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Sample records for received prior chemotherapy

  1. Impact of the number of prior lines of therapy and prior perioperative chemotherapy in patients receiving salvage therapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma: implications for trial design.

    PubMed

    Pond, G R; Bellmunt, J; Rosenberg, J E; Bajorin, D F; Regazzi, A M; Choueiri, T K; Qu, A Q; Niegisch, G; Albers, P; Necchi, A; Di Lorenzo, G; Fougeray, R; Wong, Y-N; Sridhar, S S; Ko, Y-J; Milowsky, M I; Galsky, M D; Sonpavde, G

    2015-02-01

    The differential impact of the number of prior lines of therapy and the setting of prior therapy (perioperative or metastatic) is unclear in advanced urothelial carcinoma. Ten phase II trials of salvage chemotherapy, biologic agent therapy, or both, enrolling 731 patients, were available. Data on the number of prior lines of therapy and the setting of prior therapy were required in addition to known previously recognized prognostic factors: time from prior chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, performance status, and liver metastasis status. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of the number of prior lines and prior perioperative therapy with overall survival (OS) as the primary clinical endpoint. Trial was a stratification factor. A total of 711 patients were evaluable. The overall median progression-free survival and OS were 2.7 and 6.8 months, respectively. The number of prior lines was 1 in 559 patients (78.6%), 2 in 111 (15.6%), 3 in 29 (4.1%), 4 in 10 (1.4%), and 5 in 2 (0.3%). Prior perioperative chemotherapy was given to 277 (39.1%) and chemotherapy for metastatic disease to 454 (64.1%). The number of prior lines was not independently associated with OS (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86-1.14). Prior perioperative chemotherapy was a favorable factor for OS on univariate but not multivariate analysis. The number of prior lines of therapy and prior perioperative chemotherapy were not independently prognostic in patients with urothelial carcinoma receiving salvage therapy. Adoption of these data in salvage therapy trials should enhance accrual, the interpretability of results, and drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep Measured by Polysomnography in Patients Receiving High-Dose Chemotherapy for Multiple Myeloma Prior to Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Enderlin, Carol A.; Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Davila, David; Richards, Kathy; Jegley, Susan M.; Kennedy, Robert; Goodwin, Julia A.; McNatt, Paula; Stewart, Carol B.; Lockhart, Kim; Reed, Patty J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the objective sleep of patients receiving chemotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) prior to stem cell transplantation. Design A descriptive study with repeated measures. Setting An international referral center in an urban area of the southern United States. Sample A convenience sample of a subset of 12 patients with MM, recruited from a randomized, controlled trial. Methods Objective sleep was assessed using two nights of polysomnography, one obtained before and one after a second cycle of high-dose chemotherapy prior to stem cell transplantation. Demographic and clinical data were obtained through a retrospective chart review. Main Research Variables Objective sleep including sleep characteristics, sleep-related respiratory events, and periodic limb movements (PLMs) of sleep. Findings Sleep was characterized by a relatively short sleep time, excessive time spent awake after the onset of sleep, and poor sleep efficiency (objective sleep quality). Patients spent more than the expected percent of time in non–rapid eye movement sleep and less in rapid eye movement sleep. Arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation nadirs reflected episodes of low arterial oxygen saturation. PLMs during sleep were in the mildly elevated range. Conclusions Findings suggest that patients had poor sleep efficiency (objective sleep quality) and were slightly better sleepers after receiving a second cycle of high-dose chemotherapy. A number of patients also demonstrated obstructive sleep apnea and frequent PLMs. Implications for Nursing Findings support the need for additional investigation of sleep in patients with MM, particularly poor sleep efficiency and PLMs. Improving sleep may improve quality of life by decreasing associated symptoms such as pain, fatigue, and depression. Knowledge Translation Oncology nurses should consider assessing patients with MM for insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, and a history of jerking or

  3. Taste Alteration in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sözeri, Elif; Kutlutürkan, Sevinç

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is aimed to determine factors that affect conditions of patients receiving chemotherapy in terms of experienced taste alteration. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 184 patients receiving chemotherapy were included in the sample. Data were collected during the period of December 2013 to May 2014 using “Patient Characteristics Identification Form” and “Chemotherapy-induced Taste Alteration Scale (CiTAS).” The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA) statistical software in terms of number, percentage, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results The mean age of the patients was 55.5±11.8 and 57.1% of them were female. The clinical diagnosis of the patients were most frequently breast cancer (n=46), colorectal cancer (n=45), and lung cancer (n=25). Furthermore, 37.5% of the patients were in clinical stage II; 15.8% of the patients received paclitaxel+herceptin and 14.1% received gemcitabine+cisplatin chemotherapy protocols. Data demonstrated significant differences in mean scores (p<0.05) taken from “Decline in Basic Taste” and “Phantogeusia and Parageusia” subscales with patients with or without xerostomia. There were significant differences in the average scores of the subscales between those with and without a sore mouth “Discomfort” and “General taste alterations” (p<0.05). Conclusion It has been established that patients receiving chemotherapy experience substantial alteration in taste by exposure of different subscales of CiTAS. Analysis of scores collected from different subscales of CiTAS with respect to sociodemographic and pathological differences showed that patients with xerostomia and sore mouth experienced more severe taste alterations.

  4. Transient focal liver scan defects in children receiving chemotherapy (pseudometastases): work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, S.J.; Barash, F.S.; Seldin, D.W.; Berdon, W.E.

    1984-03-01

    Three pediatric patients with tumors (two rhabdomyosarcoma, one Wilms tumor) had significant focal defects on Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans while receiving chemotherapy (all three had received chemotherapy, including actinomycin D, within ten days prior to scanning). In all three, the defects resolved spontaneously; one biopsy showed fibrosis of a mild degree. The finding of defects on liver scans of pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy must not be automatically assumed to be metastatic disease; the changes may relate to hepatic response to recently administered chemotherapy.

  5. Assessment of oral complications in children receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    El-Housseiny, Azza A; Saleh, Susan M; El-Masry, Ashraf A; Allam, Amany A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the early oral complications in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy. An interview and oral examination was conducted on 150 pediatric cancer patients receiving standard dose chemotherapy. Results showed that oral pain and dry mouth were the most frequent patients' complaints. The prevalences of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and oral infections were relatively high. The chemotherapeutic antimetabolites were the most frequently associated with oral complications than other types of chemotherapy. The present results indicate that the oral complications among patients receiving chemotherapy are common.

  6. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer cells. This is called palliative chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for conditions other than cancer Some chemotherapy drugs ... you'll receive. Side effects that occur during chemotherapy treatment Common side effects of chemotherapy drugs include: ...

  7. A phase I multicenter study of antroquinonol in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who have received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens, including one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen

    PubMed Central

    LEE, YU-CHIN; HO, CHING-LIANG; KAO, WOEI-YAU; CHEN, YUH-MIN

    2015-01-01

    Antroquinonol is isolated from Antrodia camphorata, a camphor tree mushroom, and is a valuable traditional Chinese herbal medicine that exhibits pharmacological activities against several diseases, including cancer. This first-in-human phase I study of antroquinonol included patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens. An open-label, dose escalation, pharmacokinetic (PK) study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerable dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and safety/tolerability and preliminary efficacy profiles of antroquinonol. The patients received escalating doses of once-daily antroquinonol in 4-week cycles (up to 3 cycles). The escalated doses were 50–600 mg. PKs were evaluated on day 1 and 28 of cycle 1. Between January, 2011 and October, 2012, 13 patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled. No DLTs occurred in any patient at any dose level. Tmax was observed between 1.00 and 3.70 h under single-dose conditions, and at 1.92–4.05 h under multiple-dose conditions. The mean elimination half-life ranged between 1.30 and 4.33 h, independent of the treatment dose. Antroquinonol at all dose levels had a mild toxicity profile, with no reported treatment-related mortality. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. The best tumor response was stable disease in 3 patients. In conclusion, antroquinonol at all dose levels, administered daily for 4 weeks, was generally safe and well tolerated, without DLTs. The recommended dose level for a phase II study is ≥600 mg daily. PMID:26807250

  8. New Horizon in Life: Experiences of Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Mohammadpour, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The treatment quality of diseases can affect the patient's experience. Due to its different complications among cancer patients, the experience of chemotherapy is unique. The present study was conducted to explore the lived experience among cancer patients who had received chemotherapy. Methods: The study was conducted by a qualitative approach and a phenomenological method. In so doing, 12 cancer patients who had received chemotherapy were purposefully selected were interviewed using an in-depth method. After the required data were collected, they were analyzed by Tanner, Allen, Diekelmann method. Results: Analysis of the collected data indicated that the experience of chemotherapy appeared as “a new horizon in life” for the patients. Secondary themes of the new horizon in life included rebirth, understanding of life values, dependence, and need. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in addition to taking into providing mental-spiritual support and reducing the complications of the treatment, nurses in chemotherapy wards should pay attention to the experiences of the patients receiving chemotherapy and enhance hope and positive attitude among them. PMID:26573050

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine use by patients receiving curative-intent chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter J; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Long, Jeremy E; Anstey, Chris M; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-09-01

    To determine which types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are being used by cancer patients commencing curative-intent chemotherapy, whether the CAM taken has the potential to affect treatment efficacy, the reasons for patients' decisions to use CAM and whether these patients would like information on CAM safety with chemotherapy. Seventy-five solid tumor malignancy patients receiving curative-intent treatment attending a cancer care day unit were interviewed about their CAM use on the day of receiving their first dose of chemotherapy. Sixty percent of study participants were using CAM at the start of chemotherapy treatment. Biologically active CAM assessed as having potential to interact with prescribed chemotherapy was ingested by 27% of patients, all of whom had routinely used CAM prior to cancer diagnosis. CAM was used by 51% of patients for supportive care reasons and by 28% of patients with the intention of treating their cancer. Patients' CAM decision-making was influenced by advice from family and friends, practitioners and casual acquaintances. Thirteen percent of patients were told by a CAM advice-giver not to have chemotherapy. The majority of patients (84%) would have liked to receive information on which CAM is safe to use with chemotherapy before treatment commenced. Patients being treated with curative intent, particularly those with a history of CAM use, may be taking biologically active CAM with potential to compromise their chemotherapy treatment. These patients want cancer-care health professionals to provide them evidence-based information on safe CAM use with chemotherapy and may be contending with alternative health advice to not have chemotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Stress Encountered by Significant Others of Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kay

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to identify and describe perceived stress and coping responses of family and nonfamily significant others of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Significant others were asked to identify stressful events related to treatment factors, relationship factors, and perception of the patient's condition. Coping responses were categorized in…

  11. Gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Ugalde-Morales, Emilio; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green, Dan

    2013-03-14

    Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of malnutrition secondary to the disease and treatment, and 40-80 % of cancer patients suffer from different degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumour subtype, location, staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition in cancer patients affects the patient's overall condition, and it increases the number of complications, the adverse effects of chemotherapy and reduces the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight-loss prevalence depending on the tumour site and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. We included 191 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Files of all patients were reviewed to identify symptoms that might potentially influence weight loss. The nutritional status of all patients was also determined. The cancer sites in the patients were as follows: breast (31·9 %); non-colorectal GI (18·3 %); colorectal (10·4 %); lung (5·8 %); haematological (13·1 %); others (20·5 %). Of these patients, 58 % experienced some degree of weight loss, and its prevalence was higher among the non-colorectal GI and lung cancer patients. Common symptoms included nausea (59·6 %), anorexia (46 %) and constipation (31·9 %). A higher proportion of patients with ≥ 5 % weight loss experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting (OR 9·5, 2·15 and 6·1, respectively). In conclusion, these results indicate that GI symptoms can influence weight loss in cancer patients, and they should be included in early nutritional evaluations.

  12. Thalidomide for Control Delayed Vomiting in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengxiang; Sun, Xuan; Jiang, Guan; Du, Xiuping

    2016-11-01

    To explore the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of delayed vomiting, induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Randomized, double-blind controlled study. The Oncology Department of Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu Xuzhou, China, from January 2012 to January 2014. A total of 78 cancer patients, who had delayed vomiting observed from 24 hours to 1 week after chemotherapy, were included in the study. Patients were divided in a treatment group (40 patients, 51.28%) and a control group (38 patients, 48.71%). The treatment group received thalidomide at an oral dose of 100 mg per night; 50 mg was added daily up to a dose of 200 mg per night, if the curative effect was suboptimal and the medicine was tolerated. Both the treatment and the control groups received a drip of 10 mg azasetron 30 minutes before chemotherapy. The control group only proportions of antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were compared using the c2 test. Antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were assessed from Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals(95% CI). The effective control rate of delayed vomiting in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (c2=5.174, p=0.023). No significant difference was found between the two groups in other adverse effects of chemotherapy. Karnofsky scores or the overall self-evaluation of the patients (p>0.05). Thalidomide can effectively control the delayed vomiting of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and the adverse reactions of the agent can be tolerated.

  13. Hepatitis C virus screening in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jessica P; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Torres, Harrys A; Palla, Shana L; Huang, Donna S; Fisch, Michael J; Lok, Anna S F

    2014-05-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication can occur in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of HCV screening at the onset of chemotherapy among patients with cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults with cancer who were newly registered at MD Anderson Cancer Center from January 2004 to April 2011 and received chemotherapy. The primary study outcome was HCV antibody (anti-HCV) screening at chemotherapy onset. We calculated screening prevalence and predictors by comparing characteristics of screened and unscreened patients using multivariable logistic regression. A total of 141,877 new patients with cancer were registered at MD Anderson during the study period, of whom 16,773 (11.8%) received chemotherapy and met inclusion criteria. A total of 2,330 patients (13.9%) were screened for HCV, and 35 (1.5%) tested positive. Only 42% of patients with exposure-type HCV risk factors, such as HIV infection, injection drug use, hemodialysis, or hemophilia, were screened. Birth after 1965, Asian race, HCV risk factors, and anticipated rituximab therapy were significant predictors of HCV screening; black patients and patients with solid tumors were significantly less likely to be screened. The only significant predictor of a positive anti-HCV result was birth during 1945 to 1965. HCV screening rates were low, even among patients with risk factors, and the groups with the highest rates of screening did not match the groups with the highest rates of a positive test result. Misconceptions may exist about which patients should be screened for HCV infection. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients.

  15. Intraepidermal nerve fibre density in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Mika J; Kautio, Anna-Liisa; Haanpää, Maija L; Haapasalo, Hannu K; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-L; Saarto, Tiina; Hietaharju, Aki J

    2011-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common adverse event in patients receiving vinca alcaloids, platinum derivatives and taxanes. However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. We set up a prospective pilot study on skin biopsies in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents as adjuvant treatment in order to study the occurrence of small-fibre pathology and its relationship to clinical symptoms. Skin biopsies from distal leg were performed in 12 patients before, during and after chemotherapy. Using light microscopy, the intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) density was determined from the skin biopsies by counting morphometrically the immunopositive nerves per epidermal area. Reduced IENF density was observed in eight patients at baseline. During the follow-up, the IENF density increased significantly in six patients and remained unchanged in two. In four patients, the IENF density was normal both at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period. Neuropathic symptoms were manifested in nine patients, but no association with the IENF count was found. During chemotherapy, results from patients revealed different evolutionary patterns of IENF density, but symptoms and IENF density were not related.

  16. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) required cholecystectomy for both acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis suggesting chemical cholecystitis. To evaluate the incidence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients receiving HAIC, the authors performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA or PIPIDA on eight patients receiving HAIC through an indwelling hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid (trademark) pump. In 7 of 8 patients, there was non-visualization of the gall bladder throughout the hepatobiliary study. In the eighth patient, the gall bladder visualized at 2 hr. One patient with non-visualization of the gall bladder at 4 hr developed acute symptoms requiring cholecystectomy which showed acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholethiasis. There was prominent sclerosis which was thought to be due to chemical cholecystitis as well as cholelithiasis. In all 10 patients, no evidence of cholecystitis had been observed during the surgical placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump. The hepatobiliary scintigraphic finding of gall bladder dysfunction in all eight patients studied is most likely due to chemical cholecystitis from HAIC. This series suggests that chemical cholecystitis is common during HAIC and can be identified by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The authors consider elective cholecystectomy during the operative placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump.

  17. Conditioned Emotional Distress in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated whether women undergoing outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer can develop classically conditioned emotional distress. Patients' responses to a distinctive stimulus were assessed in a location not associated with chemotherapy administration. Results supported hypothesis that pairing a distinctive stimulus with chemotherapy would…

  18. Factors associated with sleep quality in the elderly receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mansano-Schlosser, Thalyta Cristina; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the characteristics of sleep and the factors associated with the quality of sleep in elderly patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy treatment. cross-sectional study with 140 elderly patients (51.2% female, average age 69.8 years) with stage III or stage IV cancer (67.9%), undertaken in a university hospital in the state of São Paulo in 2010. The following instruments were used: sociodemographic and clinical characterization questionnaire, validated by specialists; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Piper Fatigue Scale-reviewed; and a scale for the subjective measurement of pain. the majority of the elderly (62.9%) had a score compatible with poor sleep quality. On average, the duration of sleep was 388.0 minutes, latency was 44.6 minutes and efficiency of 83.8%. Through multiple logistic regression analysis, an increase of 21% in the probability of having poor sleep quality was observed for each single-point increase in the intensity of the pain. nursing interventions aiming to promote better sleep quality for elderly patients with cancer must include measures for pain control.

  19. Standardizing of Pathology in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, Veerle; Symmans, W Fraser

    2016-10-01

    The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy for the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing. Pathologic response in the form of pathologic complete response (pCR) and grading systems of partial response, such as the residual cancer burden (RCB) system, gives valuable prognostic information for patients and is used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. The breast cancer and pathology communities are responding with efforts to standardize pathology in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the challenges that postneoadjuvant systemic therapy surgical specimens pose and how pathologists and the multidisciplinary team can work together to optimize handling of these specimens. Multidisciplinary communication is essential. A single, standardized approach to macroscopic and microscopic pathologic examination makes it possible to provide reliable response information. This approach employs a map of tissue sections to correlate clinical, gross, microscopic, and imaging findings in order to report the presence of pCR (ypT0 ypN0 and ypT0/is ypN0) versus residual disease, the ypT and ypN stage using the current AJCC/UICC staging system, and the RCB.

  20. Centering prayer for women receiving chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mary E; Dose, Ann M; Pipe, Teri Britt; Petersen, Wesley O; Huschka, Mashele; Gallenberg, Mary M; Peethambaram, Prema; Sloan, Jeff; Frost, Marlene H

    2009-07-01

    To explore the feasibility of implementing centering prayer in chemotherapy treatment and assess its influence on mood, spiritual well-being, and quality of life in women with recurrent ovarian cancer. Descriptive pilot study. Outpatient chemotherapy treatment suite in a large cancer center in the midwestern United States. A convenience sample of 10 women receiving outpatient chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer. A centering prayer teacher led participants through three one-hour sessions over nine weeks. Data were collected prior to the first session, at the conclusion of the final session, and at three and six months after the final session. Feasibility and influence of centering prayer on mood, spiritual well-being, and quality of life. Most participants identified centering prayer as beneficial. Emotional well-being, anxiety, depression, and faith scores showed improvement. Centering prayer can potentially benefit women with recurrent ovarian cancer. Additional research is needed to assess its feasibility and effectiveness. Nurses may promote or suggest centering prayer as a feasible intervention for the psychological and spiritual adjustment of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.

  1. Trajectories of Evening Fatigue in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is a distressing, persistent sense of physical tiredness that is not proportional to a person’s recent activity. Fatigue impacts patients’ treatment decisions and can limit their self-care activities. While significant interindividual variability in fatigue severity has been noted, little is known about predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of evening fatigue severity in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy (CTX). Objectives To determine whether demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the evening fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients who were White, diagnosed with breast, gynecological, or lung cancer, and who had more years of education, child care responsibilities, lower functional status, and higher levels of sleep disturbance and depression reported higher levels of evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusion This study identified both non-modifiable (e.g., ethnicity) and modifiable (e.g., child care responsibilities, depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance) risk factors for more severe evening fatigue. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828560

  2. Skeletal morbidity in children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Elmantaser, M; Stewart, G; Young, D; Duncan, R; Gibson, B; Ahmed, S F

    2010-10-01

    Children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) may be susceptible to skeletal morbidity. To determine the incidence and risk factors for skeletal morbidity in ALL children. The medical records of all (n=186, boys=110) children presenting to a single centre with ALL between 1997 and 2007 and treated on UKALL97, UKALL97/01 or UKALL2003 were studied. Skeletal morbidity included musculoskeletal pain, fractures and osteonecrosis (ON). Musculoskeletal pain was classified as any event of limb pain, muscle pain, joint symptoms or back pain that required radiological examination. Fractures and ON were confirmed by x-rays and MRI, respectively. Skeletal morbidity, presenting as musculoskeletal pain, fractures or ON were reported in 88 (47%) children of whom 56 (63%) were boys. Of 88 children, 49 (55%), 27 (30%) and 18 (20%) had musculoskeletal pain, fracture(s) or ON, respectively. 6 (7%) had fractures and ON. The median (10th, 90th centiles) age at diagnosis of ALL in those children without skeletal morbidity was 3.9 (1.4-12) years which was lower than in those with skeletal morbidity at 8.2 (2.2-14.3) years (p<0.00001, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.4). Children with ALL diagnosed over 8 years of age were at increased risk of developing fracture(s) (p=0.01, OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 6.5) whereas the risk of ON was higher in those who were diagnosed after 9 years of age (p<0.0001, OR=15, 95% CI 4.1 to 54.4). There was no sex difference in the incidence of skeletal complications. Children who received Dexamethasone had a higher incidence of skeletal morbidity than those who were treated with Prednisolone (p=0.027, OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.9). The occurrence of skeletal morbidity in ALL children may be influenced by age and the type of glucocorticoids. These findings may facilitate the development of effective bone protective intervention.

  3. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Danwilai, Kwanjit; Konmun, Jitprapa; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Subongkot, Suphat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo. Patients and methods Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day) or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH/GSSG), lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO2−/NO3−, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P < 0.05, was used to determine statistical significance. Results A total of 43 patients were included in the study: 19 and 24 patients were randomly assigned to the ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2−/NO3− levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.0001). When compared to the baseline, the activities of SOD and CAT and the levels of GPx and GSH/GSSG were significantly higher on day 64 (P = 0.01), while the blood levels of MDA and NO2−/NO3− were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Conclusion Daily supplement of ginger extract started 3 days prior to chemotherapy has been shown to significantly elevate antioxidant activity and reduce oxidative marker levels in patients who received moderate-to-high emetogenic potential chemotherapy compared to placebo. PMID:28203106

  4. Rolapitant improves quality of life of patients receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chasen, Martin; Urban, Laszlo; Schnadig, Ian; Rapoport, Bernardo; Powers, Dan; Arora, Sujata; Navari, Rudolph; Schwartzberg, Lee; Gridelli, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Addition of rolapitant to standard antiemetic therapy improved protection against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in phase 3 trials of patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Here, we assessed the impact of CINV on the daily lives of patients receiving HEC or MEC using the Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE). In three double-blind phase 3 studies, patients receiving HEC or MEC were randomized 1:1 to receive oral rolapitant 180 mg or placebo prior to chemotherapy plus 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone therapy. Patients completed the FLIE questionnaire on day 6 of cycle 1. Endpoints included FLIE total score, nausea and vomiting domain scores, and the proportion of patients with no impact on daily life (total score >108 [range 18-126]). We performed a prespecified analysis of the MEC/anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC) study and a post hoc analysis of two pooled cisplatin-based HEC studies. In the pooled HEC studies, rolapitant significantly improved the FLIE total score (114.5 vs 109.3, p < 0.001), nausea score (55.3 vs 53.5, p < 0.05), and vomiting score (59.2 vs 55.8, p < 0.001) versus control; similar results were observed in the MEC/AC study for FLIE total score (112.7 vs 108.6, p < 0.001), nausea score (54.1 vs 52.3, p < 0.05), and vomiting score (58.6 vs 56.3, p < 0.001). A higher proportion of patients reported no impact on daily life with rolapitant than with control in the MEC/AC study (73.2 vs 67.4, p = 0.027). Compared with control, rolapitant improved quality of life in patients receiving HEC or MEC.

  5. Lack of vincristine infiltrates in patients with retinoblastoma receiving chemotherapy by peripheral intravenous lines.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Concetta; Clerico, Danielle; Leahey, Ann

    2015-10-01

    The delivery route of chemotherapy for intraocular retinoblastoma has become controversial. One objection to systemic delivery is the need for central venous access. We cross-referenced a hospital vascular access database with our tumor registry to determine the incidence of chemotherapy infiltrates. Sixty-five patients received 270 cycles of chemotherapy via peripheral intravenous access. Vincristine infiltration was 0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.16%) while that of non-vesicant chemotherapy was 0.7% (95%CI 0.1-2.6%). Giving chemotherapy via peripheral access to patients with retinoblastoma is safe. It can decrease therapy costs and prevent central line associated blood stream infections.

  6. Aneuploidy in sperm of Hodgkin`s disease patients receiving NOVP chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, W.A.; Cassel, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Induction of genetic damage in germ cells of young patients receiving chemo- or radiotherapy for cancers with probable cure, such as Hodgkin`s disease, is cause for concern. These young patients may someday desire children, and germ cell alterations presenting as numerical chromosomal abnormalities in sperm may place their future offspring at risk. To address this concern, we measured aneuploidy in sperm from eight young Hodgkin`s disease patients: four pre-treatment, four during treatment, and three over a 45 month period following treatment with NOVP (Novantrone, Oncovin, Vinblastine and Prednisone). Patients ranged in stage of disease from IA-IIEB and none had received prior radiation or chemotherapy. Using multi-chromosome sperm FISH with repetitive sequence probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, we found a significant 2-4 fold increase in particular numerical chromosomal abnormalities during treatment which were limited in persistence post-treatment. Additionally, pre-treatment Hodgkin`s disease patients showed elevations in some numerical chromosomal abnormalities when compared to a healthy reference group. In several men, the fraction of aneuploid sperm did not return to healthy reference group levels even after completion of therapy. These results show that elevated sperm aneuploidy occurs in germ cells of young cancer patients during chemotherapy and suggest caution to prevent conceptions during this period. The elevated sperm aneuploidy appears transient, but in some cases never returns to healthy reference group levels.

  7. Prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sarrión-Pérez, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). It is an inflammatory process that affects the mucosa of the oral cavity, giving rise to erythematous areas in combination with ulcers that can reach a large size. The true importance of oral mucositis is the complications it causes – fundamentally intense pain associated to the oral ulcers, and the risk of overinfection. This in turn may require reduction or even suspension of the antineoplastic treatment, with the risk of seriously worsening the patient prognosis. This points to the importance of establishing therapeutic tools of use in the prevention and/or treatment of mucositis. The present study offers a literature review of all the articles published over the last 10 years referred to the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis associated to chemotherapy. Key words:Oral mucositis, management, prevention, treatment, chemotherapy. PMID:24596640

  8. Values of sleep/wake, activity/rest, circadian rhythms, and fatigue prior to adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ann M; Farr, Lynne A; Kuhn, Brett R; Fischer, Patricia; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2007-04-01

    Fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom experienced by patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Higher fatigue levels have been related to sleep maintenance problems and low daytime activity in patients who have received chemotherapy, but knowledge describing these relationships prior to chemotherapy is sparse. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided this study, which describes sleep/wake, activity/rest, circadian rhythms, and fatigue and how they interrelate in women with Stage I, II, or IIIA breast cancer during the 48 hours prior to the first adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The present report describes these variables in 130 females, mean age=51.4 years; the majority were married and employed. Subjective sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and fatigue was measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale. Wrist actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep/wake, activity/rest, and circadian rhythms. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was 6.73+/-3.4, indicating poor sleep. Objective sleep/wake results were within normal limits established for healthy individuals, except for the number and length of night awakenings. Objective activity/rest results were within normal limits except for low mean daytime activity. Circadian rhythm mesor was 132.3 (24.6) and amplitude was 97.2 (22.8). Mean Piper Fatigue Scale score was 2.56+/-2, with 72% reporting mild fatigue. There were significant relationships between subjective and objective sleep, but no consistent patterns. Higher total and subscale fatigue scores were correlated with most components of poorer subjective sleep quality (r=0.25-0.42, P< or =0.005).

  9. Values of Sleep/Wake, Activity/Rest, Circadian Rhythms, and Fatigue Prior to Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Ann M.; Farr, Lynne A.; Kuhn, Brett R.; Fischer, Patricia; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom experienced by patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Higher fatigue levels have been related to sleep maintenance problems and low daytime activity in patients who have received chemotherapy, but knowledge is sparse describing these relationships prior to chemotherapy. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model© guided this study, which describes sleep/wake, activity/rest, circadian rhythms and fatigue, and how they inter-relate in women with Stage I, II or IIIA breast cancer during the 48 hours prior to the first adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The present report describes these variables in 130 females, mean age = 51.4 years; the majority were married and employed. Subjective sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and fatigue was measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS). Wrist actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep/wake, activity/rest, and circadian rhythms. Mean PSQI score was 6.73 ±3.4, indicating poor sleep. Objective sleep/wake results were within limits of normal (WNL) established for healthy individuals, except for the number and length of night awakenings. Objective activity/rest results were WNL except for low mean daytime activity. Circadian rhythm mesor was 132.3(24.6) and amplitude was 97.2(22.8). Mean PFS score was 2.56 ±2.0, with 72% reporting mild fatigue. There were significant relationships between subjective and objective sleep, but no consistent patterns. Higher total and subscale fatigue scores were correlated with most components of poorer subjective sleep quality (r= 0.25 to 0.42, P = <0.005). PMID:17397701

  10. Febrile neutropaenia and chemotherapy discontinuation in women aged 70 years or older receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Adjogatse, D; Thanopoulou, E; Okines, A; Thillai, K; Tasker, F; Johnston, S R D; Harper-Wynne, C; Torrisi, E; Ring, A

    2014-11-01

    Low rates of adjuvant chemotherapy use are frequently reported in older women with early breast cancer. One of the reasons for this may be the risk of febrile neutropaenia or the perception that older patients will probably not complete the chemotherapy course prescribed. There are no data regarding these adverse outcomes in routine clinical practice. We identified 128 patients aged 70 years or over who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer in seven UK cancer centres between 2006 and 2012. Data were collected regarding standard clinical and pathological variables and treatment toxicity and outcomes. Twenty-four patients (19%) had an episode of febrile neutropaenia. Overall, 27 patients (21%) did not complete their planned therapy. Chemotherapy discontinuation was more common in those patients with an episode of febrile neutropaenia (46% versus 16%, P = 0.004). Thirty patients (23%) were admitted with chemotherapy-related complications. There were no treatment-related deaths. The rates of febrile neutropaenia and treatment discontinuation are high in women aged 70 years or over receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Close attention should be paid to the choice or regimen and the use of supportive therapies in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapy improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes-RAEB: a retrospective analysis vs. chemotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Ye, Li; Ren, Yanling; Zhou, Xinping; Mei, Chen; Ma, Liya; Ye, Xingnong; Wei, Juying; Xu, Weilai; Meng, Haitao; Qian, Wenbin; Mai, Wenyuan; Lou, Yinjun; Xu, Gaixiang; Qian, Jiejing; Lou, Yejiang; Luo, Yingwan; Xie, Lili; Lin, Peipei; Hu, Chao; Jin, Jie; Tong, Hongyan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapeutic regimens could improve outcomes in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes-refractory anemia with excess of blasts (MDS-RAEB). The current retrospective analysis included all MDS-RAEB patients receiving idarubicin/cytarabine (IA) or aclacinomycin/cytarabine (AA), with or without decitabine priming during a period from February 2010 to May 2015. Treatment response and toxicity were compared between patients receiving decitabine priming and those who did not. A panel of 6 MDS-related genes was examined using bone marrow specimens. A total of 81 patients were included in the analysis: 40 received decitabine priming prior to chemotherapy (decitabine priming group). The median follow-up was 10.9 months (IQR: 6.2-21.9). The rate of overall response (OR) and complete remission (CR) was significantly higher in the decitabine priming group than in the chemotherapy group (OR: 75.0 vs. 51.2%, p = 0.027; CR: 55.0 vs. 29.3%, p = 0.019). Overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between the two groups (19.5 vs. 14.7 months, p = 0.082). In a subgroup analysis that included only patients at < 60 years of age, the CR rate in the decitabine priming group was significantly higher than in the chemotherapy group (65.5 vs. 31.0%, p = 0.009). Survival benefit of decitabine priming was apparent in patients at < 60 years of age (22.4 months with 95% CI of 6.7-38.1 vs. 14.7 months with 95% CI of 11.4-18.0 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.028), patients with intermediate and unfavorable karyotypes (22.4 months with 95% CI of 15.1-29.7 vs. 11.9 months with 95% CI of 4.0-19.8 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.042), and patients with mutated splicing factor genes (35.3 months with 95% CI of 21.4-49.2 vs. 17.8 months with 95% CI of 13.8-21.8 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.039). Grade 3-4 hematological and non

  12. Development of a preparatory sensory information videotape for women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, R W; Rhodes, V A

    1998-04-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a preparatory sensory information (PSI) videotape for women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. In telephone interviews, 40 women described the sensations they experienced before, during, and after receiving chemotherapy. Sensations described by the women were linked with procedural and temporal elements identified by certified advanced practice oncology nurses to develop a script for the PSI videotape. Women currently receiving chemotherapy or who had completed chemotherapy within the last 6 months were asked to share their experiences on videotape. After editing, a 20-minute PSI videotape was produced. Pilot testing with a group of 20 women demonstrated that the intervention helped to prepare them for the sensory experiences associated with chemotherapy and was helpful in developing anticipatory coping and self-care behaviors.

  13. Efficacy of Scalp Cooling in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cigler, Tessa; Isseroff, Devora; Fiederlein, Barbara; Schneider, Sarah; Chuang, Ellen; Vahdat, Linda; Moore, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a distressing adverse effect of many chemotherapy agents. The TC (docetaxel [Taxotere] and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy regimen is typically associated with complete alopecia. Scalp cooling with cold caps has been reported to minimize or prevent CIA. We conducted a prospective study to assess efficacy of scalp cooling in preventing CIA among women receiving adjuvant TC chemotherapy for breast cancer. Women at the Weill Cornell Breast Center who independently elected to use scalp cooling with cold caps during adjuvant TC chemotherapy were asked to participate. Degree of hair loss was assessed by a single practitioner using Dean's alopecia scale (grade 1/excellent [< 25% hair loss], grade 2/good [25%-50% hair loss], grade 3/moderate [50%-75% hair loss], grade 4/poor [> 75% hair loss]), by digital photographs, and by patient self-report of hair thinning or the need to wear a wig/head covering, or both. Assessments were made before each chemotherapy treatment and at follow-up visits between 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of chemotherapy. Of 20 evaluable patients, 10% reported a need to wear a wig/head covering at the follow-up visit. Dean's alopecia score was excellent for 65% of patients, good for 25% of patients, and moderate or poor for 10% of patients. The majority of patients reported hair thinning after every chemotherapy cycle. No patient discontinued therapy because of an intolerance to cold caps. Scalp cooling with cold caps appears to be effective in preventing CIA among the majority of women undergoing treatment with TC chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acupressure in Controlling Nausea in Young Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |

  15. Previous chemotherapy influences the symptom experience and quality of life of women with breast cancer prior to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hofsø, Kristin; Miaskowski, Christine; Bjordal, Kristin; Cooper, Bruce A; Rustøen, Tone

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that women who receive treatment for breast cancer may experience multiple symptoms that decrease their functional status and quality of life. Few studies evaluated the occurrence, severity, and distress of multiple symptoms in women at the initiation of radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. This study evaluated for differences in symptoms occurrence, severity, and distress between women with breast cancer who did and did not receive chemotherapy (CTX) prior to RT. Prior to the initiation of RT, patients completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) that evaluated multiple dimensions of 32 symptoms. Differences in occurrence, severity, and distress scores between the 2 CTX groups were evaluated using χ and Mann-Whitney U tests. The 5 symptoms with the highest occurrence rates were lack of energy, worrying, difficulty sleeping, feeling drowsy, sweats, and pain. Women who received CTX prior to RT experienced twice as many symptoms as women who did not receive CTX. Except from difficulty sleeping, the 5 most prevalent symptoms were not the most severe or distressing. A poorer functional status, a higher comorbidity score, and previous CTX were all predictors of a higher number of symptoms. Women with breast cancer experience large numbers of symptoms at the initiation of RT. Previous CTX doubles the number of symptoms that women report. Findings suggest that clinicians need to use a multidimensional symptom assessment tool in women with breast cancer at the initiation of RT.

  16. Multimodal quantitative examination of nerve function in colorectal cancer patients prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Tejaswi; Farrar, Michelle A; Krishnan, Arun V; Murray, Jenna; Timmins, Hannah C; Goldstein, David; Lin, Cindy S-Y; Kiernan, Matthew C; Park, Susanna B

    2017-09-07

    Given recent findings of subclinical sensory deficits in colorectal cancer patients prior to oxaliplatin treatment, the current study aimed to identify evidence of subclinical peripheral neuropathy on multimodal testing before chemotherapy commencement. Clinical, functional and neurophysiological assessments were undertaken in 93 colorectal cancer patients prior to chemotherapy. There was no neurophysiological evidence of neuropathy, with 92/93 sural sensory values within normative reference values for age and no significant abnormalities detected in nerve conduction or nerve excitability studies. Clinical neurological assessment revealed 75.9% of patients with no signs or symptoms, 10.3% with reduction in distal vibration or pinprick sensitivity and 6.9% with reduction in ankle reflexes only. There was no difference in manual dexterity (9-hole pegboard) compared to normative data. The present study has established a low likelihood of significant distal symmetrical polyneuropathy in colorectal cancer patients prior to initiation of chemotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes in patients receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim.

    PubMed

    Covert, Wendy M; Murillo, Jose R; Cox, James E

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organization classifies myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as a group of hematologic malignancies where at least one myeloid lineage contains ≥10% cells with myelodysplasia. Therapy-related MDS (t-MDS) may result from treatment with myelosuppressive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Myeloid growth factors, such as pegfilgrastim, have also been investigated as a possible risk factor for development of t-MDS. National guidelines and myeloid growth factor prescribing information recommend administering myeloid growth factors after a minimum of 24 h following myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Some evidence suggests that administering myeloid growth factors and myelosuppressive chemotherapy concurrently may increase the risk of developing t-MDS. To evaluate the incidence of t-MDS in patients who received pegfilgrastim and chemotherapy on the same day compared to patients receiving pegfilgrastim at least 1 day following completion of their chemotherapy. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients who received myelosuppressive chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim on the same day between January 2003 and December 2007. Any initial diagnosis of t-MDS was clinically confirmed. A total of 227 patients received myelosuppressive chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim on the same day. Median time to follow-up was 3.47 years (IQR 1.15). Two patients had a confirmed diagnosis of t-MDS. The incidence of t-MDS in patients receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim in our study population is 0.88%. Administering pegfilgrastim at least 1 day after myelosuppressive chemotherapy may help reduce the risk of t-MDS, but more studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm this finding.

  18. Efficacy of Ginger in Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mansour; Porouhan, Pezhman; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Nasrollahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most serious side effects of chemotherapy, in some cases leading to treatment interruption or chemotherapy dose reduction. Ginger has long been known as an antiemetic drug, used for conditions such as motion sickness, nausea-vomiting in pregnancy, and post-operation side effects. One hundred and fifty female patients with breast cancer entered this prospective study and were randomized to receive ginger (500 mg ginger powder, twice a day for 3 days) or placebo. One hundred and nineteen patients completed the study: 57 of them received ginger and 62 received ginger for the frst 3 chemotherapy cycles. Mean age in all patients was 48.6 (25-79) years. After 1st chemotherapy, mean nausea in the ginger and control arms were 1.36 (±1.31) and 1.46 (±1.28) with no statistically significant difference. After the 2nd chemotherapy session, nausea score was slightly more in the ginger group (1.36 versus 1.32). After 3rd chemotherapy, mean nausea severity in control group was less than ginger group [1.37 (±1.14), versus 1.42 (±1.30)]. Considering all patients, nausea was slightly more severe in ginger arm. In ginger arm mean nausea score was 1.42 (±0.96) and in control arm it was 1.40 (±0.92). Mean vomiting scores after chemotherapy in ginger arm were 0.719 (±1.03), 0.68 (±1.00) and 0.77 (±1.18). In control arm, mean vomiting was 0.983 (±1.23), 1.03 (±1.22) and 1.15 (±1.27). In all sessions, ginger decreased vomiting severity from 1.4 (±1.04) to 0.71 (±0.86). None of the differences were significant. In those patients who received the AC regimen, vomiting was less severe (0.64±0.87) compared to those who received placebo (1.13±1.12), which was statistically significant (p-value <0.05). Further and larger studies are needed to draw conclusions.

  19. A prospective study on the efficacy of two-dose influenza vaccinations in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukinari; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Nomura, Tetsuhiko; Chayahara, Naoko; Toyoda, Masanori; Minami, Yosuke; Kiyota, Naomi; Mukohara, Toru; Kawamoto, Shinichiro; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Minami, Hironobu

    2016-05-01

    Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk of acquiring influenza infections. Two-dose vaccination is a proposed strategy for increasing vaccination efficacy; however, this has yet to be confirmed in this population. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy and safety of this strategy. We conducted a multicentre prospective study on a two-dose vaccination regimen in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Second vaccinations were performed in patients who did not respond to all three viral strains after the first vaccination. Serum haemagglutination inhibition titres were measured to determine the patients' immunological response, 2 weeks prior to the first vaccination, 3-5 weeks after each vaccination, and at the end of the influenza season. We enrolled 109 patients, including 70 with solid tumours, 36 with haematological malignancies, and 3 with both cancer types. Among the total patients, the proportion of patients with protective titres against the three viral strains increased significantly from 3 to 27% (P < 0.01) following vaccination. Among the 79 patients who received a second vaccination, the proportion of those with protective titres against the individual strains increased by 10% (H1N1), 8% (H3N2), and 3% (B) compared with after the first vaccination. Serious adverse events were not observed. We recommend influenza vaccinations for cancer patients, including those receiving chemotherapy. Also, the additional benefit of the second vaccination may be limited. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy in Hospital Melaka: Single Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chean, Dang Chee; Zang, Wong Kuo; Lim, Michelle; Zulkefle, Nooraziah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of chemotherapy on quality of life (QoL) among breast cancer patients and to evaluate the relationship with age, cancer stage and presence of any comorbidity. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in Hospital Melaka from 1st January 2014 to 31st July 2014. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was given to patients to fill in prior chemotherapy (baseline) and after the third cycle of chemotherapy. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result: Respondents were 32 female patients [mean age (SD): 49.7(9.93) years]. They reported a significant lower global health status (P < 0.01) and significant higher symptoms of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01), loss of appetite (P = 0.028) and diarrhea (P = 0.026) after the third cycle of chemotherapy as compared to baseline. Compare to, this study showed significant better emotional functioning (P < 0.01) and social functioning (P < 0.01) than the EORTC QLQ-C30 Reference Values 2008 for breast cancer cases. Under symptom scales higher scores were noted for appetite loss (P = 0.017), nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01). Age, stage and comorbidity had no clear associations with global health status in our patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Chemotherapy did reduce the QoL of breast cancer patients. Management of chemotherapy-induced loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting should be improved for a better outcome. PMID:28122444

  1. Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy in Hospital Melaka: Single Centre Experience

    PubMed

    Chee Chean, Dang; Kuo Zang, Wong; Lim, Michelle; Zulkefle, Nooraziah

    2016-12-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of chemotherapy on quality of life (QoL) among breast cancer patients and to evaluate the relationship with age, cancer stage and presence of any comorbidity. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in Hospital Melaka from 1st January 2014 to 31st July 2014. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was given to patients to fill in prior chemotherapy (baseline) and after the third cycle of chemotherapy. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result: Respondents were 32 female patients [mean age (SD): 49.7(9.93) years]. They reported a significant lower global health status (P < 0.01) and significant higher symptoms of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01), loss of appetite (P = 0.028) and diarrhea (P = 0.026) after the third cycle of chemotherapy as compared to baseline. Compare to, this study showed significant better emotional functioning (P < 0.01) and social functioning (P < 0.01) than the EORTC QLQ-C30 Reference Values 2008 for breast cancer cases. Under symptom scales higher scores were noted for appetite loss (P = 0.017), nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01). Age, stage and comorbidity had no clear associations with global health status in our patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Chemotherapy did reduce the QoL of breast cancer patients. Management of chemotherapy-induced loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting should be improved for a better outcome.

  2. Prescription of Prophylactic Antiemetic Drugs for Patients Receiving Chemotherapy With Minimal and Low Emetic Risk.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Ayako; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Higashi, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    The use of antiemetic drugs for patients receiving chemotherapy with low or minimal emetic risk has been recognized as a growing concern for health care costs and patients' welfare. Relatively few studies have examined antiemetic prophylaxis or treatment of emesis associated with chemotherapy with lower emetic risk. To describe the pattern in Japan of overprescribing prophylactic antiemetic drugs to patients who have received intravenous chemotherapy with minimal or low emetic risk. This secondary analysis of a health insurance claims database linked with the hospital-based cancer registry of 122 designated cancer care hospitals covered the period from September 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012. Data were included from patients who (1) were diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal, stomach, cervical, or prostate cancer; (2) were 20 years or older at the time of the diagnosis; and (3) received intravenous chemotherapy with minimal or low emetic risk. The data from patients with advanced stage cancer (stage IV) were excluded. Data were analyzed from March 20, 2014, to June 30, 2016. The percentage of chemotherapy administration involving patients prescribed prophylactic antiemetic drugs, namely, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, serotonin receptor antagonist, and/or dexamethasone, was calculated. The costs of potentially unnecessary antiemetic drugs were estimated using the National Health Insurance drug price list for 2011. A total of 8545 patients (5886 women [68.9%] and 2659 men [31.1%]; mean [SD] age, 61.9 [12.8] years) undergoing 73 577 administrations of chemotherapy with minimal emetic risk (2464 patients; 22 619 administrations) or low emetic risk (6081 patients; 50 958 administrations) were identified. Of these, patients who received 24 373 administrations of chemotherapy with a low emetic risk (47.8%) and 633 administrations of chemotherapy with a minimal emetic risk (2.8%) were prescribed serotonin receptor antagonists and dexamethasone. Outpatients

  3. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  4. Impact of abiraterone acetate with and without prior docetaxel chemotherapy on the survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joice; Aprikian, Armen G.; Vanhuyse, Marie; Cury, Fabio L.; Hu, Jason; Prévost, Noémie; Dragomir, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abiraterone acetate was introduced in Quebec in 2012 for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in patients who had received chemotherapy with docetaxel. This study describes abiraterone use in the early postapproval period and its clinical effectiveness in Quebec, for both patients who had received docetaxel chemotherapy and those who could not receive docetaxel therapy owing to medical reasons. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Quebec public health care administrative databases. Our cohort consisted of patients with mCRPC who received abiraterone between January 2012 and June 2013. Treatment groups were defined as patients who received abiraterone following docetaxel chemotherapy and those who received abiraterone without having had chemotherapy, under the "exception patient" measure. Study outcomes included overall survival, duration of abiraterone therapy and number of hospital days. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the effectiveness of abiraterone adjusted for several covariates. Results: Our cohort consisted of 303 patients with mCRPC treated with abiraterone (99 after chemotherapy and 204 as exception patients). The median age at initiation of abiraterone therapy was 75.0 for the postchemotherapy group and 80.0 for the exception patient group. The corresponding median survival values were 12 and 14 months (log-rank test p = 0.8). Risk of death was similar in the 2 groups (adjusted hazard ratio 0.89 [95% confidence interval 0.57-1.38]). Interpretation: The effectiveness of abiraterone in older patients who were ineligible for chemotherapy was similar to that of patients with prior docetaxel exposure. Overall, the real-world survival benefits of abiraterone were similar to those in the COU-AA-301 trial. PMID:28401143

  5. Abiraterone in the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Benjamin A; Saad, Fred

    2015-08-01

    The treatment armamentarium for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has increased significantly over the past several years. Approved drugs associated with improved survival include androgen pathway-targeted agents (abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide), chemotherapeutics (docetaxel and cabazitaxel), an autologous vaccine (sipuleucel-T) and a radiopharmaceutical (radium-223). Abiraterone acetate, a prodrug of abiraterone, inhibits the CYP17A enzyme, a critical enzyme in androgen biosynthesis. Abiraterone has regulatory approval in mCRPC in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and in the post-docetaxel setting based on results from two randomized phase III studies. In the COU-AA-302 trial, abiraterone demonstrated significant improvement in the coprimary endpoints of radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival, as well as in a number of secondary endpoints including time until initiation of chemotherapy, time until opiate use for cancer-related pain, prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival and decline in performance status. Abiraterone is well-tolerated, although adverse events associated with this agent include abnormalities in liver function testing and mineralocorticoid-associated adverse events. This review evaluates the use of abiraterone in mCRPC prior to the use of chemotherapy.

  6. Efficacy of granulocyte colony stimulating factor as a secondary prophylaxis along with full-dose chemotherapy following a prior cycle of febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Seema; Singh, Pankaj K; Bhatt, Madan L B; Pant, Mohan C; Gupta, Rajeev; Negi, Mahendra P S

    2010-10-01

    Secondary prophylaxis with recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is recommended where patients have experienced febrile neutropenia in an earlier chemotherapy cycle and for whom the maintenance of chemotherapy dose intensity is important; or where febrile neutropenia has not occurred but prolonged neutropenia is causing excessive dose delay or reduction, where maintenance of dose intensity is important. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of G-CSF as secondary prophylaxis when used along with full dose moderately myelotoxic chemotherapy following a prior cycle with febrile-neutropenia. Fifty-two patients aged 22-75 years with febrile neutropenia that required intravenous antibiotics following moderately myelotoxic chemotherapy were included. These patients received the next cycle of the same chemotherapy regime without dose modification but with support of filgrastim 24 h after completion of chemotherapy (300 μg/day/subcutaneously (s.c.) for weight < 60 kg, 480 μg/day/s.c. for weight > 60 kg, for at least 10 consecutive days), patients in whom neutropenia was associated with a life-threatening infection and those who developed prolonged myelosuppression were excluded. The use of the hematopoietic growth factor G-CSF was shown to shorten the neutrophil recovery time, resulting in significant reduction of incidence of febrile neutropenia, hospitalization and use of broad spectrum antibiotics. There was no drug related death or adverse events associated with either cycle. In conclusion, recombinant human G-CSF is effective and relatively safe as a secondary prophylaxis with full dose chemotherapy in patients who develop febrile neutropenia following prior cycles of moderately myelotoxic chemotherapy.

  7. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: natural history, pathogenesis, and management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Jen; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2013-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in the Asian-Pacific region, and reactivation of HBV post-cancer chemotherapy has become an emerging clinical challenge. Patients with detectable serum HBV DNA before chemotherapy and those receiving intensive chemotherapy are particularly at a risk of HBV reactivation. Most patients with HBV reactivation are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and are, therefore, easily identified by recommended serological screening before chemotherapy. However, a small, but significant proportion of subjects who have apparently recovered from HBV infection as reflected by HBsAg negativity and hepatitis B core antibody positivity in HBV endemic areas may also experience reactivation when host immunity is severely compromised by cancer chemotherapy. Serum alanine aminotransferase, HBsAg, and/or HBV DNA should be monitored closely in these subjects and antiviral therapy should be administered immediately when any evidence of HBV reactivation is detected during chemotherapy. The prophylactic use of nucleos(t)ide analogs before chemotherapy and its continuation until reconstitution of host immunity remain the mainstay of effective prevention of hepatitis B reactivation in this special clinical entity.

  8. Improving adherence with oral antiemetic agents in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Carolyn B

    2015-05-01

    In this small breast cancer-dedicated solo practice, a retrospective medical record review disclosed the following: significant rate of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting and discordance between patient-reported compliance with prescribed antiemetics and medical record documentation of compliance. As part of the curriculum for the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Quality Training Program, a quality improvement project was developed to improve adherence to oral antiemetics in our patients with breast cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. The following steps were undertaken in plan-do-study-act cycles to improve adherence: enhanced patient education at time of chemotherapy consent, implementation of standardized in-person or e-mail contact with our patients receiving chemotherapy, and improvement of our electronic health record documentation of adherence to oral antiemetics. A run chart was generated to analyze our data. After our interventions, the percentage of patients who took their antiemetics as prescribed rose from a baseline of 49% to 79%. Significant improvement in adherence to oral antiemetics among patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy was achieved and sustained in this small-practice setting using the framework provided by participation in the ASCO Quality Training Program. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza vaccination in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    WONG-CHEW, ROSA MARÍA; FRÍAS, MARGARITA NAVA; GARCÍA-LEÓN, MIGUEL LEONARDO; ARRIAGA-PIZANO, LOURDES; SANSON, AURORA MEDINA; LOPEZ-MACÍAS, CONSTANTINO; ISIBASI, ARMANDO; SANTOS-PRECIADO, JOSÉ IGNACIO

    2012-01-01

    The immune response to influenza vaccination in children with cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and humoral immune responses to an influenza vaccine in children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. In this study, children with cancer, who were not previously immunized, received an influenza vaccine via intramuscular injection. Blood samples were obtained prior to and at 4 weeks after immunization. Antibodies were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Cell-mediated immunity was measured by specific lymphoproliferation with 3H-thymidine incorporation and by measuring cell frequencies following staining with monoclonal antibodies (CD8, CD4, CD19, CD45RA and CD27) using flow cytometry following incubation with the influenza antigen for 5 days. Geometric mean titers (GMT), mean counts per minute (cpm), cell frequencies prior to and following vaccination and percentage patient responses were compared using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric U and Chi-square tests; where p<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant result. A total of 56 children were included. Their mean age was 6.64±3.61 years. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was diagnosed in 75, solid tumors in 23 and lymphoma in 2% of the children. Subjects with titers ≥40 hemagglutination units (HU) increased from 43% prior to vaccination to 73% following vaccination (p=0.01), whereas the GMT increased from 31.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 29–111] to 143.45 HU (95% CI, 284–640) following vaccination (p<0.001). An increase in CD45RA expression in CD8+ T cells was observed following vaccination (p=0.01). An increase in CD27 expression was observed in the CD4/8-negative cell population stimulated with the influenza antigen following vaccination (p<0.05). No serious adverse effects were observed. An increase in the seropositivity rate and GMT values following influenza vaccination were also observed. Influenza

  10. Pre-treatment with oral hydroxyurea prior to intensive chemotherapy improves early survival of patients with high hyperleukocytosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mamez, Anne-Claire; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Chevret, Sylvie; Lemiale, Virginie; Boissel, Nicolas; Canet, Emmanuel; Schlemmer, Benoît; Dombret, Hervé; Azoulay, Elie; Lengliné, Etienne

    2016-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia with high white blood cell count (WBC) is a medical emergency. A reduction of tumor burden with hydroxyurea may prevent life-threatening complications induced by straight chemotherapy. To evaluate this strategy, we reviewed medical charts of adult patients admitted to our institution from 1997 to 2011 with non-promyelocytic AML and WBC over 50 G/L. One hundred and sixty patients were included with a median WBC of 120 G/L (range 50-450), 107 patients received hydroxyurea prior to chemotherapy, and 53 received emergency induction chemotherapy (CT). Hospital mortality was lower for patients treated with hydroxyurea (34% versus 19%, p = 0.047) even after adjusting for age (p < 0.01) and initial WBC count (p = 0.02). No evidence of any difference between treatment groups in terms of WBC decline kinetics and disease free survival (p = 0.87) was found. Oral hydroxyurea prior to chemotherapy seems a safe and efficient strategy to reduce early death of hyperleukocytic AML patients.

  11. 10 CFR 9.203 - Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure where response to demand is required prior to... or Disclosure in Response to Subpoenas or Demands of Courts or Other Authorities § 9.203 Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. If a response to the demand...

  12. Cognitive/Attentional Distraction in the Control of Conditioned Nausea in Pediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated use of cognitive/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Video game-playing resulted in significantly less nausea. The introduction and withdrawal of the opportunity to play video games produced significant changes (reduction…

  13. Pooled analyses of eribulin in metastatic breast cancer patients with at least one prior chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pivot, X.; Marmé, F.; Koenigsberg, R.; Guo, M.; Berrak, E.; Wolfer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Based on data from two multicenter, phase III clinical trials (Studies 301 and 305), eribulin (a microtubule dynamics inhibitor) is indicated in the European Union (EU) for patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) after ≥1 prior chemotherapy for advanced disease, including an anthracycline and a taxane in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting. Data from Studies 305 and 301 were pooled to investigate the efficacy of eribulin in various subgroups of patients who matched the EU label, including those with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative and triple-negative disease. Patients and methods In Study 305 (NCT00388726), patients were randomized 2:1 to eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg/m2 (equivalent to eribulin 1.23 mg/m2 [expressed as free base]) intravenously on days 1 and 8 every 21 days] or treatment of physician's choice after 2–5 prior chemotherapies (≥2 for advanced disease), including an anthracycline and a taxane (in early/advanced setting). In Study 301 (NCT00337103), patients were randomized 1:1 to eribulin (as above) or capecitabine (1.25 g/m2 orally twice daily on days 1–14 every 21 days) following ≤3 prior chemotherapies (≤2 for advanced disease), including an anthracycline and a taxane. Efficacy end points were investigated in the intent-to-treat population and subgroups, pooled as discussed above. Results Overall, 1644 patients were included (eribulin: 946; control: 698); baseline characteristics were well matched. Overall survival was significantly longer with eribulin versus control (P < 0.01), as were progression-free survival and clinical benefit rate (both P < 0.05). Significant survival benefits with eribulin versus control were observed in a wide range of patient subgroups, including HER2-negative or triple-negative disease (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings underline the survival benefit achieved by eribulin used according to EU label in the overall MBC population and in various

  14. Cardioprotective Effect of Dexrazoxane in Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Who Receive Anthracycline Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Ho; Lee, Ji Eun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Song, Byung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We intended to determine whether dexrazoxane (DZR) is cardioprotective during administration of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a 1-year trastuzumab treatment. Methods The medical records of 228 patients who underwent surgical resection and received adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed. Approximately 25% of patients received DZR prior to each administration of doxorubicin during doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy. DZR was not administered during the 1-year trastuzumab maintenance period. Rates of cardiac events (reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] by 10% or more; reduction in absolute LVEF to <45%) and cardiac event-free duration (CFD) were examined. The trastuzumab interruption rate was also assessed. Results Twelve percent of patients experienced a cardiac event. Repeated-measures analysis of variance for ejection fraction revealed a significant main effect of time, and a significant group (DZR)×time interaction. The group treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and DZR experienced significantly lower frequencies of cardiac events than the adjuvant chemotherapy only group. In multivariate analysis, DZR administration was associated with significantly fewer cardiac events. Moreover, DZR administration was an independent good prognostic factor for CFD. Only one patient (2.3%) experienced early interruption of trastuzumab in the adjuvant chemotherapy with DZR group due to cardiac toxicity, whereas 10 patients (7.6%) experienced a trastuzumab stop event in the adjuvant chemotherapy only group. Conclusion DZR is cardioprotective in HER2-positive breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab. A large cohort randomized trial is needed to determine if DZR has an effect on trastuzumab interruption and completion of 12-month trastuzumab. Because

  15. Disparities in Diagnoses Received Prior to a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Levy, Susan E.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimated differences by ethnicity in the diagnoses assigned prior to the diagnosis of autism. In this sample of 406 Medicaid-eligible children, African-Americans were 2.6 times less likely than white children to receive an autism diagnosis on their first specialty care visit. Among children who did not receive an autism diagnosis on…

  16. Accuracy of Clinical Evaluation of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Raquel; Minami, Christina A.; Gornbein, Jeff A.; Debruhl, Nanette; Chung, Debbie; Chang, Helena R.

    2009-01-01

    Physical examination (PE), mammography (MG), breast MRI, FDG-PET and pathologic evaluation are used to assess primary breast cancer. Their accuracy has not been well studied in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accuracies of each modality in tumor and nodal assessment in patients with T3/4 tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were compared. METHODS 45 patients of a prospective clinical trial studying T3-T4M0 tumors were included. Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy: docetaxel/carboplatin with or without trastuzumab before and/or after surgery (depending on HER-2/neu status and randomization). Tumor measurements by PE, MG, and MRI and nodal status by PE and PET were obtained before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Concordance among different clinical measurements was assessed and compared with the tumor and nodal staging by pathology. Spearman corr (r) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to measure the accuracy of measurements among all modalities and between modalities and pathological tumor size. RESULTS Comparing to the tumor size measured by PE, MRI was more accurate than MG at baseline (r 0.559, RMSE 35.4% vs. r 0.046, RMSE 66.1%). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, PE correlated better with pathology than MG or MRI (r 0.655, RMSE 88.6% vs. r 0.146, RMSE 147.1% and r 0.364, RMSE 92.6%). Axillary nodal assessment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed high specificity but low sensitivity by PET and PE. CONCLUSION Findings suggested that MRI was a more accurate imaging study at baseline for T3/T4 tumor and PE correlated best with pathology finding. PET and PE both correctly predicted positive axillary nodes but not negative nodes. PMID:19156919

  17. Accuracy of clinical evaluation of locally advanced breast cancer in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prati, Raquel; Minami, Christina A; Gornbein, Jeff A; Debruhl, Nanette; Chung, Debbie; Chang, Helena R

    2009-03-15

    Physical examination (PE), mammography (MG), breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), and pathologic evaluation are used to assess primary breast cancer. To the authors' knowledge, their accuracy has not been well studied in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accuracies of each modality in tumor and lymph node assessment in patients with T3/T4 tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were compared. Forty-five patients of a prospective clinical trial studying T3-T4M0 tumors were included. Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy: docetaxel/carboplatin with or without trastuzumab before and/or after surgery (depending on HER-2/neu status and randomization). Tumor measurements by PE, MG, and MRI and lymph node status by PE and PET were obtained before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Concordance among different clinical measurements was assessed and compared with the tumor and lymph node staging by pathology. Spearman correlation (r) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to measure the accuracy of measurements among all modalities and between modalities and pathologic tumor size. Compared with the tumor size measured by PE, MRI was more accurate than MG at baseline (r=0.559, RMSE=35.4% vs r=0.046, RMSE=66.1%). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, PE correlated better with pathology than MG or MRI (r=0.655, RMSE=88.6% vs r=0.146, RMSE=147.1% and r=0.364, RMSE=92.6%). Axillary lymph node assessment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated high specificity but low sensitivity by PET and PE. Findings suggested that MRI was a more accurate imaging study at baseline for T3/T4 tumor, and PE correlated best with pathology finding. PET and PE both correctly predicted positive axillary lymph nodes but not negative lymph nodes. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  18. Results of a compassionate-use program using intravenous ondansetron to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Berry, W R; House, K W; Lee, J T; Plagge, P B; Meshad, M W; Grapski, R

    1992-12-01

    This study reports the effectiveness and side effects of intravenous ondansetron as a single-agent antiemetic therapy for patients receiving emetogenic cancer chemotherapy under a compassionate-use program for patients not enrolled in controlled clinical trials. Patients were > or = 7 years old and had uncontrolled nausea and vomiting or intolerable side effects with standard antiemetics administered with previous cancer chemotherapy. All patients received ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg every 4 hours x 3 daily doses beginning 30 minutes prior to emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients could receive ondansetron for up to 5 consecutive days of chemotherapy. One hundred ninety patients received ondansetron during chemotherapy treatments that were similar to previous cycles of chemotherapy during which the patients had received standard antiemetics (identical chemotherapy or differing only by addition/deletion of chemotherapy agents of low emetogenicity). Chemotherapy regimens included cisplatin (n = 99; 52%), doxorubicin (without cisplatin, n = 52; 27%), and other drugs (n = 39; 21%). Patient experiences with nausea and vomiting and side effects with ondansetron and with previous standard antiemetics were rated on a scale of 1 to 10 (1, did not experience; 10, as bad as could be). On the nausea and vomiting scale, 74% of patients improved on ondansetron relative to standard antiemetics. Mean nausea and vomiting scales were 3.9 for ondansetron and 7.7 for standard antiemetics (P < .001). On the side effects scale, 62% of patients improved with ondansetron. Mean side effect scores were 1.8 for ondansetron and 4.5 for standard antiemetics (P < .001). One hundred nine patients assessed the effect of nausea and vomiting on their quality of life by means of the Functional Living Index-Emesis. On a 100-point scale (100=best quality of life), quality of life scores were 65.5 for ondansetron and 39.5 for standard antiemetics (P < .01). Functional Living Index-Emesis scores were higher for

  19. [The Effectiveness of Cooling Packaging Care in Relieving Chemotherapy-Induced Skin Toxicity Reactions in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Hui; Hung, Hsing-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-08-01

    Anti-cancer chemotherapy may cause skin-toxicity reactions. Different types of cooling packages affect chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions differently. To evaluate the effects of cooling packing care on chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A systematic review approach was used. Searches were conducted in databases including Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed and Airiti Library using the keywords "chemotherapy cutaneous toxicity", "chemotherapy skin reaction", "chemotherapy skin toxicity", "frozen glove", "frozen sock", "cooling packaging care", "ice gloves", "ice socks", "usual care", "severity", "comfort", "satisfaction", "severity", and "comfort". The search focused on articles published before December 2016. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 articles involving relevant randomized controlled trials were extracted for review. Elasto-Gel ice gloves or ice socks that were chilled to -25°C- -30°C and used for 15 mins during initial chemotherapy, for one hour during chemotherapy infusion, and for 15 mins after chemotherapy were shown to improve the frequency and severity of chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions. Several studies were limited by small sample sizes and different types of cooling packing programs, temperature, timing, and frequency. Thus, further research is recommended to verify the effects of cooling packing care. Cancer patients who were treated with docetaxel or PLD and who used ice gloves or ice socks that were chilled to -25°C- -30°C for 15 mins during initial chemotherapy, for one hour during chemotherapy infusion, and for 15 mins after chemotherapy improved significantly in terms of the frequency and severity of their chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions. Local cooling packing care is a non-pharmacotherapy approach that is low cost and free of side effects. This review is intended to provide a reference for clinical care.

