also provide precise mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Virba meteorite (1873, L6), and more details on the mineral chemistry of Gumoschnik (1904, H5).

  20. Composite End Points in Clinical Research: A Time for Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Paul W; Westerhout, Cynthia M

    2017-06-06

    Advances in cardiovascular medicine fueled by innovative clinical trials have dramatically improved the lives of patients worldwide. Commensurate with this progress has been a decline in morbid and mortal events. Accordingly, an increased propensity to collate patient outcomes in clinical trials has emerged that combines death and nonfatal complications into a single composite event. Despite the acknowledged benefits in trial efficiency from such an approach, this method assumes uniform directionality of each component, does not distinguish the relative clinical significance of each, and counts only the first occurrence of any event in the final tally within a conventional time to first event analysis. In this article, we evaluate the criticisms that have been leveled at this approach and provide an overview of recently published phase III cardiovascular trials using primary composite end points. We then explore what to anticipate from the large cohort of as-yet unpublished clinical trials in this arena. Last, we propose a variety of novel approaches that use composite end points and suggest a path forward to enhancing their use in future clinical trials. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Pure erythrocytosis: reappraisal of a study of 51 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Najean, Y.; Triebel, F.; Dresch, C.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-one cases of pure, primary erythrocytosis were identified and followed at Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris, and compared with 350 cases of polycythemia vera (PV) observed during the same period. At the initial evaluation, these cases did not differ from PV cases with respect to age, sex ratio, degree of red cell volume increase, and clinical symptoms. They did differ by the absence of splenomegaly, granulocytosis and thrombocytosis. At a late stage of evolution only a few cases developed classical criteria of PV. From this group of apparently homogeneous cases, two subgroups evolved. Sixty percent of the cases were highly responsive to myelosuppression with /sup 32/P. The median duration of the first remission was greater than five years, the mean yearly dose of /sup 32/P was very low, and there was a low incidence of complications. The other group (40% of cases) was relatively resistant to myelosuppressive agents. The development of better methods of investigate this disorder might help in discriminating these two groups from both an etiological and pathophysiological viewpoint. The thromboembolic risk of these diseases suggests that myelosuppressive therapy should be utilized in older patients with higher risk of vascular accidents, reserving phlebotomy for younger patients and those who are shown to be resistant to /sup 32/P therapy.

  2. Clinical significance of recent inversion of the nipple: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, E M; Freeman, A H; Adiseshiah, M

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective survey of 63 cases of inverted nipple, unaccompanied by a palpable mass, 3 histologically confirmed carcinomas were found on combined clinical and mammographic examination - an incidence of 5%. No carcinoma was found in those patients under 50 years of age. The problem of the false negative mammogram is discussed. PMID:7069669

  3. Linking dispositional mindfulness and positive psychological processes in cancer survivorship: a multivariate path analytic test of the mindfulness-to-meaning theory.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Thielking, Paul; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Coombs, Mary; White, Shelley; Lombardi, Joy; Beck, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that dispositional mindfulness is associated with positive psychological functioning. Although this disposition has been linked with beneficial outcomes in the broader mental health literature, less is known about dispositional mindfulness in cancer survivors and how it may be linked with indices of psychological and physical health relevant to cancer survivorship. We conducted a multivariate path analysis of data from a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (N = 97) to test the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, an extended process model of emotion regulation linking dispositional mindfulness with cancer-related quality of life via positive psychological processes. We found that patients endorsing higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were more likely to pay attention to positive experiences (β = .56), a tendency which was associated with positive reappraisal of stressful life events (β = .51). Patients who engaged in more frequent positive reappraisal had a greater sense of meaning in life (β = .43) and tended to savor rewarding or life affirming events (β = .50). In turn, those who engaged in high levels of savoring had better quality of life (β = .33) and suffered less from emotional distress (β = -.54). Findings provide support for the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory and help explicate the processes by which mindfulness promotes psychological flourishing in the face of cancer. Cancer survivors may benefit from enhancing mindfulness, reappraisal, and savoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Perfectionism and negative/positive affect associations: the role of cognitive emotion regulation and perceived distress/coping.

    PubMed

    Castro, Juliana; Soares, Maria João; Pereira, Ana T; Macedo, António

    2017-01-01

    To explore 1) if perfectionism, perceived distress/coping, and cognitive emotion regulation (CER) are associated with and predictive of negative/positive affect (NA/PA); and 2) if CER and perceived distress/coping are associated with perfectionism and if they mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations. There is a distinction between maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism in its association with NA/PA. CER and perceived distress/coping may mediate the maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and NA/PA associations. 344 students (68.4% girls) completed the Hewitt & Flett and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales, the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. NA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive CER and perceived distress (positively), positive reappraisal and planning, and perceived coping (negatively). PA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and perceived distress (negatively), positive reappraisal and planning, positive refocusing and perceived coping (positively). The association between maladaptive perfectionism and NA was mediated by maladaptive CER/low adaptive CER, perceived distress/low coping. Maladaptive perfectionism and low PA association was mediated by perceived distress. High PA was determined by low maladaptive perfectionism and this association was mediated by adaptive REC and coping. Adaptive perfectionism and NA association was mediated by maladaptive CER and perceived distress. CER and perceived distress/coping are associated and mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations.

  5. [Identification, during development, of a methodology targeted at determining the positioning of new drugs for therapeutic strategies: examples of rheumatoid arthritis and cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C; Plétan, Y; Boissel, J P

    2002-01-01

    The Marketing Authorization (MA) granted to a new molecular entity does not allow for proper anticipation of its future positioning within the therapeutic strategy. A specific methodology should be devised as early as during the pre-MA development phase that could result in an initial positioning that should be subjected to further reappraisal with regard to scientific advances, the arrival of new treatments and further developments with this molecule. A methodology is thus proposed, based on early optimisation of the development plan, the granting of subsequent MAs, and reappraisal of the positioning within the strategy, based on analysis of all available data. It should be possible to take into account the economic context, within an agreed system with pre-defined medico-economic criteria. This may in turn raise the issue of the role of the various parties involved in this assessment, as well as how to understand the respective opinions of stakeholders: authorities, sponsors, prescribers and patients, each of whom has a specific view of the definition of the strategic objective that should apply to the disease concerned.

