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Sample records for receptor alpha delta

  1. Genomic organization of the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Hata, S; Devlin, P; Roncarolo, M G; De Vries, J E; Spits, H; Strominger, J L; Krangel, M S

    1988-11-01

    Two clusters of overlapping cosmid clones comprising about 100 kilobases (kb) at the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus were isolated from a genomic library. The structure of the germ-line V delta 1 variable gene segment was determined. V delta 1 is located 8.5 kb downstream of the V alpha 13.1 gene segment, and both V segments are arranged in the same transcriptional orientation. The V alpha 17.1 segment is located between V delta 1 and the D delta, J delta, C delta region (containing the diversity, joining, and constant gene segments). Thus, V delta and V alpha segments are interspersed along the chromosome. The germ-line organization of the D delta 2, J delta 1, and J delta 2 segments was determined. Linkage of C delta to the J alpha region was established by identification of J alpha segments within 20 kb downstream of C delta. The organization of the locus was also analyzed by field-inversion gel electrophoresis. The unrearranged V delta 1 and D delta, J delta, C delta regions are quite distant from each other, apparently separated by a minimum of 175-180 kb.

  2. Rat alpha6beta2delta GABAA receptors exhibit two distinct and separable agonist affinities.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Stephen H; Amin, Jahanshah

    2007-06-15

    The onset of motor learning in rats coincides with exclusive expression of GABAA receptors containing alpha6 and delta subunits in the granule neurons of the cerebellum. This development temporally correlates with the presence of a spontaneously active chloride current through alpha6-containing GABAA receptors, known as tonic inhibition. Here we report that the coexpression of alpha6, beta2, and delta subunits produced receptor-channels which possessed two distinct and separable states of agonist affinity, one exhibiting micromolar and the other nanomolar affinities for GABA. The high-affinity state was associated with a significant level of spontaneous channel activity. Increasing the level of expression or the ratio of beta2 to alpha6 and delta subunits increased the prevalence of the high-affinity state. Comparative studies of alpha6beta2delta, alpha1beta2delta, alpha6beta2gamma2, alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha4beta2delta receptors under equivalent levels of expression demonstrated that the significant level of spontaneous channel activity is uniquely attributable to alpha6beta2delta receptors. The pharmacology of spontaneous channel activity arising from alpha6beta2delta receptor expression corresponded to that of tonic inhibition. For example, GABAA receptor antagonists, including furosemide, blocked the spontaneous current. Further, the neuroactive steroid 5alpha-THDOC and classical glycine receptor agonists beta-alanine and taurine directly activated alpha6beta2delta receptors with high potency. Specific mutation within the GABA-dependent activation domain (betaY157F) impaired both low- and high-affinity components of GABA agonist activity in alpha6betaY157Fdelta receptors, but did not attenuate the spontaneous current. In comparison, a mutation located between the second and third transmembrane segments of the delta subunit (deltaR287M) significantly diminished the nanomolar component and the spontaneous activity. The possibility that the high affinity state

  3. Concomitant T-cell receptor alpha and delta gene rearrangements in individual T-cell precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S D; Pelkonen, J; Hurwitz, J L

    1990-01-01

    A debate has recently surfaced concerning the degree of precommitment attained by alpha beta and gamma delta T-cell precursors prior to T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement. It has been suggested that precursors may be precommitted to rearrange either alpha or delta genes, but not both, thus giving rise to alpha beta- and gamma delta-producing T cells, respectively. Alternatively, the precursors may be flexible with regard to potential TCR gene rearrangements. To address this controversy, the gene rearrangements among a group of T-cell hybridomas from fetal, newborn, and early postnatal mouse thymi were examined. Six probes spanning the delta and alpha loci were used in Southern blot analyses to characterize the rearrangements which occurred on homologous chromosomes in each cell. Although homologous chromosomes often rearranged in synchrony within the alpha locus, a number of hybridomas were found which had retained a delta rearrangement on one chromosome and an alpha rearrangement on the second. Results show that a precommitment by T cells to rearrange delta or alpha genes in a mutually exclusive manner is not an absolute feature of mouse thymocyte development. Images PMID:2164690

  4. Structural Basis for Iloprost as a Dual Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor [alpha/delta] Agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong

    2012-03-15

    Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPAR{alpha} ligand-binding domain and PPAR{delta} ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPAR{alpha}/{delta} by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPAR{alpha} ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPAR{alpha}/{delta} interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs.

  5. Interleukin-7 receptor alpha is essential for the development of gamma delta + T cells, but not natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Mice that lack a functional gamma c subunit of the receptors for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 display profound defects in lymphoid development. The IL-7/IL-7R system represents a critical interaction for conventional T and B cell development. In this report, the role of IL-7R alpha in the development of lymphoid lineages other than conventional T and B cells was examined. We demonstrate that gamma delta + T cells were absent in IL-7R alpha-deficient mice, whereas the development and function of natural killer cells were normal. Thus, IL-7R alpha function is required for the development of gamma delta + T cells but not natural killer cells. PMID:8691145

  6. delta 9-(16 alpha-/sup 125/I)iodo-19-nortestosterone: a gamma-emitting photoaffinity label for the progesterone receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D.J.; Bullock, D.W.; Hoyte, R.M.; Hochberg, R.B.

    1988-05-01

    We have synthesized 16 alpha-iodo-4,9-estradien-17 beta-ol-3-one (delta 9-16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone (delta 9-INT)) labeled with 125I (delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT) to provide a new gamma-emitting photoaffinity ligand for the progesterone receptor that has many advantages over the currently available (3H)R5020. We have characterized the interaction of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT with the rabbit uterine progesterone receptor and have demonstrated the usefulness of this compound for studies of receptor structure. The binding of 2 nM (3H)progesterone to receptor in rabbit uterine cytosol was specifically competed for by 19-nortestosterone, 16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone, and delta 9-INT. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and (3H)progesterone estimated the same number of binding sites in rabbit uterine cytosol, with a Kd for delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT of about 2.7 nM. The binding of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT was inhibited by both progesterone and R5020, whereas testosterone, estradiol, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone were ineffective. In cytosol, delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT covalently labeled the same mol wt receptor forms as (3H)R5020. Although the efficiency of cross-linking was similar for (3H)R5020 (3%) and delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT (4%), the radioactivity was 10-fold greater due to the higher specific activity of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and the lack of sample quench. The use of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT greatly increases the sensitivity and efficiency of the photoaffinity labeling technique; it will provide a valuable tool for further studies of the progesterone receptor, allowing the detection of receptor in dilute cytosol after gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions.

  7. Stoichiometry of expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors depends on the ratio of subunit cDNA transfected.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kelly R; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2010-05-07

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the target of many depressants, including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and alcohol. Although the highly prevalent alphabetagamma GABA(A)R subtype mediates the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain, receptors containing delta subunits also play a key role, mediating tonic inhibition and the actions of endogenous neurosteroids and alcohol. However, the fundamental properties of delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, such as subunit stoichiometry, are not well established. To determine subunit stoichiometry of expressed delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, we inserted the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site tag in the alpha(4), beta(2), and delta subunit N termini. An enhanced green fluorescent protein tag was also inserted into the beta(2) subunit to shift its molecular weight, allowing us to separate subunits using SDS-PAGE. Tagged alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs were expressed in HEK293T cells using various ratios of subunit cDNA, and receptor subunit stoichiometry was determined by quantitating fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin bound to each subunit on Western blots of surface immunopurified tagged GABA(A)Rs. The results demonstrate that the subunit stoichiometry of alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs is regulated by the ratio of subunit cDNAs transfected. Increasing the ratio of delta subunit cDNA transfected increased delta subunit incorporation into surface receptors with a concomitant decrease in beta(2) subunit incorporation. Because receptor subunit stoichiometry can directly influence GABA(A)R pharmacological and functional properties, considering how the transfection protocols used affect subunit stoichiometry is essential when studying heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs. Successful bungarotoxin binding site tagging of GABA(A)R subunits is a novel tool with which to accurately quantitate subunit stoichiometry and will be useful for monitoring GABA(A)R trafficking in live cells.

  8. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments.

    PubMed Central

    Baer, R; Boehm, T; Yssel, H; Spits, H; Rabbitts, T H

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one rearrangement within J delta-C delta and one or more J alpha rearrangements, and finally, cells with rearrangements within J alpha and consequential deletion of the delta locus. Further analysis by cloning of rearrangements within the J alpha locus show that, in addition to V alpha-J alpha joins, J alpha-J alpha aberrant recombinations occur and rearrangement data indicate that such events are frequent. A model is presented to account for such recombinations. Images PMID:2971534

  9. Sequence diversity, natural selection and linkage disequilibrium in the human T cell receptor alpha/delta locus.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Livingston, Robert J; Eberle, Michael A; Carlson, Christopher S; Yi, Qian; Akey, Joshua M; Nickerson, Deborah A

    2006-04-01

    T cell receptors (TR), through their interaction with the major histocompatibility complex, play a central role in immune responsiveness and potentially immune-related disorders. We resequenced all 57 variable (V) genes in the human T cell receptor alpha and delta (TRA/TRD) locus in 40 individuals of Northern European, Mexican, African-American and Chinese descent. Two hundred and eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The distribution of SNPs between V genes was heterogeneous, with an average of five SNPs per gene and a range of zero to 15. We describe the patterns of linkage disequilibrium for these newly discovered SNPs and compare these patterns with other emerging large-scale datasets (e.g. Perlegen and HapMap projects) to place our findings into a framework for future analysis of genotype-phenotype associations across this locus. Furthermore, we explore signatures of natural selection across V genes. We find evidence of strong directional selection at this locus as evidenced by unusually high values of Fst.

  10. Characterization of thymus-derived lymphocytes expressing Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta-zeta, Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon eta-eta or Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta-zeta/zeta- eta antigen receptor isoforms: analysis by gene transfection

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the function of the CD3 eta subunit of the T cell receptor (TCR), we have used cDNAs encoding CD3 zeta, CD3 eta, or both to reconstitute a variant of a cytochrome c-specific, I-Ek-restricted murine T cell hybridoma, termed MA5.8, which lacks CD3 zeta and CD3 eta proteins. We provide direct evidence that assembly and surface expression of TCRs can be mediated by either of these subunits separately or together. However, the level of TCR expression on zeta transfectants is up to one order of magnitude greater than that on eta transfectants, implying that CD3 eta is weakly associated with the pentameric Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon complex and/or inefficient at salvaging the incomplete TCR from lysosomal degradation. As a component of the TCR, the CD3 eta subunit preferentially forms a heterodimer with CD3 zeta, but is also able to form a CD3 eta-eta homodimer. Crosslinking of Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta- zeta, Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon eta-eta, or Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta-zeta/zeta-eta TCR isotypes with anti-CD3 epsilon monoclonal antibody or a cytochrome c peptide epitope on I-Ek antigen-presenting cells mediates signal transduction resulting in reversible cell-cycle arrest of transfected clones. Given the potential for diversity of signals generated by these functional TCR isotypes and the expression of the CD3 eta gene product in the thymus, CD3 eta is likely to play a role in selection and/or activation of thymocytes during development. PMID:2145389

  11. Structural basis for iloprost as a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/delta agonist.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong

    2011-09-09

    Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPARα ligand-binding domain and PPARδ ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPARα/δ by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPARα ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPARα/δ interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs.

  12. DPI-221 [4-((alpha-s)-alpha-((2s,5r)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(3-fluorobenzyl)-1-piperazinyl)benzyl)-N,N-diethylbenzamide]: a novel nonpeptide delta receptor agonist producing increased micturition interval in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jonathon D S; Watson, Michael J; Chang, Jane P; O'Neill, Scott J; Wei, Ke; Pendergast, William; Gengo, Peter J; Chang, Kwen-Jen

    2005-11-01

    There is a wealth of information from animal models and clinical opioid-analgesic use that indicates a significant role for opioid receptors in the modulation of bladder activity. The novel benzhydrylpiperazine compound DPI-221 [4-((alpha-S)-alpha-((2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(3-fluorobenzyl)-1-piperazinyl)benzyl)-N,N-diethylbenzamide] was characterized as having delta receptor selectivity using radioligand binding (K(i) = 2.0 +/- 0.7 nM, delta receptor; 1800 +/- 360 nM, mu receptor; and 2300 +/- 680 nM, kappa receptor), and agonist activity was demonstrated in the mouse isolated vas deferens where DPI-221 inhibited electrically induced contractions with an IC(50) value of 88 +/- 7.5 nM. In the guinea pig isolated ileum, DPI-221 had no effect on electrically induced contractions at concentrations as high as 1 microM. Sterile saline was infused (7 ml/h) into the bladder of Sprague-Dawley rats, via a transmural catheter; DPI-221 (1.0 to 20 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the interval between micturition events, whereas peak void pressure was not significantly decreased by any dose of DPI-221. The micturition effects of 10 mg/kg p.o. DPI-221 were blocked by naltrindole, indicating a delta receptor mechanism of action. In isolated rat bladder strips, DPI-221 was ineffective at relaxing detrusor muscle precontracted with carbachol. The most crucial safety aspect of delta agonist administration is the incidence of seizure-like convulsions in rodents. DPI-221 produced no convulsions at doses up to 100 mg/kg p.o. in mice, although rapid bolus i.v. injection of 5 mg/kg produced convulsions in 3% of mice tested. These findings indicate a good safety profile for DPI-221 administered orally, with potent efficacy in modifying bladder activity.

  13. Protein kinase C mediates the synergistic interaction between agonists acting at alpha2-adrenergic and delta-opioid receptors in spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Overland, Aaron C; Kitto, Kelley F; Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Rothwell, Patrick E; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Stone, Laura S; Wilcox, George L

    2009-10-21

    Coactivation of spinal alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (ARs) and opioid receptors produces antinociceptive synergy. Antinociceptive synergy between intrathecally administered alpha(2)AR and opioid agonists is well documented, but the mechanism underlying this synergy remains unclear. The delta-opioid receptor (DOP) and the alpha(2A)ARs are coexpressed on the terminals of primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord where they may mediate this phenomenon. We evaluated the ability of the DOP-selective agonist deltorphin II (DELT), the alpha(2)AR agonist clonidine (CLON) or their combination to inhibit calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from spinal cord slices. We then examined the possible underlying signaling mechanisms involved through coadministration of inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC) or protein kinase A (PKA). Potassium-evoked depolarization of spinal cord slices caused concentration-dependent release of CGRP. Coadministration of DELT and CLON inhibited the release of CGRP in a synergistic manner as confirmed statistically by isobolograpic analysis. Synergy was dependent on the activation of PLC and PKC, but not PKA, whereas the effect of agonist administration alone was only dependent on PLC. The importance of these findings was confirmed in vivo, using a thermal nociceptive test, demonstrating the PKC dependence of CLON-DELT antinociceptive synergy in mice. That inhibition of CGRP release by the combination was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin in spinal cord slices suggests that synergy does not rely on interneuronal signaling and may occur within single subcellular compartments. The present study reveals a novel signaling pathway underlying the synergistic analgesic interaction between DOP and alpha(2)AR agonists in the spinal cord.

  14. Retroviral transformation in vitro of chicken T cells expressing either alpha/beta or gamma/delta T cell receptors by reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M D; Benatar, T; Ratcliffe, M J

    1993-03-01

    Exposure of normal juvenile chicken bone marrow cells to the replication defective avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T (REV-T) (chicken syncytial virus [CSV]) in vitro resulted in the generation of transformed cell lines containing T cells. The transformed T cells derived from bone marrow included cells expressing either alpha/beta or gamma/delta T cell receptors (TCRs) in proportions roughly equivalent to the proportions of TCR-alpha/beta and TCR-gamma/delta T cells found in the normal bone marrow in vivo. Essentially all TCR-alpha/beta-expressing transformed bone marrow-derived T cells expressed CD8, whereas few, if any, expressed CD4. In contrast, among TCR-gamma/delta T cells, both CD8+ and CD8- cells were derived, all of which were CD4-. Exposure of ex vivo spleen cells to REV-T(CSV) yielded transformed polyclonal cell lines containing > 99% B cells. However, REV-T(CSV) infection of mitogen-activated spleen cells in vitro resulted in transformed populations containing predominantly T cells. This may be explained at least in part by in vitro activation resulting in dramatically increased levels of T cell REV-T(CSV) receptor expression. In contrast to REV-T(CSV)-transformed lines derived from normal bone marrow, transformed lines derived from activated spleen cells contained substantial numbers of CD4+ cells, all of which expressed TCR-alpha/beta. While transformed T cells derived from bone marrow were stable for extended periods of in vitro culture and were cloned from single cells, transformed T cells from activated spleen were not stable and could not be cloned. We have therefore dissociated the initial transformation of T cells with REV-T(CSV) from the requirements for long-term growth. These results provide the first demonstration of efficient in vitro transformation of chicken T lineage cells by REV-T(CSV). Since productive infection with REV-T(CSV) is not sufficient to promote long-term growth of transformed cells, these results further suggest

  15. Site-specific deletions involving the tal-1 and sil genes are restricted to cells of the T cell receptor alpha/beta lineage: T cell receptor delta gene deletion mechanism affects multiple genes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Site-specific deletions in the tal-1 gene are reported to occur in 12- 26% of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL). So far two main types of tal-1 deletions have been described. Upon analysis of 134 T- ALL we have found two new types of tal-1 deletions. These four types of deletions juxtapose the 5' part of the tal-1 gene to the sil gene promoter, thereby deleting all coding sil exons but leaving the coding tal-1 exons undamaged. The recombination signal sequences (RSS) and fusion regions of the tal-1 deletion breakpoints strongly resemble the RSS and junctional regions of immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements, which implies that they are probably caused by the same V(D)J recombinase complex. Analysis of the 134 T-ALL suggested that the occurrence of tal-1 deletions is associated with the CD3 phenotype, because no tal-1 deletions were found in 25 TCR-gamma/delta + T-ALL, whereas 8 of the 69 CD3- T-ALL and 11 of the 40 TCR-alpha/beta + T-ALL contained such a deletion. Careful examination of all TCR genes revealed that tal-1 deletions exclusively occurred in CD3- or CD3+ T- ALL of the alpha/beta lineage with a frequency of 18% in T-ALL with one deleted TCR-delta allele, and a frequency of 34% in T-ALL with TCR- delta gene deletions on both alleles. Therefore, we conclude that alpha/beta lineage commitment of the T-ALL and especially the extent of TCR-delta gene deletions determines the chance of a tal-1 deletion. This suggests that tal-1 deletions are mediated via the same deletion mechanism as TCR-delta gene deletions. PMID:8459224

  16. Cow's milk increases the activities of human nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta and retinoid X receptor alpha involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, obesity, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Suhara, W; Koide, H; Okuzawa, T; Hayashi, D; Hashimoto, T; Kojo, H

    2009-09-01

    The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating energy homeostasis including lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory responses, and cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Because PPAR agonists have the potential to prevent or ameliorate diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and obesity, we have explored new natural agonists for PPAR. For this purpose, cow's milk was tested for agonistic activity toward human PPAR subtypes using a reporter gene assay. Milk increased human PPARalpha activity in a dose-dependent manner with a 3.2-fold increase at 0.5% (vol/vol). It also enhanced human PPARdelta activity in a dose-dependent manner with an 11.5-fold increase at 0.5%. However, it only slightly affected human PPARgamma activity. Ice cream, butter, and yogurt also increased the activities of PPARalpha and PPARdelta, whereas vegetable cream affected activity of PPARdelta but not PPARalpha. Skim milk enhanced the activity of PPAR to a lesser degree than regular milk. Milk and fresh cream increased the activity of human retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha as well as PPARalpha and PPARdelta, whereas neither affected vitamin D3 receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or thyroid receptors alpha and beta. Both milk and fresh cream were shown by quantitative real-time PCR to increase the quantity of mRNA for uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an energy expenditure gene, in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in UCP2 mRNA was found to be reduced by treatment with PPARdelta-short interfering (si)RNA. This study unambiguously clarified at the cellular level that cow's milk increased the activities of human PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and RXRalpha. The possible role in enhancing the activities of PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and RXRalpha, and the health benefits of cow's milk were discussed.

  17. The dominant negative thyroid hormone receptor beta-mutant delta337T alters PPAR-alpha signaling in heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PPARalpha and TR independently regulate cardiac metabolism. Although ligands for both these receptors are currently under evaluation for treatment of congestive heart failure, their interactions or signaling cooperation have not been investigated in heart. We tested the hypothesis that cardiac TRs i...

  18. Protein kinase Cε is required for spinal analgesic synergy between delta opioid and alpha-2A adrenergic receptor agonist pairs.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Daniel J; Kitto, Kelley F; Overland, Aaron C; Messing, Robert O; Stone, Laura S; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Wilcox, George L

    2013-08-14

    We recently showed that spinal synergistic interactions between δ opioid receptors (δORs) and α2A adrenergic receptors (α2AARs) require protein kinase C (PKC). To identify which PKC isoforms contribute to analgesic synergy, we evaluated the effects of various PKC-isoform-specific peptide inhibitors on synergy between δORs and α2AARs using the tail flick assay of thermal nociception in mice. Only a PKCε inhibitor abolished synergy between a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist. We tested a panel of combinations of opioid and adrenergic agonists in PKCε knock-out mice and found that all four combinations of a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist required PKCε for antinociceptive synergy. None of the combinations of a μOR agonist with an α2AR agonist required PKCε. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that PKCε could be found in the population of peptidergic primary afferent nociceptors where δORs and α2AARs have been found to extensively colocalize. Immunoreactivity for PKCε was found in the majority of dorsal root ganglion neurons and intensely labeled laminae I and II of the spinal cord dorsal horn. PKCε is widespread in the spinal nociceptive system and in peptidergic primary afferents it appears to be specifically involved in mediating the synergistic interaction between δORs and α2AARs.

  19. Protein Kinase Cϵ Is Required for Spinal Analgesic Synergy between Delta Opioid and Alpha-2A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Daniel J.; Kitto, Kelley F.; Overland, Aaron C.; Messing, Robert O.; Stone, Laura S.; Fairbanks, Carolyn A.

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed that spinal synergistic interactions between δ opioid receptors (δORs) and α2A adrenergic receptors (α2AARs) require protein kinase C (PKC). To identify which PKC isoforms contribute to analgesic synergy, we evaluated the effects of various PKC-isoform-specific peptide inhibitors on synergy between δORs and α2AARs using the tail flick assay of thermal nociception in mice. Only a PKCϵ inhibitor abolished synergy between a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist. We tested a panel of combinations of opioid and adrenergic agonists in PKCϵ knock-out mice and found that all four combinations of a δOR agonist and an α2AAR agonist required PKCϵ for antinociceptive synergy. None of the combinations of a μOR agonist with an α2AR agonist required PKCϵ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that PKCϵ could be found in the population of peptidergic primary afferent nociceptors where δORs and α2AARs have been found to extensively colocalize. Immunoreactivity for PKCϵ was found in the majority of dorsal root ganglion neurons and intensely labeled laminae I and II of the spinal cord dorsal horn. PKCϵ is widespread in the spinal nociceptive system and in peptidergic primary afferents it appears to be specifically involved in mediating the synergistic interaction between δORs and α2AARs. PMID:23946412

  20. The Delta 32 mutation of the chemokine-receptor 5 gene neither is correlated with chronic hepatitis C nor does it predict response to therapy with interferon-alpha and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Glas, J; Török, H P; Simperl, C; König, A; Martin, K; Schmidt, F; Schaefer, M; Schiemann, U; Folwaczny, C

    2003-07-01

    Unlike in HIV, homozygosity for a 32-bp deletion (Delta 32) of the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene was recently described in increased frequency in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). Thus, it was speculated that this mutation might be relevant for disease susceptibility and influence the response to antiviral therapy. The present study sought to confirm the association between HCV and the Delta 32 mutation of the CCR5 gene and to correlate it with the response to therapy with interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin. Sixty-two patients with HCV and 119 healthy unrelated controls were genotyped for the Delta 32 mutation. For the correlation between the Delta 32 mutation and response to therapy, only patients (n = 59) who completed 6 months of combination therapy as part of a prospective study were evaluated. The Delta 32 mutation was not observed in increased frequency in HCV. Furthermore, a significant difference of the HCV load or aminotransferase concentrations was not observed in carriers versus noncarriers of the Delta 32 mutation. After stratification for potentially confounding factors such as gender or HCV genotype, a significant difference was also not detected with respect to treatment outcome. These observations argue strongly against a role of CCR5 for susceptibility to HCV infection or response to combination therapy.

  1. The delta opioid receptor tool box.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Pradhan, Amynah A

    2016-12-03

    In recent years, the delta opioid receptor has attracted increasing interest as a target for the treatment of chronic pain and emotional disorders. Due to their therapeutic potential, numerous tools have been developed to study the delta opioid receptor from both a molecular and a functional perspective. This review summarizes the most commonly available tools, with an emphasis on their use and limitations. Here, we describe (1) the cell-based assays used to study the delta opioid receptor. (2) The features of several delta opioid receptor ligands, including peptide and non-peptide drugs. (3) The existing approaches to detect delta opioid receptors in fixed tissue, and debates that surround these techniques. (4) Behavioral assays used to study the in vivo effects of delta opioid receptor agonists; including locomotor stimulation and convulsions that are induced by some ligands, but not others. (5) The characterization of genetically modified mice used specifically to study the delta opioid receptor. Overall, this review aims to provide a guideline for the use of these tools with the final goal of increasing our understanding of delta opioid receptor physiology.

  2. Recombinative events of the T cell antigen receptor delta gene in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Kanavaros, P; Farcet, J P; Gaulard, P; Haioun, C; Divine, M; Le Couedic, J P; Lefranc, M P; Reyes, F

    1991-01-01

    Recombinative events of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) delta-chain gene were studied in 37 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) and related to their clinical presentation and the expression of the alpha beta or gamma delta heterodimers as determined by immunostaining of frozen tissue samples. There were 22 cases of alpha beta, 5 cases of gamma delta, and 10 cases of silent TCR expressing neither the alpha beta nor gamma delta TCR. 5 different probes were used to examine the delta locus. The 22 cases of alpha beta PTCL displayed biallelic and monoallelic deletions; a monoallelic V delta 1 J delta 1 rearrangement was observed in 1 case and a monoallelic germ line configuration in 7 cases. The 5 cases of gamma delta PTCL displayed biallelic rearrangements: the productive rearrangements could be ascribed to V delta 1J delta 1 joining in 3 cases and VJ delta 1 joining in 2 cases according to the combined pattern of DNA hybridization with the appropriate probes and of cell reactivity with the TCR delta-1, delta TCS-1, and anti-V delta 2 monoclonal antibodies. In the VJ delta 1 joining, the rearranged V segments were located between V delta 1 and V delta 2. Interestingly, in the third group of 10 cases of silent PTCL, 5 cases were found to have a TCR gene configuration identical to that in the TCR alpha beta PTCL, as demonstrated by biallelic delta gene deletion. These 5 cases were CD3 positive. The 5 remaining cases showed a monoallelic delta gene rearrangement with a monoallelic germ line configuration in 4 and a monoallelic deletion in 1. Four of these cases were CD3 negative, which was consistent with an immature genotype the TCR commitent of which could not be ascertained. Finally, TCR gamma delta PTCL consisted of a distinct clinical morphological and molecular entity whereas TCR alpha beta and silent PTCL had a similar presentation. Images PMID:1991851

  3. Lymphatic transport of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, I; Imasato, Y; Sasaki, E; Sugano, M

    1996-01-01

    Lymphatic transport of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol was measured in thoracic duct-cannulated rats. Animals were administered 3 ml of a test emulsion containing 200 mg sodium taurocholate, 50 mg fatty acid free-albumin, 200 mg fat and 100 mg of a mixture of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol (Exp. 1) or 10 mg of purified alpha-, gamma- or delta-tocotrienol or alpha-tocopherol (Exp. 2) through a gastric tube. Quantitative lymphatic recovery of oleic acid given as triolein was obtained in these experimental conditions. The 24-hours recovery of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol were 10-20% of the administered dose in Exp. 1. The recovery of alpha-tocotrienol was about 2-times higher than that of alpha-tocopherol, while that of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols was intermediate between these two alpha-forms. In Exp. 2, where these compounds were administered individually, the 24 hours recovery ranged from 22 to 37% of the administered dose. Again, the recovery of alpha-tocotrienol was significantly higher than that of the other tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol, while that of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol was comparable. Thus, the results show the preferential absorption of alpha-tocotrienol compared to gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol.

  4. Protein Kinase C Mediates the Synergistic Interaction Between Agonists Acting at Alpha-2-Adrenergic and Delta-Opioid Receptors in Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Overland, Aaron C.; Kitto, Kelley F.; Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Rothwell, Patrick E.; Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Stone, Laura S.; Wilcox, George L.

    2009-01-01

    Co-activation of spinal α2-adrenergic receptors (AR) and opioid receptors (OR) produces antinociceptive synergy. Antinociceptive synergy between intrathecally (i.t.) administered α2AR and OR agonists is well documented, but the mechanism underlying this synergy remains unclear. The delta-opioid receptor (DOP) and the α2AAR are co-expressed on the terminals of primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord where they may mediate this phenomenon. We evaluated the ability of the DOP-selective agonist deltorphin II (DELT), the α2AR agonist clonidine (CLON) or their combination to inhibit calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from spinal cord slices. We then examined the possible underlying signaling mechanisms involved through co-administration of inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC) or protein kinase A (PKA). Potassium-evoked depolarization of spinal cord slices caused concentration-dependent release of CGRP. Co-administration of DELT and CLON inhibited the release of CGRP in a synergistic manner as confirmed statistically by isobolograpic analysis. Synergy was dependent on the activation of PLC and PKC, but not PKA, while the effect of agonist administration alone was only dependent on PLC. The importance of these findings was confirmed in vivo, demonstrating the PKC-dependence on CLON-DELT antinociceptive synergy in mice. That inhibition of CGRP release by the combination was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin in spinal cord slices suggests that synergy does not rely on interneuronal signaling and may occur within single subcellular compartments. The present study reveals a novel signaling pathway underlying the synergistic analgesic interaction between DOP and α2AR agonists in the spinal cord. PMID:19846714

  5. Diacylglycerol kinase delta and protein kinase C(alpha) modulate epidermal growth factor receptor abundance and degradation through ubiquitin-specific protease 8.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinjin; Crotty, Tracy M; Reichert, Ethan; Carraway, Kermit L; Stafforini, Diana M; Topham, Matthew K

    2010-03-05

    Many human epithelial cancers are characterized by abnormal activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is often caused by its excessive expression in tumor cells. The abundance of EGFR is modulated, in part, by its ubiquitination, which targets it for degradation. The components responsible for adding ubiquitin to EGFR are well characterized, but this is a reversible process, and the mechanisms that modulate the removal of ubiquitin from the EGFR are not well known. We found that de-ubiquitination of EGFR was regulated by diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKdelta), a lipid kinase that terminates diacylglycerol signaling. In DGKdelta-deficient cells, ubiquitination of EGFR was enhanced, which attenuated the steady-state levels of EGFR and promoted its ligand-induced degradation. These effects were not caused by changes in the ubiquitinating apparatus, but instead were due to reduced expression of the de-ubiquitinase, ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8). Depletion of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), a target of diacylglycerol, rescued the levels of USP8 and normalized EGFR degradation in DGKdelta-deficient cells. Moreover, the effects of PKCalpha were caused by its inhibition of Akt, which stabilizes USP8. Our data indicate a novel mechanism where DGKdelta and PKCalpha modulate the levels of ubiquitinated EGFR through Akt and USP8.