  20. Quick, non-invasive and quantitative assessment of small fiber neuropathy in patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saad, Mehdi; Psimaras, Dimitri; Tafani, Camille; Sallansonnet-Froment, Magali; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Vilier, Alice; Tigaud, Jean-Marie; Bompaire, Flavie; Lebouteux, Marie; de Greslan, Thierry; Ceccaldi, Bernard; Poirier, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, François-Régis; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Taillia, Hervé; Maisonobe, Thierry; Ricard, Damien

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a common, potentially severe and dose-limiting adverse effect; however, it is poorly investigated at an early stage due to the lack of a simple assessment tool. As sweat glands are innervated by small autonomic C-fibers, sudomotor function testing has been suggested for early screening of peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to evaluate Sudoscan, a non-invasive and quantitative method to assess sudomotor function, in the detection and follow-up of CIPN. Eighty-eight patients receiving at least two infusions of Oxaliplatin only (45.4%), Paclitaxel only (14.8%), another drug only (28.4%) or two drugs (11.4%) were enrolled in the study. At each chemotherapy infusion the accumulated dose of chemotherapy was calculated and the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc) was carried out. Small fiber neuropathy was assessed using Sudoscan (a 3-min test). The device measures the Electrochemical Skin Conductance (ESC) of the hands and feet expressed in microSiemens (µS). For patients receiving Oxaliplatin mean hands ESC changed from 73 ± 2 to 63 ± 2 and feet ESC from 77 ± 2 to 66 ± 3 µS (p < 0.001) while TNSc changed from 2.9 ± 0.5 to 4.3 ± 0.4. Similar results were observed in patients receiving Paclitaxel or another neurotoxic chemotherapy. During the follow-up, ESC values of both hands and feet with a corresponding TNSc < 2 were 70 ± 2 and 73 ± 2 µS respectively while they were 59 ± 1.4 and 64 ± 1.5 µS with a corresponding TNSc ≥ 6 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 respectively). This preliminary study suggests that small fiber neuropathy could be screened and followed using Sudoscan in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  1. Information needs of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in an ambulatory-care setting.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen K; Willson, Barbara

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the information needs of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and to explore their preferred styles of receiving education in an ambulatory-care setting. Patient information needs and preferences were measured using a 17-item questionnaire. This descriptive study included a sample of 101 cancer patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. The most commonly expressed information needs concerned: side effects of treatment, drug information, and coping strategies. Some patients expressed a preference for information in their primary language. The results support the use of online learning in this setting. Patients identified one-on-one discussion with nurses and doctors as the preferred way to receive information. In order to meet the individual needs of cancer patients, education should be provided in a variety of learning modalities. The results of this study should help to guide patient education initiatives in oncology ambulatory care.

  2. Scalp cooling in the prevention of alopecia in patients receiving depilating chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ron, I G; Kalmus, Y; Kalmus, Z; Inbar, M; Chaitchik, S

    1997-03-01

    To assess any difference in the incidence of alopecia during treatment and of skull metastases during follow-up among breast cancer patients undergoing scalp cooling during chemotherapy and those treated at ambient temperatures. A series of 35 breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were consecutively assigned either to a scalp cooling regimen (19 patients) or to an ambient temperature regimen (16 patients). Hypothermia was administered with electrically cooled caps (SCS II: Amit Technology, Jerusalem) for 1 h after treatment. A significant difference (P = 0.014) was detected in the incidence of alopoecia: 48% (9 patients) of those who had undergone cooling suffered alopoecia, while 81% (13 patients) of the group who had not undergone cooling lost scalp hair. Patient comfort levels were high. Follow-up (median time 14 months) has disclosed no scalp metastases. The implementation of routine scalp hypothermia as part of adjuvant chemotherapy treatment, especially in cancers without tendencies to bone metastases, should be seriously considered.

  3. Stent placement prior to initiation of chemotherapy in patients with obstructive, nonoperative left sided tumors is associated with fewer stomas.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Javier; Marín, Gabriel; Vera, Ruth; Colibaseanu, Dorin; Vila, Juan J; Ciga, Miguel A; Oronoz, Begoña

    2017-06-01

    Due to the potential risks associated with stent placement, European Society Gastrointestinal Endoscopy does not recommend prophylactic insertion of stents in patients without symptoms. The aim was to compare complication rates, need of surgery, colostomy formation, and survival between stent placement prior to start of chemotherapy (SEMS group) and upfront ChT (ChT group) in patients with endoscopically non-transverable metastatic left-sided colorectal cancer. Gender, age, CEA, tumor location, sites of metastatic disease, peritoneal involvement, liver involvement, and angiogenesis inhibitors administration, were recorded. Complication rates, need of surgery, stoma creation, and survival were compared between both groups by univariate and multivariate test. Complications of SEMS placement in both groups were compared. We studied 75 men and 40 women, with a mean age of 66.3 years. Overall complication and perforation rates were similar but patients in the ChT group had a significant higher need of surgery and subsequent stoma creation. Perforation after SEMS placement rates were higher in patients receiving ChT than in patients without ChT. Survival was related to peritoneal carcinomatosis and administration of biological agents. SEMS placement prior to ChT administration dismissed the need of subsequent surgery and decreased the rates of permanent stoma formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prognostic value of circulating tumor cells in advanced gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongping; Ling, Yang; Qi, Qiufeng; Lan, Feng; Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Yaping; Bao, Yanqing; Zhang, Changsong

    2017-01-01

    The identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may provide important prognostic information in several types of solid tumors, including gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CTC count may be used to predict survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy. The CELLection™ Epithelial Enrich kit was used to isolate and purify CTCs from samples of peripheral blood. Immunofluorescent staining was used for CTC counting. High CTC counts were associated with poor tumor differentiation and high serum CEA levels (P=0.021 and 0.005, respectively). After 3 months, 16 patients with decreasing CTC counts after the first cycle of chemotherapy obtained complete response, partial response or stable disease, while 13 patients with increasing CTC counts developed progressive disease. The patients with decreasing CTC counts also exhibited longer progression-free survival (PFS) (P≤0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.002) compared with those with increasing CTC counts. Among all 59 patients, those with a CTC count of ≤2 cells/5 ml blood exhibited longer PFS (P≤0.001) and OS (P≤0.001) compared with those with a CTC count of >2 cells/5 ml blood. The multivariate analysis suggested that an increase of the CTC count after the first cycle of chemotherapy was only an independent prognostic marker of poor PFS (P=0.019). However, a baseline CTC count of >2 cells/5 ml blood was an independent poor prognostic marker for PFS (P=0.008) and OS (P=0.001) in all 59 patients. Our study suggested that patients with a low baseline CTC count or decrease of the CTC count after the first cycle of chemotherapy may benefit significantly from palliative chemotherapy. In conclusion, CTC count may be a good chemotherapy monitoring marker and an ideal prognostic marker for patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. PMID:28357102

  5. Removal of Endobronchial Malignant Mass by Cryotherapy Improved Performance Status to Receive Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Heng; Wang, Tsai-Yu; Yu, Chih-Teng; Chou, Chun-Liang; Lin, Shu-Min; Kuo, Chih-Hsi; Chung, Fu-Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Although malignant endobronchial mass (MEM) has poor prognosis, cryotherapy is reportedly a palliative treatment. Clinical data on postcryotherapy MEM patients in a university-affiliated hospital between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Survival curve with or without postcryotherapy chemotherapy and performance status (PS) improvement of these subjects were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were 59 patients (42 males), with median age of 64 years (range, 51–76, and median performance status of 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-3). Postcryotherapy complications included minor bleeding (n = 12) and need for multiple procedures (n = 10), while outcomes were relief of symptoms (n = 51), improved PS (n = 45), and ability to receive chemotherapy (n = 40). The survival of patients with chemotherapy postcryotherapy was longer than that of patients without such chemotherapy (median, 534 versus 106 days; log-rank test, P = 0.007; hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.69). The survival of patients with PS improvement postcryotherapy was longer than that of patients without PS improvement (median, 406 versus 106 days; log-rank test, P = 0.02; hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.81). Cryotherapy is a feasible treatment for MEM. With better PS after cryotherapy, further chemotherapy becomes possible for patients to improve survival when MEM caused dyspnea and poor PS. PMID:25383370

  6. Poor chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control in children receiving intermediate or high dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Vol, Helen; Flank, Jacqueline; Lavoratore, Sara R; Nathan, Paul C; Taylor, Tracey; Zelunka, Elyse; Maloney, Anne Marie; Lee Dupuis, L

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy emetogenicity is the most important known determinant of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) in children. However, direct evidence regarding the emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents in children is limited. This study describes the prevalence of complete control of acute and delayed phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children receiving methotrexate. The prevalence of anticipatory CINV is described, and risk factors for CINV are explored. English-speaking children (4 to 18 years) receiving intermediate-dose (ID-MTX: >1 to <12 g/m(2)/dose) or high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX: ≥12 g/m(2)/dose) participated in this prospective study. Emetic episodes, nausea severity, and antiemetic administration were documented for 24 h from the start of the methotrexate infusion (acute phase) and for up to a further 168 h (delayed phase). CINV prophylaxis was provided at the discretion of the treating physician. Anticipatory CINV was assessed in the 24 h preceding chemotherapy. Complete CINV control was defined as no emetic episodes and no nausea. Thirty children (mean age, 11.8 ± 4 years; ID-MTX, 20; HD-MTX, 10) completed the study. CINV prophylaxis included the following: ondansetron/granisetron plus dexamethasone or nabilone. Few patients experienced complete CINV control (ID-MTX: acute phase 20%, delayed phase 5%; HD-MTX: acute phase 0%, delayed phase 30%). Complete emesis control was higher (ID-MTX: acute phase 70%, delayed phase 50%; HD-MTX: acute phase 70%, delayed phase 60%). Anticipatory CINV was reported by 6/28 patients (21%). Patient age, sex, and history of motion sickness were not significant predictors of CINV. The poor complete CINV control rate in children receiving methotrexate confirms the classification of HD-MTX as highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and suggests that ID-MTX be reclassified as HEC.

  7. Efficacy of olanzapine in symptom relief and quality of life in gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakhsh, Novin; Sadeghi, Mohsen Vakili; Ramzani, Elham; Moudi, Sussan; Bijani, Ali; Yousefi, Roya; Moudi, Marjan; Gholinia, Hemmat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the incidence and prevalence rates of gastric cancer in Mazandaran Province of Iran, this research was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of olanzapine in symptom relief and quality of life (QOL) improvement of gastric patients receiving chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on thirty new cases of gastric cancer patients whose treatment protocol was planned on chemotherapy and were allocated into two groups by simple random sampling. Intervention group (15 patients) received olanzapine tablets (2.5–10 mg/day) a day before the beginning of chemotherapy; in the 1st day of chemotherapy to 8 weeks after chemotherapy, besides the routine treatment regimens. The control group received only the routine treatment regimens. The patients were followed for 8 weeks after intervention. All of the patients were assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and WHO-QOL-BREF questionnaires; further, Rhodes index was used to evaluate nausea and vomiting (N/V) status. Results: All the recruited patients continued the allocated interventions (no lost to follow-up). N/V decreased in the case group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.438). The patients' appetite and body mass index increased (P = 0.006). Anxiety and depression subscales of HADS had significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.001) in the 4th and 8th week after treatment. Among the different subdomains of QOL, only physical health improved significantly after intervention (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed in other subdomains and also total QOL score (P > 0.05). No significant increase was observed in fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose and lipid profile (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Olanzapine can be considered as an effective drug to increase appetite and decrease anxiety and depression in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:28163734

  8. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is most often given in cycles. These cycles may last 1 day, several days, or a ... period when no chemotherapy is given between each cycle. A rest period may last for days, weeks, ...

  9. Physical activity and diet behaviour in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: associations with quality of life.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Lynette E; Bebb, D Gwyn; Reimer, Raylene A; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2009-07-27

    The relationship between colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and physical activity and dietary habits has been well-established, but less is known about the relationship between these behaviours and quality of life (QOL) post-diagnosis. Moreover, it is unknown whether this relationship is consistent across cancer stage or treatment setting. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess current diet and physical activity behaviour in CRC survivors receiving systemic chemotherapy, and to examine potential associations between these behaviours and quality of life. A secondary purpose was to examine the association between social support, diet, and physical activity behaviour in this population. Using a cross-sectional survey, 67 CRC survivors currently receiving chemotherapy in Calgary, Alberta completed the survey package. Measures included demographic and medical data, physical activity levels, diet behaviour, QOL, and social support. In a largely metastatic sample (63%), approximately half were meeting national dietary guidelines (58%), less were meeting national physical activity guidelines (26%), and a small number were meeting both (17%). However, only 12.3% (n = 8) reported completely sedentary behaviour, and 7 of these 8 participants were receiving metastatic treatment. Neither behaviour was significantly associated with QOL or perceived social support. Furthermore, there were no significant QOL differences between those treated with palliative intent or adjuvant therapy. Important group differences emerged between those meeting and not meeting the guidelines, and associations between QOL, age, BMI, and provisions of social support. These findings provide insight into lifestyle behaviours of CRC survivors currently receiving systemic chemotherapy, and the differences in perceived QOL as affected by severity of disease and treatment setting. Prospective studies in a larger sample of CRC survivors on chemotherapy are needed to confirm lifestyle behaviour patterns and

  10. Predicting and preventing thromboembolic events in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy for germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Gizzi, Marco; Oberic, Lucie; Massard, Christophe; Poterie, Audrey; Gwenael, Le Teuff; Loriot, Yohann; Albiges, Laurence; Baciarello, Giulia; Michels, Judith; Bossi, Alberto; Blanchard, Pierre; Escudier, Bernard; Fizazi, Karim

    2016-12-01

    Patients with germ cell tumours (GCT) receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy are at high risk of thromboembolic events (TEE). Previously, we identified serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and body surface area (BSA) as independent predictive factors for TEE. The aim of this study was to validate these predictive factors and to assess the impact of thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients at risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Between 2001 and 2014, 295 patients received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy for GCT. Preventive anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was progressively implemented in patients with predictive factors. Sixteen patients with evidence of TEE before starting chemotherapy were excluded from the analysis. Among 279 eligible patients, a TEE occurred in 38 (14%) consisting of DVT (n = 26), arterial thrombosis (n = 2), and superficial thrombophlebitis (n = 10). DVT occurred in 26 (12.7%) of 204 patients with risk factors versus two (2.6%) of 75 patients with no risk factors (p = 0.01). After a prevention protocol was progressively implemented from 2005, primary thromboprophylaxis was administered to 104 patients (68%) with risk factors. Among patients at risk (n = 151), the incidence of DVT decreased by roughly half when they received a LMWH: 9/97 (9.2%) and 9/54 (16.6%), respectively (p = 0.23). Patients with GCT who receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy are at risk of developing a TEE which can be predicted by elevated serum LDH. To our knowledge this is the first study exploring LMWH as thromboprophylaxis in GCT patients. A prospective trial testing prophylactic anticoagulation is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced vomiting in children receiving multiple-day cisplatin chemotherapy: A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Kenji; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Saito, Atsuro; Kozaki, Aiko; Ishida, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki

    2017-09-01

    Optimal prevention of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) has not been established for patients receiving cisplatin in divided doses. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and risk factors of CIV in children who received multiple-day cisplatin chemotherapy. A total of 24 consecutive pediatric patients (age 0-19 years) who received multiple-day cisplatin chemotherapy in our hospital were enrolled. Patients with relapsed disease or primary intracranial tumor and those who received concurrent radiation therapy were excluded. The number of chemotherapy cycles reviewed was 107, with a median of five per patient. All patients received granisetron. Dexamethasone and NK-1 receptor antagonists (NK1RA) were used as additional antiemetics for prophylaxis of CIV. CIV was observed in 22 of 24 (92%) patients, and 61 of 107 (57%) cycles. Patients who developed CIV had a higher incidence of other chemotherapy-related adverse events (87 vs. 41%, P < 0.001). The incidence of CIV was lower in patients administered with NK1RA than those without (32 vs. 68%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression identified age less than or equal to 2 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.63) and administration of NK1RA (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.06-0.43) as independent factors for CIV. These results suggest that NK1RA is crucial to reduce CIV in children who receive multiple-day cisplatin chemotherapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fatal Candida septic shock during systemic chemotherapy in lung cancer patient receiving corticosteroid replacement therapy for hypopituitarism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morichika, Daisuke; Sato-Hisamoto, Akiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Iwaki, Noriko; Uchida, Koji; Minami, Daisuke; Kubo, Toshio; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Invasive candidiasis has increased as nosocomial infection recently in cancer patients who receive systemic chemotherapy, and the timely risk assessment for developing such specific infection is crucial. Especially in those concomitantly with hypopituitarism, febrile neutropenia with candidiasis can cause severe stress and lead potentially to sudden fatal outcome when the temporal steroid coverage for the adrenal insufficiency is not fully administered. We report a 72-year-old male case diagnosed as non-small-cell lung cancer, Stage IIIA. He had received a steroid replacement therapy for the prior history of hypophysectomy due to pituitary adenoma with hydrocortisone of 3.3 mg/day, equivalent to prednisolone of 0.8 mg/day. This very small dosage of steroid was hardly supposed to weaken his immune system, but rather potentially led to an inappropriate supplementation of his adrenal function, assuming that the serum sodium and chlorine levels decreased. On Day 6 of second cycle of chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, he developed sudden febrile neutropenia, septic shock and ileus, leading to death. After his death, the venous blood culture on Day 7 detected Candida albicans. Autopsy findings showed a massive necrotizing enterocolitis with extensive Candida invasion into submucous tissue. In conclusion, this case may suggest that (i) immediate initiation of antifungal therapy soon after the careful risk assessment of Candida infection and (ii) adequate administration of both basal steroid replacement therapy and temporal steroid coverage for febrile neutropenia might have improved his fatal outcome.

  13. Dental Awareness among Parents and Oral Health of Paediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bansal, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Anupam; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental care is often overlooked by the parents of children receiving treatment for cancer including chemotherapy who are in a phase of severe immunosuppression. Aim (i) To study dental attitudes of parents of children receiving chemotherapy towards importance of dental care. (ii) To evaluate oral hygiene status and compare it with healthy controls. Materials and Methods A questionnaire assessing the awareness towards dental care was given to the parents of 47 paediatric patients suffering from cancer receiving chemotherapy and to parents of 47 paediatric patients reporting to outpatient Department of Pedodontics at SGT Dental College. Oral examination was also carried out for both the groups and DMFT/dmft, plaque and gingival index were noted. Results Parents had a varying opinion regarding dental health of their child. The caries status of children in the control group was greater than children in the study group. The mean plaque index of children in the control group (1.40) was greater than children in the study group (1.34) which was statistically significant according to Mann-Whitney U test. The gingival health of children in the study group was better than children in the control group which was also not statistically significant. Conclusion This study highlights need for a periodic referral of the child cancer patients to the paediatric dental clinic in hospitals for the timely dental care. PMID:27437369

  14. 45 CFR 1201.7 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. 1201.7 Section 1201.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT...

  15. 22 CFR 172.6 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. 172.6 Section 172.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS...

  16. 22 CFR 172.6 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. 172.6 Section 172.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS...

  17. 22 CFR 172.6 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. 172.6 Section 172.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS...

  18. 22 CFR 172.6 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. 172.6 Section 172.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS...

  19. 45 CFR 1201.7 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required..., INTERROGATORIES, OR IN CONNECTION WITH FEDERAL OR STATE LITIGATION § 1201.7 Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a demand or request for Official...

  20. 6 CFR 5.46 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required....46 Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a demand is required before the appropriate Department official designated in § 5.44 renders...

  1. 22 CFR 172.6 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required... demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a demand is required before the... INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT...

  2. Correlation of Serum Cystatin C with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barchiesi, Vittoria; Cerasuolo, Dionigio; Di Paola, Flaviano; Cantile, Monica; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Pignata, Sandro; Morabito, Alessandro; Costanzo, Raffaele; Di Maio, Massimo; Perrone, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Serum cystatin C seems to be an accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to serum creatinine. The aim of this work was to explore the possibility of using serum cystatin C instead of serum creatinine to early predict renal failure in cancer patients who received platinum based chemotherapy. Design and Methods. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C concentrations, and GFR were determined simultaneously in 52 cancer patients received carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum creatinine was assayed on Cobas C6000-Roche, serum cystatin C assay was performed on AIA 360-Tosoh, and GFR was determined in all patients, before the first cycle of chemotherapy and before the subsequent administrations. Results. In the overall series, for the prediction of a fall of GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of the ROC curve for cystatin C was 0,667 and the best threshold was 1.135 mg/L (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 61.1%). For a GFR fall < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of ROC curve for cystatin C was 74.3% and the best threshold was 1.415 mg/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.2%). Conclusions. Baseline cystatin C values were not able to predict renal failure during subsequent treatment. In conclusion, serum cystatin C is not a reliable early marker to efficiently predict renal failure in patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:28078200

  3. Correlation of Serum Cystatin C with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Ernesta; Barchiesi, Vittoria; Cerasuolo, Dionigio; Di Paola, Flaviano; Cantile, Monica; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Pignata, Sandro; Morabito, Alessandro; Costanzo, Raffaele; Di Maio, Massimo; Perrone, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Serum cystatin C seems to be an accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to serum creatinine. The aim of this work was to explore the possibility of using serum cystatin C instead of serum creatinine to early predict renal failure in cancer patients who received platinum based chemotherapy. Design and Methods. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C concentrations, and GFR were determined simultaneously in 52 cancer patients received carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum creatinine was assayed on Cobas C6000-Roche, serum cystatin C assay was performed on AIA 360-Tosoh, and GFR was determined in all patients, before the first cycle of chemotherapy and before the subsequent administrations. Results. In the overall series, for the prediction of a fall of GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m(2), the AUC of the ROC curve for cystatin C was 0,667 and the best threshold was 1.135 mg/L (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 61.1%). For a GFR fall < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), the AUC of ROC curve for cystatin C was 74.3% and the best threshold was 1.415 mg/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.2%). Conclusions. Baseline cystatin C values were not able to predict renal failure during subsequent treatment. In conclusion, serum cystatin C is not a reliable early marker to efficiently predict renal failure in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  4. Acute exacerbation of hepatitis C in hepatocellular carcinoma patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Wei; Chang, Ming-Ling; Hsu, Chao-Wei; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Liang, Kung-Hao; Huang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Chen-Chun; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C exacerbations can occur in cancer patients carrying hepatitis C virus (HCV) when receiving systemic chemotherapy. However, clinical studies evaluating these complications remain rare due to the lack of clinically proven effective and tolerable anti-HCV treatments at late cancer stages. Furthermore, no data were available regarding hepatitis C exacerbation in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients receiving chemotherapy. To address this issue, 48 patients with HCV-related advanced HCC, who underwent systemic chemotherapy using 5- fluorouracil, cisplatin, and mitoxantrone from 2008 to 2014 were analyzed. Nine patients developed acute hepatitis exacerbations defined by HCV-RNA elevation ≥10-fold and alanine transaminase (ALT) elevation ≥5-fold of the upper normal limit. Six were genotype 1b and 3 were genotype 2. Three patterns of clinical courses were observed including single episode of exacerbation (n = 5), fluctuated flares (n = 3), and delayed exacerbation (n = 1). Hepatic failure developed in five patients. Patients with acute exacerbations were less likely to have pretreatment ascites (11.1% vs. 53.8%; P = 0.028) and displayed a lower baseline ALT (44.1 ± 28.5 U/L vs. 72.6 ± 19.2 U/L; P = 0.007). Paradoxically, despite a high risk of hepatic failure, occurrence of hepatitis C exacerbation was associated with a favorable overall survival (P = 0.027; 22.8 vs. 5.4 months). In conclusion, hepatitis C exacerbation can occur in HCC patients receiving chemotherapy, leading to liver failure. However, the flare was associated with a better overall survival, possibly due to its association with a better baseline liver function. J. Med. Virol. 89:153-160, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Longitudinal risk of herpes zoster in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving chemotherapy: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shih-Feng; Wu, Wan-Hsuan; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Liu, Yi-Chang; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Chang, Chao-Sung

    2015-09-22

    This study investigated the incidence of and risk factors for herpes zoster in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) who were receiving anti-lymphoma treatment. The overall incidence density of herpes zoster was 12.21% (472/3865); 11.79% (258/2188) of the patients received conventional chemotherapy and 12.76% (214/1677) of the patients received rituximab-containing chemotherapy. For the patients who received conventional chemotherapy, the risk factors included female gender, multiple courses of chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For the patients who received rituximab-containing chemotherapy, the risk factors included female gender, diabetes mellitus, multiple courses of chemotherapy, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and higher accumulated rituximab dose. The majority of the herpes zoster episodes occurred within the first two years after the diagnosis of NHL. After adjusting for the propensity score matching, rituximab-containing chemotherapy was not associated with a higher overall incidence density of herpes zoster (P = 0.155). However, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy increased the short-term risk of herpes zoster with adjusted odd ratios of 1.38 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.05-1.81, P = 0.021) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.08-1.73, P = 0.010) during the 1-year and 2-year follow-up periods, respectively.

  6. Pilot study of "miracle fruit" to improve food palatability for patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Marlene K; Satiroff, Bernadette A

    2012-10-01

    Taste changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy are common and can be of long duration, are associated with poor nutrition, and can reduce quality of life. A pilot study of the fruit Synsepalum dulcificum-known as "miracle fruit"-as a novel supportive intervention was conducted with eight patients with cancer who were being treated with chemotherapy and reporting taste changes. Miraculin, a naturally occurring protein in miracle fruit, has the unusual ability to transduce a sweet signal in an acidic environment, profoundly changing food taste profiles for a short duration, masking unpleasant tastes, and increasing the palatability of certain foods. This pilot study was designed to determine whether consumption of the Miracle Fruit™ supplement would improve chemotherapy-associated taste changes, thereby improving the taste of food and ultimately leading to better nutrition. Four of the participants were given a two-week supply of the supplement and the other four were given a two-week supply of a placebo. After two weeks, the supplement group received a two-week supply of the placebo and the placebo group received a two-week supply of the supplement. Participants recorded food and drink intake in daily food dairies and rated taste changes with each food as better, worse, or no change. All study participants reported positive taste changes with the supplement.

  7. Sleep habits and fatigue of children receiving maintenance chemotherapy for ALL and their parents.

    PubMed

    Zupanec, Sue; Jones, Heather; Stremler, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    The study of potential contributors to fatigue, such as sleep disturbance, has been identified as a research priority in pediatric cancer. The primary objective of this descriptive study was to explore relationships between sleep habits, sleep disturbance, and fatigue for children receiving maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study also described sleep habits, sleep disturbance, and fatigue of parents of children and adolescents with ALL and determined if relationships existed between parent and child sleep disturbance and fatigue. Using a descriptive, cross-sectional design, children aged 4-18 years receiving maintenance chemotherapy for ALL and their parents completed questionnaires about their sleep and fatigue. Sleep disturbance was common in both children (87%) and parents (48%) and sleep disturbance scores were positively correlated with fatigue scores. From qualitative written responses to open-ended questions, 9 themes emerged related to sleep for children undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for ALL. Sleep differences noted since diagnosis included (1) sleep is disturbed, (2) sleep habits have changed, and (3) sleep is unchanged or improved. Things that got in the way of children sleeping well included (4) side effects of medication, especially dexamethasone; and (5) medication schedules. Things that helped children get sleep at night were (6) sleeping with someone, (7) comforting activities or routine, (8) medications, and (9) food and drink. Sleep disturbance in children on ALL maintenance and their parents is common and likely contributes to increased fatigue and is a potential target for nursing interventions.

  8. Risk of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in cancer patients receiving pegfilgrastim prophylaxis: does timing of administration matter?

    PubMed

    Weycker, Derek; Li, Xiaoyan; Figueredo, Jacqueline; Barron, Rich; Tzivelekis, Spiros; Hagiwara, May

    2016-05-01

    Contrary to the approved indication for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis, some patients receive it on the same day as the last administration of chemotherapy in clinical practice, which could adversely impact risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). An evaluation of the timing of pegfilgrastim prophylaxis and FN risk was undertaken. A retrospective cohort design and data from two US private health care claims repositories were employed. Study population comprised adults who received intermediate/high-risk chemotherapy regimens for solid tumors or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and received pegfilgrastim prophylaxis in ≥1 cycle; all cycles with pegfilgrastim were pooled for analyses. Odds ratios (OR) for FN during the cycle were estimated for patients who received pegfilgrastim on the same day (day 1) as the last administration of chemotherapy versus days 2-4 from chemotherapy completion. The study population included 45,592 patients who received pegfilgrastim in 179,152 cycles (n = 37,095 in cycle 1); in 12 % of cycles, patients received pegfilgrastim on the same day as chemotherapy. Odds of FN were higher for patients receiving pegfilgrastim prophylaxis on the same day as chemotherapy versus days 2-4 from chemotherapy in cycle 1 (OR = 1.6, 95 % CI = 1.3-1.9, p < 0.001) and all cycles (OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.3-1.6, p < 0.001). In this large-scale evaluation of adults who received intermediate/high-risk regimens for solid tumors or NHL in US clinical practice, FN incidence was found to be significantly higher among those who received pegfilgrastim prophylaxis on the same day as chemotherapy completion versus days 2-4 from chemotherapy completion, underscoring the importance of adhering to the indicated administration schedule.

  9. Effect of virtual reality on time perception in patients receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kisby, Cassandra K.; Flint, Elizabeth P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Virtual reality (VR) during chemotherapy has resulted in an elapsed time compression effect, validating the attention diversion capabilities of VR. Using the framework of the pacemaker–accumulator cognitive model of time perception, this study explored the influence of age, gender, state anxiety, fatigue, and cancer diagnosis in predicting the difference between actual time elapsed during receipt of intravenous chemotherapy while immersed in a VR environment versus patient’s retrospective estimates of time elapsed during this treatment. Materials and methods This secondary analysis from three studies yielded a pooled sample of N=137 participants with breast, lung, or colon cancer. Each study employed a crossover design requiring two matched intravenous chemotherapy treatments, with participants randomly assigned to receive VR during one treatment. Regressions modeled the effect of demographic variables, diagnosis, and Piper Fatigue Scale and State Anxiety Inventory scores on the difference between actual and estimated time elapsed during chemotherapy with VR. Results In a forward regression model, three predictors (diagnosis, gender, and anxiety) explained a significant portion of the variability for altered time perception (F=5.06, p=0.0008). Diagnosis was the strongest predictor; individuals with breast and colon cancer perceived time passed more quickly. Conclusions VR is a noninvasive intervention that can make chemotherapy treatments more tolerable. Women with breast cancer are more likely and lung cancer patients less likely to experience altered time perception during VR (a possible indicator of effectiveness for this distraction intervention). Understanding factors that predict responses to interventions can help clinicians tailor coping strategies to meet each patient’s needs. PMID:20336327

  10. Early identification of non-responding locally advanced breast tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Charehbili, Ayoub; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Kroep, Judith R.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Chan, Alan; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Dijkstra, Jouke; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Wasser, Martin N. J. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) may be advantageous for monitoring tumor response during chemotherapy treatment, particularly in the early treatment stages. In this paper we perform a second analysis on the data of a clinical trial with 25 breast cancer patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were monitored using delayed contrast enhanced MRI and additionally with diffuse optical spectroscopy at baseline, after 1 cycle of chemotherapy, halfway therapy and before surgery. In this analysis hemoglobin content between tumor tissue and healthy tissue of the same breast is compared on all four monitoring time points. Furthermore, the predictive power of the tumor-healthy tissue difference of HbO2 for non-responder prediction is assessed. The difference in HbO2 content between tumor and healthy tissue was statistically significantly higher in responding tumors than in non-responding tumors at baseline (10.88 vs -0.57 μM, P=0.014) and after one cycle of chemotherapy (6.45 vs -1.31 μM, P=0.048). Before surgery this difference had diminished. In the data of this study, classification on the HbO2 difference between tumor and healthy tissue was able to predict tumor (non-)response at baseline and after 1 cycle with an area-under-curve of 0.95 and 0.88, respectively. While this result suggests that tumor response can be predicted before chemotherapy onset, one should be very careful with interpreting these results. A larger patient population is needed to confirm this finding.

  11. Effect of virtual reality on time perception in patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susan M; Kisby, Cassandra K; Flint, Elizabeth P

    2011-04-01

    Virtual reality (VR) during chemotherapy has resulted in an elapsed time compression effect, validating the attention diversion capabilities of VR. Using the framework of the pacemaker-accumulator cognitive model of time perception, this study explored the influence of age, gender, state anxiety, fatigue, and cancer diagnosis in predicting the difference between actual time elapsed during receipt of intravenous chemotherapy while immersed in a VR environment versus patient's retrospective estimates of time elapsed during this treatment. This secondary analysis from three studies yielded a pooled sample of N = 137 participants with breast, lung, or colon cancer. Each study employed a crossover design requiring two matched intravenous chemotherapy treatments, with participants randomly assigned to receive VR during one treatment. Regressions modeled the effect of demographic variables, diagnosis, and Piper Fatigue Scale and State Anxiety Inventory scores on the difference between actual and estimated time elapsed during chemotherapy with VR. In a forward regression model, three predictors (diagnosis, gender, and anxiety) explained a significant portion of the variability for altered time perception (F=5.06, p = 0.0008). Diagnosis was the strongest predictor; individuals with breast and colon cancer perceived time passed more quickly. VR is a noninvasive intervention that can make chemotherapy treatments more tolerable. Women with breast cancer are more likely and lung cancer patients less likely to experience altered time perception during VR (a possible indicator of effectiveness for this distraction intervention). Understanding factors that predict responses to interventions can help clinicians tailor coping strategies to meet each patient's needs.

  12. The impact of prior platinum therapy on survival in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer receiving vinflunine

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, L C; Fougeray, R; Choueiri, T K; Schutz, F A; Salhi, Y; Rosenberg, J E; Bellmunt, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: A phase III trial demonstrated an overall survival advantage with the addition of vinflunine to best supportive care (BSC) in platinum-refractory advanced urothelial cancer. We subsequently examined the impact of an additional 2 years of survival follow-up and evaluated the influence of first-line platinum therapy on survival. Methods: The 357 eligible patients from the phase III study were categorised into two cohorts depending on prior cisplatin treatment: cisplatin or non-cisplatin. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The majority had received prior cisplatin (70.3%). Survival was higher in the cisplatin group (HR: 0.76; CI 95% 0.58–0.99; P=0.04) irrespective of treatment arm. Multivariate analysis including known prognostic factors (liver involvement, haemoglobin, performance status) and prior platinum administration did not show an independent effect of cisplatin. Vinflunine reduced the risk of death by 24% in the cisplatin-group (HR: 0.76; CI 95% 0.58–0.99; P=0.04) and by 35% in non-cisplatin patients (HR: 0.65; CI 95% 0.41–1.04; P=0.07). Interpretation: Differences in prognostic factors between patients who can receive prior cisplatin and those who cannot may explain the survival differences in patients who undergo second line therapy. Prior cisplatin administration did not diminish the subsequent benefit of vinflunine over BSC. PMID:24129239

  13. Stages III and IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mouth: Three-Year Experience with Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin Prior to Definitive Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Hamatake, Satoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Uji, Yasuyoshi; Taen, Akira

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the 3-year experience with superselective intraarterial chemotherapy prior to definitive treatment for stages III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth. Methods: Twenty-two patients prospectively received superselective intraarterial chemotherapy using relatively low-dose cisplatin via a transfemoral approach. The locations of the tumors were the tongue (n= 12), gingiva (n= 5), buccal mucosa (n= 2), hard palate (n= 1), floor of the mouth (n= 1), and lip (n= 1). After intraarterial chemotherapy, 21 patients underwent surgery (n= 14), radiation therapy (n= 6), or both (n= 1). The survival rate of 25 patients who underwent surgery with/without radiation therapy until 1992 at Kumamoto University Hospital was also evaluated as a historical control. The survival curve was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the statistical difference between survival curves was determined with the generalized Wilcoxon test. Results: The overall response rate was 95% [complete response (tumor completely resolved), 24%; partial response (tumor reduction {>=}50%), 71%]. Fifty-two intraarterial infusions were performed without any catheter-related complications. Mild and transient local toxicity such as edema or mucositis of the infused area was relatively common. One patient died of renal failure from cisplatin. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range 2-41 months), the estimated 3-year survival rate for patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery was 91%. The survival of the patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery tended to be longer than that of the historical control. Conclusions: Early tumor reduction without delay of subsequent treatments can be obtained by intraarterial chemotherapy while minimizing complications and possibly improving survival. Further investigations of long-term survival with larger series need to be performed.

  14. Peripheral neuropathy in patients with gynecologic cancer receiving chemotherapy: patient reports and provider assessments.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Deleslie W; Greer, Tara B; Wilmoth, Margaret C; Dmochowski, Jacek; Naumann, R Wendel

    2010-11-01

    To analyze the incidence of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in a set of patients with gynecologic cancer who were treated with known neurotoxic agents, to identify correlative factors related to patients' experience of neuropathy, and to analyze providers' assessment and treatment of neuropathy. Observational descriptive study of patient-reported neuropathy using a retrospective chart analysis. A hospital-based outpatient infusion center in the southeastern United States. A convenience sample of 171 patients with gynecologic cancer for a total of 302 chemotherapy treatments. A mixed model and compound symmetry covariance matrix was used to adjust for correlations between neuropathy treatment scores and patients who completed more than one chemotherapy cycle. Backward elimination method was used to determine the final model. Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neuropathy Treatment scores, patients' demographic information, past medical history, and chemotherapy history. Patients who were physically shorter and heavier than the average population had the highest rating of neuropathy. Patients who were treated with nontaxane and platinum therapies had less neuropathy than patients who were treated with first-line taxanes and platinums. Neuropathy was noted by providers early in the course of treatment, and providers' grading was consistent with the patients' scoring. First-line treatments for gynecologic malignancies resulted in the highest neuropathy scores; however, patients who had received previous treatment with taxane and platinum therapies had lower neuropathy scores than patients currently receiving taxanes and platinums, suggesting that neuropathy improved after completion of first-line therapy and that second-line therapies were not necessarily correlative with worsening scores. Nurses must educate patients about symptoms of neuropathy and the need to report symptoms. Nurses must recognize patients at highest risk for

  15. Predictors of depression in breast cancer patients treated with radiation: role of prior chemotherapy and nuclear factor kappa B.

    PubMed

    Torres, Mylin A; Pace, Thaddeus W; Liu, Tian; Felger, Jennifer C; Mister, Donna; Doho, Gregory H; Kohn, Jordan N; Barsevick, Andrea M; Long, Qi; Miller, Andrew H

    2013-06-01

    Depression is common during and after breast cancer treatment. However, the role of specific therapeutic modalities and related biologic mechanisms remains unclear. Radiation is an essential component of breast-conserving therapy and may contribute to depression in patients with breast cancer through the activation of inflammatory pathways. Depressive symptoms and inflammatory mediators, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), were assessed at baseline (before radiation), during radiation, and 6 weeks after radiation in 64 women who had stage 0 through IIIA breast cancer. No significant increases in depressive symptoms occurred during or after radiation, although a number of patients exhibited moderate-to-severe depression throughout the study. Multivariate analyses of baseline factors predictive of depression revealed that educational status, perceived stress, prior chemotherapy, and peripheral blood NF-κB DNA binding all were independent predictors of persistent depressive symptoms after radiation (all P < .05). Of these factors, only prior chemotherapy was associated with inflammatory mediators, including NF-κB DNA binding, soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2, and interleukin-6, which, in univariate analyses predicted depressive symptoms after radiation (all P < .05). Chemotherapy-treated patients also exhibited an over-representation of gene transcripts regulated by NF-κB. Radiation was not associated with increased depressive symptoms in the current study, but of disease and treatment-related factors, prior chemotherapy predicted significant depression after radiation. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the relationship among prior chemotherapy, inflammation, and persistent depression after breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  16. Disparities in Diagnoses Received Prior to a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, David S.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Levy, Susan E.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated differences by ethnicity in the diagnoses assigned prior to the diagnosis of autism. In this sample of 406 Medicaid-eligible children, African-Americans were 2.6 times less likely than white children to receive an autism diagnosis on their first specialty care visit. Among children who did not receive an autism diagnosis on their first visit, ADHD was the most common diagnosis. African-American children were 5.1 times more likely than white children to receive a diagnosis of adjustment disorder than of ADHD, and 2.4 times more likely to receive a diagnosis of conduct disorder than of ADHD. Differences in diagnostic patterns by ethnicity suggest possible variations in parents’ descriptions of symptoms, clinician interpretations and expectations, or symptom presentation. PMID:17160456

  17. Disparities in diagnoses received prior to a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mandell, David S; Ittenbach, Richard F; Levy, Susan E; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2007-10-01

    This study estimated differences by ethnicity in the diagnoses assigned prior to the diagnosis of autism. In this sample of 406 Medicaid-eligible children, African-Americans were 2.6 times less likely than white children to receive an autism diagnosis on their first specialty care visit. Among children who did not receive an autism diagnosis on their first visit, ADHD was the most common diagnosis. African-American children were 5.1 times more likely than white children to receive a diagnosis of adjustment disorder than of ADHD, and 2.4 times more likely to receive a diagnosis of conduct disorder than of ADHD. Differences in diagnostic patterns by ethnicity suggest possible variations in parents' descriptions of symptoms, clinician interpretations and expectations, or symptom presentation.

  18. Chemotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

  19. Implication of chemo-resistant memory T cells for immune surveillance in patients with sarcoma receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Yuji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Emori, Makoto; Murata, Kenji; Mizushima, Emi; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kubo, Terufumi; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of patients with sarcomas. However, it may suppress anti-tumor immunity. Recently, we reported a novel CD8(+) memory T cell population with a chemo-resistance property, "young memory" T (TYM ) cells. In this study, we investigated the proportion and function of TYM cells in peripheral blood of healthy donors and sarcoma patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not. The proportion of TYM cells was significantly decreased in patients compared with that in healthy donors. In healthy donors, anti-EBV CTLs were induced using mixed lymphocyte peptide culture, from not only TYM cells but also TCM and TEM cells. No CTLs directed to tumor-associated antigens were induced. In sarcoma patients who did not receive chemotherapy, in addition to anti-EBV CTLs, CTLs directed to the tumor-associated antigen PBF were induced from TYM , TCM and TEM cells. In sarcoma patients who received chemotherapy, EBV-specific CTLs were induced from TYM cells but were hardly induced from TEM cells. Interestingly, CTLs directed to the anti-tumor-associated antigen PBF were induced from TYM cells but not from the TCM and TEM cells in sarcoma patients who received chemotherapy. The findings suggest that TYM cells are resistant to chemotherapy and can firstly recover from the nadir. TYM cells might be important for immunological memory, especially in sarcoma patients receiving chemotherapy. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Efficacy and safety of balugrastim compared with pegfilgrastim in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Volovat, Constantin; Gladkov, Oleg A; Bondarenko, Igor M; Barash, Steve; Buchner, Anton; Bias, Peter; Adar, Liat; Avisar, Noa

    2014-04-01

    Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) reduce the incidence and duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia when given as adjunct therapy to patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Balugrastim is a long-acting G-CSF composed of a genetic fusion between recombinant human serum albumin and G-CSF. We compared the efficacy and safety of balugrastim and pegfilgrastim, a long-acting pegylated recombinant G-CSF, in patients with breast cancer who were scheduled to receive chemotherapy. In this double-blind randomized phase III trial, patients with ≥ 1.5 × 10(9) neutrophils/L were randomly assigned to subcutaneous injections of balugrastim 40 mg (n = 153) or pegfilgrastim 6 mg (n = 151). The primary efficacy end point was the duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) (days with an absolute neutrophil count [ANC] < 0.5 × 10(9) cells/L) during cycle 1. Efficacy analyses were performed in the per-protocol (PP) population. In a separate open-label single-arm study, newly recruited patients (n = 77) received balugrastim 40 mg and were included in the safety analysis. The mean DSN in cycle 1 was 1.1 days in the balugrastim group and 1.0 days in the pegfilgrastim group (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.13-0.37). Two and 4 patients, respectively, had febrile neutropenia during cycle 1. Twenty percent of patients in the balugrastim group and 19% in the pegfilgrastim group had adverse events (AEs) considered to be related to study medication; 3.9% and 4.7% of patients, respectively, experienced serious AEs. This study demonstrates the comparable safety and efficacy profile of balugrastim and pegfilgrastim and the noninferiority of balugrastim for reduction in DSN. There were no unexpected safety events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people. But knowing what chemotherapy is, how it works, and what to expect can often help calm your fears. It can also give you a better sense of control over your cancer treatment. ... Drugs Work CancerQuest: Chemotherapy [video] Interactive Chemotherapy Program from Emmi ...

  2. Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-HIV Pregnant Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Malignant Lymphoma: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Fukutani, Yuki; Kondoh, Eiji; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Io, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening opportunistic infection that sometimes occurs in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, we report two extremely rare cases of PCP in non-HIV pregnant women who underwent chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma. Case  1 is a 34-year-old primigravida who was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. She received ABVD chemotherapy and developed PCP at 37 weeks of gestation. After the onset of PCP, emergent cesarean section was performed due to a nonreassuring fetal status. Case  2 is a 31-year-old multigravida with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who was administered R-CHOP chemotherapy. At 34 weeks of gestation, she complained of dyspnea and developed PCP. She delivered her baby vaginally immediately after the onset of symptoms. Both patients were treated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) and recovered shortly thereafter. The babies' courses were also uneventful. PCP remains a serious cause of death, especially in non-HIV patients, and, therefore, appropriate prophylaxis and a prompt diagnosis are imperative. PMID:28932610

  3. Oral manifestations in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Torres, Elena; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Ma del Socorro; Alejo-González, Francisco; Hernández-Sierra, Juan Francisco; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury de J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving chemotherapy, and to evaluate the significance of independent risk factors (oral health, gender, age, time and type of treatment, and phase of chemotherapy). A cross-sectional study was made in 49 children with ALL between 2 and 14 years of age. To describe oral manifestations, a clinical diagnosis was made and the following criteria were applied: the OHI-S index to describe oral health and the IMPA index to describe periodontal conditions and to differentiate gingivitis from periodontitis. The prevalence of oral manifestations was: gingivitis, 91.84%; caries, 81.63%; mucositis, 38.77%; periodontitis, 16.32%; cheilitis, 18.36%; recurrent herpes, 12.24%; and primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, 2.04%. Other oral manifestations were: dry lips, mucosal pallor, mucosal petechiae, ecchymoses, and induced ulcers. The prevalence of oral candidiasis was 6.12%. It was observed that high risk ALL and poor oral hygiene were important risk factors for the development of candidiasis and gingivitis. The type of leukemia, gender and phase of chemotherapy were apparently associated with the presence of candidiasis, gingivitis, and periodontitis, and they could be considered risk factors for the development of oral manifestations.

  4. Predictive value of chemotherapy-related high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) elevation in patients with colorectal cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: an exploratory analysis of 851 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng-hua; Lei, Xue-fen; Yan, Shu-mei; Wang, De-shen; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Rui-hua; Wang, Ling-yun; Li, Yu-hong

    2016-01-01

    Background The phenomenon of chemotherapy-related lipid alterations has been reported based on a small number of patients and varies among different cancers. However, little is known about these alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Results Patients in cohort 1, but not in cohort 2, exhibited significantly increased cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, and ApoA-I levels, and decreased LDL-C and ApoB levels after adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with chemotherapy-related HDL-C elevation exhibited better 3-year DFS (84.5% vs. 73%, P = 0.001) and 7-year OS (82% vs. 70%, P = 0.002) than those without. Similarly, the 3-year DFS (83.3% vs. 77.6%, P = 0.008) and 7-year OS (81% vs. 74.6%, P = 0.040) were superior in chemotherapy-related ApoA-I elevation patients. However, only HDL-C elevation remained an independent prognostic value in the multivariate Cox model. Methods Eight hundred fifty-one CRC patients with curative-intent resection were retrospectively analyzed. Six hundred sixty-seven receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy for more than 3 months were enrolled in cohort 1. The lipid alterations before and after chemotherapy were studied. Simultaneously, 184 patients not treated with chemotherapy (cohort 2) were included as a control for the comparisons of lipids alterations within 1 month after resection and at half-year follow-up. Furthermore, these significant alterations were investigated with respect to the prognostic value of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). An internal validation was performed. Conclusion We observed significant changes in the levels of various lipids in CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Furthermore, chemotherapy-related HDL-C elevation was determined to be an independent prognostic indicator for superior DFS and OS. PMID:27344180

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors of Oral Mucositis in Patients with Breast Cancer Who Receiving Chemotherapy in Al-Bashir Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Al Ibraheemi, Ahmed A; Shamoun, Shaimaa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral Mucositis (OM) remains the most common side effect of chemotherapy affects negatively on patients' quality of life. Subjects and Methods : Convenience samples of patients who received chemotherapy were followed from first or second cycle of chemotherapy until OM occurrence. We reviewed 75 female patients with breast cancer who received chemotherapy with mean age (47.2 SD ± 8.62861). We used WHO scale to assess the severity of OM. Demographic and other variables (age, number of cycle before appearance of signs of OM, WBC count, neutropenia count, creatinine and BMI) were filled in questionnaire. Results: 81.3% of reviewed patients were suffering from OM and (52.4%) of them were shown score 2 according to WHO classification, Taxane included chemotherapy protocol was the only significant variable that associated with OM occurrence (p=0.009). Conclusion: In this study; Taxane is the only risk factor that significantly associated with occurrence of OM. PMID:27928476

  6. Quantitative ultrasound evaluation of tumor cell death response in locally advanced breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Papanicolau, Naum; Falou, Omar; Zubovits, Judit; Dent, Rebecca; Verma, Sunil; Trudeau, Maureen; Boileau, Jean Francois; Spayne, Jacqueline; Iradji, Sara; Sofroni, Ervis; Lee, Justin; Lemon-Wong, Sharon; Yaffe, Martin; Kolios, Michael C; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-04-15

    Quantitative ultrasound techniques have been recently shown to be capable of detecting cell death through studies conducted on in vitro and in vivo models. This study investigates for the first time the potential of early detection of tumor cell death in response to clinical cancer therapy administration in patients using quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic methods. Patients (n = 24) with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatments. Ultrasound data were collected before treatment onset and at 4 times during treatment (weeks 1, 4, and 8, and preoperatively). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were evaluated for clinically responsive and nonresponding patients. Results indicated that quantitative ultrasound parameters showed significant changes for patients who responded to treatment, and no similar alteration was observed in treatment-refractory patients. Such differences between clinically and pathologically determined responding and nonresponding patients were statistically significant (P < 0.05) after 4 weeks of chemotherapy. Responding patients showed changes in parameters related to cell death with, on average, an increase in mid-band fit and 0-MHz intercept of 9.1 ± 1.2 dBr and 8.9 ± 1.9 dBr, respectively, whereas spectral slope was invariant. Linear discriminant analysis revealed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 83.3% for distinguishing nonresponding patients by the fourth week into a course of chemotherapy lasting several months. This study reports for the first time that quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic methods can be applied clinically to evaluate cancer treatment responses noninvasively. The results form a basis for monitoring chemotherapy effects and facilitating the personalization of cancer treatment.

  7. Prognostic significance of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in osteosarcoma patients receiving pasteurized autografts

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Min Wook; Kang, Yong Koo; Yoo, Chang-Young; Cha, Sung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background Among various reconstruction methods after wide excision for osteosarcoma, pasteurized autograft is often preferred. While the whole area of the tumor can be assessed for chemotherapy-induced necrosis, one of the important prognostic factors, in other reconstructive techniques, only a portion removed from a wide-resection specimen is available when using pasteurized autograft method. The assessment, therefore, may be unreliable. We analyzed the prognostic significance of the chemotherapy-induced necrosis in osteosarcoma patients who underwent reconstruction with pasteurized autografts. Patients and methods We reviewed the records of osteosarcoma patients who underwent treatment in our institution from 1998 to 2013. Cases of reconstruction with pasteurized autografts were defined as the patient group, and the same number of patients who underwent other reconstruction methods served as controls. Chemotherapy-induced necrosis was evaluated for removed extra-osseous and curetted intramedullary tumor tissues. Results A total of 22 patients were identified; the median age was 15.5 years, and there were 12 males. The most common tumor location was the distal femur. The most common histological subtype was osteoblastic. Median size was 8.1 cm. Disease status was stage IIB in 13 patients and IIA in 9. Median follow-up was 76 months. No differences between the patient and control groups were observed in potential prognostic factors, overall survival, metastasis-free survival, or recurrence-free survival. Univariate analyses demonstrated that histological response was a significant prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival and also significant for recurrence-free survival. Conclusion Chemotherapy-induced necrosis grading, using only available tumor tissues, could be a prognostic factor for osteosarcoma patients receiving pasteurized autografts for reconstructive surgery. PMID:28196121

  8. The incidence and risk factors of febrile neutropenia in chemotherapy-naïve lung cancer patients receiving etoposide plus platinum.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takumi; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Kawamura, Takahisa; Mamesaya, Nobuaki; Kotake, Mie; Kobayashi, Haruki; Omori, Shota; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Murakami, Haruyasu; Omae, Katsuhiro; Mori, Keita; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    This study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of febrile neutropenia in chemotherapy-naïve Japanese patients treated systemically with etoposide plus platinum for lung cancer. The study was a retrospective analysis of 244 patients who were monitored for febrile neutropenia through multiple cycles of the combination of etoposide with platinum, and the associations between incidence of febrile neutropenia and patient characteristics were evaluated. Eighty-eight patients were treated with etoposide plus cisplatin and 156 were treated with etoposide plus carboplatin. Of the 244 patients treated, 198 (81.1%) completed 4 cycles for chemotherapy. Febrile neutropenia was observed in 48 of 244 patients (19.7%), including 18 of 88 (20.5%) patients who received etoposide plus cisplatin and 30 of 156 (19.2%) patients who received etoposide plus carboplatin. Grade 3 or 4 of neutropenia was experienced by a total of 208 patients (85.2%); 79 of 88 (89.8%) receiving etoposide plus cisplatin and 129 of 156 (82.7%) receiving etoposide plus carboplatin. Male gender and previous radiotherapy were identified by multivariate analysis as independent risk factors for febrile neutropenia. These results contrast with findings in Western patients and suggest that ethnic differences exist in the incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients receiving etoposide plus platinum chemotherapy. In addition, our results suggest that primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor should be considered for patients with these risk factors for febrile neutropenia prior to treatment with etoposide plus platinum.

  9. Differences in symptom occurrence, severity, and distress ratings between patients with gastrointestinal cancers who received chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy with targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tantoy, Ilufredo Y.; Dhruva, Anand; Cataldo, Janine; Venook, Alan; Cooper, Bruce A.; Paul, Steven M.; Levine, Jon D.; Conley, Yvette P.; Cartwright, Frances; Lee, Kathryn; Wright, Fay

    2017-01-01

    Background Approximately 28% of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers will receive targeted therapy (TT) because of the associated increases in survival. Only four studies have examined the symptom experience of these patients. To date, no studies have evaluated for differences in symptom occurrence, severity, and distress between patients who received chemotherapy (CTX) alone (n=304) or CTX with TT (n=93). Methods Patients completed self-report questionnaires, approximately one week after they received CTX. A modified version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) was used to obtain data on symptom occurrence, severity, and distress. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to test for differences in symptom occurrence rates between the two treatment groups. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to test for differences in severity and distress ratings between the two treatment groups. Results Patients who received CTX with TT were significantly younger (P=0.009); were diagnosed with cancer longer (P=0.004); had a higher number of prior treatments (P=0.024); had metastatic disease, specifically to the liver (P<0.001); had a diagnosis of anal, colon, rectum, or colorectal cancer (CRC) (P<0.001); and were positive for detection of B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations (both P<0.001). In addition, CTX treatment regimens were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.001). After controlling for significant covariates, patients who received TT reported lower occurrence rates for lack of energy, cough, feeling drowsy, and difficulty sleeping (all, P<0.05). Patients who received TT reported lower severity scores for dry mouth (P=0.034) and change in the way food tastes (P=0.035). However, they reported higher severity scores for “I don’t look like myself” (P=0.026). No differences in symptom distress scores were found between the two treatment groups

  10. The use of olanzapine versus metoclopramide for the treatment of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M; Nagy, Cindy K; Gray, Sarah E

    2013-06-01

    Olanzapine has been shown to be a safe and effective agent for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Olanzapine may also be an effective rescue medication for patients who develop breakthrough CINV despite having received guideline-directed CINV prophylaxis. A double-blind, randomized phase III trial was performed for the treatment of breakthrough CINV in chemotherapy-naive patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (cisplatin, ≥ 70 mg/m2 or doxorubicin, ≥ 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, ≥ 600 mg/m2), comparing olanzapine to metoclopramide. Patients who developed breakthrough emesis or nausea despite prophylactic dexamethasone (12 mg IV), palonosetron (0.25 mg IV), and fosaprepitant (150 mg IV) pre-chemotherapy and dexamethasone (8 mg p.o. daily, days 2-4) post-chemotherapy were randomized to receive olanzapine, 10 mg orally daily for 3 days or metoclopramide, 10 mg orally TID for 3 days. Patients were monitored for emesis and nausea for 72 h after taking olanzapine or metoclopramide. Two hundred seventy-six patients (median age 62 years, range 38-79; 43% women; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS 0,1) consented to the protocol. One hundred twelve patients developed breakthrough CINV and 108 were evaluable. During the 72-h observation period, 39 out of 56 (70%) patients receiving olanzapine had no emesis compared to 16 out of 52 (31%) patients with no emesis for patients receiving metoclopramide (p < 0.01). Patients without nausea (0, scale 0-10, M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory) during the 72-h observation period were those who took olanzapine, 68% (38 of 56), and metoclopramide, 23% (12 of 52) (p < 0.01). There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Olanzapine was significantly better than metoclopramide in the control of breakthrough emesis and nausea in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

  11. Symptom prevalence and longitudinal follow-up in cancer outpatients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Akemi; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kimura, Fukuko

    2009-05-01

    Palliative care for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in the outpatient setting is important. The aims of this study were 1) to identify symptom prevalence and intensity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and 2) to describe longitudinal follow-up data obtained from repeated assessment using the distress thermometer (DT). Questionnaires were distributed to consecutive cancer outpatients newly starting chemotherapy at the first appointment and at every hospital visit. The questionnaire included the severity of 11 symptoms (M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory [MDASI], Japanese version), the DT, and the need for help in four psychosocial areas (decision-making, economic problems, nutrition, and daily activities). In total, 4000 questionnaires were returned by 462 patients. The frequently identified problems were oral problems (21%), insomnia (19%), psychological distress (defined as a DT score of 6 or more; 15%), help with information and decision-making (14%), severe fatigue (8.2%), and severe appetite loss (6.3%). Cluster analysis identified four symptom clusters: 1) fatigue and somnolence; 2) pain, dyspnea, and numbness; 3) nausea, appetite loss, and constipation; and 4) psychological distress. Of 165 patients with a DT of score 6 or more, 115 patients (70%) demonstrated a DT score below 6 at a median of 17 days follow-up. In the remaining 50 patients who had a DT score of 6 or more at follow-up, 34 patients (68%) had one or more physical symptoms rated at 7 or more on an 11-point numeric rating scale. Compared with patients with a DT score below 6 at follow-up, patients with a DT score of 6 or more at follow-up had higher levels of all physical symptoms. Frequent symptoms experienced by cancer outpatients receiving chemotherapy may be categorized as: 1) psychosocial issues (insomnia, psychological distress, decision-making support); 2) nutrition-gastrointestinal issues (oral problems, appetite loss, nausea); 3) fatigue; and 4) pain, dyspnea, and numbness

  12. A Feasibility Study of Virtual Reality Exercise in Elderly Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kenji; Sudo, Kazuaki; Goto, Goro; Takai, Makiko; Itokawa, Tatsuo; Isshiki, Takahiro; Takei, Naoko; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Komatsu, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to rehabilitation exercise is much lower in patients with hematologic malignancies (22.5-45.8%) than in patients with solid tumors (60-85%) due to the administration of more intensive chemotherapeutic regimens in the former. Virtual reality exercise can be performed even in a biological clean room and it may improve the adherence rates in elderly patients with hematologic malignancies. Thus, in this pilot study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of virtual reality exercise intervention using Nintendo Wii Fit in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy. In this feasibility study, 16 hospitalized patients with hematologic malignancies aged ≥60 years performed virtual reality exercise for 20 minutes using the Nintendo Wii Fit once a day, five times a week, from the start of chemotherapy until hospital discharge. The adherence rate, safety, and physical and psychological performances were assessed. The adherence rate for all 16 patients was 66.5%. Nine patients completed the virtual reality exercise intervention with 88 sessions, and the adherence rate was 62.0%. No intervention-related adverse effects >Grade 2, according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, were observed. We noted maintenance of the physical performance (e.g., Barthel index, handgrip strength, knee extension strength, one-leg standing time, and the scores of timed up and go test and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) and psychosocial performance (e.g., score of hospital anxiety and depression scale). Virtual reality exercise using the Wii Fit may be feasible, safe and efficacious, as demonstrated in our preliminary results, for patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy.

  13. Risk factors for bone pain among patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Gong, Q; Vogl, F D; Reiner, M; Page, J H

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for bone pain in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim. Individual patient data from 22 pegfilgrastim clinical trials were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate risk factors associated with grade ≥2 bone pain and any grade bone pain in the first chemotherapy cycle and across cycles 1-6. Of the 1949 patients analyzed, 19 and 36 % had grade ≥2 and any grade bone pain, respectively, in cycle 1, and 28 and 51 % had grade ≥2 and any grade bone pain, respectively, across cycles 1-6. In cycle 1, history of bone pain (odds ratio (OR), 1.51; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.07) was associated with increased risk of grade ≥2 bone pain; age ≥65 years (versus <45 years; OR, 0.64; 95 % CI, 0.42-0.98), the European Union region (versus the USA region; OR, 0.32; 95 % CI, 0.20-0.52), colorectal cancer (versus breast cancer; OR, 0.14; 95 % CI, 0.05-0.41), and small-cell lung cancer (OR, 0.34; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.98) were associated with reduced risk of grade ≥2 bone pain. Potential risk factors for bone pain in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and primary prophylactic pegfilgrastim identified in this study are younger age and history of bone pain. No other association with clinical factors and risk of bone pain was detected. Better understanding of risk factors for bone pain would be useful in identifying patients who may benefit from pain prevention strategies.