  6. Spontaneous Emotion Regulation to Positive and Negative Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volokhov, Rachael N.; Demaree, Heath A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions is an integral part of human social behavior. One antecedent emotion regulation strategy, known as reappraisal, is characterized by cognitively evaluating an emotional stimulus to alter its emotional impact and one response-focused strategy, suppression, is aimed at reducing behavioral output. People are…

  7. Psychological Distress, Coping, and Disease Progression in HIV-positive Homosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Vassend, O; Eskild, A

    1998-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to examine the role of coping styles in disease progression in models controlling for initial CD4+ cell counts, distress, and health behavior in a sample of HIV- positive homosexual men (n = 65), and (2) to investigate the relationship between coping styles and distress (e.g. depression, anxiety, negative ruminations). A consistent association between planful problem-solving coping and disease progression was demonstrated. Distress was positively correlated with indicators of passive-defensive coping style (e.g. self- controlling, escape-avoidance), and negatively correlated with planful problem-solving and positive reappraisal. The results suggest that coping styles may merit a specific focus in future research of psychological factors in HIV infection, particularly as they may relate both to medical outcome and to the social/emotional aspects of being HIV-infected.

  8. Individual differences in positive and negative emotion regulation: Which strategies explain variability in loneliness?

    PubMed

    Kearns, Sinead M; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios. Regression analyses indicated that the regulation of positive and negative emotions explained comparable variance in loneliness, and associations were only partially reduced by the inclusion of social support. The specific strategies positive reappraisal, being present and negative mental time travel explained the most variance in loneliness. The findings are consistent with both the cognitive and the social needs models of loneliness and suggest that variability in ER strategies should be considered relevant to loneliness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Farb, Norman A.; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life. PMID:27087765

  10. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Farb, Norman A; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life.

  11. Reappraising the Relationships between Physics Students' Mental Models and Predictions: An Example of Heat Convection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Guo-Li

    2013-01-01

    Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students' mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between…

  12. Branchial sinus of the piriform fossa: reappraisal of third and fourth branchial anomalies.

    PubMed

    James, Adrian; Stewart, Craig; Warrick, Paul; Tzifa, Constance; Forte, Vito

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to review clinical and embryologic aspects of third and fourth branchial anomalies. Retrospective study. We reviewed the institutional and departmental databases at our institution to identify all cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies encountered from 1992 to 2006. All patient records were examined with respect to demographics, clinical history, and radiologic and pathologic reports. We identified 17 cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies, the largest series of its kind reported to date. The lesions were predominantly left sided, all presenting with neck infection. Fistula formation was iatrogenic, secondary to incision and drainage. Preoperative direct laryngoscopy always revealed a pit within the apex of the piriform fossa. Surgical excision involved ipsilateral thyroidectomy as the lesion passed through the thyroid gland. No lesions following the classical course of a either a third or fourth branchial anomaly were identified. The clinical presentation of branchial sinuses arising from the piriform fossa is more in keeping with derivation from the thymopharyngeal duct (of the third pouch) than the hypothetical course of third and fourth branchial fistulae.

  13. Reappraisal of the historic 1959 cat experiment in Minamata by the Chisso Factory.

    PubMed

    Eto, K; Yasutake, A; Nakano, A; Akagi, H; Tokunaga, H; Kojima, T

    2001-08-01

    Autopsy specimens from the historic cat experiment were recently discovered in a storage area at the Kumamoto University School of Medicine. The specimens were from an experiment prompted by physicians in the Chisso Minamata Plant following the announcement made by the Study Group for Minamata disease. On July 14, 1959 the Group announced that the disease was most likely caused by a kind of organic mercury. In order to prove or disprove that industrial waste from the Chisso Factory was the culprit in Minamata disease, a total of ten cats were fed food mixed with industrial waste produced in the acetaldehyde-producing plant. One of the ten cats, No. 717, was subsequently autopsied but the autopsy findings have never been published or recorded in the literature despite their historic significance. The rediscovered specimens were studied pathologically and biochemically, and were analyzed chemically with currently available techniques. Characteristic lesions of methylmercury poisoning were observed in the central nervous system, and the mercury levels in the cerebrum, cerebellum, liver and kidney were found to be markedly elevated in this animal.

  14. Economics of a nest-box program for the conservation of an endangered species: a reappraisal

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Spring; Michael Bevers; John O.S. Kennedy; Dan Harley

    2001-01-01

    An optimization model is developed to identify timing and placement strategies for the installation of nest boxes and the harvesting of timber to meet joint timber–wildlife objectives. Optimal management regimes are determined on the basis of their impacts on the local abundance of a threatened species and net present value (NPV) and are identified for a range of NPV...

  15. Resurrecting Van Leeuwenhoek's rotifers: a reappraisal of the role of disaccharides in anhydrobiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Tunnacliffe, A; Lapinski, J

    2003-01-01

    In 1702, Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis in a species of bdelloid rotifer, Philodina roseola. It is the purpose of this review to examine what has been learned since then about the extreme desiccation tolerance in rotifers and how this compares with our understanding of anhydrobiosis in other organisms. Remarkably, much of what is known today about the requirements for successful anhydrobiosis, and the degree of biostability conferred by the dry state, was already determined in principle by the time of Spallanzani in the late 18th century. Most modern research on anhydrobiosis has emphasized the importance of the non-reducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose, one or other sugar being present at high concentrations during desiccation of anhydrobiotic nematodes, brine shrimp cysts, bakers' yeast, resurrection plants and plant seeds. These sugars are proposed to act as water replacement molecules, and as thermodynamic and kinetic stabilizers of biomolecules and membranes. In apparent contradiction of the prevailing models, recent experiments from our laboratory show that bdelloid rotifers undergo anhydrobiosis without producing trehalose or any analogous molecule. This has prompted us to critically re-examine the association of disaccharides with anhydrobiosis in the literature. Surprisingly, current hypotheses are based almost entirely on in vitro data: there is very limited information which is more than simply correlative in the literature on living systems. In many species, disaccharide accumulation occurs at approximately the same time as desiccation tolerance is acquired. However, several studies indicate that these sugars are not sufficient for anhydrobiosis; furthermore, there is no conclusive evidence, through mutagenesis or functional knockout experiments, for example, that sugars are necessary for anhydrobiosis. Indeed, some plant seeds and micro-organisms, like the rotifer, exhibit excellent desiccation tolerance in the absence of high intracellular sugar concentrations. Accordingly, it seems appropriate to call for a re-evaluation of our understanding of anhydrobiosis and to embark on new experimental programmes to determine the key molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:14561331