  6. ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

  7. Soft Phonons in (delta)-Phase Plutonium Near the (delta)-(alpha)' Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, R; Wong, J; Zshack, P; Hong, H; Chiang, T

    2007-09-13

    Plutonium and its alloys exhibit complex phase diagrams that imply anomalous lattice dynamics near phase stability boundaries. Specifically, the TA [111] phonon branch in Ga-stabilized {delta}-Pu at room temperature shows a pronounced soft mode at the zone boundary, which suggests a possible connection to the martensitic transformation from the fcc {delta}-phase to the monoclinic {alpha}{prime}-phase at low temperatures. This work is a study of the lattice dynamics of this system by x-ray thermal diffuse scattering. The results reveal little temperature dependence of the phonon frequencies, thus indicating that kinetic phonon softening is not responsible for this phase transition.

  8. Phospholipase C-delta1 and oxytocin receptor signalling: evidence of its role as an effector.

    PubMed

    Park, E S; Won, J H; Han, K J; Suh, P G; Ryu, S H; Lee, H S; Yun, H Y; Kwon, N S; Baek, K J

    1998-04-01

    Although the oxytocin receptor modulates intracellular Ca2+ ion levels in myometrium, the identities of signal molecules have not been clearly clarified. Our previous studies on oxytocin receptor signalling demonstrated that 80 kDa Ghalpha is a signal mediator [Baek, Kwon, Lee, Kim, Muralidhar and Im (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 739-744]. To elucidate the effector in the oxytocin receptor signalling pathway, we evaluated the oxytocin-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by using solubilized membranes from human myometrium and a three-component preparation containing the oxytocin receptor-Ghalpha-PLC-delta1 complex. PLC-delta1 activity in the three-component preparation, as well as PLC activity in solubilized membranes, was increased by oxytocin in the presence of Ca2+ and activated Ghalpha (GTP-bound Ghalpha). Furthermore the stimulated PLC-delta1 activity resulting from activation of Ghalpha via the oxytocin receptor was significantly attenuated by the selective oxytocin antagonist desGly-NH2d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]ornithine vasotocin or GDP. Consistent with these observations, co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunoadsorption of PLC-delta1 in the three-component preparation by anti-Gh7alpha antibody resulted in the PLC-delta1 being tightly coupled to activated Ghalpha on stimulation of the oxytocin receptor. These results indicate that PLC-delta1 is the effector for Ghalpha-mediated oxytocin receptor signalling.

  9. Early expression of GABA(A) receptor delta subunit in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Didelon, F; Mladinic', M; Cherubini, E; Bradbury, A

    2000-12-01

    The cDNA library screening strategy was used to identify the genes encoding for GABA(A) receptor subunits in the rat hippocampus during development. With this technique, genes encoding eleven GABA(A) receptor subunits were identified. The alpha5 subunit was by far the most highly expressed, followed by the gamma2, alpha2 and alpha4 subunits respectively. The expression of the beta2, alpha1, gamma1, beta1 and beta3 subunits was moderate, although that of the alpha3 and delta subunits was weak. In situ hybridization experiments, using digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes, confirmed that the delta subunit was expressed in the neonatal as well as in the adult hippocampus, and is likely to form functional receptors in association with other subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. When the more sensitive RT-PCR approach was used, the gamma3 subunit was also detected, suggesting that this subunit is present in the hippocampus during development but at low levels of expression. The insertion of the delta subunit into functional GABA(A) receptors may enhance the efficacy of GABA in the immediate postnatal period when this amino acid is still exerting a depolarizing and excitatory action.

  10. Quantum Criticality and the (alpha)/(delta) Puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G

    2008-10-06

    In an overview of the elemental actinides Np and Pu stand out because of their anomalously low melting temperatures and the variety of complex phase transitions that occur in these elements and their alloys as a result of relatively modest changes in temperature and pressure. In this paper we suggest a novel explanation based on an analogy between the evolution of the actinide ground state as a function of spin orbit coupling and the behavior of thin film superconductors in a magnetic field. The key point is that in 'bad metals' spin orbit interactions give rise to low energy monopole-like solitons with quantized spin currents, which play much the same role as Abrikosov vortices in thin film superconductors. In Np and {alpha}-Pu these solitons form an ordered solid, while in impurity stabilized {delta}-Pu they form a pair condensate. This provides a simple explanation for the heretofore unexplained phenomenology of {alpha}/{delta} transition. Near room temperature {delta}-Pu represents a novel form of condensed matter: a 'Planckian metal' analogous to the quark-gluon plasma.

  11. Sequential development of intraepithelial gamma delta and alpha beta T lymphocytes expressing CD8 alpha beta in neonatal rat intestine: requirement for the thymus.

    PubMed

    Helgeland, L; Brandtzaeg, P; Rolstad, B; Vaage, J T

    1997-12-01

    Previous studies in congenitally athymic nude rats have suggested that the thymus is important for the development of intestinal T cells. Here we have examined the effect of the nude mutation on intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) development from the perinatal period. By immunohistochemistry it was shown that CD3(-)CD8 alpha alpha + putative IEL precursors colonized the epithelium of both normal and athymic neonatal rats. Mature T cells, however, did not develop in athymic neonates. In normal rats, gamma delta T cells were present at birth and alpha beta T cells appeared within 8 days of postnatal life. At this age, the composition and relative number of intraepithelial T cells were similar to that in normal adult rats, with the exception that most neonatal T-cell receptor-gamma delta + and -alpha beta + IEL expressed CD8 beta. By contrast, extrathymic T-cell maturation in the gut of congenitally athymic rats occurred slowly, as CD3+ IEL did not appear until 4-6 months of age. These intraepithelial T cells displayed variable phenotypes and appeared to be induced by environmental antigens as they were not found in isolator-kept old nudes. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the major colonization of the gut epithelium with gamma delta and alpha beta T cells expressing CD8 alpha beta takes place perinatally and requires the presence of the thymus. The developmental relationship between these neonatal T cells and more immature CD3- CD8 alpha alpha +/- IEL remains elusive.

  12. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  13. delta-Opioid receptor agonist SNC80 elicits peripheral antinociception via delta(1) and delta(2) receptors and activation of the l-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Daniela F; Reis, Gláucia M L; Francischi, Janetti N; Castro, Maria S A; Perez, Andrea C; Duarte, Igor D G

    2005-11-19

    In this study, we characterized the role of delta(1) and delta(2) opioids receptors, as well the involvement of the l-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by delta-opioid receptor agonist (+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-Allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC80). The paw pressure test was utilized, in which pain sensitivity is increased by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E(2) (2 microg). Administration of SNC80 (20, 40 and 80 microg/paw) decreased the hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin E(2) in a dose-dependent manner. The possibility that the higher dose of SNC80 (80 microg) has a central or systemic effect was excluded, since administration of the drug into the contralateral paw did not elicit antinociception in the right paw. 7-Benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX), 5, 10 and 20 microg/paw, and 17-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-6,7-didehydro-3,14beta-dihydroxy-4,5alpha-epoxy-6,7-2',3'-benzo[b]furanomorphinan (naltriben), 2.5, 5 and 10 microg/paw, delta(1) and delta(2) opioid receptor antagonist respectively, elicited partial antagonism of the peripheral antinociceptive effect of the SNC80 (80 microg). The BNTX (10 microg/paw)-naltriben (5 microg/paw) combination completely antagonized the peripheral antinociception induced by SNC80 (80 microg). Further, blockers of the l-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (12, 18 and 24 microg/paw) and methylene blue (125, 250 and 500 microg/paw) were observed reverting the peripheral antinociceptive effect of SNC80. This study provides evidence that the peripheral antinociception induced by SNC80 occurs via delta(1) and delta(2) receptors and may result from l-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway activation.

  14. Pregabalin action at a model synapse: binding to presynaptic calcium channel alpha2-delta subunit reduces neurotransmission in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Indu; Taylor, Charles P

    2006-12-28

    Pregabalin, ((S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid, also known as (S)-3-isobutyl GABA, Lyricatrade mark) is approved for treatment of certain types of peripheral neuropathic pain and as an adjunctive therapy for partial seizures of epilepsy both the EU and the USA and also for generalized anxiety disorder in the EU. Though pregabalin binds selectively to the alpha(2)-delta (alpha(2)-delta) auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, the cellular details of pregabalin action are unclear. The high density of alpha(2)-delta in skeletal muscle fibers raises the question of whether pregabalin alters excitation-contraction coupling. We used the mouse soleus neuromuscular junction from mice containing an artificially mutated alpha(2)-delta Type 1 protein (R217A) as a model to examine the effect of pregabalin. Pregabalin reduced nerve-evoked muscle contractions by 16% at a clinically relevant concentration of 10 muM in wildtype mice. When acetylcholine receptors were blocked with curare, pregabalin had no effect on contraction from direct stimulation of muscle, suggesting a lack of drug effects on contraction coupling. Our data are consistent with pregabalin having no effect on striated muscle L-type calcium channel function. However, in mice expressing mutant (R217A) alpha(2)-delta Type 1, there was no significant effect of pregabalin on nerve-evoked muscle contraction. We propose that pregabalin reduces presynaptic neurotransmitter release without altering postsynaptic receptors or contraction coupling and that these effects require high affinity binding to alpha(2)-delta Type 1 auxiliary subunit of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels.

  15. Thalamic mechanisms underlying alpha-delta sleep with implications for fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Adler, Gail K.; Kopell, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-delta sleep is the abnormal intrusion of alpha activity (8- to 13-Hz oscillations) into the delta activity (1- to 4-Hz oscillations) that defines slow-wave sleep. Alpha-delta sleep is especially prevalent in fibromyalgia patients, and there is evidence suggesting that the irregularities in the sleep of these patients may cause the muscle and tissue pain that characterizes the disorder. We constructed a biophysically realistic mathematical model of alpha-delta sleep. Imaging studies in fibromyalgia patients suggesting altered levels of activity in the thalamus motivated a thalamic model as the source of alpha activity. Since sodium oxybate helps to alleviate the symptoms of fibromyalgia and reduces the amount of alpha-delta sleep in fibromyalgia patients, we examined how changes in the molecular targets of sodium oxybate affected alpha-delta activity in our circuit. Our model shows how alterations in GABAB currents and two thalamic currents, Ih (a hyperpolarization-activated current) and a potassium leak current, transform a circuit that normally produces delta oscillations into one that produces alpha-delta activity. Our findings suggest that drugs that reduce Ih conductances and/or increase potassium conductances, without necessarily increasing GABAB conductances, might be sufficient to restore delta sleep. Furthermore, they suggest that delta sleep might be restored by drugs that preferentially target these currents in the thalamus; such drugs might have fewer side effects than drugs that act systemically. PMID:26245315

  16. Coupling of human delta-opioid receptor to retinal rod transducin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Varga, E V; Stropova, D; Kim, T; Wang, M; Roeske, W R; Yamamura, H I

    2000-01-01

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the pertussis toxin (Ptx)-sensitive G protein alpha-subunit pool in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse fibroblast (B82) cells. We detected the presence of mRNA for G(ialpha2), G(ialpha3), and G(oalpha) in both cell lines. G(ialpha1) and G(alphaz) mRNAs were not detected. We also found a homolog of the retinal rod transducin (G(talpha1)) in CHO, and the mouse cone transducin (G(talpha2)) in B82 cells. The presence of the transducin alpha-subunit proteins in CHO and B82 cells was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. To test the interaction of heterologously expressed receptors with transducin in CHO cells, a Ptx-insensitive (C347S) rod transducin mutant was transfected into a CHO cell line stably expressing the human delta-opioid receptor (hDOR/CHO). (+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,2R)-4-allyl-2, 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide, a selective delta-opioid receptor agonist, stimulated guanosine-5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding by 293 +/- 36% after Ptx pretreatment in the mutant cell line with an EC(50) value of 54 +/- 32 nM, showing that transducin can functionally couple to the human delta-opioid receptors in these cells.

  17. The amino-terminal domain of glutamate receptor {delta}2 triggers presynaptic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, Takeshi; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2008-12-26

    Glutamate receptor (GluR) {delta}2 selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells plays key roles in synapse formation, long-term depression and motor learning. We propose that GluR{delta}2 regulates synapse formation by making a physical linkage between the active zone and postsynaptic density. To examine the issue, GluR{delta}2-transfected 293T cells were cultured with cerebellar neurons. We found numerous punctate signals for presynaptic markers on the surface of 293T cells expressing GluR{delta}2. The presynaptic specializations induced by GluR{delta}2 were capable of exo- and endocytosis as indicated by FM1-43 dye labeling. Replacement of the extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) of GluR{delta}2 with that of the AMPA receptor GluR{alpha}1 abolished the inducing activity. The NTD of GluR{delta}2 fused to the immunoglobulin constant region successfully induced the accumulation of presynaptic specializations on the surface of beads bearing the fusion protein. These results suggest that GluR{delta}2 triggers presynaptic differentiation by direct interaction with presynaptic components through the NTD.

  18. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung; Rebecchi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a

  19. Engineered secreted T-cell receptor alpha beta heterodimers.

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, C; Rebaï, N; Schweisguth, F; Necker, A; Mazza, G; Auphan, N; Millward, A; Schmitt-Verhulst, A M; Malissen, B

    1991-01-01

    We have produced a soluble form of a mouse alpha beta T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) by shuffling its variable (V) and constant (C) domains to the C region of an immunoglobulin kappa light chain. These chimeric molecules composed of V alpha C alpha C kappa and V beta C beta C kappa chains were efficiently secreted (up to 1 micrograms/ml) by transfected myeloma cells as noncovalent heterodimers of about 95-kDa molecular mass. In the absence of direct binding measurement, we have refined the epitopic analysis of the soluble V alpha C alpha C kappa-V beta C beta C kappa dimers and shown that they react with an anti-clonotypic antibody and two antibodies directed to the C domain of the TCR alpha and beta chains. Conversely, we have raised three distinct monoclonal antibodies against the soluble TCR heterodimers and shown that they recognize surface-expressed TCRs. Two of these antibodies were found to react specifically with the products of the V alpha 2 (V delta 8) and V beta 2 gene segments, respectively. When considered together, these data suggest that these soluble TCR molecules are folded in a conformation indistinguishable from that which they assume at the cell surface. Images PMID:1716770

  20. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    SciTech Connect

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  1. Cell cycle expression of two replicative DNA polymerases alpha and delta from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H; Francesconi, S; Wang, T S

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of two Schizosaccharomyces pombe replicative DNA polymerases alpha and delta during the cell cycle. The pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes encoding DNA polymerases alpha and delta were isolated from S. pombe. Both pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes are single copy genes in haploid cells and are essential for cell viability. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs, the steady-state transcripts of both S. pombe pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes were present throughout the cell cycle. Sequence analysis of the pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes did not reveal the Mlu I motifs in their upstream sequences that are involved in cell cycle-dependent transcription of S. cerevisiae DNA synthesis genes as well as the S. pombe cdc22+ gene at the G1/S boundary. However, five near-match Mlu I motifs were found in the upstream region of the pol alpha+ gene. S. pombe DNA polymerases alpha and delta proteins were also expressed constantly throughout the cell cycle. In addition, the enzymatic activity of the S. pombe DNA polymerase alpha measured by in vitro assay was detected at all stages of the cell cycle. Thus, these S. pombe replicative DNA polymerases, like that of S. pombe cdc17+ gene, are expressed throughout the cell cycle at the transcriptional and protein level. These results indicate that S. pombe has at least two regulatory modes for the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA precursor synthesis. Images PMID:8443413

  2. Separation of delta-, gamma- and alpha-tocopherols by CEC.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore; Catarcini, Paolo; Quaglia, Maria Giovanna; Camera, Emanuela; Rinaldi, Mariarosa; Picardo, Mauro

    2002-08-01

    In this study capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was used for the separation of three tocopherols (TOHs), namely delta-, gamma- and alpha-TOH and the antioxidant compound, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The CEC experiments were carried out using an octadecylsilica (ODS) stationary phase packed, in our laboratory, in a fused-silica capillary (100 microm I.D., 365 microm O.D. x 33 cm of total length and 24.6 or 8.4 cm effective length). The mobile phase was composed by a mixture of methanol (MeOH) and acetonitrile (ACN), at different concentrations and 0.01% (w/v) of ammonium acetate. Retention time (t(R)), retention factor (k), resolution (R(s)) of the three TOHs were strongly influenced by the organic solvent composition of the run buffer and by the effective length of the capillary. Optimum experimental conditions were found even employing the short effective length of the capillary achieving the baseline separation of the studied analytes in a relatively short time (less than 5 min). The optimized method was applied to the qualitative analysis of vitamin E (alpha-TOH) present in a human serum extract.

  3. Structural requirement of the calcium-channel subunit alpha2delta for gabapentin binding.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Offord, J; Oxender, D L; Su, T Z

    1999-01-01

    Gabapentin [Neurontin, 1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid] is a novel anticonvulsant drug with a high binding affinity for the Ca(2+)-channel subunit alpha(2)delta. In this study, the gabapentin-binding properties of wild-type and mutated porcine brain alpha(2)delta proteins were investigated. Removal of the disulphide bonds between the alpha(2) and the delta subunits did not result in a significant loss of gabapentin binding, suggesting that the disulphide linkage between the two subunits is not required for binding. Singly expressed alpha(2) protein remained membrane associated. However, alpha(2) alone was unable to bind gabapentin, unless the cells were concurrently transfected with the expression vector for delta, suggesting that both alpha(2) and delta are required for gabapentin binding. Using internal deletion mutagenesis, we mapped two regions [amino acid residues 339-365 (DeltaF) and 875-905 (DeltaJ)] within the alpha(2) subunit that are not required for gabapentin binding. Further, deletion of three other individual regions [amino acid residues 206-222 (DeltaD), 516-537 (DeltaH) and 583-603 (DeltaI)] within the alpha(2) subunit disrupted gabapentin binding, suggesting the structural importance of these regions. Using alanine to replace four to six amino acid residues in each of these regions abolished gabapentin binding. These results demonstrate that region D, between the N-terminal end and the first putative transmembrane domain of alpha(2), and regions H and I, between the putative splicing acceptor sites (Gln(511) and Ser(601)), may play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity for gabapentin binding. Further single amino acid replacement mutagenesis within these regions identified Arg(217) as critical for gabapentin binding. PMID:10455017

  4. V{delta}1 T cell receptor binds specifically to MHC I chain related A: Molecular and biochemical evidences

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jianqing; Huang Jie; Chen Hui; Cui Lianxian; He Wei . E-mail: heweiimu@public.bta.net.cn

    2006-01-06

    Human MHC class I chain-related A (MICA) is a tumor-associated antigen that can be recognized by V{delta}1 subset of tumor-infiltrating {gamma}{delta} T cells. We previously reported that immobilized recombinant MICA protein could induce the proliferation of tumor-infiltrating V{delta}1 {gamma}{delta} T cells in vitro. But there has been no direct evidence showing the engagement of {gamma}{delta} T cell receptors (TCR) of the induced cells with MICA. In the current investigation, we show that MICA induces specific cytolytic activity of the expanded {gamma}{delta} T cells. We expressed the coupled V domains from the MICA-induced T cells as a single polypeptide chain V{delta}V{gamma} TCR ({gamma}{delta} scTCR). Such scTCR can specifically bind MICA of HeLa cells. Direct interaction of {gamma}{delta} scTCRs with in vitro expressed MICA was monitored using an IAsys biosensor. We found that the V{delta}1 scTCR can specifically bind to immobilized MICA molecule and MICA{alpha}1{alpha}2 domains are responsible for the binding reaction.

  5. Acetylcholine receptor-inducing factor from chicken brain increases the level of mRNA encoding the receptor. alpha. subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.A.; Falls, D.L.; Dill-Devor, R.M.; Fischbach, G.D. )

    1988-03-01

    A 42-kDa glycoprotein isolated from chicken brain, referred to as acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity (ARIA), that stimulates the rate of incorporation of acetylcholine receptors into the surface of chicken myotubes may play a role in the nerve-induced accumulation of receptors at developing neuromuscular synapses. Using nuclease-protection assays, the authors have found that ARIA causes a 2- to 16-fold increase in the level of mRNA encoding the {alpha} subunit of the receptor, with little or no change in the levels of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit messengers. ARIA also increases the amount of a putative nuclear precursor of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, consistent with an activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the concentration of {alpha} subunit may limit the rate of biosynthesis of the acetylcholine receptors in chicken myotubes. They also indicate that neuronal factors can regulate the expression of receptor subunit genes in a selective manner. Tetrodotoxin, 8-bromo-cAMP, and forskolin also increase the amount of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, with little change in the amount of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit mRNAs. Unlike ARIA, however, these agents have little effect on the concentration of the {alpha}-subunit nuclear precursor.

  6. Delta opioid receptors in brain function and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul Chu Sin; Kieffer, Brigitte L.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that the delta opioid receptor (DOR) is an attractive target for the treatment of brain disorders has strengthened in recent years. This receptor is broadly expressed in the brain, binds endogenous opioid peptides, and shows as functional profile highly distinct from those of mu and kappa opioid receptors. Our knowledge of DOR function has enormously progressed from in vivo studies using pharmacological tools and genetic approaches. The important role of this receptor in reducing chronic pain has been extensively overviewed; therefore this review focuses on facets of delta receptor activity relevant to psychiatric and other neurological disorders. Beneficial effects of DOR agonists are now well established in the context of emotional responses and mood disorders. DOR activation also regulates drug reward, inhibitory controls and learning processes, but whether delta compounds may represent useful drugs in the treatment of drug abuse remains open. Epileptogenic and locomotor-stimulating effects of delta agonists appear drug-dependent, and the possibility of biased agonism at DOR for these effects is worthwhile further investigations to increase benefit/risk ratio of delta therapies. Neuroprotective effects of DOR activity represent a forthcoming research area. Future developments in DOR research will benefit from in-depth investigations of DOR function at cellular and circuit levels. PMID:23764370

  7. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  8. Microstructural Evidence for Conditioning-dependent (delta) -> (alpha)' Transformations in Retained (delta)-phase Pu-Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J R; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2008-06-16

    The retained {delta} phase of a Pu-1.9 at.% Ga alloy is metastable with respect to the martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation that occurs at low temperatures. This transformation has been shown to proceed by means of an isothermal martensitic mode, but the kinetics of the transformation are atypical. The transformation exhibits a 'double-C' in a time-temperature-transformation diagram, wherein there exist two temperatures where a given amount of transformation occurs in a minimum amount of time. The cause of the double-C kinetics remains uncertain, eliciting proposals of multiple mechanisms, multiple paths, or different morphologies as possible origins. Recently, a 'conditioning' treatment was found to affect the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, but the underlying mechanism by which the conditioning treatment influences the transformation has not yet been resolved. In this study, microstructural characterization as a function of temperature, time, and conditioning has been employed to illuminate the role of conditioning in the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation. Conditioning is found to enhance transformation in the upper-C and to enable transformation in the lower-C. The data garnered from these experiments suggest that conditioning is intimately linked to nucleation processes and of little consequence to the growth and morphology of the {alpha}{prime} product phase.

  9. Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Meaghan; Acosta, Sandra; Tajiri, Naoki; Pabon, Mibel; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    In pursuit of neurological therapies, the opioid system, specifically delta opioid receptors and delta opioid peptides, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential for stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and other degenerative neurological conditions. Recent studies offer strong evidence in support of the therapeutic use of delta opioid receptors, and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of action. Delta opioid receptors have been shown to confer protective effects by mediating ionic homeostasis and activating endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Additionally, delta opioid agonists such as (D-Ala 2, D-Leu 5) enkephalin (DADLE) have been shown to decrease apoptosis and promote neuronal survival. In its entirety, the delta opioid system represents a promising target for neural therapies. PMID:23979422

  10. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endogenous cannabinoid anandamide directly potentiate the function of glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Nadia; Zhou, Chunyi; Oz, Murat; Sun, Hui; Ye, Jiang Hong; Zhang, Li

    2006-03-01

    Anandamide (AEA) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are endogenous and exogenous ligands, respectively, for cannabinoid receptors. Whereas most of the pharmacological actions of cannabinoids are mediated by CB1 receptors, there is also evidence that these compounds can produce effects that are not mediated by the activation of identified cannabinoid receptors. Here, we report that THC and AEA, in a CB1 receptor-independent manner, cause a significant potentiation of the amplitudes of glycine-activated currents (I(Gly)) in acutely isolated neurons from rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) and in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human homomeric (alpha1) and heteromeric (alpha1beta1) subunits of glycine receptors (GlyRs). The potentiation of I(Gly) by THC and AEA is concentration-dependent, with respective EC50 values of 86 +/- 9 and 319 +/- 31 nM for alpha1 homomeric receptors, 73 +/- 8 and 318 +/- 24 nM for alpha1beta1 heteromeric receptors, and 115 +/- 13 and 230 +/- 29 nM for native GlyRs in VTA neurons. The effects of THC and AEA are selective for I(Gly), because GABA-activated current in VTA neurons or in X. laevis oocytes expressing alpha2beta3gamma2 GABA(A) receptor subunits were unaffected by these compounds. The maximal potentiation by THC and AEA was observed at the lowest concentration of glycine; with increasing concentrations of glycine, the potentiation significantly decreased. The site for THC and AEA seems to be distinct from that of the alcohol and volatile anesthetics. The results indicate that THC and AEA, in pharmacologically relevant concentrations, directly potentiate the function of GlyRs through an allosteric mechanism.

  11. [Estrogen receptor alpha in obesity and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Cahua-Pablo, José Ángel; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Cruz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) is an important hormone in reproductive physiology, cardiovascular, skeletal and in the central nervous system (CNS). In human and rodents, E2 and its receptors are involved in the control of energy and glucose metabolism in health and metabolic diseases. The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors (NR), which are transcription factors that regulate gene expression. Three ER, ER-alpha, ER-beta and the G protein-coupled ER (GPER; also called GPR30) in tissues are involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Also, it may have important implications for risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR), obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

  12. ISOTHERMAL (DELTA)/(ALPHA-PRIME) TRANSFORMATION AND TTT DIAGRAM IN A PLUTONIUM GALLIUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect

    Oudot, B P; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2005-11-11

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used as an alternative approach to determining the tine-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for the martensitic delta to alpha-prime transformation in a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy. Previous work suggests that the TTT diagram for a similar alloy exhibits an unusual double-C curve for isothermal holds of less than 100 minutes. Here, we extend this diagram to 18 hours, and confirm the double-C curve behavior. When the sample is cooled prior to the isothermal holds, the delta to alpha-prime transformation is observed as several overlapping exothermic peaks. These peaks are very reproducible, and they are believed to be the result of different kinds of delta to alpha-prime martensitic transformation. This may be due to the presence of different nucleation sites and/or different morphologies.

  13. Delta opioid receptor analgesia: recent contributions from pharmacology and molecular approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte Lina

    2012-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors represent a promising target for the development of novel analgesics. A number of tools have been developed recently that have significantly improved our knowledge of delta receptor function in pain control. These include several novel delta agonists with potent analgesic properties, as well as genetic mouse models with targeted mutations in the delta opioid receptor gene. Also, recent findings have further documented the regulation of delta receptor function at cellular level, which impacts on the pain-reducing activity of the receptor. These regulatory mechanisms occur at transcriptional and post-translational levels, along agonist-induced receptor activation, signaling and trafficking, or in interaction with other receptors and neuromodulatory systems. All these tools for in vivo research, as well as proposed mechanisms at molecular level, have tremendously increased our understanding of delta receptor physiology, and contribute to designing innovative strategies for the treatment of chronic pain and other diseases such as mood disorders. PMID:21836459

  14. Quantitative expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) protein in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Girroir, Elizabeth E.; Hollingshead, Holly E.; He Pengfei; Zhu Bokai; Perdew, Gary H.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2008-07-04

    The expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta} have been described, but the majority of these data are based on mRNA data. To date, there are no reports that have quantitatively examined the expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein in mouse tissues. In the present study, a highly specific PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibody was developed, characterized, and used to examine tissue expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta}. As compared to commercially available anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies, one of six polyclonal anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies developed was significantly more effective for immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated PPAR{beta}/{delta}. This antibody was used for quantitative Western blot analysis using radioactive detection methods. Expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} was highest in colon, small intestine, liver, and keratinocytes as compared to other tissues including heart, spleen, skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and thymus. Interestingly, PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression was localized in the nucleus and RXR{alpha} can be co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear PPAR{beta}/{delta}. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression is highest in intestinal epithelium, liver, and keratinocytes, consistent with significant biological roles in these tissues.

  15. Expression of the alpha(2)delta subunit interferes with prepulse facilitation in cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Platano, D; Qin, N; Noceti, F; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E; Olcese, R

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of the accessory alpha(2)delta subunit on the voltage-dependent facilitation of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels (alpha(1C)). alpha(1C) Channels were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with beta(3) and alpha(2)delta calcium channel subunits. In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the amplitude of the ionic current (measured during pulses to 10 mV) was in average approximately 1.9-fold larger after the application of a 200-ms prepulse to +80 mV. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as voltage-dependent facilitation, was not observed when alpha(2)delta was coexpressed with alpha(1C) + beta(3). In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the prepulse produced a left shift ( approximately 40 mV) of the activation curve. Instead, the activation curve for alpha(1C) + beta(3) + alpha(2)delta was minimally affected by the prepulse and had a voltage dependence very similar to the G-V curve of the alpha(1C) + beta(3) channel facilitated by the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta with alpha(1C) + beta(3) seems to mimic the prepulse effect by shifting the activation curve toward more negative potentials, leaving little room for facilitation. The facilitation of alpha(1C) + beta(3) was associated with an increase of the charge movement. In the presence of alpha(2)delta, the charge remained unaffected after the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta seems to set all the channels in a conformational state from where the open state can be easily reached, even without prepulse. PMID:10827975

  16. The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, B; Ley, S C; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Blumberg, R S; Ju, S T; Fresno, M; Terhorst, C

    1991-01-01

    The T cell receptor for antigen (TCR) consists of two glycoproteins containing variable regions (TCR-alpha/beta or TCR-gamma/delta) which are expressed on the cell surface in association with at least four invariant proteins (CD3-gamma, -delta, -epsilon and -zeta). CD3-gamma and CD3-delta chains are highly homologous, especially in the cytoplasmic domain. The similarity observed in their genomic organization and their proximity in the chromosome indicate that both genes arose from duplication of a single gene. Here, we provide several lines of evidence which indicate that in human and murine T cells which expressed both the CD3-gamma and CD3-delta chains on their surface, the TCR/CD3 complex consisted of a mixture of alpha beta gamma epsilon zeta and alpha beta delta epsilon zeta complexes rather than a single alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta complex. First, a CD3-gamma specific antibody failed to co-immunoprecipitate CD3-delta and conversely, several CD3-delta specific antibodies did not coprecipitate CD3-gamma. Secondly, analysis of a panel of human and murine T cell lines demonstrated that CD3-gamma and CD3-delta were expressed at highly variable ratios on their surface. This suggested that these chains were not expressed as a single complex. Thirdly, CD3-gamma and CD3-delta competed for binding to CD3-epsilon in transfected COS cells, suggesting that CD3-gamma and CD3-delta formed mutually exclusive complexes. The existence of these two forms of TCR/CD3 complexes could have important implications in the understanding of T cell receptor function and its role in T cell development. Images PMID:1826255

  17. Crystallography of the Delta to Alpha Martensitic Transformation in Plutonium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Y; Wang, Y; Khachaturyan, A; Krenn, C; Schwartz, A

    2004-07-15

    A new stress-accommodating crystallographic mechanism of the {delta} {yields} {alpha} martensitic transformation in plutonium alloys is proposed. According to this mechanism, an orientation variant of the {alpha} phase is produced by a combination of a homogeneous strain and shuffling of the alternating close-packed (111){sub {delta}} planes. It is shown that the formation of stable transformation-induced twins whose twin plane orientations and twin shear directions do not depend on the small variations of the crystal lattice parameters is the preferred stress-accommodating mode. Only these stable twins have dislocation-free twin boundaries while the twin boundaries of all others are decorated by ultra-dense distribution of partial dislocations. The theory predicts a crystal lattice rearrangement mechanism involving the (205){sub {alpha}} ((01{bar 1}){sub {delta}}) stable twins. The corresponding Invariant Plane Strain solutions, with special emphasis on two simplest shuffling modes, the single and double elementary modes, are presented and compared with the existing experimental observations. It is shown that the habit plane orientation is highly sensitive to the input values of the crystal lattice parameters and especially to the accuracy of the measured volume change in the {delta}{yields}{alpha} transformation. An analysis of these effects on the habit plane orientation and orientation relations is also presented.