  14. Approach to fever assessment in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowska, M.K.; Walker-Dilks, C.; Atzema, C.; Morris, A.; Gupta, R.; Halligan, R.; Kouroukis, T.; McCann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background This guideline was prepared by the Fever Assessment Guideline Development Group, a group organized by the Program in Evidence-Based Care at the request of the Cancer Care Ontario Systemic Treatment Program. The mandate was to develop a standardized approach (in terms of definitions, information, and education) for the assessment of fever in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods The guideline development methods included a search for existing guidelines, literature searches in medline and embase for systematic reviews and primary studies, internal review by content and methodology experts, and external review by targeted experts and intended users. Results The search identified eight guidelines that had partial relevance to the topic of the present guideline and thirty-eight primary studies. The studies were mostly noncomparative prospective or retrospective studies. Few studies directly addressed the topic of fever except as one among many symptoms or adverse effects associated with chemotherapy. The recommendations concerning fever definition are supported mainly by other existing guidelines. No evidence was found that directly pertained to the assessment of fever before a diagnosis of febrile neutropenia was made. However, some studies evaluated approaches to symptom management that included fever among the symptoms. Few studies directly addressed information needs and resources for managing fever in cancer patients. Conclusions Fever in patients with cancer who are receiving systemic therapy is a common and potentially serious symptom that requires prompt assessment, but currently, evidence to inform best practices concerning when, where, and by whom that assessment is done is very limited. PMID:27536179

  15. Changes in blood concentrations of trace metals in cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Minoru; Niigata, Riho; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Kume, Manabu; Hirai, Midori; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The administration of cisplatin (CDDP) may influence trace metal concentrations in body fluids. In order to test this hypothesis, the blood concentrations of trace metals were determined during the present study in eight Japanese esophageal and lung cancer patients receiving CDDP-based chemotherapy. The levels of manganese, iron (Fe), cobalt, copper, zinc (Zn), platinum and lead in the plasma were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In addition, the serum levels of Fe, transferrin and ferritin were evaluated. The baseline plasma concentration of Fe in patients with esophageal cancer was significantly lower than that in lung cancer patients (P=0.011), although there were no significant differences identified with respect to the plasma levels of other trace metals. The data obtained from six fasting patients without blood transfusion demonstrated that plasma concentrations of Fe increased 3.5-fold soon after CDDP treatment and returned to baseline levels ~10 days after therapy. The excessive Fe levels in the bloodstream induced changes in serum ferritin and transferrin levels. Furthermore, serum Zn levels increased 1.8-fold in the 1–3 days following CDDP treatment, and serum cystatin C levels transiently increased. These findings indicate that serum Fe and Zn levels may be useful to understanding the physiological responses in the early stages of CDDP-based chemotherapy, which may be associated with systemic inflammation and/or tissue distribution of CDDP. PMID:28105341

  16. Chlorpromazine with and without lorazepam as antiemetic therapy in children receiving uniform chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Relling, M V; Mulhern, R K; Fairclough, D; Baker, D; Pui, C H

    1993-11-01

    We prospectively studied the efficacy and adverse effects of chlorpromazine (30 mg/m2 given intravenously) plus lorazepam (0.04 mg/kg given intravenously) versus chlorpromazine alone in a controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel-design investigation in 25 children (1.5 to 17.3 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Response to other antiemetics in eight children refusing random assignment to treatment was also evaluated. All children were receiving intravenous infusions of teniposide plus cytarabine, the pharmacokinetics of which were characterized for each of the one to four courses. There were no differences between the 11 patients randomly assigned to receive chlorpromazine alone and the 14 randomly assigned to receive lorazepam plus chlorpromazine in the number of emesis episodes (6.0 vs 5.9; p = 0.53), frequency of dystonic reactions (3% vs 5%), or akathisia (13 vs 10%). The only serious adverse event, symptomatic hypotension, occurred in a boy receiving chlorpromazine plus lorazepam. An exploratory pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that the only variable that correlated with vomiting was cytarabine 1 1/2-hour plasma concentration (p = 0.007). Children who received either chlorpromazine plus lorazepam or chlorpromazine alone had fewer episodes of vomiting than those who received "conventional" antiemetic therapy (6.0 vs 8.6; p = 0.01). We conclude that the severity of emesis is related to the plasma concentration of cytarabine; that intravenously administered chlorpromazine is as effective as chlorpromazine plus lorazepam in preventing chemotherapy-induced vomiting; and that the potential for adverse effects with the addition of lorazepam may be a disadvantage.

  17. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1A - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  18. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1 - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. 1.668(a)-1 Section 1.668(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. (a) Section 668(a) provides that...

  19. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1A - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. 1.668(a)-1A Section 1.668(a)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE....668(a)-1A Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. (a) Section...

  20. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1 - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. 1.668(a)-1 Section 1.668(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE....668(a)-1 Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. (a) Section...

  1. Survival of Mexican children with acute myeloid leukaemia who received early intensification chemotherapy and an autologous transplant.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Villegas, Octavio Martínez; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005-2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999-2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy.

  2. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Martínez Villegas, Octavio; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy. PMID:25821830

  3. Safety of Prior Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Patients Receiving Radiofrequency Ablation of Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, Ngozi I.; Tomizawa, Yutaka; Dunagan, Kelly T.; Lutzke, Lori S.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Prasad, Ganapathy A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is safe and effective treatment for flat dysplasia associated with Barrett’s esophagus (BE). However, there are limited data on the safety of RFA in patients who had prior endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), which might increase the risk of complications. We compared complications and histologic outcomes between patients who had EMR before RFA and those who received only RFA. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected from patients treated for BE, associated with dysplasia or intramucosal cancer, at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, from 1998–2009. Patients were divided into groups that had RFA after EMR (group 1, n = 44) or only RFA (group 2, n = 46). We compared the incidence of complications (strictures, bleeding, and esophageal perforation) and histologic features (complete resolution of dysplasia and complete resolution of intestinal metaplasia [CR-IM]) between groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of stricture formation. RESULTS Stricture rates were 14% in group 1 and 9% in group 2 (odds ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 –9.74). The rates of CR-IM were 43% in group 1 and 74% in group 2 (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14 – 0.78). The rates of complete resolution of dysplasia were 76% in group 1 and 71% in group 2 (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.39 – 4.17). The adjusted odds ratio for CR-IM in group 1 (adjusting for age, segment length, and grade of dysplasia) was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.15–1.66). CONCLUSIONS Stricture rates among patients who receive only RFA are comparable to those of patients who had prior EMR. EMR appears safe to perform prior to RFA. PMID:22056303

  4. The effect of filgrastim or pegfilgrastim on survival outcomes of patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lyman, G H; Reiner, M; Morrow, P K; Crawford, J

    2015-07-01

    Primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is associated with higher chemotherapy relative dose intensity, which may lead to improved outcomes; however, the association between G-CSF primary prophylaxis and overall survival (OS) is not well characterized. This study assessed the effect of G-CSF primary prophylaxis on patient outcomes in randomized, controlled, registrational clinical trials of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. Three placebo-controlled and two non-inferiority clinical trials of filgrastim and/or pegfilgrastim in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for lung, breast, or colorectal cancer were included. The median OS, 6- and 12-month survival rates, and hazard ratios [HRs; unadjusted Cox model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were estimated for patients receiving ≥1 dose of filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, or placebo. Comparisons were based on a log-rank test. A fixed-effect meta-analysis assessed the effect of primary prophylaxis with filgrastim/pegfilgrastim on OS in the placebo-controlled trials. In patients with lung cancer receiving filgrastim versus placebo, the median OS was 14.1 versus 11.1 months (HR, 0.81; 95% CI 0.48-1.35; P = 0.412); in patients who crossed over to filgrastim from placebo after cycle 1, the median OS was 16.9 months (HR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.43-1.28; P = 0.286). The median OS was inestimable in at least one treatment arm in the other studies because of the small number of OS events. Where estimable, 6- and 12-month survival rates were generally greater among patients receiving filgrastim/pegfilgrastim versus placebo. In the meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies comparing G-CSF primary prophylaxis with placebo in the as-treated analysis sets, the HR (95% CI) for OS was 0.77 (0.58-1.03). In this retrospective analysis, OS point estimates were greater among patients receiving filgrastim versus placebo, but the differences were not statistically significant. Further studies evaluating

  5. Creative arts therapy improves quality of life for pediatric brain tumor patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Madden, Jennifer R; Mowry, Patricia; Gao, Dexiang; Cullen, Patsy McGuire; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods pilot study evaluated the effects of the creative arts therapy (CAT) on the quality of life (QOL) of children receiving chemotherapy. A 2-group, repeated measures randomized design compared CAT with a volunteer's attention (n = 16). Statistical analysis of the randomized controlled phase of the study suggested an improvement in the following areas after the CAT: parent report of child's hurt (P = .03) and parent report of child's nausea (P = .0061). A nonrandomized phase, using a different instrument showed improved mood with statistical significance on the Faces Scale (P < .01), and patients were more excited (P < .05), happier (P < .02), and less nervous (P < .02). Provider focus groups revealed positive experiences. Case studies are included to exemplify the therapeutic process. With heightened interest in complementary therapy for children with cancer, future research with a larger sample size is needed to document the impact of incorporating creative arts into the healing process.

  6. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to preoperative chemoradiation or radiation in rectal cancer: should we be more cautious?

    PubMed Central

    Glynne-Jones, R; Grainger, J; Harrison, M; Ostler, P; Makris, A

    2006-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is a term originally used to describe the administration of chemotherapy preoperatively before surgery. The original rationale for administering NACT or so-called induction chemotherapy to shrink or downstage a locally advanced tumour, and thereby facilitate more effective local treatment with surgery or radiotherapy, has been extended with the introduction of more effective combinations of chemotherapy to include reducing the risks of metastatic disease. It seems logical that survival could be lengthened, or organ preservation rates increased in resectable tumours by NACT. In rectal cancer NACT is being increasingly used in locally advanced and nonmetastatic unresectable tumours. Randomised studies in advanced colorectal cancer show high response rates to combination cytotoxic therapy. This evidence of efficacy coupled with the introduction of novel molecular targeted therapies (such as Bevacizumab and Cetuximab), and long waiting times for radiotherapy have rekindled an interest in delivering NACT in locally advanced rectal cancer. In contrast, this enthusiasm is currently waning in other sites such as head and neck and nasopharynx cancer where traditionally NACT has been used. So, is NACT in rectal cancer a real advance or just history repeating itself? In this review, we aimed to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the separate approaches of neoadjuvant, concurrent and consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer, drawing on theoretical principles, preclinical studies and clinical experience both in rectal cancer and other disease sites. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may improve outcome in terms of disease-free or overall survival in selected groups in some disease sites, but this strategy has not been shown to be associated with better outcomes than postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. In particular, there is insufficient data in rectal cancer. The evidence for benefit is strongest when NACT is administered

  7. The Effects of Acupressure on Meridian Energy as well as Nausea and Vomiting in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chi-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy. However, only a small number of studies have been conducted in Taiwan to determine the efficacy of acupressure in treating these side effects in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. In this quasi-experimental study, we aimed to explore the effects of acupressure on meridian energy as well as nausea and vomiting in 70 lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Patients were assigned to the experimental or control group based on order of hospital admission. The experimental group received acupressure on "Neiguan (PC6)" and "Gongsun (SP4)" points, and the control group received sham acupoint patches on "Houxi (SI3)" point. The results showed that the mean meridian energy in the experimental group after acupressure was significantly higher than in the control group ( F = 28.71, p < .001). The experimental group had significantly less nausea ( p < .001) and vomiting ( p = .006) during the delayed phase than the control group. In conclusion, acupressure significantly increased the mean meridian energy and effectively decreased the severity of nausea and vomiting in lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. We recommend that clinical nurses provide acupressure as an intervention to relieve nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  8. Patient knowledge and expectations prior to receiving implant-supported restorations.

    PubMed

    Simensen, Anja Nyland; Bøe, Olav E; Berg, Einar; Leknes, Knut N

    2015-01-01

    Implant dentistry has revolutionized the treatment of partially and completely edentulous patients. The aims of this study were to explore what made patients choose implant treatment and their prior knowledge and expectations of this treatment option. A study population of 117 subjects was selected from 248 referred possible candidates for implant therapy. The subjects answered a questionnaire regarding implant dentistry prior to professional consultation at two hospital/university-based centers and one private implant center. In most cases, the choice of treatment was motivated by expectations of improved chewing/function (46.0%), appearance (19.5%), or both (18.6%). Improved chewing/function and improved appearance were rated "very important" by 96.5% and 86.1% of patients, respectively. Surprisingly, 57.4% reported that the cost of treatment did not play a role in their decision. Only 6.0% claimed to have much prior knowledge about the treatment and 33.6% had a realistic perception about the length of anticipated service. Patients first received implant-related information primarily (62.9%) from dentists, and 75.2% thought their dentist gave the most useful information. Significant positive associations were found between knowledge about the treatment, the need for periodic professional oral health maintenance, and expected treatment time. Patients seek implant therapy primarily to improve chewing function and esthetics, whereas cost seems to be less important. Prior to treatment, many patients lack precise information on the importance of necessary implant-related hygiene measures and implant longevity. The general dentist is the primary source of information.

  9. Monitoring genotoxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: application of the PIG-A assay.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ukai, Akiko; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugano, Ayako; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-09-15

    The recently introduced Pig-a in vivo gene mutation assay measures endogeneous mutations of Pig-a (human, PIG-A), an X-linked gene that is conserved across species from rodents to humans. Flow cytometric analysis enables the enumeration of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor-deficient erythrocytes, resulting from a mutation in Pig-a/PIG-A, in only a few microliters of peripheral blood. Pig-a/PIG-A mutations appear to function in a neutral manner, allowing evaluation of the accumulated genotoxic effects of repeated exposures. To date, most Pig-a studies have been conducted in rodents; only a few reports regarding human applications of the PIG-A assay have been published. We have conducted a PIG-A assay in the context of human genotoxicity monitoring. Peripheral blood was collected from healthy human donors and chemotherapy-treated cancer patients at Yamagata University Hospital. To investigate the PIG-A mutant frequency (MF) induced by chemotherapy, red blood cells were analyzed via flow cytometry following staining with allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-CD235ab (erythrocyte specific) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-CD59 antibodies (GPI-anchored protein specific). Reticulocyte frequencies (%RET) were also analyzed using a phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-CD71 antibody to monitor bone marrow suppression and reticulocytosis. Two of 27 patients exhibited a significantly elevated frequency of PIG-A mutants. Although we observed either a reduced or an increased %RET in all patients, no association was observed between this factor and the PIG-A MF. Unfortunately, we could not analyze blood samples collected before treatment during therapeutic processes. Additionally, the sampling time point for some patients was too short to express the PIG-A mutant phenotypes. Therefore, the possibility of natively high PIG-A MFs prior to treatment must be considered. The human PIG-A assay shows promise as a human genotoxicity monitoring method.

  10. Zevalin and BEAM (Z-BEAM) versus rituximab and BEAM (R-BEAM) conditioning chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Berger, Martin D; Branger, Giacomo; Klaeser, Bernd; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Novak, Urban; Banz, Yara; Mueller, Beatrice U; Pabst, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Early relapse is common in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) highlighting the unmet need for further improvement of therapeutic options for these patients. CD20 inhibition combined with induction chemotherapy as well as consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) is increasingly considered cornerstones within current therapy algorithms of MCL whereas the role of radioimmunotherapy is unclear. This retrospective single center study compared 46 consecutive MCL patients receiving HDCT in first or second remission. Thirty-five patients had rituximab and BEAM (R-BEAM), and 11 patients received ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®), an Yttrium-90 labeled CD20 targeting antibody, prior to BEAM (Z-BEAM) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We observed that the 5-year overall survival (OS) in the R-BEAM and Z-BEAM groups was 55% and 71% (p = 0.288), and the 4-year progression free survival (PFS) was 32% and 41%, respectively (p = 0.300). There were no treatment related deaths in both groups, and we observed no differences in toxicities, infection rates or engraftment. Our data suggest that the Z-BEAM conditioning regimen followed by ASCT is well tolerated, but was not associated with significantly improved survival compared to R-BEAM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Constipation in Patients With Breast Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeongran; Park, Hyojung

    2016-11-30

    The purpose was to examine the effects of auricular acupressure to relieve constipation in patients with breast cancer who were undergoing chemotherapy. Participants were 52 patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy at E University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, randomized into two groups of equal size. For the experimental group, auricular acupressure was applied to seven auricular acupoints for 6 weeks using vaccaria seeds, whereas the control group received the usual care. Constipation-assessment scores of the experimental group were significantly lower compared with the control group (p < .001). Stool-form scores of the experimental group were significantly higher compared with the control group (p = .003). Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life scores of the experimental group were significantly lower compared with the control group (p < .001). Auricular acupressure was effective at relieving constipation in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Auricular acupressure was also a safe and acceptable nursing intervention.

  12. [Liver in children with prior intrathoracic tuberculosis during long-term observation period after chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Mitinskaia, L A; Iukhimenko, N V; Elufimova, V F; Ergeshov, A E

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the liver and biliary tract revealed both nonspecific (chronic persistent hepatitis) and paraspecific changes in 93.8% of children with local forms of primary tuberculosis in the phase of infiltration, including 17.3% in whom the changes appeared as biliary dyskinesia. Late outcomes indicated that antituberculous chemotherapy had no negative effect on the liver. The ultrasonographic studies detected abnormal changes of the hepatic parenchyma only in 7.8%, mainly in those with chronic persistent hepatitis.

  13. Febrile Neutropenia Rates According to Body Mass Index and Dose Capping in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lote, H; Sharp, A; Redana, S; Papadimitraki, E; Capelan, M; Ring, A

    2016-09-01

    Studies suggest worse outcomes in obese women with breast cancer than in non-obese women. One potential reason may be that oncologists 'dose cap' adjuvant chemotherapy in obese patients in order to avoid excessive toxicity. Reductions from standard dosing may compromise survival outcomes in the curative setting. Here we describe the body mass index (BMI) distribution of patients in a non-trial population, the frequency with which oncologists dose cap and its effect on febrile neutropenia chemotherapy toxicity. In this non-randomised study, electronic patient records retrospectively identified patients with early breast cancer who initiated neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1 January and 31 December 2013. Baseline data included age, BMI, performance status, tumour characteristics, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and comorbidities. Chemotherapy doses, rates of dose capping across BMI groups and rates of febrile neutropenia were reported. In total, 325 patients were eligible: 79 (24.5%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30), 109 (33.5%) were overweight (BMI ≥25 - <30) and 137 (42%) were normal bodyweight (BMI < 25). Sixteen patients (20.5%) in the obese group received dose-capped chemotherapy. Overall, 62 patients (19%) had an episode of febrile neutropenia. Obese patients receiving uncapped chemotherapy did not experience a significant difference in febrile neutropenia rates when compared with overweight or normal bodyweight groups (P = 0.5798). The febrile neutropenia rate in obese patients receiving capped chemotherapy was 6.5%, compared with 24% in obese patients receiving uncapped chemotherapy (P = 0.1216). In a non-trial population of obese patients, dose capping is frequently used. Obese patients receiving uncapped chemotherapy do not experience increased febrile neutropenia rates when compared with uncapped overweight or normal bodyweight patients. Furthermore, dose capping was associated with a trend towards lower

  14. The attention network changes in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Evidence from an arterial spin labeling perfusion study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingui; He, Xiaoxuan; Tao, Longxiang; Cheng, Huaidong; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Jingjie; Qiu, Bensheng; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying attention deficits that are related to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with cerebral perfusion. Thirty one patients with breast cancer who were scheduled to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 34 healthy control subjects were included. The patients completed two assessments of the attention network tasks (ANT), neuropsychological background tests, and the arterial spin labeling scan, which were performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after completing chemotherapy. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patients exhibited reduced performance in the alerting and executive control attention networks but not the orienting network (p < 0.05) and showed significant increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, bilateral precentral gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, superior occipital gyrus, calcarine cortex, and temporal gyrus (p < 0.01 corrected) when compared with patients before chemotherapy and healthy controls. A significant correlation was found between the decrease performance of ANT and the increase in CBF changes in some brain regions of the patients with breast cancer. The results demonstrated that neoadjuvant chemotherapy influences hemodynamic activity in different brain areas through increasing cerebral perfusion, which reduces the attention abilities in breast cancer patients. PMID:28209975

  15. The influence of polypharmacy on grade III/IV toxicity, prior discontinuation of chemotherapy and overall survival in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Woopen, H; Richter, R; Ismaeel, F; Chekerov, R; Roots, I; Siepmann, T; Sehouli, J

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is mostly diagnosed in the elderly woman who is likely to have comorbid disease and to take several comedications on a regular basis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polypharmacy on grade III/IV toxicity, prior discontinuation of chemotherapy and survival. In this individual participant data meta-analysis the original data of three phase II/III studies of the North-Eastern German Society of Gynecological Oncology (NOGGO) were analyzed using multivariate logistic and Cox regression. Overall, 1213 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer were included in these analyses. An increasing amount of medication was associated with overall grade III/IV toxicity (p<0.001; OR 1.120), and hematological (p<0.001; OR 1.056) and non-hematological (p<0.001; OR 1.134) toxicities. Prior discontinuation of chemotherapy was not influenced by an increasing amount of medication (p=0.196). There was no association of polypharmacy with overall survival (p=0.068). As polypharmacy does not influence survival ovarian cancer patients taking several comedications may be included in clinical trials and should not be deprived of adequate cancer treatment. However, a thorough monitoring is mandatory due to the increased risk of toxicities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lesley A; Azariah, Fredric; Lavender, Verna T C; Stoner, Nicola S; Bettiol, Silvana

    2015-11-12

    Cannabis has a long history of medicinal use. Cannabis-based medications (cannabinoids) are based on its active element, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and have been approved for medical purposes. Cannabinoids may be a useful therapeutic option for people with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that respond poorly to commonly used anti-emetic agents (anti-sickness drugs). However, unpleasant adverse effects may limit their widespread use. To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of cannabis-based medications for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer. We identified studies by searching the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and LILACS from inception to January 2015. We also searched reference lists of reviews and included studies. We did not restrict the search by language of publication. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a cannabis-based medication with either placebo or with a conventional anti-emetic in adults receiving chemotherapy. At least two review authors independently conducted eligibility and risk of bias assessment, and extracted data. We grouped studies based on control groups for meta-analyses conducted using random effects. We expressed efficacy and tolerability outcomes as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 23 RCTs. Most were of cross-over design, on adults undergoing a variety of chemotherapeutic regimens ranging from moderate to high emetic potential for a variety of cancers. The majority of the studies were at risk of bias due to either lack of allocation concealment or attrition. Trials were conducted between 1975 and 1991. No trials involved comparison with newer anti-emetic drugs such as ondansetron. Comparison with placebo People had more chance of reporting complete absence of vomiting (3 trials; 168 participants; RR 5.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 12.6; low quality evidence

  17. B19 parvovirus infection in children with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rao, S P; Miller, S T; Cohen, B J

    1994-01-01

    Two children with rhabdomyosarcoma developed severe anemia following chemotherapy; anemia was more severe compared to that observed following earlier chemotherapy cycles. While one patient had a brisk reticulocytosis, the other had no demonstrable reticulocytes. Both patients had evidence of acute B19 parovirus infection and subsequently developed appropriate antibody response. A diagnosis of B19 parvovirus infection should be considered in any patient who develops persistent or severe anemia while on chemotherapy.

  18. Randomized Trial of Neuroprotective Effects of Erythropoietin in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: Positron Emission Tomography and Neuropsychological Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Effects of Erythropoietin in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer : Positron Emission Tomography and Neuropsychological Study...Neuroprotective Effects of Erythropoietin in Patients 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer : Positron Emission Tomography...11 Introduction In the United States approximately 60-80% of patients diagnosed with breast cancer will receive

  19. Why do some cancer patients receiving chemotherapy choose to take complementary and alternative medicines and what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter J; Clavarino, Alexandra; Long, Jeremy; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2014-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) cover a broad and diverse group of treatments and products that do not tend to be widely used by conventional healthcare professions. CAM that is systemically absorbed is the most likely to interfere with concurrent chemotherapy and potentially cause harm to cancer patients. Patients receiving chemotherapy may be consuming CAM to treat cancer, to lessen chemotherapy side effects, for symptom management, or to treat conditions unrelated to their cancer. A small proportion of cancer patients decide to use CAM alone to treat cancer and delay conventional treatment. Cancer patients may be influenced in their CAM decision-making by others: practitioners, family, friends, spouse and even casual acquaintances met in waiting rooms and support groups. This influence may range from encouraging and supporting the patient's decision through to making the decisions for the patient. When tested in rigorous clinical trials, no CAM cancer treatments alone have shown benefit beyond placebo. With the exception of ginger to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea, there is no compelling evidence overriding risk to take complementary medicines for supportive care during chemotherapy treatment. There is, however, established evidence to use mind-body complementary therapies for supportive care during chemotherapy treatment.

  20. Therapeutic touch for nausea in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: Composing a treatment.

    PubMed

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Matourypour, Pegah; Gholami, Roya; Zare, Zahra; Mehrzad, Valiolah; Dehghan, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic touch (TT) is independent nursing intervention which is effective on nausea induced by chemotherapy but technique, steps and variables affected by this therapy are not yet well known. The aim of this study was to elicit descriptions of how TT is used with cancer patients, providing a basis for the systematic use and evaluation of TT with patients. In this research, 108 patients were examined with intentional sampling and random allocation in 3 groups (control, placebo and intervention) in 2013 (each group 36). Intervention received therapeutic touch (touching of first energy layer) and demographic form, visual analog scale (VAS) for intensity of nausea, check list for duration and times of nausea in the morning, noon, afternoon and night at acute phase were used. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis, χ(2) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Duration, frequency and intensity of nausea were significantly lower in the test group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The mean duration of intervention (whole process) was 21.38 min [SD 6.04]. In 69.4% of women there was a need for re-intervention after reassessment phase. Results of this randomized control trial showed that TT is effective on duration, times and intensity of nausea; therefore, TT can be used as an alternative method for patients who are willing to use this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognostic significance of GRP78 expression patterns in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Mauricio Z; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Vassallo, José; Pinto, Glauce A; Soares, Fernando A; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between GRP78 expression and breast cancer recurrence and survival in patients treated with anthracyclines in the adjuvant setting. GRP78 expression was assessed in 106 stage II/III breast cancer patients. Tissue microarray was used to perform immunohistochemistry and to determine the GRP78 expression in endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane of breast tumors. Four distinct scenarios (low and high thresholds) were developed. For high thresholds, 16% and 40% of our cases were GRP78-positive for endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane, respectively. For low thresholds, 74% and 87% of our cases were GRP78-positive for endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane, respectively. In the endoplasmic reticulum high-threshold scenario, GRP78 positive was found to be significantly frequent in T3 tumors (p=0.02), and inversely related to ERBB2 overexpression (p=0.03). There was a lower proportion of GRP78-positive cases among women between 50 and 65 years of age (p=0.02). In the endoplasmic reticulum low-threshold scenario, the proportion of GRP78-positive cases was significantly higher in women younger than 50 years and in those who were premenopausal (p=0.04). No statistically significant difference was found in survival probabilities among the scenarios examined. In our cohort, GRP78 overexpression was not a predictor of overall or disease-free survival of patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

  2. Impact of Hyperglycemia on Outcomes among Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Bulky Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huai-wu; Zhang, Bing-zhong; Wang, Li-juan; Lin, Zhong-qiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of hyperglycemia on survival of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for bulky early stage cervical cancer (BESCC) has not been explored. Method Records of patients who received NACT and radical hysterectomy in our institution between January 2005 and June 2010 were reviewed. Results In total, 347 patients were included. The median follow-up time was 37 months (range: 4–65). Patients with hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl) had shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (univariate hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.16, 3.28], P = 0.010) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (univariate HR = 2.24, 95% CI [1.33, 3.78], P = 0.002) compared with those with euglycemia (fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dl). In multivariate analysis, positive surgical margins, parametrium invasion, node metastasis, hyperglycemia and complete response to NACT independently predicted recurrence and cancer-specific death. To further validate the prognostic value of hyperglycemia, we conducted a subgroup analysis based on patient baseline characteristics and prognostic effect of hyperglycemia remained significant in all subgroups. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, euglycemia before NACT, squamous cell tumor and pre-treatment squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels < 3.5 ng/ml were identified as independent predictors of complete response after NACT. Conclusions FBG ≥100 mg/dl is a negative prognostic predictor for cervical cancer patients receiving NACT for BESCC. Patients with hyperglycemia are less likely to achieve complete response after NACT. Our findings underscore the clinical utility of hyperglycemia screening of for cervical cancer patients. PMID:27851819

  3. The impact of body mass index dynamics on survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younak; Kim, Tae-Yong; Lee, Kyung-hun; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2014-07-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is linked to an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer (PC). However, in patients with advanced PC (APC), especially those receiving palliative chemotherapy, the impact of BMI on survival has not been investigated fully. To assess changes in BMI during the course of APC and their impact on patient survival, specifically for those receiving palliative chemotherapy. Consecutive patients with APC, all of whom were treated with palliative chemotherapy, were enrolled during 2003-2010. Clinical characteristics and prognoses were analyzed. A total of 425 patients participated (median age, 60.1 years). At diagnosis of APC, patients' BMI distribution of patients was as follow: <18.5 (45, 10.6%); 18.5-19.9 (67, 15.8%); 20.0-22.4 (156, 36.7%); 22.5-24.9 (107, 25.2%); 25.0-29.9 (49, 11.5%); and ≥ 30.0 (1, 0.2%). Median overall survival (OS) was 8.1 months (95% confidence interval 7.2, 9.1). Precancer BMI and baseline BMI (at diagnosis) had no impact on OS. Weight loss at diagnosis (precancer weight minus weight at diagnosis) and weight loss during first-line chemotherapy (both stipulated as BMI change ≥ 1) were associated with shortened OS (hazard ratio, 1.300; P = 0.012 and hazard ratio, 1.367; P = 0.010, respectively). In patients with APC undergoing palliative chemotherapy, decreases in BMI at APC diagnosis and during chemotherapy are more hazardous for OS than precancer BMI or baseline BMI (at diagnosis) as absolute values. Further studies are needed to validate this finding and investigate strategies to maintain BMI during chemotherapy in this setting. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline hemoglobin and liver function predict tolerability and overall survival of patients receiving radioembolization for chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Cohen, Steven J.; Cohn, Michael; Coldwell, Douglas M.; Drooz, Alain; Ehrenwald, Edward; Kanani, Samir; Moeslein, Fred M.; Nutting, Charles W.; Putnam, Samuel G.; Rose, Steven C.; Savin, Michael; Schirm, Sabine; Sharma, Navesh K.; Wang, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with liver metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) often benefit from receiving 90Y-microsphere radioembolization (RE) administered via the hepatic arteries. Prior to delivery of liver-directed radiation, standard laboratory tests may assist in improving outcome by identifying correctable pre-radiation abnormalities. Methods A database containing retrospective review of consecutively treated patients of mCRC from July 2002 to December 2011 at 11 US institutions was used. Data collected included background characteristics, prior chemotherapy, surgery/ablation, radiotherapy, vascular procedures, 90Y treatment, subsequent adverse events and survival. Kaplan-Meier estimates compared the survival of patients across lines of chemotherapy. The following values were obtained within 10 days prior to each RE treatment: haemoglobin (HGB), albumin, alkaline phosphatase (Alk phosph), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin and creatinine. Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events (CTCAEs) 3.0 grade was assigned to each parameter and analysed for impact on survival by line of chemotherapy. Consensus Guidelines were used to categorize the parameter grades as either within or outside guidelines for treatment. Results A total of 606 patients (370 male; 236 female) were studied with a median follow-up was 8.5 mo. (IQR 4.3–15.6) after RE. Fewer than 11% of patients were treated outside recommended RE guidelines, with albumin being the most common, 10.5% grade 2 (<3–2.0 g/dL) at time of RE. All seven parameters showed statistically significant decreased median survivals with any grade >0 (P<0.001) across all lines of prior chemotherapy. Compared to grade 0, grade 2 albumin decreased overall survival 67%; for grade 2 total bilirubin a 63% drop occurred, and grade 1 HGB resulted in 66% lower median survival. Conclusions Review of pre-RE laboratory parameters may aid in improving median survivals if correctable grade >0 values

  5. Efficacy of triple antiemetic therapy (palonosetron, dexamethasone, aprepitant) for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving carboplatin-based, moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miya, Toshimichi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Hino, Mitsunori; Ando, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Susumu; Seike, Masahiro; Kubota, Kaoru; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a major adverse toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. Recommended treatments for prevention of CINV vary among published guidelines, and optimal care for CINV caused by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy has not been established. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of triple antiemetic therapy comprising palonosetron, dexamethasone and aprepitant for carboplatin-based chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with lung cancer scheduled for a first course of a carboplatin-containing regimen formed the study cohort. Patients were pretreated with antiemetic therapy comprising palonosetron (0.75 mg, i.v.) and dexamethasone (9.9 mg, i.v.) on day 1, and aprepitant (125 mg, p.o.) on day 1 followed by 80 mg on days 2 and 3. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who did not experience vomiting and did not require rescue medication [complete response (CR)] in the acute phase (0-24 h), late phase (24-168 h) and overall. Secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients who experienced no vomiting episodes and no more than mild nausea without the need for rescue medication [complete control (CC)]. Prevalence of a CR during the acute phase, delayed phase, and overall was 100, 91.9 and 91.9%, whereas that of CC was 100, 84.4 and 84.4%, respectively. The most common adverse event was mild constipation; severe adverse events related to antiemetic treatment were not observed. Triple antiemetic therapy comprising palonosetron, dexamethasone and aprepitant shows excellent effects in the prevention of CINV in patients receiving a carboplatin-containing regimen.

  6. Risk Model-Guided Antiemetic Prophylaxis vs Physician's Choice in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Mark; Bouganim, Nathaniel; Smith, Stephanie; Mazzarello, Sasha; Vandermeer, Lisa; Segal, Roanne; Dent, Susan; Gertler, Stan; Song, Xinni; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Dranitsaris, George

    2016-02-01

    Despite multiple patient-centered factors being associated with the risk of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), these factors are rarely considered when making antiemetic recommendations. To compare risk model-guided (RMG) antiemetic prophylaxis with physician's choice (PC) in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial of 324 patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and an anthracycline) for the first time at 2 specialty cancer care centers in Ottawa from April 10, 2012, to September 2, 2014. Patients were randomized to either the RMG arm (n = 154) or the PC control arm (n = 170). Prior to each cycle of chemotherapy patients in the RMG group were categorized as low or high risk for CINV, and their antiemetic treatments were adjusted accordingly. Patients considered to be at low risk received standard dexamethasone and a 5-HT3 antagonist, while those at high risk also received aprepitant with or without olanzapine, based on their risk level. The PC control group received antiemetic agents according to the treating physician's discretion. The primary end points were control of both nausea and vomiting in the acute posttreatment period (first 24 hours after therapy) and in the delayed posttreatment period (days 2-5 after therapy). The total numbers of chemotherapy cycles delivered in the RMG and PC control groups were 497 and 551 respectively. In the acute period, significantly more patients in the RMG group reported no nausea (53.7% [95% CI, 49.2%-58.1%] vs 41.6% [95% CI, 37.4%-45.3%]; P < .001) and no vomiting (91.8% [95% CI, 89.0%-94.0%] vs 82.2% [95% CI, 78.8%-85.3%]; P < .001) compared with the PC control group. Similarly, significantly more patients in the RMG group reported no nausea (39.6% [95% CI, 35.3%-44.1%] vs 30.7% [95% CI, 26.8%-34.7%]; P = .01) and no vomiting (87.1% [95% CI, 83.8%-90.0%) vs 78.0% [95% CI, 74.3%-81.4%]; P < .001) in the delayed

  7. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving multiple-day highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: role of transdermal granisetron.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Mattia, Consalvo

    2016-08-01

    Granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS) is the first 5-HT3 drug to be transdermally delivered and represents a convenient alternative to oral and intravenous antiemetics for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. GTDS is effective and well tolerated in patients receiving multiple-day moderate-to-highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In this setting noninferiority studies showed similar efficacy when GTDS was compared with intravenous and oral granisetron and intravenous palonosetron. GTDS has shown good cardiovascular safety; however, special caution is needed in patients at risk for developing excessive QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. So far, GTDS has been investigated for intravenous prevention in comparison with granisetron and palonosetron; however, further prospects open the route to future clinical investigations.

  8. Safety and efficacy of a continuous infusion, patient-controlled antiemetic pump for children receiving emetogenic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; Koyama, Tatsuki; Ho, Richard H; Kuttesch, John; Shankar, Sadhna; Whitlock, James A; Cartwright, Julia; Frangoul, Haydar

    2007-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most distressing side effects of moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Diphenhydramine, lorazepam, and dexamethasone have been used individually to treat CINV. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of those drugs administered via a patient controlled pump (BAD pump) to control CINV. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all pediatric oncology patients who received the BAD pump. Emetic episodes, doses of rescue medications to treat breakthrough nausea or vomiting, and occurrence of adverse events were recorded. Complete response (CR) was defined as no emesis or rescue medications, partial response (PR) as emesis but no rescue medications, and failure (F) as rescue medications required. Thirty patients received a total of 141 courses. Adverse events occurred in 4.2% of the courses; confusion (n = 2), depressed mood (n = 1), dysphoria (n = 1), agitation (n = 1), and restlessness (n = 1). All side effects resolved after decreasing the infusion rate, and the pump was not discontinued in any patients. Eighteen patients failed conventional prophylaxis and received BAD pump for identical subsequent chemotherapy cycles; they spent more days in CR with BAD pump than without it, 21 versus 45 days (P = .003) respectively. Patients receiving BAD pump had significantly shorter hospital stay with BAD pump than those not receiving it, 68 days versus 76 (P = .046). BAD pump is well tolerated in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy and may be more effective than conventional prophylaxis in controlling CINV in some patients. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Development of a Fatigue and Functional Impact Scale (FFIS) in Anemic Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cella, David; Viswanathan, Hema N.; Hays, Ron D.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Stein, Kevin D.; Pasta, David J.; Foreman, Aimee J.; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Kallich, Joel D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop a brief measure of fatigue and functional impact in cancer patients with anemia. Patients and Methods Data were obtained from a multi-site, phase 2 study of darbepoetin alfa (n = 1,558). Eligible patients were ≥ 18 years with nonmyeloid malignancies and anemia (hemoglobin ≤11 g/dL) receiving chemotherapy. Items from the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F), Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI) and items adapted from the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 physical functioning scale were evaluated for inclusion in the measure. Items were selected by identifying the best predictors of total FACT-F scores, hemoglobin, and adjusted VO2Max in regression models. Correlations were examined between scale scores and adjusted VO2Max, hemoglobin, performance, self-reported energy, and productivity. Results Data from 401 patients with complete data were used to identify eight items for the Fatigue and Functional Impact Scale (FFIS), which was then evaluated using 1,355 of the 1,558 patients. The FFIS had an estimated internal consistency reliability of 0.90. The FFIS had large correlations with the FACT-F (r = 0.94), FSI (r = 0.80) and BFI (r = 0.86) from which it was derived. The FFIS also correlated substantially with single item measures of energy (r = 0.75) and productivity (r = 0.72). Conclusion The FFIS is a reliable, brief, and practical tool potentially suitable for identifying fatigue and functional impact in cancer patients. PMID:18642348

  10. Iron Supplementation for Chemotherapy-Induced Anemia in Patients Receiving Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    What are the benefits and harms of iron supplementation alone and as an adjunct to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) compared with ESA alone in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia? Addition of iron to ESAs improves hematopoietic response, reduces the need for red blood cell transfusions, increases hemoglobin levels, and seems to be well tolerated. The subgroup analyses suggest the superiority of parenteral iron over oral iron supplementation in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia.

  11. [Eleven Patients with Gastric Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy after Stent Placement for Gastric Outlet Obstruction].

    PubMed

    Endo, Shunji; Nakagawa, Tomo; Konishi, Ken; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Takeshi; Yamada, Terumasa

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metallic stents is reportedly effective for gastric outlet obstructions due to advanced gastric cancer, and is less invasive than gastrojejunostomy. For patients who have good performance status, we administer chemotherapy after stent placement, although the safety and feasibility of this chemotherapy have not yet been discussed in full. Between 2011 and 2015, 15 patients at our institution underwent endoscopic gastroduodenal stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer. Eleven of these patients were administered chemotherapy after stent placement. In our case series, we did not observe any specific adverse event caused by stent placement plus chemotherapy. Adverse events after chemotherapy included anemia of CTCAE Grade 3 in 7 patients. Stent-in-stent placement was needed in 2 patients. Neither stent migration nor perforation was observed. Therefore, chemotherapy after stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer was considered safe and feasible. Stent placement is useful not only as palliative care for patients with terminal-stage disease, but also as one of the multimodal therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  12. A comparative study of art therapy in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and improvement in quality of life by watercolor painting.

    PubMed

    Bozcuk, H; Ozcan, K; Erdogan, C; Mutlu, H; Demir, M; Coskun, S

    2017-02-01

    There is limited data on the role of art therapy used in cancer patients. We wanted to test the effect of painting art therapy provided by a dedicated professional painting artist on quality of life and anxiety and depression levels in patients having chemotherapy. Cancer patients having chemotherapy in the day unit of a medical oncology department of a university hospital were offered to take part in a painting art therapy program (PATP). This program consisted of a professional painting artist facilitating and helping patients to perform painting during their chemotherapy sessions while they were in the day unit, as well as supplying them painting material for home practice. The changes in quality of life domains of EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire and in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scores (HADS) were assessed before and after the PATP. These results were contrasted with a reference group of cancer patients on chemotherapy but not taking part in the PATP. In order to adjust for multiple comparisons of quality of life parameters between patient groups, we utilized the Bonferroni correction. A total of 48 patients, of which 26 patients did and 22 did not have prior exposure to PATP, were enrolled in the PATP. A control group of 24 patients who did not have any PATP activity during the study period also took part in the study. With PATP, there was significant improvement in global quality of life (F=7.87, P=0.001), and depression scores (F=7.80, P=0.001). To our knowledge, this is the largest comparative PATP experience in cancer patients on chemotherapy and show that PATP is feasible in the clinics. Our results confirm that art therapy in the form of painting improves quality of life and depression in cancer patients having chemotherapy. This effect was more pronounced in patients without any previous experience of PATP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Phase III Study of Balugrastim Versus Pegfilgrastim in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy With Doxorubicin and Docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Gladkov, Oleg; Moiseyenko, Vladimir; Bondarenko, Igor N; Shparyk, Yaroslav; Barash, Steve; Adar, Liat; Avisar, Noa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-per-cycle balugrastim versus pegfilgrastim for neutrophil support in breast cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Breast cancer patients (n = 256) were randomized to 40 or 50 mg of subcutaneous balugrastim or 6 mg of pegfilgrastim ≈24 hours after chemotherapy (60 mg/m(2) doxorubicin and 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel, every 21 days for up to 4 cycles). The primary efficacy parameter was the duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) in cycle 1. Secondary parameters included DSN (cycles 2-4), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) nadir, febrile neutropenia rates, and time to ANC recovery (cycles 1-4). Safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity were assessed. Mean cycle 1 DSN was 1.0 day with 40 mg of balugrastim, 1.3 with 50 mg of balugrastim, and 1.2 with pegfilgrastim (upper limit of 95% confidence intervals for between-group DSN differences was <1.0 day for both balugrastim doses versus pegfilgrastim). Between-group efficacy parameters were comparable except for time to ANC recovery in cycle 1 (40 mg of balugrastim, 2.0 days; 50 mg of balugrastim, 2.1; pegfilgrastim, 2.6). Median terminal elimination half-life was ≈37 hours for 40 mg of balugrastim, ≈36 for 50 mg of balugrastim, and ≈45 for pegfilgrastim. Antibody response to balugrastim was low and transient, with no neutralizing effect. Once-per-cycle balugrastim is not inferior to pegfilgrastim in reducing cycle 1 DSN in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy; both drugs have comparable safety profiles. This paper provides efficacy and safety data for a new, once-per-cycle granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, balugrastim, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In this phase III trial, balugrastim was shown to be not inferior to pegfilgrastim in the duration of severe neutropenia in cycle 1 of doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy, and the safety

  14. A Phase III Study of Balugrastim Versus Pegfilgrastim in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy With Doxorubicin and Docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Gladkov, Oleg; Moiseyenko, Vladimir; Bondarenko, Igor N.; Shparyk, Yaroslav; Barash, Steve; Adar, Liat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-per-cycle balugrastim versus pegfilgrastim for neutrophil support in breast cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Methods. Breast cancer patients (n = 256) were randomized to 40 or 50 mg of subcutaneous balugrastim or 6 mg of pegfilgrastim ≈24 hours after chemotherapy (60 mg/m2 doxorubicin and 75 mg/m2 docetaxel, every 21 days for up to 4 cycles). The primary efficacy parameter was the duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) in cycle 1. Secondary parameters included DSN (cycles 2–4), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) nadir, febrile neutropenia rates, and time to ANC recovery (cycles 1–4). Safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity were assessed. Results. Mean cycle 1 DSN was 1.0 day with 40 mg of balugrastim, 1.3 with 50 mg of balugrastim, and 1.2 with pegfilgrastim (upper limit of 95% confidence intervals for between-group DSN differences was <1.0 day for both balugrastim doses versus pegfilgrastim). Between-group efficacy parameters were comparable except for time to ANC recovery in cycle 1 (40 mg of balugrastim, 2.0 days; 50 mg of balugrastim, 2.1; pegfilgrastim, 2.6). Median terminal elimination half-life was ≈37 hours for 40 mg of balugrastim, ≈36 for 50 mg of balugrastim, and ≈45 for pegfilgrastim. Antibody response to balugrastim was low and transient, with no neutralizing effect. Conclusion. Once-per-cycle balugrastim is not inferior to pegfilgrastim in reducing cycle 1 DSN in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy; both drugs have comparable safety profiles. Implications for Practice: This paper provides efficacy and safety data for a new, once-per-cycle granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, balugrastim, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In this phase III trial, balugrastim was shown to be not inferior to pegfilgrastim in the duration of severe neutropenia

  15. Comparison of outcomes after donor lymphocyte infusion with or without prior chemotherapy for minimal residual disease in acute leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yu; Yan, Chen-Hua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Han, Wei; Wang, Feng-Rong; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-03-11

    The efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) without chemotherapy was investigated and compared with that of chemotherapy prior to DLI (Chemo-DLI) in patients who were minimal residual disease (MRD)-positive after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We enrolled 115 consecutive patients who received either DLI (n = 20) or Chemo-DLI (n = 95) during the same period. For each DLI recipient, three recipients matched for age at the HSCT, underlying diseases, and the year of the HSCT were randomly selected from the Chemo-DLI cohort (n = 60). The 2-year cumulative incidence of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD was comparable between the groups. Fifteen (75.0%) and 47 (78.3%) patients in the DLI and Chemo-DLI groups turned MRD-negative, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality after intervention were 30.7 versus 39.6% (P = 0.582) and 10.3 versus 6.0% (P = 0.508) in the DLI and Chemo-DLI groups, respectively. The 2-year probabilities of disease-free, overall, and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival after preemptive intervention were 58.9 versus 54.3% (P = 0.862), 69.3 versus 78.1% (P = 0.361), and 44.4 versus 35.1% (P = 0.489) in the DLI and Chemo-DLI groups, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the intervention method did not significantly influence the clinical outcomes. In summary, preemptive DLI alone may be effective for patients who are MRD-positive and may be a potential alternative for patients who refuse or are unable to receive Chemo-DLI after HSCT.

  16. Medication Therapy Management for Patients Receiving Oral Chemotherapy Agents at a Community Oncology Center: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Nathan S; Bindler, Ross J; Wilson, Poppy L; Kim, Anne P; Ward, Beverly

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of a pharmacist-driven medication therapy management (MTM) program for patients receiving oral chemotherapy agents. Methods: We assessed the impact of MTM consultations with a pharmacist for patients who were receiving a new prescription for an oral chemotherapy agent. Data were assessed for outcomes including (1) number of medication errors identified in electronic medical records (EMRs), (2) number of interventions performed by the pharmacist, (3) time spent on the MTM process, and (4) patient satisfaction. Data were compared between patients who received their oral chemotherapy agents from the onsite specialty pharmacy or from a mail-order pharmacy. The data were also examined for correlations, and logistic regression was utilized to determine the largest variant cofactor to create an equation for estimating the number of errors in a patient's EMR. Results: Fifteen patients received an MTM consultation, and the pharmacists identified an average of 6 medication EMR errors per patient. There was an average of 3 pharmacist-led interventions per patient. Multiple significant correlations were noted between the variables: (1) total number of prescriptions a patient was taking, (2) total number of medication errors identified, (3) time spent on the MTM process, and (4) total number of interventions performed by the pharmacist. Patient satisfaction was favorable for the program. Conclusion: The implementation of a pharmacist-driven MTM program for patients receiving a prescription for an oral chemotherapy agent had a significant impact on patient care by improving medication reconciliation, identifying drug-related problems, and strengthening pharmacist-patient interactions in the oncology clinic.

  17. Tolerability of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy With Gemcitabine (GemX), With and Without Prior Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, in Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Catherine; Joseph, Nuradh; Sanderson, Benjamin; Logue, John; Wylie, James; Elliott, Tony; Lyons, Jeanette; Anandadas, Carmel; Choudhury, Ananya

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the tolerability of concurrent chemoradiation therapy with gemcitabine (GemX) in muscle invasive bladder cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (neoGemX) by use of patient- and provider-reported outcomes. Seventy-eight patients were treated with GemX. Thirty-eight received prior neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients were prospectively assessed during treatment and at 6 weeks and 12 months after treatment completion. Radiation therapy was given to a total dose of 52.5 Gy in 20 fractions with weekly concurrent gemcitabine chemotherapy, 100 mg/m(2). Toxicity was assessed by the care provider and by a patient-reported outcome questionnaire collecting scores on the late effects in normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, and analytic scales and was statistically compared at baseline and 12 months, as well as between the neoGemX and GemX groups. The median duration of follow-up was 15.9 months. The radiation therapy completion rate was 95%, and 96% of patients completed at least 3 cycles of gemcitabine. Bowel toxicity of grade 3 or greater was reported in 7 of 38 patients (18%) in the neoGemX group and 5 of 25 (20%) in the GemX group. Three GemX and two neoGemX patients had grade 3 or greater urinary toxicity. Forty-nine patients completed questionnaires and were included in the analysis. Scores on the late effects in normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, and analytic scales showed an expected peak by week 4 of treatment. There was no statistically significant difference between mean scores at baseline and 12 months after treatment completion or between the neoGemX and GemX groups. This study demonstrates that GemX, alone or following NAC, has manageable toxicity and acceptable treatment completion rates. Allowing for small patient numbers and the nonrandomized nature of this study, these results do not suggest any additional toxicity from the use of NAC prior to GemX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  18. [Survey on Information Sharing and Approaches to Cooperation between Hospitals and Community Pharmacies in the Care of Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Chika; Ogata, Kentaro; Nishida, Emi; Kakimoto, Hideki; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Fukuda, Mahiru; Oda, Mayumi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2016-11-01

    Outpatients undergoing chemotherapy receive oral anticancer drugs, supportive care medicine, and drugs for complications from health insurance pharmacies(ie, drugstores). Therefore, drugstore personnel and patients were surveyed using a questionnaire to ascertain the current conditions of information sharing between drugstores and hospitals. Only 31% of the patients surveyed responded that they received cancer chemotherapy via the drugstores, while a few of them understood the need for information sharing with the drugstore. We also found that the drugstores required a considerable amount of patient information including prescribed therapeutic drugs, treatment regimens, disease conditions, and test value. Therefore, we held a study session and clinical conference to facilitate the creation of an information-sharing system. In conclusion, it is imperative for drugstores and hospitals to cooperate and establish a strategy for information sharing in the future.

  19. Working while receiving chemotherapy: a survey of patients' experiences and factors that influence these.

    PubMed

    Shewbridge, A; Wiseman, T; Richardson, A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the number of patients who continue to work when undergoing ambulatory chemotherapy and to identify personal or treatment-related factors that influence this. Patients undergoing final cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colorectal cancer or first-line chemotherapy for lymphoma at two cancer treatment centres were approached to take part in a cross sectional survey (n= 55, RR 55%). Sixty-four per cent (n= 35) of respondents were working when cancer was diagnosed. Fifty-four per cent (n= 19) of respondents were working when chemotherapy began but as treatment progressed only 29% (n= 10) continued to work in any capacity. The most important influencing factor when making decisions about work was the need to concentrate on looking after oneself. Overall, respondents found their employers and colleagues supportive but there was some evidence they became less supportive as treatment progressed. While this was a small study it highlights the need for health care professionals to understand patient's needs and wishes in relation to work while undergoing chemotherapy by including this issue as part of routine assessment. Strategies to allow those who wish to continue to work during treatment should be put in place early to support this.

  20. Risk of infection among patients with non-metastatic solid tumors or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and antimicrobial prophylaxis in US clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Weycker, Derek; Chandler, David; Barron, Rich; Xu, Hairong; Wu, Hongsheng; Edelsberg, John; Lyman, Gary H

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines generally do not recommend oral antimicrobials for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-related infections in patients with solid tumors. Evidence on antimicrobial prophylaxis use, and associated chemotherapy-related infection risk, in US clinical practice is limited. Methods A retrospective cohort design and data from two US private healthcare claims repositories (2008-2011) were employed. Study population included adults who received myelosuppressive chemotherapy for non-metastatic cancer of the breast, colon/rectum, or lung, or for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For each subject, the first chemotherapy course was characterized, and within the first course, each chemotherapy cycle and chemotherapy-related infection episode was identified. Use of prophylaxis with oral antimicrobials and colony-stimulating factors in each cycle also was identified. Results A total of 7116 (22% of all) non-metastatic breast cancer, 1833 (15%) non-metastatic colorectal cancer, 1999 (15%) non-metastatic lung cancer, and 1949 (21%) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients received antimicrobial prophylaxis in ≥1 cycle. Mean number of antimicrobial prophylaxis cycles during the course among these patients was typically <2, with little difference across cancers and chemotherapy regimens. Fluoroquinolones were the most commonly received class of antimicrobials, accounting for 20%-50% all antimicrobials administered. Among subjects who received first-cycle antimicrobial prophylaxis, chemotherapy-related infection risk in that cycle ranged from 3% to 6% across cancer types. Among patients who received first-cycle antimicrobial prophylaxis and developed chemotherapy-related infections, 38%-67% required inpatient care. Chemotherapy-related infection risk in subsequent cycles with antimicrobial prophylaxis was comparable. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that use of antimicrobial prophylaxis during myelosuppressive chemotherapy is far from uncommon in clinical practice. The

  1. Evaluations of primary lesions by endoscopy clearly distinguishes prognosis in patients with gastric cancer who receive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Dai; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy may improve outcomes in gastric cancer (GC), especially for the patients with advanced stage. To explore useful predictive factor for GC performing chemotherapy, we compared the tumor responses assessed using computed tomography (CT) with endoscopy based criteria. Methods 192 GC patients performing chemotherapy were retrospectively studied. CT based response assessment was performed after 2 courses of treatment. Endoscopic evaluation according to The Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma was also performed at same period. Data were correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results Majority of the cases (n = 178, 93%) received S-1 based chemotherapy as the first line treatment. 55 (29%) and 91 (47%) cases were considered to be CT and endoscopic responders. Endoscopic responder was more clearly associated with better OS and PFS compared to CT based responder by the log-rank test (P<0.0001 vs. 0.01 and P<0.0001 vs. 0.008, respectively). The association was more striking among patients performing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.0001 vs. 0.15 and P<0.0001 vs. 0.1, respectively). Multivariate survival analysis using Cox's regression model revealed that endoscopic non-responder was the independent predictive factor, being more strongly associated with worse OS when compared to CT non-responder (hazard ratio: 4.60 vs. 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 2.83–7.49 vs.1.08–2.89, P<0.0001 vs. 0.02). More advanced T, N stage and cases who had peritoneal dissemination were significantly associated with endoscopic non-responder (all P values <0.01). Conclusion Endoscopy based evaluation of primary lesions are clearly associated with prognosis in patients with GC who perform chemotherapy. PMID:28288188

  2. Improved immunogenicity of high-dose influenza vaccine compared to standard-dose influenza vaccine in adult oncology patients younger than 65 years receiving chemotherapy: A pilot randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jamshed, Saad; Walsh, Edward E; Dimitroff, Lynda J; Santelli, Jeanine Seguin; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-01-27

    Patients undergoing chemotherapy often fail to develop robust responses to influenza vaccination. Compared to standard-dose influenza vaccine (SD), high-dose influenza vaccine (HD) has shown improved immunogenicity and protection against influenza illness in adults 65 years and older. This study compared the immunogenicity and tolerability of HD to SD in adults younger than 65 years of age receiving chemotherapy. This double-blind study randomized patients receiving chemotherapy to vaccination with either SD or HD influenza vaccine. Hemagglutination inhibition assays (HAI) were performed prior to and 4 weeks after vaccination. HAI were summarized as geometric mean titers (GMT), seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates. A total of 105 subjects were enrolled in the trial (51 received SD and 54 received HD). Subjects were well matched for demographic and medical conditions. Both vaccines were well tolerated with no SAEs. Of the 100 subjects with evaluable data, seroconversion rates for all 3 influenza antigens & post-vaccination GMTs for H3N2 & B strains were significantly improved with HD compared to SD. Seroprotection was excellent and equivalent in both groups. Trivalent high-dose influenza vaccine can be safely administered to patients receiving chemotherapy with improved immunogenicity and seroconversion compared to standard-dose vaccine. Post-vaccination seroprotection rates were similar in both groups. A larger study is needed to show clinical benefits with HD in this population. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01666782. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A feasibility study of dignity therapy in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer actively receiving second-line chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vergo, Mazwell T; Nimeiri, Halla; Mulcahy, Mary; Benson, Al; Emmanuel, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Randomized controlled trials support the use of dignity therapy (DT) in palliative care patients late in the course of their disease, but little is known about the feasibility of DT earlier in the course in patients with incurable malignant disease who are still receiving chemotherapy. To assess the feasibility of DT relatively early in the disease trajectory (primary endpoint) and the effect on death acceptance, distress, symptoms, quality of life, peacefulness, and advanced care planning (secondary outcome endpoint). Stage IV colorectal cancer patients who progressed on first-line chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received DT over 2 visits and had outcome measures assessed pre-DT, immediately post-DT and 1 month post-DT. 15 of 17 patients (88%) who were approached enrolled in the study. Most of the patients who completed DT reported being satisfied and felt it was helpful, that it increased their sense of meaning, that it would be helpful to their family, and that it increased their sense of dignity, their sense of purpose, and their will to live. This is a small study that lacks power for statistical significance of findings. There is no control group for comparison. DT is a highly feasible, satisfying, and meaningful intervention for advanced colorectal cancer patients who are receiving chemotherapy earlier in the course of their and may result in an understanding of disease and goals of care at the end of life. Larger feasibility and exploratory studies are warranted in advanced cancer patients. ©2014 Frontline Medical Communications.

  4. Restless legs syndrome as a cause of sleep disturbances in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Andrea; Berruti, Alfredo; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Castronovo, Vincenza; Rametti, Elena; Giuliano, Piero Luigi; Ramassotto, Barbara; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Negro, Manuela; Campagna, Sara; Furlan, Pier Maria; Ostacoli, Luca

    2013-07-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequent in cancer patients during chemotherapy; the contributory role of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in this setting has never been assessed. This study investigated the role of RLS in causing sleep disturbances and altering the quality of life in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Evaluation tools included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the RLS questionnaires, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for quality of life and anxiety/depression assessment. The study population was 173 cancer patients. The questionnaires were administered during the third chemotherapy cycle. Patients positive for RLS were reassessed six months after the end of chemotherapy. In all, 58.8% of patients reported experiencing sleep disturbances (PSQI≥5) and 20% screened positive for RLS. Neither sleep disturbances nor RLS was associated with anemia, neurotoxic cytotoxic drugs, or benzamide treatment. A direct relationship was found between the PSQI and RLS (P=0.007); both PSQI and RLS scores were significantly associated with poor quality of life (P=0.008 and 0.01, respectively) and anxiety (P=0.0001 and 0.01, respectively). PSQI score also was associated with depression (P=0.0001). RLS persisted in four of the 25 RLS-positive patients reassessed at six months after chemotherapy. RLS recovery was associated with a significant reduction in sleep disturbances and improvement in quality of life. RLS can be a contributory factor in sleep disturbances in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Screening for RLS could aid in tailoring a potentially more efficacious treatment of such disturbances. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 1.282 - What must you do if information changes after you have received confirmation of a prior notice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... have received confirmation of a prior notice from FDA? 1.282 Section 1.282 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... changes after you have received confirmation of a prior notice from FDA? (a)(1) If any of the information... information), changes after you receive notice that FDA has confirmed your prior notice submission for...

  6. A clinical model for quality of life assessment in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Klee, M C; King, M T; Machin, D; Hansen, H H

    2000-01-01

    The pattern of symptoms experienced by cancer patients during chemotherapy is very complex. Consequently, quality of life (QOL) assessment has to be carefully planned to capture clinically relevant changes. A clinical model of changes in symptoms experienced by symptomatic metastatic patients during several courses of chemotherapy has been developed. The model differentiates cancer-related symptoms, acute side-effects, chronic side-effects and symptoms not related to cancer. The model was used to predict changes in each of these four symptom groups. Three time points were selected (post-cycle 2, pre-cycle 3, post-cycle 5) and an appropriate window around each time point was set. The model predictions were tested empirically with 56 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 plus disease specific items during a six-cycle course of chemotherapy. The changes observed in the sample were in accordance with the changes predicted by the clinical model. Results from patients who did not complete the questionnaire within the specified time windows tended to dilute the findings from the group who did. A clinical model is useful in the planning of QOL assessments in order to capture clinically relevant effects. Such models also facilitate the interpretation of QOL studies, particularly when cyclic short-term effects and chronic side-effects are overlaid on disease symptoms, as is the case with chemotherapy for cancer.

  7. Quantitative X-ray computed tomography peritoneography in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma patients receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leinwand, Joshua C; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Krishnamoorthy, Saravanan; Qi, Jing; Graziano, Joseph H; Slavkovic, Vesna N; Bates, Gleneara E; Lewin, Sharyn N; Allendorf, John D; Chabot, John A; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Taub, Robert N

    2013-12-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is used to treat peritoneal surface-spreading malignancies. We sought to determine whether volume and surface area of the intraperitoneal chemotherapy compartments are associated with overall survival and posttreatment glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) patients. Thirty-eight MPM patients underwent X-ray computed tomography peritoneograms during outpatient intraperitoneal chemotherapy. We calculated volume and surface area of contrast-filled compartments by semiautomated computer algorithm. We tested whether these were associated with overall survival and posttreatment GFR. Decreased likelihood of mortality was associated with larger surface areas (p = 0.0201) and smaller contrast-filled compartment volumes (p = 0.0341), controlling for age, sex, histologic subtype, and presence of residual disease >0.5 cm postoperatively. Larger volumes were associated with higher posttreatment GFR, controlling for pretreatment GFR, body surface area, surface area, and the interaction between body surface area and volume (p = 0.0167). Computed tomography peritoneography is an appropriate modality to assess for maldistribution of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In addition to identifying catheter failure and frank loculation, quantitative analysis of the contrast-filled compartment's surface area and volume may predict overall survival and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Prospective studies should be undertaken to confirm and extend these findings to other diseases, including advanced ovarian carcinoma.

  8. Personalized Estimate of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Development and External Validation of a Nomogram in Cancer Patients Receiving Highly/Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhihuang; Liang, Wenhua; Yang, Yunpeng; Keefe, Dorothy; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Xue, Cong; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Chen, Likun; Chan, Alexandre; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is presented in over 30% of cancer patients receiving highly/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC/MEC). The currently recommended antiemetic therapy is merely based on the emetogenic level of chemotherapy, regardless of patient's individual risk factors. It is, therefore, critical to develop an approach for personalized management of CINV in the era of precision medicine. A number of variables were involved in the development of CINV. In the present study, we pooled the data from 2 multi-institutional investigations of CINV due to HEC/MEC treatment in Asian countries. Demographic and clinical variables of 881 patients were prospectively collected as defined previously, and 862 of them had full documentation of variables of interest. The data of 548 patients from Chinese institutions were used to identify variables associated with CINV using multivariate logistic regression model, and then construct a personalized prediction model of nomogram; while the remaining 314 patients out of China (Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) entered the external validation set. C-index was used to measure the discrimination ability of the model. The predictors in the final model included sex, age, alcohol consumption, history of vomiting pregnancy, history of motion sickness, body surface area, emetogenicity of chemotherapy, and antiemetic regimens. The C-index was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.62–0.72) for the training set and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58–0.72) for the validation set. The C-index was higher than that of any single predictor, including the emetogenic level of chemotherapy according to current antiemetic guidelines. Calibration curves showed good agreement between prediction and actual occurrence of CINV. This easy-to-use prediction model was based on chemotherapeutic regimens as well as patient's individual risk factors. The prediction accuracy of CINV occurrence in this nomogram was well validated by an independent data set

  9. 41 CFR 105-60.606 - Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employees in Response to Subpoenas or Similar Demands in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 105-60.606 Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure where...