  16. Therapeutic re-appraisal of multiple drug resistant Salmonella typhi (MDRST) in Pakistani children.

    PubMed

    Hazir, T; Qazi, S A; Abbas, K A; Khan, M A

    2002-03-01

    The emergence of multi drug-resistant Salmonella typhi (MDRST) in many developing countries including Pakistan, has led to a search for suitable alternatives to conventional therapy. Quinolones have been found to be an effective alternative for the treatment of MDRST, in adults as well as in children. The efficacy of various therapeutic regimens currently used for the treatment of Typhoid was analysed. Children 1 month to 12 years of age admitted to the Children's Hospital from 1990 to 1993 with fever and Salmonella typhi isolated from blood cultures were included in this retrospective analysis. The cumulative prevalence of Multiple Drug Resistant Salmonella typhi (MDRST) was 67.2%. Only 32.8% of isolated Salmonella typhi were susceptible to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The cumulative cure rate with conventional therapy (chloramphenicol or amoxicillin) was 47.4% and 53.6% children needed a change of therapy. The average hospital stay for the non-responders to conventional therapy was 9.2 days as compared to 7.7 days for the responders. The average hospital stay of the patients treated with a third generation cephalosporin was 12.7 days. Patients treated with ofloxacin, a flouroquinolone drug, did not need a change of therapy. The average hospital stay of the patients treated with flouroquinolones was 6.2 days. There was a high prevalence of multiple drug resistant typhoid fever in hospitalized children, leading to a high failure rate with conventional therapy. This resulted in frequent change of therapy, delayed defervesence and prolonged hospital stay. The flouroquinolones were found to be the most effective drug against MDRST.

  17. Cortical afferent inhibition abnormalities reveal cholinergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Versace, Viviana; Höller, Yvonne; Tezzon, Frediano; Saltuari, Leopold; Trinka, Eugen; Sebastianelli, Luca

    2017-08-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment. The findings of these TMS studies strongly suggest that cholinergic degeneration is an important contributor to a number of clinical features of PD. TMS and neuropsychological raise the possibility that the presence of RBD, VHs and olfactory dysfunction indicate increased risk of cognitive impairment in patients with PD. Longitudinal studies of the patients are required to verify whether SAI abnormalities can predict a future severe cognitive decline. TMS can provide simple measures that may represent suitable biomarkers of cholinergic neurotransmission in PD. SAI studies enable an early recognition of PD patients with cholinergic system degeneration, and this might allow future targeted cholinergic treatment approaches, in addition to dopaminergic therapy, to ameliorate non-motor and motor clinical symptoms in PD patients.

  18. Epidemiologic and clinical impact of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Villar, Macarena; Cano, María E; Gato, Eva; Garnacho-Montero, José; Miguel Cisneros, José; Ruíz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Vila, Jordi; Pascual, Alvaro; Tomás, María; Bou, Germán; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important antibiotic-resistant nosocomial bacteria. We investigated changes in the clinical and molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii over a 10-year period. We compared the data from 2 prospective multicenter cohort studies in Spain, one performed in 2000 (183 patients) and one in 2010 (246 patients), which included consecutive patients infected or colonized by A. baumannii. Molecular typing was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The incidence density of A. baumannii colonization or infection increased significantly from 0.14 in 2000 to 0.52 in 2010 in medical services (p < 0.001). The number of non-nosocomial health care-associated cases increased from 1.2% to 14.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Previous exposure to carbapenems increased in 2010 (16.9% in 2000 vs 27.3% in 2010, p = 0.03). The drugs most frequently used for definitive treatment of patients with infections were carbapenems in 2000 (45%) and colistin in 2010 (50.3%). There was molecular-typing evidence of an increase in the frequency of A. baumannii acquisition in non-intensive care unit wards in 2010 (7.6% in 2000 vs 19.2% in 2010, p = 0.01). By MSLT, the ST2 clonal group predominated and increased in 2010. This epidemic clonal group was more frequently resistant to imipenem and was associated with an increased risk of sepsis, although not with severe sepsis or mortality. Some significant changes were noted in the epidemiology of A. baumannii, which is increasingly affecting patients admitted to conventional wards and is also the cause of non-nosocomial health care-associated infections. Epidemic clones seem to combine antimicrobial resistance and the ability to spread, while maintaining their clinical virulence.

  19. Reappraising the relationships between physics students' mental models and predictions: An example of heat convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Guo-Li

    2013-06-01

    Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena. A series of semistructured interviews was conducted to probe the participants’ mental models and predictions of heat convection, and the constant comparative method was adopted for data analysis. The results reveal that the participants held a variety of mental models of heat convection, and nearly half held flawed mental models rather than a scientifically compatible one. In addition, while many participants attempted to run their mental models to make a prediction at the beginning stage of solving an interview problem, the relationship between the models and predictions became increasingly complex as the problem solving process continued. The relationships between mental models and predictions, however, could be better understood by considering the completeness of a mental model, the scale of analyzing mental models, and the retrieval of different formats of mental representations.

  20. Students' conceptions about climate change: Using critical evaluation to influence plausibility reappraisals and knowledge reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Douglas Adler

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) reported a greater than 90% chance that human activities are responsible for global temperature increases over the last 50 years, as well as other climatic changes. The scientific report also states that alternative explanations (e.g., increasing energy received from the Sun) are less plausible than human-induced climate change. These climate scientists have made their plausibility judgment---which I define as the relative potential truthfulness of alternative explanations---based on the evaluation and coordination of multiple lines evidence with competing theoretical perspectives. Climate change is a highly relevant and gravely serious topic; in an educational setting, climate change also presents an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental scientific principles and how scientists construct knowledge. However, students may be neither naturally evaluative when learning about controversial topics, such as climate change, nor reflective while engaging in judgments about knowledge and knowing (King & Kitchener, 2004), such as plausibility judgments. The purpose of this study was to examine how plausibility judgments and knowledge about human-induced climate change transform during instruction that promotes critical evaluation abilities. An instructional scaffold---called a model evidence link (MEL) diagram---was used in this study. The MEL allowed students to weigh the strength of connections between two alternative models of climate change (i.e., the scientifically accepted model of human-induced climate change and a popular skeptics' model that climate change is caused by increases in the Sun's energy). The results revealed that treatment group participants who used the MEL diagram experienced a significant shift in their plausibility judgments toward the scientifically accepted model. This shift was accompanied by significantly greater postinstructional knowledge of human-induced climate change, with treatment group participants demonstrating reconstruction of knowledge about the causes of climate change to be more consistent with scientific understanding. Moderate to large effect sizes characterized these changes in treatment group participants' plausibility perceptions and understanding. A comparison group of students who experienced a climate change activity that is part of their normal curriculum did not experience statistically significant changes. The results from this dissertation study, along with previous studies that I and my colleagues have conducted (see, for example, Lombardi & Sinatra, 2012), helped to inform the development of a model on the role of the plausibility judgment in conceptual change. This model has the potential to guide further research that will help educators better understand the mechanisms in conceptual change and guide instructional practices to promote knowledge reconstruction on scientific topics of great societal importance, such as climate change.