  18. Functional characterization of mongoose nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: resistance to alpha-bungarotoxin and high sensitivity to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Lupu-Meiri, M; Jensen, B S; Paperna, T; Fuchs, S; Oron, Y

    1998-07-24

    The mongoose is resistant to snake neurotoxins. The mongoose muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha-subunit contains a number of mutations in the ligand-binding domain and exhibits poor binding of alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). We characterized the functional properties of a hybrid (alpha-mongoose/beta gamma delta-rat) AChR. Hybrid AChRs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, respond to acetylcholine with depolarizing current, the mean maximal amplitude of which was greater than that mediated by the rat AChR. The IC50 of alpha-BTX to the hybrid AChR was 200-fold greater than that of the rat, suggesting much lower affinity for the toxin. Hybrid AChRs exhibited an apparent higher rate of desensitization and higher affinity for ACh (EC50 1.3 vs. 23.3 microM for the rat AChR). Hence, changes in the ligand-binding domain of AChR not only affect the binding properties of the receptor, but also result in marked changes in the characteristics of the current.

  19. Evidence for Alpha Receptors in the Human Ureter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeb, Ralph; Knopf, Joy; Golijanin, Dragan; Bourne, Patricia; Erturk, Erdal

    2007-04-01

    An immunohistochemical and western blot expression analysis of human ureters was performed in order to characterize the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor distribution along the length of the human ureteral wall. Mapping the distribution will assist in understanding the potential role alpha -1-adrenergic receptors and their subtype density might have in the pathophysiology of ureteral colic and stone passage. Patients diagnosed with renal cancer or bladder cancer undergoing nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, or cystectomy had ureteral specimens taken from the proximal, mid, distal and tunneled ureter. Tissues were processed for fresh frozen examination and fixed in formalin. None of the ureteral specimens were involved with cancer. Serial histologic sections and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies specific for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1a, alpha 1b, alpha 1d). The sections were examined under a light microscope and scored as positive or negative. In order to validate and quantify the alpha receptor subtypes along the human ureter. Western blotting techniques were applied. Human ureter stained positively for alpha -1-adrenergic receptors. Immunostaining appeared red, with intense reaction in the smooth muscle of the ureter and endothelium of the neighboring blood vessels. There was differential expression between all the receptors with the highest staining for alpha-1D subtype. The highest protein expression for all three subtypes was in the renal pelvis and decreased with advancement along the ureter to the distal ureter. At the distal ureter, there was marked increase in expression as one progressed towards the ureteral orifice. The same pattern of protein expression was exhibited for all three alpha -1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. We provide preliminary evidence for the ability to detect and quantify the alpha-1-receptor subtypes along the human ureter which to the best of our knowledge has never been done with

  20. Targeting folate receptor alpha for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H.; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Pellizzari, Giulia; Opzoomer, James; Bloomfield, Jacinta; Fittall, Matthew; Grigoriadis, Anita; Figini, Mariangela; Canevari, Silvana; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2016-01-01

    Promising targeted treatments and immunotherapy strategies in oncology and advancements in our understanding of molecular pathways that underpin cancer development have reignited interest in the tumor-associated antigen Folate Receptor alpha (FRα). FRα is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein. Its overexpression in tumors such as ovarian, breast and lung cancers, low and restricted distribution in normal tissues, alongside emerging insights into tumor-promoting functions and association of expression with patient prognosis, together render FRα an attractive therapeutic target. In this review, we summarize the role of FRα in cancer development, we consider FRα as a potential diagnostic and prognostic tool, and we discuss different targeted treatment approaches with a specific focus on monoclonal antibodies. Renewed attention to FRα may point to novel individualized treatment approaches to improve the clinical management of patient groups that do not adequately benefit from current conventional therapies. PMID:27248175

  1. Unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Brozek, John; Derudas, Bruno; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPAR{gamma} promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPAR{beta}/{delta} in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPAR{alpha}. Here, we show that in contrast to PPAR{gamma}, expression of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  2. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Eric, Erbs; Lauren, Faget; Alice, Ceredig Rhian; Audrey, Matifas; Jean-Luc, Vonesch; L., Kieffer Brigitte; Dominique, Massotte

    2015-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased delta opioid receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces delta opioid receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits. PMID:26480813

  3. The muscle-specific laminin receptor alpha7 beta1 integrin negatively regulates alpha5 beta1 fibronectin receptor function.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, D; Echtermayer, F; Schöber, S; Balzac, F; Retta, S F; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1999-02-01

    alpha7 beta1 is the major integrin complex expressed in differentiated muscle cells where it functions as a laminin receptor. In this work we have expressed the alpha7 integrin subunit in CHO cells to investigate the functional properties of this receptor. After transfection with alpha7 CHO cells acquired the ability to adhere and spread on laminin 1 consistent with the laminin receptor activity of the alpha7 beta1. alpha7 transfectants, however, showed a 70% reduction in the ability to adhere to fibronectin and were unable to assemble a fibronectin matrix. The degree of reduction was inversely related to the level of alpha7 expression. To define the mechanisms underlying this adhesive defect we analyzed surface expression and functional properties of the alpha5 beta1 fibronectin receptor. Although cell surface expression of alpha5 beta1 was reduced by a factor of 20-25% in alpha7 transfectants compared to control untransfected cells, this slight reduction was not sufficient to explain the dramatic reduction in cell adhesion (70%) and matrix assembly (close to 100%). Binding studies showed that the affinity of 125I-fibronectin for its surface receptor was decreased by 50% in alpha7 transfectants, indicating that the alpha5 beta1 integrin is partially inactivated in these cells. Inactivation can be reversed by Mn2+, a cation known to increase integrin affinity for their ligands. In fact, incubation of cells with Mn2+ restored fibronectin binding affinity, adhesion to fibronectin, and assembly of fibronectin matrix in alpha7 transfectants. These data indicate that alpha7 expression leads to the functional down regulation of alpha5beta1 integrin by decreasing ligand binding affinity and surface expression. In conclusion, the data reported establish the existence of a negative cooperativity between alpha7 and alpha5 integrins that may be important in determining functional regulation of integrins during myogenic differentiation.

  4. In vivo neuronal co-expression of mu and delta opioid receptors uncovers new therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Erbs, Eric; Faget, Lauren; Veinante, Pierre; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Massotte, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Opioid receptors belong to the G protein coupled receptor family. They modulate brain function at all levels of neural integration and therefore impact on autonomous, sensory, emotional and cognitive processing. In vivo functional interaction between mu and delta opioid receptors are known to take place though it is still debated whether interactions occur at circuitry, cellular or molecular level. Also, the notion of receptor crosstalk via mu-delta heteromers is well documented in vitro but in vivo evidence remains scarce. To identify neurons in which receptor interactions could take place, we designed a unique double mutant knock-in mouse line that expresses functional red-fluorescent mu receptors and green-fluorescent delta receptors. We mapped mu and delta receptor distribution and co-localization throughout the nervous system and created the first interactive brain atlas with concomitant mu-delta visualization at subcellular resolution (http://mordor.ics-mci.fr/). Mu and delta receptors co-localize in neurons from subcortical networks but are mainly detected in separate neurons in the forebrain. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated physical proximity in the hippocampus, a prerequisite to mu-delta heteromerization. Altogether, data suggest that mu-delta functional interactions take place at systems level for high-order emotional and cognitive processing whereas mu-delta may interact at cellular level in brain networks essential for survival, which has potential implications for innovative drug design in pain control, drug addiction and eating disorders. PMID:25938125

  5. In vivo neuronal co-expression of mu and delta opioid receptors uncovers new therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Erbs, Eric; Faget, Lauren; Veinante, Pierre; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Massotte, Dominique

    2014-09-01

    Opioid receptors belong to the G protein coupled receptor family. They modulate brain function at all levels of neural integration and therefore impact on autonomous, sensory, emotional and cognitive processing. In vivo functional interaction between mu and delta opioid receptors are known to take place though it is still debated whether interactions occur at circuitry, cellular or molecular level. Also, the notion of receptor crosstalk via mu-delta heteromers is well documented in vitro but in vivo evidence remains scarce. To identify neurons in which receptor interactions could take place, we designed a unique double mutant knock-in mouse line that expresses functional red-fluorescent mu receptors and green-fluorescent delta receptors. We mapped mu and delta receptor distribution and co-localization throughout the nervous system and created the first interactive brain atlas with concomitant mu-delta visualization at subcellular resolution (http://mordor.ics-mci.fr/). Mu and delta receptors co-localize in neurons from subcortical networks but are mainly detected in separate neurons in the forebrain. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated physical proximity in the hippocampus, a prerequisite to mu-delta heteromerization. Altogether, data suggest that mu-delta functional interactions take place at systems level for high-order emotional and cognitive processing whereas mu-delta may interact at cellular level in brain networks essential for survival, which has potential implications for innovative drug design in pain control, drug addiction and eating disorders.

  6. Isochronal annealing of radiation damage in (alpha)- and (delta)-Pu alloys

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, S K; Fluss, M J; Chung, B W; Haire, R G

    2009-06-22

    Magnetic isochronal annealing curves were measured on specimens of self damaged {alpha}-Pu and several {delta}-Pu alloys stabilized by Ga and Am. These results are compared to one another and to isochronal resistivity annealing curves, where distinct differences are observed between the magnetic and resistive annealing for the case of {delta}-Pu. The first stage of annealing observed in the resistivity measurements is largely missing from the magnetic measurements, indicating that interstitials contribute little if any signal to the magnetization, while the onset of vacancy migration is strongly reflected in the magnetization signal.

  7. Distribution of delta opioid receptor expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Eric, ERBS; Lauren, FAGET; Gregory, SCHERRER; Pascal, KESSLER; Didier, HENTSCH; Jean-Luc, VONESCH; Audrey, MATIFAS; Brigitte L., KIEFFER; Dominique, MASSOTTE

    2012-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. We examined the distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus using fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxyterminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. Colocalization with markers for different neuronal populations was performed by immunohistochemical detection. Fine mapping in the dorsal hippocampus confirmed that delta opioid receptors are mainly present in GABAergic neurons. Indeed, they are mostly expressed in parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons both in the Ammon’s horn and dentate gyrus. These receptors, therefore, most likely participate to the dynamic regulation of hippocampal activity. PMID:22750239

  8. Distribution of delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Erbs, E; Faget, L; Scherrer, G; Kessler, P; Hentsch, D; Vonesch, J-L; Matifas, A; Kieffer, B L; Massotte, D

    2012-09-27

    Delta opioid receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. We examined the distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus using fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxyterminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. Colocalization with markers for different neuronal populations was performed by immunohistochemical detection. Fine mapping in the dorsal hippocampus confirmed that delta opioid receptors are mainly present in GABAergic neurons. Indeed, they are mostly expressed in parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons both in the Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus. These receptors, therefore, most likely participate in the dynamic regulation of hippocampal activity.

  9. alpha-conotoxin AuIB selectively blocks alpha3 beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release.

    PubMed

    Luo, S; Kulak, J M; Cartier, G E; Jacobsen, R B; Yoshikami, D; Olivera, B M; McIntosh, J M

    1998-11-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with putative alpha3 beta4-subunits have been implicated in the mediation of signaling in various systems, including ganglionic transmission peripherally and nicotine-evoked neurotransmitter release centrally. However, progress in the characterization of these receptors has been hampered by a lack of alpha3 beta4-selective ligands. In this report, we describe the purification and characterization of an alpha3 beta4 nAChR antagonist, alpha-conotoxin AuIB, from the venom of the "court cone," Conus aulicus. We also describe the total chemical synthesis of this and two related peptides that were also isolated from the venom. alpha-Conotoxin AuIB blocks alpha3 beta4 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes with an IC50 of 0.75 microM, a kon of 1.4 x 10(6) min-1 M-1, a koff of 0.48 min-1, and a Kd of 0.5 microM. Furthermore, alpha-conotoxin AuIB blocks the alpha3 beta4 receptor with >100-fold higher potency than other receptor subunit combinations, including alpha2 beta2, alpha2 beta4, alpha3 beta2, alpha4 beta2, alpha4 beta4, and alpha1 beta1 gamma delta. Thus, AuIB is a novel, selective probe for alpha3 beta4 nAChRs. AuIB (1-5 microM) blocks 20-35% of the nicotine-stimulated norepinephrine release from rat hippocampal synaptosomes, whereas nicotine-evoked dopamine release from striatal synaptosomes is not affected. Conversely, the alpha3 beta2-specific alpha-conotoxin MII (100 nM) blocks 33% of striatal dopamine release but not hippocampal norepinephrine release. This suggests that in the respective systems, alpha3 beta4-containing nAChRs mediate norepinephrine release, whereas alpha3 beta2-containing receptors mediate dopamine release.

  10. Delta Opioid Receptors: The Link between Exercise and Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliana P.; Verdoorn, Karine S.; Daliry, Anissa; Powers, Scott K.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of opioid receptor (OR) subtypes as a mechanism by which endurance exercise promotes cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Wistar rats were randomly divided into one of seven experimental groups: 1) control; 2) exercise-trained; 3) exercise-trained plus a non-selective OR antagonist; 4) control sham; 5) exercise-trained plus a kappa OR antagonist; 6) exercise-trained plus a delta OR antagonist; and 7) exercise-trained plus a mu OR antagonist. The exercised animals underwent 4 consecutive days of treadmill training (60 min/day at ∼70% of maximal oxygen consumption). All groups except the sham group were exposed to an in vivo myocardial IR insult, and the myocardial infarct size (IS) was determined histologically. Myocardial capillary density, OR subtype expression, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in the hearts of both the exercised and control groups. Exercise training significantly reduced the myocardial IS by approximately 34%. Pharmacological blockade of the kappa or mu OR subtypes did not blunt exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR-mediated infarction, whereas treatment of animals with a non-selective OR antagonist or a delta OR antagonist abolished exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exercise training enhanced the activities of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase but did not increase the left ventricular capillary density or the mRNA levels of HSP72, SOD, and catalase. In addition, exercise significantly reduced the protein expression of kappa and delta ORs in the heart by 44% and 37%, respectively. Together, these results indicate that ORs contribute to the cardioprotection conferred by endurance exercise, with the delta OR subtype playing a key role in this response. PMID:25415192

  11. Pharmacological traits of delta opioid receptors: pitfalls or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Richard M.; DeFriel, Julia N.; Whistler, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors (DORs) have been considered as a potential target to relieve pain as well as treat depression and anxiety disorders, and are known to modulate other physiological responses, including ethanol and food consumption. A small number of DOR selective drugs are in clinical trials, but no DOR selective drugs have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration and some candidates have failed in phase II clinical trials, highlighting current difficulties producing effective delta opioid based therapies. Recent studies have provided new insights into the pharmacology of the DOR, which is often complex and at times paradoxical. This review will discuss the existing literature focusing on four aspects: 1) Two DOR subtypes have been postulated based on differences in pharmacological effects of existing DOR-selective ligands 2) DORs are expressed ubiquitously throughout the body and central nervous system and are, thus, positioned to play a role in a multitude of diseases. 3) DOR expression is often dynamic, with many reports of increased expression during exposure to chronic stimuli, such as stress, inflammation, neuropathy, morphine, or changes in endogenous opioid tone. 4) A large structural variety in DOR ligands implies potential different mechanisms of activating the receptor. These combined features of DOR pharmacology illustrate the potential benefit of designing tailored or biased DOR ligands. PMID:23649885

  12. cap alpha. -2 adrenergic receptor: a radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Unnerstall, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-2 adrenergic agents have been shown to influence blood pressure, heart rate and other physiological and behavioral functions through interactions with adrenergic pathways within the central nervous system. Pharmacologically relevant ..cap alpha..-1 adrenergic receptors were biochemically characterized and radiohistochemically analyzed in intact tissue sections of the rat and human central nervous system. The anatomical distribution of the ..cap alpha..-2 receptors, labeled with the agonist (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine, verified the concept that ..cap alpha..-2 receptors are closely associated with adrenergic nerve terminals and that ..cap alpha..-2 agents can influence autonomic and endocrine function through an action in the central nervous system. Since ..cap alpha..-2 agonists can influence sympathetic outflow, ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites were closely analyzed in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. The transport of putative presynaptic ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites in the rat sciatic nerve was analyzed by light microscopic radiohistochemical techniques. Finally, in intact tissue section of the rat central nervous system, the biochemical characteristics of (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine binding were analyzed. Data were also shown which indicates that the synthetic ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist (/sup 3/H)RX781094 also binds to ..cap alpha..-2 receptors with high-affinity. Further, the distribution of (/sup 3/H)RX781094 binding sites in the rat central nervous system was identical to the distribution seen when using (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine.

  13. Mast cells express novel functional IL-15 receptor alpha isoforms.

    PubMed

    Bulanova, Elena; Budagian, Vadim; Orinska, Zane; Krause, Hans; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2003-05-15

    Mast cells previously have been reported to be regulated by IL-15 and to express a distinct IL-15R, termed IL-15RX. To further examine IL-15 binding and signaling in mast cells, we have studied the nature of the IL-15R and some of its biological activities in these cells. In this study, we report the existence of three novel isoforms of the IL-15R alpha chain in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells as a result of an alternative exon-splicing mechanism within the IL-15R alpha gene. These correspond to new mRNA transcripts lacking exon 4; exons 3 and 4; or exons 3, 4, and 5 (IL-15R alpha Delta 4, IL-15R alpha Delta 3,4, IL-15R alpha Delta 3,4,5). After transient transfection in COS-7 cells, all IL-15R alpha isoforms associate with the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the perinuclear space, and the cell membrane. Analysis of glycosylation pattern demonstrates the usage of a single N-glycosylation site, while no O-glycosylation is observed. Importantly, IL-15 binds with high affinity to, and promotes the survival of, murine BA/F3 cells stably transfected with the IL-15R alpha isoforms. Furthermore, we report that signaling mediated by IL-15 binding to the newly identified IL-15R alpha isoforms involves the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5, STAT6, Janus kinase 2, and Syk kinase. Taken together, our data indicate that murine mast cells express novel, fully functional IL-15R alpha isoforms, which can explain the selective regulatory effects of IL-15 on these cells.

  14. Molecular characterization of an. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.K.; Dewan Zeng; D'Angelo, D.D.; Tucker, A.L.; Zhihong Lu; Barber, C.M.; Lynch, K.R. )

    1990-02-26

    {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptors comprise a heterogeneous population based on pharmacologic and molecular evidence. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone (pRNG{alpha}2) encoding a previously undescribed third subtype of an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor from a rat kidney cDNA library. The library was screened with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region found in all biogenic amine receptors described to date. The deduced amino acid sequence displays many features of G-protein coupled receptors with exception of the absence of the consensus N-linked glycosylation site at the amino terminus. Membranes prepared from COS-1 cells transfected with pRNG{alpha}2 display high affinity and saturable binding to {sup 3}H-rauwolscine (K{sub d}=2 nM).Competition curve data analysis shows that pRNG{alpha}2 protein binds to a variety of adrenergic drugs with the following rank order of potency: yohimbine {ge} cholorpromazine > prazosin {ge} clonidine > norepinephrine {ge} oxymetazoline. pRNG{alpha}2 RNA accumulates in both adult rat kidney and rat neonatal lung (predominant species is 4.0 kb). They conclude that pRNG{alpha}2 likely represents a cDNA for the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor.

  15. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine, whereas (/sup 3/H)clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, (/sup 3/H) clonidine and (/sup 3/H)yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of (/sup 3/H)clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations.

  16. A T-cell specific transcriptional enhancer element 3 prime of C sub. alpha. in the human T-cell receptor. alpha. locus

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Icheng; Yang, Lihsuan; Morle, G.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1989-09-01

    A transcriptional enhancer element has been identified 4.5 kilobases 3{prime} of C{sub {alpha}} (constant region {alpha} chain) in the human T-cell receptor (TCR) {alpha}-chain locus. This enhancer is active on both a TCR V{sub {alpha}} (variable region {alpha} chain) promoter and the minimal simian virus 40 promoter in TCR {alpha}/{beta} Jurkat and EL4 cells but is inactive on a V{sub {alpha}} promoter TCR {gamma}/{delta} PEER and Molt-13 cells, clone 13 B cells, and HeLa fibroblasts. The enhancer has been localized to a 116-base-pair BstXI/Dra I restriction enzyme fragment, which lacks immunoglobulin octamer and {kappa}B enhancer motifs but does contain a consensus cAMP-response element (CRE). DNase I footprint analyses demonstrated that the minimal enhancer contains two binding sites for Jurkat nuclear proteins. One of these sites corresponds to the CRE, while the other does not correspond to a known transcriptional enhancer motif. These data support a model in which TCR {alpha} gene transcription is regulated by a unique set of cis-acting sequences and trans-acting factors, which are differentially active in cells of the TCR {alpha}/{beta} lineage. In addition, the TCR {alpha} enhancer may play a role in activating oncogene expression in T-lymphoblastoid tumors that have previously been shown to display chromosomal translocations into the human TCR {alpha} locus.

  17. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Erbs, E; Faget, L; Ceredig, R A; Matifas, A; Vonesch, J-L; Kieffer, B L; Massotte, D

    2016-01-28

    Delta opioid (DOP) receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor-positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased DOP receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline-treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces DOP receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits.

  18. Structure–Function Analysis of Delta Trafficking, Receptor Binding and Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Annette L.; Stout, Jane R.; Shepard, Scott B.; Klueg, Kristin M.; Dos Santos, Ana A.; Parody, Todd R.; Vaskova, Martina; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.

    2006-01-01

    The transmembrane proteins Delta and Notch act as ligand and receptor in a conserved signaling pathway required for a variety of cell fate specification events in many organisms. Binding of Delta to Notch results in a proteolytic cascade that releases the Notch intracellular domain, allowing it to participate in transcriptional activation in the nucleus. Recent research has implicated the endocytic and ubiquitylation machinery as essential components of Delta–Notch signaling. Our analysis of chimeric and missense Delta variants has delineated a number of structural requirements for Delta trafficking, receptor binding, and signaling. We find that while the Delta N-terminal domain is necessary and sufficient for binding to Notch, the integrity of the epidermal-growth-factor-like repeat (ELR) 2 is also required for Notch binding. Screening of 117 Delta mutant lines for proteins that exhibit aberrant subcellular trafficking has led to the identification of 18 Delta alleles (DlTD alleles) that encode “trafficking-defective” Delta proteins. We find, unexpectedly, that many DlTD alleles contain missense mutations in ELRs within the Delta extracellular domain. Finally, we find that two DlTD alleles contain lysine missense mutations within the Delta intracellular domain (DeltaICD) that may identify residues important for DeltaICD mono-ubiquitylation and subsequent Delta endocytosis and signaling. PMID:17028337

  19. Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L Knock-In-Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Padilla-Banks E, Clark G, Newbold RR. Assessing estrogenic activity of phytochemicals using transcriptional activation and immature mouse...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0347 TITLE: Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L Knock-In Mice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0347 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Low concentrations of ethanol do not affect radioligand binding to the delta-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ashok K; Marutha Ravindran, C R; Ticku, Maharaj K

    2007-08-24

    In the present study, we investigated the co-localization pattern of the delta subunit with other subunits of GABA(A) receptors in the rat brain using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting techniques. Furthermore, we investigated whether low concentrations of ethanol affect the delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor assemblies in the rat brain using radioligand binding to the rat brain membrane homogenates as well as to the immunoprecipitated receptor assemblies. Our results revealed that delta subunit is not co-localized with gamma(2) subunit but it is associated with the alpha(1), alpha(4) or alpha(6), beta(2) and/or beta(3) subunit(s) of GABA(A) receptors in the rat brain. Ethanol (1-50 mM) neither affected [(3)H]muscimol (3 nM) binding nor diazepam-insensitive [(3)H]Ro 15-4513 (2 nM) binding in the rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex membranes. However, a higher concentration of ethanol (500 mM) inhibited the binding of these radioligands to the GABA(A) receptors partially in the rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Similarly, ethanol (up to 50 mM) did not affect [(3)H]muscimol (15 nM) binding to the immunoprecipitated delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor assemblies in the rat cerebellum and hippocampus but it inhibited the binding partially at a higher concentration (500 mM). These results suggest that the native delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors do not play a major role in the pharmacology of clinically relevant low concentrations of ethanol.

  1. Phosphorylation and function of alpha4beta2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Isabel; Moroni, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha4 and beta2 subunits expressed in heterologous expression systems assemble into high- and low-affinity receptors (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 2003), which reflects the assembly of two distinct subunit stoichiometries of alpha4beta2 receptor (Nelson et al., 2003). The high-affinity receptor ([alpha4]2[beta2]3) is about 100-fold more sensitive to ACh than the low-affinity receptor ([alpha4]3[beta2]2) (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 2003). Recent evidence implicated 14-3-3 proteins as modulators of the relative abundance of nAChR subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where ligand-gated ion channels assemble. The 14-3-3 proteins influence ER-to-plasma membrane trafficking of multimeric cell-surface proteins (O'Kelly et al., 2002). 14-3-3 proteins bind components of these multimeric proteins, and this interaction overrides dibasic COP1 retention signal to permit forward transport of the protein (O'Kelly et al., 2002). In the case of alpha4beta2 nAChRs, 14-3-3 binds the alpha4 subunit, and this association is dependent on phosphorylation of a serine residue within a protein kinase A(PKA) consensus sequence in the large cytoplasmic domain of the alpha4 subunit, which is also a binding motif recognized by 14-3-3 (Jeancloss et al., 2001; O'Kelly et al., 2002). The interplay among PKA, alpha4 subunits, and 14-3-3 proteins increases cell-surface expression of alpha4beta2 nAChRs by increasing steady-state levels of the alpha4 subunit available for assembly with beta2 subunits (Jeancloss et al., 2001). Because it is not known how 14-3-3-dependent changes in the steady-state levels of the alpha4 subunit might affect the functional type of alpha4beta2 receptors, we have investigated the effects of mutations of the 14-3-3 binding motif in the alpha4 subunit on alpha4beta2 nAChR function.

  2. Discovery of an Oxybenzylglycine Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha Selective

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Kennedy, L; Shi, Y; Tao, S; Ye, X; Chen, S; Wang, Y; Hernandez, A; Wang, W; et al.

    2010-01-01

    An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, with an EC{sub 50} of 10 nM for human PPAR{alpha} and {approx}410-fold selectivity vs human PPAR{gamma} in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPAR{delta}. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPAR{alpha} ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPAR{alpha} in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.

  3. Putative EEG measures of social anxiety: Comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation.

    PubMed

    Harrewijn, A; Van der Molen, M J W; Westenberg, P M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta correlation during resting state and during a social performance task in high (HSA) versus low (LSA) socially anxious females. Participants performed a social performance task in which they first watched and evaluated a video of a peer, and then prepared their own speech. They believed that their speech would be videotaped and evaluated by a peer. We found that HSA participants showed significant negative delta-beta correlation as compared to LSA participants during both anticipation of and recovery from the stressful social situation. This negative delta-beta correlation might reflect increased activity in subcortical brain regions and decreased activity in cortical brain regions. As we hypothesized, no group differences in delta-beta correlation were found during the resting state. This could indicate that a certain level of stress is needed to find EEG measures of social anxiety. As for frontal alpha asymmetry, we did not find any group differences. The present frontal alpha asymmetry results are discussed in relation to the evident inconsistencies in the frontal alpha asymmetry literature. Together, our results suggest that delta-beta correlation is a putative EEG measure of social anxiety.

  4. delta-Opioid receptors exhibit high efficiency when activating trimeric G proteins in membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Bourova, Lenka; Kostrnova, Alexandra; Hejnova, Lucie; Moravcova, Zuzana; Moon, Hyo-Eun; Novotny, Jiri; Milligan, Graeme; Svoboda, Petr

    2003-04-01

    Low-density membrane fragments (domains) were separated from the bulk of plasma membranes of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells expressing a delta-opioid (DOP) receptor-Gi1alpha fusion protein by drastic homogenization and flotation on equilibrium sucrose density gradients. The functional activity of trimeric G proteins and capacity of the DOP receptor to stimulate both the fusion protein-linked Gi1alpha and endogenous pertussis-toxin sensitive G proteins was measured as d-Ala2, d-Leu5-enkephalin stimulated high-affinity GTPase or guanosine-5'-[gamma-35S]triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding. The maximum d-Ala2-d-Leu5 enkephalin (DADLE)-stimulated GTPase was two times higher in low-density membrane fragments than in bulk of plasma membranes; 58 and 27 pmol/mg/min, respectively. The same difference was obtained for [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Contrarily, the low-density domains contained no more than half the DOP receptor binding sites (Bmax = 6.6 pmol/mg versus 13.6 pmol/mg). Thus, when corrected for expression levels of the receptor, low-density domains exhibited four times higher agonist-stimulated GTPase and [35S]GTPgammaS binding than the bulk plasma membranes. The regulator of G protein signaling RGS1, enhanced further the G protein functional activity but did not remove the difference between domain-bound and plasma membrane pools of G protein. The potency of the agonist in functional studies and the affinity of specific [3H]DADLE binding to the receptor were, however, the same in both types of membranes - EC50 = 4.5 +/- 0.1 x 10(-8) and 3.2 +/- 1.4 x 10(-8) m for GTPase; Kd = 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 1.3 +/- 0.1 nm for [3H]DADLE radioligand binding assay. Similar results were obtained when sodium bicarbonate was used for alkaline isolation of membrane domains. By contrast, detergent-insensitive membrane domains isolated following treatment of cells with Triton X100 exhibited no DADLE-stimulated GTPase or GTPgammaS binding. Functional coupling between the DOP receptor

  5. Clozapine augments delta, theta, and right frontal EEG alpha power in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Maccrimmon, D; Brunet, D; Criollo, M; Galin, H; Lawson, J S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4-3.6 Hz), theta (4.2-7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2-11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2-15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2-19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2-23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias.

  6. Clozapine Augments Delta, Theta, and Right Frontal EEG Alpha Power in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    MacCrimmon, D.; Brunet, D.; Criollo, M.; Galin, H.; Lawson, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4–3.6 Hz), theta (4.2–7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2–11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2–15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2–19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2–23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias. PMID:23738206

  7. Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol enhances MCF-7 cell proliferation via cannabinoid receptor-independent signaling.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Yamaori, Satoshi; Motoya, Erina; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhito

    2008-03-12

    We recently reported that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) has the ability to stimulate the proliferation of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. However, the mechanism of action remains to be clarified. The present study focused on the relationship between receptor expression and the effects of Delta(9)-THC on cell proliferation. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that there was no detectable expression of CB receptors in MCF-7 cells. In accordance with this, no effects of cannabinoid 1/2 (CB1/2) receptor antagonists and pertussis toxin on cell proliferation were observed. Although MCF-7 cell proliferation is suggested to be suppressed by Delta(9)-THC in the presence of CB receptors, it was revealed that Delta(9)-THC could exert upregulation of living cells in the absence of the receptors. Interestingly, Delta(9)-THC upregulated human epithelial growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) expression, which is known to be a predictive factor of human breast cancer and is able to stimulate cancer cells as well as MCF-7 cells. Actinomycin D-treatment interfered with the upregulation of HER2 and cell proliferation by cannabinoid. Taken together, these studies suggest that, in the absence of CB receptors, Delta(9)-THC can stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by modulating, at least in part, HER2 transcription.