  10. Effects of symptoms and complementary and alternative medicine use on the yang deficiency pattern among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Miauh; Chien, Li-Yin; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Chen, Ping-Ho; Lien, Pei-Ju; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2015-04-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, yang deficiency pattern defined as an insufficiency of meridian energy (qi) is related to worsening disease symptoms. However, there is a lack of studies portraying the relationship among complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, symptoms, and meridian energy. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to describe the changes of CAM use, symptoms, and yang deficiency pattern among patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Additionally, the study explored factors predicting yang deficiency pattern. A longitudinal study was performed with 153 women with breast cancer at four teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from June 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Researchers collected data before treatment and the 1st and 3rd months after chemotherapy. Yang deficiency pattern was examined using the Meridian Energy Analysis Device Me-Pro. Symptom severity and interference were assessed using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Taiwan version. CAM use was evaluated using the US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) classification. Meridian energy remained essentially the same over the 3-month period as the difference was not statistically significant. As time went by, patients developed worsening symptom severity and interference. More than 66% of the patients used CAM during chemotherapy. Older women had lower overall meridian energy. The more severe the symptoms were, the lower the overall meridian energy was. The patients who used tai chi or qi gong had higher overall meridian energy and those who used prayer or spirituality had lower overall meridian energy. Symptom severity and interference among patients deteriorated during chemotherapy. Health providers should observe symptom changes and improve yang deficiency pattern. Whether or not use of CAM practices such as tai chi or qi gong improves the overall health of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy is worth further study

  11. Effects of exercise dose and type on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Reid, Robert D; Jespersen, Diana; Cook, Diane; Proulx, Carolyn; Trinh, Linda; Dolan, Lianne B; Wooding, Evyanne; Forbes, Cynthia C; McKenzie, Donald C

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effects of different doses and types of exercise on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A multicenter trial in Canada randomized 301 breast cancer patients between 2008 and 2011 to thrice weekly, supervised exercise during chemotherapy consisting of either a standard dose of 25-30 min of aerobic exercise (STAN; n = 96), a higher dose of 50-60 min of aerobic exercise (HIGH; n = 101), or a combined dose of 50-60 min of aerobic and resistance exercise (COMB; n = 104). The secondary sleep outcomes in the trial were assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at baseline, twice during chemotherapy, and postchemotherapy. We analyzed the global PSQI and the component scores. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated that the HIGH group was statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.90; 95 % CI -0.05 to -1.76; p = 0.039) as well as subjective sleep quality (p = 0.028) and sleep latency (p = 0.049). The COMB group was borderline statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.76; 95 % CI +0.11 to -1.62; p = 0.085) as well as sleep duration (p = 0.051); and statistically superior for sleep efficiency (p = 0.040), and percentage of poor sleepers (p = 0.045). Compared to a standard volume of aerobic exercise, higher volumes of both aerobic and combined exercise improved some aspects of sleep quality during breast cancer chemotherapy. Exercise may be an attractive option to manage sleep dysfunction in cancer patients during chemotherapy.

  12. The effects of education on anxiety levels in patients receiving chemotherapy for the first time: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety is one of the most common symptoms experienced by patients receiving their first chemotherapy treatment. Improper prevention and management of anxiety can lead to poor psychosocial outcomes, dissatisfaction with care, and decreased adherence to treatment. A review of the literature was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of patient education at decreasing anxiety. Consistencies were found throughout the literature regarding patient education for this population. Information regarding side effects of treatment, side-effect management strategies, and orientation to the infusion center are the most important topics of education that reduce anxiety. In addition, education performed by nurses before the first chemotherapy infusion in a quiet environment is most effective. Integration of effective patient education programs improves holistic care by increasing emphasis on psychosocial aspects of oncology.

  13. [Nausea, vomiting and quality of life in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira; Moysés, Aline Maria Bonini; da Silva, Pamina Roberta; de Almeida, Ana Maria

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer during chemotherapy and to identify the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the treatment Data were assessed with the application of the instrument of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, EORTC-QLQ-C30 Portuguese version and breast cancer module BR-23, which was applied before, in the middle and in the end of the treatment. The participants were 79 women, of which 93% had nausea and 87% had vomited at least once during the treatment. QoL showed a slight decrease during treatment. Cronbach's alpha for each application of the questionnaires was 0.890492, 0.936392 and 0.937639. The availability of treatment information and guidelines on the management of nausea and vomiting is crucial for the proper management of the toxicities of chemotherapy.

  14. Monitoring physical and psychosocial symptom trajectories in ovarian cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer (OC) entail severe symptom burden and a significant loss of quality of life (QOL). Somatic and psychological impairments may persist well beyond active therapy. Although essential for optimal symptom management as well as for the interpretation of treatment outcomes, knowledge on the course of QOL-related issues is scarce. This study aimed at assessing the course of depressive symptoms, anxiety, fatigue and QOL in patients with OC over the course of chemotherapy until early after-care. Methods 23 patients were assessed longitudinally (eight time points) with regard to symptom burden (depression, anxiety, fatigue, and QOL) by means of patient-reported outcome instruments (HADS, MFI-20, EORTC QLQ-C30/-OV28) and clinician ratings (HAMA/D) at each chemotherapy cycle and at the first two aftercare visits. Results Statistically significant decrease over time was found for depressive symptoms and anxiety as well as for all fatigue scales. With regard to QOL, results indicated significant increase for 11 of 15 QOL scales, best for Social (effect size = 1.95; p < 0.001), Emotional (e.s. = 1.62; p < 0.001) and Physical Functioning (e.s. = 1.47; p < 0.001). Abdominal Symptoms (e.s. = 1.01; p = 0.009) decreased, Attitudes towards Disease and Treatment (e.s. = 1.80; p < 0.001) improved significantly over time. Analysis of Sexual Functioning was not possible due to a high percentage of missing responses (61.9%). Conclusions The present study underlines the importance of longitudinal assessment of QOL in order to facilitate the identification of symptom burden in OC patients. We found that patients show high levels of fatigue, anxiety and depressive symptoms and severely impaired QOL post-surgery (i.e. at start of chemotherapy) but condition improves considerably throughout chemotherapy reaching nearly general population symptoms levels until aftercare. PMID:22373218

  15. Prognostic value of geriatric assessment in older patients with advanced breast cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Aaldriks, A A; Giltay, E J; le Cessie, S; van der Geest, L G M; Portielje, J E A; Tanis, B C; Nortier, J W R; Maartense, E

    2013-10-01

    The prognostic value of geriatric assessment in older patients with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy is largely unknown. Fifty-five patients with advanced breast cancer aged 70 years or older were assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE), Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Levels of albumin, hemoglobin, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase were measured. Patients completing at least four cycles of chemotherapy were reassessed by GFI and MMSE and mortality was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. The mean age was 76 year (SD 4.8). Inferior MNA and GFI scores were associated with increased hazard ratios for mortality: 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-6.45; p = 0.004) and 3.40 (95% CI: 1.62-7.10; p = 0.001), respectively. Physical aspects of frailty worsened during the course of chemotherapy. Laboratory values were not associated with assessment scores nor were they predictive for mortality. Malnutrition and frailty, rather than cognitive impairment and laboratory values, were associated with an increased mortality risk in these elderly breast cancer patients with advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk of Neutropenia-Related Hospitalization in Patients Who Received Colony-Stimulating Factors With Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Agiro, Abiy; Ma, Qinli; Acheson, Anupama Kurup; Wu, Sze-Jung; Patt, Debra A; Barron, John J; Malin, Jennifer L; Rosenberg, Alan; Schilsky, Richard L; Lyman, Gary H

    2016-09-19

    To describe outcomes after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis in patients with breast cancer who received chemotherapy regimens with low-to-intermediate risk of induction of neutropenia-related hospitalization. We identified 8,745 patients age ≥ 18 years from a medical and pharmacy claims database for 14 commercial US health plans. This retrospective analysis included patients with breast cancer who began first-cycle chemotherapy from 2008 to 2013 using docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC); docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (TCH); or doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (conventional-dose AC) regimens. Primary prophylaxis (PP) was defined as G-CSF administration within 5 days of beginning chemotherapy. Outcome was neutropenia, fever, or infection-related hospitalization within 21 days of initiating chemotherapy. Multivariable regressions and number-needed-to-treat analyses were used. A total of 4,815 patients received TC (2,849 PP; 1,966 no PP); 2,292 patients received TCH (1,444 PP; 848 no PP); and 1,638 patients received AC (857 PP; 781 no PP) regimen. PP was associated with reduced risk of neutropenia-related hospitalization for TC (2.0% PP; 7.1% no PP; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.29; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.39) and TCH (1.3% PP; 7.1% no PP; AOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.30), but not AC (4.7% PP; 3.8% no PP; AOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.93) regimens. For the TC regimen, 20 patients (95% CI, 16 to 26) would have to be treated for 21 days to avoid one neutropenia-related hospitalization; with the TCH regimen, 18 patients (95% CI, 13 to 25) would have to be treated. Primary G-CSF prophylaxis was associated with low-to-modest benefit in lowering neutropenia-related hospitalization in patients with breast cancer who received TC and TCH regimens. Further evaluation is needed to better understand which patients benefit most from G-CSF prophylaxis in this setting. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Tumor blood flow and systemic shunting in patients receiving intraarterial chemotherapy for head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, R.H.; Ziessman, H.A.; Medvec, B.R.; Juni, J.E.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W.; Pitt, S.R.; Baker, S.R.

    1986-08-01

    Radionuclide techniques have been used to estimate the systemic shunt and to quantitate blood flow to the tumor and a reference normal tissue in nine patients undergoing intraarterial chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. The systemic shunt was calculated as the percentage of pulmonary trapping of intraarterially injected /sup 99m/Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin. The mean systemic shunt in the 12 separate arteries studied was 23 +/- 13% (SE) (range 8-43%). Quantitative blood flow was determined from the slope of the washout curve of intraarterially injected /sup 133/Xe. The mean tumor blood flow was 13.6 +/- 6.7 ml/100 g/min, while the mean blood flow to the scalp was 4.2 +/- 2.1 ml/100 g/min providing a mean tumor/normal tissue ratio of 3.9 +/- 2.7. An estimate of blood flow distribution was obtained by calculating the ratio of counts/pixel in the tumor mass versus the remainder of the head as determined by single photon emission computed tomography following an intraarterial injection of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin. The mean ratio of tumor to normal tissue perfusion by this technique was 5.6 +/- 3.7. These techniques have allowed noninvasive determination of the blood flow parameters associated with intraarterial chemotherapy. At least part of the therapeutic advantage of regional chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer is due to a tumor/normal tissue blood flow ratio that favors drug delivery to the tumor contained within the infused volume.

  18. Daily-life physical activity and related factors among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Lee, Hui-Ling; Chien, Li-Yin; Kao, Woei-Yau; Chiang, Chi-Chen; Wang, Dao-Yeuan

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a chronic disease that patients need to live with, and a physically active lifestyle will benefit them. The objectives of the study were to detect the time spent on physical activity of different intensities in daily life among cancer patients during chemotherapy and to examine the factors influencing physical activity. A total of 91 cancer patients (mean age, 53.3 years) undergoing chemotherapy in Taiwan completed the questionnaires. The revised International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Multiple Classification Analysis were used to explore the various aspects of physical activity. With the exception of walking, the patients engaged in very few moderate or vigorous physical activities (both means, approximately 8 min/wk). Almost 40% of patients reached the recommended 150 min/week of moderate activity and/or 60 min/wk of vigorous-intensity physical activity, mainly by walking. Patients who held full-time jobs and who did not report symptoms of thirst engaged in more health-enhancing physical activities. Patients who were healthier perceived more benefits of and less barriers to exercise, and those who did not report symptoms of heart burn, chest pain, or pain in general spent more time engaging in light physical activity and less time sitting. Most patients led a sedentary life while on chemotherapy. Walking is the most frequent health-enhancing physical activity among cancer patients. Strategies to enhance cancer patients' physical activity level should include counseling patients to remain employed, offering symptom management such as pain relief, advising energy reserve skills, and providing appropriate places for exercise or walking.

  19. Utilising handheld computers to monitor and support patients receiving chemotherapy: results of a UK-based feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kearney, N; Kidd, L; Miller, M; Sage, M; Khorrami, J; McGee, M; Cassidy, J; Niven, K; Gray, P

    2006-07-01

    Recent changes in cancer service provision mean that many patients spend a limited time in hospital and therefore experience and must cope with and manage treatment-related side effects at home. Information technology can provide innovative solutions in promoting patient care through information provision, enhancing communication, monitoring treatment-related side effects and promoting self-care. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate the acceptability of using handheld computers as a symptom assessment and management tool for patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. A convenience sample of patients (n = 18) and health professionals (n = 9) at one Scottish cancer centre was recruited. Patients used the handheld computer to record and send daily symptom reports to the cancer centre and receive instant, tailored symptom management advice during two treatment cycles. Both patients' and health professionals' perceptions of the handheld computer system were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the project. Patients believed the handheld computer had improved their symptom management and felt comfortable in using it. The health professionals also found the handheld computer to be helpful in assessing and managing patients' symptoms. This project suggests that a handheld-computer-based symptom management tool is feasible and acceptable to both patients and health professionals in complementing the care of patients receiving chemotherapy.

  20. Comparison of the occurrence of mold infection among patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia versus patients undergoing stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Anke; van der Bruggen, Tjomme; Haas, Pieter-Jan A; de Jong, Pim A; Minnema, Monique C

    2011-11-01

    Invasive mold infections (IMI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. Cumulative incidence numbers vary greatly, probably because local circumstances influence the incidence of IMI. Therefore, comparison of different patient groups at risk should be performed at one hospital. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis examining both adult patients treated with chemotherapy for acute leukemia or MDS and patients undergoing allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) between June 2007 and August 2009. IMI were classified according to the EORTC criteria. A total of 211 patients with 237 predefined risk episodes were analyzed. A total of 22 IMI were observed: three of them were classified as proven, 15 as probable, and four as possible. No IMI were observed in the autologous SCT group. The incidence of proven and probable IMI in the allogeneic SCT group was 7.2%, and in the chemotherapy group, 14.3%. Patients with IMI had a higher mortality risk. We demonstrate for the first time that patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia have the highest risk of developing IMI during their treatment compared to patients with allogeneic SCT. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Platinum-DNA adducts in leukocyte DNA correlate with disease responses in ovarian cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, E.; Ozols, R.F.; Tarone, R.; Yuspa, S.H.; Poirier, M.C.

    1987-07-01

    Fifty-five ovarian cancer patients receiving platinum drug-based chemotherapy have been studied prospectively to determine the extent of formation of the bidentate intrastrand adducts of diammineplatinum covalently attached to the N/sup 7/ positions of adenosine and/or guanosine in leukocyte DNA. Data for clinical response, obtained from medical records, were then correlated with the adduct values. Patients were treated with platinum-based single-agent or combination chemotherapy containing cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or diamminecyclobutane-dicarboxylatoplatinum on approved experimental protocols. Adduct measurements were performed by ELISA, and disease response to therapy was assessed by standard oncologic criteria. This study comprises a total of 101 blood samples obtained after intravenous cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or diamminecyclobutane-dicarboxylatoplatinum infusion from 55 individuals, and in each case the highest (or peak) adduct level for each patient was chosen for statistical analysis. Analysis of these data by Jonckheere's test shows that higher levels of adduct formation correlates with disease response with a two-sided P value of 0.030. Of eight patients on single-agent therapy whose buffy-coast samples did not have measurable adduct levels, none responded to therapy. Thus in ovarian cancer patients, the formation of the intrastrand diammineplatinum adducts in leukocyte DNA is associated with favorable disease response to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or diamminecyclobutane-dicarboxylatoplatinum chemotherapy.

  2. Quantitation of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-DNA-intrastrand adducts in testicular and ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Yuspa, S H; Zwelling, L A; Ozols, R F; Poirier, M C

    1986-02-01

    The antitumor activity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin) is believed to be related to its covalent interaction with DNA where a major DNA binding product is an intrastrand N7-bidentate adduct on adjacent deoxyguanosines. A novel immunoassay was used to quantitate this adduct in buffy coat DNA from testicular and ovarian cancer patients undergoing cisplatin therapy. 44 out of 120 samples taken from 45 cisplatin patients had detectable cisplatin-DNA adducts. No adducts were detected in 18 samples of DNA taken from normal controls, patients on other chemotherapy, or patients before treatment. The quantity of measurable adducts increased as a function of cumulative dose of cisplatin. This was observed both during repeated daily infusion of the drug and over long-term, repeated 21-28 d cycles of administration. These results suggested that adduct removal is slow even though the tissue has a relatively rapid turnover. Patients receiving cisplatin for the first time on 56-d cycles, and those given high doses of cisplatin as a "salvage" regimen, did not accumulate adducts as rapidly as patients on first time chemotherapy on 21- or 28-d cycles. Disease response data, evaluated for 33 cisplatin-treated patients, showed a positive correlation between the formation of DNA adducts and response to drug therapy. However, more data will be required to confirm this relationship. These data show that specific immunological probes can readily be applied to quantitate DNA adducts in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Radio-Chemotherapy: A Novel Clinical-Pathologic Score Correlates With Global Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Berardi, Rossana; Mantello, Giovanna; Scartozzi, Mario; Del Prete, Stefano; Luppi, Gabriele; Martinelli, Roberto; Fumagalli, Marco; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Marmorale, Cristina; Cascinu, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the importance of downstaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment. Methods and Materials: The study included all consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) in different Italian centers from June 1996 to December 2003. A novel score was used, calculated as the sum of numbers obtained by giving a negative or positive point, respectively, to each degree of increase or decrease in clinical to pathologic T and N status. Results: A total of 317 patients were eligible for analysis. Neoadjuvant treatments performed were as follows: radiotherapy alone in 75 of 317 patients (23.7%), radiotherapy plus chemotherapy in 242 of 317 patients (76.3%). Worse disease-free survival was observed in patients with a lower score (Score 1 = -3 to +3 vs. Score 2 = +4 to +7; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a novel score, calculated from preoperative and pathologic tumor and lymph node status, could represent an important parameter to predict outcome in patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer. The score could be useful to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery.

  4. UCA1 overexpression predicts clinical outcome of patients with ovarian cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Cao, Xili; Zhang, Liqian; Zhang, Xuelin; Sheng, Haihui; Tao, Kun

    2016-03-01

    Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) functions as an oncogene, which promotes cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, and is responsible for drug resistance. This study aimed to determine the expression level of UCA1 in ovarian cancer and to further investigate its clinical significance. The expression levels of UCA1 in ovarian cancer and normal ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The relationship between UCA1 expression and clinical features and the prognostic value of UCA1 for overall survival were examined. UCA1 expression in ovarian cancer tissues was significantly upregulated compared with normal ovarian tissues. High UCA1 expression was related to lymph node metastasis, FIGO stage, and response to chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that high UCA1 expression was associated with poorer overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that high UCA1 expression was an independent prognostic marker of poor outcome. This effect remained significant in the further stratification analysis. Our findings provided the first evidence that UCA1 may serve as an indicator of response to chemotherapy and prognosis of ovarian cancer. UCA1 may play an important role in the progression of ovarian cancer.

  5. Clinical Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Management of Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2013-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), also termed primary, induction, or preoperative chemotherapy, is traditionally used to downstage inoperable breast cancer. In recent years it has been increasingly used for patients who have operable cancers in order to facilitate breast-conserving surgery, achieve better cosmetic outcome, and improve prognosis by reaching pathologic complete response (pCR). Many studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can assess residual tumor size after NAC, and that provides critical information for planning of the optimal surgery. NAC also allows for timely adjustment of administered drugs based on response, so ineffective regimens could be terminated early to spare patients from unnecessary toxicity while allowing other effective regimens to work sooner. This review article summarizes the clinical application of MRI during NAC. The use of different MR imaging methods, including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, proton MR spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted MRI, to monitor and evaluate the NAC response, as well as how changes of parameters measured at an early time after initiation of a drug regimen can predict final treatment outcome, are reviewed. MRI has been proven a valuable tool and will continue to provide important information facilitating individualized image-guided treatment and personalized management for breast cancer patients undergoing NAC. PMID:23862143

  6. [Actual questions about the prevention of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Losonczy, Hajna; Nagy, Ágnes; Tar, Attila

    2016-02-07

    Cancer patients have a 2-7 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism compared with the general population and, since 1990, this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the current knowledge on venous thromboembolism and cancer. Notably, the risk of venous thromboembolism varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors, cytokines and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance venous thromboembolism. Chemotherapy produces ~6,5 fold increase in venous thromboembolism incidence in cancer patients compared to the general population. Prevention of this complication is challenging. The authors review the development of guidelines concerning venous thromboembolism prevention in hospitalized and also in ambulatory cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Current guidelines recommend the use of low-molecular-weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent venous thromboembolism in cancer patients.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, and sargramostim as prophylaxis against hospitalization for neutropenic complications in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Weycker, Derek; Malin, Jennifer; Barron, Rich; Edelsberg, John; Kartashov, Alex; Oster, Gerry

    2012-06-01

    Comparative effectiveness of filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, and sargramostim in preventing hospitalization for febrile neutropenia (FN) during myelosuppressive chemotherapy has not been well characterized and is an important clinical question in oncology. This study used a retrospective cohort design and US healthcare claims data. Source population included patients with solid tumors receiving filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, or sargramostim during their first observed course of chemotherapy between July 2001 and June 2007. For each patient, every unique chemotherapy cycle during the course was identified, along with each cycle in which filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, or sargramostim was administered by the fifth day of the cycle (ie, as prophylaxis). Risks of hospitalization for neutropenic complications (broad definition: admission with a diagnosis of neutropenia, fever, or infection; narrow definition: admission with a diagnosis of neutropenia) and for any reason were examined on a cycle-specific basis during all the cycles in which colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis was administered. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hospitalization were estimated. Risk (unadjusted) of hospitalization for neutropenic complications (narrow definition) was 2.1% for filgrastim prophylaxis (n=8286), 1.1% for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis (n=67,247), and 2.5% for sargramostim prophylaxis (n=1736). Corresponding risks of hospitalization based on the broad definition were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 5.1%. Risks of all-cause hospitalization were 7.9%, 5.3%, and 9.6%, respectively. Adjusted odds of hospitalization were significantly higher for filgrastim [OR (range across the 3 alternative measures of hospitalization): 1.58-1.79; P<0.001] and sargramostim (OR: 1.89-2.68; P<0.001) versus pegfilgrastim. Risk of hospitalization for neutropenic complications during cancer chemotherapy is lower with pegfilgrastim prophylaxis than with filgrastim or sargramostim prophylaxis.

  8. Patient beliefs that chemotherapy may be curative and care received at the end of life among patients with metastatic lung and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mack, Jennifer W; Walling, Anne; Dy, Sydney; Antonio, Anna Liza M; Adams, John; Keating, Nancy L; Tisnado, Diana

    2015-06-01

    Many patients with incurable cancer inaccurately believe that chemotherapy may cure them. Little is known about how such beliefs affect choices for care at the end of life. This study assessed whether patients with advanced cancer who believed that chemotherapy might offer a cure were more likely to receive chemotherapy in the last month of life and less likely to enroll in hospice care before death. This study examined patients diagnosed with stage IV lung or colorectal cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance consortium, a population- and health system-based prospective cohort study. Among 722 patients who completed a baseline survey and died during the study period, logistic regression was used to assess the association of understanding goals of chemotherapy with chemotherapy use in the last month of life and hospice enrollment before death; adjustments were made for patient and tumor characteristics. One-third of the patients (33%) recognized that chemotherapy was "not at all" likely to cure their cancer. After adjustments, such patients were no less likely than other patients to receive end-of-life chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-2.09), but they were more likely than other patients to enroll in hospice (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.37-2.82). An understanding of the purpose of chemotherapy for incurable cancer is a critical aspect of informed consent. Still, advanced cancer patients who were well informed about chemotherapy's goals received late-life chemotherapy at rates similar to those for other patients. An understanding of the incurable nature of cancer, however, is associated with increased hospice enrollment before death, and this suggests important care outcomes beyond chemotherapy use. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Body weight, hemoglobin, and absolute neutrophil count in patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy: A single-center study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Y.; Winarto, H.

    2017-08-01

    The side effects of chemotherapy, a treatment modality of ovarian cancer, can disrupt overall treatment. To date, the clinical and laboratory profiles of ovarian cancer patients during chemotherapy have not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, including body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). To generate these clinical and laboratory profiles, we collected secondary data from the medical records of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. We enrolled 23 patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of chemotherapy. Mean patient BMI before and after chemotherapy was 22.86 kg/m2 and 21.78 kg/m2, respectively. Hb levels before chemotherapy were 8-13 g/dl, with Hb < 10 g/dl in one patient (4.35%) and Hb ≥ 10 g/dl in 22 patients (95.65%). Mean ANC was 5845.6 ± 3325.0. An average of 24.65% of patients experienced anemia after each cycle of chemotherapy. Mean ANC before chemotherapy was 3.5582 ± 3.3250. An average of 26.81% of patients had ANC <1500 after each cycle of chemotherapy; no patients had ANC <1500 before chemotherapy initiation. After six cycles of chemotherapy, three patients (13.04%) had mild neutropenia, four patients (17.39%) had moderate neutropenia, and one patient (4.35%) had severe neutropenia. Of the 22 patients with Hb ≥ 10 g/dl before chemotherapy, 16 (72.72%) experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. Of the 20 patients (60.87%) with normal BMI or higher, 14 experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. The mean patient body weight decreased after six cycles of chemotherapy. Hb and ANC were persistently decreased in approximately a quarter of the 23 subjects. The decrease in ANC was not influenced by initial Hb

  10. The patient-provider discordance in patients' needs assessment: a qualitative study in breast cancer patients receiving oral chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chunlan; Nengliang, Yao; Yan, Wang; Qiong, Fang; Yuan, Changrong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the differing perspectives of patients and providers and their assessment of supportive care needs in breast cancer patients receiving oral chemotherapy. The patient-provider concordance in patients' needs assessment is critical to the effective management of cancer. Self-administered oral chemotherapy greatly shifts responsibilities for side-effect monitoring, symptom management and dose adjustments from the provider to the patient. Home-based care plans will be central to the effective management of these patients. A descriptive qualitative design was used. A purposive sample of nine breast cancer patients, four oncologists and four oncology nurses were recruited in Shanghai, China. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. A qualitative content analysis aimed at finding manifest and latent meanings of data was applied to analyse the information. Four themes of needs emerged from the interviews with patients and providers: information/knowledge, communication, social support and symptom management, but patients and providers only agreed on the assessment of symptom and side-effects management needs. Patients want more positive encouraging information from providers, but providers think patients need more information of efficacy and safety. Patients appreciate support from other peer patients with similar experiences, but providers think the support from families and friends are readily available to them. Patients discussed their spiritual needs, while oncologists see the need to improve patient adherence to medication. Breast cancer patients differed from their providers in assessment of healthcare needs. Further investigation of the relationships between patient-provider discordance and patient outcomes may guide interventions to improve care for cancer patients receiving oral chemotherapy. Oncology nurses should develop a holistic home-based care plan by exploring and integrating the discordance of needs assessment of

  11. American Society of Clinical Oncology provisional clinical opinion: chronic hepatitis B virus infection screening in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy for treatment of malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Artz, Andrew S; Somerfield, Mark R; Feld, Jordan J; Giusti, Andrew F; Kramer, Barnett S; Sabichi, Anita L; Zon, Robin T; Wong, Sandra L

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE An American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) provisional clinical opinion (PCO) offers timely clinical direction to ASCO's membership following publication or presentation of potentially practice-changing information. This PCO addresses recommendations for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection screening in patients receiving cytotoxic or immunosuppressive chemotherapy for treatment of malignant diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued Recommendations for Identification and Public Health Management of Persons with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection, recommending screening for hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg], antihepatitis B core antigen [anti-HBc], and antibodies to HBsAg [anti-HBs]) for "persons receiving cytotoxic or immunosuppressive therapy (eg, chemotherapy for malignant diseases...)." The evidence is insufficient to determine the net benefits and harms of routine screening for chronic HBV infection in individuals with cancer who are about to receive cytotoxic or immunosuppressive therapy or who are already receiving therapy. Individuals with cancer who undergo certain cytotoxic or immunosuppressive therapies and have HBV infection or prior exposure to HBV may be at elevated risk of liver failure from HBV reactivation. As such, HBV screening requires clinical judgment. Physicians may consider screening patients belonging to groups at heightened risk for chronic HBV infection or if highly immunosuppressive therapy is planned. Highly immunosuppressive treatments include, but are not limited to, hematopoietic cell transplantation and regimens including rituximab. Screening based on a high risk of prior HBV exposure or risk of reactivation due to planned therapeutic regimens should include testing for HBsAg as a serologic marker for HBV infection. In some populations, testing for anti-HBc should also be considered. There is no evidence to support serologic testing for anti-HBs in this context

  12. Health care needs of Jordanian caregivers of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy on an outpatient basis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jauissy, M S

    2010-10-01

    This descriptive exploratory study was conducted to describe the health care needs and identify unmet needs of the caregivers of cancer patients in Jordan. A total of 82 caregivers accompanying patients to an outpatient chemotherapy clinic completed the 90-item caregiver need scale. Caregivers reported 75.6% of scale items as needs and rated these as "very important" needs on all 6 areas of the caregivers' need scale: personal care, activity management, involvement with health care, work, interpersonal interaction and finance. Unmet needs of caregivers were a higher proportion of identified needs (76.4%) than in similar studies elsewhere. The education and support needs of caregivers need to be considered when designing care plans for cancer patients.

  13. The Feasibility of Inpatient Geriatric Assessment for Older Adults Receiving Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Klepin, Heidi D.; Geiger, Ann M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Ellis, Leslie R.; Levitan, Denise; Pardee, Timothy S.; Isom, Scott; Powell, Bayard L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test the feasibility and utility of a bedside geriatric assessment (GA) to detect impairment in multiple geriatric domains in older adults initiating chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). DESIGN Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING Single academic institution. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 60 and older with newly diagnosed AML and planned chemotherapy. MEASUREMENTS Bedside GA was performed during inpatient exmination for AML. GA measures included the modified Mini-Mental State Examination; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; Distress Thermometer, Pepper Assessment Tool for Disability (includes self- reported activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, and mobility questions); Short Physical Performance Battery (includes timed 4-m walk, chair stands, standing balance); grip strength, and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index. RESULTS Of 54 participants (mean age 70.8 ± 6.4) eligible for this analysis, 92.6% completed the entire GA battery (mean time 44.0 ± 14 minutes). The following impairments were detected: cognitive impairment, 31.5%; depression, 38.9%; distress, 53.7%; impairment in ADLs, 48.2%; impaired physical performance, 53.7%; and comorbidity, 46.3%. Most were impaired in one (92.6%) or more (63%) functional domains. For the 38 participants rated as having good performance status according to standard oncologic assessment (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Performance Scale score ≤1), impairments in individual GA measures ranged from 23.7% to 50%. Significant variability in cognitive, emotional, and physical status was detected even after stratification according to tumor biology (cytogenetic risk group classification). CONCLUSION Inpatient GA was feasible and added new information to standard oncology assessment, which may be important for stratifying therapeutic risk in older adults with AML. PMID:22091497

  14. Complementary medicine use among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and chemotherapy: methods, sources of information and the need for counselling.

    PubMed

    Pihlak, R; Liivand, R; Trelin, O; Neissar, H; Peterson, I; Kivistik, S; Lilo, K; Jaal, J

    2014-03-01

    Complementary medicine (CM) use is common among cancer patients. However, little is known about CM products that are utilised during radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Out of 62 cancer patients who completed a specialised survey, 35 (56%) consumed some type of CM during active anti-cancer therapy. Cancer patients reported the use of herbal teas (52%), vitamins and other dietary supplements (45%), vegetables and juices (39%), special diets (19%), herbal medicines, including Chinese medicines (19%) and 'immunomodulators' (3%). Most of patients (86%) consumed CM products every day. However, nearly 47% of CM users did not admit this to their oncologists. Majority of CM users (85%) were convinced that supplementary products increase the efficacy of standard anti-cancer therapy and prolong their survival. Information about CM was mainly obtained through internet sources (36%), books and brochures (25%). Although most CM users (82%) trusted the received information, 73% of them admitted that additional information about CM methods would be necessary. Patients would like to receive additional information through a specialised consultation (60%), but also from brochures (44%) and the internet (20%). Adequate counselling of patients is of paramount importance since some CM methods may cause significant side effects and decrease the efficacy of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  15. Taste and smell changes in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: distress, impact on daily life, and self-care strategies.

    PubMed

    Bernhardson, Britt-Marie; Tishelman, Carol; Rutqvist, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have described how patients receiving chemotherapy experience taste/smell changes (TSCs). Food and meal situations have important meaning beyond nutrition, so these common symptoms may affect daily lives. This study aims to investigate distress and impact on daily life from TSCs in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, analyze reported levels of distress and impact on daily life from TSCs with regard to sociodemographic and clinical factors, and explore patients' reports of self-care strategies and communication with staff. The 340 patients reporting TSCs on a multicenter survey (n = 518) were grouped into subsets by level of TSC-related distress and impact on daily life, which served as the basis for statistical comparison. Written comments were analyzed inductively using content analysis. Nearly one-third of participating patients reported both high levels of distress and impact on daily life (high distress and high impact on daily life [HDHI]) from TSCs. The HDHI subset reported other symptoms more often than others did (P = .01) and also more often responded to open questions about distress, impact, and self-care strategies (P = .01). Taste/smell changes were not always reported to staff, even in the HDHI subset. The specific aspects of TSCs resulting in distress and impact on daily life varied greatly, affecting both psychological and somatic aspects, with little consensus and great individual differences described in self-care strategies. The variety of distress, impact, and strategies used to alleviate TSCs clarifies the importance of situational meaning.

  16. Successful treatment of recurrent Helicobacter fennelliae bacteraemia by selective digestive decontamination with kanamycin in a lung cancer patient receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, Maki; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kei; Mawatari, Momoko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Hashimoto, Masao; Ishii, Satoru; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Helicobacter fennelliae is an enterohepatic Helicobacter species causing bacteraemia in immunocompromised hosts. Only a few cases of recurrent H. fennelliae bacteraemia have been reported in Japan and there are no guidelines regarding antimicrobial treatment for H. fennelliae infection. Case presentation: H. fennelliae bacteraemia was observed in a patient receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for lung cancer. To prevent recurrence, the patient received antibiotic therapy with cefepime, amoxicillin and doxycycline for 6 weeks, which is similar to the therapy for Helicobacter cinaedi bacteraemia. Bacteraemia recurred despite the long-term antibiotic therapy. We hypothesized that the H. fennelliae bacteraemia originated from endogenous infection in the intestinal tract due to the long-term damage of the enteric mucosa by platinum-based drugs and performed selective digestive decontamination (SDD) with kanamycin. Bacteraemia did not recur after SDD. Conclusion: Our observations indicate that clinicians should be aware of possible recurrent H. fennelliae bacteraemia, which could be effectively prevented by SDD with kanamycin. PMID:28348791

  17. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional status and quality of life in patients with acute leukaemia prior to and after induction chemotherapy in three hospitals in Tehran, Iran: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Sohanaki Azad, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess changes in the nutritional status and quality of life in acute leukaemia patients, aged ≥15 years, who had undergone induction chemotherapy. A preliminary and post-induction chemotherapy assessment of patients' nutritional status, quality of life, sociodemographic status and medical characteristics was conducted using the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life (QOL-C30, version 3) questionnaires. The PG-SGA is a clinical nutrition assessment tool used to evaluate oncology patients. Patients with newly-diagnosed acute leukaemia, aged ≥15 years, at three hospitals in Tehran (from May 2009 to March 2010), were recruited for the present study. Sixty-three acute leukaemia patients [65% men and 35% women with a mean (SD) age of 33 (15.4) years] participated in the present study. A total of 19.4% were found to be malnourished prior to chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, 76.1% of patients were considered moderately malnourished, whereas 6.3% were severely malnourished. After induction chemotherapy, both the nutritional status and quality of life deteriorated in the majority of patients, as demonstrated by a paired t-test. A deteriorated nutritional status and quality of life was the result of the side effects posed by induction chemotherapy in the patients investigated in the present study. These findings highlight the need for an appropriate nutritional support programme to improve the nutritional status and quality of life in patients with leukaemia undergoing chemotherapy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. c-erbB-2 in serum of patients receiving fractionated paclitaxel chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lüftner, D; Schnabel, S; Possinger, K

    1999-01-01

    Humanized anti-c-erbB-2 antibodies (Herceptin) in a weekly schedule are a new therapeutic option for the treatment of c-erbB-2-positive, advanced breast cancer (ABC). Addition of Herceptin to first-line chemotherapy for c-erbB-2 overexpressing ABC increased anticancer activity in a randomized phase III trial. However, except from standard UICC response criteria, there are hitherto no recommendations as to how to monitor Herceptin therapy. In a therapy optimizing study with weekly dose-intensified paclitaxel monotherapy (schedule: 90 mg/m2 weekly x 6, q9w), we correlated the clinical course of stage IV breast cancer in UICC criteria with the course of the shed c-erbB-2 protein fragment and the CA 27.29 serum level. Serum samples were taken weekly from 35 patients to measure the serum c-erbB-2 and CA 27.29 protein levels over time. Up to now, 10 patients (28.5%) are c-erbB-2 positive (> 15 U/mL), with a median baseline protein expression of 65 U/mL. While the overall response rate in the study is 36%, the response rate among c-erbB-2-positive patients is 62%, indicating a high sensitivity of c-erbB-2 positive patients to dose-intense paclitaxel treatment. In all responders the c-erbB-2 serum level decreased below the detection limit either before the clinical diagnosis of response or by the end of the next cycle. However, the normalization of the c-erbB-2 serum level was not specific for responders as patients with stable or progressive disease presented normalized levels or a > 50% decrease of the baseline level, too. The courses of the c-erbB-2 protein levels correlated closely with the courses of CA 27.29. The decrease in the serum c-erbB-2 oncoprotein level might indicate a regression of c-erbB-2 positive tumor load. This may even happen in progressive disease according to UICC criteria when the c-erbB-2-negative tumor fraction progresses while the c-erbB-2-positive fraction is controlled. Another explanation would be that the mechanisms of c-erbB-2 shedding

  20. The experience of a sore mouth and associated symptoms in patients with cancer receiving outpatient chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carlton G; McGuire, Deborah B; Peterson, Douglas E; Beck, Susan L; Dudley, William N; Mooney, Kathleen H

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe sore mouth (SM) severity and distress, associated symptoms, and consequences in cancer chemotherapy outpatients. Secondary analysis was used in this study. A total of 223 patients in 4 treatment centers participated in the study. Data from an intervention study using a computer-based telephone communication system to assess patients' daily symptom experience were analyzed to obtain highest, average, and lowest ratings of severity and distress for SM, fatigue, trouble sleeping, feeling down/blue, and feeling anxious. Consequence data included oral intake, time spent lying down, ability to work, and daily activity. Approximately 51% reported SM, with a mean highest, average, and lowest severity score of 3.1 in cycle 2 and 3.09 in cycle 3. Sore mouth severity was correlated with severity of fatigue, feeling down/blue, feeling anxious, and trouble sleeping. Sore mouth distress was correlated with the same symptoms. Sore mouth severity was correlated with the number of 8-oz glasses of liquid consumed, effect on daily activity, time spent lying down, but not with ability to work. Half of patients experienced SM, which was associated with several other symptoms and led to specific consequences. Understanding the complex symptom experience of patients with SM, including consequences, will assist nurses in developing more comprehensive clinical assessments and interventions. In addition, the association of multiple symptoms with SM will provide a foundation for further research investigation in oral mucositis.

  1. Geriatric assessment predicts survival for older adults receiving induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Klepin, Heidi D; Geiger, Ann M; Tooze, Janet A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Williamson, Jeff D; Pardee, Timothy S; Ellis, Leslie R; Powell, Bayard L

    2013-05-23

    We investigated the predictive value of geriatric assessment (GA) on overall survival (OS) for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Consecutive patients ≥ 60 years with newly diagnosed AML and planned intensive chemotherapy were enrolled at a single institution. Pretreatment GA included evaluation of cognition, depression, distress, physical function (PF) (self-reported and objectively measured), and comorbidity. Objective PF was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, timed 4-m walk, chair stands, standing balance) and grip strength. Cox proportional hazards models were fit for each GA measure as a predictor of OS. Among 74 patients, the mean age was 70 years, and 78.4% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≤ 1. OS was significantly shorter for participants who screened positive for impairment in cognition and objectively measured PF. Adjusting for age, gender, ECOG score, cytogenetic risk group, myelodysplastic syndrome, and hemoglobin, impaired cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam < 77) and impaired objective PF (SPPB < 9) were associated with worse OS. GA methods, with a focus on cognitive and PF, improve risk stratification and may inform interventions to improve outcomes for older AML patients.

  2. Geriatric assessment predicts survival for older adults receiving induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Ann M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Pardee, Timothy S.; Ellis, Leslie R.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the predictive value of geriatric assessment (GA) on overall survival (OS) for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Consecutive patients ≥ 60 years with newly diagnosed AML and planned intensive chemotherapy were enrolled at a single institution. Pretreatment GA included evaluation of cognition, depression, distress, physical function (PF) (self-reported and objectively measured), and comorbidity. Objective PF was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, timed 4-m walk, chair stands, standing balance) and grip strength. Cox proportional hazards models were fit for each GA measure as a predictor of OS. Among 74 patients, the mean age was 70 years, and 78.4% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≤ 1. OS was significantly shorter for participants who screened positive for impairment in cognition and objectively measured PF. Adjusting for age, gender, ECOG score, cytogenetic risk group, myelodysplastic syndrome, and hemoglobin, impaired cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam < 77) and impaired objective PF (SPPB < 9) were associated with worse OS. GA methods, with a focus on cognitive and PF, improve risk stratification and may inform interventions to improve outcomes for older AML patients. PMID:23550038

  3. Role of the nurse in patient education and follow-up of people receiving oral chemotherapy treatment: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Kav, Sultan; Johnson, Judi; Rittenberg, Cynthia; Fernadez-Ortega, Paz; Suominen, Tarja; Olsen, Pia Riis; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Porock, Davina; Dahler, Annette; Toliusiene, Jolanta; Tadic, Dusanka; Pittayapan, Pongpak; Roy, Vijay; Wang, Qi; Colak, Meric; Saca-Hazboun, Hanan; Makumi, David; Kadmon, Ilana; Ami, Sarah Ben; Anderson, Elsie; Clark-Snow, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nursing role in education and follow-up of patients who were taking oral chemotherapy (CT) and to identify the worldwide gap in patient education about oral CT. Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer members were invited to participate in a survey on oral CT. Nurse coordinators collected data via a 16-item questionnaire. Respondents totaled 1115 oncology nurses from 15 countries. Findings showed that about half of subjects work in outpatient/ambulatory clinics and had given at least two or more oral CT drugs. Although 52% had some type of guidelines/protocols, 47% reported not having received any education about oral CT drugs. While 64% report being involved in patient education, 58% of subjects indicated lack of patient education materials that are specific for oral CT agents. Only 27% stated that they gave all necessary information such as when and how to take the drugs, drug safety and storage, side effects, and symptom management. Reasons for not being involved in oral CT education and follow-up included beliefs that the physician plans the oral CT and gives patients necessary instructions (34%), that nurses only see patients who receive intravenous chemotherapy (16%), that nurses have lack of knowledge about oral agents (15%), and belief that physicians are responsible for patient follow-up. The nurses suggested better education and follow-up of patients to include the written patient education materials (33%) and professional education for nurses (30%). Findings revealed the need for professional education for nurses to ensure comprehensive, consistent patient education and development of written materials for patients receiving oral CT treatment.

  4. Influence of low-energy laser in the prevention of oral mucositis in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luciane B; Ribeiro, Anelise S; Rech, Angela; Rosa, Lauro G N; Castro, Cláudio G; Brunetto, Algemir L

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the use of low-energy laser in the prevention or reduction of the severity of oral mucositis. A randomized clinical trial was carried out. Patients from 3 to 18 years of age treated with chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation between May, 2003 and February, 2005 were eligible. The intervention group received laser application for 5 days following the start of chemotherapy. The grade of oral mucositis was assessed by the WHO per NCI-CTC common toxicity criteria and the assessments were made on days 1, 8 and 15 by a trained examiner blind to the intervention. Sixty patients were evaluable for analysis; thirty-nine (65%) were males, 35 (58%) patients had a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma, and 25 (42%) had solid tumors. The mean age was 8.7 +/- 4.3 years. Twenty-nine patients were randomized in the laser group and 31 in the control group. On day 1, no patients presented with mucositis. On day 8, of 20 patients (36%) who developed mucositis, 13 of them were from the laser group and 7 from the control group. On day 15, of 24 patients (41%) who developed mucositis, 13 of them were from the laser group and 11 from the control group. There was no significant difference between groups concerning the grades of mucositis on day 8 (P = 0.234) or on day 15 (P = 0.208). This study showed no evidence of benefit from the prophylactic use of low-energy laser in children and adolescents with cancer treated with chemotherapy when optimal dental and oral care was provided.

  5. Modulation of circulating angiogenic factors and tumor biology by aerobic training in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee W; Fels, Diane R; West, Miranda; Allen, Jason D; Broadwater, Gloria; Barry, William T; Wilke, Lee G; Masko, Elisabeth; Douglas, Pamela S; Dash, Rajesh C; Povsic, Thomas J; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Marcom, P Kelly; Blackwell, Kimberly L; Kimmick, Gretchen; Turkington, Timothy G; Dewhirst, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    Aerobic exercise training (AET) is an effective adjunct therapy to attenuate the adverse side-effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with early breast cancer. Whether AET interacts with the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapy has received scant attention. We carried out a pilot study to explore the effects of AET in combination with neoadjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC+AET), relative to AC alone, on: (i) host physiology [exercise capacity (VO2 peak), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BA-FMD)], (ii) host-related circulating factors [circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF)], and (iii) tumor phenotype [tumor blood flow ((15)O-water PET), tissue markers (hypoxia and proliferation), and gene expression] in 20 women with operable breast cancer. AET consisted of three supervised cycle ergometry sessions/week at 60% to 100% of VO2 peak, 30 to 45 min/session, for 12 weeks. There was significant time × group interactions for VO2 peak and BA-FMD, favoring the AC+AET group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.07, respectively). These changes were accompanied by significant time × group interactions in CEPs and select CAFs [placenta growth factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-2], also favoring the AC+AET group (P < 0.05). (15)O-water positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed a 38% decrease in tumor blood flow in the AC+AET group. There were no differences in any tumor tissue markers (P > 0.05). Whole-genome microarray tumor analysis revealed significant differential modulation of 57 pathways (P < 0.01), including many that converge on NF-κB. Data from this exploratory study provide initial evidence that AET can modulate several host- and tumor-related pathways during standard chemotherapy. The biologic and clinical implications remain to be determined.

  6. Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) + Inositol in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant therapy. Patients and methods Patients with invasive ductal breast cancer where polychemotherapy was indicated were monitored in the period from 2005-2007. Fourteen patients in the same stage of ductal invasive breast cancer were involved in the study, divided in two randomized groups. One group was subjected to take IP6 + Inositol while the other group was taking placebo. In both groups of patients the same laboratory parameters were monitored. When the treatment was finished, all patients have filled questionnaires QLQ C30 and QLQ-BR23 to determine the quality of life. Results Patients receiving chemotherapy, along with IP6 + Inositol did not have cytopenia, drop in leukocyte and platelet counts. Red blood cell counts and tumor markers were unaltered in both groups. However, patients who took IP6 + Inositol had significantly better quality of life (p = 0.05) and functional status (p = 0.0003) and were able to perform their daily activities. Conclusion IP6 + Inositol as an adjunctive therapy is valuable help in ameliorating the side effects and preserving quality of life among the patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:20152024

  7. Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bacić, Ivan; Druzijanić, Nikica; Karlo, Robert; Skifić, Ivan; Jagić, Stjepan

    2010-02-12

    Prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) + Inositol in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant therapy. Patients with invasive ductal breast cancer where polychemotherapy was indicated were monitored in the period from 2005-2007. Fourteen patients in the same stage of ductal invasive breast cancer were involved in the study, divided in two randomized groups. One group was subjected to take IP6 + Inositol while the other group was taking placebo. In both groups of patients the same laboratory parameters were monitored. When the treatment was finished, all patients have filled questionnaires QLQ C30 and QLQ-BR23 to determine the quality of life. Patients receiving chemotherapy, along with IP6 + Inositol did not have cytopenia, drop in leukocyte and platelet counts. Red blood cell counts and tumor markers were unaltered in both groups. However, patients who took IP6 + Inositol had significantly better quality of life (p = 0.05) and functional status (p = 0.0003) and were able to perform their daily activities. IP6 + Inositol as an adjunctive therapy is valuable help in ameliorating the side effects and preserving quality of life among the patients treated with chemotherapy.

  8. In real life, one-quarter of patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer receive chemotherapy as initial palliative therapy: a study of the Southeast Netherlands Breast Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, D J A; van Kampen, R J W; Voogd, A C; Dercksen, M W; van den Berkmortel, F; Smilde, T J; van de Wouw, A J; Peters, F P J; van Riel, J M G H; Peters, N A J B; de Boer, M; Peer, P G M; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to present initial systemic treatment choices and the outcome of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) metastatic breast cancer. All the 815 consecutive patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in 2007-2009 in eight participating hospitals were identified. From the 611 patients with HR+ disease, a total of 520 patients with HER2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer were included. Initial palliative systemic treatment was registered. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) per initial palliative systemic therapy were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. From the total of 520 patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer, 482 patients (93%) received any palliative systemic therapy. Patients that received initial chemotherapy (n = 116) were significantly younger, had less comorbidity, had received more prior adjuvant systemic therapy and were less likely to have bone metastasis only compared with patients that received initial endocrine therapy (n = 366). Median PFS of initial palliative chemotherapy was 5.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-6.2] and of initial endocrine therapy 13.3 months (95% CI 11.3-15.5), with a median OS of 16.1 and 36.9 months, respectively. Initial chemotherapy was also associated with worse outcome in terms of PFS and OS after adjustment for prognostic factors. A high percentage of patients with HR+ disease received initial palliative chemotherapy, which was associated with worse outcome, even after adjustment of relevant prognostic factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in triple negative breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Carlos A; Mittendorf, Elizabeth; Casavilca, Sandro; Wu, Yun; Castillo, Miluska; Arboleda, Patricia; Nunez, Teresa; Guerra, Henry; Barrionuevo, Carlos; Dolores-Cerna, Ketty; Belmar-Lopez, Carolina; Abugattas, Julio; Calderon, Gabriela; De La Cruz, Miguel; Cotrina, Manuel; Dunstan, Jorge; Gomez, Henry L; Vidaurre, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine influence of neoadjuvant-chemotherapy (NAC) over tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes (TIL) in triple-negative-breast-cancer (TNBC). METHODS TILs were evaluated in 98 TNBC cases who came to Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas from 2005 to 2010. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 was performed in tissue microarrays (TMA) sections. Evaluation of H/E in full-face and immunohistochemistry in TMA sections was performed in pre and post-NAC samples. STATA software was used and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Higher TIL evaluated in full-face sections from pre-NAC tumors was associated to pathologic-complete-response (pCR) (P = 0.0251) and outcome (P = 0.0334). TIL evaluated in TMA sections showed low level of agreement with full-face sections (ICC = 0.017-0.20) and was not associated to pCR or outcome. TIL in post-NAC samples were not associated to response or outcome. Post-NAC lesions with pCR had similar TIL levels than those without pCR (P = 0.6331). NAC produced a TIL decrease in full-face sections (P < 0.0001). Percentage of TIL subpopulations was correlated with their absolute counts. Higher counts of CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 in pre-NAC samples had longer disease-free-survival (DFS). Higher counts of CD3 in pre-NAC samples had longer overall-survival. Higher ratio of CD8/CD4 counts in pre-NAC was associated with pCR. Higher ratio of CD4/FOXP3 counts in pre-NAC was associated with longer DFS. Higher counts of CD4 in post-NAC samples were associated with pCR. CONCLUSION TIL in pre-NAC full-face sections in TNBC are correlated to longer survival. TIL in full-face differ from TMA sections, absolute count and percentage analysis of TIL subpopulation closely related. PMID:27777881

  10. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-08-09

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients' narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided.

  11. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  12. Incidence of colonization and bloodstream infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Desiree; Cesaro, Simone; Fagioli, Franca; Carraro, Francesca; Ziino, Ottavio; Zanazzo, Giulio; Meazza, Cristina; Colombini, Antonella; Castagnola, Elio

    2016-02-01

    Few data are available on the incidence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) infection or colonization in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. We performed a nationwide survey among centers participating in the pediatric hematology-oncology cooperative study group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, AIEOP). During a 2-year observation period, we observed a threefold increase in the colonization rate, and a fourfold increase of bloodstream infection episodes, caused by CPE, with a 90-day mortality of 14%. This first nationwide Italian pediatric survey shows that the circulation of CPE strains in the pediatric hematology-oncology environment is increasing. Given the mortality rate, which is higher than for other bacterial strains, specific monitoring should be applied and the results should have implications for health-care practice in pediatric hematology-oncology.

  13. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sunil; Chadha, Awalpreet S.; Suh, Yelin; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Rao, Arvind; Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E.; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Beddar, Sam; Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B.; Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P = .03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P = .05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS. PMID:26972648

  14. Effectiveness of aromatherapy with light thai massage for cellular immunity improvement in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Khiewkhern, Santisith; Promthet, Supannee; Sukprasert, Aemkhea; Eunhpinitpong, Wichai; Bradshaw, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer are usually treated with chemotherapy, which reduces the number of blood cells, especially white blood cells, and consequently increases the risk of infections. Some research studies have reported that aromatherapy massage affects the immune system and improves immune function by, for example, increasing the numbers of natural killer cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, there has been no report of any study which provided good evidence as to whether aromatherapy with Thai massage could improve the immune system in patients with colorectal cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the use of aromatherapy with light Thai massage in patients with colorectal cancer, who have received chemotherapy, can result in improvement of the cellular immunity and reduce the severity of the common symptoms of side effects. Sixty-six patients with colorectal cancer in Phichit Hospital, Thailand, were enrolled in a single-blind, randomised-controlled trial. The intervention consisted of three massage sessions with ginger and coconut oil over a 1-week period. The control group received standard supportive care only. Assessments were conducted at pre-assessment and at the end of one week of massage or standard care. Changes from pre-assessment to the end of treatment were measured in terms of white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio and also the severity of self-rated symptom scores. The main finding was that after adjusting for pre-assessment values the mean lymphocyte count at the post-assessment was significantly higher (P=0.04) in the treatment group than in the controls. The size of this difference suggested that aromatherapy with Thai massage could boost lymphocyte numbers by 11%. The secondary outcomes were that at the post assessment the symptom severity scores for fatigue, presenting symptom, pain and stress were significantly lower in the massage group than in the

  15. Clinical Outcomes of Hypopharyngeal Cancer Receiving Definitive Radiotherapy with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Ishibashi, Naoya; Saito, Tsutomu

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC). This retrospective study included 80 patients (75 males) aged 48 to 78 years (median=66 years) with a histological diagnosis of HPC. The 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (FP) regimen was used until 2007 and then switched to the docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) regimen. Radiotherapy was administered to a total dose of 60 to 72 Gy (median=66 Gy). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 49.3% and 60.7%, respectively. Improved disease-free survival was associated with lower N-stage (hazard ratio=0.249; 95% confidence interval=0.096-0.643; p=0.041). There were no significant differences in overall and disease-free survival between patients receiving CCRT with the TPF regimen and those who received FP for a long period of treatment but did not finish two courses. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Suicide risk assessment received prior to suicide death by Veterans Health Administration patients with a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric G; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Ganoczy, Dara; Stano, Claire; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Valenstein, Marcia

    2013-03-01

    To examine the quality of suicide risk assessment provided to veterans with a history of depression who died by suicide between 1999 and 2004. We conducted a case-control study of suicide risk assessment information recorded in 488 medical charts of veterans previously diagnosed with major depression, depression not otherwise specified, dysthymia, or other, less common ICD-9-CM depression codes. Patients dying by suicide from April 1999 through September 2004 or comparison patients (n = 244 pairs) were matched for age, sex, entry year, and region. Seventy-four percent of patients with a history of depression received a documented assessment of suicidal ideation within the past year, and 59% received more than 1 assessment. However, 70% of those who died of suicide did not have a documented assessment for suicidal ideation at their final Veterans Health Administration (VHA) visit, even if that visit occurred within 0 through 7 days prior to suicide death. Most patients dying by suicide denied suicidal ideation when assessed (85%; 95% CI, 75%-92%), even just 0 through 7 days prior to suicide death (73%; 95% CI, 39%-94%). Suicidal ideation was assessed more frequently during outpatient final visits with mental health providers (60%) than during outpatient final visits with primary care (13%) or other non-mental health providers (10%, P < .0001). Most VHA patients with a history of depression received some suicide risk assessment within the past year, but suicide risk assessments were infrequently administered at the final visit of patients who eventually died by suicide. Among patients who had assessments, denial of suicidal ideation appeared to be of limited value. Practice changes are needed to improve suicide risk assessment among patients with histories of depression, including the development of assessment and prevention strategies that are less dependent on the presence or disclosure of suicidal ideation at scheduled medical visits. © Copyright 2013 Physicians

  17. Primary vs secondary prophylaxis with pegfilgrastim for the reduction of febrile neutropenia risk in patients receiving chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: cost-effectiveness analyses.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gregory; Barron, Richard; Fust, Kelly; Skornicki, Michelle E; Taylor, Douglas C A; Weinstein, Milton C; Lyman, Gary H

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of primary vs secondary prophylaxis (PP vs SP) with pegfilgrastim to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy from a US payer perspective. A Markov model was used to compare PP vs SP with pegfilgrastim in a cohort of patients receiving six cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP plus rituximab (CHOP-R) chemotherapy. Model inputs, including efficacy of pegfilgrastim in reducing risk of FN and costs, were estimated from publicly available sources and peer-reviewed publications. Incremental cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of net cost per life-year saved (LYS), per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, and per FN event avoided over a lifetime horizon. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were performed to assess sensitivity and robustness of results. Lifetime costs for PP were $5000 greater than for SP; however, PP was associated with fewer FN events and more LYs and QALYs gained vs SP. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for PP vs SP for CHOP were $13,400 per FN event avoided, $29,500 per QALY gained, and $25,800 per LYS. CHOP-R results were similar ($15,000 per FN event avoided, $33,000 per QALY gained, and $28,900 per LYS). Results were most sensitive to baseline FN risk, cost per FN episode, and odds ratio for reduced relative dose intensity due to prior FN event. PP was cost-effective vs SP in 85% of simulations at a $50,000 per QALY threshold. In the absence of NHL-specific data, estimates for pegfilgrastim efficacy and relative risk reduction of FN were based on available data for neoadjuvant TAC in patients with breast cancer. Baseline risks of FN for CHOP and CHOP-R were assumed to be equivalent. PP with pegfilgrastim is cost-effective compared to SP with pegfilgrastim in NHL patients receiving CHOP or CHOP-R.

  18. Improved control of nausea and emesis with a new bromazepam-containing ondansetron regimen in ovarian cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with carboplatin and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Meden, H; Meissner, O; Conrad, A; Kuhn, W

    1996-01-01

    Ondansetron was found to be effective as an antiemetic in numerous clinical trials of highly emetogenic combination-chemotherapy regimens that included cisplatin. Its role in milder emetogenic regimes has not been fully defined. This study investigated the efficacy of two different antiemetic regimes in thirty-five patients with ovarian cancer receiving 68 cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin (350 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2). Ondansetron (3 x 8 mg i.v.) was compared to a bromazepam-containing ondansetron regimen. Nausea was absent in 65% of chemotherapy courses in patients receiving the combination of ondansetron and bromazepam and in 38% of chemotherapy courses in patients receiving ondansetron alone. Complete control of emesis was achieved in 93% of the courses in patients receiving the combination and in 81% of the courses using ondansetron alone. The addition of bromazepam to ondansetron, and the extension of antiemetic prophylaxis to the day before and the day after chemotherapy improves the control of nausea and emesis compared to ondansetron monotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer.

  19. Genetic variants in TPMT and COMT are associated with hearing loss in children receiving cisplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin J D; Katzov-Eckert, Hagit; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Brooks, Beth; Rassekh, S Rod; Barhdadi, Amina; Feroz-Zada, Yassamin; Visscher, Henk; Brown, Andrew M K; Rieder, Michael J; Rogers, Paul C; Phillips, Michael S; Carleton, Bruce C; Hayden, Michael R

    2009-12-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used and effective chemotherapeutic agent, although its use is restricted by the high incidence of irreversible ototoxicity associated with it. In children, cisplatin ototoxicity is a serious and pervasive problem, affecting more than 60% of those receiving cisplatin and compromising language and cognitive development. Candidate gene studies have previously reported associations of cisplatin ototoxicity with genetic variants in the genes encoding glutathione S-transferases and megalin. We report association analyses for 220 drug-metabolism genes in genetic susceptibility to cisplatin-induced hearing loss in children. We genotyped 1,949 SNPs in these candidate genes in an initial cohort of 54 children treated in pediatric oncology units, with replication in a second cohort of 112 children recruited through a national surveillance network for adverse drug reactions in Canada. We identified genetic variants in TPMT (rs12201199, P value = 0.00022, OR = 17.0, 95% CI 2.3-125.9) and COMT (rs9332377, P value = 0.00018, OR = 5.5, 95% CI 1.9-15.9) associated with cisplatin-induced hearing loss in children.

  20. Epoetin alfa corrects anemia and improves quality of life in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving non-platinum chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Timothy J; Nortier, Johan; Rapoport, Bernardo; Pawlicki, Marek; de Wasch, Gilbert; Vercammen, Els; Schuette, Wolfgang; Wils, Jacques; Freund, Mathias

    2003-12-01

    Anemia, a commonly occurring morbidity in patients with cancer, often leads to diminished quality of life (QOL). Numerous clinical trials have shown that epoetin alfa treatment improves hematologic and QOL variables in cancer patients. The clinical trial analysis reported here was performed to assess response to epoetin alfa in patients with hematologic malignancies. Cancer patients with anemia undergoing non-platinum-based chemotherapy who were enrolled in a multinational, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial were prospectively stratified by tumor type (hematologic, solid). Efficacy endpoints included proportion of patients transfused after day 28; change in hemoglobin (Hb) level from baseline to last assessment; proportion of treatment responders (increase in Hb > or =2 g/dl unrelated to transfusion) and correctors (patients whose Hb levels reached > or =12 g/dl during the study); and QOL. The protocol was amended before unblinding to prospectively collect and assess survival data 12 months after the last patient completed the study, and survival for the full study cohort was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Efficacy analyses of hematologic and QOL variables, as well as Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, were performed post hoc for the hematologic tumor stratum. Among patients with hematologic malignancies, the mean increase in Hb levels was greater with epoetin alfa than with placebo treatment (2.2 vs. 0.3 g/dl). Transfusion requirements were lower in patients who received epoetin alfa versus placebo (25.2 vs. 43.1%), and the proportion of responders and correctors was higher with epoetin alfa than with placebo (75.2 vs. 16.7% and 72.6 vs. 14.8%, respectively). Patients who received epoetin alfa had improved QOL while patients who received placebo had decreased QOL. These results are similar to those seen in the full study cohort, where differences between epoetin alfa and placebo were significant (P<0.05) for all five primary cancer

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study of Survival in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuanqing; Rosell, Rafael; Amos, Christopher I.; Stewart, David J.; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Roth, Jack A.; Minna, John D.; Gu, Jian; Lin, Jie; Buch, Shama C.; Nukui, Tomoko; Ramirez Serrano, Jose Luis; Taron, Miquel; Cassidy, Adrian; Lu, Charles; Chang, Joe Y.; Lippman, Scott M.; Hong, Waun Ki; Spitz, Margaret R.; Romkes, Marjorie; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Interindividual variation in genetic background may influence the response to chemotherapy and overall survival for patients with advanced-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods To identify genetic variants associated with poor overall survival in these patients, we conducted a genome-wide scan of 307 260 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 327 advanced-stage NSCLC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (the discovery population). A fast-track replication was performed for 315 patients from the Mayo Clinic followed by a second validation at the University of Pittsburgh in 420 patients enrolled in the Spanish Lung Cancer Group PLATAX clinical trial. A pooled analysis combining the Mayo Clinic and PLATAX populations or all three populations was also used to validate the results. We assessed the association of each SNP with overall survival by multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results SNP rs1878022 in the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) was statistically significantly associated with poor overall survival in the MD Anderson discovery population (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32 to 1.92, P = 1.42 × 10−6), in the PLATAX clinical trial (HR of death = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.51, P = .05), in the pooled Mayo Clinic and PLATAX validation (HR of death = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.40, P = .005), and in pooled analysis of all three populations (HR of death = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.48, P = 5.13 × 10−7). Carrying a variant genotype of rs10937823 was associated with decreased overall survival (HR of death = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.42 to 2.33, P = 1.73 × 10−6) in the pooled MD Anderson and Mayo Clinic populations but not in the PLATAX trial patient population (HR of death = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.35). Conclusion These results have the potential to

  2. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy Evaluation of Treatment Response in Women with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy1

    PubMed Central

    Falou, Omar; Soliman, Hany; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Iradji, Sara; Lemon-Wong, Sharon; Zubovits, Judit; Spayne, Jacqueline; Dent, Rebecca; Trudeau, Maureen; Boileau, Jean Francois; Wright, Frances C; Yaffe, Martin J.; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy for monitoring of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Fifteen women receiving treatment for LABC had the affected breast scanned before; 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment initiation; and before surgery. Optical properties related to tissue microstructure and biochemical composition were obtained. Clinical and pathologic tumor response was evaluated using whole-mount pathology after mastectomy. Patients who responded to treatment demonstrated an initial increase followed by a drop in optical parameters measured in the whole breast, whereas nonresponding patients demonstrated only a drop in the same parameters 1 week after treatment initiation. Responding patients demonstrated a significant increase of 17% ± 7%, 8% ± 8%, 10% ± 7%, 11% ± 11%, and 16% ± 15% in deoxygenated hemoglobin, oxygenated hemoglobin, total hemoglobin concentrations, water percentage, and tissue optical index, 1 week after treatment initiation, respectively. In contrast, nonresponding patients had a decrease of 14% ± 9%, 18% ± 7%, 17% ± 7%, 29% ± 7%, and 32% ± 9% in their corresponding optical parameters. Deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (with 100% sensitivity, 83% specificity) and water percentage (with 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity) were found to be the best predictors of treatment response at 1 week after starting treatment. The results of this study suggest that optical parameters can be potentially used to predict and monitor patients' responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and can form a basis for the customization of treatments in which inefficacious treatments can be switched to more efficacious therapies. PMID:22937175

  3. [Requests for utilization of a semen bank among oncological patients. Semen cryopreservation prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery].