  1. A Reappraisal of Seismicity and Eruptions of Pantelleria Island and the Sicily Channel (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Barbano, Maria Serafina; Pirrotta, Claudia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Larocca, Graziano; Platania, Pier Raffaele

    2017-07-01

    Three main tectonic depressions (the Pantelleria, Linosa and Malta troughs), the expression of a continental rift, characterize the Sicily Channel, a region with recent volcanic activity attested by the Pantelleria and Linosa volcanic islands, as well as numerous seamounts. To understand the seismic and eruptive behaviour of this area, we compare historical and instrumental seismicity retrieved from catalogues with recordings from both a mobile seismic network and a permanent station deployed at Pantelleria. A review of historical eruptions affecting the Sicily Channel is also presented. Recent instrumental seismicity shows that the Sicily Channel is characterized by a low level of seismicity, with earthquakes mainly occurring as isolated events, rather than swarms as observed during the few documented eruptive periods. The results of a seismic survey in 2006-2007, as well as the signals recorded by a permanent station in 2010-2014, enable stating that also Pantelleria is characterized by a very low rate of seismicity. The available, though scant, historical information suggests a recurrence time of about a century for the volcanic activity and that eruptions are usually preceded by seismic swarms. In the only historical known eruption of Pantelleria, in addition to shocks, uplifting and increasing fumarole activity, were observed. Notwithstanding the lack of eruptions over the past century, and despite the low recent seismic rate, we believe that the geophysical monitoring of the Sicily Channel needs improving since it is an area of potentially high seismic and volcanic hazard given the presence of several active submarine eruptive centres.

  2. Reappraisal of Regional Growth Charts in the Era of WHO Growth Standards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    After the WHO Growth Standards (WHOGS) was published in 2006, many countries in the world endorsed and adopted the new growth references as a standard measure for the growth of infants and young children. Certainly, the WHOGS has an impact on the global policy about obesity and underweight in children. Such WHOGS innovation has influenced many regional health authorities and academies, which have managed their own growth charts for a long time, in changing their strategies to develop and use regional growth charts. In Korea, along with the tradition to create a national growth chart every decade, we now face a new era of advancing with the WHOGS. PMID:24224146

  3. A reappraisal of some structural features of bovine heart malate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Heyde, Elizabeth; Ainsworth, S.

    1968-01-01

    1. Malate dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial type was prepared from an acetone-prepared powder of thoroughly washed minces of whole bovine heart by previously reported methods that were modified to give higher yields of the purified enzyme. 2. Determinations of the sedimentation and diffusion coefficients showed the molecular weight of the enzyme to be approx. 63000. The amino acid composition of the enzyme was also determined. Discrepancies between these data and similar data previously reported by Davies & Kun (1957) and Siegel & Englard (1962) were resolved. 3. `Fingerprints' were made from tryptic digests of heat-denatured and of reduced and alkylated enzyme. These indicated that the enzyme is composed of a number of identical or similar sub-units. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5683513

  4. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  5. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project: a reappraisal of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez‐Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida‐Mohien, Ceereena; Fabbri, Elisa; Scalzo, Paul; Højlund, Kurt; Dufresne, Craig; Lyashkov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and analysed publically available protein databases. A systematic search of peer‐reviewed studies was performed using PubMed. Search terms included ‘human’, ‘skeletal muscle’, ‘proteome’, ‘proteomic(s)’, and ‘mass spectrometry’, ‘liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS)’. A catalogue of 5431 non‐redundant muscle proteins identified by mass spectrometry‐based proteomics from 38 peer‐reviewed scientific publications from 2002 to November 2015 was created. We also developed a nosology system for the classification of muscle proteins based on localization and function. Such inventory of proteins should serve as a useful background reference for future research on changes in muscle proteome assessed by quantitative mass spectrometry‐based proteomic approaches that occur with ageing and diseases. This classification and compilation of the human skeletal muscle proteome can be used for the identification and quantification of proteins in skeletal muscle to discover new mechanisms for sarcopenia and specific muscle diseases that can be targeted for the prevention and treatment. PMID:27897395

  6. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  7. Chromatography as an analytical tool for selected antibiotic classes: a reappraisal addressed to pharmacokinetic applications.

    PubMed

    Marzo, A; Dal Bo, L

    1998-07-03

    The first antibiotic discovered, penicillin, appeared on the market just after the Second World War. Intensive research in subsequent years led to the discovery and development of cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and rifamycin. The chemotherapeutic quinolones and the more recently discovered fluoroquinolones have added promising new therapeutic weapons to fight the microbial challenge. The major role pharmacokinetics has played in developing these compounds should be highlighted. Plasma concentration-time profiles and the therapeutic activity evoked by these compounds allow the therapeutic window, doses and dose turnovers to be appropriately defined as well as possible dose adjustment to be made in renal failure. The pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents were initially explored by using microbiological methods, but these lack specificity. The HPLC technique with UV, fluorometric, electrochemical and, in some cases, mass spectrometry detection has satisfactory solved the problem of antimicrobial agent assay for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability and bioequivalence purposes alike. Indeed, in these studies, plasma concentrations of the given analyte must be followed up for a period > or = 3 times the half-life, which calls for specific sensitive assays. In the review, the authors have described the analytical methods employed in the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics, including some chemotherapeutic agents which are used in medical practice as alternatives to antibiotics. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of each class of drugs are also briefly described, and some historical and chemical notes on the various classes are given.

  8. Education and State Formation Reappraised--Chinese School Identity in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2007-01-01

    After World War II the Singapore government, wishing to blend the island's several ethnic communities into a national whole, endeavored to replace Chinese schools, which imparted students with cultural-linguistic traits sharply different from those promoted in other schools. This policy, nevertheless, elicited tough resistance from Singapore's…

  9. A re-appraisal of the conventional history of antibiosis and Penicillin.

    PubMed

    Arseculeratne, S N; Arseculeratne, G

    2017-02-01

    The popular perception of the history of antibiosis and penicillin is that Alexander Fleming was the sole researcher on penicillin. The literature, however, has documentation of preceding persons who reported definitively on these topics, from the late 19(th) century. Divergent reports on "firsts" in the discovery of antimicrobial activity of Penicillium and on the use of penicillin as a therapeutic agent, are present. This review adds knowledge from diverse sources, and restores historical priorities to the conventional story of Penicillin.