  8. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.

    2009-11-01

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  9. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart

    PubMed Central

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M.; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  10. Multiphysics phase field modeling of hydrogen diffusion and delta-hydride precipitation in alpha-zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisaari, Andrea M.

    Hydride precipitation in zirconium is a significant factor limiting the lifetime of nuclear fuel cladding, because hydride microstructures play a key role in the degradation of fuel cladding. However, the behavior of hydrogen in zirconium has typically been modeled using mean field approaches, which do not consider microstructural evolution. This thesis describes a quantitative microstructural evolution model for the alpha-zirconium/delta-hydride system and the associated numerical methods and algorithms that were developed. The multiphysics, phase field-based model incorporates CALPHAD free energy descriptions, linear elastic solid mechanics, and classical nucleation theory. A flexible simulation software implementing the model, Hyrax, is built on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) finite element framework. Hyrax is open-source and freely available; moreover, the numerical methods and algorithms that have been developed are generalizable to other systems. The algorithms are described in detail, and verification studies for each are discussed. In addition, analyses of the sensitivity of the simulation results to the choice of numerical parameters are presented. For example, threshold values for the CALPHAD free energy algorithm and the use of mesh and time adaptivity when employing the nucleation algorithm are studied. Furthermore, preliminary insights into the nucleation behavior of delta-hydrides are described. These include a) the sensitivities of the nucleation rate to temperature, interfacial energy, composition and elastic energy, b) the spatial variation of the nucleation rate around a single precipitate, and c) the effect of interfacial energy and nucleation rate on the precipitate microstructure. Finally, several avenues for future work are discussed. Topics encompass the terminal solid solubility hysteresis of hydrogen in zirconium and the effects of the alpha/delta interfacial energy, as well as thermodiffusion, plasticity

  11. Supine posture inhibits cortical activity: Evidence from Delta and Alpha EEG bands.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Busenello, Jessica; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Past studies have shown consistent evidence that body position significantly affects brain activity, revealing that both head-down and horizontal bed-rest are associated with cortical inhibition and altered perceptual and cognitive processing. The present study investigates the effects of body position on spontaneous, open-eyes, resting-state EEG cortical activity in 32 young women randomly assigned to one of two conditions, seated position (SP) or horizontal bed rest (BR). A between-group repeated-measure experimental design was used, EEG recordings were made from 38 scalp locations, and low-frequency (delta and alpha) amplitudes of the two groups were compared in four different conditions: when both groups (a) were seated (T0), (b) assumed two different body positions (seated vs. supine conditions, immediate [T1] and 120min later [T2]), and (c) were seated again (T3). Overall, the results showed no a priori between-group differences (T0) before experimental manipulation. As expected, delta amplitude, an index of cortical inhibition in awake resting participants, was significantly increased in group BR, revealing both rapid (T1) and mid-term (T2) inhibitory effects of supine or horizontal positions. Instead, the alpha band was highly sensitive to postural transitions, perhaps due to baroreceptor intervention and, unlike the delta band, underwent habituation and decreased after a 2-h bed rest. These results indicate clear-cut differences at rest between the seated and supine positions, thus supporting the view that the role of body position in the differences found between brain metabolic methods (fMRI and PET) in which participants lie horizontally, and EEG-MEG-TMS techniques with participants in a seated position, has been largely underestimated so far.

  12. The integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is a laminin receptor

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the putative laminin receptor function of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was assessed. For this purpose, we used a human cell line, referred to as clone A, that was derived from a highly invasive, colon adenocarcinoma. This cell line, which expresses the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, adheres to the E8 and not to the P1 fragment of laminin. The adhesion of clone A cells to laminin is extremely rapid with half- maximal adhesion observed at 5 min after plating. Adhesion to laminin is blocked by GoH3, and alpha 6 specific antibody (60% inhibition), as well as by A9, a beta 4 specific antibody (30% inhibition). Most importantly, we demonstrate that alpha 6 beta 4 binds specifically to laminin-Sepharose columns in the presence of either Mg2+ or Mn2+ and it is eluted from these columns with EDTA but not with NaCl. The alpha 6 beta 4 integrin does not bind to collagen-Sepharose, but the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin does bind. Clone A cells do not express alpha 6 beta 1 as evidenced by the following observations: (a) no beta 1 integrin is detected in beta 1 immunoblots of GoH3 immunoprecipitates; and (b) no alpha 6 beta 1 integrin is seen in GoH3 immunoprecipitates of clone A extracts that had been immunodepleted of all beta 4 containing integrin using the A9 antibody. These data establish that laminin is a ligand for the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and that this integrin can function as a laminin receptor independently of alpha 6 beta 1. PMID:1533398

  13. Human GABAA receptor alpha 1 and alpha 3 subunits genes and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Parsian, A; Cloninger, C R

    1997-05-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA effects are largely mediated by binding to the postsynaptic GABAA receptor, causing the opening of an integral chloride-ion channel. The GABAA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline reduce some ethanol-induced behaviors, such as motor impairment, sedation, and hypnosis. The role of this receptor in alcoholism is further supported by effective alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms by GABAA agonists. To determine the role of the GABAA receptor (GABR) genes in the development of alcoholism, we have used alpha 1 and alpha 3 simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in a sample of unrelated alcoholics, alcoholic probands with both parents, and psychiatrically normal controls. For the GABR alpha 1 gene, the differences between allele frequencies, when all alleles were compared together, were not significant between total alcoholics, subtypes of alcoholics, and normal controls. However, for GABR alpha 3, the differences between total alcoholics and normal controls were significant when all alleles were compared together. The differences between subtypes of alcoholics and normal controls were not significant. The results of haplotype relative risk analysis for both genes, GABR alpha 1 and GABR alpha 3, were also negative. It is possible that the sample size in the haplotype relative risk is too small to have power to detect the differences in transmitted versus nontransmitted alleles. There is a need for a replication study in a large family sample that will allow haplotype relative risk or affected sib-pair analysis.

  14. The vitronectin receptor serves as an accessory molecule for the activation of a subset of gamma/delta T cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Constitutive production of cytokines was observed in 3 of 12 gamma/delta T cell lines derived from murine epidermis and correlated with the expression of the C gamma 4, V delta 6 T cell receptor (TCR). After adaptation of one of the lines (T195/BW) to serum-free culture conditions, cessation of the "spontaneous" production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) was observed and IL-4 production could then by induced by the addition of RGD-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to the culture. The response to the ECM proteins could be completely inhibited by a mAb to the murine vitronectin receptor (VNR). However, the induction of IL-4 production could also be inhibited by anti-CD3 and by an anti-clonotypic mAb to the TCR-gamma/delta of T195/BW. As TCR- gamma/delta loss mutants of T195/BW also failed to respond to ECM proteins, these data demonstrate that engagement of the VNR by its ligand is necessary, but not sufficient, for the induction of IL-4 production. Furthermore, the VNR is expressed by many other T cell clones (both gamma/delta and alpha/beta), none of which produce lymphokines constitutively. Taken together, these observations strongly favor the view that not only is coexpression of the VNR and TCR required for the induction of IL-4 production, but that the TCR must also be engaged by its ligand, most likely a cell surface antigen expressed by the hybridoma itself. PMID:1702138

  15. Synthesis, characterization and study of arsenate adsorption from aqueous solution by {alpha}- and {delta}-phase manganese dioxide nanoadsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mandeep; Thanh, Dong Nguyen; Ulbrich, Pavel; Strnadova, Nina; Stepanek, Frantisek

    2010-12-15

    Single-phase {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} nano-fiber clumps were synthesized using manganese pentahydrate in an aqueous solution. These nanomaterials were characterized using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Brunauer-Elmet-Teller nitrogen adsorption technique (BET-N{sub 2} adsorption). The structural analysis shows that {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} (2x2 tunnel structure) has the form of needle-shaped nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} (2D-layered structure) consists of fine needle-like fibers arranged in ball-like aggregates. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the effect of pH on adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity for the removal of As(V) from aqueous solution onto these two types of nanoadsorbents. The adsorption capacity of As(V) was found to be highly pH dependent. The adsorption of As(V) onto {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} reached equilibrium more rapidly with higher adsorption capacity compared to {delta}-MnO{sub 2}. -- Graphical abstract: {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} (2x2 tunnel structure) nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} (2-D layered structure) nano-fiber clumps were synthesized in a facile way in an aqueous solution and characterized by TEM, FE-SEM, XRD and BET-N{sub 2} adsorption techniques. The structural analysis shows that {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} is needle shaped nanorods and {delta}-MnO{sub 2} consists of 2-D platelets of fine needle-like fibers arranged in ball-like aggregates. Further batch experiments confirmed that both nanoadsorbents are potential candidates for the adsorption of As(V) with a capacity of 19.41 and 15.33 mg g{sup -1} for {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {delta}-MnO{sub 2}, respectively. The presence of As3d peak in XPS study indicates that arsenic on the surface of nanoadsorbents is in the stable form of As(V) with a percentage of arsenate onto {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} is 0.099% as compared to 0.021% onto {delta}-MnO{sub 2

  16. Different gamma delta T-cell receptors are expressed on thymocytes at different stages of development.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Bonneville, M; Takagaki, Y; Nakanishi, N; Kanagawa, O; Krecko, E G; Tonegawa, S

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the structural diversity of the murine gamma delta T-cell receptor (TCR) heterodimer expressed on CD4- CD8- thymocyte populations and on TCR gamma delta-expressing hybridomas derived from thymocytes of fetal, newborn, and adult mice. We found that CD4- CD8- thymocytes derived from mice of different pre- and postnatal age preferentially express a gamma delta TCR encoded by different subsets of gamma and delta gene segments. This age-dependent differential expression of gamma delta TCR on thymocytes seems to be accomplished in part by a specific control of rearranged gamma genes operating at the level of transcription and/or RNA stability. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to the recognition roles of the gamma delta TCR. Images PMID:2463632

  17. Identification of putative human T cell receptor delta complementary DNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, S.; Brenner, M.B.; Krangel, M.S.

    1987-10-30

    A novel T cell receptor (TCR) subunit termed TCR delta, associated with TCY ..gamma.. and CD3 polypeptides, were recently found on a subpopulation of human T lymphocytes. T cell-specific complementary DNA clones present in a human TCR..gamma..delta T cell complementary DNA library were obtained and characterized in order to identify candidate clones encoding TCR delta. One cross-hybridizing group of clones detected transcripts that are expressed in lymphocytes bearing TCR ..gamma..delta but not in other T lymphocytes and are encoded by genes that are rearranged in TCR ..gamma..delta lymphocytes but deleted in other T lymphocytes. Their sequences indicate homology to the variable, joining, and constant elements of other TCR and immunoglobulin genes. These characteristics are strong evidence that the complementary DNA clones encode TCR delta.

  18. Probing the isothermal (delta)->(alpha)' martensitic transformation in Pu-Ga with in situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J R; Blobaum, K M; Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Yang, W; Evans, W J

    2010-03-11

    The time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curve for the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic transformation in a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy is peculiar because it is reported to have a double-C curve. Recent work suggests that an ambient temperature conditioning treatment enables the lower-C curve. However, the mechanisms responsible for the double-C are still not fully understood. When the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation is induced by pressure, an intermediate {gamma}{prime} phase is observed in some alloys. It has been suggested that transformation at upper-C temperatures may proceed via this intermediate phase, while lower-C transformation progresses directly from {delta} to {alpha}{prime}. To investigate the possibility of thermally induced transformation via the intermediate {gamma}{prime} phase, in situ x-ray diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source was performed. Using transmission x-ray diffraction, the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation was observed in samples as thin at 30 {micro}m as a function of time and temperature. The intermediate {gamma}{prime} phase was not observed at -120 C (upper-C curve) or -155 C (lower-C curve). Results indicate that the bulk of the {alpha}{prime} phase forms relatively rapidly at -120 C and -155 C.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a drug/fatty acid-activated trans cription factor involved in the starvation response, and is thus relevant to the ketogenic diet (KD). This article summarizes research indicating the role of PPARalpha in central and peripheral nervous system function with particular reference to downstream targets relevant to anticonvulsant action.

  20. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif.

  1. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  2. 3-Methylcholanthrene and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Maen; Ariazi, Eric; Kim, Kyounghyun; Khan, Shaheen; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert; Liu, Shengxi; Hill, Denise; Finnell, Richard; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Jordan, V Craig; Safe, Stephen

    2006-02-15

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, and it has been reported that 3MC induces estrogenic activity through AhR-estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) interactions. In this study, we used 3MC and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB) as prototypical AhR ligands, and both compounds activated estrogen-responsive reporter genes/gene products (cathepsin D) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The estrogenic responses induced by these AhR ligands were inhibited by the antiestrogen ICI 182780 and by the transfection of a small inhibitory RNA for ER alpha but were not affected by the small inhibitory RNA for AhR. These results suggest that 3MC and PCB directly activate ER alpha, and this was confirmed in a competitive ER alpha binding assay and in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiment in which PCB and 3MC induced CFP-ER alpha/YFP-ER alpha interactions. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, PCB and 3MC enhanced ER alpha (but not AhR) association with the estrogen-responsive region of the pS2 gene promoter. Moreover, in AhR knockout mice, 3MC increased uterine weights and induced expression of cyclin D1 mRNA levels. These results show that PCB and 3MC directly activate ER alpha-dependent transactivation and extend the number of ligands that activate both AhR and ER alpha.

  3. Serotonergic modulation of muscle acetylcholine receptors of different subunit composition.

    PubMed Central

    García-Colunga, J; Miledi, R

    1996-01-01

    Modulation of muscle acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors (AcChoRs) by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)] and other serotonergic compounds was studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Various combinations of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunit RNAs were injected into oocytes, and membrane currents elicited by AcCho were recorded under voltage clamp. Judging by the amplitudes of AcCho currents generated, the levels of functional receptor expression were: alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma > alpha gamma delta. The alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta AcChoR Subtypes were strongly blocked by 5HT, whereas the alpha beta gamma receptor was blocked only slightly. The order of blocking potency of AcChoRs by 5HT was: alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta gamma. 5HT receptor antagonists, such as methysergide and spiperone, were even more potent blockers of AcChoRs than 5HT but did not show much subunit selectivity. Blockage of alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta receptors by 5HT was voltage-dependent, and the voltage dependence was abolished when the delta subunit was omitted. These findings may need to be taken into consideration when trying to elucidate the mode of action of many clinically important serotonergic compounds. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8633003

  4. Pharmacophore modeling, in silico screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics approaches for potential alpha-delta bungarotoxin-4 inhibitors discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R. Barani; Suresh, M. Xavier; Priya, B. Shanmuga

    2015-01-01

    Background: The alpha-delta bungartoxin-4 (α-δ-Bgt-4) is a potent neurotoxin produced by highly venomous snake species, Bungarus caeruleus, mainly targeting neuronal acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) and producing adverse biological malfunctions leading to respiratory paralysis and mortality. Objective: In this study, we predicted the three-dimensional structure of α-δ-Bgt-4 using homology modeling and investigated the conformational changes and the key residues responsible for nAchRs inhibiting activity. Materials and Methods: From the selected plants, which are traditionally used for snake bites, the active compounds are taken and performed molecular interaction studies and also used for modern techniques like pharmacophore modeling and mapping and absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity analysis which may increase the possibility of success. Results: Moreover, 100's of drug-like compounds were retrieved and analyzed through computational virtual screening and allowed for pharmacokinetic profiling, molecular docking and dynamics simulation. Conclusion: Finally the top five drug-like compounds having competing level of inhibition toward α-δ-Bgt-4 toxin were suggested based on their interaction with α-δ-Bgt-4 toxin. PMID:26109766

  5. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  6. Regulation by retinoids of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta (5-4)-isomerase and 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase cytochrome P-450 messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the K9 mouse Leydig cell line.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, A; Rogier, E; Astraudo, C; Duquenne, C; Finaz, C

    1994-12-01

    Vitamin A is a potent regulator of testicular function. We have reported that retinol (R) and retinoic acid (RA) induced a down regulation of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) binding sites in K9 Leydig cells. In the present study we evaluated the effect of R and RA on LH/CG receptors, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (P-450 scc), 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase (P-450 17 alpha) and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) mRNA levels in K9 mouse Leydig cells. To validate K9 cells as a model for studying Leydig cell steroidogenesis at the molecular level, we first investigated the effect of hCG on mRNA levels of the steroidogenic enzymes. P-450 scc, 3 beta HSD and P-450 17 alpha were expressed constitutively. The addition of 10 ng/ml hCG enhanced mRNA levels for the three genes within 2 h. Maximal accumulation of P-450 scc, P-450 17 alpha and 3 beta HSD mRNA in treated cells represents a 2.5-, 8.5- and 4-fold increase over control values, respectively. P-450 17 alpha expression reached a maximum by 4 h and then declined rapidly to return to control value by 24 h. The pattern of LH/CG receptor mRNAs in K9 cells was very similar to that of MA10 Leydig cells and showed six transcripts of 1.1, 1.6, 1.9, 2.6, 4.2 and 7.0 kb. Treatment of cells with R or RA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in all six species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Event-related delta, theta, alpha and gamma correlates to auditory oddball processing during Vipassana meditation.

    PubMed

    Cahn, B Rael; Delorme, Arnaud; Polich, John

    2013-01-01

    Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control (instructed mind wandering) states for 25 min, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and condition order counterbalanced. For the last 4 min, a three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented during both meditation and control periods through headphones and no task imposed. Time-frequency analysis demonstrated that meditation relative to the control condition evinced decreased evoked delta (2-4 Hz) power to distracter stimuli concomitantly with a greater event-related reduction of late (500-900 ms) alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) activity, which indexed altered dynamics of attentional engagement to distracters. Additionally, standard stimuli were associated with increased early event-related alpha phase synchrony (inter-trial coherence) and evoked theta (4-8 Hz) phase synchrony, suggesting enhanced processing of the habituated standard background stimuli. Finally, during meditation, there was a greater differential early-evoked gamma power to the different stimulus classes. Correlation analysis indicated that this effect stemmed from a meditation state-related increase in early distracter-evoked gamma power and phase synchrony specific to longer-term expert practitioners. The findings suggest that Vipassana meditation evokes a brain state of enhanced perceptual clarity and decreased automated reactivity.

  8. Activation of human alpha1 and alpha2 homomeric glycine receptors by taurine and GABA.

    PubMed

    De Saint Jan, D; David-Watine, B; Korn, H; Bregestovski, P

    2001-09-15

    1. Two ligand binding alpha subunits, alpha1 and alpha2, of the human (H) glycine receptor (GlyR) are involved at inhibitory synapses in the adult and neonatal spinal cord, respectively. The ability of homomeric alphaH1 and alphaH2 GlyRs to be activated by glycine, taurine and GABA was studied in Xenopus oocytes or in the human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cell line. 2. In outside-out patches from HEK cells, glycine, taurine and GABA activated both GlyRs with the same main unitary conductance, i.e. 85 +/- 3 pS (n = 6) for alphaH1, and 95 +/- 5 pS (n = 4) for alphaH2. 3. The sensitivity of both alphaH1 and alphaH2 GlyRs to glycine was highly variable. In Xenopus oocytes the EC50 for glycine (EC50gly) was between 25 and 280 microM for alphaH1 (n = 44) and between 46 and 541 microM for alphaH2 (n = 52). For both receptors, the highest EC50gly values were found on cells with low maximal glycine responses. 4. The actions of taurine and GABA were dependent on the EC50gly: (i) their EC50 values were linearly correlated to EC50gly, with EC50tau approximately 10 EC50gly and EC50GABA approximately 500-800 EC50gly; (ii) they could act either as full or weak agonists depending on the EC50gly. 5. The Hill coefficient (n(H)) of glycine remained stable regardless of the EC50gly whereas n(H) for taurine decreased with increasing EC50tau. 6. The degree of desensitization, evaluated by fast application of saturating concentrations of agonist on outside-out patches from Xenopus oocytes, was similar for glycine and taurine on both GlyRs and did not exceed 50 %. 7. Our data concerning the variations of EC50gly and the subsequent behaviour of taurine and GABA could be qualitatively described by the simple del Castillo-Katz scheme, assuming that the agonist gating constant varies whereas the binding constants are stable. However, the stability of the Hill coefficient for glycine was not explained by this model, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved in the modulation of EC50.

  9. Role of the large cytoplasmic loop of the alpha 7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in receptor expression and function.

    PubMed

    Valor, Luis M; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Ballesta, Juan J; Criado, Manuel

    2002-06-25

    The role of the large intracellular loop of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 subunit in the expression of functional channels was studied. For this purpose, systematic deletions and substitutions were made throughout the loop and the ability of the mutated alpha7 subunits to support expression of functional nAChRs at the Xenopus oocyte membrane was tested. Surface nAChR expression was abolished upon removal of sequences at two regions, a 29-amino acid segment close to the N-terminus of the loop (amino acids 297-325) and adjacent to the third transmembrane region and an 11-amino acid segment near the fourth transmembrane region. Some residues (amino acids 317-322) within the 29 amino acids N-terminal segment could be substituted by others but not deleted without loss of expression, suggesting that a certain structure, determined by the number of amino acids rather than by their identity, has to be maintained in this region. The contiguous sequence M323 K324 R325 did not tolerate deletions and substitutions. Removal of the rest of the cytoplasmic loop was not deleterious; even higher expression levels (2-4-fold) were obtained upon large deletions of the loop (Delta399-432 and Delta339-370). High expression levels were observed provided that a minimal sequence of three amino acids (E371, G372, and M373) was present. In addition, some electrophysiological properties of mutant nAChRs were modified. Substitution of the EGM sequence by other protein segments produced a variety of effects, but, in general, insertions were not well tolerated, suggesting the existence of tight structural restrictions in the large cytoplasmic region of the rat alpha7 subunit.

  10. Solution structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA, a novel antagonist of {alpha}6 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Si-Hyung; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2005-12-30

    {alpha}-Conotoxin PIA is a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist isolated from Conus purpurascens that targets nAChR subtypes containing {alpha}6 and {alpha}3 subunits. {alpha}-conotoxin PIA displays 75-fold higher affinity for rat {alpha}6/{alpha}3{beta}2{beta}3 nAChRs than for rat {alpha}3{beta}2 nAChRs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The {alpha}-conotoxin PIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology as other {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Yet, unlike other neuronally targeted {alpha}4/7-conotoxins, its N-terminal tail Arg{sup 1}-Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3} protrudes out of its main molecular body because Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3}-Cys{sup 4}-Cys{sup 5} forms a stable type I {beta}-turn. In addition, a kink introduced by Pro{sup 15} in the second loop of this toxin provides a distinct steric and electrostatic environment from those in {alpha}-conotoxins MII and GIC. By comparing the structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA with other functionally related {alpha}-conotoxins we suggest structural features in {alpha}-conotoxin PIA that may be associated with its unique receptor recognition profile.

  11. Integrin alpha v beta 3 differentially regulates adhesive and phagocytic functions of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The plasma protein fibronectin is an important opsonin in wound repair and host defense. To better understand the process of fibronectin- mediated phagocytosis, we have transfected K562 cells, which endogenously express alpha 5 beta 1, with alpha v beta 3. In these transfectants, antibodies to alpha v beta 3 block phagocytosis of fibronectin-opsonized beads completely, even though half the ingestion occurs through endogenous alpha 5 beta 1 receptors. alpha 5 beta 1- mediated adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces is unaffected by alpha v beta 3 ligation. Neither alpha v beta 5 nor alpha M beta 2 ligation affects alpha 5 beta 1 phagocytic function in transfectants expressing these receptors. Pharmacologic data suggest that alpha v beta 3 ligation suppresses the phagocytic competence of high affinity alpha 5 beta 1 receptors through a signal transduction pathway, perhaps involving protein kinase C. In addition to its significance for phagocytosis, alpha v beta 3 regulation of alpha 5 beta 1 function may be significant for its roles in cell migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. PMID:7525603

  12. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  13. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol protects cardiac cells from hypoxia via CB2 receptor activation and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Shmist, Yelena A; Goncharov, Igor; Eichler, Maor; Shneyvays, Vladimir; Isaac, Ahuva; Vogel, Zvi; Shainberg, Asher

    2006-02-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active component of marijuana, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system during stress conditions, but the defence mechanism is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the central (CB1) and the peripheral (CB2) cannabinoid receptor expression in neonatal cardiomyoctes and possible function in the cardioprotection of THC from hypoxia. Pre-treatment of cardiomyocytes that were grown in vitro with 0.1 - 10 microM THC for 24 h prevented hypoxia-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and preserved the morphological distribution of alpha-sarcomeric actin. The antagonist for the CB2 (10 microM), but not CB1 receptor antagonist (10 microM) abolished the protective effect of THC. In agreement with these results using RT-PCR, it was shown that neonatal cardiac cells express CB2, but not CB1 receptors. Involvement of NO in the signal transduction pathway activated by THC through CB2 was examined. It was found that THC induces nitric oxide (NO) production by induction of NO synthase (iNOS) via CB2 receptors. L-NAME (NOS inhibitor, 100 microM) prevented the cardioprotection provided by THC. Taken together, our findings suggest that THC protects cardiac cells against hypoxia via CB2 receptor activation by induction of NO production. An NO mechanism occurs also in the classical pre-conditioning process; therefore, THC probably pre-trains the cardiomyocytes to hypoxic conditions.

  14. alpha-latrotoxin action probed with recombinant toxin: receptors recruit alpha-latrotoxin but do not transduce an exocytotic signal.

    PubMed Central

    Ichtchenko, K; Khvotchev, M; Kiyatkin, N; Simpson, L; Sugita, S; Südhof, T C

    1998-01-01

    alpha-Latrotoxin stimulates neurotransmitter release probably by binding to two receptors, CIRL/latrophilin 1 (CL1) and neurexin Ialpha. We have now produced recombinant alpha-latrotoxin (LtxWT) that is as active as native alpha-latrotoxin in triggering synaptic release of glutamate, GABA and norepinephrine. We have also generated three alpha-latrotoxin mutants with substitutions in conserved cysteine residues, and a fourth mutant with a four-residue insertion. All four alpha-latrotoxin mutants were found to be unable to trigger release. Interestingly, the insertion mutant LtxN4C exhibited receptor-binding affinities identical to wild-type LtxWT, bound to CL1 and neurexin Ialpha as well as LtxWT, and similarly stimulated synaptic hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositolphosphates. Therefore, receptor binding by alpha-latrotoxin and stimulation of phospholipase C are insufficient to trigger exocytosis. This conclusion was confirmed in experiments with La3+ and Cd2+. La3+ blocked release triggered by LtxWT, whereas Cd2+ enhanced it. Both cations, however, had no effect on the stimulation by LtxWT of phosphatidylinositolphosphate hydrolysis. Our data show that receptor binding by alpha-latrotoxin and activation of phospholipase C do not by themselves trigger exocytosis. Thus receptors recruit alpha-latrotoxin to its point of action without activating exocytosis. Exocytosis probably requires an additional receptor-independent activity of alpha-latrotoxin that is selectively inhibited by the LtxN4C mutation and by La3+. PMID:9799228

  15. The effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol physical dependence on brain cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Breivogel, Christopher S; Scates, Susan M; Beletskaya, Irina O; Lowery, Olivia B; Aceto, Mario D; Martin, Billy R

    2003-01-17

    The effects of chronic Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on cannabinoid receptor levels and receptor-G-protein coupling were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused continuously with low or high dose regimens of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or vehicle for 4 days. Following treatment, rats were sacrificed for cannabinoid CB(1) receptor binding analysis or challenged with the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide HCl (SR141716A). The rats receiving Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol exhibited antagonist-precipitated withdrawal signs. Each brain region (cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia) from high-dose rats showed 30-70% decreases in [3H] (-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexanol (WIN55212-2) B(max) values, indicating receptor down-regulation. Most regions showed decreased WIN55212-2-stimulated [35S]guanosine-5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate (GTPgammaS) binding, indicating desensitization of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Additional receptor binding assays in cerebellar membranes showed a significantly greater decrease in agonist than in antagonist B(max) values, indicating a lower fraction of coupled receptors after treatment. Concentration-effect analysis of five agonists revealed that the treatment resulted in greater decreases in the efficacy of low-efficacy agonists.

  16. The glutamate receptor subunit delta1 is highly expressed in hair cells of the auditory and vestibular systems.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, S; Wenthold, R J

    1997-10-01

    In the inner ear, fast excitatory synaptic transmission is mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, including AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors. The recently identified delta1 and delta2 glutamate receptors share low homology with the other three types, and no clear response or ligand binding has been obtained from cells transfected with delta alone or in combination with other ionotropic receptors. Studies of mice lacking expression of delta2 show that this subunit plays a crucial role in plasticity of cerebellar glutamatergic synapses. In addition, these mice show a deficit in vestibular compensation. These findings and the nature of glutamatergic synapses between vestibulocochlear hair cells and primary afferent dendrites suggest that delta receptors may be functionally important in the inner ear and prompted us to investigate the expression of delta receptors in the cochlea and peripheral vestibular system. Reverse transcription and DNA amplification by PCR combined with immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were used. Our results show that the expression of delta1 in the organ of Corti is intense and restricted to the inner hair cells, whereas delta1 is expressed in all spiral ganglion neurons as well as in their satellite glial cells. In the vestibular end organ, delta1 was highly expressed in both hair cell types and also was expressed in the vestibular ganglion neurons. The prominent expression of delta1 in inner hair cells and in type I and type II vestibular hair cells suggests a functional role in hair cell neurotransmission.

  17. Mapping of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Safran, A; Gershoni, J M; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies have been used in order to map the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. By using antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 169-181 of the alpha subunit, we demonstrate that this sequence is included within the 18-kDa toxin binding fragment previously reported. Furthermore, the 18-kDa fragment was also found to bind a monoclonal antibody (5.5) directed against the cholinergic binding site. Sequential proteolysis of the acetylcholine receptor with trypsin, prior to Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion, resulted in a 15-kDa toxin binding fragment that is included within the 18-kDa fragment but is shorter than it only at its carboxyl terminus. This 15-kDa fragment therefore initiates beyond Asp-152 and terminates in the region of Arg-313/Lys-314. In addition, experiments are reported that indicate that in the intact acetylcholine receptor, Cys-128 and/or Cys-142 are not crosslinked by disulfide bridges with any of the cysteines (at positions 192, 193, and 222) that reside in the 15-kDa toxin binding fragment. Finally, the synthetic dodecapeptide Lys-His-Trp-Val-Tyr-Tyr-Thr-Cys-Cys-Pro-Asp-Thr, which is present in the 15-kDa fragment (corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit) was shown to bind alpha-bungarotoxin directly. This binding was completely inhibited by competition with d-tubocurarine. Images PMID:3458258

  18. Mapping of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Safran, A; Gershoni, J M; Fuchs, S

    1986-05-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies have been used in order to map the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. By using antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 169-181 of the alpha subunit, we demonstrate that this sequence is included within the 18-kDa toxin binding fragment previously reported. Furthermore, the 18-kDa fragment was also found to bind a monoclonal antibody (5.5) directed against the cholinergic binding site. Sequential proteolysis of the acetylcholine receptor with trypsin, prior to Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion, resulted in a 15-kDa toxin binding fragment that is included within the 18-kDa fragment but is shorter than it only at its carboxyl terminus. This 15-kDa fragment therefore initiates beyond Asp-152 and terminates in the region of Arg-313/Lys-314. In addition, experiments are reported that indicate that in the intact acetylcholine receptor, Cys-128 and/or Cys-142 are not crosslinked by disulfide bridges with any of the cysteines (at positions 192, 193, and 222) that reside in the 15-kDa toxin binding fragment. Finally, the synthetic dodecapeptide Lys-His-Trp-Val-Tyr-Tyr-Thr-Cys-Cys-Pro-Asp-Thr, which is present in the 15-kDa fragment (corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit) was shown to bind alpha-bungarotoxin directly. This binding was completely inhibited by competition with d-tubocurarine.