    PubMed

    González Casbas, José Manuel; Calderay Domínguez, Milagros

    2004-11-01

    Oncological therapies, either surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, may cause irreversible subfertiliy/infertility. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have cytotoxic effects on gametogenesis and there are not preventive alternatives currently available. The objective of this article is to review current criteria for semen cryopreservation and its usefulness as a method for preservation of fertility in patients with cancer. We reviewed a large group of recent original articles and systematic reviews on the issue with a common feature: evaluation of fertility status after oncological therapy. Every male patient in fertile age who could wish future fatherhood should be offered the option to storage cryopreserved semen samples before starting oncological therapies, with the exception of patients with azoospermia at the time of diagnosis.

  4. Clinical outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving front-line chemotherapy according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status.

    PubMed

    Kalikaki, Aristea; Koutsopoulos, Anastasios; Hatzidaki, Dora; Trypaki, Maria; Kontopodis, Emmanouel; Stathopoulos, Efstathios; Mavroudis, Dimitris; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Voutsina, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Somatic mutations in EGFR and K-RAS may predict for sensitivity and resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Whether EGFR and K-RAS mutations could also predict clinical outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following front-line chemotherapy has not yet been established. One hundred and sixty-two chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC who received front-line chemotherapy were included in this retrospective study and their clinical outcome data was analyzed according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status of their tumors. Classical activating EGFR and K-RAS mutations were found in 8.2 and 22.6% of patients respectively and were not associated with patients' clinicopathological characteristics. Patients with classical EGFR mutations had a higher probability of response to front-line chemotherapy as compared to those with wild type EGFR (p=0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of activating EGFR mutations was an independent factor associated with response to front-line chemotherapy (HR=4.85; 95% CI: 1.13-20.83, p=0.034). K-RAS mutation status was not associated with response to front-line chemotherapy. The presence of activating EGFR but not of K-RAS mutations was associated with a significantly higher overall survival compared to patients without mutations treated with platinum-based front-line chemotherapy (p=0.043). The data indicate that EGFR mutation status could be predictive for response to cytotoxic front-line chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC. Additional prospective studies are needed in order to validate this observation and to define whether these patients should be preferentially treated with front-line TKIs or chemotherapy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Results of a study on fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: the first four days after treatment are the worst].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Nynke; Kester, Arnold D M; Schouten, Harry C; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer; Courtens, Annemie M

    2007-11-01

    A large number of breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy is suffering from fatigue. Until now there has been a lack of knowledge concerning the course of fatigue in breast cancer patients between two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore a prospective cohort study was conducted including 151 breast cancer patients from six hospitals in The Netherlands. The object of the study was to investigate the course of fatigue between the third and the fourth cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, and to prove whether that course is influenced by different chemotherapy schedules. The patients were treated either with a doxorubicin containing schedule (21 or 28 days) or with a combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF, 28 days). To assess fatigue patients were asked to write a diary cotaining the Shortened Fatigue Questionnaire (SFQ) from the beginning of the third cycle to the start of the fourth one. All days after completion of the third chemotherapy treatment were analysed. The main hypothesis to be tested was that the maximum fatigue level occurs in the first four days after treatment. Results revealed a chaotic pattern of fatigue between both cycles of chemotherapy in each of the treatment group. Smooth (splines) curves showed an average highest level of fatigue on day 3 post treatment. For the regimens with 28-days-intervalls another peak of fatigue was registered on day 11. A significant larger number of patients experienced maximum fatigue levels before day 5. The course of fatigue in the CMF group was significantly different compared with both doxorubicin groups. Women of the CMF group experienced lower fatigue peaks than patients of other groups. The results confirm the main hypothesis. The first days after treatment with chemotherapy are the worst ones for breast cancer patients. The course of fatigue is significantly related to the type of chemotherapy. Knowing these effects patients can better prepare oneself and their

  6. Retrospective analysis of relative dose intensity in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving CHOP-based chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Lodovico; Mo, May; Abella, Esteban; Saven, Alan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate primary prophylaxis with pegfilgrastim, a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, on maintaining relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-rituximab (CHOP-R). This retrospective analysis pooled data from pegfilgrastim NHL clinical trials. Patients received up to 6 cycles of CHOP/CHOP-R every 2 (Q2W) or 3 (Q3W) weeks. RDI and the patient incidence of dose delay, reduction, discontinuation, and adverse events leading to dose alteration/discontinuation were summarized overall and by age group (below 65, 65 to 75, and above 75 y) and treatment schedule. RDI during treatment exposure and RDI adjusted by the planned 6 cycles of treatment were calculated. The adjusted RDI was also evaluated with multiple regression analysis. Mean RDI during treatment exposure was 93% and 94% in overall patients in the Q2W and Q3W regimens, respectively. Mean adjusted RDI was 88% and 80%, respectively. The incidence of patients with RDI>85% was lower in older patients (65 y and above). In older patients, the incidence of dose reduction and discontinuation were higher regardless of treatment schedule, whereas dose delay was higher in the Q2W regimen. Multiple regression analysis identified age and cancer stage as potential factors associated with RDI. Adverse events leading to dose alteration/discontinuation were spread across hematological and nonhematological toxicities; older patients had a higher incidence of these adverse events. Pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis maintained RDI in NHL patients receiving CHOP/CHOP-R during treatment. Adjusted RDI was lower in elderly patients because of early termination of chemotherapy.

  7. Comparison of healthcare resource use between patients receiving ondansetron or palonosetron as prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yu-Chen; McDonnell, Anne; Klinger, Elissa; Fowler, Bridget; Matta, Lina; Voit, Daniel; Reddy, Prabashni

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the differences between ondansetron and palonosetron in healthcare resource use (i.e., inpatient/ outpatient encounters) among patients receiving intraperitoneal cisplatin. A medical record review was performed. Intraperitoneal cisplatin administrations for gynecological cancers from January through June 2006 and from October 2007 through June 2008 were divided into two groups based on the serotonin-receptor antagonist used. The occurrence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)-related hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and outpatient encounters occurring within 7 days after cisplatin administration was compared. CINV-related resource use was defined as events associated with dehydration, hypovolemia, nausea/vomiting, hypokalemia, constipation, shortness of breath, or syncope/collapse. Ondansetron or palonosetron was used in 39 and 89 cisplatin administrations, respectively. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups with mean age of 59 years and ovarian cancer being the most common cancer. Length of stay was approximately 2 days. Palonosetron was always administered as a single-day therapy while one- or multi-day ondansetron therapy was administered in 27% and 73% of cycles, respectively. A trend towards more CINV-related hospitalizations with ondansetron versus palonosetron was observed (5.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.09) with no significant difference in other CINV-related encounters. Palonosetron was associated with a trend to a lower risk of CINV-related hospital readmission than ondansetron in patients receiving intraperitoneal cisplatin for gynecological cancers, although not statistically significant. The duration of ondansetron therapy might be suboptimal with 27% of patients receiving only 1 day of therapy during hospital stay. These findings need to be confirmed in future studies.

  8. Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Melanoma Who Received Nivolumab Versus Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in CheckMate 037: A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label Phase III Trial.

    PubMed

    Larkin, James; Minor, David; D'Angelo, Sandra; Neyns, Bart; Smylie, Michael; Miller, Wilson H; Gutzmer, Ralf; Linette, Gerald; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Lao, Christopher D; Lorigan, Paul; Grossmann, Kenneth; Hassel, Jessica C; Sznol, Mario; Daud, Adil; Sosman, Jeffrey; Khushalani, Nikhil; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hoeller, Christoph; Walker, Dana; Kong, George; Horak, Christine; Weber, Jeffrey

    2017-07-03

    Purpose Until recently, limited options existed for patients with advanced melanoma who experienced disease progression while receiving treatment with ipilimumab. Here, we report the coprimary overall survival (OS) end point of CheckMate 037, which has previously shown that nivolumab resulted in more patients achieving an objective response compared with chemotherapy regimens in ipilimumab-refractory patients with advanced melanoma. Patients and Methods Patients were stratified by programmed death-ligand 1 expression, BRAF status, and best prior cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 therapy response, then randomly assigned 2:1 to nivolumab 3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks or investigator's choice chemotherapy (ICC; dacarbazine 1,000 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks or carboplatin area under the curve 6 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks). Patients were treated until they experienced progression or unacceptable toxicity, with follow-up of approximately 2 years. Results Two hundred seventy-two patients were randomly assigned to nivolumab (99% treated) and 133 to ICC (77% treated). More nivolumab-treated patients had brain metastases (20% v 14%) and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels (52% v 38%) at baseline; 41% of patients treated with ICC versus 11% of patients treated with nivolumab received anti-programmed death 1 agents after randomly assigned therapy. Median OS was 16 months for nivolumab versus 14 months for ICC (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95.54% CI, 0.73 to 1.24); median progression-free survival was 3.1 months versus 3.7 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95.1% CI, 0.78 to 1.436). Overall response rate (27% v 10%) and median duration of response (32 months v 13 months) were notably higher for nivolumab versus ICC. Fewer grade 3 and 4 treatment-related adverse events were observed in patients on nivolumab (14% v 34%). Conclusion Nivolumab demonstrated higher, more durable responses but no difference in survival compared with ICC. OS should be interpreted with

  9. The prognostic significance of optimal debulking in the setting of a complete clinical response for advanced ovarian carcinoma patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abaid, Lisa N; Goldstein, Bram H; Lopez, Katrina L; Micha, John P; Brown, John V; Rettenmaier, Mark A; Markman, Maurie

    2011-05-01

    We investigated if optimal surgical debulking increases tumor responsiveness to maintenance chemotherapy and improves survival in advanced ovarian cancer patients who previously attained a clinical complete response (CCR) to primary chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 75 advanced ovarian cancer patients, of whom 43 and 32 underwent optimal versus suboptimal cytoreduction, respectively. All patients exhibited a CCR following 6 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin and subsequently received maintenance chemotherapy (paclitaxel 135 mg/m(2); q21 days). The median progression free survival (PFS) for the optimally debulked patients was 35 months, compared to 20 months for the suboptimal population (P = 0.003). Moreover, a Cox model analysis revealed that an increased number of maintenance chemotherapy cycles and optimal surgical reduction significantly correlated with favorable patient PFS (P < 0.001). In regard to overall survival (OS), the patients who had optimal cytoreductive surgery exhibited improved OS results compared to the sub-optimal surgery group (42 vs. 27 months; P < 0.001). However, a Cox model analysis indicated that a greater number of maintenance chemotherapy cycles was a surrogate marker for improved OS (P < 0.001), but surgery type was not (P > 0.05). Duration of overall patient follow-up exceeds 41 months. In advanced ovarian cancer patients who achieve a CCR following induction chemotherapy, optimal cytoreduction may confer a greater clinical benefit from a maintenance approach compared to suboptimal cytoreduction.

  10. Fluconazole Susceptibility and Genotypic Heterogeneity of Oral Candida albicans Colonies from the Patients with Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Qi, Cheng; Lafleur, Micheal D; Qi, Qing-guo

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify heterogeneity of Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolated from the population with cancer in China by using identification medium, subculture molecular typing, and antifungal susceptibility test. Methodology Oral cheek mucosal specimens from 52 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy were cultured on CHROMagar CandidaTM plates for Candida identification. All the C. albicans colonies on the plates were subcultured and reconfirmed by API20C, then submitted to the antifungal drug susceptibility test with fluconazole and molecular typing using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD) with primers RSD6 and RSD12. Results 54% (28/52) patients were oral yeast carriage in which C. albicans predominated. More than 7 C. albicans colonies were isolated from each of 12 patients (Group A), while less than 5 colonies were isolated from each of 16 patients (Group B). RSD6 and RSD12 were successful in eliciting 17 (A1-A17) and 2 (B1-B2) genotypes, respectively from among the 205 isolates. The two primers were combined to generate 21 genotypes. The C. albicans isolates obtained from the same patient and episode showed a diversity for fluconazole revealed by MIC50 and MIC90. Conclusion The heterogeneity of the C. albicans colonies isolated from the same patients can be detected. C. albicans with varied fluconazole susceptibility and genotypic characteristics may coexist in the same oral Candida population. PMID:20695081

  11. Improvement of adherence to guidelines for antiemetic medication enhances emetic control in patients with colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy of moderate emetic risk.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hironori; Iihara, Hirotoshi; Ishihara, Masashi; Takahashi, Takao; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) according to the clinical practice guidelines is particularly important. In the present study, we investigated the adherence to the guidelines for antiemetic medication and the control of CINV in 61 patients with colorectal cancer receiving the first course of chemotherapy of moderate emetic risk at our outpatient cancer chemotherapy clinic. Furthermore, we carried out intervention to improve evidence-based antiemetic medication in another 64 patients. The rate of adherence to the antiemetic guidelines was only 6.6%; non-adherence was due mostly to the lack of dexamethasone treatment on days 2 and 3. In the interventional group, antiemetic medication adherence was markedly enhanced to 89%, which led to a significant enhancement of complete protection from nausea and vomiting during-delayed period (days 2-5 after chemotherapy) from 54% to 74% (p<0.05), although the daily dose of dexamethasone was 4 mg, lower than that recommended by the guidelines (8 mg). Finally, we evaluated the effect of dexamethasone at a daily dose of 4 mg, since little is known about the efficacy of such dose. Dexamethasone at this dose was found to be effective at elevating the rate of complete protection from nausea and vomiting during-delayed period (increase of 20%, p<0.05). These findings suggest that medication intervention to reduce the gap between guidelines and clinical practice improves the emetic control in patients with colorectal cancer receiving moderately-emetic chemotherapy.

  12. 11 CFR 101.3 - Funds received or expended prior to becoming a candidate (2 U.S.C. 432(e)(2)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds received or expended prior to becoming a candidate (2 U.S.C. 432(e)(2)). 101.3 Section 101.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CANDIDATE STATUS AND DESIGNATIONS (2 U.S.C. 432(e)) § 101.3 Funds received or expended prior to becoming...

  13. Time trends in utilization of G-CSF prophylaxis and risk of febrile neutropenia in a Medicare population receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi K; Tzivelekis, Spiros; Rothman, Kenneth J; Candrilli, Sean D; Kaye, James A

    2017-09-18

    The purpose of this study is to assess temporal trends in the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis and risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) among older women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Women aged ≥ 66 years with diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer who initiated selected adjuvant chemotherapy regimens were identified using the SEER-Medicare data from 2002 to 2012. Adjusted, calendar-year-specific proportions were estimated for use of G-CSF primary prophylaxis (PP) and secondary prophylaxis and FN risk in the first and the second/subsequent cycles during the first course of chemotherapy, using logistic regression models. calendar-year-specific mean probabilities were estimated with covariates set to modal values. Among 11,107 eligible patients (mean age 71.7 years), 74% received G-CSF in the first course of chemotherapy. Of all patients, 5819 (52%) received G-CSF PP, and among those not receiving G-CSF PP, only 5% received G-CSF secondary prophylaxis. The adjusted proportion using G-CSF PP increased from 6% in 2002 to 71% in 2012. During the same period, the adjusted risk of FN in the first cycle increased from 2% to 3%; the adjusted risk increased from 1.5% to 2.9% among those receiving G-CSF PP and from 2.3% to 3.5% among those not receiving G-CSF PP. The use of G-CSF PP increased substantially during the study period. Although channeling of higher-risk patients to treatment with G-CSF PP is expected, the adjusted risk of FN among patients treated with G-CSF PP tended to be lower than among those not receiving G-CSF PP.

  14. 21 CFR 1.282 - What must you do if information changes after you have received confirmation of a prior notice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must you do if information changes after you... Imported Food Requirements to Submit Prior Notice of Imported Food § 1.282 What must you do if information changes after you have received confirmation of a prior notice from FDA? (a)(1) If any of the information...

  15. 21 CFR 1.282 - What must you do if information changes after you have received confirmation of a prior notice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must you do if information changes after you... Imported Food Requirements to Submit Prior Notice of Imported Food § 1.282 What must you do if information changes after you have received confirmation of a prior notice from FDA? (a)(1) If any of the information...

  16. The use of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, N00C9

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kelli; Novotny, Paul J.; Fitch, Tom R.; Kohli, Sadhna; Soori, Gamini; Wilwerding, Mary Beth; Sloan, Jeff A.; Kottschade, Lisa A.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Nikcevich, Daniel A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Patients undergoing treatment for cancer often report problems with their cognitive function, which is an essential component of health-related quality of life. Pursuant to this, a two-arm randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate Ginkgo biloba (EGB 761) for the prevention of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Methods Previously chemotherapy naïve women about to receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer were randomized to receive 60 mg of EGB 761 or a matching placebo twice daily. The study agent was to begin before their second cycle of chemotherapy and to be taken throughout chemotherapy and 1 month beyond completion. The primary measure for cognitive function was the High Sensitivity Cognitive Screen (HSCS), with a secondary measure being the Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B. Subjective assessment of cognitive function was evaluated by the cognitive subscale of the Perceived Health Scale (PHS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Data were collected at baseline and at intervals throughout and after chemotherapy, up to 24 months after completion of adjuvant treatment. The primary statistical analysis included normalized area under the curve (AUC) comparisons of the HSCS, between the arms. Secondary analyses included evaluation of the other measures of cognition as well as correlational analyses between self-report and cognitive testing. Results One hundred and sixty-six women provided evaluable data. There were no significant differences in AUC up to 12 months on the HSCS between arms at the end of chemotherapy or at any other time point after adjuvant treatment. There were also no significant differences in TMT A or B at any data point. Perceived cognitive functions, as measured by the PHS and confusion/bewilderment subscale of the POMS, were not different between arms at the end of chemotherapy. There was also little correlation between self

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled phase ii study evaluating the reduction of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with colorectal cancer receiving pegfilgrastim with every-2-week chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hecht, J Randolph; Pillai, Madhavan; Gollard, Russell; Heim, William; Swan, Forrest; Patel, Ravi; Dreiling, Lyndah; Mo, May; Malik, Imtiaz

    2010-04-01

    Adding irinotecan and/or oxaliplatin to every-2-week 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (LV) prolongs survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) but increases neutropenia frequency. Pegfilgrastim is indicated to decrease infection as manifested by febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients receiving chemotherapy at > 14-day intervals. This randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study examined pegfilgrastim efficacy and safety in patients with CRC receiving every-2-week chemotherapy. Patients with CRC were randomized 1:1 to pegfilgrastim 6 mg or placebo administered per-cycle on day 4. Randomization was stratified by chemotherapy regimen (patients received every-2-week FOLFOX4 [5-FU/LV/oxaliplatin], FOLFIRI [5-FU/LV/irinotecan], or FOIL [5-FU/LV/oxaliplatin/irinotecan] at physician discretion). The primary endpoint was incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Secondary endpoints included incidence of grade 3/4 FN and adverse events. After 4 cycles of study treatment, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were followed for receiving every-2-week chemotherapy and significantly reduced neutropenia and FN compared with placebo, though FN was uncommon in both treatment groups. Results suggest that pegfilgrastim administration is feasible in CRC patients receiving every-2-week chemotherapy.

  18. An open-label, randomized, multicenter dose-finding study of once-per-cycle pegfilgrastim versus daily filgrastim in Chinese breast cancer patients receiving TAC chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Li, Chanjuan; Xia, Jielai

    2015-05-01

    A chemotherapy regimen of docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been accepted as a standard care because of their superior clinical benefit in early-stage breast cancer patients, but with a higher risk of neutropenia. Pegfilgrastim is a once-per-cycle therapy for prophylactic neutrophil support and neutropenia prevention. There was still a lack of direct evidences for finding an optimal fixed dose of pegfilgrastim in Chinese breast cancer patients receiving TAC regimen. An open-label, randomized, phase II study was designed to compare the effects of pegfilgrastim with filgrastim. Eighteen centers in China enrolled 171 eligible female breast cancer patients with cycles of TAC chemotherapy treatment, randomized into four arms, received a single subcutaneous injection of pegfilgrastim (60, 100 or 120 µg/kg) per chemotherapy cycle or daily subcutaneous injections of filgrastim 5 µg/kg 24 h after chemotherapy. Efficacy and safety were analyzed. In ITT population, the mean duration of grade 3+ neutropenia (neutrophil count <1.0 × 10(9)/l) was 2.09, 1.53 and 1.73 days in patients who received pegfilgrastim 60, 100 and 120 µg/kg/cycle, respectively, and 1.69 days in patients who received 5 µg/kg/day filgrastim (P = 0.043). The incidence of grade 3+ neutropenia was 76, 83 and 74 % for doses of pegfilgrastim and 90 % for filgrastim (P = 0.409). The results for febrile neutropenia, time to neutrophil recovery and neutrophil profile were also not significantly different between arms. The safety profiles of pegfilgrastim and filgrastim were similar. A single dose of 100 µg/kg once-per-cycle administration of pegfilgrastim provided neutrophil support and a safety profile comparable to daily subcutaneous injections of filgrastim in Chinese breast cancer patients receiving TAC chemotherapy.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of APF530 (extended-release granisetron) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: results of two Phase II trials.

    PubMed

    Gabrail, Nashat; Yanagihara, Ronald; Spaczyński, Marek; Cooper, William; O'Boyle, Erin; Smith, Carrie; Boccia, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances with new therapies, a significant proportion of patients (>30%) suffer delayed-onset chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) despite use of antiemetics. APF530 is a sustained-release subcutaneous (SC) formulation of granisetron for preventing CINV. APF530 pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy were studied in two open-label, single-dose Phase II trials (C2005-01 and C2007-01, respectively) in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In C2005-01, 45 patients received APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively). In C2007-01, 35 patients were randomized to APF530 250 or 500 mg SC. Injections were given 30 to 60 minutes before single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Plasma granisetron was measured from predose to 168 hours after study drug administration. Safety and efficacy were also evaluated. APF530 pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow absorption and elimination of granisetron after a single SC dose. Median time to maximum plasma concentration and half-life were similar for APF530 250 and 500 mg in both trials, with no differences between the groups receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Exposure to granisetron was maintained at a therapeutic level over the delayed-onset phase, at least 168 hours. Adverse events in both trials were as expected for granisetron; injection site reactions (eg, erythema and induration) were predominantly mild and seen in ≤20% of patients. Complete responses (no emesis, with no rescue medication) were obtained in the acute, delayed, and overall phases in ≥80% and ≥75% of patients in both trials with the 250 and 500 mg doses, respectively. After a single injection of APF530, there were dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and sustained concentrations of granisetron over 168 hours. The 250 and 500 mg doses were well tolerated and maintained therapeutic granisetron

  20. Colony-stimulating factor use and impact on febrile neutropenia among patients with newly diagnosed breast, colorectal, or non-small cell lung cancer who were receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    McCune, Jeannine S; Sullivan, Sean D; Blough, David K; Clarke, Lauren; McDermott, Cara; Malin, Jennifer; Ramsey, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of primary prophylactic colony-stimulating factor (CSF) use on febrile neutropenia in a large patient population receiving contemporary chemotherapy regimens to treat breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Retrospective claims analysis. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Puget Sound cancer registry and insurance claims records. A total of 2728 patients aged 25 years or older who received a diagnosis of breast cancer (998 patients), colorectal cancer (688 patients), or NSCLC (1042 patients) between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2005, and received chemotherapy. Initial chemotherapy regimen, CSF use (filgrastim or pegfilgrastim), and febrile neutropenia events were evaluated after the first chemotherapy administration. Subsequently, febrile neutropenia rates in patients receiving primary prophylactic CSF were compared with febrile neutropenia rates in patients receiving CSF in settings other than primary prophylaxis or not at all. The impact of primary prophylactic CSF could not be assessed for patients with colorectal cancer or NSCLC because only 1 and 18 febrile neutropenia events, respectively, occurred in those receiving primary prophylactic CSF. Of the 998 patients with breast cancer, 72 (7.2%) experienced febrile neutropenia, 28 of whom received primary prophylactic CSF. In the patients with breast cancer, we observed that primary prophylactic CSF use was associated with reduced febrile neutropenia rates; however, the analysis may have been confounded by unmeasured factors associated with febrile neutropenia. The impact of primary prophylactic CSFs on febrile neutropenia rates could not be demonstrated. Given the substantive cost of CSFs to pharmacy budgets, there are numerous opportunities for pharmacists to optimize CSF use. Research studies are needed to evaluate if guideline-directed prescribing of primary prophylactic CSFs can improve clinical outcomes. © 2012

  1. Time from prior chemotherapy enhances prognostic risk grouping in the second-line setting of advanced urothelial carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of pooled, prospective phase 2 trials.

    PubMed

    Sonpavde, Guru; Pond, Gregory R; Fougeray, Ronan; Choueiri, Toni K; Qu, Angela Q; Vaughn, David J; Niegisch, Guenter; Albers, Peter; James, Nicholas D; Wong, Yu-Ning; Ko, Yoo-Joung; Sridhar, Srikala S; Galsky, Matthew D; Petrylak, Daniel P; Vaishampayan, Ulka N; Khan, Awais; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Beer, Tomasz M; Stadler, Walter M; O'Donnell, Peter H; Sternberg, Cora N; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    Outcomes for patients in the second-line setting of advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) are dismal. The recognized prognostic factors in this context are Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) >0, hemoglobin level (Hb) <10 g/dl, and liver metastasis (LM). The purpose of this retrospective study of prospective trials was to investigate the prognostic value of time from prior chemotherapy (TFPC) independent of known prognostic factors. Data from patients from seven prospective trials with available baseline TFPC, Hb, PS, and LM values were used for retrospective analysis (n=570). External validation was conducted in a second-line phase 3 trial comparing best supportive care (BSC) versus vinflunine plus BSC (n=352). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of factors, with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) being the respective primary and secondary outcome measures. ECOG-PS >0, LM, Hb <10 g/dl, and shorter TFPC were significant prognostic factors for OS and PFS on multivariable analysis. Patients with zero, one, two, and three to four factors demonstrated median OS of 12.2, 6.7, 5.1, and 3.0 mo, respectively (concordance statistic=0.638). Setting of prior chemotherapy (metastatic disease vs perioperative) and prior platinum agent (cisplatin or carboplatin) were not prognostic factors. External validation demonstrated a significant association of TFPC with PFS on univariable and most multivariable analyses, and with OS on univariable analyses. Limitations of retrospective analyses are applicable. Shorter TFPC enhances prognostic classification independent of ECOG-PS >0, Hb <10 g/dl, and LM in the setting of second-line therapy for advanced UC. These data may facilitate drug development and interpretation of trials. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Common and Distinct Characteristics Associated With Trajectories of Morning and Evening Energy in Oncology Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abid, Hamza; Kober, Kord M; Smoot, Betty; Paul, Steven M; Hammer, Marilyn; Levine, Jon D; Lee, Kathryn; Wright, Fay; Cooper, Bruce A; Conley, Yvette P; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-05-01

    Although energy conservation strategies are recommended in clinical practice guidelines, little is known about changes in energy levels in oncology patients undergoing cancer treatment. The objective of this study was to identify variations in the trajectories of morning and evening energy levels and determine which characteristics predicted initial levels and the trajectories of morning and evening energy. Outpatients receiving chemotherapy (CTX) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires six times over two CTX cycles. Energy was assessed using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the data. A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the morning and evening energy trajectories. Patients who lived alone, had childcare responsibilities, had a lower functional status, did not exercise on a regular basis, had lower hemoglobin levels, had lower attentional function, higher trait anxiety, and higher sleep disturbance reported lower morning energy levels at enrollment. Variations in the trajectories of morning energy were associated with a higher body mass index and higher levels of morning energy and higher sleep disturbance scores. For evening energy, patients who were female, white, had lower functional status, and had lower attentional function and higher sleep disturbance reported lower evening energy levels at enrollment. Evening energy levels at enrollment were associated with changes in evening energy over time. Patients undergoing CTX experience decrements in both morning and evening energy. The modifiable characteristics associated with these decrements can be used to design intervention studies to increase energy levels in these patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L. )

    1989-05-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties.

  4. Efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim: a randomized, multicenter, active-control phase 3 trial in patients with breast cancer receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipegfilgrastim is a novel glyco-pegylated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in development for neutropenia prophylaxis in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This phase III, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, noninferiority trial compared the efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim in chemotherapy-naïve breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy. Methods Patients with high-risk stage II, III, or IV breast cancer and an absolute neutrophil count ≥1.5 × 109 cells/L were randomized to a single 6-mg subcutaneous injection of lipegfilgrastim (n = 101) or pegfilgrastim (n = 101) on day 2 of each 21-day chemotherapy cycle (4 cycles maximum). The primary efficacy endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia during cycle 1. Results Cycle 1: The mean duration of severe neutropenia for the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups was 0.7 and 0.8 days, respectively (λ = −0.218 [95% confidence interval: –0.498%, 0.062%], p = 0.126), and no severe neutropenia was observed in 56% and 49% of patients in the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively. All cycles: In the efficacy population, febrile neutropenia occurred in three pegfilgrastim-treated patients (all in cycle 1) and zero lipegfilgrastim-treated patients. Drug-related adverse events in the safety population were reported in 28% and 26% of patients i006E the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrates that lipegfilgrastim 6 mg is as effective as pegfilgrastim in reducing neutropenia in patients with breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Trial Registration Eudra EEACTA200901599910 The study protocol, two global amendments (Nos. 1 and 2), informed consent documents, and other appropriate study-related documents were reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine Central Ethics Committee and local independent ethics committees

  5. Efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim: a randomized, multicenter, active-control phase 3 trial in patients with breast cancer receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Igor; Gladkov, Oleg A; Elsaesser, Reiner; Buchner, Anton; Bias, Peter

    2013-08-14

    Lipegfilgrastim is a novel glyco-pegylated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in development for neutropenia prophylaxis in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This phase III, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, noninferiority trial compared the efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim in chemotherapy-naïve breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy. Patients with high-risk stage II, III, or IV breast cancer and an absolute neutrophil count ≥1.5 × 109 cells/L were randomized to a single 6-mg subcutaneous injection of lipegfilgrastim (n = 101) or pegfilgrastim (n = 101) on day 2 of each 21-day chemotherapy cycle (4 cycles maximum). The primary efficacy endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia during cycle 1. Cycle 1: The mean duration of severe neutropenia for the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups was 0.7 and 0.8 days, respectively (λ = -0.218 [95% confidence interval: -0.498%, 0.062%], p = 0.126), and no severe neutropenia was observed in 56% and 49% of patients in the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively. All cycles: In the efficacy population, febrile neutropenia occurred in three pegfilgrastim-treated patients (all in cycle 1) and zero lipegfilgrastim-treated patients. Drug-related adverse events in the safety population were reported in 28% and 26% of patients in the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively. This study demonstrates that lipegfilgrastim 6 mg is as effective as pegfilgrastim in reducing neutropenia in patients with breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Eudra EEACTA200901599910.

  6. A Systematic Review of the Incidence and Risk Factors for Taxane Acute Pain Syndrome in Patients Receiving Taxane-Based Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Mazzarello, Sasha; Hutton, Brian; Shorr, Risa; Ibrahim, Mohammed F K; Jacobs, Carmel; Ong, Michael; Clemons, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Taxane acute pain syndrome (TAPS) is characterized by myalgia and arthralgia starting 24 to 48 hours after taxane-based chemotherapy and lasting ≤ 7 days. Little is known about its incidence and predisposing factors in patients with prostate cancer. A systematic review was performed to identify studies reporting the incidence and risk factors for TAPS in patients receiving taxane-based chemotherapy for prostate cancer. Embase, Ovid Medline, and other nonindexed citations were searched from 1947 to July 7, 2015. Randomized trials and prospective observational studies reporting the outcomes for prostate cancer patients who had received taxane-based chemotherapy were assessed. Four reviewers independently screened the citations and full text reports for data collection. Of 980 citations, 5 studies (2710 patients) met the eligibility criteria. The incidence of myalgia and arthralgia was reported in 4 trials (14%, [29% and 38%], 44.2%, and 46%). TAPS was not reported with cabazitaxel chemotherapy. Clinical risk factors were identified in 4 studies, suggesting that TAPS was numerically more common in the castrate-resistant setting and when concurrent medications (eg, corticosteroids) were not used. Although the TAPS incidence has been poorly reported in clinical practice, the results of the present study suggest that arthralgia and myalgia are a common toxicity in patients with prostate cancer. An improved and universal definition of TAPS, patient-directed reporting of TAPS, and improved standardized assessments are needed to better identify patients at the greatest risk of experiencing TAPS and improving patient care.

  7. Randomized DoubleBlind PlaceboControlled Trial of Propolis for Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    AkhavanKarbassi, Mohammad Hasan; Yazdi, Mohammad Forat; Ahadian, Hakimeh; SadrAbad, Maryam Jalili

    2016-01-01

    Propolis based preparations have a wide range of applications in various specialties of dentistry. The aim of this clinical trial was to test the efficacy of propolis as a mouthwash in the reduction of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis (OM) in a single center. In this randomised, controlled study patients undergoing chemotherapy were included consecutively and randomised to an experimental group receiving propolis mouthwash (n = 20) and a control group receiving diluted water (n=20). Oral mucositis, erythema and eating and drink ability were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 7 days using the World Health Organization (WHO) scale and the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). There were significant differences in OM, wound and erythema in propolis group compared to placebo, but no significant difference in eating and drink ability. However, it was interesting that 65% of the patients in the propolis group were completely healed at day 7 of the trial. No significant adverse events were reported by the patients. This study found that oral care with propolis as mouthwash for patients undergoing chemotherapy is an effective intervention to improve oral health. Our findings shouldlencourage health practitioners to apply propolis mouth rinse for the oral care of patients under chemotherapy.

  8. Outcomes in obese and overweight acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving chemotherapy dosed according to actual body weight.

    PubMed

    Wenzell, Candice M; Gallagher, Erika M; Earl, Marc; Yeh, Jun-Yen; Kusick, Karissa N; Advani, Anjali S; Kalaycio, Matt E; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Tiu, Ramon V; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Sekeres, Mikkael A

    2013-10-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy dosages are traditionally calculated according to body surface area (BSA). No guidelines exist for chemotherapy dosing of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients at extremes of weight. We investigated the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy dosed according to BSA based on actual body weight (ABW) among under/normal weight, overweight, and obese AML patients. AML patients (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia) treated with anthracycline and cytarabine-based remission induction chemotherapy from 2002 to 2009 at Cleveland Clinic were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups: under/normal weight (BMI ≤ 24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0). Among 247 AML patients, 81 (33%) were under/normal weight, 81 (33%) were overweight, and 85 (34%) were obese. Complete remission (CR) rates were similar among these groups (69.1, 79.0, and 76.5%, respectively; P = 0.321), as was median survival (10.7, 16.7, and 14.2 months, respectively, P = 0.352) and 30-day mortality (3.7, 2.5, 7.1%, respectively, P = 0.331). There was no difference among groups in days to neutrophil or platelet recovery, hospitalization days for induction chemotherapy, and bacteremia. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, BMI, white blood cells, cytogenetic risk, etiology, and bacteremia), overall survival was significantly shorter for normal weight compared to overweight (P = 0.006) and obese (0.038) patients. Response rates and adverse events were not significantly different among AML patients of all weight classes when induction chemotherapy was dosed according to ABW. Induction chemotherapy in these patients can be safely dosed using ABW. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Efficacy and safety of oral palonosetron compared with IV palonosetron administered with dexamethasone for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with solid tumors receiving cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC).

    PubMed

    Karthaus, Meinolf; Tibor, Csőszi; Lorusso, Vito; Singh-Arora, Rajender; Filippov, Alexander; Rizzi, Giada; Borroni, Maria Elisa; Rossi, Giorgia; Grunberg, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of oral palonosetron with intravenous (IV) palonosetron for the prevention of cisplatin-related chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A multinational, randomized, double-blind study enrolling adult chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant solid tumors scheduled to receive cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Patients received oral palonosetron (0.50 mg) or IV palonosetron (0.25 mg), each with oral dexamethasone. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority in terms of patients with a complete response (CR, no emesis/no rescue medication) within the acute phase (0-24 h after chemotherapy administration). Of the 743 patients randomized, 739 received study medications and 738 were included in the full analysis set. The CR rate in the acute phase was high for both groups (oral 89.4 %; IV 86.2 %). As this difference in proportions (stratum-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method) was 3.21 % (99 % confidence interval (CI) -2.74 to 9.17 %), non-inferiority was demonstrated (since the lower limit of the 99 % CI was closer to zero than the predefined margin of 15 %). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) related to the study drug were rare (oral 3.2 %; IV 6.5 %). No TEAEs related to study drug leading to discontinuation were reported. Non-inferiority of oral versus IV palonosetron was demonstrated. The CR rate in the acute phase was >86 % in both patient groups. The safety profiles were comparable.

  10. Varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity and herpes zoster development in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib- or thalidomide-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Min, Chang-Ki; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Park, Yong; Kim, Byung Soo; Nam, Seung-Hyun; Koh, Youngil; Kwon, Ji-Hyun; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Inho

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of herpes zoster is substantial during bortezomib treatment in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This study aimed to elucidate the effect of chemotherapy with or without bortezomib in MM patients on their herpes zoster incidence and varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected at baseline and after 1 month of bortezomib-based or thalidomide-based chemotherapy and then analyzed using VZV-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. The clinical data from these patients were analyzed in relation to the ELISPOT results. Of 58 patients analyzed, 39 patients received bortezomib and the other 19 patients, thalidomide. Among them, 5 patients developed herpes zoster during chemotherapy; all 5 were being treated with the bortezomib-based regimen and were not receiving prophylactic anti-viral agents. The median onset of herpes zoster was 32 days (range, 15-95 days) from the initiation of chemotherapy. Among patients who received bortezomib therapy, acyclovir prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk for herpes zoster (100-day cumulative incidence, 0% vs. 49.5%; p<0.001). Spot-forming cell (SFC) counts in the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay decreased from baseline after bortezomib (p=0.011) or thalidomide (p=0.096) treatment. Patients with baseline SFCs greater than 20/10(6) mononuclear cells exhibited significantly higher incidence of herpes zoster (100-day cumulative incidence, 34.8% vs. 0%; p=0.040). Bortezomib treatment significantly reduced VZV-specific CMI, and high baseline SFC counts in patients receiving this treatment without acyclovir prophylaxis were associated with a significantly increased risk for herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating prognosis and palliation based on tumour marker CA 19-9 and quality of life indicators in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, J; Dietrich, D; Glimelius, B; Hess, V; Bodoky, G; Scheithauer, W; Herrmann, R

    2010-01-01

    Background: To investigate the prognostic value of quality of life (QOL) relative to tumour marker carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, and the role of CA 19-9 in estimating palliation in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy. Methods: CA 19-9 serum concentration was measured at baseline and every 3 weeks in a phase III trial (SAKK 44/00–CECOG/PAN.1.3.001). Patients scored QOL indicators at baseline, and before each administration of chemotherapy (weekly or bi-weekly) for 24 weeks or until progression. Prognostic factors were investigated by Cox models, QOL during chemotherapy by mixed-effect models. Results: Patient-rated pain (P<0.02) and tiredness (P<0.03) were independent predictors for survival, although less prognostic than CA 19-9 (P<0.001). Baseline CA 19-9 did not predict QOL during chemotherapy, except for a marginal effect on pain (P<0.05). Mean changes in physical domains across the whole observation period were marginally correlated with the maximum CA 19-9 decrease. Patients in a better health status reported the most improvement in QOL within 20 days before maximum CA 19-9 decrease. They indicated substantially less pain and better physical well-being, already, early on during chemotherapy with a maximum CA 19-9 decrease of ⩾50% vs <50%. Conclusion: In advanced pancreatic cancer, pain and tiredness are independent prognostic factors for survival, although less prognostic than CA 19-9. Quality of life improves before best CA 19-9 response but the maximum CA 19-9 decrease has no impact on subsequent QOL. To estimate palliation by chemotherapy, patient's perception needs to be taken into account. PMID:20877359

  12. [Combination Therapy of Pregabalin with Tramadol for Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Gynecological Cancer Receiving Taxane Containing Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tadaaki; Hasegawa, Kosei; Shintani, Daisuke; Yano, Yuri; Sato, Sho; Yabuno, Akira; Kurosaki, Akira; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2017-03-01

    Taxane-based regimens are often used in gynecologic cancer chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy( CIPN)is one of the typical side effects caused by taxanes. Grade 2 or higher CIPN is observed in 5% to 30% of ovarian cancer patients who are treated with paclitaxel, which is recognized as one of the unmanageable side effects leading to treatment interruption. We retrospectively investigated the significance of combination therapy of pregabalin with tramadol for CIPN in patients with gynecological cancer. In the current study, 19 patients(19/22; 86%)were administered pregabalin with tramadol orally for at least 1week, and we observed improvement of the CIPN in 15 patients(15/19; 79%).We suggest that the combination therapy of pregabalin with tramadol has a positive impact on the CIPN in patients under a taxane-based chemotherapy.

  13. Phase III placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of pegfilgrastim to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Yoshimasa; Rai, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Norikazu; Takano, Toshimi; Saeki, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Seigo; Shimazaki, Ryutaro; Ito, Yoshinori; Tokuda, Yutaka; Tamura, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Pegfilgrastim is a pegylated form of filgrastim, a recombinant protein of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, that is used to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). Here, we report the results of a phase III trial of pegfilgrastim in breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) chemotherapy. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine the efficacy of pegfilgrastim in reducing the risk of FN in early-stage breast cancer patients. A total of 351 women (177 in the pegfilgrastim group and 174 in the placebo group) between 20 and 69 years of age with stage I-III invasive breast carcinoma who were to receive TC chemotherapy (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks) as either neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy were enrolled; 346 of these patients were treated with either pegfilgrastim (n = 173) or placebo (n = 173). The incidence of FN was significantly lower in the pegfilgrastim group than in the placebo group (1.2 vs. 68.8 %, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, patients in the pegfilgrastim group required less hospitalization and antibiotics for FN. Most adverse events were consistent with those expected for breast cancer subjects receiving TC chemotherapy. Pegfilgrastim is safe and significantly reduces the incidence of FN in breast cancer patients.

  14. Self-configurable radio receiver system and method for use with signals without prior knowledge of signal defining characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Tkacenko, Andre (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, radio receiver, and system to autonomously receive and decode a plurality of signals having a variety of signal types without a priori knowledge of the defining characteristics of the signals is disclosed. The radio receiver is capable of receiving a signal of an unknown signal type and, by estimating one or more defining characteristics of the signal, determine the type of signal. The estimated defining characteristic(s) is/are utilized to enable the receiver to determine other defining characteristics. This in turn, enables the receiver, through multiple iterations, to make a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate for each of the defining characteristics. After the type of signal is determined by its defining characteristics, the receiver selects an appropriate decoder from a plurality of decoders to decode the signal.

  15. Efficacy and safety analysis of once per cycle pegfilgrastim and daily lenograstim in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy FEC 100: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luigi; Tomao, Federica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Papa, Anselmo; Zoratto, Federica; Marzano, Raffaella; Basso, Enrico; Giordani, Erika; Verrico, Monica; Ricci, Fabio; Pasciuti, Giulia; Francini, Edoardo; Tomao, Silverio

    2013-01-01

    Neutropenia is a common toxicity in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In this prospective pilot study, we compared the efficacy and safety profiles of pegfilgrastim administered subcutaneously once per cycle and lenograstim administered subcutaneously daily six times per cycle, for primary neutropenia prophylaxis in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Twenty women were enrolled. All patients received epirubicin 100 mg/m(2) with 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 and every 21 days thereafter, according to the FEC 100 chemotherapy regimen. Eight patients received a single dose of pegfilgrastim on day 2, while 12 patients were treated with daily administration of lenograstim from days five to ten. Absolute neutrophil count and duration of grade 3-4 neutropenia were monitored using seriated blood samples. The incidence of bone pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS). The incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia was 75% in patients who received pegfilgrastim, and 25% in patients who received lenograstim. One case of febrile neutropenia was shown in pegfilgrastim patients. The mean duration of grade 3-4 neutropenia was 2 days in pegfilgrastim group versus 1.4 days in the lenograstim group. Bone pain was present in 37.5% of pegfilgrastim patients versus 58.3% of lenograstim patients. The mean duration of bone pain in the pegfilgrastim group was 4 days versus 6 days in the lenograstim group. In our experience, a single injection of pegfilgrastim was less effective for controlling neutropenia than six daily injections of lenograstim. The safety profiles of pegfilgrastim and lenograstim were similar with a lower incidence of bone pain in patients treated with pegfilgrastim.

  16. Lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 is an unfavorable prognostic factor but is associated with better survival in stage II colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chieh; Su, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Lin, Chun-Mao; Fang, Chih-Yeu; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chi-Long

    2017-02-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers worldwide. Surgery is the main therapeutic modality for stage II CRC. However, the implementation of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial and is not universally applied so far. In this study, we found that the protein expression of lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 (ACP2) was increased in CRC and that stage II CRC patients with high ACP2 expression showed a poorer outcome than those with low ACP2 expression (p = 0.004). To investigate this discrepancy, we analyzed the relation between ACP2 expression and several clinical cofactors.Among patients who received chemotherapy, those with an high expression of ACP2 showed better survival in both stage II and III CRC than those with low ACP2 expression. In stage II CRC patients, univariate analysis showed ACP2 expression and T stage to be cofactors significantly associated with overall survival (ACP2: p = 0.006; T stage: p = 0.034). Multivariate Cox proportion hazard model analysis also revealed ACP2 to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (ACP2: p = 0.006; T stage: p = 0.041). Furthermore, ACP2-knockdown CRC cells showed an increase in chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment and increased proliferation marker in the ACP2 knockdown clone.Taken together, our results suggested that ACP2 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for stage II CRC and may serve as a potential chemotherapy-sensitive marker to help identify a subset of stage II and III CRC patients for whom chemotherapy would improve survival.Highlights1. To the best of our knowledge, the study is the first report to show ACP2 overexpression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and its association with poor outcome in stage II CRC.2. Patients with stage II and III CRCs with high expression of ACP2 were more sensitive to chemotherapy than those with a low expression.3. ACP2 expression may serve as a marker for CRC patients receiving chemotherapy and help identify the subset of CRC patients who would

  17. Robot-assisted Versus Open Radical Cystectomy in Patients Receiving Perioperative Chemotherapy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: The Oncologist's Perspective from a Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Necchi, Andrea; Pond, Gregory R; Smaldone, Marc C; Pal, Sumanta K; Chan, Kevin; Wong, Yu-Ning; Viterbo, Rosalia; Sonpavde, Guru; Harshman, Lauren C; Crabb, Simon; Alva, Ajjai; Chowdhury, Simon; De Giorgi, Ugo; Srinivas, Sandy; Agarwal, Neeraj; Bamias, Aristotelis; Baniel, Jack; Golshayan, Ali-Reza; Ladoire, Sylvain; Sternberg, Cora N; Cerbone, Linda; Yu, Evan Y; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Niegisch, Gunter; Hussain, Syed; Bowles, Daniel W; Morales-Barrera, Rafael; Milowsky, Matthew I; Theodore, Christine; Berthold, Dominik R; Sridhar, Srikala S; Powles, Thomas; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D

    2017-03-31

    Little is known about the outcomes of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) compared to open radical cystectomy (ORC) combined with perioperative chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). To evaluate surgical and oncological outcomes for RARC and ORC in multimodal treatment. Data from 28 centres were collected for cystectomies performed between January 2000 and July 2013. RARC or ORC combined with perioperative chemotherapy for UBC. Fisher's exact tests, χ(2) tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare the RARC and ORC groups. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential prognostic factors. A total of 688 patients (n=603 ORC and n=85 RARC) were analysed; 60.6% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 45.1% adjuvant chemotherapy. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were found between the groups. The median time from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy was 1.9 mo for both RARC and ORC groups. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 21 (interquartile range [IQR] 14-35) for RARC and 13 (IQR 8-21) for ORC (p<0.001); the results were confirmed in subgroup analyses. Multivariable analyses revealed no difference in the rate of positive surgical margins (p=0.54 and p=0.78), rate of neobladder diversion (p=0.33 and p=0.51), relapse-free survival (p=0.31 and p=0.23), and overall survival (p=0.63 and p=0.69). The retrospective nature of the data is the major limitation. In this study, no differences in efficacy outcomes or ability to deliver adjuvant chemotherapy were observed between RARC and ORC. The increasing use of RARC is justifiable from an oncological viewpoint. In a retrospective study of patients who received perioperative chemotherapy for urothelial bladder cancer, we found no difference in key outcomes between robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and open radical cystectomy. Performing RARC seems to be justifiable in the multidisciplinary setting. Copyright © 2017 European

  18. A modified filgrastim regimen does not reduce pain burden compared to pegfilgrastim in women receiving chemotherapy for non-metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Leung, Mova; Florendo, Joy; Kano, Jessica; Marr-Del Monte, Tiffany; Higgins, Brian; Myers, Robert; Menon, Trishala; Jones, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    The short half-life of filgrastim allows for modification in the dose or duration of prophylaxis to limit inconvenience, adverse effects, and cost. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare pain and neutropenic events between filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. A prospective, observational study was performed. Eligible patients had non-metastatic breast cancer and were to receive adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with prophylaxis for febrile neutropenia. The prophylaxis used was a fixed-dose regimen of filgrastim 300 μg subcutaneously once daily for 7 days or pegfilgrastim 6 mg subcutaneously for 1 day. Participants completed a pain diary once a day for 14 days commencing the evening of the patient's first chemotherapy. Telephone interviews occurred at two instances within 2 weeks after their first treatment. The primary endpoints of this study were the difference in pain and incidences of neutropenia. Muscle pain, pain burden, and potential risk factors for pain were also explored. A total of 142 women were enrolled, 94 with pegfilgrastim and 48 with filgrastim. Filgrastim was associated with worse joint and muscle pain compared to pegfilgrastim. Joint pain was present in 38 and 26 % of diary entries for filgrastim and pegfilgrastim, respectively (p = 0.009). The mean AUC for joint pain score across 14 days, normalized to 100, were 6.0 for pegfilgrastim and 8.6 for filgrastim in patients receiving non-docetaxel chemotherapy and 14.6 for pegfilgrastim and 21.5 for filgrastim in patients receiving docetaxel-based chemotherapy (p = 0.037). Muscle pain patterns and frequencies were similar to joint pain. There were no statistical differences in febrile neutropenia and neutropenic events. Both filgrastim and pegfilgrastim caused significant pain burden. A fixed-dose regimen of filgrastim may be effective, but offers no advantage to minimize muscle or joint pain and, in fact, appears to cause greater and more frequent pain.

  19. An observational study to examine changes in metabolic syndrome components in patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Wong, Louise; Waliany, Sarah; Bernstein, Leslie; Salehian, Behrouz; Mortimer, Joanne E

    2016-09-01

    The authors sought to determine the effect of chemotherapy on the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women undergoing (neo)adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. A total of 86 women with early-stage (AJCC stage I-III) breast cancer who were free from clinically diagnosed MetS (defined as 3 of 5 components of MetS) were prospectively tested for the presence of the 5 components of MetS within 1 week before initiating and after completing (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. The 5 components of MetS measured were waist circumference; blood pressure; and fasting levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Anthropometrics (body weight, percentage body fat, fat mass), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), glucose metabolism (insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin), and inflammation (C-reactive protein) also were examined before initiating and after completing treatment. The current study included 46 premenopausal and 40 postmenopausal women. All individual MetS components and the overall MetS score were found to be statistically significantly increased (P<.01) after chemotherapy. Body weight, percentage body fat, fat mass, lipids, glucose metabolism, and inflammation also were found to be statistically significantly increased (P<.01). A 12-week to 18-week course of chemotherapy appears to statistically significantly increase MetS and related anthropometrics, biomarkers of glucose metabolism, and inflammation in patients with early-stage breast cancer with no preexisting MetS. Lifestyle interventions such as diet and exercise may be preventive approaches for use during chemotherapy to reduce the onset of MetS in patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2646-2653. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. Frequency of hepatic contour abnormalities and signs of portal hypertension at CT in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to the liver.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Aliya; Lee, Gerard K; Yeh, Benjamin M; Allen, Jill N; Venook, Alan P; Coakley, Fergus V

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of hepatic contour abnormalities and signs of portal hypertension at serial CT in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to the liver. We retrospectively identified 91 women with breast cancer metastatic to the liver who received chemotherapy and underwent serial CT at our institution between 1998 and 2002. Two readers independently categorized hepatic contour abnormalities on the final CT examination as none, limited retraction, widespread retraction, or diffuse nodularity. Readers also recorded the development of hepatic atrophy or enlargement, ascites, portosystemic collateral veins, and splenomegaly. Interpretative discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Portal hypertension was defined as the presence of at least two of the following CT signs: simple ascites, portosystemic collateral veins, and splenomegaly. After a median follow-up interval of 15 months (range, 1-46), hepatic contour abnormalities were seen in 68 of 91 patients (75%) and consisted of limited retraction (n = 42), widespread retraction (n = 10), or diffuse nodularity (n = 16). Portal hypertension was found in 1 of 23 patients without contour abnormalities, in 1 of 42 patients with limited retraction, in none of 10 patients with widespread retraction, and in 6 of 16 patients with diffuse nodularity (P < .01). Hepatic contour abnormalities commonly develop at serial CT in patients undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to the liver and may be accompanied by signs of portal hypertension; the latter are particularly, but not exclusively, associated with the development of diffuse hepatic nodularity.

  1. Effects of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms in patients receiving cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Haroun, F; Al-Shaar, L; Habib, R H; El-Saghir, N; Tfayli, A; Bazarbachi, A; Salem, Z; Shamseddine, A; Taher, A; Cascorbi, I; Zgheib, N K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency of three CYP2B6 [CYP2B6*4 (rs2279343), CYP2B6*5 (rs3211371) and CYP2B6*9 (rs3745274)] alleles in patients with breast cancer receiving cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy and test whether these variants are predictors of CP-associated toxicity and efficacy. A total of 145 female breast cancer patients admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center for breast cancer-related therapy were included. Chart review was performed for collection of toxicity data. A time-to-event analysis was performed with a subset of 38 patients. The minor allele frequencies of CYP2B6*9, CYP2B6*4 and CYP2B6*5 were 0.27, 0.29 and 0.07, respectively. CYP2B6 *5/*6, *6/*9 or *6/*6 haplotypes were associated with a significantly shorter time to recurrence of the disease. There were no significant associations with myelo-toxicity. This is the first report on the pharmacogenetic profile of patients with breast cancer and the therapeutic and myelo-toxic behavior of CP in women from an Arab Middle Eastern country. Our results show that genotyping for these CYP2B6 alleles does not help in personalizing therapy from a toxicity perspective, and the association of shorter survival in these subjects with homozygous variants is interesting yet insufficient to justify routine genotyping prior to therapy, or to consider using a higher CP dose. Larger future studies or meta-analyses will be needed to further clarify the potential implication of these genetic polymorphisms.

  2. Comparison of Problem-Solving Performance between Adults Receiving Credit via Assessment of Prior Learning and Adults Completing Classroom Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGrow, Maryanne R.; Scheckley, Barry G.; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2002-01-01

    Business management students who earned prior learning credit through portfolios (n=27) and 27 who completed coursework were compared. Results indicated that metacognitive skills can be developed outside the classroom to an equal or greater level. Portfolio development assisted learners in articulating tacit knowledge they acquired through…

  3. Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Jose G.; Luxton, Gary; Kozak, Margaret M.; Anderson, Eric M.; Hancock, Steven L.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters. Results: Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0chemotherapy received. Patients receiving P-IMRT ± 5FU have better bone marrow tolerance than those receiving irradiation concurrent with either Cis or MMC. Treatment with MMC has a lower TD{sub 50} and more steeply rising normal tissue complication probability curve compared with treatment with Cis. Dose tolerance of PBM and the LSS subsite may be lower for

  4. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Patient Received Combination Chemotherapy Gemcitabine, Cisplatin, and 5-FU for Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aznab, Mozaffar; Khazaei, Mansour

    2016-06-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been an acute, usually self-limiting disease of the skin and mucous membranes. This case report has presented an evidence of the development Stevens - Johnson syndrome associated with combination chemotherapy administration of 5FU, gemcitabin and cisplatin in a patient with biliary tract cancer. Our case was a 54-year-old woman patient, a case of biliary tract cancer who has developed more severe symptoms of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Diagnosis has confirmed by skin biopsy of an affected area .The patient has improved with supportive care, and during 25 day occurred recovery. Although Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been a rare toxicity, physicians should pay a special attention to the monitoring of biliary tract cancer patients on combination chemotherapy with 5FU, cisplatin and gemcitabin.

  5. History of chronic comorbidity and risk of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in cancer patients not receiving G-CSF prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Chao, C; Page, J H; Yang, S-J; Rodriguez, R; Huynh, J; Chia, V M

    2014-09-01

    Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) is a clinically important complication that affects patient outcome by delaying chemotherapy doses or reducing dose intensity. Risk of FN depends on chemotherapy- and patient-level factors. We sought to determine the effects of chronic comorbidities on risk of FN. We conducted a cohort study to examine the association between a variety of chronic comorbidities and risk of FN in patients diagnosed with six types of cancer (non-Hodgkin lymphoma and breast, colorectal, lung, ovary, and gastric cancer) from 2000 to 2009 who were treated with chemotherapy at Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a large managed care organization. We excluded those patients who received primary prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. History of comorbidities and FN events were identified using electronic medical records. Cox models adjusting for propensity score, stratified by cancer type, were used to determine the association between comorbid conditions and FN. Models that additionally adjusted for cancer stage, baseline neutrophil count, chemotherapy regimen, and dose reduction were also evaluated. A total of 19 160 patients with mean age of 60 years were included; 963 (5.0%) developed FN in the first chemotherapy cycle. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.30 (1.07-1.57)], congestive heart failure [HR = 1.43 (1.00-1.98)], HIV infection [HR = 3.40 (1.90-5.63)], autoimmune disease [HR = 2.01 (1.10-3.33)], peptic ulcer disease [HR = 1.57 (1.05-2.26)], renal disease [HR = 1.60 (1.21-2.09)], and thyroid disorder [HR = 1.32 (1.06-1.64)] were all associated with a significantly increased FN risk. These results provide evidence that history of several chronic comorbidities increases risk of FN, which should be considered when managing patients during chemotherapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For

  6. Registry study to assess hair loss prevention with the Penguin Cold Cap in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rice, Brooke A; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; DeLuca, Amy N; Esserman, Laura J; Rugo, Hope S; Melisko, Michelle E

    2017-09-18

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a distressing side effect of cancer treatment. The aim of this registry study was to assess efficacy and tolerability of scalp hypothermia using Penguin Cold Caps (Penguin) in breast cancer patients. Hair loss was assessed by patients using a 100-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and by physicians using the 5-point Dean Scale at baseline, every 3-4 weeks during chemotherapy, and at least 1 month after completion of chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint for success was defined as ≤50% hair loss by patient report (VAS) at follow-up (FUP). Tolerability and satisfaction were assessed by patient report. 103 patients enrolled between 7/2010 and 6/2015; 97 are evaluable for the primary endpoint. Chemotherapy included docetaxel/cyclophosphamide (TC; n = 50) for 4-6 cycles every 3 weeks, weekly paclitaxel for 12 weeks then doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (P/AC; n = 23) for 4 cycles every 2-3 weeks, AC then paclitaxel (AC/P; n = 10), docetaxel/carboplatin ± trastuzumab (TCH; n = 4) for 4-6 cycles every 3 weeks. Overall, 61% of patients successfully prevented CIA; impact was regimen specific: TCH 100%, TC × 4 84%, TC × 5-6 50%, P/AC 43%, AC/P 20%. The most common toxicity was headache, reported by 78.5% of patients with mean pain level 37/100. Satisfaction among those who completed scalp cooling (SC) and FUP ranged from 74 to 100%. All patients who completed SC/FUP recommended Penguin. Scalp hypothermia with Penguin is effective in reducing alopecia, particularly for non-anthracycline-based shorter regimens. Penguin was well tolerated and viewed favorably by most patients.

  7. Modeling of live-birth rates and cost-effectiveness of oocyte cryopreservation for cancer patients prior to high- and low-risk gonadotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lyttle Schumacher, B; Grover, N; Mesen, T; Steiner, A; Mersereau, J

    2017-10-01

    What is the live-birth rate (LBR) and cost-effectiveness of fertility preservation with oocyte cryopreservation (FP-OC) compared to expectant management in cancer patients age 25-40 based on estimated gonadotoxicity of treatments 5 years after cancer diagnosis? Oocyte cryopreservation prior to cancer treatment is more costly, yet more effective (producing more live births), than not undergoing oocyte cryopreservation but it is most beneficial for patients undergoing high-risk chemotherapy (HRC). The decision to undergo FP prior to treatment is multifactorial and can be costly and delay treatment. Not all treatments carry the same gonadotoxicity and patients may choose to undergo FP-OC based on the probability of premature ovarian insufficiency, predicted outcomes and cost. A comprehensive model that incorporates age at diagnosis and toxicity of treatment to help guide patients in the decision to undergo FP-OC does not yet exist. This study used a Decision Analysis Model to estimate effectiveness and cost of FP for cancer patients. Age-based estimates of LBR and cost per live birth were calculated for ages 25-40 years based on gonadotoxicity of treatment. A decision analysis model was constructed using Treeage Pro 2015 with case base probabilities derived from national registries, practice guidelines and medical records from a national network of infertility practices (IntegraMed). Compared to no FP-OC, FP-OC improved LBRs for women of all ages undergoing either low-risk chemotherapy (LRC) or HRC; however, it was most cost effective for women undergoing LRC at older ages or HRC at younger ages. Although FP-OC results in higher LBRs, it was always more costly. Using donor oocyte IVF can be a successful alternative to autologous FP-OC. Decision tree results reflect probabilities of certain events and are compiled from multiple reputable sources but are not directly derived from a recruited cohort of patients. Outcomes are based on United States estimates and should be

  8. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy for breast cancer: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Waks, Adrienne G; Tolaney, Sara M; Galar, Alicia; Arnaout, Amal; Porter, Julie B; Marty, Francisco M; Winer, Eric P; Hammond, Sarah P; Baden, Lindsey R

    2015-11-01

    Opportunistic infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) has not been recognized as a significant complication of early-stage breast cancer treatment. However, we have observed an increase in PCP incidence among patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Herein we identify risk factors for and calculate incidence of PCP in this population. We identified all cases of PCP at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital (DFCI/BWH) from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2013 in patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated with an adriamycin/cyclophosphamide (AC)-containing regimen. Nineteen cases of PCP in non-metastatic breast cancer patients were identified. All patients with PCP were diagnosed after receipt of either three or four cycles of AC chemotherapy on a dose-dense schedule. Patients who developed PCP were treated with median 16.4 mg prednisone equivalents/day as nausea prophylaxis for a median 64 days. The overall incidence of PCP among 2057 patients treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant dose-dense AC for three or more cycles was 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval 0.3-1.0 %). No PCP was diagnosed in 1001 patients treated with non-dose-dense AC. There was one death from PCP. Women receiving dose-dense AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer are at risk for PCP. Administering the same chemotherapy and corticosteroid dose over an 8-week versus 12-week non-dose-dense schedule appears to have created a novel infectious vulnerability. Replacing dexamethasone with alternative anti-emetics may mitigate this risk.