  10. The Northern Cheyenne Exodus: A Reappraisal of the Army’s Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Tony R. Mullis, Ph.D. , Member Troy D. Fodness, M.S. , Member Dennis K. Clark, M.P.A...committee readers, Mr. Dennis K. Clark and Mr. Troy D. Fodness for their candid and productive feedback. Likewise, I would like to thank my committee...professional readings found in 11 sources included but not limited to the Army and Navy Journal and engagement after action reports. Given these

  11. Lack of spontaneous age-related brain pathology in Octodon degus: a reappraisal of the model

    PubMed Central

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Dovero, Sandra; Thiolat, Marie-Laure; Bezard, Erwan; Dehay, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the degeneration of specific brain areas associated with accumulation of disease-related protein in extra- or intra-cellular deposits. Their preclinical investigations are mostly based on genetically-engineered animals. Despite their interest, these models are often based on high level of disease-related protein expression, thus questioning their relevance to human pathology and calling for the alternate use of ecological models. In the past few years, Octodon degus has emerged as a promising animal model displaying age-dependent Alzheimer’s disease-related pathology. As neurodegenerative-related proteins often co-deposit in the brain of patients, we assessed the occurrence of α-synuclein-related pathology in this model using state-of-the-art immunohistochemistry and biochemistry. Despite our efforts and in contrast with previously published results, our study argues against the use of Octodon degus as a suitable natural model of neurodegenerative disorder as we failed to identify either Parkinson’s disease- or Alzheimer’s disease-related brain pathologies. PMID:28374864

  12. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, A.; Siegel, V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Jessopp, M. J.; Loeb, V.

    2009-05-01

    Despite much research on Euphausia superba, estimates of their total biomass and production are still very uncertain. Recently, circumpolar krill databases, combined with growth models and revisions in acoustics have made it possible to refine previous estimates. Net-based databases of density and length frequency (KRILLBASE) yield a summer distributional range of ˜19×10 6 km 2 and a mean total abundance of 8×10 14 post-larvae with biomass of 379 million tonnes (Mt). These values are based on a standardised net sampling method but they average over the period 1926-2004, during which krill abundance has fluctuated. To estimate krill biomass at the end of last century we combined the KRILLBASE map of relative krill density around Antarctica with an acoustics-derived biomass estimate of 37.3 Mt derived for the Scotia Sea area in 2000 by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). Thus the CCAMLR 2000 survey area contains 28% of the total stock, with total biomass of ˜133 Mt in January-February 2000. Gross postlarval production is estimated conservatively at 342-536 Mt yr -1, based on three independent methods. These are high values, within the upper range of recent estimates, but consistent with the concept of high energy throughput for a species of this size. The similarity between the three production estimates reflects a broad agreement between the three growth models used, plus the fact that, for a given population size, production is relatively insensitive to the size distribution of krill at the start of the growth season. These production values lie within the envelope of what can be supported from the Southern Ocean primary production system and what is required to support an estimated predator consumption of 128-470 Mt yr -1. Given the range of recent acoustics estimates, plus the need for precautionary management of the developing krill fishery, our net-based data provide an alternative estimate of total krill biomass.

  13. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obesity: A Meta-analytic Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment…

  14. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin producing species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis. DN...

  15. Reappraisal of Primary Balloon Angioplasty without Stenting for Patients with Symptomatic Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Hideo; TERADA, Tomoaki; TANAKA, Yuko; TOMURA, Nagatsuki; KONO, Kenichi; YOSHIMURA, Ryo; SHINTANI, Aki

    2015-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the safety and efficacy of intracranial stenting. We describe our experience with primary balloon angioplasty without stenting for symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. All patients who underwent balloon angioplasty without stenting for MCA stenosis between 1996 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated technical success rates, degrees of stenosis, and stroke or death within 30 days. Among patients who were followed-up for > 1 year we evaluated latest functional outcomes, stroke recurrence at 1 year, and restenosis. In total 45/47 patients (95.7%) were successfully treated. Average pre- and postprocedure stenosis rates were 79.9% and 39.5%, respectively. Three neurological complications occurred within 30 days: one thromboembolism during the procedure; one lacunar infarction; and one fatal intraparenchymal hemorrhage after the procedure. Stroke or death rate within 30 days was 6.4%. Thirty-three patients were available for follow-up analysis with a mean period of 51.5 months. The combined rate of stroke or death within 30 days and ipsilateral ischemic stroke of the followed-up patients within 1 year beyond 30 days was 9.4%. Restenosis was observed in 26.9% of patients and all remained asymptomatic. In our retrospective series, balloon angioplasty without stenting was a safe, effective modality for symptomatic MCA stenosis. For patients refractory to medical therapy, primary balloon angioplasty may offer a better supplemental treatment option. PMID:25746307

  16. Reappraisal of disparities between osmolality estimates by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit methods.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J

    2004-02-15

    As a response to recent expression of concern about possible unreliability of vapor pressure deficit measurements (K. Kiyosawa, Biophys. Chem. 104 (2003) 171-188), the results of published studies on the temperature dependence of the osmotic pressure of aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions are shown to account for the observed discrepancies between osmolality estimates obtained by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit osmometry--the cause of the concern.

  17. Reappraising the Pedagogic Device's Evaluative Rules: State-Reformed Examinations of Chinese Middle Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device has two under-developed elements as far as its treatments of evaluative rules are concerned. It has never explained the processes through which an assessment's hegemony is erected, and it overlooks the fact that evaluations can also be crucial apparatuses in social selection and exclusion. Using the…

  18. A reappraisal of the definition and pathophysiology of the transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Hadjiev, Dimiter Ivanov; Mineva, Petya Pencheva

    2007-03-01

    Recent data on the pathophysiology of brain ischemia obtained by neuroimaging methods and the new concept of transient ischemic attack (TIA) emergency have called for a redefinition of TIA. According to the new definition proposed by the TIA Working Group, TIA is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain or retinal ischemia with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than one hour and without evidence of acute brain infarction. This new definition leads to a discussion on the duration of the neurological dysfunction and the availability of appropriate neuroimaging for all patients. It has been reported that the diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities could be seen in TIA patients with durations of the neurological symptoms of less than 30 minutes, but they were not detected in 29% of patients with transient deficit lasting as much as 6 to 24 hours. Persisting perfusion abnormalities in TIA patients are also observed. Therefore, a cutoff period of any duration of TIA is inaccurate. From the pathophysiological viewpoint, TIA may be considered an ischemic penumbra of varied duration, which could proceed to cerebral infarction or reduce to benign oligemia. TIA, characterized as an ischemic penumbra, presents an ideal target for rapid reperfusion and neuroprotection. Follow-up perfusion imaging can guide and individualize its treatment.