  19. Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Mishima, Kenichi; Hazekawa, Mai; Sano, Kazunori; Irie, Keiichi; Orito, Kensuke; Egawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Uchida, Naoki; Nishimura, Ryoji; Egashira, Nobuaki; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2008-01-10

    Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis, has been reported to have interactions with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). However, such interactions have not sufficiently been clear and may have important implications for understanding the pharmacological effects of marijuana. In the present study, we investigated whether cannabidiol modulates the pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-THC on locomotor activity, catalepsy-like immobilisation, rectal temperature and spatial memory in the eight-arm radial maze task in mice. In addition, we measured expression level of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor at striatum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Delta(9)-THC (1, 3, 6 and 10 mg/kg) induced hypoactivity, catalepsy-like immobilisation and hypothermia in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Delta(9)-THC (1, 3 and 6 mg/kg) dose-dependently impaired spatial memory in eight-arm radial maze. On the other hand, cannabidiol (1, 3, 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) did not affect locomotor activity, catalepsy-like immobilisation, rectal temperature and spatial memory on its own. However, higher dose of cannabidiol (10 or 50 mg/kg) exacerbated pharmacological effects of lower dose of Delta(9)-THC, such as hypoactivity, hypothermia and impairment of spatial memory. Moreover, cannabidiol (50 mg/kg) with Delta(9)-THC (1 mg/kg) enhanced the expression level of CB(1) receptor expression in hippocampus and hypothalamus. Cannabidiol potentiated pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-THC via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism. These findings may contribute in setting the basis for interaction of cannabinoids and to find a cannabinoid mechanism in central nervous system.

  20. DELTAE

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.C. ); Swift, G.W. )

    1993-11-01

    In thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, and in many simple acoustic systems, a one dimensional wave equation determines the spatial dependence of the acoustic pressure and velocity. DELTAE numerically integrates such wave equations in the acoustic approximation, in gases or liquids, in user-defined geometries. Boundary conditions can include conventional acoustic boundary conditions of geometry and impedance, as well as temperature and thermal power in thermoacoustic systems. DELTAE can be used easily for apparatus ranging from simple duct networks and resonators to thermoacoustic engines refrigerators and combinations thereof. It can predict how a given apparatus will perform, or can allow the user to design an apparatus to achieve desired performance. DELTAE views systems as a series of segments; twenty segment types are supported. The purely acoustic segments include ducts and cones, and lumped impedances including compliances, series impedances, and endcaps. Electroacoustics tranducer segments can be defined using either frequency-independent coefficients or the conventional parameters of loudspeaker-style drivers: mass, spring constant, magnetic field strength, etc. Tranducers can be current driven, voltage driven, or connected to an electrical load impedance. Thermoacoustic segment geometries include parallel plates, circular and rectangular pores, and pin arrays. Side branches can be defined with fixed impedances, frequency-dependent radiation impedances, or as an auxiliary series of segments of any types. The user can select working fluids from among air, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium-argon mixtures, helium-xenon mixtures, liquid sodium, and eutectic sodium-potassium. Additional fluids and solids can be defined by the user.

  1. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Smith, Monique L.; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor–Ca2+ channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560

  2. Nootropic alpha7 nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator derived from GABAA receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Ng, Herman J; Whittemore, Edward R; Tran, Minhtam B; Hogenkamp, Derk J; Broide, Ron S; Johnstone, Timothy B; Zheng, Lijun; Stevens, Karen E; Gee, Kelvin W

    2007-05-08

    Activation of brain alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7 nAChRs) has broad therapeutic potential in CNS diseases related to cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In contrast to direct agonist activation, positive allosteric modulation of alpha7 nAChRs would deliver the clinically validated benefits of allosterism to these indications. We have generated a selective alpha7 nAChR-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) from a library of GABAA receptor PAMs. Compound 6 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-alpha-[[(4-chloro-phenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide) evokes robust positive modulation of agonist-induced currents at alpha7 nAChRs, while preserving the rapid native characteristics of desensitization, and has little to no efficacy at other ligand-gated ion channels. In rodent models, it corrects sensory-gating deficits and improves working memory, effects consistent with cognitive enhancement. Compound 6 represents a chemotype for allosteric activation of alpha7 nAChRs, with therapeutic potential in CNS diseases with cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular synapses: phylogenetic differences detected by snake alpha-neurotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Burden, S J; Hartzell, H C; Yoshikami, D

    1975-01-01

    Phylogenetic differences in acetylcholine receptors from skeletal neuromuscular synapses of various species of snakes and lizards have been investigated, using the snake venom alpha-neurotoxins alpha-atratoxin (cobrotoxin) and alpha-bungarotoxin. The acetylcholine receptors of the phylogenetically primitive lizards, like those from all other vertebrates previously tested, are blocked by these alpha-neurotoxins. In contrast, receptors from snakes and advanced lizards are insensitive to one or both of the toxins. It is suggested that toxin-resistant acetylcholine receptors appeared early in the evolution of Squamata and preceded the appearance of alpha-neurotoxins. Images PMID:1081230

  4. Differential regulation of. mu. , delta, kappa opioid receptors by Mn/sup + +/

    SciTech Connect

    Szuecs, M.; Oetting, G.M.; Coscia, C.J.

    1986-03-05

    Differential effects of Mn/sup + +/ on three opioid receptor subtypes of rat brain membranes were evaluated. Concentration dependency studies performed with 0.05-20 mM Mn/sup + +/ revealed that only the delta receptors are stimulated at any concentration. The binding of 1 nM /sup 3/H-DAGO was not stimulated by low concentrations (< 1mM) of Mn/sup + +/, and was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (40% at 20 mM). 1 nM /sup 3/H-EKC (+100nM DAGO and 100nM DADLE) binding was inhibited by Mn/sup + +/ in the entire concentration range. While regulation of ..mu.. receptor binding did not change during postnatal development, delta and kappa binding displayed a pronounced developmental time-dependency. Kappa sites were hardly affected by Mn/sup + +/ at day 5, and adult levels of inhibition were reached only after the third week postnatal. In contrast, 1 nM /sup 3/H-DADLE (+10nM DAGO) binding was most sensitive to Mn/sup + +/ on day 5 after birth (100% stimulation with 5-20 mM). The ED/sub 50/ of Mn/sup + +/ stimulation was unchanged during maturation. These immature delta sites displayed a similar extent of Mn/sup + +/ reversal of Gpp(NH)p inhibition as seen in microsomes, which represent a good model of N/sub i/-uncoupled receptors. These data suggest that ..mu.., delta and kappa receptors are differently coupled to N/sub i/. Moreover, a second divalent cation binding site, in addition to that on N/sub i/ might exist for delta receptors.

  5. Studies on the receptors to 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol in sow nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Gennings, J N; Gower, D B; Bannister, L H

    1977-02-28

    The presence of receptors to the "boar taint" pheromones 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol has been demonstrated in sow olfactory mucosa. Binding studies indicated that a sufficiently low concentration of olfactory tissue homogenate exhibited saturation of binding of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one, and this was of high affinity compared with control tissues of non-olfactory and heated olfactory tissues. Analysis of receptor binding of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one gave a value for the affinity constant (Ka) of approx. 8.3-10(8) M-1 and the value for the molar concentration of binding sites (n[M]) was approx. 3.3 pmol/mg protein. Almost identical values of Ka and n [M] were obtained when receptor binding of 5alpha-[5alpha-3H]androst-16-en-3alpha-ol was investigated (Ka 8.4-10(8) M-1; n [M] 3.7 pmol/mg protein). This suggests that the same receptor binds both 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol with equally high affinity. In a preliminary investigation to establish the specificity of the receptor, the binding of 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one was assayed; this steroid is odourless but has a similar structure except in ring D to 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one. Binding was of the low affinity, non-specific type only, indicating that the sow olfactory receptors are not sensitive to this androgen.

  6. Potent Dmt-Tic pharmacophoric delta- and mu-opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingyou; Fujita, Yoshio; Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Tsuda, Yuko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa; Bryant, Sharon D; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2005-12-15

    A series of dimeric Dmt-Tic (2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) analogues (8-14, 18-22) were covalently linked through diaminoalkane and symmetric or asymmetric 3,6-diaminoalkyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone moieties. All the compounds exhibited high affinity for both delta-opioid receptors [Ki(delta) = 0.06-1.53 nM] and mu-opioid receptors [Ki(mu) = 1.37-5.72 nM], resulting in moderate delta-receptor selectivity [Ki(mu)/Ki(delta) = 3-46]. Regardless of the type of linker between the Dmt-Tic pharmacophores, delta-opioid-mediated antagonism was extraordinarily high in all analogues (pA2 = 10.42-11.28), while in vitro agonism (MVD and GPI bioassays) was essentially absent (ca. 3 to >10 microM). While an unmodified N-terminus (9, 13, 18) revealed weak mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 6.78-6.99), N,N'-dimethylation (21, 22), which negatively impacts on mu-opioid-associated agonism (Balboni et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2003, 11, 5435-5441), markedly enhanced mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 8.34 and 7.71 for 21 and 22, respectively) without affecting delta-opioid activity. These data are the first evidence that a single dimeric opioid ligand containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore exhibits highly potent delta- and mu-opioid antagonist activities.

  7. T-cell receptor gamma--delta lymphocytes and Eimeria vermiformis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M E; Hesketh, P; Rothwell, L; Gramzinski, R A

    1996-01-01

    The role of T-cell receptor gamma--delta T lymphocytes in coccidiosis was examined by determining the course of infection with Eimeria vermiformis in BALB/c mice depleted of gamma--delta lymphocytes by treatment with GL3 monoclonal antibody. The replication of the parasite in primary infections was not greatly, or consistently, affected by this treatment, and there was no correlation between the extent of depletion of small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and the number of oocysts produced. The resistance of immunized mice to challenge was not compromised by depletion of intraintestinal epithelial lymphocytes when their depletion was effected at the time of primary infection and/or administration of the challenge inoculum. Thus, T-cell receptor gamma--delta T lymphocytes do not appear to be crucial to the establishment, or the control, of primary infection with E. vermiformis and are not principal mediators of the solid immunity to challenge that this infection induces. PMID:8890252

  8. Estrogen-related receptor alpha and cancer: axis of evil.

    PubMed

    Ranhotra, Harmit S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is perhaps the fastest growing non-communicable disease in the human population worldwide. Although the molecular mechanism of cancer initiation and progression is known to some extent, however, the majority of pathways responsible for its onset, development and progression are largely unknown. Many members of the nuclear receptors (NRs) superfamily of transcriptional factors have key roles in cancer. Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is one of the members of the NR superfamily and studies have linked it with a wide variety of cancers. In endocrine-related cancers such as breast cancer, ERRα regulates a number of target genes directing cell proliferation and growth independent of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Knockdown of ERRα in a number of cancer tissues and cell lines significantly reduced tumor growth and malignancy indicating dependence on ERRα activity. The pro-angiogenesis factor vascular endothelial growth factor expression has been shown to be regulated by ERRα and has implications in several types of cancer. The effect of ERRα on cancers seems to be multipronged via regulation of cell cycle regulators, osteopontin, hypoxia inducible factor-1 as well as several energy metabolism genes that are part of glycolysis, TCA cycle, lipogenesis, etc., providing a metabolic twist to cancer. In this article, the action of ERRα on various types of cancers including new developments in this field shall be reviewed.

  9. KRÜPPEL-LIKE FACTOR 9 AND REGULATION OF ENDOMETRIAL ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA SIGNALING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endometrial cancer risk is linked to aberrant estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) signaling caused by increased ER alpha activation due to hyper-estrogenic environments or mutations in growth-regulatory factors. We had shown that ER alpha signaling is attenuated by the Sp1-related transcription facto...

  10. Definition of the molecular basis for estrogen receptor-related receptor-alpha-cofactor interactions.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Dwyer, Mary A; McDonnell, Donald P

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor-alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that does not appear to require a classical small molecule ligand to facilitate its interaction with coactivators and/or hormone response elements within target genes. Instead, the apo-receptor is capable of interacting in a constitutive manner with coactivators that stimulate transcription by acting as protein ligands. We have screened combinatorial phage libraries for peptides that selectively interact with ERRalpha to probe the architecture of the ERRalpha-coactivator pocket. In this manner, we have uncovered a fundamental difference in the mechanism by which this receptor interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha, as compared with members of the steroid receptor coactivator subfamily of coactivators. Our findings suggest that it may be possible to develop ERRalpha ligands that exhibit different pharmacological activities as a consequence of their ability to differentially regulate coactivator recruitment. In addition, these findings have implications beyond ERRalpha because they suggest that subtle alterations in the structure of the activation function-2 pocket within any nuclear receptor may enable differential recruitment of coactivators, an observation of notable pharmaceutical importance.

  11. Influence of route of administration on the absorption and disposition of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols in rats.

    PubMed

    Yap, Siew Ping; Yuen, Kah Hay; Lim, Ai Beoy

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols administered via oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes in rats. Three separate experiments, each conducted according to a two-way crossover design, were carried out to compare intravenous and oral, intramuscular and oral, and intraperitoneal and oral administration. Oral absorption of all three tocotrienols was found to be incomplete. Of the three tocotrienols, alpha-tocotrienol had the highest oral bioavailability, at about 27.7+/-9.2%, compared with gamma- and delta-tocotrienols, which had values of 9.1+/-2.4% and 8.5+/-3.5%, respectively. Such biodiscrimination was also observed in their total clearance rates (estimated from the intravenous data). alpha-Tocotrienol showed the lowest clearance rate at about 0.16 L kg(-1) h(-1), whereas that of delta- and gamma-tocotrienols was quite similar, with values of 0.24 and 0.23 L kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. Interestingly, all three tocotrienols were found to be negligibly absorbed when administered intraperitoneally and intramuscularly. Thus, these two routes of administration should be avoided when evaluating the biological activities of the tocotrienols in whole animal experiments.

  12. T-cell receptor V alpha and C alpha alleles associated with multiple and myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Oksenberg, J R; Sherritt, M; Begovich, A B; Erlich, H A; Bernard, C C; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Steinman, L

    1989-01-01

    Polymorphic markers in genes encoding that alpha chain of the human T-cell receptor (TcR) have been detected by Southern blot analysis in Pss I digests. Polymorphic bands were observed at 6.3 and 2.0 kilobases (kb) with frequencies of 0.30 and 0.44, respectively, in the general population. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we amplified selected sequences derived from the full-length TcR alpha cDNA probe. These PCR products were used as specific probes to demonstrate that the 6.3-kb polymorphic fragment hybridizes to the variable (V)-region probe and the 2.0-kb fragment hybridizes to the constant (C)-region probe. Segregation of the polymorphic bands was analyzed in family studies. To look for associations between these markers and autoimmune diseases, we have studied the restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution of the Pss I markers in patients with multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and Graves disease. Significant differences in the frequency of the polymorphic V alpha and C alpha markers were identified between patients and healthy individuals. Images PMID:2915992

  13. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  14. Effects of wortmannin on alpha-1/alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated contractile responses in rabbit vascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Waen-Safranchik, V I; Deth, R C

    1994-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of wortmannin (WO), a fungus-derived protein kinase inhibitor, was assessed on contractile responses elicited by phenylephrine-induced alpha 1-(alpha 1 R) and UK 14304-induced alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2R) stimulation in the rabbit aorta and saphenous vein, respectively. In agonist dose-response studies, WO caused a noncompetitive inhibition of both alpha 1R and alpha 2R responses, but was more potent against alpha 2R. Maximally effective single-dose responses at both receptors were less sensitive to WO. The initial alpha 1R contractile response, associated with intracellular Ca2+ release and myosin light chain kinase activation, was relatively insensitive to WO, while the Ca2+ influx-dependent tonic contraction was more sensitive. Contractions induced by high K+ buffer were relatively insensitive to WO in both the aorta and saphenous vein. These results indicate that WO inhibits receptor-initiated Ca2+ influx-dependent contractile responses such as those caused by alpha 2R stimulation and the sustained phase of alpha 1R stimulation more readily than Ca2+ release-dependent responses.

  15. Protein kinase C involvement in homologous desensitization of delta-opioid receptor coupled to Gi1-phospholipase C activation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, H; Miyamae, T; Hayashi, C; Watanabe, S; Fukushima, N; Sasaki, Y; Iwamura, T; Misu, Y

    1995-11-01

    We have developed the coexpression system of both delta-opioid receptor (DOR1) and M2-muscarinic receptor (M2) which mediate agonist-evoked currents due to common post-receptor mechanisms including Gi1 and phospholipase C (PLC) activation in Xenopus oocytes reconstituted with Gi1 alpha. The DOR1-currents by 100 nM D-Ser2-leu-enkephalin-Thr6 (DSLET) were selectively desensitized by 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The PMA-desensitization of DSLET-currents was abolished in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C inhibitor, or reversed by an intracellular injection of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase 2B. When a higher concentration (3 microM) of DSLET was used, DSLET-currents were rapidly desensitized by repeated challenges of DSLET itself. However, repeated challenges of 10 microM ACh caused no influence on such DSLET- or M2-currents. The desensitization of DSLET-currents was selectively reversed by protein kinase C inhibitors. Similar results were also obtained with various delta-opioid agonists. These results suggest that protein kinase C is involved in the homologous desensitization of delta-opioid receptors.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  18. Interleukin-13 Receptor Alpha 2-Targeted Glioblastoma Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary brain tumor, and despite several refinements in its multimodal management, generally has very poor prognosis. Targeted immunotherapy is an emerging field of research that shows great promise in the treatment of GBM. One of the most extensively studied targets is the interleukin-13 receptor alpha chain variant 2 (IL13Rα2). Its selective expression on GBM, discovered almost two decades ago, has been a target for therapy ever since. Immunotherapeutic strategies have been developed targeting IL13Rα2, including monoclonal antibodies as well as cell-based strategies such as IL13Rα2-pulsed dendritic cells and IL13Rα2-targeted chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells. Advanced therapeutic development has led to the completion of several clinical trials with promising outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances in the IL13Rα2-targeted immunotherapy and evaluate the most promising strategy for targeted GBM immunotherapy. PMID:25247196

  19. Delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the caudal midline medulla mediate haemorrhage-evoked hypotension.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Luke A; Keay, Kevin A; Bandler, Richard

    2002-04-16

    In mammals blood loss can trigger, shock, an abrupt, life-threatening hypotension and bradycardia. In the halothane-anaesthetised rat this response is blocked by inactivation of a discrete, vasodepressor area in the caudal midline medulla (CMM). Haemorrhagic shock is blocked also by systemic or ventricular injections of the opioid antagonist, naloxone. This study investigated, in the halothane anaesthetised rat, the contribution of delta-, kappa- and mu-opioid receptors in the CMM vasodepressor region to haemorrhage-evoked shock (i.e. hypotension and bradycardia) and its recovery. It was found that microinjections into the CMM of the delta-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole delayed and attenuated the hypotension and bradycardia evoked by haemorrhage, but did not promote recompensation. In contrast, CMM microinjections of the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphamine, although it did not alter haemorrhage-evoked hypotension and bradycardia, did lead to a rapid restoration of AP, but not HR. CMM microinjections of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist, CTAP had no effect on haemorrhage-evoked shock or recompensation. These data indicate that delta- and kappa- (but not mu-) opioid receptor-mediated events within the CMM contribute to the hypotension and bradycardia evoked by haemorrhage and the effectiveness of naloxone in reversing shock.

  20. Noncontiguous domains of the alpha-factor receptor of yeasts confer ligand specificity.

    PubMed

    Sen, M; Marsh, L

    1994-01-14

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor receptor has a 3400-fold higher affinity for the S. cerevisiae alpha-factor peptide (c-alpha-f) than for the Saccharomyces kluyveri alpha-factor peptide (k-alpha-f) as determined by competition for [3H] c-alpha-f binding. The S. kluyveri alpha-factor receptor has an approximately 2-fold higher affinity for k-alpha-f than for c-alpha-f. The S. kluyveri receptor gene (k-STE2) is incompletely regulated by S. cerevisiae mating type and poorly expressed on the surface of an S. cerevisiae mating type a strain. A chimeric receptor (c/k1) with amino acid residues 1-45 derived from S. cerevisiae and amino acid residues 46-427 from S. kluyveri exhibits the binding specificity of the S. kluyveri receptor. However, chimeric receptors containing residues 1-168 (c/k2) or 1-250 (c/k3) from S. cerevisiae and the remainder from the S. kluyveri receptor exhibit specificities similar to one another, but intermediate between the parent S. cerevisiae and S. kluyveri receptors. The relative ability of c-alpha-f and k-alpha-f to induce growth arrest in strains expressing chimeric receptors parallels relative affinity. Thus, two noncontiguous domains that include putative extracellular loops 1 and 3 and associated transmembrane segments, but exclude the extracellular NH2 terminus and loop 2, appear to contribute to alpha-factor receptor ligand specificity. COOH-terminal regions of the S. kluyveri receptor appear to confer a desensitization defect when expressed in S. cerevisiae. The S. cerevisiae receptor truncated at residue 296 retains ligand specificity for growth arrest.

  1. Evaluation of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore: conversion of a potent delta-opioid receptor antagonist into a potent delta agonist and ligands with mixed properties.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Guerrini, Remo; Salvadori, Severo; Bianchi, Clementina; Rizzi, Daniela; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2002-01-31

    Analogues of the 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Tic) pharmacophore were prepared to test the hypothesis that a "spacer" and a third aromatic center in opioid peptides are required to convert a delta-antagonist into ligands with delta-agonist or with mixed delta-antagonist/mu-agonist properties. Potent delta-agonists and bifunctional compounds with high delta- and mu-opioid receptor affinities were obtained by varying the spacer length [none, NH-CH(2), NH-CH(2)-CH(2), Gly-NH-CH(2)] and C-terminal aromatic nucleus [1H-benzimidazole-2-yl, phenyl (Ph) and benzyl groups]. C-terminal modification primarily affected mu-opioid receptor affinities, which increased maximally 1700-fold relative to the prototype delta-antagonist H-Dmt-Tic-NH(2) and differentially modified bioactivity. In the absence of a spacer (1), the analogue exhibited dual delta-agonism (pEC(50), 7.28) and delta-antagonism (pA(2), 7.90). H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl (Bid) (2) became a highly potent delta-agonist (pEC(50), 9.90), slightly greater than deltorphin C (pEC(50), 9.56), with mu-agonism (pE(50), 7.57), while H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-CH(2)-Bid (4) retained potent delta-antagonism (pA(2), 9.0) but with an order of magnitude less mu-agonism. Similarly, H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph (5) had nearly equivalent high delta-agonism (pEC(50), 8.52) and mu-agonism (pEC(50), 8.59), while H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-CH(2)-Ph (6) whose spacer was longer by a single methylene group exhibited potent delta-antagonism (pA(2), 9.25) and very high mu-agonism (pEC(50), 8.57). These data confirm that the distance between the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore and a third aromatic nucleus is an important criterion in converting Dmt-Tic from a highly potent delta-antagonist into a potent delta-agonist or into ligands with mixed delta- and mu-opioid properties.

  2. Immunocytochemical characterization of Delta-opioid and Mu-opioid receptor protein in the bovine pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Ebadi, Manuchair; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2006-01-01

    Opioidergic innervation has been identified in the mammalian pineal gland. Recently, opioid receptors in bovine pineal glands have been characterized; the activation of these receptors leads to the stimulation of melatonin synthesis. In this study, the precise localization of opioid receptors in bovine pineal glands was determined by an immunohistochemical technique using antibodies raised against delta-opioid and mu-opioid receptors. Immunoreactivity of these two receptors was present at a moderate level in pinealocytes. A double-labeling study has shown that delta-opioid receptors are localized predominantly with mu-opioid receptors in the same pinealocytes. These immunopositive pinealocytes are often located in a group; however, some of them are dispersed individually. In addition, both types of receptors were found in glial cells and processes. A small number of delta-receptor-immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed in the perivascular space and intraparenchyma of the pineal gland. Mu-opioid receptor immunoreactivity was found in a number of nerve fibers throughout the gland, and in terminal-like dots on pinealocytes. There was immunocolocalization between delta-opioid receptors or mu-opioid receptors and leu-enkephalin in some nerve fibers. The results of this study indicate that the modulatory effect of the opioid system on melatonin secretion in pineal glands might act via opioid receptors on pinealocytes, whereas receptors located on nerve fibers might modulate the release of opioid peptides.

  3. Subsonic investigations of vortex interaction control for enhanced high-alpha aerodynamics of a chine forebody/Delta wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Bhat, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed concept to alleviate high alpha asymmetry and lateral/directional instability by decoupling of forebody and wing vortices was studied on a generic chine forebody/ 60 deg. delta configuration in the NASA Langley 7 by 10 foot High Speed Tunnel. The decoupling technique involved inboard leading edge flaps of varying span and deflection angle. Six component force/moment characteristics, surface pressure distributions and vapor-screen flow visualizations were acquired, on the basic wing-body configuration and with both single and twin vertical tails at M sub infinity = 0.1 and 0.4, and in the range alpha = 0 to 50 deg and beta = -10 to +10 degs. Results are presented which highlight the potential of vortex decoupling via leading edge flaps for enhanced high alpha lateral/directional characteristics.

  4. Alpha-conotoxin-ImI: a competitive antagonist at alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive neuronal nicotinic receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E F; Alkondon, M; McIntosh, J M; Albuquerque, E X

    1996-09-01

    In the present study, the patch-clamp technique was applied to rat hippocampal neurons or myoballs in culture to study the actions of alpha-conotoxin-ImI on the native alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive, presumably alpha 7-bearing, neuronal nicotinic receptor and on other ligand-gated channels. Preexposure of the neurons for 5 min to alpha-conotoxin-ImI decreased the peak amplitude of alpha-BGT-sensitive currents (referred to as type IA currents) in a concentration-dependent fashion. Several lines of evidence revealed that the inhibitory effect of alpha-conotoxin-ImI was competitive with respect to the agonist (IC50 approximately 85 nM) and reversible by washing. At 300 nM, alpha-conotoxin-ImI decreased by only 15% the peak amplitude of ACh-evoked currents in rat myoballs, did not affect the activation of currents gated by gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, kainate, or quisqualate in hippocampal neurons, but reduced to approximately 60% the peak amplitude and shortened the decay phase of curare-sensitive, serotonin-gated currents in these neurons. The competitive and reversible nature of the alpha-conotoxin-ImI-induced inhibition of native alpha 7-bearing neuronal nicotinic receptors makes this peptide a valuable new tool for the functional and structural characterization of these receptors in the central nervous system.

  5. Hippocampal CB(1) receptors mediate the memory impairing effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Wise, Laura E; Thorpe, Andrew J; Lichtman, Aron H

    2009-08-01

    It is firmly established that the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in spatial learning, episodic memory, and consolidation, contains a high concentration of CB(1) receptors. Moreover, systemic and intrahippocampal administration of cannabinoid agonists have been shown to impair hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. However, the degree to which CB(1) receptors in the hippocampus play a specific functional role in the memory disruptive effects of marijuana or its primary psychoactive constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) is unknown. This study was designed to determine whether hippocampal CB(1) receptors play a functional role in the memory disruptive effects of systemically administered cannabinoids, using the radial arm maze, a well characterized rodent model of working memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae aimed at the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. The CB(1) receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was delivered into the hippocampus before to a systemic injection of either Delta(9)-THC or the potent cannabinoid analog, CP-55,940. Strikingly, intrahippocampal administration of rimonabant completely attenuated the memory disruptive effects of both cannabinoids in the radial arm maze task, but did not affect other pharmacological properties of cannabinoids, as assessed in the tetrad assay (that is, hypomotility, analgesia, catalepsy, and hypothermia). Infusions of rimonabant just dorsal or ventral to the hippocampus did not prevent Delta(9)-THC-induced memory impairment, indicating that its effects on mnemonic function were regionally selective. These findings provide compelling evidence in support of the view that hippocampal CB(1) receptors play a necessary role in the memory disruptive effects of marijuana.

  6. Obesity and diabetes in TNF-alpha receptor- deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schreyer, S A; Chua, S C; LeBoeuf, R C

    1998-01-01

    TNF-alpha may play a role in mediating insulin resistance associated with obesity. This concept is based on studies of obese rodents and humans, and cell culture models. TNF elicits cellular responses via two receptors called p55 and p75. Our purpose was to test the involvement of TNF in glucose homeostasis using mice lacking one or both TNF receptors. C57BL/6 mice lacking p55 (p55(-)/-), p75, (p75(-)/-), or both receptors (p55(-)/-p75(-)/-) were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity. Marked fasting hyperinsulinemia was seen for p55(-)/-p75(-)/- males between 12 and 16 wk of feeding the high-fat diet. Insulin levels were four times greater than wild-type mice. In contrast, p55(-)/- and p75(-)/- mice exhibited insulin levels that were similar or reduced, respectively, as compared with wild-type mice. In addition, high-fat diet-fed p75(-)/- mice had the lowest body weights and leptin levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Obese (db/db) mice, which are not responsive to leptin, were used to study the role of p55 in severe obesity. Male p55(-)/-db/db mice exhibited threefold higher insulin levels and twofold lower glucose levels at 20 wk of age than control db/db expressing p55. All db/db mice remained severely insulin resistant based on fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Our data do not support the concept that TNF, acting via its receptors, is a major contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance. In fact, data suggest that the two TNF receptors work in concert to protect against diabetes. PMID:9664082

  7. A photoregulated ligand for the nuclear import receptor karyopherin alpha.

    PubMed

    Park, S B; Standaert, R F

    2001-12-01

    The ability to orchestrate the transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm provides cells with a powerful regulatory mechanism. Selective translocation between these compartments is often used to propagate cellular signals, and it is an intimate part of the processes that control cell division, viral replication, and other cellular events. Therefore, precise experimental control over protein localization, through the agency of light, would provide a powerful tool for the study and manipulation of these events. To this end, a prototype photoregulated nuclear localization signal (NLS) was derived from a native NLS. A library of 30 mutants of the bipartite NLS from Xenopus laevis nucleoplasmin containing a novel, photoisomerizable amino acid was prepared by parallel, solid-phase synthesis and screened in vitro for binding to the nuclear import receptor karyopherin alpha, which mediates the nuclear import of cellular proteins. A single peptide was identified in which the cis and trans photoisomers bind the receptor differentially. The strategy used to obtain this peptide is systematic and empirical; therefore, it is potentially applicable to any peptide-receptor system.

  8. Nicotine inhibits Fc epsilon RI-induced cysteinyl leukotrienes and cytokine production without affecting mast cell degranulation through alpha 7/alpha 9/alpha 10-nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Boyd, R Thomas; Singh, Shashi P; Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Langley, Raymond J; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Sopori, Mohan L

    2010-07-01

    Smokers are less likely to develop some inflammatory and allergic diseases. In Brown-Norway rats, nicotine inhibits several parameters of allergic asthma, including the production of Th2 cytokines and the cysteinyl leukotriene LTC(4). Cysteinyl leukotrienes are primarily produced by mast cells, and these cells play a central role in allergic asthma. Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). Following its cross-linking, cells degranulate and release preformed inflammatory mediators (early phase) and synthesize and secrete cytokines/chemokines and leukotrienes (late phase). The mechanism by which nicotine modulates mast cell activation is unclear. Using alpha-bungarotoxin binding and quantitative PCR and PCR product sequencing, we showed that the rat mast/basophil cell line RBL-2H3 expresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) alpha7, alpha9, and alpha10; exposure to exceedingly low concentrations of nicotine (nanomolar), but not the biologically inactive metabolite cotinine, for > or = 8 h suppressed the late phase (leukotriene/cytokine production) but not degranulation (histamine and hexosaminidase release). These effects were unrelated to those of nicotine on intracellular free calcium concentration but were causally associated with the inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activity and the PI3K/ERK/NF-kappaB pathway, including phosphorylation of Akt and ERK and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The suppressive effect of nicotine on the late-phase response was blocked by the alpha7/alpha9-nAChR antagonists methyllycaconitine and alpha-bungarotoxin, as well as by small interfering RNA knockdown of alpha7-, alpha9-, or alpha10-nAChRs, suggesting a functional interaction between alpha7-, alpha9-, and alpha10-nAChRs that might explain the response of RBL cells to nanomolar concentrations of nicotine. This "hybrid" receptor might serve as a target for novel antiallergic/antiasthmatic therapies.