  9. Attitudes of physicians toward assessing risk and using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as primary prophylaxis in patients receiving chemotherapy associated with an intermediate risk of febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Freyer, Gilles; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Marinca, Mihai; Tonini, Giuseppe; Ng, Say Liang; Wong, Zee Wan; Salar, Antonio; Steger, Guenther; Abdelsalam, Mahmoud; DeCosta, Lucy; Szabo, Zsolt

    2015-10-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a potentially fatal complication of chemotherapy. This prospective, observational study describes physicians' approaches toward assessing FN risk in patients receiving chemotherapy regimens with an intermediate (10-20 %) FN risk. In the baseline investigator assessment, physicians selected factors considered important when assessing overall FN risk and deciding on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) primary prophylaxis (PP). Physicians then completed patient assessments using the same lists of factors. The final FN risk scores and whether G-CSF PP was planned were reported. The final analysis included 165 physicians and 944 patients. The most frequently considered factor in both assessments was chemotherapy agents in the backbone (88 % of investigator and 93 % of patient assessments). History of FN (83 %), baseline laboratory values (76 %) and age (73 %) were commonly selected at baseline, whereas tumor type (72 %), guidelines (62 %) and tumor stage (43 %) were selected most during patient assessments. Median investigator-reported FN risk threshold for G-CSF PP was 20 % (range 10-85 %). G-CSF PP was planned in 82 % of patients with an FN risk at or above this threshold; therefore, almost one-fifth of qualifying patients would not receive G-CSF PP. Physicians generally follow guidelines, but also consider individual patient characteristics when assessing FN risk and deciding on G-CSF PP. A standardized FN risk assessment may optimize the use of G-CSF PP, which may minimize the incidence of FN in patients undergoing chemotherapy with an intermediate FN risk. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813721.

  10. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Yao, Ming; Wu, Un-In; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Ting; Li, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Shang-Ju; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6%) patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR) or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs). Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106). Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100–2.141), p value = 0.012). Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided. PMID:26061179

  11. Problems of interpretation of serum concentrations of alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignant germ cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Coppack, S.; Newlands, E. S.; Dent, J.; Mitchell, H.; Goka, G.; Bagshawe, K. D.

    1983-01-01

    Serial determinations of serum alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) concentrations are well established in monitoring the response to therapy of malignant germ cell tumours. Using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a sensitivity down to 2kul-1 the majority (57%) of 28 patients with non-AFP producing germ cell tumours had measurable immunologically-reactive AFP in their serum while on treatment. Follow-up for 11-43 months (mean 27) without evidence of tumour activity indicated that this immunologically-reactive AFP was unlikely to be produced by tumour. In patients where the initial serum AFP was raised prior to chemotherapy the AFP concentration did not fall to the normal range at the end of the treatment in 16 (32%) of 41 patients. Follow-up of these patients for 9-48 months (mean 27) has resulted in 5 (12%) relapses in this group. Serum AFP greater than 20kul-1 three months after stopping chemotherapy was a good indicator of residual active tumour and 4 (57%) of 7 patients in this group relapsed. The production of detectable serum AFP is probably related to the type of chemotherapy used and only 7 (14%) of 51 patients treated for gestational choriocarcinoma had detectable AFP concentrations while on cytotoxic chemotherapy. The problem of interpretation of serum AFP concentration in patients with malignant germ cell tumour stresses the need to determine whether there are differences between AFP produced by germ cell tumours and that produced at other sites as a basis for a sensitive assay system able to discriminate between them. PMID:6193801

  12. Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Gabapentin for the Prevention of Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy, NCCTG N08C3 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Debra L.; Thanarajasingam, Gita; Sloan, Jeff A.; Diekmann, Brent; Fuloria, Jyotsna; Kottschade, Lisa A.; Lyss, Alan P.; Jaslowski, Anthony J.; Mazurczak, Miroslaw A.; Blair, Scott C.; Terstriep, Shelby; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite targeted antiemetics, data support an unmet need related to the management of delayed nausea and vomiting (NV). Promising pilot data informed this phase III trial evaluating gabapentin for delayed NV from highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). METHODS Participants were randomized to receive prophylactic treatment with 20 mg of dexamethasone and a 5HT3 receptor antagonist (RA) on the day of chemotherapy, followed by gabapentin 300 mg twice a day and dexamethasone (dex) or placebo and dex after HEC. Gabapentin/placebo was started the day of chemotherapy and continued through day 5 for the first chemotherapy cycle, whereas dex was titrated down on days 2–4. The primary end point was complete response (CR), defined as no emesis and no use of rescue medications on days 2–6, using an NV diary. The percentages of those in each group with a CR were compared by Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS Four hundred thirty patients were enrolled in this study. Forty-seven percent of patients in the gabapentin arm and 41% in the placebo arm had a CR (P = .23). Mean number of emesis episodes was <0.5 daily, and mean nausea severity was <2 (mild). In both arms, patient satisfaction with NV control was greater than 8 (with 10 being perfectly satisfied). There were no significant differences in unwanted side effects. CONCLUSIONS In this study, gabapentin did not significantly improve delayed NV. Patients were satisfied with the control of their nausea and vomiting irrespective of arm. The use of a 5HT3 RA and dexamethasone provided good control of nausea and vomiting for most patients. PMID:25043153

  13. Reduction of Inappropriate Prophylactic Pegylated Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Use for Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Who Receive Chemotherapy: An ASCO Quality Training Program Project of the Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lindsey Martin; Moeller, Machelle B; Azzouqa, Abdel-Ghani; Guthrie, Amy E; Dalby, Carole K; Earl, Marc A; Cheng, Connie; Pennell, Nathan A; Shapiro, Marc; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Stevenson, James P

    2016-01-01

    Routine prophylactic pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (pGCSF) administration for patients receiving chemotherapy regimens associated with low risk (< 10%) for neutropenic fever (LRNF) is not recommended. Inappropriate use of pGCSF increases patient morbidity and health care costs. A multidisciplinary team reviewed the charts of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at the Taussig Cancer Institute in whom a new chemotherapy regimen was initiated from April through November 2013. pGCSF use was identified and deemed appropriate if prescribed for chemotherapy associated with high risk of neutropenic fever (> 20%) or intermediate risk (10% to 20%) if other risk factors for neutropenic fever were present. Use with LRNF chemotherapy was recorded as inappropriate. One hundred eighty patients with NSCLC received a new chemotherapy regimen during the specified time period. Thirty-four of 119 patients (28%) treated with LRNF chemotherapy received pGCSF. Each patient received an average of 2.6 doses of pGCSF (total, 89 doses). We implemented three plan-do-study-act cycles: education of providers, development of Taussig Cancer Institute consensus guidelines for pGCSF in NSCLC, and removal of standing pGCSF orders from LRNF chemotherapy in the electronic medical record. Analysis during the change period revealed 4% of patients with NSCLC treated with LRNF chemotherapy received pGCSF. Cost analysis showed an 84% decrease in billed charges per month. No increase in neutropenic fever admissions was found. pGCSF was excessively prescribed for patients with NSCLC. Factors contributing to inappropriate use included provider lack of familiarity with guidelines and knowledge with regard to the risk of neutropenic fever for individual chemotherapy regimens, and electronic medical record chemotherapy templates that contain standing GCSF orders. Interventions to address these gaps quickly produced improved compliance with guidelines and led to significant cost

  14. Impact of paroxetine on sleep problems in 426 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A trial from the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program

    PubMed Central

    Palesh, Oxana G.; Mustian, Karen M.; Peppone, Luke J.; Janelsins, Michelle; Sprod, Lisa K.; Kesler, Shelli; Innominato, Pasquale F.; Roth, Thomas; Manber, Rachel; Heckler, Charles; Fiscella, Kevin; Morrow, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep problems are a frequent distressing symptom in cancer patients, yet little is known about their treatment. Sleep problems and depression frequently co-occur, leading healthcare professionals to treat depression with the expectation that sleep problems will also improve. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of paroxetine to placebo on sleep problems via a secondary data analysis of a RCT designed to compare the effects of paroxetine to placebo on fatigue in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. A previously published report found a significant effect of paroxetine on depression in this cohort. Methods A total of 426 patients were randomized following Cycle 2 of chemotherapy to receive either 20 mg of paroxetine or placebo. Sleep problems were assessed using questions from the Hamilton Depression Inventory three times during chemotherapy. Results A total of 217 patients received paroxetine and 209 received placebo. Significantly fewer patients taking paroxetine reported sleep problems compared to patients on placebo (Paroxetine 79% versus Placebo 88%; p < 0.05). These differences remained significant even after controlling for baseline sleep problems and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusion Paroxetine had a significant benefit on sleep problems in both depressed and non-depressed cancer patients. However, rates of sleep problems remained high even among those effectively treated for depression with paroxetine. There is a need to develop and deliver sleep-specific interventions to effectively treat sleep-related side effects of cancer treatments. These findings suggest that sleep problems and depression are prevalent and co-morbid. Cancer progression, its response to treatment, and overall patient survival are intricately linked to host factors, such as inflammatory response and circadian rhythms, including sleep/wake cycles. Sleep problems and depression are modifiable host factors that can influence inflammation and impact cancer

  15. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in oncology patients receiving Cisplatin chemotherapy: Predicted creatinine clearance against 99mTc-DTPA methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaidah Syed Sahab, Sharifah; Manap, Mahayuddin; Hamzah, Fadzilah

    2017-05-01

    The therapeutic potential of cisplatin as the best anticancer treatment for solid tumor is limited by its potential nephrotoxicity. This study analyses the incidence of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in oncology patients through GFR estimation using 99mTc-DTPA plasma sampling (reference method) and to compare with predicted creatinine clearance and Tc-99m renal scintigraphy. A prospective study of 33 oncology patients referred for GFR estimation in Penang Hospital. The incidence of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity was analysed via radionuclide and creatinine based method. Of 33 samples, only 21 selected for the study. The dose of cisplatin given was 75 mg/m2 for each cycle. The mean difference of GFR pre and post chemotherapy (PSC 2) was 13.38 (-4.60, 31.36) ml/min/1.73m2 (p 0.136). Of 21 patients, 3 developed severe nephrotoxicity (GFR < 50ml/min/1.73 m2) contributing 14.3% of incidence. Bland-Altman plot showed only PSC 1 is in agreement with PSC 2 technique. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) also showed that PSC 1 has high degree of reliability in comparison to PSC 2 (p < 0.001). The other methods do not show reliability and agreement in comparison to PSC 2 (p < 0.05). 3 of 21 patients (14.3%) developed severe nephrotoxicity post cisplatin chemotherapy. This percentage is much less than the reported 20 - 25% of cases from other studies, probably due to small sample size and biased study population due to strict exclusion criteria. Radionuclide method for evaluating GFR is the most sensitive method for the detection of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by showing 3 of 21 patients developing severe nephrotoxicity. PSC 1 was found to be a reliable substitute of PSC 2. The other methods are not reliable for detection of early nephrotoxicity. We will recommend the use of single plasma sampling method (PSC 1) for GFR estimation in monitoring post cisplatin chemotherapy patients.

  16. Randomized phase III trial of APF530 versus palonosetron in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in a subset of patients with breast cancer receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Ralph; O'Boyle, Erin; Cooper, William

    2016-02-26

    APF530 provides controlled, sustained-release granisetron for preventing acute (0-24 h) and delayed (24-120 h) chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). In a phase III trial, APF530 was noninferior to palonosetron in preventing acute CINV following single-dose moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and delayed CINV in MEC (MEC and HEC defined by Hesketh criteria). This exploratory subanalysis was conducted in the breast cancer subpopulation. Patients were randomized to subcutaneous APF530 250 or 500 mg (granisetron 5 or 10 mg) or intravenous palonosetron 0.25 mg during cycle 1. Palonosetron patients were randomized to APF530 for cycles 2 to 4. The primary efficacy end point was complete response (CR, no emesis or rescue medication) in cycle 1. Among breast cancer patients (n = 423 MEC, n = 185 HEC), > 70 % received anthracycline-containing regimens in each emetogenicity subgroup. There were no significant between-group differences in CRs in cycle 1 for acute (APF530 250 mg: MEC 71 %, HEC 77 %; 500 mg: MEC 73 %, HEC 73 %; palonosetron: MEC 68 %, HEC 66 %) and delayed (APF530 250 mg: MEC 46 %, HEC 58 %; 500 mg: MEC 48 %, HEC 63 %; palonosetron: MEC 52 %, HEC 52 %) CINV. There were no significant differences in within-cycle CRs between APF530 doses for acute and delayed CINV in MEC or HEC in cycles 2 to 4; CRs trended higher in later cycles, with no notable differences in adverse events between breast cancer and overall populations. APF530 effectively prevented acute and delayed CINV over 4 chemotherapy cycles in breast cancer patients receiving MEC or HEC. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00343460 (June 22, 2006).

  17. Addition of 3-day aprepitant to ondansetron and dexamethasone for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma receiving 5-day cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Raafat; Abbas, Noha; Shohdy, Kyrillus S; Ismail, Mohamed; Fawzy, Radwa; Salem, Dalal S; Safwat, Ezzat

    2017-09-01

    Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant are currently emerging as powerful prophylactic agents for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Therefore, it is important to adjust the anti-emetic regimens based on personal risk factors of the patient, duration of the chemotherapy regimen and cost-effectiveness. To determine the efficacy of the 3-day aprepitant along with ondansetron and dexamethasone in controlling CINV in patients with large B cell lymphoma receiving multiday-cisplatin regimen chemotherapy. This is a pilot prospective cross-over trial. Patients were allocated to either aprepitant 125mg on day 1 and 80mg on days 2 & 3 or placebo in the first 2 cycles, with crossover to the opposite treatment in the 3rd and 4th cycles. The primary end point was complete response (CR) of both acute (days 1-5) and delayed (days 6-8) CINV. CR means neither to develop emetic episodes nor to use rescue anti-emetics medication. Twelve of the 15 patients recruited for the study were fully evaluable and completed 4 cycles of ESHAP regimen with a total of 48 cycles given. In the cycles with aprepitant and those without the CR were 83.3% and 0% respectively (p<0.05). Patients receiving aprepitant in the first 2 cycles recorded less nausea in subsequent cycles that were given without aprepitant. This was not statistically significant. This triple anti-emetic regimen showed efficacy in controlling the multi-day cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to compare between 3-day and 7-day aprepitant for multi-day cisplatin regimens. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Enhanced cis-platinum ototoxicity in children with brain tumours who have received simultaneous or prior cranial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A.; Pillow, J.; Waters, K.D.; Keir, E.

    1989-01-01

    We report on four children who received cis-platinum simultaneously with, or in one case 10 months after, cranial irradiation and experienced exaggerated ototoxicity affecting all audible frequencies. The hearing loss was severe, affecting the critical areas for speech perception, and necessitated the provision of bilateral hearing aids. The audiograms of these patients are shown and compared to those of four children who had received cis-platinum as part of their treatment for neuroblastoma but without cranial irradiation. The precipitation of the exaggerated hearing loss with the administration of cis-platinum in one patient 10 months after finishing cranial irradiation suggests that care should be taken in the timing of cis-platinum administration in relation to concurrent or previous cranial irradiation.

  19. Second-line therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): treatment patterns and outcomes in older patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Danese, Mark D; Griffiths, Robert I; Gleeson, Michelle L; Dalvi, Tapashi; Li, Jingyi; Mikhael, Joseph R; Deeter, Robert; Dreyling, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Using SEER-Medicare linked data we identified elderly patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) between January 2000 and December 2007 who received second-line outpatient chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory disease. Second-line regimens were classified into three mutually exclusive groups: aggressive, conventional, and palliative. Of the 632 (426 relapsed, 206 refractory) patients in the cohort, 27.8% received aggressive second-line therapy, 39.1% received conventional therapy, and 33.1% received palliative therapy. There were no differences in survival by type of therapy received, either for relapsed or refractory patients, although the patient risk profile differed significantly. However, duration of remission, male gender, and anemia at diagnosis were important predictors in relapsed patients, and male gender, B-symptoms, comorbidity burden, and poverty status were important predictors in refractory patients. Survival in elderly patients receiving second-line therapy remains poor, and the 24-month cost of all care exceeds $97,000. Patients would benefit from improved treatment options.

  20. The prognostic and predictive significance of PARP-1 in locally advanced breast cancer of Egyptian patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Aiad, Hayam A; Kandil, Mona A H; El-Tahmody, Mohammed A; Abulkheir, Iman L; Abulkasem, Fatma M; Elmansori, Asma A; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A

    2015-09-01

    PARP-1 is a chromatin-associated enzyme that has a role in DNA repair and cell death. PARP-1 inhibitors are suggested therapy specifically for BRCA deficient breast carcinoma; however, their efficacy in sporadic breast cancer is under investigations. This study aimed to evaluate the PARP-1 in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) cases to determine its predictive significance for outcome and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). This retrospective study was conducted on 84 LABC cases. Immunohistochemical expression of nuclear PARP-1 (nPARP-1) and cytoplasmic PARP-1 (cPARP-1) was evaluated in pretreatment needle core biopsies (NCBs). Results were correlated with clinicopathologic features, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and response to NCT in postoperative specimens. High nPARP-1expression was observed in 64/84 (76%) of cases and was significantly associated with a lower lymph node stage (P=0.04). High cPARP-1 was observed in 40/84 (48%) of cases and it was significantly associated with lower lymph node stage (P=0.022) and lower tumor grade (P=0.050). High nPARP-1 expression was significantly associated with high cPARP-1 expression (P=0.005). Low cPARP-1 expression was associated with no response to chemotherapy in tumor site (P=0.021). According to the univariate survival analysis, high nPARP-1 and high cPARP-1 were significantly associated to longer OS (P=0.017 and P=0.019, respectively). High nPARP-1 but not cPARP-1 showed trend toward improved OS in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (P=0.053). PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression is a marker of good prognosis and is predictive of response to NCT in LABC.

  1. Psychometric evaluation and feasibility of the Greek Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (GR-PSQI) in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kotronoulas, Grigorios C; Papadopoulou, Constantina N; Papapetrou, Anastasia; Patiraki, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Quality of sleep in patients with cancer is regarded as of utmost importance. The aim of the present study was to assess psychometric properties and feasibility of the Greek version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (GR-PSQI). Following a "forward-backward" procedure, the scale was translated into Greek. The GR-PSQI was administered as a self-report instrument to 209 consecutive patients with cancer during active-phase chemotherapy treatment. For stability analysis purposes, a subgroup of 60 patients completed the GR-PSQI on two occasions, 14-21 days apart. All participants also completed the Insomnia Severity Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale-Greek version, a Sleep Quality-Visual Analogue Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Greek version. Validity and reliability analyses were performed for GR-PSQI data. The Chronbach's alpha for the global GR-PSQI score was 0.76. Test-retest reliability analysis for the global GR-PSQI score yielded a high intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.82 (p < 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis generated a two-factor structure for the GR-PSQI, [quality of nocturnal sleep] and [daily disturbances and management of sleep problems]. This construct was further supported by its high correlations with similar content instruments, as well as by the instrument's ability to discriminate well between contrasting groups of patients with different levels of anxiety, depression and performance status. The present findings support the GR-PSQI as a reliable, stable over time and valid sleep quality instrument when administered to patients with cancer during chemotherapy treatment; however, it is suggested that the use of a two-factor scoring method (instead of the traditional unidimensional) could improve its sensitivity in this patient group.

  2. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition on simple renal cysts in patients receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Grenader, Tal; Shavit, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Although angiogenesis has been implicated in the promotion of renal cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, no studies have investigated the role of angiogenesis in the growth of simple renal cysts. The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of chemotherapy with the antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on renal cyst development and growth in cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 136 patients with a variety of cancers that were treated with bevacizumab-based chemotherapy for metastatic disease. The presence of and changes in renal cysts were evaluated by retrospective analysis of computed tomography scans performed for assessment of tumor response to bevacizumab-based therapy. The median age of the patients was 64 years. Renal cysts were identified in 66 patients, in whom 33 (50%) had a single cyst and the rest had 2 or more cysts. The average dose of bevacizumab was 2.68 mg/kg per week. Median duration of treatment was 33 weeks. Average cyst size was 1.9±2.4 cm at the beginning of the study and the majority of the cysts (54 patients, 84%) did not change in size or shape during bevacizumab treatment. No patients were identified with new cysts. Cyst size changed in 10 patients (16%): an increase of 15% to 40% from the baseline size in 5 patients and a decrease in size of 10% to 70% in another 5 patients. The duration of bevacizumab therapy was significantly longer in the subgroup of patients with diminished or increased cyst size than in the patients with stable cyst size: 62 weeks versus 29 weeks, respectively (p=0.0002). Our data demonstrated that simple renal cysts were stable in size and number in the vast majority of cancer patients treated with bevacizumab.

  3. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition on simple renal cysts in patients receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shavit, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although angiogenesis has been implicated in the promotion of renal cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, no studies have investigated the role of angiogenesis in the growth of simple renal cysts. The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of chemotherapy with the antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on renal cyst development and growth in cancer patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 136 patients with a variety of cancers that were treated with bevacizumab-based chemotherapy for metastatic disease. The presence of and changes in renal cysts were evaluated by retrospective analysis of computed tomography scans performed for assessment of tumor response to bevacizumab-based therapy. Results The median age of the patients was 64 years. Renal cysts were identified in 66 patients, in whom 33 (50%) had a single cyst and the rest had 2 or more cysts. The average dose of bevacizumab was 2.68 mg/kg per week. Median duration of treatment was 33 weeks. Average cyst size was 1.9±2.4 cm at the beginning of the study and the majority of the cysts (54 patients, 84%) did not change in size or shape during bevacizumab treatment. No patients were identified with new cysts. Cyst size changed in 10 patients (16%): an increase of 15% to 40% from the baseline size in 5 patients and a decrease in size of 10% to 70% in another 5 patients. The duration of bevacizumab therapy was significantly longer in the subgroup of patients with diminished or increased cyst size than in the patients with stable cyst size: 62 weeks versus 29 weeks, respectively (p=0.0002). Conclusions Our data demonstrated that simple renal cysts were stable in size and number in the vast majority of cancer patients treated with bevacizumab. PMID:26682018

  4. Risk factors for financial hardship in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a population-based exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Veena; Jolly, Sanjay; Blough, David; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-05-10

    Characteristics that predispose patients to financial hardship during cancer treatment are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a population-based exploratory analysis of potential factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence during and following adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between 2008 and 2010 were identified from a population-based cancer registry representing 13 counties in Washington state. Patients were asked to complete a comprehensive survey on treatment-related costs. Patients were considered to have experienced financial hardship if they accrued debt, sold or refinanced their home, borrowed money from friends or family, or experienced a 20% or greater decline in their annual income as a result of treatment-related expenses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence. A total of 284 responses were obtained from 555 eligible patients (response rate, 51.2%). Nearly all patients in the final sample were insured during treatment. In this sample, 38% of patients reported one or more financial hardships as a result of treatment. The factors most closely associated with treatment-related financial hardship were younger age and lower annual household income. Younger age, lower income, and unemployment or disability (which occurred in most instances following diagnosis) were most closely associated with treatment nonadherence. A significant proportion of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer may experience financial hardship, despite having health insurance coverage. Interventions to help at-risk patients early on during therapy may prevent long-term financial adverse effects.

  5. Propensity score matched assessment of treatment patterns and cost of erythropoiesis stimulating agent treatment in patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tunceli, Ozgur; Bailey, Robert A; Stephenson, Judith J; Singer, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    To examine epoetin alfa (EPO) and darbepoetin alfa (DARB) treatment patterns and erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) costs in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy (CRC), and to compare the results observed in the pre-matched total study population (TSP) with a propensity score matched population (PSMP). A medical claims analysis was conducted from 1 January 2004 through 31 July 2009 using the HealthCore Integrated Research Database. Patients were at least 18 years old, newly initiated on EPO or DARB, received ≥ 2 ESA doses, and had ≥ 1 claim for cancer and chemotherapy proximate to ESA treatment. Patients were matched using propensity scores. January 2010 Wholesale Acquisition Cost was used to calculate drug cost. Mean cumulative ESA dose and drug costs were evaluated in the TSP and PSMP. 4921 EPO and 9173 DARB patients with CRC were identified. In the TSP, mean cumulative ESA doses were EPO: 398,770 units and DARB: 1508 mcg, with similar treatment durations for each. Mean cumulative drug costs were EPO: $6041 and DARB: $7861 (30% higher for DARB). The cumulative dose ratio (EPO units: DARB mcg) was 264:1. The PSMP analysis identified 4831 ESA treated CRC patients in each group. Mean drug costs were EPO: $6055 and DARB: $7863 (30% higher for DARB). The observed dose ratio (EPO units: DARB mcg) was 265:1. In both analyses, the costs of DARB were higher, even after accounting for baseline differences in the PSMP. Similar trends in dose ratios were also observed in both groups.

  6. The impact of RSV, adenovirus, influenza, and parainfluenza infection in pediatric patients receiving stem cell transplant, solid organ transplant, or cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mindy S; Lee, Grace M; Gunawardane, Nilanthi; Burchett, Sandra K; Lachenauer, Catherine S; Lehmann, Leslie E

    2013-03-01

    RVIs are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. We analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of infection by four respiratory viruses (RSV, adenovirus, influenza, and parainfluenza) treated at a pediatric tertiary care hospital in a retrospective cohort of patients who had received cancer chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell, or SOT. A total of 208 infections were studied among 166 unique patients over a time period of 1993-2006 for transplant recipients, and 2000-2005 for patients with cancer. RSV was the most common respiratory virus identified. There were 17 (10% of all patients) deaths overall, of which 12 were at least partly attributed to the presence of a RVI. In multivariate models, LRT symptoms in the absence of upper respiratory symptoms on presentation (OR 10.2 [2.3, 45.7], p = 0.002) and adenoviral infection (OR 3.7 [1.1, 12.6], p = 0.034) were significantly associated with poor outcome, defined as death or disability related to RVI. All of the deaths occurred in patients who had received either solid organ or HSCT. There were no infections resulting in death or disability in the cancer chemotherapy group.

  7. Does internal mammary node irradiation affect treatment outcome in clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuv ant chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Kim, Yong Bae; Chang, Jee Suk; Keum, Ki Chang; Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the value of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) in patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using modern systemic therapy. Between 2001 and 2009, 521 consecutive patients with clinical stage II-III breast cancer received NAC and postoperative radiotherapy. With a consistent policy, the treating radiation oncologist either included (N = 284) or excluded (N = 237) the internal mammary node in the treatment volume. Anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy was provided to 482 (92.5 %) patients. To account for the unbalanced characteristics between the two groups, we performed propensity score matching and covariate adjustment using the propensity score. The median follow-up duration was 71 months (range 31-153 months). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) with and without IMNI was 81.8 and 72.7 %, respectively (p = 0.019). The benefit of IMNI varied according to patient characteristics such that it was more apparent in patients with N1-2 disease, inner/central location, and triple-negative subtype. After adjusting for all potential confounding variables, IMNI was independently associated with improved DFS (p = 0.049). The significant effect of IMNI on DFS was sustained after propensity score matching (p = 0.040) and covariate adjustment using the propensity score (p = 0.048). Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis developed in 9 (3.2 %) patients receiving IMNI. Our results indicated that IMNI was associated with a significant improvement in DFS with low toxicity rate for breast cancer patients receiving NAC. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm the effect of IMNI in the NAC setting.

  8. Severe diarrhea in patients with advanced-stage colorectal cancer receiving FOLFOX or FOLFIRI chemotherapy: the development of a risk prediction tool.

    PubMed

    Dranitsaris, George; Shah, Amil; Spirovski, Biljana; Vincent, Mark

    2007-01-01

    FOLFOX (oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil) and FOLFIRI (irinotecan/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil) are important regimens for the treatment of advanced-stage colorectal cancer (CRC). However, both are associated with severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization, dose reductions/delays, and even death. In this study, the development of a prediction model for severe diarrhea is described. The records of 200 patients with CRC who had received FOLFOX or FOLFIRI in 3 Canadian cancer centers were reviewed. Clinical and biochemistry parameters potentially associated with diarrhea were abstracted. Logistic regression analysis was applied to develop the final risk model. A risk scoring system, ranging from 0 to 15, was then created from the regression parameters. A receiver operative characteristic curve analysis was done to measure the accuracy of the scoring system. Important predictors for severe diarrhea included existing comorbidity, patient performance status, an increased baseline bilirubin level, resection of the primary tumor, FOLFOX chemotherapy, metastatic or advanced locoregional versus resected stage IV disease, and the initiation of treatment in the summer months. The receiver operative characteristic analysis had an area under the curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.87). An overall risk score of > or = 7 for a given patient was identified as being the optimal cutoff to maximize the sensitivity (61.4%) and specificity (89.6%) of the prediction tool. We developed a prediction tool for severe diarrhea in patients with CRC receiving FOLFOX or FOLFIRI chemotherapy. To make the model available for easy use and access, we have incorporated it on to our risk prediction Web site: www.PredictPatientEvents.com. Prospective external validation is also being planned.

  9. MRI assessment and outcomes in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy only for primary rectal cancer: long-term results from the GEMCAD 0801 trial.

    PubMed

    Patel, U B; Brown, G; Machado, I; Santos-Cores, J; Pericay, C; Ballesteros, E; Salud, A; Isabel-Gil, M; Montagut, C; Maurel, J; Ramón-Ayuso, J; Martin, N; Estevan, R; Fernandez-Martos, C

    2017-02-01

    Primary chemotherapy has been tested as a possible approach for patients with high risk features but predicted clear mesorectal margins on preoperative MRI assessment. This study investigates the prognostic relevance of baseline and post-treatment MRI and pathology staging in rectal cancer patients undergoing primary chemotherapy. Forty-six patients with T3 tumour > =2 mm from the mesorectal fascia were prospectively treated with Neoadjuvant Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin and Bevacizumab prior to surgery between 2009 and 2011. The baseline and post-treatment MRI: T, Nodal and Extra-mural venous invasion (EMVI) status were recorded as well as post-treatment MRI Tumour regression grade (TRG) and modified-RECIST assessment of tumour length. The post-treatment pathology (yp) assessments of T3 substage, N, EMVI and TRG status were also recorded. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS) and cumulative incidence of recurrence were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between staging and response on MRI and pathology with survival outcomes. About 46 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone for high risk margin safe primary rectal cancer. The median follow-up was 41 months, 5 patients died and 11 patients experienced relapse (2 local, 8 distant and 1 both). In total 23/46 patients were identified with MRI features of EMVI at baseline. mrEMVI positive status carried independent prognostic significance for DFS (P = 0.0097) with a hazard ratio of 31.33 (95% CI: 2.3-425.4). The histopathologic factor that was of independent prognostic importance was a final ypT downstage of ypT3a or less, hazard ratio: 14.0 (95% CI: 1.5-132.5). mrEMVI is an independent prognostic factor at baseline for poor outcomes in rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy while ≤ypT3a is associated with an improvement in DFS. Future preoperative therapy evaluation in rectal cancer

  10. Nutritional intervention with fish oil provides a benefit over standard of care for weight and skeletal muscle mass in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rachel A; Mourtzakis, Marina; Chu, Quincy S C; Baracos, Vickie E; Reiman, Tony; Mazurak, Vera C

    2011-04-15

    Involuntary weight loss is a major contributor to mortality and morbidity in patients with advanced cancer. Nutritional intervention with fish oil (FO)-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may prevent deterioration of body composition. This study compared intervention with FO with standard of care (SOC; no intervention) with regard to weight, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue in newly referred patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer from the time of initiation to completion of first-line chemotherapy. Forty patients completed the study; there were 16 in the FO group (dose of 2.2 g of EPA/day) and 24 patients in the SOC group. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue were measured using computed tomography images. Blood was collected and weight was recorded at baseline and throughout chemotherapy. Patients in the SOC group experienced an average weight loss of 2.3 ± 0.9 kg whereas patients receiving FO maintained their weight (0.5 ± 1.0 kg) (P = .05). Patients with the greatest increase in plasma EPA concentration after FO supplementation were found to have the greatest gains in muscle (r(2) = 0.55; P = .01). Approximately 69% of patients in the FO group gained or maintained muscle mass. Comparatively, only 29% of patients in the SOC group maintained muscle mass, and overall the SOC group lost 1 kg of muscle. No difference in total adipose tissue was observed between the 2 groups. Nutritional intervention with 2.2 g of FO per day appears to provide a benefit over SOC, resulting in the maintenance of weight and muscle mass during chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  11. Self-identification and management of hand-foot syndrome (HFS): effect of a structured teaching program on patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kalaivani; Ostwal, Vikas; Carvalho, Maria Deo; D'souza, Anita; Achrekar, Meera S; Govindarajan, Shrinivasan; Gupta, Sudeep

    2016-06-01

    Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil and is commonly used oral chemotherapeutic drugs for advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. However, hand-foot syndrome (HFS) has high incidence, and once developed, the symptoms significantly impair quality of life (QOL), leading to a reduction in the dosage or discontinuation of the treatment. Effective health education should be offered to patients to promote self-identification and management on how to recognize HFS and use self-management techniques at the very beginning of chemotherapy. The present study intended to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge related to self-identification and management of HFS among patients receiving chemotherapy for colon cancer at tertiary cancer care center. Participants who fulfilled the criteria were selected using non-probability purposive sampling. The sample selected were 40 participants (20 participants in experimental group and 20 participants in control group). Among the group of 40 patients, 17 (85 %) participants in the experimental group and 17 (85 %) participants in the control group were receiving capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) chemotherapy treatment protocol. Five (25 %) participants in the experimental group and ten (50 %) participants in the control group were receiving drug capecitabine at a dose of 2500 mg. The mean knowledge (knowledge related to self-identification and management of HFS) pretest score was 6.75 and mean knowledge posttest score was 10.25 in the experimental group which was statistically significant (p = 0.000) (p < 0.05). The mean knowledge pretest score of participants was 6.45 and mean knowledge posttest score of participants was 6.75 in the control group which was not statistically significant (p = 0.67) (p > 0.05). The study showed a statistically significant improvement in knowledge scores of participants that occurred due to intervention of structured teaching program. This

  12. Background Parenchymal Enhancement of the Contralateral Normal Breast: Association with Tumor Response in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon Hor; Yu, Hon J.; Hsu, Christine; Mehta, Rita S.; Carpenter, Philip M.; Su, Min Ying

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: A total of 46 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer were analyzed. Each patient had three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, one pre-treatment and two follow-up (F/U) MRI studies. BPE was measured as the averaged enhancement of the whole fibroglandular tissues. The pre-treatment BPE and the changes in the F/U MRI were compared between patients achieving pathologic complete response (pCR) versus those not. Subgroup analyses based on age, estrogen receptor (ER), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of their cancers were also performed. RESULTS: The pre-treatment BPE was higher in the pCR group than that in the non-pCR group. Compared to baseline, BPE at F/U-1 was significantly decreased in the pCR group but not in the non-pCR group. In subgroup analysis based on age, these results were seen only in the younger group (< 55 years old), not in the older group (≥ 55 years old). Older patients had a significantly lower pre-treatment BPE than younger patients. In analysis based on molecular biomarkers, a significantly decreased BPE at F/U-1 was only found in the ER-negative pCR group but not in the non-pCR, nor in the ER-positive groups. CONCLUSIONS: A higher pre-treatment BPE showing a significant decrease early after starting NAC was related to pCR in pre/peri-menopausal patients. PMID:26055178

  13. Impact of physician assistants on the outcomes of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia receiving chemotherapy in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Glotzbecker, Brett E; Yolin-Raley, Deborah S; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stone, Richard M; Soiffer, Robert J; Alyea, Edwin P

    2013-09-01

    Inpatient academic medical center care historically has been delivered by faculty physicians in conjunction with physicians in training (house officers [HOs]). Alternative staffing models have emerged secondary to American Counsel for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) care provided by a physician assistant (PA) service compared with a traditional model. Data were retrospectively collected on patients admitted with AML for reinduction chemotherapy from 2008 to 2012. Primary outcome measures were inpatient mortality and length of stay (LOS). Secondary measures included readmissions, intensive care unit (ICU) transfers, consults requested, and radiologic studies ordered. Ninety-five patients with AML were reviewed. Forty-seven patients (49.5%) were admitted to the HO service, and 48 patients (50.5%) were admitted to the PA service. Demographic data were similar between services. LOS was significantly different between the services, with a mean of 36.8 days with the HO model compared with 30.9 days with the PA service (P=.03). The 14-day readmission rate also differed significantly; it was 10.6% (five of 47 patients) and zero for the HO and PA models, respectively (P=.03). The mean number of consults with the HO model was 2.11 (range, zero to five) versus 1.47 (range, zero to four) with the PA service (P=.03). Mortality and ICU transfers were not significantly different. The data demonstrate equivalent mortality and ICU transfers, with a decrease in LOS, readmission rates, and consults for patients cared for in the PA service. This suggests that the PA service is associated with increased operational efficiency and decreased health service use without compromising health care outcomes.

  14. Impact of resistance and aerobic exercise on sarcopenia and dynapenia in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Scott C; Segal, Roanne J; McKenzie, Donald C; Vallerand, James R; Morielli, Andria R; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the START examining the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and associated quality of life (QoL) changes in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) (n = 70), AET (n = 64), or RET (n = 66) for the duration of chemotherapy. Measures of sarcopenia [skeletal muscle index (SMI)] and dynapenia [upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) muscle dysfunction (MD)] were normalized relative to age-/sex-based clinical cut-points. QoL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) scales. At baseline, 25.5 % of BC patients were sarcopenic and 54.5 % were dynapenic with both conditions associated with poorer QoL. ANCOVAs showed significant differences favoring RET over UC for SMI (0.32 kg/m(2); p = 0.017), UE-MD (0.12 kg/kg; p < 0.001), and LE-MD (0.27 kg/kg; p < 0.001). Chi-square analyses revealed significant effects of RET, compared to UC/AET combined, on reversing sarcopenia (p = 0.039) and dynapenia (p = 0.019). The reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically relevant improvements in the FACT-An (11.7 points [95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.2 to 27.6]), the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia (10.0 points [95 % CI -4.0 to 24.1]), and fatigue (5.3 points [95 % CI -1.5 to 12.1]). Early-stage BC patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy have higher than expected rates of sarcopenia and dynapenia which are associated with poorer QoL. RET during adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in the reversal of both sarcopenia and dynapenia; however, only the reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in QoL.

  15. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYPOTONIC HYPER-HYDRATION FLUIDS ON SODIUM BALANCE IN PAEDIATRIC HAEMATOLOGY/ONCOLOGY PATIENTS RECEIVING CHEMOTHERAPY.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sinead; Butler, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effect, if any, that hyper-hydration with hypotonic fluids has on sodium balance in paediatric haematology/oncology patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy treatment for malignancies. A literature review was carried out and a snapshot of current practice across paediatric haematology/oncology centres in the UK was obtained. A prospective study was carried out in a tertiary paediatric haematology/oncology centre. A total of 98 patient episodes involved hyper-hydration with isotonic 0.9% NaCl, almost isotonic 0.45% NaCl+2.5% glucose with added sodium bicarbonate or hypotonic 0.45% NaCl+2.5% glucose. Serum sodium was monitored before and during hyper-hydration. Results were analysed according to whether children experienced a drop in serum sodium. Patients who were hyper-hydrated with hypotonic 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose experienced the greatest mean drop in serum sodium. The mean drop in sodium was 2.11 mmol/L in the group receiving the hypotonic 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose compared to 0.47 mmol/L in the group who received isotonic 0.9% NaCl or 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose with added sodium bicarbonate. During the course of the study five patients who received 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose dropped their sodium to 130 mmol/L or less constituting hyponatraemia. No patient dropped their serum sodium to 130 mmol/L or less in the other two groups. During the course of the study no patient experienced clinical manifestations of hyponatraemia. No child became hypernatraemic. In paediatric haematology/oncology patients receiving hyper-hydration with concurrent chemotherapy isotonic fluids are preferable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Evaluation of quality of life and anxiety and depression levels in patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: impact of patient education before treatment initiation

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Ulku; Arpacı, Afey; Demir, Satı; Erdal, Sevgi; Yalcin, Şuayib

    2014-01-01

    Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment. PMID:25083300

  17. Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Skoetz, Nicole; Bohlius, Julia; Engert, Andreas; Monsef, Ina; Blank, Oliver; Vehreschild, Jörg-Janne

    2015-12-21

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and other infectious complications are some of the most serious treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy for cancer, with a mortality rate of 2% to 21%. The two main types of prophylactic regimens are granulocyte (macrophage) colony-stimulating factors (G(M)-CSF) and antibiotics, frequently quinolones or cotrimoxazole. Current guidelines recommend the use of colony-stimulating factors when the risk of febrile neutropenia is above 20%, but they do not mention the use of antibiotics. However, both regimens have been shown to reduce the incidence of infections. Since no systematic review has compared the two regimens, a systematic review was undertaken. To compare the efficacy and safety of G(M)-CSF compared to antibiotics in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, databases of ongoing trials, and conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Hematology (1980 to December 2015). We planned to include both full-text and abstract publications. Two review authors independently screened search results. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylaxis with G(M)-CSF versus antibiotics for the prevention of infection in cancer patients of all ages receiving chemotherapy. All study arms had to receive identical chemotherapy regimes and other supportive care. We included full-text, abstracts, and unpublished data if sufficient information on study design, participant characteristics, interventions and outcomes was available. We excluded cross-over trials, quasi-randomised trials and post-hoc retrospective trials. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search strategies, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and analysed data according to standard Cochrane methods. We did final interpretation together with an experienced clinician. In this updated review, we included no new randomised controlled

  18. Guided Imagery And Progressive Muscle Relaxation as a Cluster of Symptoms Management Intervention in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Andreas; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Bozas, Evaggelos; Marcou, Yiola; Kitsios, Petros; Paikousis, Lefkios

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients receiving chemotherapy often experience many different symptoms that can be difficult to alleviate and ultimately negatively influence their quality of life. Such symptoms include pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and retching, anxiety and depression. There is a gap in the relevant literature on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural and relaxation techniques in symptom clusters. The study reflects this gap in the literature and aimed to test the effectiveness of Guided Imagery (GI) and Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) on a cluster of symptoms experienced by patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods This was a randomized control trial with 208 patients equally assigned either in the intervention or the control group. Measurements in both groups were collected at baseline and at completion of intervention (4 weeks). Patients were assessed for pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and retching, anxiety and depression. The overall management of the cluster was also assessed based on the patients’ self-reported health related quality of life-HRQoL. Chi-square tests (X2), independent T-tests and Linear Mixed Models were calculated. Results Patients in the intervention group experienced lower levels of Fatigue (p<0.0.0225), and Pain (p = 0.0003) compared to those in the control group and experienced better HRQoL (p<0.0001) [PRE-POST: Intervention: Pain 4.2(2.5) - 2.5(1.6), Fatigue 27.6(4.1) - 19.3(4.1), HRQoL 54.9(22.7) - 64.5(23), Control: Pain 3.5(1.7) - 4.8(1.5), Fatigue 28.7(4.1) - 32.5(3.8), HRQoL 51.9(22.3)– 41.2(24.1)]. Nausea, vomiting and retching occurred significantly less often in the intervention group [pre-post: 25.4(5.9)– 20.6(5.6) compared to the control group (17.8(6.5)– 22.7(5.3) (F = 58.50 p<0.0001). More patients in the control group (pre:n = 33-post:n = 47) were found to be moderately depressed compared to those in the intervention group (pre:n = 35-post:n = 15) (X2 = 5.93; p = 0.02). Conclusion This study provided evidence

  19. LINE-1 Methylation Status Correlates Significantly to Post-Therapeutic Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients Receiving FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, I-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Methylation levels of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) are representative of genome-wide methylation status and crucial in maintaining genomic stability and expression. Their prognostic impact on colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy has not been well established. We evaluated the association between LINE-1 methylation status and clinicopathologic features and postoperative oncological outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients. Materials and Methods 129 UICC stage III colon cancer patients who had received radical resection and FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Global methylation was estimated by analyzing tumor LINE-1 methylation status using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing assay. Demographics, clinicopathological data, and postoperative outcomes were recorded by trained abstractors. Outcome measurements included postoperative recurrence and disease-free survival. Univariate, multivariate, and survival analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors of oncological outcomes. Results The LINE-1 methylation of all 129 patients was measured on a 0–100 scale (mean 63.3; median 63.7, standard deviation 7.1), LINE-1 hypomethylation was more common in patients aged 65 years and above (61.7%±7.6% vs. 64.6±6.4, p=0.019) and those with post-therapeutic recurrence (61.7±7.4 vs 64.3±6.7, p=0.041). Considering risk adjustment, LINE-1 hypomethylation was found to be an independent risk factor of post-therapeutic recurrence (Adjusted OR=14.1, p=0.012). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients in the low methylation group had shorter period of disease free survival (p=0.01). In a stratified analysis that included 48 patients with post-therapeutic recurrence, it was found that those who experienced shorter period of disease free survival (≦6 months) appeared to have lower LINE-1 methylation levels than patients who reported of recurrence after 6 months (56.68±15.75 vs. 63.55±7

  20. LINE-1 Methylation Status Correlates Significantly to Post-Therapeutic Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients Receiving FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chao-Wen; Fan, Yun-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, I-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Methylation levels of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) are representative of genome-wide methylation status and crucial in maintaining genomic stability and expression. Their prognostic impact on colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy has not been well established. We evaluated the association between LINE-1 methylation status and clinicopathologic features and postoperative oncological outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients. 129 UICC stage III colon cancer patients who had received radical resection and FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Global methylation was estimated by analyzing tumor LINE-1 methylation status using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing assay. Demographics, clinicopathological data, and postoperative outcomes were recorded by trained abstractors. Outcome measurements included postoperative recurrence and disease-free survival. Univariate, multivariate, and survival analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors of oncological outcomes. The LINE-1 methylation of all 129 patients was measured on a 0-100 scale (mean 63.3; median 63.7, standard deviation 7.1), LINE-1 hypomethylation was more common in patients aged 65 years and above (61.7%±7.6% vs. 64.6±6.4, p=0.019) and those with post-therapeutic recurrence (61.7±7.4 vs 64.3±6.7, p=0.041). Considering risk adjustment, LINE-1 hypomethylation was found to be an independent risk factor of post-therapeutic recurrence (Adjusted OR=14.1, p=0.012). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients in the low methylation group had shorter period of disease free survival (p=0.01). In a stratified analysis that included 48 patients with post-therapeutic recurrence, it was found that those who experienced shorter period of disease free survival (≦6 months) appeared to have lower LINE-1 methylation levels than patients who reported of recurrence after 6 months (56.68±15.75 vs. 63.55±7.57, p=0.041). There was a significantly

  1. Propolis in the prevention of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Piredda, M; Facchinetti, G; Biagioli, V; Giannarelli, D; Armento, G; Tonini, G; De Marinis, M G

    2017-08-25

    Chemo-induced oral mucositis (OM) is associated with significant symptoms, treatment delays and increased costs. This pilot randomised controlled trial aimed at evaluating the safety, tolerability and compliance with propolis in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, testing preliminary clinical efficacy of propolis in the prevention of OM, and prospectively evaluating the incidence of OM. Sixty patients were randomised to receive either a dry extract of propolis with 8%-12% of galangin plus mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (experimental arm), or mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (control arm). OM was evaluated with the NCI-CTCAE v4.0 after 5, 10, 15 and 21 days of treatment. Compliance with, tolerability of propolis and adverse events were recorded. The incidence of OM was also prospectively evaluated for 6 months. Two patients (6.7%) manifested a suspected skin reaction to propolis. No patient in the experimental arm developed OM > G1, while in the control arm OM > G1 was 16.7% (p = .02). The incidence of OM ≥ G1 at the end of cycles 2-8 was higher at the second (25%) and fifth cycles (45.8%). Propolis plus bicarbonate was safe, well tolerated and promisingly effective in the prevention of OM in patients with breast cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chemotherapy-associated treatment burden in breast cancer patients receiving lipegfilgrastim or pegfilgrastim: secondary efficacy data from a phase III study.

    PubMed

    Gladkov, Oleg A; Buchner, Anton; Bias, Peter; Müller, Udo; Elsässer, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Lipegfilgrastim is a once-per-cycle glycoPEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Noninferiority of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim was demonstrated in a phase III trial in chemotherapy (CTx)-naïve breast cancer patients. Secondary outcomes relating to treatment burden are reported here. Patients with high-risk stage II, III, or IV breast cancer were randomized to receive lipegfilgrastim 6 mg (n = 101) or pegfilgrastim 6 mg (n = 101) subcutaneously on day 2 of each CTx cycle. Doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) commenced on day 1, for up to four cycles. Secondary end points included days in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), use of intravenous antibiotics for febrile neutropenia (FN) or related infections, and measures of CTx delivery (dose delays, reductions, and omissions). One lipegfilgrastim recipient and two pegfilgrastim recipients were hospitalized in cycle 1 because of FN or associated infection. The lipegfilgrastim-treated patient spent 1 day in the ICU for FN, and the two pegfilgrastim-treated patients were hospitalized for FN for 5 and 6 days, respectively. All hospitalized patients received antibiotics. An additional pegfilgrastim-treated patient received antibiotics but was not hospitalized. Most patients received CTx as scheduled; over 98% received their planned doxorubicin and docetaxel doses in all cycles. In the lipegfilgrastim group, no patients had a CTx dose reduced or omitted; eight patients in the pegfilgrastim group had a CTx dose reduced or omitted during cycles 2-4. The burden of treatment associated with myelosuppressive CTx was similar in breast cancer patients treated with lipegfilgrastim or pegfilgrastim.

  3. Daily collection of self-reporting sleep disturbance data via a smartphone app in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Min, Yul Ha; Lee, Jong Won; Shin, Yong-Wook; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Guiyun; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Guna; Jung, Kyung Hae; Sung, Joohon; Ko, Beom Seok; Yu, Jong-Han; Kim, Hee Jeong; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun

    2014-05-23

    Improvements in mobile telecommunication technologies have enabled clinicians to collect patient-reported outcome (PRO) data more frequently, but there is as yet limited evidence regarding the frequency with which PRO data can be collected via smartphone applications (apps) in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of an app for sleep disturbance-related data collection from breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A secondary objective was to identify the variables associated with better compliance in order to identify the optimal subgroups to include in future studies of smartphone-based interventions. Between March 2013 and July 2013, patients who planned to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at Asan Medical Center who had access to a smartphone app were enrolled just before the start of their chemotherapy and asked to self-report their sleep patterns, anxiety severity, and mood status via a smartphone app on a daily basis during the 90-day study period. Push notifications were sent to participants daily at 9 am and 7 pm. Data regarding the patients' demographics, interval from enrollment to first self-report, baseline Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) score, and health-related quality of life score (as assessed using the EuroQol Five Dimensional [EQ5D-3L] questionnaire) were collected to ascertain the factors associated with compliance with the self-reporting process. A total of 30 participants (mean age 45 years, SD 6; range 35-65 years) were analyzed in this study. In total, 2700 daily push notifications were sent to these 30 participants over the 90-day study period via their smartphones, resulting in the collection of 1215 self-reporting sleep-disturbance data items (overall compliance rate=45.0%, 1215/2700). The median value of individual patient-level reporting rates was 41.1% (range 6.7-95.6%). The longitudinal day-level compliance curve fell to 50.0% at

  4. Toxicity and prognosis in overweight and obese women with lung cancer receiving carboplatin-paclitaxel doublet chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Kosuke; Yamane, Hiromi; Tanaka, Hideyuki

    2013-05-01

    We retrospectively analyzed overdosing-related toxicity and prognosis in 127 women with lung cancer receiving carboplatin (6AUC) estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula using actual body weight and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)). Between the body mass index (BMI) > 25 group (n = 42) and the BMI ≤ 25 group (n = 85), there was no difference in dose intensity of carboplatin (122 mg/m(2)/week vs. 124 mg/m(2)/week, p = .323), median overall survival (285 days vs. 282 days, p = .820), and toxicity, except Grade 4 neutropenia in the second cycle. Women with BMI > 25 did not have an increased risk of toxicity because of an appropriate dose reduction.

  5. A stakeholder-informed randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness study of an order prescribing intervention to improve colony stimulating factor use for cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy: the TrACER study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Aasthaa; Sullivan, Sean D; Hershman, Dawn L; Lyman, Gary H; Barlow, William E; McCune, Jeannine S; Ramsey, Scott D

    2017-07-01

    Colony stimulating factors (CSF) are widely prescribed to avoid febrile neutropenia (FN) among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but studies show their use is often not consistent with practice guidelines. In addition, there is limited high quality evidence assessing benefits and harms of primary prophylactic-CSF (PP-CSF) in the setting of chemotherapy that poses an intermediate risk of FN. To address these issues, with funding from the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and the National Cancer Institute's Community Oncology Research Program, SWOG is sponsoring a prospective, cluster randomized controlled pragmatic trial of an automated order entry protocol for PP-CSF among patients with breast, lung and colorectal cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy, with a nested randomized controlled trial of PP-CSF for patients receiving intermediate risk chemotherapy. Primary outcomes include adherence to practice guidelines, overall rates of FN and rates of FN among persons receiving intermediate risk chemotherapy. The study, the first pragmatic trial in the National Cancer Institute's cancer cooperative clinical trials network, will provide critical evidence to inform physician and patient decision-making around PP-CSF use and practice policies regarding automated orders in cancer components.

  6. The role of iron in the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia in cancer patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Wao, Hesborn; Miladinovic, Branko; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2016-02-04

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are commonly used to treat chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA). However, about half of patients do not benefit. To evaluate the benefits and harms related to the use of iron as a supplement to ESA and iron alone compared with ESA alone in the management of CIA. We searched for relevant trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (issue 1 January 2016), MEDLINE (1950 to February 2016), and www.clinicaltrials.gov without using any language limits. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 'iron plus ESA' or 'iron alone' versus 'ESA alone' in people with CIA were eligible for inclusion. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included eight RCTs (12 comparisons) comparing ESA plus iron versus ESA alone enrolling 2087 participants. We did not find any trial comparing iron alone versus ESAs alone in people with CIA. None of the included RCTs reported overall survival. There was a beneficial effect of iron supplementation to ESAs compared with ESAs alone on hematopoietic response (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 1.26; P < 0.0001; 1712 participants; 11 comparisons; high-quality evidence). Assuming a baseline risk of 35% to 80% for hematopoietic response without iron supplementation, between seven and 16 patients should be treated to achieve hematopoietic response in one patient. In subgroup analyses, RCTs that used intravenous (IV) iron favored ESAs and iron (RR 1.20 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.31); P < 0.00001; 1321 participants; eight comparisons), whereas we found no evidence for a difference in hematopoietic response in RCTs using oral iron (RR 1.04 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.24); P = 0.68; 391 participants; three comparisons). There was no evidence for a difference between the subgroups of IV and oral iron (P = 0.16). There was no evidence for a difference between the subgroups of types of iron (P = 0.31) and types of ESAs (P = 0.16) for hematopoietic

  7. Highly favorable outcome in BRCA-mutated metastatic breast cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Boudin, L; Gonçalves, A; Sabatier, R; Moretta, J; Sfumato, P; Asseeva, P; Livon, D; Bertucci, F; Extra, J-M; Tarpin, C; Houvenaegel, G; Lambaudie, E; Tallet, A; Resbeut, M; Sobol, H; Charafe-Jauffret, E; Calmels, B; Lemarie, C; Boher, J-M; Viens, P; Eisinger, F; Chabannon, C

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer carrying BRCA mutation may be highly sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. We hypothesized a better outcome for BRCA-mutated (BRCA(mut)) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC AHSCT) versus unaffected BRCA (BRCA wild type; (BRCA(wt))) or patients without documented BRCA mutation (BRCA untested (BRCA(ut))). All female patients treated for MBC with AHSCT at Institut Paoli-Calmettes between 2003 and 2012 were included. BRCA(mut) and BRCA(wt) patients were identified from our institutional genetic database. Overall survival (OS) was the primary end point. A total of 235 patients were included. In all, 15 patients were BRCA(mut), 62 BRCA(wt) and 149 BRCA(ut). In multivariate analyses, the BRCA(mut) status was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio (HR): 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-8.64, P=0.0326) and PFS (HR: 2.52, 95% CI :1.29-4.91, P=0.0069). In this large series of MBC receiving HDC AHSCT, we report a highly favorable survival outcome in the subset of patients with documented germline BRCA mutations.

  8. [Granulocyte- colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) use in clinical practice in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer: The Opaline Study].

    PubMed

    Jacot, William; Antoine, Eric-Charles; Hacini, Maya; Giron, Cathy; Rivière, Alain; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Cassin, Daniel; Yazbek, Gabriel; Orfeuvre, Hubert; Sakek, Nacera; Diab, Rafik; Bastit, Laurent; Mille, Dominique; Azria, David

    2015-12-01

    To describe the French routine use of G-CSF in patients treated for breast cancer as per the EORTC recommendations. A prospective multicenter observational study conducted between February 2008 and September 2009 in 869 breast cancer patients treated by chemotherapy (CT) and for whom G-CSF treatment will be delivered in primary (PP) or secondary prophylaxis. The mean age was 55 years. A total of 80.3% of CT was in neoadjuvant/adjuvant setting (NAS). PP was delivered in 78.9% of the NAS patients and 67.5% in metastatic situation. Of the 702 evaluable patients, incidences of severe (SN) and febrile neutropenias (FN) in patients who received PP were 9.3% and 4.2%, respectively. In patients who did not received G-CSF at first cycle, SN and FN were 12.4% and 7.3%, respectively. The use of PP was mainly driven by the type of CT for patients treated in the NAS and by patient or disease related risk factors in the locally advanced/metastatic setting. This study has shown that the use of G-CSF was in accordance with the 2010 updates of the EORTC recommendations. However, G-CSF appears more widely used in the routine practice. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum levels of LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 have prognostic roles on survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Karabulut, Senem; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Sen, Fatma; Sakar, Burak; Disci, Rian; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Serum LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 levels are important tumor markers in pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 levels in metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the outcome of 196 MPC patients who are treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in our clinic. Positivity rates of serum LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 were 22, 40, and 83 %, respectively. Likewise, the rates of very high serum levels of tumor markers were correlated with these positivity rates (9 % for LDH, 30 % for CEA, and 55 % for CA19-9). The serum LDH levels were significantly higher in older patients (p = 0.05) and also in the patients with large tumors (p = 0.05), hepatic metastasis (p = 0.01), hypoalbuminemia (p = 0.01), and unresponsive to chemotherapy (p = 0.04). However, no correlation was found between both serum CEA and CA19-9 levels and possible prognostic factors (p > 0.05). The significant relationships were found between the serum levels of CEA and CA19-9 (r s = 0.24, p = 0.004), and serum LDH and CEA (r(s) = 0.193, p = 0.02). But, there was no correlation between serum LDH and CA19-9 levels (p = 0.39). One-year overall survival rate was 12.8 % (95 % CI 8-18). Increased serum levels of all the tumor markers significantly had adverse affect on survival (p = 0.001 for LDH, p = 0.002 for CEA, and p = 0.007 for CA19-9). However, no difference was observed in between high levels and very high levels of serum markers for all tumor markers (p > 0.05). Patients with normal serum levels of all three tumor markers had better outcome than others (p = 0.002) and those with normal serum LDH and CEA levels (whatever CA19-9) levels had associated with better survival compared with other possible alternatives (p < 0.001). Serum levels of LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 had significant affect on survival in MPC patients.

  10. Influence of co-morbidity on renal function assessment by Cockcroft-Gault calculation in lung cancer and mesothelioma patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hubner, R A; Goldstein, R; Mitchell, S; Jones, A; Ashley, S; O'Brien, M E R; Popat, S

    2011-09-01

    Creatinine clearance (CrCl) estimation by Cockcroft-Gault calculation (CG) often replaces measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by [(51)Cr]-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance (EDTA). Co-morbidity, age, and renal impairment influence the accuracy of CG, whilst the relationship between CG and EDTA has been poorly assessed in lung cancer patients, a population significantly affected by these covariates. Retrospective analysis of co-morbidity, nephrotoxic drug use, chemotherapy toxicity, and correlation between paired CG and EDTA, in 388 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Potentially nephrotoxic co-morbidity or medication use occurred in 47% of patients, and was twice as likely in those aged >70 years (OR=2.07; 95%CI: 1.25-3.44, p=0.003). Patients with co-morbidity or nephrotoxic medication use had a lower EDTA compared to those without these baseline factors (p=0.02), but were not significantly more likely to experience chemotherapy toxicity. CG and EDTA correlation was high (r(2)=0.68), but reduced in patients with ETDA<50 ml/min (r(2)=0.26, p=0.02) or >120 ml/min (r(2)=0.32, p=0.09), and in those with CG>120 ml/min (r(2)=0.20, p=0.01). The correlation between CG and EDTA was not significantly altered in patients with co-morbidity or nephrotoxic medication use. CG bias (mean percentage error) and precision (mean absolute percentage error, MAPE) were 7% and 26%, respectively, and precision was impaired in patients with abnormally raised serum creatinine (MAPE 65%, p<0.0001). CG estimation of CrCl is accurate and safe in lung cancer patients with potentially nephrotoxic co-morbidity or concomitant medication, but should not be used when values are outside the range 50-120 ml/min, or with abnormally elevated serum creatinine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consuming a Ketogenic Diet while Receiving Radiation and Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer: The University of Iowa Experience of Two Phase 1 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Amir; Fath, Melissa A; Opat, Emyleigh; Mapuskar, Kranti A; Bhatia, Sudershan K; Ma, Daniel C; Rodman, Samuel N; Snyders, Travis P; Chenard, Catherine A; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M; Bodeker, Kellie L; Ahmann, Logan; Smith, Brian J; Vollstedt, Sandy A; Brown, Heather A; Hejleh, Taher Abu; Clamon, Gerald H; Berg, Daniel J; Szweda, Luke I; Spitz, Douglas R; Buatti, John M; Allen, Bryan G

    2017-06-01

    in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model. However, patients with locally advanced NSCLC and pancreatic cancer receiving concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy had suboptimal compliance to the oral ketogenic diet and thus, poor tolerance.

  12. Chemotherapy following radium-223 dichloride treatment in ALSYMPCA.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Oliver; Hoskin, Peter; Coleman, Robert E; Nilsson, Sten; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Petrenciuc, Oana; Staudacher, Karin; Thuresson, Marcus; Parker, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Radium-223 prolongs overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of prior docetaxel. Whether or not chemotherapy can be safely administered following radium-223 treatment is of clinical importance. An exploratory analysis of prospectively collected data, from the ALSYMPCA (ALpharadin in SYMptomatic Prostate CAncer) patient subgroup who received chemotherapy after radium-223 or placebo treatment, was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of chemotherapy following radium-223. In ALSYMPCA, CRPC patients with symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral metastases were randomized 2:1 to receive six injections of radium-223 (50 kBq/kg IV) or placebo plus best standard of care, stratified by prior docetaxel, baseline alkaline phosphatase, and current bisphosphonate use. In this exploratory analysis, chemotherapy agents administered following study treatment were identified; timing and duration were calculated. Hematologic safety was reviewed, and overall survival analyzed. Overall, 142 radium-223 and 64 placebo patients received subsequent chemotherapy; most common were docetaxel (70% radium-223, 72% placebo) and mitoxantrone (16% radium-223, 20% placebo). The majority of patients (61% radium-223, 58% placebo) had received prior docetaxel. Radium-223 patients started subsequent chemotherapy later than placebo patients; chemotherapy duration was similar between groups. In radium-223 and placebo patients receiving subsequent chemotherapy, median hematologic values (hemoglobin, neutrophils, and platelets) remained nearly constant up to 18 months following start of chemotherapy, regardless of prior docetaxel treatment. A low percentage of patients in both groups had grades 3-4 hematologic values (<10%). Platelet count decline, from last measurement before chemotherapy, was numerically greater in radium-223 versus placebo patients. Median overall survivals from start of chemotherapy were 16

  13. G-CSF use in patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) as observed in clinical practice in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, Umberto; Angrili, Francesco; DeCosta, Lucy; Wetten, Sally; Federico, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) requires chemotherapy regimens with significant risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). For patients at ≥20% FN risk, guidelines recommend primary prophylaxis (PP) with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). This study assessed whether G-CSF use in NHL was in line with recommendations in routine practice. This was a retrospective, observational study of adult NHL patients receiving first-line (R)CHOP-like chemotherapy and G-CSF support between June 2010 and 2012, in Italy. The primary outcome was whether G-CSF was provided as PP, which was defined as G-CSF initiation on days 1-3 after chemotherapy, ≥3 days' use for daily G-CSFs and continued prophylaxis from cycle 1 across all cycles. Secondary prophylaxis was defined as continued prophylaxis from cycle 2 or later, and all other use was defined as Suboptimal. The analysis included 199 patients, 61% of whom had diffuse large B cell lymphoma and 21% follicular lymphoma. (R)CHOP-21 was given to 52% of patients and (R)CHOP-14 to 32%. Overall, 29% of patients received PP, while two-thirds received Suboptimal G-CSF. Of patients receiving daily G-CSF, 3% received PP and 94% received Suboptimal use; with pegfilgrastim, 65% received PP and 26% Suboptimal use. FN occurred in 13 patients (7%) and grade 3/4 neutropenia in 43%. Chemotherapy dose delays occurred in 22% and dose reductions in 18% of patients. Delivery of G-CSF, particularly daily G-CSFs, was not in accordance with guideline or product label recommendations in a large proportion of NHL patients receiving chemotherapy in Italy.