  19. Timing of Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: A Need for Reappraisal?

    PubMed Central

    deSouza, Ruth-Mary; Moro, Elena; Lang, Anthony E; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2013-01-01

    We review the current application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) and consider the evidence that earlier use of DBS confers long-term symptomatic benefit for patients compared to best medical therapy. Electronic searches were performed of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all article types relating to the timing of DBS in PD. Current evidence suggests that DBS is typically performed in late stage PD, a mean of 14 to 15 years after diagnosis. Current guidelines recommend that PD patients who are resistant to medical therapies, have significant medication side effects and lengthening off periods, but are otherwise cognitively intact and medically fit for surgery be considered for DBS. If these criteria are rigidly interpreted, it may be that, by the time medical treatment options have been exhausted, the disease has progressed to the point that the patient may no longer be fit for neurosurgical intervention. From the evidence available, we conclude that surgical management of PD alone or in combination with medical therapy results in greater improvement of motor symptoms and quality of life than medical treatment alone. There is evidence to support the use of DBS in less advanced PD and that it may be appropriate for earlier stages of the disease than for which it is currently used. The improving short and long-term safety profile of DBS makes early application a realistic possibility. Ann Neurol 2013;73:565–575 PMID:23483564

  20. How Does Stroop Interference Change with Practice? A Reappraisal from the Musical Stroop Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grégoire, Laurent; Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Most earlier studies investigating the evolution of the Stroop effect with the amount of reading practice have reported data consistent with an inverted U-shaped curve, whereby the Stroop effect appears early during reading acquisition, reaches a peak after 2 or 3 years of practice, and then continuously decreases until adulthood. The downward…

  1. Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish; Bellis, Claire; Zlojutro, Mark; Melton, Phillip E; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E

    2011-10-07

    The Asian origin of Native Americans is largely accepted. However uncertainties persist regarding the source population(s) within Asia, the divergence and arrival time(s) of the founder groups, the number of expansion events, and migration routes into the New World. mtDNA data, presented over the past two decades, have been used to suggest a single-migration model for which the Beringian land mass plays an important role. In our analysis of 568 mitochondrial genomes, the coalescent age estimates of shared roots between Native American and Siberian-Asian lineages, calculated using two different mutation rates, are A4 (27.5 ± 6.8 kya/22.7 ± 7.4 kya), C1 (21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya), C4 (21.0 ± 4.6 kya/20.0 ± 6.4 kya), and D4e1 (24.1 ± 9.0 kya/17.9 ± 10.0 kya). The coalescent age estimates of pan-American haplogroups calculated using the same two mutation rates (A2:19.5 ± 1.3 kya/16.1 ± 1.5 kya, B2:20.8 ± 2.0 kya/18.1 ± 2.4 kya, C1:21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya and D1:17.2 ± 2.0 kya/14.9 ± 2.2 kya) and estimates of population expansions within America (~21-16 kya), support the pre-Clovis occupation of the New World. The phylogeography of sublineages within American haplogroups A2, B2, D1 and the C1b, C1c and C1d subhaplogroups of C1 are complex and largely specific to geographical North, Central and South America. However some sub-branches (B2b, C1b, C1c, C1d and D1f) already existed in American founder haplogroups before expansion into the America. Our results suggest that Native American founders diverged from their Siberian-Asian progenitors sometime during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and expanded into America soon after the LGM peak (~20-16 kya). The phylogeography of haplogroup C1 suggest that this American founder haplogroup differentiated in Siberia-Asia. The situation is less clear for haplogroup B2, however haplogroups A2 and D1 may have differentiated soon after the Native American founders divergence. A moderate population bottle neck in American founder populations just before the expansion most plausibly resulted in few founder types in America. The similar estimates of the diversity indices and Bayesian skyline analysis in North America, Central America and South America suggest almost simultaneous (~ 2.0 ky from South to North America) colonization of these geographical regions with rapid population expansion differentiating into more or less regional branches across the pan-American haplogroups.

  2. Regulation of the ecdysteroid titer of Manduca sexta: reappraisal of the role of the prothoracic glands.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J T; Sakurai, S; Rountree, D B; Gilbert, L I; Lee, S S; Nakanishi, K

    1988-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the prothoracic glands of insects produce ecdysone, which is converted by a 20-monooxygenase in peripheral tissues to the major molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Incubation in vitro of the prothoracic glands of larval or pupal Manduca sexta in the presence of a hemolymph protein fraction (HPF) increased the ecdysteroid content of the medium almost 8-fold. A comparable increase was noted when HPF was added to medium preconditioned with prothoracic glands but from which the glands had been removed. We used a differential RIA to show that a major product of the prothoracic glands in vitro cross-reacts with antiserum (20-hydroxyecdysone-2-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-2) that retains affinity to ecdysteroids having a modified A ring. However, this product did not bind to antiserum (ecdysone-22-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-22) that has affinity mainly for ecdysteroids modified at the side chain. We employed radiolabeled precursor studies with prothoracic glands in vitro and a combination of analytical techniques (NMR, CD, MS) to demonstrate that the major ecdysteroid release from the glands is a mixture of 2-dehydroecdysone and 3-dehydroecdysone (1:2), which is rapidly reduced to ecdysone in the presence of HPF. We postulate that the active component of HPF is 3 beta 3 beta (2 beta)-formin-3(2)-ketoecdysteroid reductase. These results may explain several anomalous observations pertaining to the molting of insect fragments in the absence of prothoracic glands and suggest a complex system for the control of insect molting and metamorphosis. PMID:3422473

  3. Reappraisal of the inferior epigastric flap: a new neurovascular flap model in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hirigoyen, M B; Rhee, J S; Weisz, D J; Zhang, W X; Urken, M L; Weinberg, H

    1996-09-01

    An anatomic, histologic, and electrophysiologic study was carried out in order to determine the distribution and cutaneous sensory territory of the epigastric nerve in the rat. Results for nerve staining (Sihler's method) and electrophysiologic nerve mapping indicate that the neurosome of the epigastric nerve has a different autonomy than the vascular territory of the inferior epigastric artery. Based on these findings, an experimental model for neurovascular free-tissue transfer is proposed.