  9. Novel time-dependent vascular actions of {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E. . E-mail: Saoirse.o'sullivan@nottingham.ac.uk; Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Kendall, David A.; Randall, Michael D.

    2005-11-25

    Cannabinoids have widespread effects on the cardiovascular system, only some of which are mediated via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. The active ingredient of cannabis, {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries. Here we show for the first time that THC also causes slowly developing vasorelaxation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR{gamma}). In vitro, THC (10 {mu}M) caused time-dependent vasorelaxation of rat isolated arteries. Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC was similar to that produced by the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone and was inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 (1 {mu}M), but not the cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251 (1 {mu}M). Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC requires an intact endothelium, nitric oxide, production of hydrogen peroxide, and de novo protein synthesis. In transactivation assays in cultured HEK293 cells, THC-activated PPAR{gamma}, transiently expressed in combination with retinoid X receptor {alpha} and a luciferase reporter gene, in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM-10 {mu}M). In vitro incubation with THC (1 or 10 {mu}M, 8 days) stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured 3T3L1 cells, a well-accepted property of PPAR{gamma} ligands. The present results provide strong evidence that THC is a PPAR{gamma} ligand, stimulation of which causes time-dependent vasorelaxation, implying some of the pleiotropic effects of cannabis may be mediated by nuclear receptors.

  10. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  11. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

  12. Use of radioactive 7alpha, 17alpha-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone (mibolerone) in the assay of androgen receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, K.; Liao, S.

    1984-01-01

    Tritiated 7alpha, 17alpha-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone (DMNT; mibolerone), a synthetic androgen stable to metabolic conversion in the rat ventral prostate, is an excellent radioactive ligand for the quantitation and characterization of androgen receptors in prostate, liver, and cultured cells. DMNT is more receptor-selective than 17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-estra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (R1881); DMNT interacts with glucocorticoid and progestin receptors much less strongly than R1881. Unlike 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, DMNT does not bind tightly to testosterone-estradiol binding globulin of human serum. The hydroxylapatite-filter assay employed clearly distinguished between DMNT binding to androgen receptors of rat ventral prostate and interaction of DMNT with androgen binding protein of epididymides. The prostate cytosol (/sup 3/H)DMNT-receptor complex sediments in two forms (4 and 8 S) in a low salt medium. In 0.4 M KCl, both the prostate cytosol and nuclear (/sup 3/H)DMNT-receptor complexes migrated as 3-4 S components. The formation of both the cytosol and nuclear DMNT-receptor complexes is inhibited by antiandrogens and 17beta-estradiol.

  13. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors during pregnancy: identification of the alpha-adrenergic receptor by (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.M.; Hayashida, D.; Roberts, J.M.

    1985-07-15

    The radioactive alpha-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binds to particulate preparations of term pregnant human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the alpha-adrenergic receptor (alpha-receptor). (/sup 3/H) Dihydroergocryptine binds with high affinity (KD = 2 nmol/L and low capacity (receptor concentration = 100 fmol/mg of protein). Adrenergic agonists compete for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites stereo-selectively ((-)-norepinephrine is 100 times as potent as (+)-norepinephrine) and in a manner compatible with alpha-adrenergic potencies (epinephrine approximately equal to norepinephrine much greater than isoproterenol). Studies in which prazosin, an alpha 1-antagonist, and yohimbine, and alpha 2-antagonist, competed for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites in human myometrium indicated that approximately 70% are alpha 2-receptors and that 30% are alpha 1-receptors. (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding to human myometrial membrane particulate provides an important tool with which to study the molecular mechanisms of uterine alpha-adrenergic response.

  14. EXTREME DELTA BRUSH EEG PATTERN IN A CASE WITH ANTI-NMDA RECEPTOR ENCEPHALITIS.

    PubMed

    Söylemez, Elif; Güveli, Betül Tekin; Atakli, Dilek; Yatmazoğlu, Merve; Atay, Turan; Dayan, Cengiz

    2015-09-30

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NMDA-R encephalitis is caused by antibodies against the NMDA-R and characterized by a severe encephalopathy with psychosis, epileptic seizures and autonomic disturbances. This disorder is often accompanied with malignancies, especially ovarian teratoma. Some patients' EEGs show a different pattern similar to the waveforms of premature infants and this pattern is specifically named as extreme delta brush (EDB). We report a 24-year-old female having anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and EDB patern.

  15. DNA Repair, Redox Regulation and Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mediated Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Ducey, Carol Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) with 17[beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) facilitates binding of the receptor to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, which in turn leads to recruitment of coregulatory proteins. To better understand how estrogen-responsive genes are regulated, our laboratory identified a number of…

  16. Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    and Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kelvin W. Gee RECIPIENT: University of California Irvine...Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Autism

  17. Fast skeletal muscle troponin I is a co-activator of estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yuping; Chen Bin; Chen Jian; Lou Guiyu; Chen Shiuan; Zhou Dujin

    2008-05-16

    ERR{alpha} (estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. To further our understanding of the detailed molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by ERR{alpha}, we searched for ERR{alpha}-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system by screening a human mammary gland cDNA expression library with the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of ERR{alpha} as the 'bait'. Fast skeletal muscle troponin I (TNNI2), along with several known nuclear receptor co-activators, were isolated. We demonstrated that TNNI2 localizes to the cell nucleus and interacts with ERR{alpha} in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. GST pull-down assays also revealed that TNNI2 interacts directly with ERR{alpha}. Through luciferase reporter gene assays, TNNI2 was found to enhance the transactivity of ERR{alpha}. Combining mutagenesis and yeast two-hybrid assays, we mapped the ERR{alpha}-interacting domain on TNNI2 to a region encompassing amino acids 1-128. These findings reveal a new function for TNNI2 as a co-activator of ERR{alpha}.

  18. Homology model of human interferon-alpha 8 and its receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Seto, M. H.; Harkins, R. N.; Adler, M.; Whitlow, M.; Church, W. B.; Croze, E.

    1995-01-01

    Human interferon-alpha 8 (HuIFN alpha 8), a type I interferon (IFN), is a cytokine belonging to the hematopoietic super-family that includes human growth hormone (HGH). Recent data identified two human type I IFN receptor components. One component (p40) was purified from human urine by its ability to bind to immobilized type I IFN. A second receptor component (IFNAR), consisting of two cytokine receptor-like domains (D200 and D200'), was identified by expression cloning. Murine cells transfected with a gene encoding this protein were able to produce an antiviral response to human IFN alpha 8. Both of these receptor proteins have been identified as members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of which HGH receptor is a member. The cytokine receptor-like structural motifs present in p40 and IFNAR were modeled based on the HGH receptor X-ray structure. Models of the complexes of HuIFN alpha 8 with the receptor subunits were built by superpositioning the conserved C alpha backbone of the HuIFN alpha 8 and receptor subunit models with HGH and its receptor complex. The HuIFN alpha 8 model was constructed from the C alpha coordinates of murine interferon-beta crystal structure. Electrostatic potentials and hydrophobic interactions appear to favor the model of HuIFN alpha 8 interacting with p40 at site 1 and the D200' domain of IFNAR at site 2 because there are regions of complementary electrostatic potential and hydrophobic interactions at both of the proposed binding interfaces. Some of the predicted receptor binding residues within HuIFN alpha 8 correspond to functionally important residues determined previously for human IFN alpha 1, IFN alpha 2, and IFN alpha 4 subtypes by site-directed mutagenesis studies. The models predict regions of interaction between HuIFN alpha 8 and each of the receptor proteins, and provide insights into interactions between other type I IFNs (IFN-alpha subtypes and IFN-beta) and their respective receptor components. PMID:7613464

  19. Decomposing delta, theta, and alpha time–frequency ERP activity from a visual oddball task using PCA

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Edward M.; Malone, Stephen M.; Williams, William J.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Time–frequency (TF) analysis has become an important tool for assessing electrical and magnetic brain activity from event-related paradigms. In electrical potential data, theta and delta activities have been shown to underlie P300 activity, and alpha has been shown to be inhibited during P300 activity. Measures of delta, theta, and alpha activity are commonly taken from TF surfaces. However, methods for extracting relevant activity do not commonly go beyond taking means of windows on the surface, analogous to measuring activity within a defined P300 window in time-only signal representations. The current objective was to use a data driven method to derive relevant TF components from event-related potential data from a large number of participants in an oddball paradigm. Methods A recently developed PCA approach was employed to extract TF components [Bernat, E. M., Williams, W. J., and Gehring, W. J. (2005). Decomposing ERP time-frequency energy using PCA. Clin Neurophysiol, 116(6), 1314–1334] from an ERP dataset of 2068 17 year olds (979 males). TF activity was taken from both individual trials and condition averages. Activity including frequencies ranging from 0 to 14 Hz and time ranging from stimulus onset to 1312.5 ms were decomposed. Results A coordinated set of time–frequency events was apparent across the decompositions. Similar TF components representing earlier theta followed by delta were extracted from both individual trials and averaged data. Alpha activity, as predicted, was apparent only when time–frequency surfaces were generated from trial level data, and was characterized by a reduction during the P300. Conclusions Theta, delta, and alpha activities were extracted with predictable time-courses. Notably, this approach was effective at characterizing data from a single-electrode. Finally, decomposition of TF data generated from individual trials and condition averages produced similar results, but with predictable differences

  20. The nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly activates alpha-1 and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Jörg; Demir, Reyhan; Leuwer, Martin; de la Roche, Jeanne; Krampfl, Klaus; Foadi, Nilufar; Karst, Matthias; Haeseler, Gertrud

    2009-01-01

    Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Cannabidiol is a nonpsychotropic plant constituent of Cannabis sativa. As we hypothesized that non-CB receptor mechanisms of cannabidiol might contribute to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we investigated the interaction of cannabidiol with strychnine-sensitive alpha(1 )and alpha(1)beta glycine receptors by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cannabidiol showed a positive allosteric modulating effect in a low micromolar concentration range (EC(50) values: alpha(1) = 12.3 +/- 3.8 micromol/l and alpha(1)beta = 18.1 +/- 6.2 micromol/l). Direct activation of glycine receptors was observed at higher concentrations above 100 micromol/l (EC(50) values: alpha(1) = 132.4 +/- 12.3 micromol/l and alpha(1)beta = 144.3 +/- 22.7 micromol/l). These in vitro results suggest that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may be a target for cannabidiol mediating some of its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.

  1. Analysis of the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) delta-32 polymorphism in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rector, A; Vermeire, S; Thoelen, I; Keyaerts, E; Struyf, F; Vlietinck, R; Rutgeerts, P; Van Ranst, M

    2001-03-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are complex multifactorial traits involving both environmental and genetic factors. Recent studies have shown the important role of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including RANTES, in IBD. RANTES is the natural ligand for the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). The chromosomal location of the CCR5 gene on 3p21 coincides with an IBD-susceptibility locus identified by genome-wide scanning. A 32-bp deletion (A32) in the CCR5 gene results in a nonfunctional receptor and is found with high frequency in Caucasians. In this study, we investigated the presence of the CCR5delta32 allele in a large cohort of IBD patients and in a healthy control population. Blood samples were obtained from 538 unselected IBD cases (433 unrelated IBD patients: 289 CD, 142 UC, 2 indeterminate colitis; 105 affected first-degree relatives) and 135 unaffected first-degree family members. Of the IBD patients, 36% had familial IBD with at least two members being affected. There were no significant differences in the CCR5delta32 mutation frequency between IBD patients and healthy controls, nor between CD and UC patients. There was no correlation between the CCR5delta32 genotype and the age at IBD-diagnosis, the frequency of surgical intervention, or disease localization. Only the association between CCR5delta32 homozygosity and the presence of anal lesions in CD patients was statistically significant (P=0.007). Analysis by the transmission/disequilibrium test showed no significant transmission distortion to the probands or their clinically silent siblings. Based on these results, it is unlikely that the CCR5delta32 allele is an important marker for predisposition to IBD.

  2. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors alpha 4* and alpha 6* differentially modulate dopamine release in mouse striatal slices.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Erin L; Yoshikami, Doju; McIntosh, J Michael

    2008-06-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) plays a major role in the regulation of motor coordination and in the processing of salient information. We used voltammetry to monitor DA-release evoked by electrical stimulation in striatal slices, where interneurons continuously release acetylcholine. Use of the alpha6-selective antagonist alpha-conotoxin MII[E11A] and alpha4 knockout mice enabled identification of two populations of DA-ergic fibers. The first population had a low action potential threshold, and action potential-evoked DA-release from these fibers was modulated by alpha6. The second population had a higher action potential threshold, and only alpha4(non-alpha6) modulated action potential-evoked DA-release. Striatal DA-ergic neurons fire in both tonic and phasic patterns. When stimuli were applied in a train to mimic phasic firing, more DA-release was observed in alpha4 knockout versus wild-type mice. Furthermore, block of alpha4(non-alpha6), but not of alpha6, increased DA release evoked by a train. These results indicate that there are different classes of striatal DA-ergic fibers that express different subtypes of nicotinic receptors.

  3. Differentiation of trophoblast giant cells and their metabolic functions are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta.

    PubMed

    Nadra, Karim; Anghel, Silvia I; Joye, Elisabeth; Tan, Nguan Soon; Basu-Modak, Sharmila; Trono, Didier; Wahli, Walter; Desvergne, Béatrice

    2006-04-01

    Mutation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) severely affects placenta development, leading to embryonic death at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E10.5 of most, but not all, PPARbeta/delta-null mutant embryos. While very little is known at present about the pathway governed by PPARbeta/delta in the developing placenta, this paper demonstrates that the main alteration of the placenta of PPARbeta/delta-null embryos is found in the giant cell layer. PPARbeta/delta activity is in fact essential for the differentiation of the Rcho-1 cells in giant cells, as shown by the severe inhibition of differentiation once PPARbeta/delta is silenced. Conversely, exposure of Rcho-1 cells to a PPARbeta/delta agonist triggers a massive differentiation via increased expression of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 and integrin-linked kinase and subsequent phosphorylation of Akt. The links between PPARbeta/delta activity in giant cells and its role on Akt activity are further strengthened by the remarkable pattern of phospho-Akt expression in vivo at E9.5, specifically in the nucleus of the giant cells. In addition to this phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt main pathway, PPARbeta/delta also induced giant cell differentiation via increased expression of I-mfa, an inhibitor of Mash-2 activity. Finally, giant cell differentiation at E9.5 is accompanied by a PPARbeta/delta-dependent accumulation of lipid droplets and an increased expression of the adipose differentiation-related protein (also called adipophilin), which may participate to lipid metabolism and/or steroidogenesis. Altogether, this important role of PPARbeta/delta in placenta development and giant cell differentiation should be considered when contemplating the potency of PPARbeta/delta agonist as therapeutic agents of broad application.

  4. Enkephalins modulate inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in circular muscle of human colon via delta-opioid receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, C H; Kamm, M A; Burnstock, G; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1990-01-01

    1. A sucrose-gap technique was used to investigate the neuromodulatory actions of enkephalins on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in the circular muscle of the human large intestine. 2. The native enkephalins, [Leu5]enkephalin (LENK) and [Met5]enkephalin (MENK) caused a concentration-dependent reduction in amplitude of IJPs without a significant effect on the smooth muscle membrane. 3. The actions of LENK and MENK were mimicked by the delta-selective opioid receptor agonists [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE). 4. The actions of LENK, MENK and DPDPE were antagonized to similar extents by the delta-selective opioid receptor antagonist ICI 174,864. 5. The mu-selective opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Me Phe, Gly-ol5]enkephalin was approximately 100-fold less potent than any of the native or synthetic enkephalins at reducing the amplitude of the IJP. Dynorphin A and beta-endorphin both had very weak activity. 6. Responses to all of the agonists were inhibited by naloxone. The degree of antagonism of DPDPE or DADLE by naloxone (1 microM) was the same as that of LENK or MENK. 7. Neither MENK nor LENK affected hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle membrane induced by ATP or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (1 pM-1 microM) did not produce any observable responses and this lack of reactivity was not affected by the enkephalins. 8. It is concluded that in the circular muscle of the human colon, LENK and MENK can act on prejunctional delta-opioid receptors to produce inhibition of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. Possible physiological significance of this prejunctional receptor is discussed. PMID:1966052

  5. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Parvin; Bagheri, Marzieh; Hani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Features of malignant melanoma (MM) vary in the different geographic regions of the world. This may be attributable to environmental, ethnic, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) in MM in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was planned as a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional investigation. During this study, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of MM was studied for ER-α using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: In this study, 38 patients (female/male; 20/18) with a definite diagnosis of malignant cutaneous melanoma and mean age of 52.4 ± 11.2 years were investigated. Using envision IHC staining, there were not any cases with ER-α expression. Conclusion: In confirmation to the most previous studies, expression of ER-α was negative in MM. It is recommended to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor beta and other markers in MM. PMID:28299306

  6. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  7. Neuroanatomical patterns of the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors of rat brain as determined by quantitative in vitro autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Tempel, A.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Highly specific radioligands and quantitative autoradiography reveal strikingly different neuroanatomical patterns for the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors of rat brain. The mu receptors are most densely localized in patches in the striatum, layers I and III of the cortex, the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal formation, specific nuclei of the thalamus, the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, the interpeduncular nucleus, and the locus coeruleus. In contrast, delta receptors are highly confined, exhibiting selective localization in layers I, II, and VIa of the neocortex, a diffuse pattern in the striatum, and moderate concentration in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra and in the interpeduncular nucleus. delta receptors are absent in most other brain structures. This distribution is unexpected in that the enkephalins, the putative endogenous ligands of the delta receptor, occur essentially throughout the brain. The kappa receptors of rat brain exhibit a third pattern distinct from that of the mu and delta receptors. kappa receptors occur at low density in patches in the striatum and at particularly high density in the nucleus accumbens, along the pyramidal and molecular layers of the hippocampus, in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus, specific midline nuclei of the thalamus, and hindbrain regions. kappa receptors appear to be uniformly distributed across regions in the neocortex with the exception of layer III, which revealed only trace levels of binding. An important conclusion of the present study is that delta receptors occur at high density only in the forebrain and in two midbrain structures, whereas mu and kappa receptors exhibit discrete patterns in most major brain regions.

  8. Opposite effects of the acute promyelocytic leukemia PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion proteins on retinoic acid signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Ruthardt, M; Testa, U; Nervi, C; Ferrucci, P F; Grignani, F; Puccetti, E; Grignani, F; Peschle, C; Pelicci, P G

    1997-01-01

    Fusion proteins involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and the PML or PLZF nuclear protein are the genetic markers of acute promyelocytic leukemias (APLs). APLs with the PML-RAR alpha or the PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein are phenotypically indistinguishable except that they differ in their sensitivity to retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation: PML-RAR alpha blasts are sensitive to RA and patients enter disease remission after RA treatment, while patients with PLZF-RAR alpha do not. We here report that (i) like PML-RAR alpha expression, PLZF-RAR alpha expression blocks terminal differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cell lines (U937 and HL-60) in response to different stimuli (vitamin D3, transforming growth factor beta1, and dimethyl sulfoxide); (ii) PML-RAR alpha, but not PLZF-RAR alpha, increases RA sensitivity of hematopoietic precursor cells and restores RA sensitivity of RA-resistant hematopoietic cells; (iii) PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar RA binding affinities; and (iv) PML-RAR alpha enhances the RA response of RA target genes (those for RAR beta, RAR gamma, and transglutaminase type II [TGase]) in vivo, while PLZF-RAR alpha expression has either no effect (RAR beta) or an inhibitory activity (RAR gamma and type II TGase). These data demonstrate that PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar (inhibitory) effects on RA-independent differentiation and opposite (stimulatory or inhibitory) effects on RA-dependent differentiation and that they behave in vivo as RA-dependent enhancers or inhibitors of RA-responsive genes, respectively. Their different activities on the RA signalling pathway might underlie the different responses of PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha APLs to RA treatment. The PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein contains an approximately 120-amino-acid N-terminal motif (called the POZ domain), which is also found in a variety of zinc finger proteins and a group of poxvirus proteins and which mediates protein

  9. Acceleration of intestinal polyposis through prostaglandin receptor EP2 in Apc(Delta 716) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sonoshita, M; Takaku, K; Sasaki, N; Sugimoto, Y; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S; Oshima, M; Taketo, M M

    2001-09-01

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized to prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) by cyclooxygenase (COX). COX-2, the inducible COX isozyme, has a key role in intestinal polyposis. Among the metabolites of PGH(2), PGE(2) is implicated in tumorigenesis because its level is markedly elevated in tissues of intestinal adenoma and colon cancer. Here we show that homozygous deletion of the gene encoding a cell-surface receptor of PGE(2), EP2, causes decreases in number and size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Delta 716) mice (a mouse model for human familial adenomatous polyposis). This effect is similar to that of COX-2 gene disruption. We also show that COX-2 expression is boosted by PGE(2) through the EP2 receptor via a positive feedback loop. Homozygous gene knockout for other PGE(2) receptors, EP1 or EP3, did not affect intestinal polyp formation in Apc(Delta 716) mice. We conclude that EP2 is the major receptor mediating the PGE2 signal generated by COX-2 upregulation in intestinal polyposis, and that increased cellular cAMP stimulates expression of more COX-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the polyp stroma.

  10. Differences of binding characteristics of non-selective opiates towards and delta receptor types

    SciTech Connect

    Delay-Goyet, P.; Roques, B.P.; Zajac, J.M.

    1987-08-10

    (TH)ET (etorphine), which is considered either as an universal ligand or a agonist, interacts with identical affinities K/sub D/ = 0.33 - 0.38 nM to hybrid cells and rabbit cerebellum, pure delta and -enriched opioid receptor preparations, respectively. In rat brain tissue, (TH)ET binding is inhibited by DAGO (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-(Me)-Phe-Gly-ol), a selective agonist, in a competitive manner without apparent modification of the maximal number of sites. Furthermore, even at a DAGO concentration (300 nM) which should be sufficient to block (TH)ET interaction with sites, no variation in the total capacity of the tritiated ligand is observed. In contrast, DTLET (Tyr-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr), a delta-preferential agonist, blocks (TH)ET binding in rat brain at a concentration able to saturate delta-sites. At higher concentrations, where DTLET cross reacts with -sites, this ligand exhibits similar properties to those of DAGO. These data are very different from those obtained with (TH)EKC (ethylketocyclazocine), another universal ligand, the binding properties of which are easily explained by the occurrence in rat brain tissue of independent sites exhibiting pharmacological profiles of , delta and kappa sites. The authors results underline the possible misinterpretation of binding data obtained by using (TH) etorphine as a non-selective ligand. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Spinal alpha3beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors tonically inhibit the transmission of nociceptive mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Young, Tracey; Wittenauer, Shannon; McIntosh, J Michael; Vincler, Michelle

    2008-09-10

    The presence of non-alpha4beta2, non-alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the rat spinal cord has been suggested previously, but the identity of these nAChRs had not been shown. Intrathecal administration of the alpha3beta2*/alpha6beta2* selective alpha-conotoxin MII (alpha-CTX MII) dose- and time-dependently reduced paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical pressure in normal rats. The pronociceptive effect of alpha-CTX MII was partially blocked by NMDA receptor antagonism and lost completely following ablation of C-fibers. The effect of spinal nerve ligation on alpha-CTX MII-induced mechanical hypersensitivity was also assessed. Sensitivity was lost in the hind paw ipsilateral to spinal nerve ligation, but maintained in the contralateral hind paw at control levels. Radioligand binding in spinal cord membranes revealed high and low affinity alpha-CTX MII binding sites. Spinal nerve ligation did not significantly alter alpha-CTX MII binding ipsilateral to ligation. Finally, no evidence for the presence of alpha6-containing nAChRs was identified. The results of these studies show the presence of 2 populations of alpha-CTX MII-sensitive nAChRs containing the alpha3 and beta2, but not the alpha6, subunits in the rat spinal cord that function to inhibit the transmission of nociceptive mechanical stimuli via inhibiting the release of glutamate from C-fibers. Spinal nerve ligation produces a unilateral loss of alpha-CTX MII-induced mechanical hypersensitivity without altering alpha-CTX MII binding sites. Our data support a peripheral injury-induced loss of a cholinergic inhibitory tone at spinal alpha3beta2* nAChRs, without the loss of the receptors themselves, which may contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity following spinal nerve ligation.

  12. Structural complex of sterol 14[alpha]-demethylase (CYP51) with 14[alpha]-methylenecyclopropyl-[delta]7-24, 25-dihydrolanosterol[S

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Waterman, Michael R.; Nes, W. David; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2012-06-28

    Sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) that catalyzes the removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from the sterol nucleus is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, a primary target for clinical and agricultural antifungal azoles and an emerging target for antitrypanosomal chemotherapy. Here, we present the crystal structure of Trypanosoma (T) brucei CYP51 in complex with the substrate analog 14{alpha}-methylenecyclopropyl-{Delta}7-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (MCP). This sterol binds tightly to all protozoan CYP51s and acts as a competitive inhibitor of F105-containing (plant-like) T. brucei and Leishmania (L) infantum orthologs, but it has a much stronger, mechanism-based inhibitory effect on I105-containing (animal/fungi-like) T. cruzi CYP51. Depicting substrate orientation in the conserved CYP51 binding cavity, the complex specifies the roles of the contact amino acid residues and sheds new light on CYP51 substrate specificity. It also provides an explanation for the effect of MCP on T. cruzi CYP51. Comparison with the ligand-free and azole-bound structures supports the notion of structural rigidity as the characteristic feature of the CYP51 substrate binding cavity, confirming the enzyme as an excellent candidate for structure-directed design of new drugs, including mechanism-based substrate analog inhibitors.

  13. In vivo visualization of delta opioid receptors upon physiological activation uncovers a distinct internalization profile

    PubMed Central

    FAGET, Lauren; ERBS, Eric; LE MERRER, Julie; SCHERRER, Gregory; MATIFAS, Audrey; BENTURQUIA, Nadia; NOBLE, Florence; DECOSSAS, Marion; KOCH, Marc; KESSLER, Pascal; VONESCH, Jean-Luc; SCHWAB, Yannick; KIEFFER, Brigitte L.; MASSOTTE, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate numerous physiological functions and represent prime therapeutic targets. Receptor trafficking upon agonist stimulation is critical for GPCR function, but examining this process in vivo remains a true challenge. Using knock-in mice expressing functional fluorescent delta opioid receptors under the control of the endogenous promoter, we visualized in vivo internalization of this native GPCR upon physiological stimulation. We developed a paradigm in which animals were made dependent to morphine in a drug-paired context. When re-exposed to this context in a drug-free state, mice showed context-dependent withdrawal signs and activation of the hippocampus. Receptor internalization was transiently detected in a subset of CA1 neurons, uncovering regionally restricted opioid peptide release. Importantly, a pool of surface receptors always remained, which contrasts with the in vivo profile previously established for exogenous drug-induced internalization. Therefore, a distinct response is observed at the receptor level upon a physiological or pharmacological stimulation. Altogether, direct in vivo GPCR visualization enables mapping receptor stimulation promoted by a behavioral challenge, and represents a powerful approach to study endogenous GPCR physiology. PMID:22623675

  14. In vivo visualization of delta opioid receptors upon physiological activation uncovers a distinct internalization profile.

    PubMed

    Faget, Lauren; Erbs, Eric; Le Merrer, Julie; Scherrer, Gregory; Matifas, Audrey; Benturquia, Nadia; Noble, Florence; Decossas, Marion; Koch, Marc; Kessler, Pascal; Vonesch, Jean-Luc; Schwab, Yannick; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Massotte, Dominique

    2012-05-23

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate numerous physiological functions and represent prime therapeutic targets. Receptor trafficking upon agonist stimulation is critical for GPCR function, but examining this process in vivo remains a true challenge. Using knock-in mice expressing functional fluorescent delta opioid receptors under the control of the endogenous promoter, we visualized in vivo internalization of this native GPCR upon physiological stimulation. We developed a paradigm in which animals were made dependent on morphine in a drug-paired context. When re-exposed to this context in a drug-free state, mice showed context-dependent withdrawal signs and activation of the hippocampus. Receptor internalization was transiently detected in a subset of CA1 neurons, uncovering regionally restricted opioid peptide release. Importantly, a pool of surface receptors always remained, which contrasts with the in vivo profile previously established for exogenous drug-induced internalization. Therefore, a distinct response is observed at the receptor level upon a physiological or pharmacological stimulation. Altogether, direct in vivo GPCR visualization enables mapping receptor stimulation promoted by a behavioral challenge and represents a powerful approach to study endogenous GPCR physiology.

  15. Rabies virus binding to an acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit peptide.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L

    1990-04-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled rabies virus to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was investigated. Binding of rabies virus to the receptor peptide was dependent on pH, could be competed with by unlabeled homologous virus particles, and was saturable. Synthetic peptides of snake venom, curaremimetic neurotoxins and of the structurally similar segment of the rabies virus glycoprotein, were effective in competing with labeled virus binding to the receptor peptide at micromolar concentrations. Similarly, synthetic peptides of the binding domain on the acetylcholine receptor competed for binding. These findings suggest that both rabies virus and neurotoxins bind to residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. Competition studies with shorter alpha-subunit peptides within this region indicate that the highest affinity virus binding determinants are located within residues 179-192. A rat nerve alpha 3-subunit peptide, that does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin, inhibited binding of virus to the alpha 1 peptide, suggesting that rabies binds to neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These studies indicate that synthetic peptides of the glycoprotein binding domain and of the receptor binding domain may represent useful antiviral agents by targeting the recognition event between the viral attachment protein and the host cell receptor, and inhibiting attachment of virus to the receptor.

  16. Estrogen alters the diurnal rhythm of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities in selected brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.

    1987-11-01

    Norepinephrine regulates the proestrous and estradiol-induced LH surge by binding to alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The density of alpha 1-receptors may be regulated by estradiol, photoperiod, and noradrenergic neuronal activity. We wished to determine whether alpha 1-receptors exhibit a diurnal rhythm in ovariectomized and/or estradiol-treated female rats, whether estradiol regulates alpha 1-receptors in those areas of brain involved with LH secretion and/or sexual behavior, and whether the concentrations of alpha-receptors vary inversely relative to previously reported norepinephrine turnover patterns. Young female rats, maintained on a 14:10 light-dark cycle were ovariectomized. One week later, half of them were outfitted sc with Silastic capsules containing estradiol. Groups of animals were decapitated 2 days later at 0300, 1000, 1300, 1500, 1800, and 2300 h. Brains were removed, frozen, and sectioned at 20 micron. Sections were incubated with (/sup 3/H)prazosin in Tris-HCl buffer, washed, dried, and exposed to LKB Ultrofilm. The densities of alpha 1-receptors were quantitated using a computerized image analysis system. In ovariectomized rats, the density of alpha 1-receptors exhibited a diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and pineal gland. In SCN and MPN, receptor concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day and rose to peak levels at 1800 h. In the pineal gland, the density of alpha 1-receptors was lowest at middark phase, rose to peak levels before lights on, and remained elevated during the day. Estradiol suppressed the density of alpha 1 binding sites in the SCN, MPN, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus, and the pineal gland but had no effect on the lateral septum. Estrogen treatment altered the rhythm of receptor densities in MPN, median eminence, and the pineal gland.