  14. The early onset of peripheral neuropathy might be a robust predictor for time to treatment failure in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy containing paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Ippei; Ito, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kokoro; Shibayama, Tomoko; Takahashi, Shunji; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji; Ohno, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel plays a central role in chemotherapy for breast cancer. Peripheral neuropathy, a well-known toxicity with paclitaxel, may be of interest in predicting the efficacy of paclitaxel therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis assessing whether the early occurrence of peripheral neuropathy (EPN) was a predictive marker for better efficacy in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy containing paclitaxel. Between January 2000 and August 2008, we examined the records of 168 patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with paclitaxel in our hospital. EPN was defined as a symptom of Grade 2 or more during first three months of treatment. The overall response rate (ORR) and time to treatment failure (TTF) in each group were analyzed retrospectively. Of 168 patients with metastatic breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel, EPN was documented in 101 patients (60.1%). The clinical benefit rate (CR, PR, and SD ≥ 6 months) was 72.3% in the EPN group and 49.3% in the non-EPN group (p = 0.002). The TTF of the EPN group (median 11.2 months, 95% CI: 9.5-12.9) was significantly longer than that of the non-EPN group (5.7 months, 95% CI: 4.6-6.8) (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that EPN (p<0.001), dose intensity of less than 70% (p<0.001), and the history of microtubule agents (p = 0.001) were the significant favorable prognostic factors for TTF. The early onset of peripheral neuropathy might be a robust predictor for TTF in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with paclitaxel.

  15. ERCC1, XRCC1 and GSTP1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Survival of Patients with Colon Cancer Receiving Oxaliplatin-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zaanan, Aziz; Dalban, Cécile; Emile, Jean-François; Blons, Hélène; Fléjou, Jean-François; Goumard, Claire; Istanbullu, Melek; Calmel, Claire; Alhazmi, Khalid; Validire, Pierre; Louvet, Christophe; de Gramont, Aimery; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Taïeb, Julien; Praz, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Background: While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in DNA repair or drug metabolism have been shown to influence survival of metastatic colon cancer patients treated with FOLFOX, data on adjuvant setting are scarce. Methods: This study evaluated the correlation between disease-free survival (DFS) of 210 unselected stage III colon cancer patients receiving FOLFOX chemotherapy, and ERCC1-118 (rs11615, c.354T>C), XRCC1-399 (rs25487, c.1196G>A) and GSTP1-105 (rs1695, c.313A>G) polymorphisms. SNP were determined on tumor DNA using a PCR-based RFLP technique. Results: In univariate analysis, a trend towards longer DFS was observed for ERCC1 (C/T + T/T) versus (C/C) (HR=2.29; p=0.06), and XRCC1 (A/A) versus (G/G + G/A) (HR=1.61; p=0.16), but not for GSTP1 genotypes; a statistically significant p value was obtained when combining ERCC1 and XRCC1 favorable genotypes (0 versus ≥ 1 favorable genotypes, HR=2.42; p=0.02). After adjustment on tumor stage, lymph node ratio and differentiation grade, multivariate analysis showed that combining ERCC1 and XRCC1 genotypes gave a p value slightly above the threshold for statistical significance (HR=2.03; p=0.06), which was lower than for tumor stage, lymph node ratio or differentiation grade. Conclusion: The association of ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms may influence the prognosis of stage III colon cancer patients treated with FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy. Yet, these findings need to be confirmed in independent prospective studies. PMID:24847383

  16. Assessment of Drug-Drug Interaction between Warfarin and Aprepitant and Its Effects on PT-INR of Patients Receiving Anticancer Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Junpei; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Maiko; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Hisaka, Akihiro; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Aprepitant is a known inducer of CYP2C9, the main warfarin-metabolizing enzyme. Consequently, co-administration of these two drugs may result in reduction of the anticoagulation activity of warfarin. However, the nature and degree of time-dependent changes in prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) after aprepitant and warfarin co-treatment in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy has not been elucidated. We retrospectively examined the changes in warfarin dose, PT-INR, and warfarin sensitivity index (WSI; average of PT-INR value/average of daily warfarin dose) during four weeks, i.e., one week before and three weeks after aprepitant administration. The mean and standard deviation values of WSI for one week before and one, two, and three weeks after the beginning of aprepitant administration were 0.51±0.22 (1.00, n=34), 0.74±0.30 (1.53±0.59, n=30), 0.38±0.15 (0.82±0.22, n=28), and 0.46±0.29 (0.87±0.23, n=24), respectively. Values in parentheses represent relative changes versus WSI of one week before and number of subjects. Although the mean value of WSI significantly increased one week after aprepitant administration compared to that at one week before the administration, it in turn significantly decreased two weeks after compared to one week before (paired t-test, p<0.05 after Bonferoni correction). In patients taking warfarin, PT-INR should be carefully monitored for at least two weeks after the beginning of aprepitant administration because it may fluctuate with both aprepitant and chemotherapy during this period.

  17. Impact of Hyperglycemia on Survival and Infection-Related Adverse Events in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Who Were Receiving Palliative Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yong Joo; Han, Hye-Suk; Jeong, Yusook; Jeong, Jiwon; Lim, Sung-Nam; Choi, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Hyun-Jung; Oh, Tae-Keun; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Lee, Ki Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients with diabetes have poor overall survival than those without diabetes. However, the effect of hyperglycemia on survival after diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been assessed. Therefore, we assessed the impact of hyperglycemia on the survival and infection-related adverse events (AEs) in patients with metastatic CRC. Materials and Methods We reviewed the records of 206 patients with newly diagnosed metastatic CRC who were treated with palliative chemotherapy from March 2000 to December 2012 at Chungbuk National University Hospital. The mean glucose level of each patient was calculated using all available glucose results. Results The mean glucose levels ranged between 76.8 and 303.5 mg/dL, and patients were categorized into quartiles in accordance to their mean glucose level: group 1 (< 106.7 mg/dL), group 2 (106.7-117.2 mg/dL), group 3 (117.3-142.6 mg/dL), and group 4 (> 142.6 mg/dL). The median overall survival for patients in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 22.6, 20.1, 18.9, and 17.9 months, respectively; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.643). Compared with patients in group 1, those in groups 2, 3, and 4 were at a higher risk of infection-related AEs, according to a multivariate analysis (p=0.002). Conclusion Hyperglycemia was not associated with shorter survival; however, it was associated with infection-related AEs in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic CRC receiving palliative chemotherapy. PMID:25038764

  18. Frailty as determined by a comprehensive geriatric assessment-derived deficit-accumulation index in older patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Harvey Jay; Smith, David; Sun, Can-Lan; Tew, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Owusu, Cynthia; Klepin, Heidi D; Gross, Cary P; Lichtman, Stuart M; Gajra, Ajeet; Filo, Julie; Katheria, Vani; Hurria, Arti

    2016-12-15

    Frailty has been suggested as a construct for oncologists to consider in treating older cancer patients. Therefore, the authors assessed the potential of creating a deficit-accumulation frailty index (DAFI) from a largely self-administered comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Five hundred patients aged ≥65 years underwent a CGA before receiving chemotherapy. A DAFI was constructed, resulting in a 51-item scale, and cutoff values were examined for patients in the robust/nonfrail (cutoff value, 0.0 < 0.2), prefrail (cutoff value, 0.2 < 0.35), and frail (cutoff value, ≥ 0.35) groups. Two hundred and fifty patients (50%) were nonfrail, 197 (39%) were prefrail, and 52 (11%) were frail. Older patients (aged ≥ 80 years) and those who had lower education, were living alone, and had higher stage disease were associated with prefrail/frail status. Prefrail/frail patients were more likely to have grade ≥3 toxicity but not to have a dose delay or reduction, and they were more likely to discontinue drug and be hospitalized. The association with grade ≥3 toxicity was attenuated by controlling for a toxicity risk calculator, but the other outcomes were not. A deficit-accumulation frailty index can be constructed from a CGA in older patients with cancer and can indicate the frailty status of the population. The frailty status so determined is associated both with outcomes likely because of chemotherapy toxicity and with those likely because of age-related physiologic and functional deficits and thus can be useful in the overall assessment of the patient. Cancer 2016;122:3865-3872. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. Clinical Significance of Early Changes in Circulating Tumor Cells from Patients Receiving First-Line Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Emanuela; Necchi, Andrea; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Colecchia, Maurizio; Raggi, Daniele; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Cappelletti, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic paradigm of metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) is rapidly shifting and new biomarkers are needed to enhance patient selection. Objective: Early identification of dynamic predictors of outcome may be a key to optimize the sequence of effective therapies in metastatic UC patients. Methods: Blood samples from patients receiving first-line MVAC chemotherapy were collected at baseline (T0) and after 2 cycles (T2). Samples were processed by immunomagnetic beads (AdnaTest ProstateCancerSelect kit) and the expression of EPCAM, MUC1 and ERBB2 was studied using multiplex-PCR. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) positivity and cutoffs, obtained by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in healthy donors, were: ≥1 positive marker among EPCAM (≥0.40 ng/μl), MUC1 (≥0.10 ng/μl) and ERBB2 (≥0.20 ng/μl). CTC variation (T0/T2) was split in favorable (+/–, –/–, –/+) and unfavorable groups (+/+). Cox regression analyses evaluated associations with clinical factors. Results: In this pilot study to assess a new CTC detection method, among 31 evaluable patients, 17 (54.8%) were CTC-positive at T0. No association was found between CTC and objective response to MVAC. CTC dynamic changes better predicted 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to CTC status assessed at single time points. Unfavorable trend was univariably detrimental on 3-year PFS (10% vs. 49.2%, p = 0.006) and OS (20% vs. 63.5%, p = 0.017). Significance was maintained after controlling for liver metastases (p = 0.031 and p = 0.025 for PFS and OS) and MSKCC score (p = 0.014 and 0.025). Conclusions: Newly described early CTC changes during chemotherapy might be useful to improve our prognostic ability. Pending validation, these results could fulfill the promise to help accelerating therapeutic sequences. PMID:28035320

  20. Metronomic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2009-08-01

    Chemotherapy drugs are usually administered at doses that are high enough to result in an obligatory break period to allow for the observation of potential side effects and institution of supportive care, if required. In recent years, efforts to administer chemotherapy on a more continuous basis, with a much shorter break period, or none at all, have received increased interest, and the practice has come to be known as metronomic chemotherapy. The basis for success with this currently investigational approach may be rooted in continuous drug exposure to susceptible cancer cells, inhibition of tumor blood vessel growth-a process known as tumor angiogenesis, and/or alterations in tumor immunology. Increased benefit also appears to occur when metronomic chemotherapy is used in combination with newer, targeted antiangiogenic agents, and therefore represents a promising approach to combination therapy, particularly as targeted oncology drugs make their way into veterinary oncology applications. There is still much to be learned in this field, especially with regard to optimization of the proper drugs, dose, schedule, and tumor applications. However, the low cost, ease of administration, and acceptable toxicity profiles potentially associated with this therapeutic strategy make metronomic chemotherapy protocols attractive and suitable to veterinary applications. Preliminary clinical trial results have now been reported in both human and veterinary medicine, including adjuvant treatment of canine splenic hemangiosarcoma and incompletely resected soft tissue sarcoma, and, further, more powerful studies are currently ongoing.

  1. Misdiagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients Receiving no Loco-regional Therapy Prior to Liver Transplant: An Analysis of the OPTN Explant Pathology Form.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Dodge, Jennifer L; Roberts, John P; Hirose, Ryutaro; Yao, Francis Y

    2017-09-07

    Patients with T1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not eligible for MELD exception for liver transplant (LT) in part due to a high rate of misdiagnosis (no HCC on explant). The likelihood of misdiagnosis for T2 HCC and factors associated with misdiagnosis are unknown. We analyzed the OPTN database including 5664 adults who underwent LT from 2012-2015 with MELD exception for T2 HCC, and searched for no evidence of HCC in the explant pathology file. We focused on those (n=324) receiving no local regional therapy (LRT) to evaluate the probability of no HCC found in explant. Median waiting time was short at 1.7 months and 35 (11%) had no HCC on explant. On multivariable logistic regression, factors associated with no HCC on explant were age <50 (OR 17.3, p<0.001), non-HCV (OR 5.4, p=0.001), and AFP <10 (OR 2.9, p=0.04). Tumor size and number were not different between groups. The proportion of misdiagnosis did not change significantly after implementation of LI-RADS for HCC diagnosis. The rate of misdiagnosis was 11% among T2 HCC patients who underwent LT without receiving LRT prior to LT and did not change significantly after implementation of LI-RADS. More efforts are needed to eliminate unnecessary LT for patients without HCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of mannose-binding lectin levels and invasive fungal disease in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Riwes, M M; Leather, H; Neal, D; Bennett, C; Sugrue, M; Cline, C; Stokes, J; Hiemenz, J; Hsu, J; Wingard, J R

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have suggested an association of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency with infections. In this study, we investigated the association between MBL deficiency and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. MBL levels were quantified at the start of treatment in 152 patients who were followed for 6 months and scored as developing IFD or not. Forty-five patients (29.6%) developed IFD, of which 21 (46.7% of IFD cases and 13.8% of patients) were proven or probable IFD. Fifty-nine (38.8%) had MBL levels <1000 ng/mL. The rates of all IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 33.9% and 26.9%, respectively (P=0.356). The rates of proven or probable IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 11.9% and 15.1%, respectively (P=0.579). MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not predictors of death (P=0.233). As expected, IFD was associated with death (P<0.0001). Our findings indicate that MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not associated with an increased risk of developing IFD or overall survival.

  3. The effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Maaskant, J M; De Boer, J P; Dalesio, O; Holtkamp, M J; Lucas, C

    2009-09-01

    Immuno-compromised patients are at high risk for all kind of infections. Unfortunately, they need central venous catheters (CVCs), which are associated with infectious complications. In this study we examined the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs to prevent catheter-related infections in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation. This historical cohort study evaluated 139 patients of whom 70 patients were provided with non-impregnated CVCs and 69 patients with impregnated CVCs. Patients were treated for different diagnoses. The median number of days a CVC stayed in situ was 18 in the non-impregnated group and 16 in the impregnated group. The median duration of neutropenia of patients with non-impregnated CVCs was 9 days compared with 7 days of patients with impregnated CVCs. We found less catheter colonization (CC) in patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine CVCs (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.96; P = 0.03). Catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI) were also diminished, but this result was not statistically significant (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.02-1.15; P = 0.06). The reduction in CC and CR-BSI did not diminish the incidence of fever. We conclude that the use of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs provide an important improvement in the attempt to reduce CC and CR-BSI.

  4. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Methods Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Results Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Conclusion Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation. PMID:24940080

  5. Survival and secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: results of Children's Oncology Group trial A9961.

    PubMed

    Packer, Roger J; Zhou, Tianni; Holmes, Emi; Vezina, Gilbert; Gajjar, Amar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the trial was to determine the survival and incidence of secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. Three hundred seventy-nine eligible patients with nondisseminated medulloblastoma between the ages of 3 and 21 years were treated with 2340 cGy of craniospinal and 5580 cGy of posterior fossa irradiation. Patients were randomized between postradiation cisplatin and vincristine plus either CCNU or cyclophosphamide. Survival, pattern of relapse, and occurrence of secondary tumors were assessed. Five- and 10-year event-free survivals were 81 ± 2% and 75.8 ± 2.3%; overall survivals were 87 ± 1.8% and 81.3 ± 2.1%. Event-free survival was not impacted by chemotherapeutic regimen, sex, race, age at diagnosis, or gender. Seven patients had disease relapse beyond 5 years after diagnosis; relapse was local in 4 patients, local plus supratentorial in 2, and supratentorial alone in 1. Fifteen patients experienced secondary tumors as a first event at a median time of 5.8 years after diagnosis (11 >5 y postdiagnosis). All non-CNS solid secondary tumors (4) occurred in regions that had received radiation. Of the 6 high-grade gliomas, 5 occurred >5 years postdiagnosis. The estimated cumulative 10-year incidence rate of secondary malignancies was 4.2% (1.9%-6.5%). Few patients with medulloblastoma will relapse ≥ 5 years postdiagnosis; relapse will occur predominantly at the primary tumor site. Patients are at risk for development of secondary tumors, many of which are malignant gliomas. This may become an increasing issue as more children survive.

  6. Interpretation and Prognostic Value of Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography After Induction Chemotherapy With or Without Radiation in IIIA-N2 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Who Receive Curative Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Guk Jin; Jeong, Songmi; Kwak, Yoo-Kang; Kim, Hoon-Kyo; Cho, Deog Gon; Park, Young Ha; Yu, Mina; Yoon, Sei Chul

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the correlation of clinical staging on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and pathologic staging and the prognostic value of PET-CT after induction chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 42 cases of clinical stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC who receive 2 to 4 cycles of preoperative chemotherapy with or without radiation followed by curative resection. The maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the suspected lesion on PET-CT was recorded. PET-CT findings after induction chemotherapy were compared with those of initial PET-CT and pathology after surgery. The accuracy of PET-CT in restaging of the primary tumor after induction chemotherapy was 50.0%. Eighteen (42.8%) of 42 patients were underestimated ycT stage, and 3 (7.1%) of 42 patients was overestimated ycT stage by PET-CT scan. The accuracy of PET-CT in restaging of the nodal disease was 71.4%. Six (14.3%) of 42 patients were underestimated ycN stage, and 6 (14.3%) of 42 patients were overestimated ycN stage as compared with pathologic staging. The 2-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rate were 68.5% and 40.9%, respectively. Complete responders (ycT0N0M0) on PET-CT after induction chemotherapy had a significantly longer RFS time than did incomplete responders (28.3 vs 9.1 months, P = 0.021). Complete response on PET-CT after induction chemotherapy with or without radiation was a good prognosticator for RFS in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC patients who received surgery. However, response evaluation on PET-CT after induction chemotherapy should be interpreted with caution due to its unacceptable accuracy.

  7. Serial immunomonitoring of cancer patients receiving combined antagonistic anti-CD40 and chemotherapy reveals consistent and cyclical modulation of T cell and dendritic cell parameters.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Alison M; Cook, Alistair; Robinson, Bruce W S; Lake, Richard A; Nowak, Anna K

    2017-06-15

    CD40 signalling can synergise with chemotherapy in preclinical cancer models, and early clinical studies are promising. We set out to define the immunological changes associated with this therapeutic combination to identify biomarkers for a response to the therapy. Here, we present serial immunomonitoring examining dendritic cell and T cell subpopulations over sequential courses of chemoimmunotherapy. Fifteen patients with mesothelioma received up to six 21-day cycles of pemetrexed plus cisplatin chemotherapy and anti-CD40 (CP-870,893). Peripheral blood was collected weekly, and analysed by flow cytometry. Longitudinal immunophenotyping data was analysed by linear mixed modelling, allowing for variation between patients. Exploratory analyses testing for any correlation between overall survival and immunophenotyping data were undertaken up to the third cycle of treatment. Large statistically significant cyclical variations in the proportions of BDCA-1+, BDCA-2+ and BDCA-3+ dendritic cells were observed, although all subsets returned to baseline levels after each cycle and no significant changes were observed between start and end of treatment. Expression levels of CD40 and HLA-DR on dendritic cells were also cyclically modulated, again without significant change between start and end of treatment. CD8 and CD4 T cell populations, along with regulatory T cells, effector T cells, and markers of proliferation and activation, showed similar patterns of statistically significant cyclical modulation in response to therapy without changes between start and end of treatment. Exploratory analysis of endpoints revealed that patients with a higher than average proportion of BDCA-2+ dendritic cells (p = 0.010) or a higher than average proportion of activated (ICOS+) CD8 T cells (0.022) in pretreatment blood samples had better overall survival. A higher than average proportion of BDCA-3+ dendritic cells was associated with poorer overall survival at both the second (p = 0

  8. Erlotinib and gefitinib for treating non-small cell lung cancer that has progressed following prior chemotherapy (review of NICE technology appraisals 162 and 175): a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Janette; Bagust, Adrian; Boland, Angela; Dwan, Kerry; Beale, Sophie; Hockenhull, Juliet; Proudlove, Christine; Dundar, Yenal; Richardson, Marty; Dickson, Rumona; Mullard, Anna; Marshall, Ernie

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in the UK. Over 70% of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Patients with stage III or IV NSCLC may be offered treatment to improve survival, disease control and quality of life. One-third of these patients receive further treatment following disease progression; these treatments are the focus of this systematic review. To appraise the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of erlotinib [Tarceva(®), Roche (UK) Ltd] and gefitinib (IRESSA(®), AstraZeneca) compared with each other, docetaxel or best supportive care (BSC) for the treatment of NSCLC after disease progression following prior chemotherapy. The effectiveness of treatment with gefitinib was considered only for patients with epidermal growth factor mutation-positive (EGFR M+) disease. Four electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, PubMed) were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and economic evaluations. Manufacturers' evidence submissions to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence were also considered. Outcomes for three distinct patient groups based on EGFR mutation status [EGFR M+, epidermal growth factor mutation negative (EGFR M-) and epidermal growth factor mutation status unknown (EGFR unknown)] were considered. Heterogeneity of the data precluded statistical analysis. A de novo economic model was developed to compare treatments (incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained). Twelve trials were included in the review. The use of gefitinib was compared with chemotherapy (n = 6) or BSC (n = 1), and the use of erlotinib was compared with chemotherapy (n = 3) or BSC (n = 1). One trial compared the use of gefitinib with the use of erlotinib. No trials included solely EGFR M+ patients; all data were derived from retrospective subgroup analyses from six RCTs [Kim ST, Uhm JE, Lee J, Sun JM, Sohn I, Kim SW, et al. Randomized phase II study of gefitinib versus

  9. A prospective randomized controlled trial of hydrating nail solution for prevention or treatment of onycholysis in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant/adjuvant docetaxel chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ok, Oh Nam; Seo, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2017-08-01

    Onycholysis and other nail toxicities occur in approximately 20-30% of breast cancer (BC) patients receiving docetaxel chemotherapy. Onycholysis is often associated with painful paronychia, decreasing patients' quality of life. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydrating nail solution (HNS) (EVONAIL(®) solution, Evaux Laboratories, France) for the prevention and treatment of docetaxel-induced onycholysis and nail toxicities. This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled study of HNS for the prevention or treatment of onycholysis in patients with docetaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. In the experimental arm, patients painted HNS on nails and periungual areas once a day till developing onycholysis grade 2. After grade 2 onycholysis development, patients applied HNS twice a day regardless of treatment arm. The primary endpoints were the incidence of onycholysis grade 2 and recovery rate from grade 2 onycholysis. From August 2015 to May 2016, 103 patients were enrolled and completed this study. Of these, 25 cases of grade 1 and 22 of grade 2 onycholysis were observed. Prophylactic application of HNS resulted in a statistically significant reduction of grade 2 onycholysis compared to controls (P = 0.001) and all grade onycholysis was also significantly lower in the experimental arm (P = 0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that HNS decreased grade 2 onycholysis (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.148, 0.902; P = 0.029) and all grade onycholysis (HR 0.372, 95% CI 0.201-0.687, P = 0.002). Hydrating nail solution significantly reduced the incidence of docetaxel-induced onycholysis in BC patients (NCT02670603).

  10. [The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of technique of detection of C-reactive protein under diagnostic of infectious complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, S G; Tarasova, L N; Dokshina, I A; Cherepanova, V A

    2014-11-01

    The C-reactive protein is a generally recognized marker of inflammation and bacterial infection. However, issue of diagnostic effectiveness of this indicator is still open-ended in case of patients with oncologic hematological diseases. The level of C-reactive protein can increase under neoplastic processes. On the contrary, the inhibition of immune response observed under cytoplastic therapy can decrease synthesis of this protein. The study was organized to establish levels of C-reactive protein as markers of infection in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis under application of chemotherapy and to evaluate their diagnostic effectiveness. The sampling included 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis all patients had infectious complications at various stages of treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein in groups of patients with localized infections (mucositis, abscess, pneumonia, etc.) or fever of unknown genesis had no statistical differences but were reliably higher in patients without infectious complications. The concentrations of C-reactive protein in patients with syndrome of systemic inflammatory response and sepsis had no differences. At the same time, level of C-reactive protein under systemic infection (syndrome of systemic inflammatory response, sepsis) was reliably higher than in case of localized infection. The diagnostically reliable levels of C-reactive protein were established as follows: lower than 11 mg/l--infectious complications are lacking; higher than 11 mg/l--availability of infectious process; higher than 82 mg/l--generalization of infection. The given levels are characterized by high diagnostic sensitivity (92% and 97% correspondingly) and specificity (97% and 97%) when patients receive therapy without application of L-asparaginase. At the stages of introduction of this preparation effecting protein synthesizing function of liver sensitivity of proposed criteria are decreased (69% and 55% correspondingly). However; due

  11. Granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases circulating dendritic cells but does not abrogate suppression of adaptive cellular immunity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Micaela; Ono, Nadia; Planutiene, Marina; Planutis, Kestutis; Nelson, Edward L; Holcombe, Randall F

    2012-01-23

    Advanced cancer and chemotherapy are both associated with immune system suppression. We initiated a clinical trial in patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer to determine if administration of GM-CSF in this setting was immunostimulatory. Between June, 2003 and January, 2007, 20 patients were enrolled in a clinical trial (NCT00257322) in which they received 500 ug GM-CSF daily for 4 days starting 24 hours after each chemotherapy cycle. There were no toxicities or adverse events reported. Blood was obtained before chemotherapy/GM-CSF administration and 24 hours following the final dose of GM-CSF and evaluated for circulating dendritic cells and adaptive immune cellular subsets by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) expression of γ-interferon and T-bet transcription factor (Tbx21) by quantitative real-time PCR was performed as a measure of Th1 adaptive cellular immunity. Pre- and post-treatment (i.e., chemotherapy and GM-CSF) samples were evaluable for 16 patients, ranging from 1 to 5 cycles (median 3 cycles, 6 biologic sample time points). Dendritic cells were defined as lineage (-) and MHC class II high (+). 73% of patients had significant increases in circulating dendritic cells of ~3x for the overall group (5.8% to 13.6%, p = 0.02) and ~5x excluding non-responders (3.2% to 14.5%, p < 0.001). This effect was sustained over multiple cycles for approximately half of the responders, but tachyphylaxis over subsequent chemotherapy cycles was noted for the remainder. Treatment also led to a significant reduction in the proportion of circulating regulatory T-cells (Treg; p = 0.0042). PBMC Tbx21 levels declined by 75% following each chemotherapy cycle despite administration of GM-CSF (p = 0.02). PBMC γ-interferon expression, however was unchanged. This clinical trial confirms the suppressive effects of chemotherapy on Th1 cellular immunity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer but demonstrates that mid

  12. Is adjuvant chemotherapy of benefit for postmenopausal women who receive endocrine treatment for highly endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer? International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VII and 12-93

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Olivia; Gelber, Shari; Simoncini, Edda; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.; Holmberg, Stig B.; Crivellari, Diana; Collins, John; Lindtner, Jurij; Thürlimann, Beat; Fey, Martin F.; Murray, Elizabeth; Forbes, John F.; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of chemoendocrine treatment with that of endocrine treatment (ET) alone for postmenopausal women with highly endocrine responsive breast cancer. Patients and methods In the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trials VII and 12-93, postmenopausal women with node-positive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative, operable breast cancer were randomized to receive either chemotherapy or endocrine therapy or combined chemoendocrine treatment. Results were analyzed overall in the cohort of 893 patients with endocrine-responsive disease, and according to prospectively-defined categories of ER, age and nodal status. STEPP analyses assessed chemotherapy effect. The median follow-up was 13 years. Results Adding chemotherapy reduced the relative risk of a disease-free survival event by 19% (p=0.02) compared with ET alone. STEPP analyses showed little effect of chemotherapy for tumors with high levels of ER expression (p = 0.07), or for the cohort with one positive node (p = 0.03). Conclusions Chemotherapy significantly improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, but the magnitude of the effect is substantially attenuated if ER levels are high. PMID:18953651

  13. Is adjuvant chemotherapy of benefit for postmenopausal women who receive endocrine treatment for highly endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer? International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VII and 12-93.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Olivia; Gelber, Shari; Simoncini, Edda; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D; Holmberg, Stig B; Crivellari, Diana; Collins, John; Lindtner, Jurij; Thürlimann, Beat; Fey, Martin F; Murray, Elizabeth; Forbes, John F; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2009-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of chemoendocrine treatment with that of endocrine treatment (ET) alone for postmenopausal women with highly endocrine responsive breast cancer. In the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trials VII and 12-93, postmenopausal women with node-positive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative, operable breast cancer were randomized to receive either chemotherapy or endocrine therapy or combined chemoendocrine treatment. Results were analyzed overall in the cohort of 893 patients with endocrine-responsive disease, and according to prospectively defined categories of ER, age and nodal status. STEPP analyses assessed chemotherapy effect. The median follow-up was 13 years. Adding chemotherapy reduced the relative risk of a disease-free survival event by 19% (P = 0.02) compared with ET alone. STEPP analyses showed little effect of chemotherapy for tumors with high levels of ER expression (P = 0.07), or for the cohort with one positive node (P = 0.03). Chemotherapy significantly improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, but the magnitude of the effect is substantially attenuated if ER levels are high.

  14. Usefulness of Interim FDG-PET After Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Sequential Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Dok Hyun; Cho, Yoojin; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Choi, Seung-Ho; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Lee, Sang-wook; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jae Seung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) has been used to select patients for organ preservation and determine subsequent treatments in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN). Still, the clinical outcomes of LASCCHN patients who showed response to ICT are heterogeneous. We evaluated the efficacy of interim 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after ICT in this specific subgroup of LASCCHN patients who achieved partial response (PR) after ICT to predict clinical outcomes after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with LASCCHN who showed PR to ICT by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors before definitive CCRT were chosen in this retrospective analysis. FDG-PET was performed before and 2-4 weeks after ICT to assess the extent of disease at baseline and the metabolic response to ICT, respectively. We examined the correlation of the metabolic response by the percentage decrease of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on the primary tumor or lymph node after ICT or a specific threshold of SUVmax on interim FDG-PET with clinical outcomes including complete response (CR) rate to CCRT, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: A SUVmax of 4.8 on interim FDG-PET could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 20%, p = 0.001), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.5 mo, p < 0.001), and OS (median, not reached vs. 12.0 months, p = 0.001) with a median follow-up of 20.3 months in surviving patients. A 65% decrease in SUVmax after ICT from baseline also could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.9 months, p < 0.001) and OS (median, not reached vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.001) of the patients. Conclusion: These data suggest that interim FDG-PET after ICT might be a useful determinant to predict clinical outcomes in patients with LASCCHN receiving sequential ICT followed by CCRT.

  15. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat for prevention of tumor lysis syndrome in patients with malignant tumors receiving chemotherapy: a phase III, randomized, multi-center trial comparing febuxostat and allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kazuo; Kawai, Yasukazu; Kiguchi, Toru; Okamoto, Masataka; Kaneko, Masahiko; Maemondo, Makoto; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimaki, Katsumichi; Kirito, Keita; Goto, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Tomoaki; Takeda, Kenji; Nakajima, Akihiro; Ueda, Takanori

    2016-10-01

    Control of serum uric acid (sUA) levels is very important during chemotherapy in patients with malignant tumors, as the risks of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) and renal events are increased with increasing levels of sUA. We investigated the efficacy and safety of febuxostat, a potent non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, compared with allopurinol for prevention of hyperuricemia in patients with malignant tumors, including solid tumors, receiving chemotherapy in Japan. An allopurinol-controlled multicenter, open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study was carried out. Patients with malignant tumors receiving chemotherapy, who had an intermediate risk of TLS or a high risk of TLS and were not scheduled to be treated with rasburicase, were enrolled and then randomized to febuxostat (60 mg/day) or allopurinol (300 or 200 mg/day). All patients started to take the study drug 24 h before chemotherapy. The primary objective was to confirm the non-inferiority of febuxostat to allopurinol based on the area under the curve (AUC) of sUA for a 6-day treatment period. Forty-nine and 51 patients took febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively. sUA decreased over time after initiation of study treatment. The least squares mean difference of the AUC of sUA between the treatment groups was -33.61 mg h/dL, and the 95 % confidence interval was -70.67 to 3.45, demonstrating the non-inferiority of febuxostat to allopurinol. No differences were noted in safety outcomes between the treatment groups. Febuxostat demonstrated an efficacy and safety similar to allopurinol in patients with malignant tumors receiving chemotherapy. http://www.clinicaltrials.jp ; Identifier: JapicCTI-132398.

  16. Efficacy and safety of single-dose fosaprepitant in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H.; Yoshizawa, H.; Yoshimori, K.; Katakami, N.; Katsumata, N.; Kawahara, M.; Eguchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-dose fosaprepitant in combination with intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone. Patients and methods Patients receiving chemotherapy including cisplatin (≥70 mg/m2) were eligible. A total of 347 patients (21% had received cisplatin with vomiting) were enrolled in this trial to receive the fosaprepitant regimen (fosaprepitant 150 mg, intravenous, on day 1 in combination with granisetron, 40 μg/kg, intravenous, on day 1 and dexamethasone, intravenous, on days 1–3) or the control regimen (placebo plus intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone). The primary end point was the percentage of patients who had a complete response (no emesis and no rescue therapy) over the entire treatment course (0–120 h). Results The percentage of patients with a complete response was significantly higher in the fosaprepitant group than in the control group (64% versus 47%, P = 0.0015). The fosaprepitant regimen was more effective than the control regimen in both the acute (0–24 h postchemotherapy) phase (94% versus 81%, P = 0.0006) and the delayed (24–120 h postchemotherapy) phase (65% versus 49%, P = 0.0025). Conclusions Single-dose fosaprepitant used in combination with granisetron and dexamethasone was well-tolerated and effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including high-dose cisplatin. PMID:23117073

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Might Increase Pneumonitis Risk Relative to Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients Receiving Combined Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: A Modeling Study of Dose Dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelius, Ivan S.; Westerly, David C.; Cannon, George M.; Mackie, Thomas R.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Sugie, Chikao; Bentzen, Soren M.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To model the possible interaction between cytotoxic chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution with respect to the risk of radiation pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 18 non-small-cell lung cancer patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy at the University of Wisconsin were selected for the present modeling study. Three treatment plans were considered: the delivered tomotherapy plans; a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan; and a fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan. The IMRT and 3D-CRT plans were generated specifically for the present study. The plans were optimized without adjusting for the chemotherapy effect. The effect of chemotherapy was modeled as an independent cell killing process by considering a uniform chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose added to all voxels of the organ at risk. The risk of radiation pneumonitis was estimated for all plans using the Lyman and the critical volume models. Results: For radiotherapy alone, the critical volume model predicts that the two IMRT plans are associated with a lower risk of radiation pneumonitis than the 3D-CRT plan. However, when the chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose exceeds a certain threshold, the radiation pneumonitis risk after IMRT is greater than after 3D-CRT. This threshold dose is in the range estimated from clinical chemoradiotherapy data sets. Conclusions: Cytotoxic chemotherapy might affect the relative merit of competing radiotherapy plans. More work is needed to improve our understanding of the interaction between chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution in clinical settings.

  18. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen seropositive patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy: the efficacy of preemptive lamivudine and identification of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Nan; Peng, Jie-Wen; Xiao, Jian-jun; Liu, Dong-Ying; Xia, Zhong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the likelihood and degree of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositive patients with disseminated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. Between January 2003 and December 2013, all HBsAg seropositive patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. The morbidity and mortality of HBV reactivation, risk factors associated with reactivation, as well as the efficacy of preemptive lamivudine were investigated. Of 258 patients who were eligible for the present study, 176 were treated without antiviral prophylaxis and 82 received preemptive lamivudine. Patients without lamivudine prophylaxis had a significantly higher prevalence of HBV reactivation (19.3 vs 6.1 %, p = 0.006) and severe hepatitis attributable to reactivation (11.8 vs 3.7 %, p = 0.034) than those with preemptive lamivudine. However, no significant difference in mortality due to reactivation was noted between patients with or without prophylactic lamivudine (0 vs 2.3 %, p = 0.310). Furthermore, patients who developed HBV reactivation were indentified to have a higher rate of HBeAg seropositivity (74.4 vs 43.4 %, p < 0.001), serum HBV-DNA level of 10(4) copies/ml or greater (76.9 vs 47.9 %, p = 0.001), coexisting liver metastasis (50.0 vs 40.6 %, p = 0.033) and treatment with more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy (56.4 vs 39.3 %, p = 0.046) than those who did not experienced reactivation. The current study has demonstrated that preemptive lamivudine significantly reduced the prevalence of HBV reactivation in HBsAg seropositive patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving systemic chemotherapy.

  19. Chemotherapy induced neutropenia at 1-month mark is a predictor of overall survival in patients receiving TAS-102 for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Pashtoon M; Kotani, Daisuke; Cecchini, Michael; Shitara, Kohei; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Hochster, Howard S; Grothey, Axel; Yoshino, Takayuki

    2016-07-13

    TAS-102 (trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride; a novel combination oral nucleoside anti-tumor agent) has recently received regulatory approval for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Internal review of data at a single-institution showed a trend towards better overall survival (OS) for patients who experienced chemotherapy-induced neutropenia at 1-month (CIN-1-month). To explore this finding further, a cohort study was designed based on outcome data from three centers in United States and one from Japan. CIN-1-month after starting TAS-102 was defined by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 4.03 as a neutrophil count decrease of ≥ grade 2 (absolute neutrophil count < 1500/mm(3)). Patients had confirmed mCRC that was refractory to standard therapies. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between patients with CIN-1-month (CIN-1-month positive) versus those who did not have CIN-1-month (CIN-1-month negative); with the median progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences evaluated using the Log-rank test. Our cohort study had a total of 149 patients with data regarding their neutrophil assessment at 1-month mark. Patients who developed ≥ grade 2 CIN-1-month had a both longer PFS (median 3.0 months versus 2.4 months; Log-rank P-value = 0.01), as well as OS (14.0 versus 5.6 months; Log-rank P-value < 0.0001). Only CIN-1-month (adjusted HR: 0.21 (95 % CI: 0.11-0.38) and higher baseline CEA levels (adjusted HR: 2.00 (95 % CI: 1.22-3.35) were noted to be independent predictors of OS. Furthermore, the CIN-1-month was noted to be a statistically significantly predictor of OS over a wide range of cutoffs. Our observations are novel and hypothesis generating. Neutropenia after starting TAS-102 was associated with better prognosis in patients with refractory mCRC. It can be postulated that the dosage of TAS

  20. Inflammatory pathway genes associated with inter-individual variability in the trajectories of morning and evening fatigue in patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Fay; Hammer, Marilyn; Paul, Steven M; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Kober, Kord M; Conley, Yvette P; Cooper, Bruce A; Dunn, Laura B; Levine, Jon D; DEramo Melkus, Gail; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Fatigue, a highly prevalent and distressing symptom during chemotherapy (CTX), demonstrates diurnal and interindividual variability in severity. Little is known about the associations between variations in genes involved in inflammatory processes and morning and evening fatigue severity during CTX. The purposes of this study, in a sample of oncology patients (N=543) with breast, gastrointestinal (GI), gynecological (GYN), or lung cancer who received two cycles of CTX, were to determine whether variations in genes involved in inflammatory processes were associated with inter-individual variability in initial levels as well as in the trajectories of morning and evening fatigue. Patients completed the Lee Fatigue Scale to determine morning and evening fatigue severity a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Using a whole exome array, 309 single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs among the 64 candidate genes that passed all quality control filters were evaluated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Based on the results of the HLM analyses, the final SNPs were evaluated for their potential impact on protein function using two bioinformational tools. The following inflammatory pathways were represented: chemokines (3 genes); cytokines (12 genes); inflammasome (11 genes); Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT, 10 genes); mitogen-activated protein kinase/jun amino-terminal kinases (MAPK/JNK, 3 genes); nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFkB, 18 genes); and NFkB and MAP/JNK (7 genes). After controlling for self-reported and genomic estimates of race and ethnicity, polymorphisms in six genes from the cytokine (2 genes); inflammasome (2 genes); and NFkB (2 genes) pathways were associated with both morning and evening fatigue. Polymorphisms in six genes from the inflammasome (1 gene); JAK/STAT (1 gene); and NFkB (4 genes) pathways were associated with only morning fatigue. Polymorphisms in three genes from the inflammasome (2 genes) and the NFk

  1. Quality of life and quality-adjusted survival (Q-TWiST) in patients receiving dose-intensive or standard dose chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, J; Zahrieh, D; Zhang, J J; Martinelli, G; Basser, R; Hürny, C; Forbes, J F; Aebi, S; Yeo, W; Thürlimann, B; Green, M D; Colleoni, M; Gelber, R D; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Price, K N; Goldhirsch, A; Coates, A S

    2008-01-15

    Quality of life (QL) is an important consideration when comparing adjuvant therapies for early breast cancer, especially if they differ substantially in toxicity. We evaluated QL and Q-TWiST among patients randomised to adjuvant dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide administered with filgrastim and progenitor cell support (DI-EC) or standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy (SD-CT). We estimated the duration of chemotherapy toxicity (TOX), time without disease symptoms and toxicity (TWiST), and time following relapse (REL). Patients scored QL indicators. Mean durations for the three transition times were weighted with patient reported utilities to obtain mean Q-TWiST. Patients receiving DI-EC reported worse QL during TOX, especially treatment burden (month 3: P<0.01), but a faster recovery 3 months following chemotherapy than patients receiving SD-CT, for example, less coping effort (P<0.01). Average Q-TWiST was 1.8 months longer for patients receiving DI-EC (95% CI, -2.5 to 6.1). Q-TWiST favoured DI-EC for most values of utilities attached to TOX and REL. Despite greater initial toxicity, quality-adjusted survival was similar or better with dose-intensive treatment as compared to standard treatment. Thus, QL considerations should not be prohibitive if future intensive therapies show superior efficacy.

  2. Real-World Analysis of Medical Costs and Healthcare Resource Utilization in Elderly Women with HR+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer Receiving Everolimus-Based Therapy or Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanni; Li, Nanxin; Fang, Anna P; Koo, Valerie; Peeples, Miranda; Kageleiry, Andrew; Wu, Eric Q; Guérin, Annie

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze medical costs and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) associated with everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy among elderly women with hormone-receptor-positive, human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC). Elderly women (≥65 years) with HR+/HER2- mBC who failed a non-steroidal-aromatase-inhibitor and subsequently began a new line of treatment with everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy for mBC (index therapy) during July 20, 2012 to March 31, 2014 were identified from two large commercial claims databases. All-cause, BC-, and adverse event (AE)-related medical costs (2014 USD), and all-cause and AE-related HRU per patient per month (PPPM) were compared between patients treated with everolimus-based therapy and chemotherapy across their first four lines of therapy for mBC. Adjusted costs and HRU differences were estimated by pooling all lines and using multivariable models adjusted for differences in patient characteristics. In total, 925 elderly patients (mean age approximately 73 years) with HR+/HER2- mBC met the inclusion criteria; 230 received everolimus-based therapy (240 lines) and 737 received chemotherapy (939 lines). Compared with chemotherapy, everolimus-based therapy was associated with significantly lower total all-cause PPPM medical services costs (adjusted mean difference: $4007), driven by lower inpatient ($1994) and outpatient ($1402) costs; lower BC-related medical services costs ($3129), driven by both BC-related inpatient ($1883) and outpatient costs ($913); and lower AE-related medical services costs ($1873; all P < 0.01). Additionally, compared to patients treated with chemotherapy, patients treated with everolimus-based therapy had fewer all-cause outpatient visits (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.69), BC-related outpatient visits (0.66), other-medical-service visits (0.65), and AE-related HRU (0.59), which was driven by significantly

  3. Prophylactic ciprofloxacin treatment prevented high mortality, and modified systemic and intestinal immune function in tumour-bearing rats receiving dose-intensive CPT-11 chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xue, H; Field, C J; Sawyer, M B; Dieleman, L A; Baracos, V E

    2009-05-19

    Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality from dose-intensive cancer chemotherapy. In spite of the importance of intestinal bacteria translocation in these infections, information about the effect of high-dose chemotherapy on gut mucosal immunity is minimal. We studied prophylactic ciprofloxacin (Cipro) treatment on irinotecan (CPT-11) toxicity and host immunity in rats bearing Ward colon tumour. Cipro abolished chemotherapy-related mortality, which was 45% in animals that were not treated with Cipro. Although Cipro reduced body weight loss and muscle wasting, it was unable to prevent severe late-onset diarrhoea. Seven days after CPT-11, splenocytes were unable to proliferate (stimulation index=0.10+/-0.02) and produce proliferative and inflammatory cytokines (i.e., Interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) IL-1beta, IL-6) on mitogen stimulation in vitro (P<0.05 vs controls), whereas mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells showed a hyper-proliferative response and a hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mitogen stimulation. This suggests compartmentalised effects by CPT-11 chemotherapy on systemic and intestinal immunity. Cipro normalised the hyper-responsiveness of MLN cells, and in the spleen, it partially restored the proliferative response and normalised depressed production of IL-1beta and IL-6. Taken together, Cipro prevented infectious challenges associated with immune hypo-responsiveness in systemic immune compartments, and it may also alleviate excessive pro-inflammatory responses mediating local gut injury.

  4. Nausea as a sentinel symptom for cytotoxic chemotherapy effects on the gut-brain axis among women receiving treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Heidi S; Hagan, Teresa L; Campbell, Grace B; Boisen, Michelle M; Rosenblum, Leah M; Edwards, Robert P; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Horn, Charles C

    2016-06-01

    Nausea is a common and potentially serious effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer and may function as a sentinel symptom reflecting adverse effects on the gut-brain axis (GBA) more generally, but research is scant. As a first exploratory test of this GBA hypothesis, we compared women reporting nausea to women not reporting nausea with regard to the severity of other commonly reported symptoms in this patient population. A secondary analysis of data systematically collected from women in active chemotherapy treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer (n = 158) was conducted. The Symptom Representation Questionnaire (SRQ) provided severity ratings for 22 common symptoms related to cancer and chemotherapy. Independent sample t tests and regression analyses were used to compare women with and without nausea with regard to their experience of other symptoms. Nausea was reported by 89 (56.2 %) women. Symptoms that were significantly associated with nausea in bivariate and regression analyses included abdominal bloating, bowel disturbances, dizziness, depression, drowsiness, fatigue, headache, lack of appetite, memory problems, mood swings, shortness of breath, pain, sleep disturbance, urinary problems, vomiting, and weight loss. Symptoms that were not associated with nausea included hair loss, numbness and tingling, sexuality concerns, and weight gain. Nausea experienced during chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer may be an indicator of broader effects on the gut-brain axis. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these effects could lead to the development of novel supportive therapies to increase the tolerability and effectiveness of cancer treatment.

  5. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV.

  6. Quality of Life of Older Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Companion Study to Cancer and Leukemia Group B 49907

    PubMed Central

    Kornblith, Alice B.; Lan, Lan; Archer, Laura; Partridge, Ann; Kimmick, Gretchen; Hudis, Clifford; Winer, Eric; Casey, Rebecca; Bennett, Samantha; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Muss, Hyman B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A phase III trial (Cancer and Leukemia Group B CALGB-49907) was conducted to test whether older patients with early-stage breast cancer would have equivalent relapse-free and overall survival with capecitabine compared with standard chemotherapy. The quality of life (QoL) substudy tested whether capecitabine treatment would be associated with a better QoL than standard chemotherapy. Patients and Methods QoL was assessed in 350 patients randomly assigned to either standard chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil [CMF] or doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide [AC]; n = 182) or capecitabine (n = 168). Patients were interviewed by telephone before treatment (baseline), midtreatment, within 1 month post-treatment, and at 12, 18, and 24 months postbaseline by using questionnaires from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), a breast systemic adverse effects scale (EORTC BR23), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Compared with patients who were treated with standard chemotherapy, patients who were treated with capecitabine had significantly better QoL, role function, and social function, fewer systemic adverse effects, less psychological distress, and less fatigue during and at the completion of treatment (P ≤ .005). Capecitabine treatment was associated with less nausea, vomiting, and constipation and with better appetite than standard treatment (P ≤ .004), but worse hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea (P < .005). These differences all resolved by 12 months. Conclusion Standard chemotherapy was superior to capecitabine in improving relapse-free and overall survival for older women with early-stage breast cancer. Although capecitabine was associated with better QoL during treatment, QoL was similar for both groups at 1 year. The brief period of poorer QoL with standard treatment is a modest price to pay for a chance at improved survival. PMID

  7. Quality-of-life (QoL) as a predictive biomarker in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) receiving chemotherapy: results from a prospective multicenter phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei; Yu, Jinhee; Hutson, Alan; Javle, Milind; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic cancer is rapidly fatal with median survival of only 6 months (mo). Quality-of-life (QoL) was analyzed prospectively in a phase 2 study of gemcitabine (G), capecitabine (C) and bevacizumab (B) in APC patients. Methods A total of 50 patients with APC received B 15 mg/kg, C 1,300 mg/m2 daily for 2 weeks and G 1,000 mg/m2 weekly 2 times; cycles were repeated every 21 days. Endpoints: progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and assessment of QoL prior to each cycle using the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC) PAN-26 QoL questionnaire. An exact 95% confidence interval (CI) (Clopper-Pearson method) was used to assess rate of improved QoL (defined as >5% decrease in two consecutive scores compared with baseline). Results Patient characteristics- Stage IIB/III/IV: 3/5/42; Sex: 28 M/22 F; Median age: 64 years. QoL in patients- improved: 56%, no improvement: 24%; unevaluable: 20%. Median PFS: 5.8 mo, OS: 9.8 mo. QoL improvement rate: 28/40=0.7 (95% CI: 0.53-0.83) in evaluable patients. Using QoL improvement rate, no significant difference was seen in patients with OS ≥6 mo compared to OS <6 mo. However QoL scores at 3 and 6 weeks from start of treatment correlated strongly with ≥6 mo survival (P value 0.0092 and 0.0081, respectively). Conclusions Baseline score and change in QoL scores of patients on G, C and B were not predictive of survival ≥6 mo. Post treatment scores at 3 and 6 weeks from start of therapy however, were predictive of survival ≥6 mo suggesting the potential predictive value of this tool for use in future studies. PMID:25436122

  8. [Effect of Japanese traditional medicine, TJ-41, on quality of life of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving outpatient chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Shiba, Yasutaka; Terasaki, Yasushi; Ishida, Youichi; Tanikawa, Fumiko; Hayase, Hideko; Maruyama, Kazumi; Obata, Chiemi; Ishikawa, Mika; Hirokami, Kazunori; Kasahara, Kazuo; Fujimura, Masaki

    2013-07-01

    An increasing number of patients with lung cancer are undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. It is very important to maintain good quality of life(QOL)for these patients, and Japanese traditional medicine, TJ-41, has been reported to improve the QOL of patients with advanced cancer. However, the effect of TJ-41 on patients with lung cancer undergoing outpatient chemotherapy is unknown. Therefore, we conducted this study. To investigate the factors influencing the QOL of these patients, we distributed a QOL questionaire,"The QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs"(QOL-ACD)to 11 patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The medical factors related to the overall QOL scores and other categories, indicating"activity","physical condition","psychological condition","social relationships","psychological condition"and"face scale"were analyzed. A significant decrease in each of the factors was not observed in this study.

  9. [Experimental prospective cognitive study on the evaluation of connection of fatigue perception and depression among caregivers and team treating cancer patients receiving oral chemotherapy to systemic chemotherapy. Equi-Car 10 study].

    PubMed

    Barzelloni, Maria Luisa; Mogavero, Anna; Carnicelli, Pietro; Izzo, Rosanna; Crivaro, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The Equi-Car 10 is an spontaneous, observational study. The objective was to assess the connection of fatigue perception and depression of caregivers, oncological team and oncological patients in oral chemotherapy to intravenous The study recruited 60 patients and 60 caregivers. The study was carried out on patients with lung, breast and colon cancer requiring chemotherapy, and family members were chosen as caregivers. Patients, caregivers and doctors filled in FACT-F and Zung questionnaires at the opening day of the medical record, after three and six cycles of chemotherapy, and three months after the end of the treatment. The Zung depression and Functional Assessment of Cancer therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) showed: (a) on patients treated with intravenous therapy showed significantly higher levels of fatigue and depression than those of patients treated with oral therapy, even when the latter were treated for advanced disease; (b) on caregivers of patients treated with systemically administered therapies showed elevated levels of Fatigue and depression which proved to be significantly higher than those of caregivers of patients treated with oral therapies, even when treated for advanced disease; (c) on three oncologist has highlighted low levels of Fatigue and depression, for both types of patients, higher for patients with systemic therapy related to the management of side effects. The results showed that cancer patients and caregivers have high levels of fatigue and depression both related to the disease stage and to the mode of drug administration. It is necessary to provide cancer patients and caregivers with appropriate psychological support and preventive programs for secondary and relapse prevention.

  10. Chemotherapy of disseminated seminoma with combination of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Vugrin, D; Whitemore, W J; Batata, M

    1981-01-01

    Nine patients with metastatic seminoma who had received no prior chemotherapy were induced with a combination containing cis-platinum 120 mg/m2 I.V. and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 I.V. for three to six treatments at 4-6 weeks intervals, and then received maintenance with cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 I.V. every 3-4 weeks to complete 2 years of chemotherapy. Eight patients entered complete remission: five with chemotherapy alone and three with chemotherapy and radiation or resection of residual disease. Seven patients remain in CR with a minimum follow up of 17 months. Chemotherapy is effective in treatment of metastatic seminoma.

  11. Retrospective Comparison of Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Adjuvant Chemotherapy, With or Without Prior Gliadel Implantation (Carmustine) After Initial Surgery in Patients With Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Noeel, Georges; Schott, Roland; Froelich, Sebastien; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Boyer, Patrick; Fischer-Lokou, David; Dufour, Patrick; Kehrli, Pierre; Maitrot, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Retrospective study of patients treated for high-grade glioma, with or without biodegradable carmustine wafers and according to the Stupp protocol. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and June 2008, 65 patients underwent surgery for high-grade glioma, 28 had implantation of Gliadel and 37 patients did not. Patients received radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide followed by 5 consecutive days of temozolomide every month for 6 months. Results: Overall median follow-up was 17.1 months; the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 14 months with a RFS of 54% at 12 months, and 38% at 24 months. For patient with and without Gliadel, median and 1-year RFS were 12.9 months and 52% vs. 14 months and 42%, respectively (p = 0.89). According to pathology, Gliadel did not influence RFS of patients with Grade III or glioblastoma. However, for all patients, in multivariate analysis, non-methylated methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) was the only unfavorable prognostic factor of RFS (p = 0.017; HR 2.8; CI [1.2-7]). Median overall survival (OS) was 20.8 months; the OS rate at 12 months was 78.5%, and at 24 months 35.4%. For patients treated with and without Gliadel, median and 1-year OS were 20.6 months and 78.6% vs. 20.8 months and 78.4%, respectively. According to pathology, Gliadel did not influence OS of patients with Grade III or glioblastoma. For all patients, in multivariate analysis, unfavorable prognosticators for OS were non-methylated MGMT (p = 0.001; HR: 6.5; CI [2-20]) and irradiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.02; HR: 6.3; CI [2-20]). With carmustine wafers, before irradiation, median gross tumor volume plus edema was 84 mL (27-229), whereas it was 68 mL (10-362) without carmustine (p = nonsignificant). Four cases of Grade 3 thrombopenia occurred, all in the carmustine wafer group. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade gliomas, adding Gliadel before performing a Stupp protocol did not improve survival.

  12. Development and validation of a set of six adaptable prognosis prediction (SAP) models based on time-series real-world big data analysis for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy: A multicenter case crossover study.

    PubMed

    Uneno, Yu; Taneishi, Kei; Kanai, Masashi; Okamoto, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yoshioka, Akira; Hiramoto, Shuji; Nozaki, Akira; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Tomono, Teruko; Nakatsui, Masahiko; Baba, Mika; Morita, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Okuno, Yasushi; Muto, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to develop an adaptable prognosis prediction model that could be applied at any time point during the treatment course for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, by applying time-series real-world big data. Between April 2004 and September 2014, 4,997 patients with cancer who had received systemic chemotherapy were registered in a prospective cohort database at the Kyoto University Hospital. Of these, 2,693 patients with a death record were eligible for inclusion and divided into training (n = 1,341) and test (n = 1,352) cohorts. In total, 3,471,521 laboratory data at 115,738 time points, representing 40 laboratory items [e.g., white blood cell counts and albumin (Alb) levels] that were monitored for 1 year before the death event were applied for constructing prognosis prediction models. All possible prediction models comprising three different items from 40 laboratory items (40C3 = 9,880) were generated in the training cohort, and the model selection was performed in the test cohort. The fitness of the selected models was externally validated in the validation cohort from three independent settings. A prognosis prediction model utilizing Alb, lactate dehydrogenase, and neutrophils was selected based on a strong ability to predict death events within 1-6 months and a set of six prediction models corresponding to 1,2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months was developed. The area under the curve (AUC) ranged from 0.852 for the 1 month model to 0.713 for the 6 month model. External validation supported the performance of these models. By applying time-series real-world big data, we successfully developed a set of six adaptable prognosis prediction models for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

  13. Effects of self-directed stress management training and home-based exercise on quality of life in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Paul B; Phillips, Kristin M; Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Faul, Leigh Anne; Meade, Cathy D; Thompson, Lora; Williams, Charles C; Loftus, Loretta S; Fishman, Mayer; Wilson, Rick W

    2013-06-01

    Research has shown that self-directed stress management training improves mental well-being in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The present study extends this work by evaluating separate and combined effects of stress management training and home-based exercise. Following assessment of mental and physical well-being, depression, anxiety, exercise, and stress reduction activity before chemotherapy started, patients were randomized to stress management training (SM), exercise (EX), combined stress management and exercise (SMEX), or usual care only (UCO). Outcomes were reassessed 6 and 12 weeks after chemotherapy started. Significance testing of group-by-time interactions in 286 patients who completed all assessments was used to evaluate intervention efficacy. Interaction effects for mental and physical well-being scores were not significant. Depression scores yielded a linear interaction comparing UCO and SMEX (p = 0.019), with decreases in SMEX but not UCO. Anxiety scores yielded a quadratic interaction comparing UCO and SMEX (p = 0.049), with trends for changes in SMEX but not UCO. Additional analyses yielded quadratic interactions for exercise activity comparing UCO and SMEX (p = 0.022), with positive changes in SMEX but not UCO, and for stress management activity comparing UCO and SM (p < 0.001) and UCO and SMEX (p = 0.013), with positive changes in SM and SMEX but not UCO. Only the combined intervention yielded effects on quality of life outcomes, and these were limited to anxiety and depression. These findings are consistent with evidence that only the combined intervention yielded increases in both exercise and stress management activity. Future research should investigate ways to augment this intervention to enhance its benefits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Physical Activity Levels in Women Attending Breast Screening, Receiving Chemotherapy and Post-Breast Cancer Treatment; A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lahart, Ian M.; Metsios, George S.; Nevill, Alan M.; Carmichael, Amtul R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) is a well-recognised risk factor in the development of breast cancer (BC) and evidence-base research on the impact of PA on BC survival is consolidating. However, evidence reveals that BC survivors have low levels of PA, suggesting the need of targeted interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of BC survivors. Unfortunately, there is lack of data from the UK about the PA behaviours of women at various stages of diagnosis and treatment of BC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess PA levels in women at different stages of BC pathway. Patients and Methods: A convenient sample of patients was selected at various stages of presentation and treatment of BC. Patients attending for breast screening for NHSBSP (n = 188), post-operative patients attending for chemotherapy (n = 41) and BC patients within one year’s post-treatment (n = 80) were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study. Results: Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of a chemotherapy participant not meeting PA guidelines (i.e., being in the low activity category) were three times higher than the odds of a NHSBPS attendee not meeting PA guidelines, and compared to post-treatment participants, the chemotherapy patient’s odds of not meeting PA guidelines was four times higher. The odds of NHSBPS attendees being in the high activity category compared to the moderate category were three times higher than that of a post-treatment participant. Conclusions: The current study suggests the need to establish robust PA interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of breast cancer survivors. PMID:24852599

  15. Nausea as a sentinel symptom for cytotoxic chemotherapy effects on the gut-brain axis among women receiving treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer: An exploratory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Hagan, Teresa L.; Campbell, Grace B.; Boisen, Michelle M.; Rosenblum, Leah M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Horn, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nausea is a common and potentially serious effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer, and may function as a sentinel symptom reflecting adverse effects on the gut-brain axis (GBA) more generally, but research is scant. As a first exploratory test of this GBA hypothesis, we compared women reporting nausea to women not reporting nausea with regard to the severity of other commonly reported symptoms in this patient population. Methods A secondary analysis of data systematically collected from women in active chemotherapy treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer (n=158) was conducted. The Symptom Representation Questionnaire (SRQ) provided severity ratings for 22 common symptoms related to cancer and chemotherapy. Independent sample t-tests and regression analyses were used to compare women with and without nausea with regard to their experience of other symptoms. Results Nausea was reported by 89 (56.2%) women. Symptoms that were significantly associated with nausea in bivariate and regression analyses included: abdominal bloating, bowel disturbances, dizziness, depression, drowsiness, fatigue, headache, lack of appetite, memory problems, mood swings, shortness of breath, pain, sleep disturbance, urinary problems, vomiting, and weight loss. Symptoms that were not associated with nausea included: hair loss, numbness and tingling, sexuality concerns, and weight gain. Conclusions Nausea experienced during chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer may be an indicator of broader effects on the gut-brain axis. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these effects could lead to the development of novel supportive therapies to increase the tolerability and effectiveness of cancer treatment. Compliance with Ethical Standards Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. The authors do not have any relationships or interests that would bias or in any way influence this study. The grant mechanisms supporting this research are: NINR T32 NR

  16. A multicentre study to determine the efficacy and patient acceptability of the Paxman Scalp Cooler to prevent hair loss in patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Massey, Carolyn S

    2004-06-01

    Alopecia is a distressing and common side-effect of chemotherapy, especially anthracycline- and taxane-containing regimen. A series of studies and reviews have considered scalp cooling as a means of reducing this side-effect without a definitive result. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy and patient acceptability of scalp cooling using the Paxman Scalp Cooler. This was an open, non-randomised, observational study conducted at eight sites involving 94 patients. Alopecia was assessed using the World Health Organisation (WHO) grading system. Patient acceptability was assessed by questionnaire. Results were compiled by Scalp Cooling Assessment Groups using data from eight centres in the UK collected between 1997 and 2000. Use of the Paxman Scalp Cooler was adjudged a success for 89% of all patients using the WHO grading system for alopecia and for 87% of patients being specifically administered the commonly used 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen. When asked about degrees of comfort during the scalp-cooling process, 85% of patients described it as very comfortable, reasonably comfortable or comfortable, with only 15% of patients reporting a description of uncomfortable or very uncomfortable. Scalp cooling using the Paxman Scalp Cooler was found to be an effective technique with minimal side-effects for patients treated with commonly prescribed alopecia-inducing chemotherapy drugs.

  17. The reliability and validity of a modified total neuropathy score-reduced and neuropathic pain severity items when used to measure chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving taxanes and platinums.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Pett, Marjorie A; Beck, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy signs and symptoms has been hampered because of the lack of simple, reliable, and valid measures. The study objective was to examine the internal consistency and interrater reliability as well as the structural validity of a 5-component total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr) variant and a chemotherapy-induced neuropathy-specific Neuropathic Pain Scale. One hundred seventeen outpatients receiving taxanes or platinums were assessed by a consistent nurse practitioner using the 2 instruments. Ten subjects participated in interrater reliability testing. Mean scores and SDs for individual items were low. The strength item was deleted because of low interitem correlations and a floor effect. The reflex item was deleted because of low interitem correlations and its negative influence on Cronbach alpha. Pin sensibility was deleted because of low factor loadings. The TNSr-short form and the chemotherapy-induced neuropathy-specific Neuropathic Pain Scale formed 2 distinct factors, providing evidence of structural validity. Cronbach alpha's for the 2 instruments were .80 and .96, respectively. The TNSr interrater reliability results suggested acceptable rater concordance, but minor revisions could further improve scoring precision. Clinimetric evidence supports the use of 2 new instruments when monitoring taxane- and platinum-related neuropathy and pain. Further instrument modifications are recommended, followed by additional testing in diverse populations. With these new instruments, nurses can more easily incorporate prospective neuropathy assessment into daily clinical practice. The outcome will be improved symptom awareness by oncology clinicians and patients, leading to fewer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-related devastating effects on functionality and quality of life.