  4. Consensus Conference: A reappraisal of Gaucher disease - diagnosis and disease management algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Pramod K.; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Lukina, Elena; Özsan, Hayri; Pascual, Sara Mach; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Solano, Maria Helena; Spigelman, Zachary; Villarrubia, Jesús; Watman, Nora Patricia; Massenkeil, Gero

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 (non neuronopathic) Gaucher disease was the first lysosomal storage disorder for which an effective enzyme replacement therapy was developed and it has become a prototype for treatments for related orphan diseases. There are currently four treatment options available to patients with Gaucher disease, nevertheless, almost 25% of type 1 Gaucher patients do not gain timely access to therapy because of delays in diagnosis after the onset of symptoms. Diagnosis of Gaucher disease by enzyme testing is unequivocal, but the rarity of the disease and non-specific and heterogeneous nature of Gaucher disease symptoms may impede consideration of this disease in the differential diagnosis. To help promote timely diagnosis and optimal management of the protean presentations of Gaucher disease, a consensus meeting was convened to develop algorithms for diagnosis and disease management for Gaucher disease. PMID:21080341

  5. Reappraisal of the F/M amplitude ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ginanneschi, F; Mondelli, M; Aretini, A; Rossi, Alessandro

    The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls. Fand M-wave amplitudes and F-wave chronodispersion were analyzed for the median and ulnar nerves. The F/M-amp ratio of the median nerve in CTS subjects with moderate-severe nerve damage was significantly higher than that of mild CTS subjects and controls. Chronodispersion of the median nerve F-wave increased with increasing CTS severity. We conclude that the relative preservation of the median nerve F-wave is due to damage to the large diameter muscle afferent fibers responsible for the monosynaptic response. Absence of the monosynaptic response makes the small motoneurons, usually inaccessible to the antidromic volley because of its collision with the orthodromic reflex volley, able to fire in the F-wave.

  6. The Individual Learner, Employability and the Workplace: A Reappraisal of Relationships and Prophecies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, John; Maguire, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In the current knowledge-based economic climate, the success of an organisation is inextricably linked to the individual. This article seeks to consider the key relationships between the individual, lifelong learning, the workplace and employability in the context of the knowledge society. The aim is to extend understanding of these…

  7. Reappraisal of Supraorbital Sensory Nerve Conduction Recordings: Orthodromic and Antidromic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeun Jun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Se Kwang; Lee, Hang Jae; Kwon, Hee Kyu

    2016-02-01

    To establish a supraorbital nerve sensory conduction recording method and assess its usefulness. Thirty-one healthy subjects without a history of trauma or neurological disease were recruited. For the orthodromic procedure, the recording electrode was attached immediately superior to the supraorbital notch. The stimulation electrode was placed on points along the hairline which evoked the largest sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs). The antidromic sensory response was recorded after switching the recording and stimulating electrodes. The measured parameters were onset latency, peak latency, and baseline to peak amplitude of the SNAPs. The electrophysiological parameters of the bilateral supraorbital nerves were compared. We also recruited two patients who had sensory deficits on one side of their foreheads because of laceration injuries. The parameters of orthodromically recorded SNAPs were as follows: onset latency 1.21±0.22 ms (range, 0.9-1.6 ms), peak latency 1.54±0.23 ms (range, 1.2-2.2 ms), and baseline to peak amplitude 4.16±1.92 µV (range, 1.4-10 µV). Those of antidromically recorded SNAPs were onset latency 1.31±0.27 ms (range, 0.8-1.7 ms), peak latency 1.62±0.29 ms (range, 1.3-2.2 ms), and baseline to peak amplitude 4.00±1.89 µV (range, 1.5-9.0 µV). There was no statistical difference in onset latency, peak latency, or baseline to peak amplitude between the responses obtained using the orthodromic and antidromic methods, and the parameters also revealed no statistical difference between the supraorbital nerves on both sides. We have successfully recorded supraorbital SNAPs. This conduction technique could be quite useful in evaluating patients with supraorbital nerve lesions.

  8. Reappraisal of Supraorbital Sensory Nerve Conduction Recordings: Orthodromic and Antidromic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeun Jun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Se Kwang; Lee, Hang Jae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a supraorbital nerve sensory conduction recording method and assess its usefulness. Methods Thirty-one healthy subjects without a history of trauma or neurological disease were recruited. For the orthodromic procedure, the recording electrode was attached immediately superior to the supraorbital notch. The stimulation electrode was placed on points along the hairline which evoked the largest sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs). The antidromic sensory response was recorded after switching the recording and stimulating electrodes. The measured parameters were onset latency, peak latency, and baseline to peak amplitude of the SNAPs. The electrophysiological parameters of the bilateral supraorbital nerves were compared. We also recruited two patients who had sensory deficits on one side of their foreheads because of laceration injuries. Results The parameters of orthodromically recorded SNAPs were as follows: onset latency 1.21±0.22 ms (range, 0.9–1.6 ms), peak latency 1.54±0.23 ms (range, 1.2–2.2 ms), and baseline to peak amplitude 4.16±1.92 µV (range, 1.4–10 µV). Those of antidromically recorded SNAPs were onset latency 1.31±0.27 ms (range, 0.8–1.7 ms), peak latency 1.62±0.29 ms (range, 1.3–2.2 ms), and baseline to peak amplitude 4.00±1.89 µV (range, 1.5–9.0 µV). There was no statistical difference in onset latency, peak latency, or baseline to peak amplitude between the responses obtained using the orthodromic and antidromic methods, and the parameters also revealed no statistical difference between the supraorbital nerves on both sides. Conclusion We have successfully recorded supraorbital SNAPs. This conduction technique could be quite useful in evaluating patients with supraorbital nerve lesions. PMID:26949668

  9. Reappraisal of the historical selective pressures for the CCR5-Delta32 mutation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S R; Scott, S; Duncan, C J

    2005-03-01

    HIV strains are unable to enter macrophages that carry the CCR5-Delta32 deletion; the average frequency of this allele is 10% in European populations. A mathematical model based on the changing demography of Europe from 1000 to 1800 AD demonstrates how plague epidemics, 1347 to 1670, could have provided the selection pressure that raised the frequency of the mutation to the level seen today. It is suggested that the original single mutation appeared over 2500 years ago and that persistent epidemics of a haemorrhagic fever that struck at the early classical civilisations served to force up the frequency to about 5x10(-5) at the time of the Black Death in 1347.