  17. Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in hyperplastic human prostate: identification and characterization using (/sup 3/H) rauwolscine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Lepor, H.

    1986-05-01

    (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine ((/sup 3/H)Ra), a selective ligand for the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor, was used to identify and characterize alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in prostate glands of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)Ra to prostatic tissue homogenates was rapid and readily reversible by addition of excess unlabelled phentolamine. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments demonstrates a single, saturable class of high affinity binding sites (Bmax = 0.31 +/- 0.04 fmol./microgram. DNA, Kd = 0.9 +/- 0.11 nM.). The relative potency of alpha adrenergic drugs (clonidine, alpha-methylnorepinephrine and prazosin) in competing for (/sup 3/H)Ra binding sites was consistent with the order predicted for an alpha 2 subtype. The role of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in normal prostatic function and in men with bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH requires further investigation.

  18. Ligand specificities of recombinant retinoic acid receptors RAR alpha and RAR beta.

    PubMed Central

    Crettaz, M; Baron, A; Siegenthaler, G; Hunziker, W

    1990-01-01

    Binding of retinoic acid (RA) to specific RA receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) was studied. Receptors were obtained in two ways: (1) full-length receptors were produced by transient expression of the respective human cDNAs in COS 1 cells; and (2) the ligand-binding domains of RAR alpha and RAR beta were produced in Escherichia coli. RA binding to the wild-type and truncated forms of the receptor was identical for both RAR alpha and RAR beta, indicating that the ligand-binding domains have retained the binding characteristics of the intact receptors. Furthermore, RA bound with the same affinity to both RAR alpha and RAR beta. Only retinoid analogues with an acidic end-group were able to actively bind to both receptors. On measuring the binding of various retinoids, we have found that the properties of the ligand-binding sites of RAR alpha and RAR beta were rather similar. Two retinoid analogues were capable of binding preferentially to either RAR alpha or RAR beta, suggesting that it may be possible to synthesize specific ligands for RAR alpha and RAR beta. PMID:2176462

  19. Frequency of the CCR5-delta 32 chemokine receptor gene mutation in the Lebanese population.

    PubMed

    Karam, W; Jurjus, R; Khoury, N; Khansa, H; Assad, C; Zalloua, P; Jurjus, A

    2004-01-01

    A direct correlation between HIV infection and mutation in the chemokine receptor (CCR5) gene has been established. However, such correlation has never been investigated in Lebanon. We report the frequency of the CCR5-delta 32 mutation in a random sample of 209 healthy, HIV-1 seronegative Lebanese aged 19-68. Overall, 4.8% were heterozygous for the mutation. Homozygosity was absent from our sample. The frequency for the CCR5-delta 32 allele was 2.5%. Distribution of the mutation was unaffected by sex, age, religion or educational level. The frequency in the Lebanese population is consistent with that in the origin of the mutation in northern Europe. This could be attributed to a gene flow into the Middle East from northern Europe.

  20. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  1. DeltaNp63alpha repression of the Notch1 gene supports the proliferative capacity of normal human keratinocytes and cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yugawa, Takashi; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Yoshimatsu, Yuki; Haga, Kei; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Egawa, Nagayasu; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2010-05-15

    The p53 family member p63 is a master regulator of epithelial development. One of its isoforms, DeltaNp63alpha, is predominantly expressed in the basal cells of stratified epithelia and plays a fundamental role in control of regenerative potential and epithelial integrity. In contrast to p53, p63 is rarely mutated in human cancers, but it is frequently overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). However, its functional relevance to tumorigenesis remains largely unclear. We previously identified the Notch1 gene as a novel transcriptional target of p53. Here, we show that DeltaNp63alpha functions as a transcriptional repressor of the Notch1 gene through the p53-responsive element. Knockdown of p63 caused upregulation of Notch1 expression and marked reduction in proliferation and clonogenicity of both normal human keratinocytes and cervical cancer cell lines overexpressing DeltaNp63alpha. Concomitant silencing of Notch1 significantly rescued this phenotype, indicating the growth defect induced by p63 deficiency to be, at least in part, attributable to Notch1 function. Conversely, overexpression of DeltaNp63alpha decreased basal levels of Notch1, increased proliferative potential of normal human keratinocytes, and inhibited both p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of Notch1 and differentiation markers upon genotoxic stress and serum exposure, respectively. These results suggest that DeltaNp63alpha maintains the self-renewing capacity of normal human keratinocytes and cervical cancer cells partly through transcriptional repression of the Notch1 gene and imply a novel pathogenetical significance of frequently observed overexpression of DeltaNp63alpha together with p53 inactivation in SCCs.

  2. Recent advances in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guarino, R D; Perez, D M; Piascik, M T

    1996-08-01

    This review is intended to discuss recent developments in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor (alpha 1-AR) subtypes. After a brief historical development, we will focus on the more contemporary issues having to do with this receptor family. Emphasis will be put on recent data regarding the cloning, nomenclature, signalling mechanisms, and genomic organization of the alpha 1-AR subtypes. We will also highlight recent mutational studies that identify key amino acid residues involved in ligand binding, as well as the role of the alpha 1-AR subtypes in regulating physiologic processes.

  3. Whole-genome cartography of estrogen receptor alpha binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Yo; Vega, Vinsensius B; Thomsen, Jane S; Zhang, Tao; Kong, Say Li; Xie, Min; Chiu, Kuo Ping; Lipovich, Leonard; Barnett, Daniel H; Stossi, Fabio; Yeo, Ailing; George, Joshy; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A; Lee, Yew Kok; Charn, Tze Howe; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Miller, Lance D; Cheung, Edwin; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Ruan, Yijun; Bourque, Guillaume; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T

    2007-06-01

    Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation-paired end diTag cloning and sequencing strategy, we mapped estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) binding sites in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high confidence binding clusters of which 94% are projected to be bona fide ERalpha binding regions. Only 5% of the mapped estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start sites of adjacent genes, regions containing the proximal promoters, whereas vast majority of the sites are mapped to intronic or distal locations (>5 kb from 5' and 3' ends of adjacent transcript), suggesting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms over significant physical distances. Of all the identified sites, 71% harbored putative full estrogen response elements (EREs), 25% bore ERE half sites, and only 4% had no recognizable ERE sequences. Genes in the vicinity of ERalpha binding sites were enriched for regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, and their expression profiles in patient samples segregate ERalpha-positive from ERalpha-negative breast tumors. The expression dynamics of the genes adjacent to ERalpha binding sites suggest a direct induction of gene expression through binding to ERE-like sequences, whereas transcriptional repression by ERalpha appears to be through indirect mechanisms. Our analysis also indicates a number of candidate transcription factor binding sites adjacent to occupied EREs at frequencies much greater than by chance, including the previously reported FOXA1 sites, and demonstrate the potential involvement of one such putative adjacent factor, Sp1, in the global regulation of ERalpha target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that only 22%-24% of the bona fide human ERalpha binding sites were overlapping conserved regions in whole genome vertebrate alignments, which suggest limited conservation of functional binding sites. Taken together, this genome-scale analysis suggests complex but definable rules governing ERalpha binding and gene

  4. A mu-delta opioid receptor brain atlas reveals neuronal co-occurrence in subcortical networks.

    PubMed

    Erbs, Eric; Faget, Lauren; Scherrer, Gregory; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Vonesch, Jean-Luc; Koch, Marc; Kessler, Pascal; Hentsch, Didier; Birling, Marie-Christine; Koutsourakis, Manoussos; Vasseur, Laurent; Veinante, Pierre; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Massotte, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Opioid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate brain function at all levels of neural integration, including autonomic, sensory, emotional and cognitive processing. Mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors functionally interact in vivo, but whether interactions occur at circuitry, cellular or molecular levels remains unsolved. To challenge the hypothesis of MOR/DOR heteromerization in the brain, we generated redMOR/greenDOR double knock-in mice and report dual receptor mapping throughout the nervous system. Data are organized as an interactive database offering an opioid receptor atlas with concomitant MOR/DOR visualization at subcellular resolution, accessible online. We also provide co-immunoprecipitation-based evidence for receptor heteromerization in these mice. In the forebrain, MOR and DOR are mainly detected in separate neurons, suggesting system-level interactions in high-order processing. In contrast, neuronal co-localization is detected in subcortical networks essential for survival involved in eating and sexual behaviors or perception and response to aversive stimuli. In addition, potential MOR/DOR intracellular interactions within the nociceptive pathway offer novel therapeutic perspectives.

  5. The mongoose acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: analysis of glycosylation and alpha-bungarotoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Jensen, B S; Lupu-Meiri, M; Oron, Y; Fuchs, S

    1998-04-17

    The mongoose AChR alpha-subunit has been cloned and shown to be highly homologous to other AChR alpha-subunits, with only six differences in amino acid residues at positions that are conserved in animal species that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Four of these six substitutions cluster in the ligand binding site, and one of them, Asn-187, forms a consensus N-glycosylation site. The mongoose glycosylated alpha-subunit has a higher apparent molecular mass than that of the rat glycosylated alpha-subunit, probably resulting from the additional glycosylation at Asn-187 of the mongoose subunit. The in vitro translated mongoose alpha-subunit, in a glycosylated or non-glycosylated form, does not bind alpha-BTX, indicating that lack of alpha-BTX binding can be achieved also in the absence of glycosylation.

  6. Perilipin, a critical regulator of fat storage and breakdown, is a target gene of estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Akter, Mst. Hasina; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Hirose, Fumiko; Osumi, Takashi

    2008-04-11

    Perilipin is a protein localized on lipid droplet surfaces in adipocytes and steroidogenic cells, playing a central role in regulated lipolysis. Expression of the perilipin gene is markedly induced during adipogenesis. We found that transcription from the perilipin gene promoter is activated by an orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR){alpha}. A response element to this receptor was identified in the promoter region by a gene reporter assay, the electrophoretic-gel mobility-shift assay and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} enhanced, whereas small heterodimer partner (SHP) repressed, the transactivating function of ERR{alpha} on the promoter. Thus, the perilipin gene expression is regulated by a transcriptional network controlling energy metabolism, substantiating the functional importance of perilipin in the maintenance of body energy balance.

  7. Rhythmic delta activity represents a form of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, McNeill P; Clarke, Charles D; Sonmezturk, Hasan H; Abou-Khalil, Bassel

    2011-02-01

    Anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis is a limbic encephalitis with psychiatric manifestations, abnormal movements, coma, and seizures. The coma and abnormal movements are not typically attributed to seizure activity, and slow activity is the most common EEG finding. We report drug-resistant nonconvulsive status epilepticus as the basis for coma in a 19-year-old woman with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies and a mediastinal teratoma. The EEG showed generalized rhythmic delta activity, with evolution in morphology, frequency, and field typical of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The status was refractory to antiepileptic drugs, repeated drug-induced coma, resection of the tumor, intravenous steroids, rituximab, and plasmapheresis. She awoke after the addition of felbamate, and the rhythmic delta activity ceased. The rhythmic delta activity described with coma in anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis may represent a pattern of status epilepticus in some patients. Felbamate, which has NMDA receptor antagonist activity, should be studied as a therapeutic agent in this condition.

  8. Resistance to thyroid hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TRα1, TRβ1, TRβ2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of α2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TRα1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit. Biochemical abnormalities include low/low-normal T4 and high/high-normal T3 concentrations, a subnormal T4/T3 ratio, variably reduced reverse T3, raised muscle creatine kinase and mild anaemia. The disorder is mediated by heterozygous, loss-of-function, mutations involving either TRα1 alone or both TRα1 and α2, with no discernible phenotype attributable to defective α2. Whole exome sequencing and diagnostic biomarkers may enable greater ascertainment of RTHα, which is important as thyroxine therapy reverses some metabolic abnormalities and improves growth, constipation, dyspraxia and wellbeing. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of RTHα and its optimal management remain to be elucidated. PMID:26303090

  9. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-2A-induced DeltaNp63alpha expression is associated with impaired epithelial-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, J A; Mazzucca, S; Raab-Traub, N

    2010-07-29

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gamma-herpes virus associated with malignancies that develop in both lymphoid and epithelial cells including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The EBV protein, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), is expressed in NPC and can modulate epithelial proliferation, transformation and differentiation, and as such may promote malignancy. A key regulator of epithelial-cell differentiation is the transcription factor p63, a member of the p53 family. This study examines the potential contribution of p63 to LMP2A-mediated inhibition of epithelial-cell differentiation. Stable expression of LMP2A increased the protein level and stability of the DeltaNp63alpha isoform and in two epithelial cell lines, LMP2A interacted with DeltaNp63alpha under stable- and transient-expression systems. LMP2A and DeltaNp63alpha were localized to the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane and co-immunoprecipitated in the same fractions. Following induction of epithelial-cell differentiation by calcium, expression of differentiation markers was impaired in both DeltaNp63alpha- and LMP2A-expressing cells. Induction of p63alpha, association of p63alpha with LMP2A and impairment of differentiation required the PY and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling motif of LMP2A. By associating with and being regulated by LMP2A, DeltaNp63alpha may function as a unique regulator of LMP2A effects on epithelial differentiation and contribute to EBV-associated epithelial cancers.

  10. The role of phosphorylation in activation of the alpha 6A beta 1 laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, F; Kuikman, I; Noteboom, E; Sonnenberg, A

    1993-09-05

    The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces phosphorylation of serine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 6A integrin subunit, as well as activation of the alpha 6A beta 1 laminin receptor. We examined whether phosphorylation correlates with the induction of high affinity binding of laminin by the alpha 6A beta 1 receptor. Two potential phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, serine 1041 and serine 1048, are present in the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 6A subunit. We introduced point mutations into the alpha 6A cDNA, replacing either one or both of the serine residues with alanine. Wild-type and mutant alpha 6A cDNAs were transfected into K562 cells. All alpha 6A subunit mutants were expressed at levels similar to those of wild-type alpha 6A and formed heterodimers with endogenous beta 1. Analysis of the phosphorylation state of wild-type and mutant alpha 6A subunits in resting K562 cells and after treatment with PMA showed that serine 1041, but not serine 1048, is the target residue of PMA-induced phosphorylation. Cells expressing alpha 6A mutant subunits or wild-type alpha 6A transfectants all bound laminin in the presence, but not in the absence of PMA; however, the extent of binding differed. Cells transfected with alpha 6A containing the serine to alanine mutation showed a 2-3-fold higher binding to laminin than cells transfected with alpha 6A containing serine 1041. The results indicate that phosphorylation of the alpha 6A cytoplasmic domain is not required for the induction of high affinity of the alpha 6A beta 1 receptor by PMA, and suggest that, in contrast, it may reduce the affinity of this integrin for ligand.

  11. N alpha-methylhistamine inhibits intestinal transit in mice by central histamine H1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Oishi, R; Adachi, N; Saeki, K

    1993-06-24

    The effects of (R)alpha-methylhistamine and N alpha-methylhistamine on intestinal transit were examined in mice. The passage of a charcoal meal in the gastrointestinal tract was dose dependently inhibited by N alpha-methylhistamine (1-20 mg/kg i.p.), but not by a selective H3 receptor agonist (R)alpha-methyl-histamine (1-50 mg/kg i.p.). The inhibitory effect of N alpha-methylhistamine (20 mg/kg) was attenuated by pretreatment with H1 receptor antagonists (mepyramine 5 mg/kg i.p. or 5 micrograms i.c.v. and triprolidine 5 mg/kg i.p.), but not by cimetidine (10 mg/kg i.p.), zolantidine (5 mg/kg i.p.), a brain-penetrating H2 receptor antagonist, or thioperamide (5 mg/kg i.p.), a selective H3 receptor antagonist. The effect of N alpha-methylhistamine was also attenuated by combined treatment with phentolamine and propranolol (5 and 15 mg/kg s.c., respectively) and by pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (20 mg/kg i.p., 2 days before). N alpha-Methylhistamine markedly decreased histamine turnover in the mouse brain. These findings suggest that intestinal transit is inhibited by N alpha-methylhistamine via stimulation of central H1 but not H3 receptors and that stimulation of the sympathetic system is involved in this effect.

  12. Present state of alpha- and beta-adrenergic drugs I. The adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Ahlquist, R P

    1976-11-01

    The cardiovascular alpha adrenergic receptors evoke vasoconstriction, the cardiovascular beta receptors evoke vasodilation and cardiac stimulation. All blood vessels have both alpha and beta receptors. In some areas, for example skin and kidney, the alpha receptors predominate. In some vascular beds, for example the nutrient vessels in skeletal muscle, beta receptors predominate. In other beds, such as coronary, visceral, and connective tissue both receptors are active. The cardiovascular effects of adrenergic agonists depend on which receptor they act on. Phenylephrine is specific for alpha receptors. Isoproterenol is specific for beta receptors. Epinephrine and norepinephrine act on both. The real value of knowing the receptor specificity of each agonist is that side effects can more easily be predicted. For example, adrenergic cardiac stimulants are antiasthmatics. Therefore, adrenergic antiasthmatics can produce excessive cardiac stimulation. For the future, agonists that are not only receptor-specific but also tissue-specific will be developed. The first of these in the United States is terbutaline. The rest of the world has in addition a similar drug, salbutamol. No one knows if this drug will be approved for use by American physicians.

  13. Expression of alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and scavenger receptor in human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Luoma, J; Hiltunen, T; Särkioja, T; Moestrup, S K; Gliemann, J; Kodama, T; Nikkari, T; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    1994-01-01

    Macrophage- and smooth muscle cell (SMC)-derived foam cells are typical constituents of human atherosclerotic lesions. At least three receptor systems have been characterized that could be involved in the development of foam cells: alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/LDL receptor-related protein (alpha 2 MR/LRP), scavenger receptor, and LDL receptor. We studied the expression of these receptors in human atherosclerotic lesions with in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. An abundant expression of alpha 2MR/LRP mRNA and protein was found in SMC and macrophages in both early and advanced lesions in human aortas. alpha 2MR/LRP was also present in SMC in normal aortas. Scavenger receptor mRNA and protein were expressed in lesion macrophages but no expression was found in lesion SMC. LDL receptor was absent from the lesion area but was expressed in some aortas in medial SMC located near the adventitial border. The results demonstrate that (a) alpha 2MR/LRP is, so far, the only lipoprotein receptor expressed in lesions SMC in vivo; (b) scavenger receptors are expressed only in lesion macrophages; and (c) both receptors may play important roles in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions. Images PMID:8182133

  14. The alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor directly regulates arterial blood pressure via vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Akito; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Koshimizu, Takaaki; Shinoura, Hitomi; Oshikawa, Sayuri; Kawai, Takayuki; Sunada, Sachie; Takeo, Satoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the physiological role of the alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(1D)-AR) subtype, we created mice lacking the alpha(1D)-AR (alpha(1D)(-/-)) by gene targeting and characterized their cardiovascular function. In alpha(1D)-/- mice, the RT-PCR did not detect any transcript of the alpha(1D)-AR in any tissue examined, and there was no apparent upregulation of other alpha(1)-AR subtypes. Radioligand binding studies showed that alpha(1)-AR binding capacity in the aorta was lost, while that in the heart was unaltered in alpha(1D)-/- mice. Non-anesthetized alpha(1D)-/- mice maintained significantly lower basal systolic and mean arterial blood pressure conditions, relative to wild-type mice, and they showed no significant change in heart rate or in cardiac function, as assessed by echocardiogram. Besides hypotension, the pressor responses to phenylephrine and norepinephrine were decreased by 30-40% in alpha(1D)-/- mice. Furthermore, the contractile response of the aorta and the pressor response of isolated perfused mesenteric arterial beds to alpha(1)-AR stimulation were markedly reduced in alpha(1D)-/- mice. We conclude that the alpha(1D)-AR participates directly in sympathetic regulation of systemic blood pressure by vasoconstriction.

  15. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, N.A.; Hughes, J. )

    1989-05-01

    The opioid peptides, (3H)DAGO and (3H)DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. (3H)DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, (3H)DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra.

  16. Different slopes for different folks: alpha and delta EEG power predict subsequent video game learning rate and improvements in cognitive control tasks.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Kyle E; Basak, Chandramallika; Maclin, Edward L; Low, Kathy A; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2012-12-01

    We hypothesized that control processes, as measured using electrophysiological (EEG) variables, influence the rate of learning of complex tasks. Specifically, we measured alpha power, event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs), and event-related brain potentials during early training of the Space Fortress task, and correlated these measures with subsequent learning rate and performance in transfer tasks. Once initial score was partialled out, the best predictors were frontal alpha power and alpha and delta ERSPs, but not P300. By combining these predictors, we could explain about 50% of the learning rate variance and 10%-20% of the variance in transfer to other tasks using only pretraining EEG measures. Thus, control processes, as indexed by alpha and delta EEG oscillations, can predict learning and skill improvements. The results are of potential use to optimize training regimes.

  17. Nicotine enhances the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y N; Edwards, S C; Wecker, L

    1997-12-01

    Studies determined whether alpha4beta2 or alpha3beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes are substrates for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and whether nicotine affects receptor phosphorylation. The cRNAs for the subunits were coinjected into oocytes, and cells were incubated for 24 h in the absence or presence of nicotine (50 nM for alpha4beta2 and 500 nM for alpha3beta2 receptors). Nicotine did not interfere with the isolation of the receptors. When receptors isolated from oocytes expressing alpha4beta2 receptors were incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and the catalytic subunit of PKA, separated by electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography, a labeled phosphoprotein with the predicted molecular size of the alpha4 subunit was present. Phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits of alpha4beta2 receptors increased within the first 5 min of incubation with nicotine and persisted for 24 h. In contrast, receptors isolated from oocytes expressing alpha3beta2 receptors did not exhibit a labeled phosphoprotein corresponding to the size of the alpha3 subunit. Results suggest that the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of alpha4 and not alpha3 subunits may explain the differential inactivation by nicotine of these receptor subtypes expressed in oocytes.

  18. Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in sciatic motor neurons following axotomy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, A J; Devlin, B K; Neitzel, K L; McLaurin, D L; Anderson, K J; Lee, N

    1999-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons are one of the few classes of neurons capable of regenerating axons following axotomy. Injury-induced expression of neurotrophic factors and corresponding receptors may play an important role in this rare ability. A wide variety of indirect data suggests that ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha may critically contribute to the regeneration of injured spinal motor neurons. We used immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and retrograde tracing techniques to study the regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in axotomized sciatic motor neurons. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha immunoreactivity, detected with two independent antisera, is increased in a subpopulation of caudal sciatic motor neuron soma one, two and six weeks after sciatic nerve transection and reattachment, while no changes are detected at one day and 15 weeks post-lesion. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA levels are augmented in the same classes of neurons following an identical lesion, suggesting that increased synthesis contributes, at least in part, to the additional ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein. Separating the proximal and distal nerve stumps with a plastic barrier does not noticeably affect the injury-induced change in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha regulation, thereby indicating that this injury response is not dependent on signals distal to the lesion traveling retrogradely through the nerve or signals generated by axonal growth through the distal nerve. The prolonged increases in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein and messenger RNA found in regenerating sciatic motor neurons contrast with the responses of non-regenerating central neurons, which are reported to display, at most, a short-lived increase in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA expression following injury. The present data are the first to demonstrate, in vivo, neuronal regulation of

  19. Differential agonist sensitivity of glycine receptor alpha2 subunit splice variants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul S; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2004-09-01

    1. The glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha2A and alpha2B splice variants differ by a dual, adjacent amino acid substitution from alpha2A(V58,T59) to alpha2B(I58,A59) in the N-terminal extracellular domain. 2. Comparing the effects of the GlyR agonists, glycine, beta-alanine and taurine, on the GlyR alpha2 isoforms, revealed a significant increase in potency for all three agonists at the alpha2B variant. 3. The sensitivities of the splice variants to the competitive antagonist, strychnine, and to the biphasic modulator Zn(2+), were comparable. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor picrotoxin was more potent on GlyR alpha2A compared to GlyR alpha2B receptors. 4. Coexpression of alpha2A or alpha2B subunits with the GlyR beta subunit revealed that the higher agonist potencies observed with the alpha2B homomer were retained for the alpha2Bbeta heteromer. 5. The identical sensitivity to strychnine combined with a reduction in the maximum current induced by the partial agonist taurine at the GlyR alpha2A homomer, suggested that the changed sensitivity to agonists is in accordance with a modulation of agonist efficacy rather than agonist affinity. 6. An effect on agonist efficacy was also supported by using a structural model of the GlyR, localising the region of splice variation to the proposed docking region between GlyR loop 2 and the TM2-3 loop, an area associated with channel activation. 7. The existence of a spasmodic mouse phenotype linked to a GlyR alpha1(A52S) mutation, the equivalent position to the source of the alpha2 splice variation, raises the possibility that the GlyR alpha2 splice variants may be responsible for distinct roles in neuronal function.

  20. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  1. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  2. Delta 32 mutation of the chemokine-receptor 5 gene in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Martin, K; Heinzlmann, M; Borchers, R; Mack, M; Loeschke, K; Folwaczny, C

    2001-01-01

    The gene encoding chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is colocalized to the microsatellite marker D3S1573, which was linked with inflammatory bowel disease. Genetic heterogeneity in inflammatory bowel disease might be defined by a combination of the p-ANCA status and immunoregulatory genes. One hundred and twenty healthy unrelated controls, 101 patients with Crohn's disease, and 99 patients with ulcerative colitis were genotyped for the Delta 32 mutation of the CCR5 gene. The presence of p-ANCA was determined by the use of indirect immunofluorescence. After genotyping, patients were stratified according to p-ANCA status. The frequency of the Delta 32 mutation was not significantly different in controls and patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis (P 0.207 or more). Moreover, the frequency of the mutation was not significantly different in patients with inflammatory bowel disease after stratification for the p-ANCA status (P 0.482). Regardless of the p-ANCA status, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are not associated with the Delta 32 mutation of the CCR5 gene.

  3. Expression and function of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Jubinsky, P T; Laurie, A S; Nathan, D G; Yetz-Aldepe, J; Sieff, C A

    1994-12-15

    To determine the expression and function of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha chain (GMR alpha) during hematopoiesis and on leukemic cells, monoclonal antibodies were raised by immunizing mice with cells expressing high levels of human GMR alpha. A pool of five antibodies isolated from three different mice was used to characterize GMR alpha. This antibody pool (anti-GMR alpha) immunoprecipitated a protein with the expected molecular weight of GMR alpha from COS cells transiently transfected with the GMR alpha gene. In factor-dependent cells, GMR alpha existed as a phosphoprotein. However, its phosphorylation was not stimulated by the presence of GM-CSF. Anti-GMR alpha inhibited the GM-CSF-dependent growth of cell lines and normal bone marrow cells and inhibited the binding of iodinated GM-CSF to its receptor. Cell surface expression of GMR alpha was examined using anti-GMR alpha and flow cytometry. GMR alpha was readily detectable on both blood monocytes and neutrophils. In adherence-depleted normal bone marrow, two separate populations expressed GMR alpha. The most positive cells were predominantly macrophages, whereas the cells that expressed less GMR alpha were largely myelocytes and metamyelocytes. A small population of lin-CD34+ or CD34+CD38- cells also expressed GMR alpha, but they were not capable of significant growth in colony-forming assays. In contrast, the majority of lin-CD34+ and CD34+CD38- cells were GMR alpha-, yet they produced large numbers of myeloid and erythroid colonies in the same assay. Malignant cells from patients with leukemia were also tested for GMR alpha expression. All of the myeloid leukemias and only rare lymphoid leukemias surveyed tested positive for GMR alpha. These results show that anti-GMR alpha is useful for the functional characterization of the GMR alpha and for the detection of myeloid leukemia and that GMR alpha is expressed on certain lineages throughout hematopoietic

  4. Ligand interaction of human alpha 2-macroglobulin-alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor studied by partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, G; Kunath, M

    1996-05-17

    Alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M) is a major proteinase inhibitor in human blood and tissue. Besides its antiproteolytic potential, alpha 2-M was found to modulate antigen- and mitogen-driven immune responses and cell growth by binding and transporting distinct cytokines, growth factors and hormones. The inhibitor is cleared from circulation by binding to a multifunctional cellular receptor present on different cell types. Alpha 2-M, as well as its receptor, are capable of binding a variety of ligands. In the present study we have applied aqueous two-phase systems to analyze the interaction of IL-1 beta and alpha 2-M receptor to different forms of alpha 2-M. The partition of IL-1 beta was changed by addition of transformed alpha 2-M to the two-phase systems rather than by the native inhibitor. The interaction between IL-1 beta and alpha 2-M was enhanced by divalent cations. In addition, the complex formation between 125I-labelled receptor and alpha 2-M could clearly be demonstrated by partitioning. In the presence of divalent cations, transformed alpha 2-M, in contrast to the native inhibitor, effectively changed the partition of the receptor. However, the observed alteration of the partition coefficient was found to be less compared with the values obtained by partitioning of the receptor in the presence of whole plasma containing the inhibitor in equivalent concentrations. The results indicate that other components of the plasma exist which competitively bind to the receptor but independent of Ca2+-ions.

  5. Relation of central alpha-adrenoceptor and other receptors to the control of renin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1983-02-01

    The location and nature of the receptors in the brain on which clonidine acts to decrease renin secretion have been investigated in dogs. Clonidine was injected into the vertebral and carotid arteries, and its effects were compared with those of norepinephrine and epinephrine when injected into the third ventricle. It was also injected intravenously (IV) after transection of the brain stem and following treatment with intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine. The results suggest that the renin-regulating receptors are located in the brain stem in a region different from the receptors mediating the depressor response, that they are alpha 2-adrenoceptors, and that they are postsynaptic in location. Central alpha 1-adrenoceptors appear to mediate increased renin secretion. Central serotonergic receptors also mediate increased renin secretion, but it is not known how the alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors interact with the serotonergic systems.

  6. Differential regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) expression in schizophrenic smokers.

    PubMed

    Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Logel, Judy; Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the alpha7* receptor, as measured by [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression of multiple genes and differentially regulates gene expression in schizophrenic hippocampus. We examined the effects of smoking on CHRNA7 expression in the same tissue and find that smoking differentially regulates expression of both mRNA and protein for this gene. CHRNA7 mRNA and protein levels are significantly lower in schizophrenic nonsmokers compared to control nonsmokers and are brought to control levels in schizophrenic smokers. Sufficient protein but low surface expression of the alpha7* receptor, seen in the autoradiographic studies, suggests aberrant assembly or trafficking of the receptor.