  18. Prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression in biliary tract cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    KIM, KWAN WOO; KWON, HYUK-CHAN; KIM, SUNG-HYUN; OH, SUNG YONG; LEE, SUEE; LEE, JI HYUN; ROH, MYUNG HWAN; KIM, MIN CHAN; KIM, KI HAN; KIM, YOUNG HOON; ROH, YOUNG HOON; JEONG, JIN SOOK; KIM, HYO-JIN

    2013-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a relatively uncommon type of cancer, accounting for ∼4% of the malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) predict clinical outcome in BTC patients treated with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. TS and TP expression were found to be significantly correlated with cancer location (P=0.044 and 0.031, respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that age [hazard ratio (HR)=2.157, P=0.008], stage (HR=2.234, P<0.001), resection margin status (HR=2.748, P=0.004) and TP expression (HR=2.014, P=0.039) were independently associated with overall survival (OS). PMID:24649282

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Prognosis in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lingmin; Wu, Chen; Zhao, Xueying; Heist, Rebecca; Su, Li; Zhao, Yang; Han, Baohui; Cao, Songyu; Chu, Minjie; Dai, Juncheng; Dong, Jing; Shu, Yongqian; Xu, Lin; Chen, Yijiang; Wang, Yi; Lu, Feng; Jiang, Yue; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Hongyan; Tan, Wen; Ma, Hongxia; Chen, Jiaping; Jin, Guangfu; Wu, Tangchun; Lu, Daru; Christiani, David C.; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Genetic variation may influence chemotherapy response and overall survival in cancer patients. Experimental design We conducted a genome-wide scan in 535 advanced-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients from two independent cohorts (307 from Nanjing and 228 from Beijing). A replication was carried out on an independent cohort of 340 patients from Southeastern China followed by a second validation on 409 patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA). Results Consistent associations with NSCLC survival were identified for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Chinese populations with P values ranging from 3.63 × 10−5 to 4.19 × 10−7 in the additive genetic model. The minor allele of three SNPs (rs7629386 at 3p22.1, rs969088 at 5p14.1, and rs3850370 at 14q24.3) were associated with worse NSCLC survival while 2 (rs41997 at 7q31.31 and rs12000445 at 9p21.3) were associated with better NSCLC survival. In addition, rs7629386 at 3p22.1 (CTNNB1) and rs3850370 at 14q24.3 (SNW1-ALKBH1-NRXN3) were further replicated in the Caucasian population. Conclusion In this three-stage genome-wide association studies, we identified five SNPs as markers for survival of advanced-stage NSCLC patients treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in Chinese Han populations. Two of these SNPs, rs7629386 and rs3850370, could also be markers for survival among Caucasian patients. PMID:22872573

  20. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  1. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings During Therapy Predict Outcome in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Chemotherapy Alone but Not in Those Who Receive Consolidation Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Hess, Kenneth; Shihadeh, Ferial; Podoloff, Donald A.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Mawlawi, Osama; Arzu, Isidora; Oki, Yasuhiro; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Fayad, Luis E.; Rodriguez, Alma

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of mid-therapy positron emission tomography (PET) findings for predicting survival and disease progression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, considering type of therapy (chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated 294 patients with histologically confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with respect to age, sex, disease stage, International Prognostic Index score, mid-therapy PET findings (positive or negative), and disease status after therapy and at last follow-up. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared according to mid-therapy PET findings. Results: Of the 294 patients, 163 (55%) were male, 144 (49%) were age >61 years, 110 (37%) had stage I or II disease, 219 (74%) had International Prognostic Index score ≤2, 216 (73%) received ≥6 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, and 88 (30%) received consolidation radiation therapy. Five-year PFS and OS rates were associated with mid-therapy PET status: PFS was 78% for those with PET-negative (PET−) disease versus 63% for PET-positive (PET+) disease (P=.024), and OS was 82% for PET− versus 62% for PET+ (P<.002). These associations held true for patients who received chemotherapy only (PFS 71% for PET− vs 52% PET+ [P=.012], OS 78% for PET− and 51% for PET+ [P=.0055]) but not for those who received consolidation radiation therapy (PFS 84% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.88]; OS 90% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.39]). Conclusion: Mid-therapy PET can predict patient outcome, but the use of consolidation radiation therapy may negate the significance of mid-therapy findings.

  2. Significance of GATA-3 expression in outcomes of patients with breast cancer who received systemic chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy and clinicopathologic features of GATA-3-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Gulbahce, H Evin; Sweeney, Carol; Surowiecka, Maria; Knapp, Dennis; Varghese, Linda; Blair, Cindy K

    2013-11-01

    GATA-3 and estrogen receptor (ER) are involved in a positive cross-regulatory loop and are frequently coexpressed in breast cancers. GATA-3 expression was shown to be an independent predictor of overall and disease-free survival in some studies, whereas others showed no difference. However, the studies used different cutoff values for determining GATA-3 positivity and analyzed outcomes in patients who received systemic therapy together with those who did not. We investigated GATA-3 expression and correlated clinicopathologic findings and outcomes in 516 women who received systemic chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Nuclear staining of 1% or greater was considered positive for GATA-3, ER and progesterone receptor (PR). Of 516 cases, 436 (84.5%) were GATA-3+. GATA-3+ tumors were more likely to be grade 1 or 2, ER+, PR+, non-triple-negative phenotypes (all P < .0001), and higher stage (P = .01). ER-/GATA-3+ tumors, compared with ER-/GATA-3- tumors, had worse breast cancer survival (BCS) (P = .02) and a trend for worse overall survival (OS) (P = .05) in univariate analysis. However, there was no difference in OS and BCS between patients who received chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy among GATA-3-positive and GATA-3-negative groups. GATA-3+ tumors are correlated with lower grade, ER+, PR+, and non-triple-negative phenotypes. Although there was no difference in OS and BCS between GATA-3-positive and GATA-3-negative groups, there was an adverse effect of GATA-3 expression in the ER-negative subgroup of patients who received systemic therapy.

  3. Potential Epigenetic Mechanism(s) Associated With the Persistence of Psychoneurological Symptoms in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Debra; Elmore, Lynne; Aboalela, Noran; Merrill-Schools, Jacqueline; McCain, Nancy; Starkweather, Angela; Elswick, R. K.; Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent treatment advances, there have been improvements in the proportion of women surviving a diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). However, many of these survivors report persistent adverse side effects following treatment, such as cognitive dysfunction, depressive symptoms, anxiety, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and pain. Investigators have examined circulating levels of inflammatory markers, particularly serum cytokines, for a potential causal relationship to the development/persistence of these psychoneurological symptoms (PNS). While inflammatory activation, resulting from perceived stress or other factors, may directly contribute to the development of PNS, we offer an alternative hypothesis, suggesting that these symptoms are an early step in a cascade of biological changes leading to epigenetic alterations at the level of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, histone modifications, and/or chromatin structure/chromosomal instability. Given that epigenetic patterns have plasticity, if this conjectured relationship between epigenomic/acquired genomic alterations and the development/persistence of PNS is confirmed, it could provide foundational knowledge for future research leading to the recognition of predictive markers and/or treatments to alleviate PNS in women with BC. In this article, we discuss an evolving theory of the biological basis of PNS, integrating knowledge related to inflammation and DNA repair in the context of genetic and epigenetic science to expand the paradigm for understanding symptom acquisition/persistence following chemotherapy. PMID:23585573

  4. Surgical resection of persistent pulmonary fungus nodules and secondary prophylaxis are effective in preventing fungal relapse in patients receiving chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation for leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nosari, A; Ravini, M; Cairoli, R; Cozzi, P; Marbello, L; Marenco, P; Grillo, G; Morra, E

    2007-05-01

    Antifungal therapy may be unable to eradicate invasive mycosis in leukemia patients. The presence of persisting pulmonary nodules owing to mycosis seems to increase the risk of fungal relapse after chemotherapy and transplant procedures. Between 1997 and 2004, 10 acute leukemia patients underwent pulmonary surgery for invasive mycosis. The median time from diagnosis of mycosis to surgery was 135 days (range 21-147). Three patients underwent emergency surgery, owing to hemoptysis. In the other seven patients with nodule/cavitation remaining after antifungal treatment, surgery (three wedge resections, four lobectomies) was scheduled before transplant. Pathologic examination confirmed two aspergillosis and three zygomycosis. The only side effect was pneumothorax in one case. Nine patients were considered cured. Six patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (three allogeneic, three autologous) with antifungal prophylaxis without relapse during the transplant procedure. In selected patients scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, surgical resection of localized pulmonary fungus nodules combined with antifungal prophylaxis seem to be an effective treatment for preventing mycotic relapse.

  5. Long Term Clinical Outcome of Patients with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency who Received Related Donor Bone Marrow Transplants without Pre-transplant Chemotherapy or Post-transplant GVHD Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Railey, Mary Dell; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Buckley, Rebecca H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine long term health benefits of non-ablative bone marrow transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), we investigated our cohort of 161 related donor bone marrow transplanted SCID patients. Only 16 (10%) had HLA-identical donors. Study design All 124 survivors were sent questionnaires about their current clinical statuses. Details from clinic visits were also compiled. One hundred eleven patients (90%) were reached. We compared outcomes of patients transplanted before and after 3.5 months of life and by molecular defect. Results The overall survival rate is 77%, but the rate for the 48 infants transplanted in the first 3.5 months of life is 94%, compared with 70% for the 113 transplanted after 3.5 months (p=0.002). Twenty-eight (76%) of the 37 deceased patients died from viral infections present at diagnosis. One or more clinical problems were reported to have been present in the past two years in 71 (64%) of the survivors, although 95 (86%) are considered healthy by their families. Conclusions Most patients with SCID transplanted with related donor marrow without pre-transplant chemotherapy have done well long-term, but those transplanted at <3.5 months of age had a superior survival rate, a lower rate of clinical problems, less need for booster transplants and better nutritional status. PMID:19818451

  6. Poor Prognosis of Lower Inner Quadrant in Lymph Node-negative Breast Cancer Patients Who Received No Chemotherapy: A Study Based on Nationwide Korean Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ki-Tae; Kim, Jongjin; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Jung, Sung Hoo; Sohn, Guiyun; Kim, Seung Il; Jeong, Joon; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Park, Jin Hyun; Oh, Sohee

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the prognostic influence of primary tumor site on the survival of patients with breast cancer. Data of 63,388 patients with primary breast cancer from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry were analyzed. Primary tumor sites were classified into 5 groups: upper outer quadrant, lower outer quadrant, upper inner quadrant, lower inner quadrant (LIQ), and central portion. We analyzed overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) according to primary tumor site. Central portion and LIQ showed lower survival rates regarding both OS and BCSS compared with the other 3 quadrants (all P < .05) and hazard ratios were 1.267 (95% CI, 1.180-1.360, P < .001) and 1.215 (95% CI, 1.097-1.345, P < .001), respectively. Although central portion showed more unfavorable clinicopathologic features, LIQ showed more favorable features than the other 3 quadrants. Primary tumor site was a significant factor in univariate and multivariate analyses for OS and BCSS (all P < .001). For lymph node-negative patients, LIQ showed a worse OS than the other primary tumor sites in the subgroup with no chemotherapy (P < .001), but that effect disappeared in the subgroup with chemotherapy (P = .058). LIQ showed a worse prognosis despite having more favorable clinicopathologic features than other tumor locations and it was more prominent for lymph node-negative patients who received no chemotherapy. The hypothesis of possible hidden internal mammary node metastasis could be suggested to play a key role in LIQ lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for readmission in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma who are receiving front-line chemotherapy on a clinical trial (GOG 218): an NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study (ADS-1236).

    PubMed

    Duska, Linda R; Java, James J; Cohn, David E; Burger, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    Readmission within 30days is a measure of care quality. Ovarian cancer patients are at high risk for readmission, but specific risk factors are not defined. This study was designed to determine risk factors in patients with ovarian cancer receiving upfront surgery and chemotherapy. The study population was enrolled to GOG 0218. Factors predictive of admission within 30days of a previous admission or 40days of cytoreductive surgery were investigated. Categorical variables were compared by Pearson chi-square test, continuous variables by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors and to estimate covariate-adjusted odds. All tests were two-tailed, α=0.05. Of 1873 patients, 197 (10.5%) were readmitted, with 59 experiencing >1 readmission. One-hundred-forty-four (73%) readmissions were post-operative (readmission rate 7.7%). Significant risk factors include: disease stage (stage 3 vs 4, p=0.008), suboptimal cytoreduction (36% vs 64%, p=0.001), ascites, (p=0.018), BMI (25.4 vs 27.6, p<0.001), poor PS (p<0.001), and higher baseline CA 125 (p=0.017). Patients readmitted within 40days of surgery had a significantly shorter interval from surgery to chemotherapy initiation (22 versus 32days, p<0.0001). Patients treated with bevacizumab had higher readmission rates in the case of patients with >1 readmission. On multivariate analysis, the odds of re-hospitalization increased with doubling of BMI (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.07-3.07) and PS of 2 (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.21-3.48). Significant risk factors for readmission in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary surgery and chemotherapy include stage, residual disease, ascites, high BMI and poor PS. Readmissions are most likely after the initial surgical procedure, a discrete period to target with a prospective intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytosine arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

    PubMed

    Sallan, S E; Camitta, B M; Chan, D M; Traggis, D; Jaffe, N

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were treated with intermittent cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytosine arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP). Group A (no prior relapse) and Group B (prior single-agent relapse) received COAP after 12 months on another chemotherapy regimen. Children in Group C (prior relapse on multiagent regimens) received COAP following A-COAP (asparaginase plus COAP) reinduction. Median disease-free survival after beginning COAP was not reached for Group A, but was only 7 months for Groups B and C. As of November 1976, there were 8 of 15 Group A patients, 1 of 12 Group B patients, and 1 of 28 Group C patients who had remained disease-free from 38 to 60 (median 54.5) months and were off chemotherapy. COAP has activity in childhood ALL. However, effectiveness is markedly diminished in patients with prior bone marrow relapse.

  9. Screening of Pleural Mesotheliomas for DNA-damage Repair Players by Digital Gene Expression Analysis Can Enhance Clinical Management of Patients Receiving Platin-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Werner, Robert; Mairinger, Thomas; Schmeller, Jan; Flom, Elena; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Paliouras, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Fotios; Adamidis, Vasilis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Trakada, Georgia; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Mairinger, Fabian Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, predominantly asbestos-related and biologically highly aggressive tumour leading to a dismal prognosis. Multimodality therapy consisting of platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. The reasons for the rather poor efficacy of platinum compounds remain largely unknown. Material and Methods: For this exploratory mRNA study, 24 FFPE tumour specimens were screened by digital gene expression analysis. Based on data from preliminary experiments and recent literature, a total of 366 mRNAs were investigated using a Custom CodeSet from NanoString. All statistical analyses were calculated with the R i386 statistical programming environment. Results: CDC25A and PARP1 gene expression were correlated with lymph node spread, BRCA1 and TP73 expression levels with higher IMIG stage. NTHL1 and XRCC3 expression was associated with TNM stage. CHECK1 as well as XRCC2 expression levels were correlated with tumour progression in the overall cohort of patients. CDKN2A and MLH1 gene expression influenced overall survival in this collective. In the adjuvant treated cohort only, CDKN2A, CHEK1 as well as ERCC1 were significantly associated with overall survival. Furthermore, TP73 expression was associated with progression in this subgroup. Conclusion: DNA-damage response plays a crucial role in response to platin-based chemotherapeutic regimes. In particular, CHEK1, XRCC2 and TP73 are strongly associated with tumour progression. ERCC1, MLH1, CDKN2A and most promising CHEK1 are prognostic markers for OS in MPM. TP73, CDKN2A, CHEK1 and ERCC1 seem to be also predictive markers in adjuvant treated MPMs. After a prospective validation, these markers may improve clinical and pathological practice, finally leading to a patients' benefit by an enhanced clinical management. PMID:27698933

  10. Chemotherapy in metastatic retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kingston, J E; Hungerford, J L; Plowman, P N

    1987-03-01

    Eleven children with metastatic retinoblastoma diagnosed during the period 1970-1984 were treated with chemotherapy. Short-term complete responses were observed in three children treated with a four-drug combination which included cisplatinum, and in one child treated with vincristine and cyclophosphamide. The median duration of survival of the 11 children receiving chemotherapy was nine months, whilst the median survival of 13 children with metastatic retinoblastoma who were not given chemotherapy was only 2.3 months (p = 0.06). This suggests that retinoblastoma is a chemosensitive tumour and therefore adjuvant chemotherapy may have a role in children with retinoblastoma who at diagnosis are thought to be at high risk of developing metastatic disease.

  11. Impact of obesity and exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Herath, Kanchana; Peswani, Namrata; Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy often develop fatigue from their treatment that may persist for months. While the positive effects of physical activity in cancer patients are increasingly recognized, the impact of obesity on chemotherapy-induced fatigue has not been well studied. Female age 35-75 years with stage I-III breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in an IRB-approved study. Patient fatigue was self-reported using a 14-question fatigue symptom inventory. Patients were queried about fatigue and their level of exercise before, during, and after completion of chemotherapy. BMI was measured prior to their first cycle of chemotherapy. Of the 47 evaluable patients, 37 reported performing exercise on a regular basis. Following chemotherapy, 53 % of the exercise group and 80 % of the non-exercise group displayed a worsening of their FS. In patients with a BMI < 25, the fatigue score (FS) after chemotherapy was 27.6 in the exercise group versus 40.5 in the non-exercise group. In patients with a BMI > 25, the FS after chemotherapy was 25.96 in the exercise group versus 32.6 in the non-exercise group. Our study indicates a trend towards fatigue reduction with exercise even in patients who are overweight. Thus, an elevated BMI at diagnosis does not preclude a breast cancer patient from experiencing the same positive effects from exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue as patients with normal BMIs. This indicates an important role of physicians in the primary care setting to encourage patients to initiate physical activity when offering cancer-screening services.

  12. Chemotherapy Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falling Fatigue Fertility and Sexual Side Effects Fever Hair ... Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment Some cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy may increase a person's risk ...

  13. Retrospective Audit: Does Prior Assessment by Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Reduce the Risk of Osteonecrosis of The Jaw in Patients Receiving Bone-Targeted Therapies for Metastatic Cancers to the Skeleton?--Part II.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Ali, Sacha; Pati, Jhumur; Nargund, Vinod; Ali, Enamul; Cheng, Leo; Wells, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Men who receive bone-targeted therapy for metastatic prostate cancer are at increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Development of ONJ has been associated with the administration of bone-targeted therapies in association with other risk factors. ONJ can be distressing for a patient because it can cause pain, risk of jaw fracture, body image disturbance, difficultly eating, and difficulty maintaining good oral hygiene. The aim of this article is to report results of an audit of prior assessment by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) before initiation of bone-targeted therapies and whether it may reduce the risk of ONJ in patients receiving bone-targeted therapies for advanced cancers.

  14. Impact of Pre-transplant Therapy and Depth of Disease Response prior to Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Vij, Ravi; Kumar, Shaji; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhong, Xiaobo; Huang, Jiaxing; Dispenzieri, Angela; Abidi, Muneer H.; Bird, Jennifer M.; Freytes, César O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L.; Kyle, Robert A.; Landsburg, Daniel J.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Munker, Reinhold; Roy, Vivek; Sharma, Manish; Vogl, Dan T.; Wirk, Baldeep; Hari, Parameswaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with multiple myeloma (MM), who are eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), typically receive a finite period of initial therapy prior to ASCT. It is not clear if patients with suboptimal (less than a partial) response to initial therapy benefit from additional alternative therapy with intent to maximize pre-transplant response. We identified 539 patients with MM who had an ASCT after having achieved less than a partial response (PR) to first line induction chemotherapy between 1995 and 2010. These patients were then divided into two groups: those who received additional salvage chemotherapy prior to ASCT (n=324) and those who had no additional salvage chemotherapy immediately prior to ASCT (n=215). Additional pre-transplant chemotherapy resulted in deepening responses in 68% (complete response in 8% and PR in 60%). On multivariate analysis there was no impact of pre-transplant salvage chemotherapy on treatment related mortality (TRM), risk for relapse, progression free or overall survival. In conclusion, for patients achieving a less than PR to initial induction therapy including with novel agent combinations, additional pre-ASCT salvage chemotherapy improved the depth of response and pre-ASCT disease status but was not associated with survival benefit. PMID:25445028

  15. The incidence of cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and a prior malignancy who receive TNF inhibitors or rituximab: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register-Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Lunt, Mark; Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Watson, Kath D.; Dixon, William G.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the influence of TNF inhibitor (TNFi) therapy and rituximab (RTX) upon the incidence of cancer in patients with RA and prior malignancy. Methods. The study population comprised RA subjects with a prior malignancy reported to the UK national cancer registers, recruited to the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register from 2001 to 2013. We compared rates of first incident malignancy in a TNFi cohort, RTX cohort and synthetic DMARDs (sDMARD) cohort. Results. We identified 425 patients with a prior malignancy from 18 000 RA patients in the study. Of these, 101 patients developed a new malignancy. The rates of incident malignancy were 33.3 events/1000 person-years (py) in the TNFi cohort, 24.7 events/1000 py in the RTX cohort and 53.8 events/1000 py in the sDMARD cohort. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.86) for the TNFi cohort and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.10, 1.80) for the RTX cohort in comparison with the sDMARDs cohort. The 17.0% of patients in the sDMARDs cohort had a recurrence of the same cancer in comparison with the 12.8% and the 4.3% in the TNFi and RTX cohorts, respectively. Conclusions. Although numbers are still low, it seems that patients with RA and prior malignancy selected to receive either a TNFi or RTX in the UK do not have an increased risk of future incident malignancy. PMID:27550304

  16. Group-Wide, Prospective Study of Ototoxicity Assessment in Children Receiving Cisplatin Chemotherapy (ACCL05C1): A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kristin R; Chen, Lu; Freyer, David; Aplenc, Richard; Bancroft, Mary; Bliss, Bonnie; Dang, Ha; Gillmeister, Biljana; Hendershot, Eleanor; Kraemer, Dale F; Lindenfeld, Lanie; Meza, Jane; Neuwelt, Edward A; Pollock, Brad H; Sung, Lillian

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Optimal assessment methods and criteria for reporting hearing outcomes in children who receive treatment with cisplatin are uncertain. The objectives of our study were to compare different ototoxicity classification systems, to evaluate the feasibility of including otoacoustic emissions and extended high frequency audiometry, and to evaluate a central review mechanism for audiologic results for cisplatin-treated children in the cooperative group setting. Patients and Methods Eligible participants were 1 to 30 years, with planned cisplatin-containing treatment. Hearing evaluations were conducted at baseline, before each cisplatin cycle, and at the end of therapy. Audiologic results were assessed and graded by the testing audiologist and by two central review audiologists using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Ototoxicity Criteria (ASHA), Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE), and Brock Ototoxicity Grades (Brock). One central reviewer also used the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Ototoxicity Scale (SIOP). Results At the end of treatment, the prevalence of any degree of ototoxicity ranged from 40% to 56%, and severe ototoxicity ranged from 7% to 22%. Compared with CTCAE, SIOP detected significantly more ototoxicity ( P = .004), whereas Brock criteria detected significantly fewer patients with any or severe ototoxicity ( P < .001 for both). SIOP detected ototoxicity earlier than did the other scales. Agreement between the central reviewers and the institutional audiologist was almost perfect for ASHA and Brock, whereas the poorest agreement occurred with CTCAE. Conclusion The SIOP scale may be superior to ASHA, Brock, and CTCAE scales for classifying ototoxicity in pediatric patients who were treated with cisplatin. Future studies should evaluate inter-rater reliability of the SIOP scale.

  17. Clinicopathologic significance of tumor microenvironment CD11c, and FOXP3 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, anthracycline, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) combination chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seul; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, So Yeon; Koh, Myeong Seok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Suee; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kwak, Jong-Young; Pak, Min Gyoung; Ju, Mi Ha; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims CD11c is a dendritic cell marker in humans, which potentially induces a cytotoxic effect on lymphoma cells. Forkhead boxP3 (FOXP3) is a regulator of T lymphocyte in the microenvironment of the lymphoma. The principal objective of this study was to determine whether the tumors’ microenvironment expressions of CD11c and FOXP3 are predictive of clinical outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients receiving treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, anthracycline, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) combination chemotherapy. Methods The study population consisted of 100 patients with DLBCL. The CD11c and FOXP3 expression in primary tumors’ microenvironment were evaluated using an immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results CD11c and FOXP3 expression positivity in microenvironment were 25% and 35%, respectively. Each one counted for 1 point. In CD11c and FOXP3 stain, positive was counted as 0 and negative was 1. The points were separated into low risk (0 to 1) and high risk (2) groups. Only the extranodal DLBCL patient group analysis conveyed significant differences of progression-free survival (p = 0.019) and overall survival (p = 0.039) between the two groups. Conclusions We can achieve possible clinical significance of lymphoma tumor microenvironments through CD11c and FOXP3 IHC stains in extranodal DLBCL patients receiving R-CHOP therapy. PMID:26968188

  18. Clinicopathologic significance of tumor microenvironment CD11c, and FOXP3 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, anthracycline, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, So Yeon; Koh, Myeong Seok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Suee; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kwak, Jong-Young; Pak, Min Gyoung; Ju, Mi Ha; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2017-03-01

    CD11c is a dendritic cell marker in humans, which potentially induces a cytotoxic effect on lymphoma cells. Forkhead boxP3 (FOXP3) is a regulator of T lymphocyte in the microenvironment of the lymphoma. The principal objective of this study was to determine whether the tumors' microenvironment expressions of CD11c and FOXP3 are predictive of clinical outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients receiving treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, anthracycline, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) combination chemotherapy. The study population consisted of 100 patients with DLBCL. The CD11c and FOXP3 expression in primary tumors' microenvironment were evaluated using an immunohistochemistry (IHC). CD11c and FOXP3 expression positivity in microenvironment were 25% and 35%, respectively. Each one counted for 1 point. In CD11c and FOXP3 stain, positive was counted as 0 and negative was 1. The points were separated into low risk (0 to 1) and high risk (2) groups. Only the extranodal DLBCL patient group analysis conveyed significant differences of progression-free survival (p = 0.019) and overall survival (p = 0.039) between the two groups. We can achieve possible clinical significance of lymphoma tumor microenvironments through CD11c and FOXP3 IHC stains in extranodal DLBCL patients receiving R-CHOP therapy.

  19. Anticancer chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Despite troubled beginnings, anticancer chemotherapy has made significant contribution to the control of cancer in man, particularly within the last two decades. Early conceptual observations awakened the scientific community to the potentials of cancer chemotherapy. There are now more than 50 agents that are active in causing regression of clinical cancer. Chemotherapy's major conceptual contributions are two-fold. First, there is now proof that patients with overt metastatic disease can be cured, and second, to provide a strategy for control of occult metastases. In man, chemotherapy has resulted in normal life expectancy for some patients who have several types of metastatic cancers, including choriocarcinoma, Burkitt's lymphomas, Wilm's tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkins disease, diffuse histiocytic lymphoma and others. Anticancer chemotherapy in Veterinary medicine has evolved from the use of single agents, which produce only limited remissions, to the concept of combination chemotherapy. Three basic principles underline the design of combination chemotherapy protocols; the fraction of tumor cell killed by one drug is independent of the fraction killed by another drug; drugs with different mechanisms of action should be chosen so that the antitumor effects will be additive; and since different classes of drugs have different toxicities the toxic effects will not be additive.

  20. The Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Compared to Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Healing after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jordan D; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2017-01-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy is the latest advancement in the treatment of breast cancer. The authors aimed to investigate the effects of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in nipple-sparing mastectomy. Patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy from 2006 to June of 2015 were identified. Results were stratified by presence of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 840 nipple-sparing mastectomies were performed. Twenty-eight were in those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 93 were in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients receiving both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were included in the neoadjuvant group. Nipple-sparing mastectomies that received neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were compared to those in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Those with neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were more likely to have explantation (p = 0.0239) and complete nipple-areola complex necrosis (p = 0.0021). Those with neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were more likely to have implant explantation (p = 0.0015) and complete nipple-areola complex necrosis (p = 0.0004) compared to those with no chemotherapy. Compared to nipple-sparing mastectomies in patients with no chemotherapy, those with adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to have a hematoma (p = 0.0021). Those that received both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to have complete nipple-areola complex necrosis compared with both the neoadjuvant chemotherapy-only and adjuvant chemotherapy-only groups (p < 0.0001). Nipple-sparing mastectomy is safe to perform in the setting of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. As a whole, neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy increases risk of complications. Therapeutic, III.

  1. A quantitative sensory analysis of peripheral neuropathy in colorectal cancer and its exacerbation by oxaliplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa, Mariana; Kosturakis, Alyssa K; Eng, Cathy; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R; Simone, Donald A; Wang, Xin S; Cleeland, Charles S; Dougherty, Patrick M

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially platins and taxanes, is a widespread problem among cancer survivors that is likely to continue to expand in the future. However, little work to date has focused on understanding this challenge. The goal in this study was to determine the impact of colorectal cancer and cumulative chemotherapeutic dose on sensory function to gain mechanistic insight into the subtypes of primary afferent fibers damaged by chemotherapy. Patients with colorectal cancer underwent quantitative sensory testing before and then prior to each cycle of oxaliplatin. These data were compared with those from 47 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Patients showed significant subclinical deficits in sensory function before any therapy compared with healthy volunteers, and they became more pronounced in patients who received chemotherapy. Sensory modalities that involved large Aβ myelinated fibers and unmyelinated C fibers were most affected by chemotherapy, whereas sensory modalities conveyed by thinly myelinated Aδ fibers were less sensitive to chemotherapy. Patients with baseline sensory deficits went on to develop more symptom complaints during chemotherapy than those who had no baseline deficit. Patients who were tested again 6 to 12 months after chemotherapy presented with the most numbness and pain and also the most pronounced sensory deficits. Our results illuminate a mechanistic connection between the pattern of effects on sensory function and the nerve fiber types that appear to be most vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced toxicity, with implications for how to focus future work to ameloirate risks of peripheral neuropathy.

  2. Effect of an education program on knowledge, self-care behavior and handwashing competence on prevention of febrile neutropenia among breast cancer patients receiving Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide in Chemotherapy Day Centre

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Wai Chi; Yin Ching, Shirley Siu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of an education program on the prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) among breast cancer patients receiving AC regimen. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with the repeated-measures design was conducted in a Chemotherapy Day Centre of an acute hospital in Hong Kong. Twenty-five subjects in the intervention group received an individual education session followed by three follow-up sessions and routine care. Twenty-four subjects in the control group received routine care. Primary outcomes included the incidence of admission due to FN, the self-care behavior adherence, the knowledge level on prevention of FN and the self-efficacy in self-management, handwashing competence were assessed by self-designed questionnaires, Chinese version of patient activation measure, and handwashing competence checklist. Results: No statistically significant difference between the intervention group and the control group on the incidence of admission due to FN, the self-efficacy in self-management, and the knowledge on prevention of FN. The self-care behavior adherence was significant at cycle 4 of AC regimen in favor of the intervention group (P = 0.036). Handwashing competence improved more significantly among subjects in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.009). Conclusions: The education program on the prevention of FN had significantly favorable effects on self-care behavior adherence and handwashing competence across time. However, the intervention did not lead to statistically significant improvement on the incidence of admission due to FN, the self-efficacy in self-management and the knowledge level on prevention of FN. PMID:27981125

  3. The Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Aflibercept in Combination with Irinotecan and Fluorouracil-Based Therapy (FOLFIRI) for the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Which has Progressed Following Prior Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy: a Critique of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ros; Duarte, Ana; Simmonds, Mark; Rodriguez-Lopez, Rocio; Duffy, Steven; Woolacott, Nerys; Spackman, Eldon

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of aflibercept (Sanofi) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for aflibercept in combination with irinotecan and fluorouracil-based therapy [irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFIRI)] for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer which has progressed following prior oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, as part of the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics at the University of York were commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company submission, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance TA307 issued in March 2014. The ERG critically reviewed the evidence presented in the manufacturer's submission and identified areas requiring clarification, for which the manufacturer provided additional evidence. The clinical effectiveness data were derived from one good-quality double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT), the VELOUR trial, which compared aflibercept plus FOLFIRI with placebo plus FOLFIRI. This RCT found a small but statistically significant increase in overall survival (OS); the difference in median OS was 1.44 months (13.5 months in the aflibercept group and 12.06 months in the placebo group). There was also a statistically significant increase in progression-free survival (PFS) with aflibercept; the difference in median PFS was 2.23 months (6.9 months in the aflibercept group and 4.67 months in the placebo group). However, grade 3-4 adverse events were more frequent in the aflibercept group than the placebo group: 83.5% compared with 62.5%. Treatment-emergent adverse events led to permanent discontinuation of treatment in 26.8% of patients in the aflibercept group and 12.1% of patients in the placebo group. The manufacturer's submission included an estimation of mean OS benefit based on extrapolation

  4. LiMAx Test Improves Diagnosis of Chemotherapy-Associated Liver Injury Before Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Lock, Johan F; Westphal, Tilman; Rubin, Tom; Malinowski, Maciej; Schulz, Antje; Jara, Maximilian; Bednarsch, Jan; Stockmann, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) prior to liver resection implies the risk of chemotherapy-associated liver injury, leading to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the LiMAx (liver maximum capacity) test for diagnosis of chemotherapy-associated liver injury. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLMs, prior to liver resection. We performed preoperative assessment of liver function using biochemical parameters and the LiMAx test. The individual history of chemotherapy within 12 months, including regimen, number of cycles, and therapy-free interval were collected, and histopathological evaluation of tumor-free liver tissue was performed in resected patients. A total of 204 patients were included, of whom 127 (62%) had received previous chemotherapy. The LiMAx test was worse after chemotherapy (340 ± 95 vs. 391 ± 82 µg/kg/h; p < 0.001). Impaired LiMAx results (<315 µg/kg/h) were determined in 49% of patients after chemotherapy, and no effects of chemotherapy, liver steatosis or fibrosis on biochemical parameters were observed. LiMAx impairment was dependent on the number of oxaliplatin cycles, the therapy-free interval, and obesity in multivariate analysis. In addition, the LiMAx test was worse in patients with relevant steatosis, fibrosis and steatohepatitis. Patients with an impaired LiMAx showed sufficient regeneration during chemotherapy cessation when surgery was postponed (272 ± 57 - 348 ± 72 µg/kg/h; p = 0.003). The LiMAx test enables non-invasive preoperative diagnosis of chemotherapy-associated liver injury. Preoperative performance of the LiMAx test can augment surgical strategy and timing of surgery after previous chemotherapy, thus avoiding increased postoperative morbidity.

  5. Swallowing outcomes and PEG dependence in head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy with a proactive PEG: a prospective study with long term follow up.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Jane M; Ng, Stephanie; Spurgin, Ann-Louise; Ward, Elizabeth C; Brown, Teresa E; Hughes, Brett G M

    2015-06-01

    This study examined long term swallowing outcomes of a cohort of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients identified at high risk of experiencing significant side effects from cancer treatment and were provided with a proactive PEG. Ninety-five HNC patients receiving definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy were identified for proactive PEG placement using validated guidelines and followed for up to 3years. Functional swallowing status was recorded at regular time points and data were collected on PEG use and duration in situ. Mean duration of enteral feeding was 125days. PEGs remained in situ for approximately 7months. PEG removal was achieved by 52% by 6months and 86% by 1year. Only 3 (3%) remained PEG dependent at 3years. Over half (55%) had resumed a full non-texture modified diet by PEG removal. Proactive PEG placement did not lead to high proportion of long term tube dependence in this high risk group and the majority achieved good swallowing outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Necrotizing dermatitis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dreizen, S; McCredie, K B; Bodey, G P; Keating, M J

    1987-03-01

    Necrotizing dermatitis in patients being treated with cancer chemotherapeutic agents can be of several types. Microbial causes can include a variety of bacteria and fungi, the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gangrene from occlusive causes is not uncommon among cancer patients with coexisting atheromatous, thromboembolic, or obliterative vascular disease. Toxic gangrene is most commonly caused by extravasation of intravenously administered cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs but has also been associated with the use of coumarin congeners and the bite of the brown recluse spider. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an idiopathic condition that has been reported in association with myeloproliferative disorders. Finally, necrosis can be caused by the neoplasm itself, when its growth is so great that blood vessels are compressed and ischemia of the surrounding tissue results.

  7. Significant reduction of red blood cell transfusion requirements by changing from a double-unit to a single-unit transfusion policy in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Martin David; Gerber, Bernhard; Arn, Kornelius; Senn, Oliver; Schanz, Urs; Stussi, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditionally, single-unit red blood cell transfusions were believed to be insufficient to treat anemia, but recent data suggest that they may lead to a safe reduction of transfusion requirements. We tested this hypothesis by changing from a double- to a single-unit red blood cell transfusion policy. Design and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving intensive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The major end-points were the reduction in the total number of red blood cell units per therapy cycle and per day of aplasia. The study comprised 139 patients who received 272 therapy cycles. Overall 2212 red blood cell units were administered in 1548 transfusions. Results During the periods of the double- and single-unit policies, one red blood cell unit was transfused in 25% and 84% of the cases and the median number of red blood cell units per transfusion was two and one, respectively. Single-unit transfusion led to a 25% reduction of red blood cell usage per therapy cycle and 24% per aplasia day, but was not associated with a higher out-patient transfusion frequency. In multivariate analysis, single-unit transfusion resulted in a reduction of 2.7 red blood cell units per treatment cycle (P=0.001). The pre-transfusion hemoglobin levels were lower during the single-unit period (median 61 g/L versus 64 g/L) and more transfusions were administered to patients with hemoglobin values of 60 gl/L or less (47% versus 26%). There was no evidence of more severe bleeding or more platelet transfusions during the single-unit period and the overall survival was similar in both cohorts. Conclusions Implementing a single-unit transfusion policy saves 25% of red blood cell units and, thereby, reduces the risks associated with allogeneic blood transfusions. PMID:21933858

  8. Metronomic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects and chemoresistance are major hurdles in chemotherapy and to avoid these problems caused by traditional chemotherapeutic regimens, a new modality of drug administration called “metronomic chemotherapy” has emerged. Such regimen involves the frequent administration of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at very low doses to target activated endothelial cells in tumors, the advantages of which include minimal adverse effects and a rare chance of developing acquired drug resistance. Previously it was thought that they act by targeting angiogenesis, but recently additional mechanisms have been discovered which has established metronomic chemotherapy as a type of multi-targeted therapy. The knowledge gained from the preclinical studies of metronomic chemotherapy, along with clinical experience, will help to design better therapeutic protocols against cancer. Detailed pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies on tumor endothelial cells and large multi-centered clinical trials, integrating bio-marker analyzes, are needed to investigate and validate the best treatment combinations for each tumor type and patient population. PMID:25210398

  9. Intracavitary chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Markman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling has suggested, and clinical investigations have confirmed, that intracavitary drug administration can result in a much greater drug exposure for the cavity into which the agent is instilled compared to the plasma. Both the safety and the efficacy of several agents administered individually or in combination have now been demonstrated. Several malignancies, in particular ovarian carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma, which remain confined to body cavities for much of their natural history, might be most rationally treated by the intracavitary treatment approach. Early clinical trials have demonstrated significant activity of intracavitary chemotherapy in both of these malignancies. Optimal drugs and dosages as well as appropriate scheduling for the various tumors involving body cavities remain to be defined. Whether or not combination intracavitary chemotherapy will significantly improve survival of patients with malignant disease confined to body cavities must await carefully controlled clinical trials comparing this treatment approach to standard systemically administered chemotherapy. 144 references.

  10. Quality of life during chemotherapy in lung cancer patients: results across different treatment lines

    PubMed Central

    Wintner, L M; Giesinger, J M; Zabernigg, A; Sztankay, M; Meraner, V; Pall, G; Hilbe, W; Holzner, B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed at an advanced disease stage and predominantly receive palliative treatment, which increasingly consists of several chemotherapy lines. We report on patients' quality of life (QOL) to gain knowledge on QOL during and across multiple lines of chemotherapy. This includes patients with (neo)adjuvant therapy up to 3rd or above line palliative chemotherapy. Methods: Lung cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy at the Kufstein County Hospital completed an electronic version of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty seven patients were included in the study. Surprisingly, irrespective of the chemotherapy line patients reported stable QOL scores during treatment. None of the calculated monthly change rates attained clinical significance, referring to established guidelines that classify a small clinical meaningful change as 5 to 10 points. According to treatment line, 3rd or above line palliative chemotherapy was associated with the worst QOL scores, whereas patients undergoing (neo)adjuvant or 1st line palliative chemotherapy reported fairly comparable QOL. Conclusion: The essential finding of our study is that all QOL aspects of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire remained unchanged during each chemotherapy line in an unselected population of lung cancer patients. Between treatment lines pronounced differences were found, indicating that later palliative chemotherapy lines are associated with higher QOL impairments. These changes in QOL may not primarily be related to the treatment, but rather refer to impairments due to disease progression and may be partly due to a consequence of the prior therapies. PMID:24091620

  11. Efficacy of palonosetron (PAL) compared to other serotonin inhibitors (5-HT3R) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic (MoHE) treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Botrel, Tobias Engel Ayer; Clark, Otávio Augusto C; Clark, Luciana; Paladini, Luciano; Faleiros, Enéas; Pegoretti, Bruna

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials comparing a single intravenous dose of palonosetron (PAL) 0.25 mg with other 5-HT(3)R in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic (MoHE) chemotherapy. Several databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary endpoints were the incidence of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting. The side effects of each treatment were analyzed. A subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of the use of corticosteroids. The results are expressed as risk ratio (RR) and the correspondent 95% confidence interval (CI). Five studies were included, with 2057 patients. PAL was compared with ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron. Patients in PAL group had less nausea, both acute (RR = 0.86; CI 95% = 0.76 to 0.96; p = 0.007) and delayed (RR = 0.82; CI95% = 0.75 to 0.89; p < 0.00001). They also had less acute vomiting (RR = 0.76; CI 95% = 0.66 to 0.88; p = 0.0002) and delayed vomiting (RR = 0.76; CI95% = 0.68 to 0.85; p < 0.00001). There were no statistical differences in side effects like headache (RR = 0.84; CI 95% = 0.61 to 1.17; p = 0.30), dizziness (RR = 0.40; CI 95% = 0.13 to 1.27; p = 0.12), constipation (RR = 1.29; CI 95% = 0.77 to 2.17; p = 0.33) or diarrhea (RR = 0.67; CI 95% = 0.24 to 1.85; p = 0.44). Patients receiving PAL presented less nausea and vomiting regardless of the use of corticoids. We found no statistical heterogeneity in the global analysis. PAL was more effective than the other 5-HT(3)R in preventing acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving MoHE treatments, regardless of the use of concomitant corticosteroids.

  12. Effects of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for oesophago-gastric cancer on neuro-muscular gastric function.

    PubMed

    Sung, E Z H; Arasaradnam, R P; Jarvie, E M; James, S; Goodyear, S J; Borman, R A; Snead, D; Sanger, G J; Nwokolo, C U

    2012-12-01

    Delayed gastric emptying symptoms are often reported after chemotherapy. This study aims to characterise the effects of chemotherapy on gastric neuro-muscular function. Patients undergoing elective surgery for oesophago-gastric cancer were recruited. Acetylcholinesterase, nNOS, ghrelin receptor and motilin expressions were studied in gastric sections from patients receiving no chemotherapy (n = 3) or oesophageal (n = 2) or gastric (n = 2) chemotherapy. A scoring system quantified staining intensity (0-3; no staining to strong). Stomach sections were separately suspended in tissue baths for electrical field stimulation (EFS) and exposure to erythromycin or carbachol; three patients had no chemotherapy; four completed cisplatin-based chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to surgery. AChE expression was markedly decreased after chemotherapy (scores 2.3 ± 0.7, 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0 ± 0 in non-chemotherapy, oesophageal- and gastric-chemotherapy groups (p < 0.03 each) respectively. Ghrelin receptor and motilin expression tended to increase (ghrelin: 0.7 ± 0.4 vs 2.0 ± 0.4 and 1.2 ± 0.2 respectively; p = 0.04 and p = 0.2; motilin: 0.7 ± 0.5 vs 2.2 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.7; p = 0.06 and p = 0.16). Maximal contraction to carbachol was 3.7 ± 0.7 g and 1.9 ± 0.8 g (longitudinal muscle) and 3.4 ± 0.4 g and 1.6 ± 0.6 (circular) in non-chemotherapy and chemotherapy tissues respectively (p < 0.05 each). There were loss of AChE and reduction in contractility to carbachol. The tendency for ghrelin receptors to increase suggests an attempt to upregulate compensating systems. Our study offers a mechanism by which chemotherapy markedly alters neuro-muscular gastric function.

  13. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M; Devine, Katie; Ryan, Julie L; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; Peppone, Luke J; Candelario, Grace D; Mohile, Supriya G; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still a major problem for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients will delay or refuse future chemotherapy treatments and contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the recommended guidelines for treatment. PMID:24466408

  14. Understanding Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may get chemotherapy before a peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Fill this section in with your doctor or nurse. I am getting chemo ... can be given in these forms: An IV (intravenously) A shot (injection) into a muscle or other part of your body A pill ...

  15. Efficacy and safety of an amino acid jelly containing coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine in controlling fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a multi-institutional, randomized, exploratory trial (JORTC-CAM01).

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Yotsumoto, Daisuke; Doi, Takako; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Odagiri, Hiroki; Kitamura, Kaoru; Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Miyaji, Tempei; Ishiki, Hiroto; Inoue, Kenichi; Tsutsumi, Chizuko; Sagara, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common symptoms reported by cancer patients. This randomized trial investigated the efficacy of the amino acid jelly Inner Power(®) (IP), a semi-solid, orally administrable dietary supplement containing coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine, in controlling CRF in breast cancer patients in Japan. Breast cancer patients with CRF undergoing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive IP once daily or regular care for 21 days. The primary endpoint was the change in the worst level of fatigue during the past 24 h (Brief Fatigue Inventory [BFI] item 3 score) from day 1 (baseline) to day 22. Secondary endpoints were change in global fatigue score (GFS; the average of all BFI items), anxiety and depression assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), quality of life assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific QLQ (EORTC QLQ-BR23), and adverse events. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 57 were included in the efficacy analysis. Median patient age was 50 years. Changes in the worst level of fatigue, GFS, and current feeling of fatigue were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, whereas the change in the average feeling of fatigue was not significantly different between groups. HADS, EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC QLQ-BR23 scores were not significantly different between the two groups. No severe adverse events were observed. IP may control moderate-severe CRF in breast cancer patients. The registration number of this study in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) is UMIN000008646.

  16. Utility of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the Initial Staging and Response Assessment of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hulikal, Narendra; Gajjala, Sivanath Reddy; Kalawat, Teck Chand; Kottu, Radhika; Amancharla Yadagiri, Lakshmi

    2015-12-01

    In India up to 50 % of breast cancer patients still present as locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). The conventional methods of metastatic work up include physical examination, bone scan, chest & abdominal imaging, and biochemical tests. It is likely that the conventional staging underestimates the extent of initial spread and there is a need for more sophisticated staging procedure. The PET/CT can detect extra-axillary and occult distant metastases and also aid in predicting response to chemotherapy at an early point in time. To evaluate the utility of FDG PET/CT in initial staging and response assessment of patients with LABC receiving NACT. A prospective study of all biopsy confirmed female patients diagnosed with LABC receiving NACT from April 2013 to May 2014. The conventional work up included serum chemistry, CECT chest and abdomen and bone scan. A baseline whole body PET/CT was done in all patients. A repeat staging evaluation and a whole body PET/CT was done after 2/3rd cycle of NACT in non-responders and after 3/4 cycles in clinical responders. The histopathology report of the operative specimen was used to document the pathological response. The FDG PET/CT reported distant metastases in 11 of 38 patients, where as conventional imaging revealed metastases in only 6. Almost all the distant lesions detected by conventional imaging were detected with PET/CT, which showed additional sites of metastasis in 3 patients. In 2 patients, PET/CT detected osteolytic bone metastasis which were not detected by bone scan. In 5 patients PET CT detected N3 disease which were missed on conventional imaging. A total of 14 patients had second PET/CT done to assess the response to NACT and 11 patients underwent surgery. Two patients had complete pathological response. Of these 1 patient had complete metabolic and morphologic response and other had complete metabolic and partial morphologic response on second PET/CT scan. The 18 FDG PET/CT can detect more number of

  17. [Neoadjuvant, inductive or adjuvant chemotherapy of bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, C-H; De Santis, M

    2013-11-01

    Perioperative chemotherapy is a standard treatment for patients with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma undergoing radical cystectomy; however, direct comparisons of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy are lacking. Evidence-based data and implementation into daily clinical practice favor neoadjuvant chemotherapy; nevertheless, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is still underused in daily practice compared to adjuvant chemotherapy. If neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not been used and patients are fit enough to receive cisplatin, adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered in patients with pT3-pT4 and/or lymph node metastases.

  18. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients' QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working.

  19. Impact of tumor HPV status on outcome in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck receiving chemotherapy with or without cetuximab: retrospective analysis of the phase III EXTREME trial

    PubMed Central

    Vermorken, J. B.; Psyrri, A.; Mesía, R.; Peyrade, F.; Beier, F.; de Blas, B.; Celik, I.; Licitra, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status is an important prognostic factor in locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Prognostic value in recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) disease remains to be confirmed. This retrospective analysis of the EXTREME trial, comparing chemotherapy plus cetuximab with chemotherapy first line in R/M SCCHN, investigated efficacy and prognosis according to tumor p16 and HPV status. Patients and methods Paired tissue samples were used: p16INK4A expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and HPV status determined in extracted DNA samples using oligonucleotide hybridization assays. Results Altogether, 416 of 442 patients had tumor samples available for p16 and HPV: 10% of tumors were p16 positive and 5% were HPV positive. Adding cetuximab to chemotherapy improved survival, irrespective of tumor p16 or HPV status. This pattern remained in a combined analysis of p16 and HPV. p16 positivity and HPV positivity were associated with prolonged survival compared with p16 negativity and HPV negativity. Subgroup analysis of patients with oropharyngeal cancer demonstrated a similar pattern to all evaluable patients. Conclusion The results from this analysis suggest that p16 and HPV status have prognostic value in R/M SCCHN and survival benefits of chemotherapy plus cetuximab over chemotherapy alone are independent of tumor p16 and HPV status. PMID:24577117

  20. A Phase II single-arm trial of palonosetron for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in malignant glioma patients receiving multidose irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Affronti, Mary Lou; Woodring, Sarah; Peters, Katherine B; Herndon, James E; McSherry, Frances; Healy, Patrick N; Desjardins, Annick; Vredenburgh, James J; Friedman, Henry S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Given that the prognosis of recurrent malignant glioma (MG) remains poor, improving quality of life (QoL) through symptom management is important. Meta-analyses establishing antiemetic guidelines have demonstrated the superiority of palonosetron (PAL) over older 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prevention, but excluded patients with gliomas. Irinotecan plus bevacizumab is a treatment frequently used in MG, but is associated with low (55%) CINV complete response (CR; no emesis or use of rescue antiemetic) with commonly prescribed ondansetron. A single-arm Phase II trial was conducted in MG patients to determine the efficacy of intravenous PAL (0.25 mg) and dexamethasone (DEX; 10 mg) received in conjunction with biweekly irinotecan–bevacizumab treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of subjects achieving acute CINV CR (no emesis or antiemetic ≤24 hours postchemotherapy). Secondary end points included delayed CINV CR (days 2–5), overall CINV CR (days 1–5), and QoL, fatigue, and toxicity. Materials and methods A two-stage design of 160 patients was planned to differentiate between CINV CR of 55% and 65% after each dose of PAL–DEX. Validated surveys assessed fatigue and QoL. Results A total of 63 patients were enrolled, after which enrollment was terminated due to slow accrual; 52 patients were evaluable for the primary outcome of acute CINV CR. Following PAL–DEX dose administrations 1–3, acute CINV CR rates were 62%, 68%, and 70%; delayed CINV CR rates were 62%, 66%, and 70%, and overall CINV CR rates were 47%, 57%, and 62%, respectively. Compared to baseline, there was a clinically meaningful increase in fatigue during acute and overall phases, but not in the delayed phase. There were no grade ≥3 PAL–DEX treatment-related toxicities. Conclusion Data suggest that PAL–DEX is effective in preventing CINV in MG patients, which ultimately maintains the QoL of patients with

  1. Smoking may modify the association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival from ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Warren, Graham W; Koziak, Jennifer M; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased mortality. Less is known of the impact of smoking on recurrence risk and interaction with chemotherapy treatment. We examined these associations in ovarian cancer. Patients were identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2010 and were oversampled for less-common histologic ovarian tumor types. Medical records were abstracted for 678 eligible patients on lifestyle, medical and cancer treatment, and review of pathology slides was performed for 605 patients. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age at diagnosis, race, stage and residual disease. Among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (N=432), current smoking was significantly associated with shorter duration of overall (OS; HR, 8.56; 95% CI, 1.50-48.7) and progression-free (PFS; HR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.05-31.4) survival from mucinous ovarian cancer only. There was no significant association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. However, among patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=44), current smokers had shorter PFS (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.36-13.8; N=32 progressed/9 censored events) compared to never smokers, but the HRs were not statistically different across smoking categories (P interaction=0.87). Adverse associations were observed between smoking status and OS or PFS among patients with mucinous ovarian cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. No significant effect was found from neoadjuvant chemotherapy on PFS overall; however, smoking may modify this association. Although needing replication, these findings suggest that patients may benefit from smoking cessation interventions prior to treatment with chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A single institute retrospective trial of concurrent chemotherapy with SIR-Spheres(®) versus SIR-Spheres(®) alone in chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Cho, May; Kessler, Jonathan; Park, John J; Lee, Aram; Gong, Jun; Singh, Gagandeep; Chen, Yi-Jen; Ituarte, Philip H G; Fakih, Marwan

    2017-08-01

    The use of selective internal radiation therapy with yttrium 90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres(®)) in chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer liver metastases has been associated with favorable progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival when given alone or concurrently with chemotherapy. We conducted a single institute retrospective trial to explore the potential impact of SIR-Spheres(®) with concurrent chemotherapy vs. SIR-Spheres(®) alone on liver PFS in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Patients with 5-fluorouracil-refractory CRLM treated with SIR-Spheres(®) between 2009 and 2014 were identified. Patients were excluded if they received any chemotherapy/targeted regimen following radioembolization on which they did not previously progress. This strategy was adopted to minimize the impact of post-SIR-Spheres(®) systemic therapy bias on PFS. Twenty-seven patients satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. Patients' demographics were similar between the two treatment arms, except for the median number of prior therapies. No associated ≥ grade 3 toxicities were noted. Liver disease control rates were 84% and 14% on the SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy arms and SIR-Spheres(®) alone arms, respectively (P=0.001). Median PFS in the liver was 176 days in the SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy group vs. 91 days in the SIR-Sphere(®) alone group (P=0.0009). Median overall survival was 212 days in the SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy group vs. 154 days in the SIR-Spheres(®) alone group (P=0.1023). In patients with 5-fluorouracil-refractory disease, SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy is associated with an increased liver disease control rate and a prolonged liver PFS in comparison with SIR-Spheres(®) alone.

  3. HIV chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Douglas D.

    2001-04-01

    The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.

  4. Multicenter Phase II Study Evaluating Two Cycles of Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Cetuximab as Induction Regimen Prior to Surgery in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients with NSCLC Stage IB-IIIA (INN06-Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hilbe, Wolfgang; Pall, Georg; Kocher, Florian; Pircher, Andreas; Zabernigg, August; Schmid, Thomas; Schumacher, Michael; Jamnig, Herbert; Fiegl, Michael; Gächter, Anne; Freund, Martin; Kendler, Dorota; Manzl, Claudia; Zelger, Bettina; Popper, Helmut; Wöll, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    Background Different strategies for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage NSCLC have already been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a chemoimmunotherapy when limited to two cycles. Methods Between 01/2007 and 03/2010 41 patients with primarily resectable NSCLC stage IB to IIIA were included. Treatment consisted of two cycles cisplatin (40 mg/m2 d1+2) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 d1) q3 weeks, accompanied by the administration of cetuximab (400 mg/m2 d1, then 250 mg weekly). The primary endpoint was radiological response according to RECIST. Results 40 patients were evaluable for toxicity, 39 for response. The main grade 3/4 toxicities were: neutropenia 25%, leucopenia 11%, febrile neutropenia 6%, nausea 8% and rash 8%. 20 patients achieved a partial response, 17 a stable disease, 2 were not evaluable. 37 patients (95%) underwent surgery and in three of them a complete pathological response was achieved. At a median follow-up of 44.2 months, 41% of the patients had died, median progression-free survival was 22.5 months. Conclusions Two cycles of cisplatin/ docetaxel/ cetuximab showed promising efficacy in the neoadjuvant treatment of early-stage NSCLC and rapid operation was possible in 95% of patients. Toxicities were manageable and as expected. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register; Eudract-Nr: 2006-004639-31 PMID:26020783

  5. Increasing utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Kirk A; Zaid, Harras B; Patel, Sanjay G; Chang, Sam S

    2014-04-01

    The treatment and management of advanced urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a considerable therapeutic challenge. Prospective, randomized clinical trial data demonstrate a survival advantage for those patients who receive chemotherapy prior to radical cystectomy. Despite the overall survival benefits, results from both institutional and administrative datasets suggest that historical use of a neoadjuvant chemotherapy paradigm is remarkably low. This review will evaluate the recent trends in pre-operative chemotherapy utilization that suggest small, but progressively increased use-currently on the order of 20 % of radical cystectomy patients. Additionally, this analysis will explore the various processes and structural barriers that preclude its receipt such as patient age and comorbidity, as well as physician preference, delay to potentially curable surgery, geographic region, distance to treatment facility, and socioeconomic status.

  6. Radiation-Induced Leiomyosarcoma: Does Antimetabolite Chemotherapy Contribute? A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Arno; Haraf, Daniel J.; Ferguson, Mark; Montag, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy in low and high doses is known to be associated with the occurrence of late secondary sarcomas. The addition of chemotherapy has not been clearly demonstrated as a contributing factor. We describe three patients with radiation-associated leiomyosarcoma who had also received antimetabolite chemotherapy. Methods: Three cases of leiomyosarcoma occurring 9–27 years after radiation and antimetabolite chemotherapy are presented, along with histopathological details. A Medline search was used to assess prior reports of leiomyosarcoma after radiation. Results: These three cases appear to be the first reported in which leiomyosarcoma followed therapy with radiation and antimetabolites. Discussion: With the increasing use of antimetabolite therapy combined with radiation, there is the potential for more occurrences of leiomyosarcoma or other post-treatment sarcomas. PMID:18521382

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Impairment and Decline Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Miyuki; Ogilvie, James M.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Green, Heather J.; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Ownsworth, Tamara; Shum, David H. K.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the magnitude and nature of the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and performance on a range of cognitive domains among breast cancer patients. A total of 27 studies (14 cross-sectional, 8 both cross-sectional and prospective, and 5 prospective) were included in the analyses, involving 1562 breast cancer patients who had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and 2799 controls that included breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 737 effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies separately and classified into eight cognitive domains. The mean effect sizes varied across cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from −1.12 to 0.62 and −0.29 to 1.12, respectively). Each cognitive domain produced small effect sizes for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from −0.25 to 0.41). Results from cross-sectional studies indicated a significant association between adjuvant chemotherapy and cognitive impairment that held across studies with varied methodological approaches. For prospective studies, results generally indicated that cognitive functioning improved over time after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Greater cognitive impairment was reported in cross-sectional studies comparing chemotherapy groups with healthy control groups. Results suggested that cognitive impairment is present among breast cancer patients irrespective of a history of chemotherapy. Prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of cognitive impairment present both before and after chemotherapy, with comparisons made to participants’ cognitive function prior to diagnosis. Accurate understanding of the effects of chemotherapy is essential to enable informed decisions regarding treatment and to improve quality of life among breast cancer patients. PMID:25806355

  8. Types of chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  9. Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation Increase p16(INK4a) Expression, a Biomarker of T-cell Aging.

    PubMed

    Wood, William A; Krishnamurthy, Janakiraman; Mitin, Natalia; Torrice, Chad; Parker, Joel S; Snavely, Anna C; Shea, Thomas C; Serody, Jonathan S; Sharpless, Norman E

    2016-09-01

    The expression of markers of cellular senescence increases exponentially in multiple tissues with aging. Age-related physiological changes may contribute to adverse outcomes in cancer survivors. To investigate the impact of high dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation on senescence markers in vivo, we collected blood and clinical data from a cohort of 63 patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. The expression of p16(INK4a), a well-established senescence marker, was determined in T-cells before and 6months after transplant. RNA sequencing was performed on paired samples from 8 patients pre- and post-cancer therapy. In patients undergoing allogeneic transplant, higher pre-transplant p16(INK4a) expression was associated with a greater number of prior cycles of chemotherapy received (p=0.003), prior autologous transplantation (p=0.01) and prior exposure to alkylating agents (p=0.01). Transplantation was associated with a marked increase in p16(INK4a) expression 6months following transplantation. Patients receiving autologous transplant experienced a larger increase in p16(INK4a) expression (3.1-fold increase, p=0.002) than allogeneic transplant recipients (1.9-fold increase, p=0.0004). RNA sequencing of T-cells pre- and post- autologous transplant or cytotoxic chemotherapy demonstrated increased expression of transcripts associated with cellular senescence and physiological aging. Cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially alkylating agents, and stem cell transplantation strongly accelerate expression of a biomarker of molecular aging in T-cells.

  10. Chemotherapy for Isolated Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer: The CALOR Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aebi, Stefan; Gelber, Shari; Anderson, Stewart J.; Láng, István; Robidoux, André; Martín, Miguel; Nortier, Johan W.R.; Paterson, Alexander H.G.; Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Cañada, José Manuel Baena; Thürlimann, Beat; Murray, Elizabeth; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Geyer, Charles E.; Price, Karen N.; Coates, Alan S.; Gelber, Richard D.; Rastogi, Priya; Wolmark, Norman; Wapnir, Irene L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with isolated locoregional recurrences (ILRR) of breast cancer have a high risk of distant metastasis and death from breast cancer. We investigated adjuvant chemotherapy for such patients in a randomised clinical trial. METHODS The CALOR trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00074152) accrued patients 2003-2010. The 162 patients with resected ILRR were centrally randomised using permuted blocks and stratified by prior chemotherapy, ER/PgR status, and location of ILRR. Eighty-five were allocated to chemotherapy (type selected by the investigator; multidrug for at least four courses recommended) and 77 to no chemotherapy. Patients with oestrogen receptor-positive ILRR received adjuvant endocrine therapy; radiation therapy was mandated for patients with microscopically involved surgical margins, and anti-HER2 therapy was optional. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). All analyses were by intention to treat. FINDINGS At a median follow up of 4·9 (IQR 3.6,6.0) years we observed 24 DFS events and nine deaths in the chemotherapy group compared with 34 DFS events and 21 deaths in the no chemotherapy group. Five-year DFS was 69% vs. 57%, (hazard ratio for chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy, 0·59; 95% confidence interval 0·35 to 0·99; P=0·046) and five-year overall survival was 88% vs. 76%, (hazard ratio, 0·41; 95% CI, 0·19 to 0·89; P=0·02). Adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly more effective for women with oestrogen receptor-negative disease measured in the recurrence (interaction P=0·04), but analyses of DFS based on the oestrogen receptor status of the primary tumour were not statistically significant (interaction P=0·43). Among the 85 patients who received standard chemotherapy, 12 reported SAEs. INTERPRETATION Adjuvant chemotherapy should be recommended for patients with completely resected isolated locoregional recurrences of breast cancer, especially if the recurrence is oestrogen receptor negative. FUNDING Public Service

  11. Fish oil mitigates myosteatosis and improves chemotherapy efficacy in a preclinical model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Almasud, Alaa A; Giles, Kaitlin H; Miklavcic, John J; Martins, Karen J B; Baracos, Vickie E; Putman, Charles T; Guan, Leluo L; Mazurak, Vera C

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether feeding a diet containing fish oil was efficacious in reducing tumor- and subsequent chemotherapy-associated myosteatosis, and improving tumor response to treatment. Female Fischer 344 rats were fed either a control diet for the entire study (control), or switched to a diet containing fish oil (2.0 g /100 g of diet) one week prior to tumor implantation (long term fish oil) or at the start of che