  10. Balint reassessed: the doctor, his patient, and the illness: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Sowerby, P

    1977-10-01

    Psychoanalytical theories seek to explain human behaviour. I believe that they are not scientific, whereas it appears that Balint thought they were. I suggest instead that they are better regarded as myths and part of an artistic discipline. Whereas most of the problems brought by patients to general practitioners can be understood in scientific terms, others can be understood only in artistic terms.These two terms reflect fundamentally different kinds of problems, and different language must be used to discuss them. Neither the two sets of terms nor the two kinds of problem can be confused without giving rise to error. I argue that Michael Balint came to a false conclusion about the nature of the general practitioner's task, about the way the problems posed by his difficult patients may be identified, and about some of the training doctors should receive.Balint's main contribution remains. He showed us that scientific skills alone are not enough if we are to understand our patients fully. He also showed us how a descriptive science of human behaviour in the consulting room was possible.To these insights must be added new understanding. Popper (1963) has provided us with a clear line of demarcation between science and the rest of our knowledge. This idea suggests that general practitioners should reaffirm the importance to them of the intellectual discipline of science. If they wish their understanding and practice to be comprehensive they must also affirm the importance of the arts. What they must not do is to confuse one with the other.

  11. Pathologic Reappraisal of Wallenberg Syndrome: A Pathologic Distribution Study and Analysis of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shinsuke; Takikawa, Miki; Ishihara, Sho; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kato, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Background Wallenberg syndrome was first reported by Adolf Wallenberg as arising due to the obstruction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), which caused an infarct in the lateral medulla oblongata (MO). Method This study was carried out on brain tissue from 2 patients with typical Wallenberg syndrome and 10 autopsy cases without central nervous system disturbances. Results Patient 1 exhibited the 3 major neurological symptoms of right crossed sensory disturbance, right cerebellar ataxia and bulbar palsy. There was the pathological obstruction of the right vertebral artery (VA). Regarding the histopathlogical distribution, the infarct extended on the right side to the lateral spinothalamic tract, nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, inferior cerebellar peduncle, spinocerebellar tract and nucleus ambiguous. Moreover, a clear infarct in the left lateral MO was pathologically identified, but pathological obstruction of the left PICA or left VA could not be found. The left cerebellar ataxia and bulbar palsy were observed among these 3 major symptoms. Patient 2 showed the 3 major symptoms of right crossed sensory disturbance, right cerebellar ataxia and bulbar palsy. A pathological luminal occlusion was identified in the right PICA. Regarding the histopathological lesion, the infarct disturbed on the right side the lateral spinothalamic tract, nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, spinocerebellar tract, inferior cerebellar peduncle and nucleus ambiguus. Conclusion Based on our investigation of pathological lesions using our 2 autopsies, we suggest calling the cases that satisfy the following 3 criteria “definite pathologic Wallenberg syndrome”: i) identifiable pathological obstruction of the PICA or VA; ii) infarction in the lateral MO based on PICA or VA obstruction; and iii) a 1-to-1 correspondence between clinical symptoms and neuropathological lesions. PMID:25067873

  12. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of... extent of the relief to be afforded a petitioner pursuant to § 403.44 the value of the property with respect to which the petition has been allowed is the value of such property as determined by the...

  13. Comments on the diphoton excess: critical reappraisal of effective field theory interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenik, Jernej F.; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Soreq, Yotam; Zupan, Jure

    2016-07-01

    We consider the diphoton excess observed by ATLAS and CMS using the most up-to-date data and estimate the preferred enhancement in the production rate between 8 TeV and 13 TeV. Within the framework of effective field theory (EFT), we then show that for both spin-0 and spin-2 Standard Model (SM) gauge-singlet resonances, two of the three processes S → ZZ, S → Zγ, and S → W W must occur with a non-zero rate. Moreover, we demonstrate that these branching ratios are highly correlated in the EFT. Couplings of S to additional SM states may be constrained and differentiated by comparing the S production rates with and without the vector-boson fusion (VBF) cuts. We find that for a given VBF to inclusive production ratio there is maximum rate of S to gauge bosons, boverline{b} , and lighter quark anti-quark pairs. Simultaneous measurements of the width and the VBF ratio may be able to point towards the existence of hidden decays.

  14. Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganai, Rubeni T.; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.

    2016-11-01

    Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures, that were exploited by Late Archaean and Proterozoic mafic intrusions. There was interplay between vertical and horizontal tectonics as seen in similar terrains worldwide.

  15. B → K∗ ℓ + ℓ - decays at large recoil in the Standard Model: a theoretical reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Mishima, Satoshi; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    We critically reassess the theoretical uncertainties in the Standard Model calculation of the B → K ∗ ℓ + ℓ - observables, focusing on the low q 2 region. We point out that even optimized observables are affected by sizable uncertainties, since hadronic contributions generated by current-current operators with charm are difficult to estimate, especially for q 2 ˜ 4 m c 2 ≃ 6.8 GeV2. We perform a detailed numerical analysis and present both predictions and results from the fit obtained using most recent data. We find that non-factorizable power corrections of the expected order of magnitude are sufficient to give a good description of current experimental data within the Standard Model. We discuss in detail the q 2 dependence of the corrections and their possible interpretation as shifts of the Standard Model Wilson coefficients.

  16. The 750 GeV diphoton resonance as an sgoldstino: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Byakti, Pritibhajan; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Sharma, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Among the various explanations of the possible 750 GeV diphoton resonance, the possibility of it being an sgoldstino is an attractive one, as it is related to the spontaneous breaking of global supersymmetry. We discuss this possibility in this paper and point out the various theoretical issues associated with it. In particular, we indicate the difficulties of this explanation in realistic models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking.

  17. Searching for new physics with Bs0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0 - A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; Imbeault, Maxime; London, David

    2012-10-01

    The effective phase 2 βseff can be extracted from the indirect CP-violating asymmetry in Bs0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0. In the standard model, 2 βseff is expected to vanish, and so its measurement can potentially reveal the presence of new physics. However, there is a theoretical error if the second amplitude, Vub* Vus Puc‧ , is non-negligible. Ciuchini, Pierini and Silvestrini (CPS) have suggested measuring Puc in Bd0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0, and relating it to Puc‧ using SU(3). For their choice of Cd and Sd, the direct and indirect CP asymmetries in Bd0→ K(*) 0Kbar (*) 0, they find that the error on 2 βseff is very small, even allowing for 100% SU(3) breaking. In this Letter, we re-examine the CPS method, allowing for a large range of the Bd,s0 →K (*) 0Kbar (*) 0 observables. We find that, if √{ Cd2 + Sd2 } is measured to be ≲ 0.4- 0.5, the theoretical error on 2 βseff is indeed small, 2-3°. However, for other values of these observables, this error can be quite large, up to 14.9°. This problem can be ameliorated if the values of SU(3) breaking were known, and we discuss different experimental ways of determining this quantity.