  7. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  8. Gender-dependent expression of alpha and beta estrogen receptors in human nontumor and tumor lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Fasco, Michael J; Hurteau, Gregory J; Spivack, Simon D

    2002-02-25

    Estrogen receptor (ER) expression in human lung has been understudied, particularly in light of its potential biological importance in the female lung cancer epidemic. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to probe mRNA expression of wild-type ERalpha and ERbeta and their splice variants in human bronchogenic tumor and adjacent nontumor specimens. In tumor tissue from 13 women and 13 men, ERalpha was expressed in 85% of women versus 15% in men [P=0.001]. ERbeta was expressed equally in tumors from women versus men [92% vs. 69%, P=ns]. Both ERalpha and beta forms were expressed simultaneously in the lung tumors of 77% of women versus 15% of men [P=0.005]. Among adjacent nontumor lung specimens, 31% of the women expressed ERalpha mRNA versus 0% of men [P=0.101], and 39% of women expressed ERbeta mRNA versus 31% of men [P=ns]; only one woman and no men expressed both ERalpha and beta in nontumor tissue. Females expressed ERalpha [P=0.017], ERbeta [P=0.013], and ERalpha+beta [P=0.002] more frequently in tumor versus nontumor tissue, whereas in males expression of ERalpha, beta and both alpha+beta was not clearly different for tumor versus nontumor tissue. In specimens expressing ERalpha mRNA, the transcript lacking exon 7 (delta7) was the major splice variant with varying contributions from the transcripts delta4, delta3+4, delta5 and others unidentified. Alternative splicing of ERbeta mRNA was observed, but not to as great an extent as for ERalpha mRNA. ERalpha promoter usage in tumors varied among individuals. When the ER receptors were co-expressed in tumors, ERalpha was quantitatively more abundant in the majority of cases than ERbeta. Within this small group of 26 patients, no correlation was found between age, smoking history, plasma nicotine, cotinine, estradiol concentrations or histopathologic type with tumor or nontumor estrogen receptor status of any type. However, several positive correlations imply that: (1) ERalpha expression occurs

  9. Some properties of human neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Palma, Eleonora; Mileo, Anna M; Martinez-Torres, Ataulfo; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2002-03-19

    The functional properties and cellular localization of the human neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptor (alpha7 AcChoR) and its L248T mutated (mut) form were investigated by expressing them alone or as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Xenopus oocytes injected with wild-type (wt), mutalpha7, or the chimeric subunit cDNAs expressed receptors that gated membrane currents when exposed to AcCho. As already known, AcCho currents generated by wtalpha7 receptors decay much faster than those elicited by the mutalpha7 receptors. Unexpectedly, the fusion of GFP to the wt and mutated alpha7 receptors led to opposite results: the AcCho-current decay of the wt receptors became slower, whereas that of the mutated receptors was accelerated. Furthermore, repetitive applications of AcCho led to a considerable "run-down" of the AcCho currents generated by mutalpha7-GFP receptors, whereas those of the wtalpha7-GFP receptors remained stable or increased in amplitude. The AcCho-current run-down of mutalpha7-GFP oocytes was accompanied by a marked decrease of alpha-bungarotoxin binding activity. Fluorescence, caused by the chimeric receptors expressed, was seen over the whole oocyte surface but was more intense and abundant in the animal hemisphere, whereas it was much weaker in the vegetal hemisphere. We conclude that fusion of GFP to wtalpha7 and mutalpha7 receptors provides powerful tools to study the distribution and function of alpha7 receptors. We also conclude that fused genes do not necessarily recapitulate all of the properties of the original receptors. This fact must be borne close in mind whenever reporter genes are attached to proteins.

  10. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  11. New diarylmethylpiperazines as potent and selective nonpeptidic delta opioid receptor agonists with increased In vitro metabolic stability.

    PubMed

    Plobeck, N; Delorme, D; Wei, Z Y; Yang, H; Zhou, F; Schwarz, P; Gawell, L; Gagnon, H; Pelcman, B; Schmidt, R; Yue, S Y; Walpole, C; Brown, W; Zhou, E; Labarre, M; Payza, K; St-Onge, S; Kamassah, A; Morin, P E; Projean, D; Ducharme, J; Roberts, E

    2000-10-19

    Nonpeptide delta opioid agonists are analgesics with a potentially improved side-effect and abuse liability profile, compared to classical opioids. Andrews analysis of the NIH nonpeptide lead SNC-80 suggested the removal of substituents not predicted to contribute to binding. This approach led to a simplified lead, N, N-diethyl-4-[phenyl(1-piperazinyl)methyl]benzamide (1), which retained potent binding affinity and selectivity to the human delta receptor (IC(50) = 11 nM, mu/delta = 740, kappa/delta > 900) and potency as a full agonist (EC(50) = 36 nM) but had a markedly reduced molecular weight, only one chiral center, and increased in vitro metabolic stability. From this lead, the key pharmacophore groups for delta receptor affinity and activation were more clearly defined by SAR and mutagenesis studies. Further structural modifications on the basis of 1 confirmed the importance of the N, N-diethylbenzamide group and the piperazine lower basic nitrogen for delta binding, in agreement with mutagenesis data. A number of piperazine N-alkyl substituents were tolerated. In contrast, modifications of the phenyl group led to the discovery of a series of diarylmethylpiperazines exemplified by N, N-diethyl-4-[1-piperazinyl(8-quinolinyl)methyl]benzamide (56) which had an improved in vitro binding profile (IC(50) = 0.5 nM, mu/delta = 1239, EC(50) = 3.6 nM) and increased in vitro metabolic stability compared to SNC-80.

  12. Diabetes or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist increases mitochondrial thioesterase I activity in heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of pr...

  13. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms and the risk of malignancies.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Andrei; Narita, Diana; Seclaman, Edward; Popovici, Emilian; Anghel, Mariana; Tamas, Liviu

    2010-12-01

    Estrogens represent risk factors for endocrine-related cancers and play also an important role in the development and progression of other malignancies. In order to analyze the associations between estrogen receptor gene alpha polymorphisms and cancers susceptibility, we genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 163 Caucasian cancer patients--103 breast cancers and 60 other malignancies (colorectal, bladder, hepatocellular carcinoma and acute myeloid leukemia)--and 114 healthy controls using hybridization probes. We performed Armitage`s association trend-test to evaluate the risk. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was assessed for each pair of markers. The genotypes CC and CT of rs3798577 were significantly associated with the cancers risk (p-trend breast = 4 × 10(-5); p-trend cancers = 1 × 10(-5)); in discrepancy with breast cancer where the C-allele represented the risk allele, for bladder, hepatocellular carcinomas and leukemia, the T allele seems to confer susceptibility. The minor G allele of rs1801132 was protective in our cases (p = 1 × 10(-4)); for rs2228480, the heterozygous frequency was higher for cancer groups (p = 0.03); the SNP pairs rs2228480&rs3798577 and rs2234693&rs9340799 were in low LD; the haplotypes T-A of rs2234693&rs9340799 and G-C of rs2228480&rs3798577 showed a trend to be higher represented in breast cancers; T allele of rs2234693 was higher expressed in breast, colon cancers and leukemia; rs2077647 was associated with colon (p = 0.008, C-risk allele) and bladder (p = 0.01, T-risk allele) cancers. We concluded that ESR1 polymorphisms may have distinct impact in carcinogenesis and further genotyping will establish whether these findings remain significant in larger cohorts.

  14. Fetal liver T cell receptor gamma/delta+ T cells as cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for maternal alloantigens

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have established fetal liver-derived T cell receptor (TCR) gamma/delta+, CD3+ T cell lines that are cytotoxic for maternal T cells. Fetal liver-derived lymphoid progenitors yielded predominantly TCR-gamma/delta+ cell clusters when cultured on fetal bone marrow- derived stromal cells in the presence of a cytokine cocktail under magnetic force. These tightly adherent clusters were cloned by limiting dilution and the resulting cell lines analyzed for phenotype and function. Six of eight TCR-gamma/delta lines from 8-9.5-wk gestation fetuses were V delta 2+ as compared with zero of eight lines from later stages of gestation (10 and 15 wk), where all the lines were V delta 1+. In cytotoxicity assays, these TCR-gamma/delta+, CD3+, CD4-, and CD8+ or CD8- long-term cultured lymphoid cells (LLC) were killer cells active against the class I antigens on maternal T cells. Of the cell lines, the CD8+ TCR-gamma/delta+ LLC had the highest levels of killer activity. Thus fetal liver TCR-gamma/delta+ T cells may play a crucial role in protection against invading maternal T cells generated in the feto-maternal interaction. PMID:1535364

  15. Spinal administration of a delta opioid receptor agonist attenuates hyperalgesia and allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Holdridge, Sarah V; Cahill, Catherine M

    2007-08-01

    Neuropathic (NP) pain is a debilitating chronic pain disorder considered by some to be inherently resistant to therapy with traditional analgesics. Indeed, micro opioid receptor (OR) agonists show reduced therapeutic benefit and their long term use is hindered by the high incidence of adverse effects. However, pharmacological and physiological evidence increasingly suggests a role for deltaOR agonists in modulating NP pain symptoms. In this study, we examined the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of the spinally administered deltaOR agonist, d-[Ala(2), Glu(4)]deltorphin II (deltorphin II), as well as the changes in deltaOR expression, in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Rats with CCI exhibited cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia over a 14-day testing period. Intrathecal administration of deltorphin II reversed cold hyperalgesia on day 14 and dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia. The effects of deltorphin II were mediated via activation of the deltaOR as the effect was antagonized by co-treatment with the delta-selective antagonist, naltrindole. Western blotting experiments revealed no changes in deltaOR protein in the dorsal spinal cord following CCI. Taken together, these data demonstrate the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effectiveness of a spinally administered deltaOR agonist following peripheral nerve injury and support further investigation of deltaORs as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of NP pain.

  16. Differential regulation of constitutive androstane receptor expression by hepatocyte nuclear factor4alpha isoforms.

    PubMed

    Pascussi, Jean Marc; Robert, Agnes; Moreau, Amelie; Ramos, Jeanne; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Navarro, Francis; Blanc, Pierre; Assenat, Eric; Maurel, Patrick; Vilarem, Marie Jose

    2007-05-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) controls the metabolism and elimination of endogenous and exogenous toxic compounds by up-regulating a battery of genes. In this work, we analyzed the expression of human CAR (hCAR) in normal liver during development and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha isoforms (HNF4alpha1 and HNF4alpha7) on the hCAR gene promoter. By performing functional analysis of hCAR 5'-deletions including mutants, chromatin immunoprecipitation in human hepatocytes, electromobility shift and cotransfection assays, we identified a functional and species-conserved HNF4alpha response element (DR1: ccAGGCCTtTGCCCTga) at nucleotide -144. Both HNF4alpha isoforms bind to this element with similar affinity. However, HNF4alpha1 strongly enhanced hCAR promoter activity whereas HNF4alpha7 was a poor activator and acted as a repressor of HNF4alpha1-mediated transactivation of the hCAR promoter. PGC1alpha stimulated both HNF4alpha1-mediated and HNF4alpha7-mediated hCAR transactivation to the same extent, whereas SRC1 exhibited a marked specificity for HNF4alpha1. Transduction of human hepatocytes by HNF4alpha7-expressing lentivirus confirmed this finding. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between CAR and HNF4alpha1 mRNA levels in human liver samples during development, and an inverse correlation between CAR and HNF4alpha7 mRNA levels in HCC. These observations suggest that HNF4alpha1 positively regulates hCAR expression in normal developing and adult livers, whereas HNF4alpha7 represses hCAR gene expression in HCC.

  17. Truncating Prolactin Receptor Mutations Promote Tumor Growth in Murine Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Obi L; Chan, Szeman Ruby; Griffith, Malachi; Krysiak, Kilannin; Skidmore, Zachary L; Hundal, Jasreet; Allen, Julie A; Arthur, Cora D; Runci, Daniele; Bugatti, Mattia; Miceli, Alexander P; Schmidt, Heather; Trani, Lee; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Miller, Christopher A; Larson, David E; Fulton, Robert S; Vermi, William; Wilson, Richard K; Schreiber, Robert D; Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-09-27

    Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+) luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1(-/-) mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1(-/-) primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in all tumor and no normal samples. Targeted sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations in precancerous lesions, indicating that this is an early event in tumorigenesis. Functional evaluation of these heterozygous mutations in Stat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that co-expression of truncated and wild-type PRLR led to aberrant STAT3 and STAT5 activation downstream of the receptor, cellular transformation in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo. In conclusion, truncating mutations of PRLR promote tumor growth in a model of human ERα+ breast cancer and warrant further investigation.

  18. Laminin isoforms and their integrin receptors in glioma cell migration and invasiveness: Evidence for a role of alpha5-laminin(s) and alpha3beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Yamane, Tetsu; Naganuma, Hirofumi; Rousselle, Patricia; Andurén, Ingegerd; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2007-11-01

    Glioma cell infiltration of brain tissue often occurs along the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels. In the present study we have investigated the role of laminins, major structural components of BMs and strong promoters of cell migration. Immunohistochemical studies of glioma tumor tissue demonstrated expression of alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha4- and alpha5-, but not alpha1-, laminins by the tumor vasculature. In functional assays, alpha3 (Lm-332/laminin-5)- and alpha5 (Lm-511/laminin-10)-laminins strongly promoted migration of all glioma cell lines tested. alpha1-Laminin (Lm-111/laminin-1) displayed lower activity, whereas alpha2 (Lm-211/laminin-2)- and alpha4 (Lm-411/laminin-8)-laminins were practically inactive. Global integrin phenotyping identified alpha3beta1 as the most abundant integrin in all the glioma cell lines, and this laminin-binding integrin exclusively or largely mediate the cell migration. Moreover, pretreatment of U251 glioma cells with blocking antibodies to alpha3beta1 integrin followed by intracerebral injection into nude mice inhibited invasion of the tumor cells into the brain tissue. The cell lines secreted Lm-211, Lm-411 and Lm-511, at different ratios. The results indicate that glioma cells secrete alpha2-, alpha4- and alpha5-laminins and that alpha3- and alpha5-laminins, found in brain vasculature, selectively promote glioma cell migration. They identify alpha3beta1 as the predominant integrin and laminin receptor in glioma cells, and as a brain invasion-mediating integrin.

  19. Reciprocal dynamics of EEG alpha and delta oscillations during spontaneous blinking at rest: a survey on a default mode-based visuo-spatial awareness.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Luca; Sello, Stefano; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Arrighi, Pieranna; Andre, Paolo; Rossi, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    By means of a narrowband wavelet analysis (0.5-6Hz), EEG delta event-related oscillations (EROs), both time- and phase-locked to spontaneous blinking (delta blink-related oscillations or delta BROs), have recently been demonstrated. On the basis of their spatiotemporal characteristics, delta BROs have been proposed as being involved in an automatic mechanism of maintaining awareness in a visuo-spatial context. The aim of the present study was: a) to investigate whether spontaneous blinking was also able to modulate alpha oscillations and, if so, b) whether this modulation was consistent with delta BROs, in order c) to acquire additional information for a better understanding of the cognitive phenomena underlying blinking. Using a broadband (0.5-100 Hz) continuous wavelet transform (CWT), we analysed a total of 189 three-second EEG epochs time-locked to the blinks of seven healthy volunteers. The EEG signals were submitted both to band-pass filtered cross-trial averaging (to obtain frequency-specific BROs) and to alpha event-related synchronization/desynchronization (i.e., blink-related synchronization/desynchronization, BRS/BRD). The alpha oscillations showed: a) an early BRS; b) a BRD in the same temporal window of the delta BROs and, c) a late BRS. We postulate that: a) the early BRS represents the short-term memory maintenance of the last visually perceived trace of the surroundings; b) the alpha BRD is associated with the comparison between the newly perceived image of the environment and its mnestic representation, and, lastly, c) the late BRS is connected with neuronal recovery phenomena.

  20. Protein-induced alterations in murine hepatic alpha-aminoadipate delta-semialdehyde synthase activity are mediated posttranslationally.

    PubMed

    Kiess, Aaron S; Cleveland, Beth M; Wilson, Matthew E; Klandorf, Hillar; Blemings, Kenneth P

    2008-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for alterations in lysine alpha-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR) activity are unknown. Therefore, the aim of these studies was to discern the mechanism(s) responsible for induction of hepatic LKR activity in rodents fed excess dietary protein. Four studies were conducted that used 84 mice. Mice were fed either a high-protein (50% casein) or adequate-protein (20% casein) diet in powder form in study 1 and a high-protein (46% casein) or adequate-protein (21% casein) diet in pellet form in the remaining studies. No significant differences in weight gain between the mice fed the different diets were detected. As expected, mice fed high-protein diets had a greater (P< .05) LKR activity in all 4 experiments. Mice fed high- and adequate-protein diets for 8 days showed no difference (P> .1) in alpha-aminoadipate delta-semialdehyde synthase (AASS) mRNA in experiment 1. However, after pooling the data from the remaining 3 experiments, mice receiving the high-protein diet had greater (P< .05) AASS mRNA compared to mice fed the adequate protein diet. In this investigation, no differences (P> .1) in AASS protein abundance were detected. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which posttranslational regulation is responsible for hepatic induction of LKR activity in mice fed high-protein diets.

  1. Cell-free cyclization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to isopenicillin N.

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Y; Baldwin, J E; Singh, P D; Solomon, N A; Demain, A L

    1980-01-01

    Cell-free cyclization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to isopenicillin N by lytic enzyme extracts of Cephalosporium acremonium M-0198 was stimulated by ferrous ions. The optimum concentration of FeSO4 was 80 microM. No additional stimulation was observed with ascorbate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, or alpha-ketoglutarate, but Triton X-100 and sonication of the extracts increased activity. ZnSO4 was very inhibitory to enzyme activity; CuSO4 was somewhat less inhibitory, and the least effective of the three was MnCl2. The dimer of the tripeptide was converted to a penicillin that has the biological spectrum of isopenicillin N, and this reaction was also stimulated by FeSO4. We found that sonication can be used directly to prepare extracts with cyclization activity from mycelia, without preparing protoplast lysates. The kinetics of cyclase appearance and disappearance during fermentation were similar to those of ring-expansion activity, i.e., enzyme appeared and peaked 13 h after growth ceased and then disappeared. PMID:7191691

  2. Status and prospects of (g-2){sub {mu}} and {delta}{alpha}{sub QED}

    SciTech Connect

    Teubner, Thomas

    2008-11-23

    A brief review of the status of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g-2){sub {mu}}, and the running of the electromagnetic coupling, {alpha}{sub QED}(q{sup 2}), is given. The discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction of g-2 and the measurement from BNL is discussed. The prospects for further improvements in the determination of the vacuum polarisation contributions are outlined.

  3. Histamine receptors on adult rat cardiomyocytes: antagonism of alpha/sub 1/-receptor stimulation of cAMP degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Buxton, I.L.O.; Bowen, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Incubation of intact cardiomyocytes with the histamine antagonist (/sup 3/H)mepyramine results in rapid reversible binding to a single class of high affinity sites (K/sub D/ = 1.2nM; 50,000 sites/myocyte). In membranes from purified myocytes histamine competition of (/sup 3/H)mepyramine binding (K/sub D/ = 300nM) is not altered by GTP (10..mu..M). Competition of (/sup 3/H)mepyramine binding by H-receptor subtype-selective antagonists suggests the presence of a single class of H/sub 1/-receptors. Incubation of intact myocytes with histamine (luM, H/sub 1/ receptor activation) plus norepinephrine (NE 1uM, alpha/sub 1/ + beta/sub 1/ receptor activation) for 3 min leads to significantly more cAMP accumulation (36.5 pmol/10/sup 6/ myocytes) than NE alone (30 pmol/10/sup 6/ myocytes). Histamine alone does not alter basal cAMP = 10.4 pmol/10/sup 6/ myocytes, or beta/sub 1/ stimulation (isoproternol, 1uM) = 39.6 pmol/10/sup 6/ myocytes. Cyclic AMP accumulation with NE plus prazosin 10nM, (alpha/sub 1/ + beta/sub 1/ + alpha/sub 1/ blockade) is indistinguishable from NE + histamine, (alpha/sub 1/ + beta/sub 1/ + H/sub 1/) stimulation. Histamine competition for (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding suggests that histamine does not block alpha/sub 1/ receptors on the myocyte. These data suggest that H/sub 1/ receptor activation leads to antagonism of the alpha/sub 1/ receptor mediated activation of cAMP phosphodiesterase the authors have recently described.

  4. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  5. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic receptors in murine atria: phosphatidylinositol breakdown and receptor interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Upon stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, there is a decrease in the force of contraction rate of firing in heart, while stimulation of ..cap alpha.. adrenergic receptors causes an increase in the force of contraction with no change in the heart rate. Yet both receptors stimulate the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol (PI). Therefore, the breakdown of PI was examined to determine how the process differed between the two receptor systems. Murine atria, prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, were stimulated with the muscarinic cholinergic agonists, carbamylcholine (CARB), and oxotremorine (OXO); and with the ..cap alpha.. adrenergic agonists, norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine (PE); either singly or in combination. Breakdown of PI was assessed by measurement of individual inositol phosphates by anion exchange chromatography. Binding of CARB to atrial muscarinic receptors was measured by competition with (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate.

  6. Potent cyclic enkephalin analogues for delta opioid receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, G.; Kao, J.; Hruby, V.; Morelli, M.; Gulya, K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-01

    (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/,D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPDPE) and (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/, L-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPLPE) characterization studies showed high affinity binding of these radioligands to rat brain membranes with dissociation constants of 1.8 and 1.0 nM, respectively, while a similar number of receptor density was found with both radiolabeled ligands (77 fmoles/mg protein). Unlabeled DPDPE inhibited both radioligands with high affinity (IC50 = 7 nM0 while morphine (IC50 = 80 nM), DAGO (IC50 = 250 nM) and PLO17 (no inhibition at 1000 nM) were less effective in inhibiting the binding, thus, illustrating the selective action of these radiolabeled ligands at the delta opioid receptor. A series of conformationally restricted D-penicillamine containing cyclic enkephalin analogues were synthesized using standard solid phase methods and their ability to inhibit (/sup 3/H)DPDPE and (/sup 3/H)DPLPE were examined in rat brain radioreceptor assays. Substitutions in the DPDPE molecule were made in phe/sup 4/. These substitutions were pNO/sub 2/-phe/sup 4/, beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sub 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/ (three isomeric forms: A,B,D). The IC50 values for the above enkephalin analogues were 3.7, 16, 7, 7, 200 nM, respectively. Thus, these potent analogues of DPDPE should be useful in determining the structure activity relationships of the delta opioid receptor in rat brain.

  7. Haplotypes of the porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene are associated with backfat thickness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. It is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene (PPARD) has been assigned to a region on porcine chromosome 7, which harbours a quantitative trait locus for backfat. Thus, PPARD is considered a functional and positional candidate gene for backfat thickness. The purpose of this study was to test this candidate gene hypothesis in a cross of breeds that were highly divergent in lipid deposition characteristics. Results Screening for genetic variation in porcine PPARD revealed only silent mutations. Nevertheless, significant associations between PPARD haplotypes and backfat thickness were observed in the F2 generation of the Mangalitsa × Piétrain cross as well as a commercial German Landrace population. Haplotype 5 is associated with increased backfat in F2 Mangalitsa × Piétrain pigs, whereas haplotype 4 is associated with lower backfat thickness in the German Landrace population. Haplotype 4 and 5 carry the same alleles at all but one SNP. Interestingly, the opposite effects of PPARD haplotypes 4 and 5 on backfat thickness are reflected by opposite effects of these two haplotypes on PPAR-δ mRNA levels. Haplotype 4 significantly increases PPAR-δ mRNA levels, whereas haplotype 5 decreases mRNA levels of PPAR-δ. Conclusion This study provides evidence for an association between PPARD and backfat thickness. The association is substantiated by mRNA quantification. Further studies are required to clarify, whether the observed associations are caused by PPARD or are the result of linkage disequilibrium with a causal variant in a neighbouring gene. PMID:19943979

  8. Identification of the alternative spliced form of the alpha 2/delta subunit of voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels expressed in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Gilad, B; Shenkar, N; Halevi, S; Trus, M; Atlas, D

    1995-07-07

    The alpha 2/delta subunit of voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels expressed in PC12 has been cloned and partially sequenced. The message observed in Northern blot analysis displays a 7.5 kb transcript, identical in size to mRNA of rabbit skeletal muscle and rat brain. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned alpha 2 subunit of the PC12 specific cDNA is > 99% identical to rat brain sequence and 85% to skeletal muscle. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the alternative splicing region identifies two deleted regions of 57 bp and 21 bp in PC12 expressed alpha 2/delta transcript. The alternative variant alpha 2e of alpha 2/delta subunit which is expressed in PC12 cells was previously identified in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. RT-PCR analysis show two different sized alternative PCR fragments in rat lung and none in rat spleen, kidney and intestine. Antibodies prepared against a 19 amino acid peptide within the alternative spliced region effectively inhibits [3H]dopamine release in PC12 cells. This implies that the alternatively spliced region is positioned extracellularly and is involved in regulation of the L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated transmitter release.

  9. Platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in major depressive disorder. Binding of tritiated clonidine before and after tricyclic antidepressant drug treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Sevilla, J.A.; Zis, A.P.; Hollingsworth, P.J.; Greden, J.F.; Smith, C.B.

    1981-12-01

    The specific binding of tritiated (3H)-clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, to platelet membranes was measured in normal subjects and in patients with major depressive disorder. The number of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors from the depressed group was significantly higher than that found in platelets obtained from the control population. Treatment with tricyclic antidepressant drugs led to significant decreases in the number of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. These results support the hypothesis that the depressive syndrome is related to an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor supersensitivity and that the clinical effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressant drugs is associated with a decrease in the number of these receptors.

  10. Complex pharmacology of natural cannabinoids: evidence for partial agonist activity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and antagonist activity of cannabidiol on rat brain cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Petitet, F; Jeantaud, B; Reibaud, M; Imperato, A; Dubroeucq, M C

    1998-01-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), cannabinol and cannabidiol are three important natural cannabinoids from the Marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa). Using [35S]GTP-gamma-S binding on rat cerebellar homogenate as an index of cannabinoid receptor activation we show that: delta9-THC does not induce the maximal effect obtained by classical cannabinoid receptor agonists such as CP55940. Moreover at high concentration delta9-THC exhibits antagonist properties. Cannabinol is a weak agonist on rat cerebellar cannabinoid receptors and cannabidiol behaves as an antagonist acting in the micromolar range.

  11. The role of palmitoylation in functional expression of nicotinic alpha7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Drisdel, Renaldo C; Manzana, Ehrine; Green, William N

    2004-11-17

    Neuronal alpha-bungarotoxin receptors (BgtRs) are nicotinic receptors that require as yet unidentified post-translational modifications to achieve functional expression. In this study, we examined the role of protein palmitoylation in BgtR expression. BgtR alpha7 subunits are highly palmitoylated in neurons from brain and other cells capable of BgtR expression, such as pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. In PC12 cells, alpha7 subunits are palmitoylated with a stoichiometry of approximately one palmitate per subunit, and inhibition of palmitoylation blocks BgtR expression. In cells incapable of BgtR expression, such as human embryonic kidney cells, alpha7 subunits are not significantly palmitoylated. However, in these same cells, chimeric subunits with the N-terminal half of alpha7 fused to the C-terminal half of serotonin-3A receptor (alpha7/5-HT3A) subunits form functional BgtRs that are palmitoylated to an extent similar to that of BgtRalpha7 subunits in PC12 cells. Palmitoylation of PC12 and alpha7/5-HT3A BgtRs occurred during assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In conclusion, our data indicate a function for protein palmitoylation in which palmitoylation of assembling alpha7 subunits in the ER has a role in the formation of functional BgtRs.

  12. Analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptor function in the in vitro and in vivo regulation of alpha-melanotropin-stimulating hormone secretion from melanotrope cells of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    De Koning, H P; Jenks, B G; Roubos, E W

    1993-02-01

    The activity of many endocrine cells is regulated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The effects of GABA are mediated by GABAA and/or GABAB receptors. While GABAB receptors in the central nervous system have now been extensively characterized, little is known of the function and pharmacology of GABAB receptors on endocrine cells. In the amphibian Xenopus laevis, GABA inhibits the release of alpha MSH from the endocrine melanotrope cells through both GABAA and GABAB receptors. We have investigated the following aspects of the GABAB receptor of the melanotrope cells of X. laevis: 1) the pharmacology of this receptor, using antagonists previously established to demonstrate GABAB receptors in the mammalian central nervous system; 2) the relative contribution to the regulation of hormone secretion by the GABAA and GABAB receptors on melanotrope cells in vitro; and 3) the role of the GABAB receptor with respect to the physiological function of the melanotrope cell in vivo, i.e. regulation of pigment dispersion in skin melanophores in relation to background color. Our results demonstrate that phaclofen, 2-hydroxysaclofen, and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid dose-dependently blocked the inhibition of alpha MSH release by GABAB receptor activation, but not by GABAA receptor activation. The GABAB receptor antagonist delta-aminovaleric acid appeared to be a selective agonist on the GABAB receptor of melanotrope cells. The inhibitory secretory response to a low dose of GABA (10(-5) M) was not affected by bicuculline, but was significantly reduced by phaclofen, indicating that at a low GABA concentration, the GABAB receptor mechanism would dominate in inhibiting the melanotrope cells. Different thresholds of activation may form the basis for differential action of GABA through both GABA receptor types. The tonic inhibition of alpha MSH release in animals adapted to a white background was not affected by 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid, indicating that the GABAB receptor is not (solely

  13. Sustained nicotine exposure differentially affects alpha 3 beta 2 and alpha 4 beta 2 neuronal nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y N; Amin, J; Weiss, D S; Wecker, L

    1996-02-01

    To determine whether prolonged exposure to nicotine differentially affects alpha 3 beta 2 versus alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, oocytes were coinjected with subunit cRNAs, and peak responses to agonist, evoked by 0.7 or 7 microM nicotine for alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors, respectively, were determined before and following incubation for up to 48 h with nanomolar concentrations of nicotine. Agonist responses of alpha 4 beta 2 receptors decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values in the 10 nM range following incubation for 24 h and in the 1 nM range following incubation for 48 h. In contrast, responses of alpha 3 beta 2 receptors following incubation for 24-48 h with 1,000 nM nicotine decreased by only 50-60%, and total ablation of responses could not be achieved. Attenuation of responses occurred within the first 5 min of nicotine exposure and was a first-order process for both subtypes; half-lives for inactivation were 4.09 and 2.36 min for alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors, respectively. Recovery was also first-order for both subtypes; half-lives for recovery were 21 and 7.5 h for alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors, respectively. Thus, the responsiveness of both receptors decreased following sustained exposure to nicotine, but alpha 4 beta 2 receptors recovered much slower. Results may explain the differential effect of sustained nicotine exposure on nicotinic receptor-mediated neurotransmitter release.

  14. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A. )

    1990-11-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography.

  15. Both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta agonists enhance cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, C A; Lieblich, S E; Bingham, B I; Williamson, M A; Viau, V; Galea, L A M

    2006-09-15

    This study investigated the involvement of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estradiol-induced enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult female rat. Subtype selective estrogen receptor agonists, propyl-pyrazole triol (estrogen receptor alpha agonist) and diarylpropionitrile (estrogen receptor beta agonist) were examined for each receptor's contribution, individual and cooperative, for estradiol-enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Estradiol increases hippocampal cell proliferation within 4 h [Ormerod BK, Lee TT, Galea LA (2003) Estradiol initially enhances but subsequently suppresses (via adrenal steroids) granule cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats. J Neurobiol 55:247-260]. Therefore, animals received s.c. injections of estradiol (10 microg), propyl-pyrazole triol and diarylpropionitrile alone (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide) or in combination (2.5 mg propyl-pyrazole triol+2.5 mg diarylpropionitrile/0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide) and 4 h later received an i.p. injection of the cell synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (200 mg/kg). Diarylpropionitrile enhanced cell proliferation at all three administered doses (1.25 mg, P<0.008; 2.5 mg, P<0.003; 5 mg, P<0.005), whereas propyl-pyrazole triol significantly increased cell proliferation (P<0.0002) only at the dose of 2.5 mg. Our results demonstrate both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta are individually involved in estradiol-enhanced cell proliferation. Furthermore both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta mRNA was found co-localized with Ki-67 expression in the hippocampus albeit at low levels, indicating a potential direct influence of each receptor subtype on progenitor cells and their progeny. Dual receptor activation resulted in reduced levels of cell proliferation, supporting previous studies suggesting that estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta may modulate each other's activity. Our results also suggest that a component

  16. The nicotinic receptor in the rat pineal gland is an alpha3beta4 subtype.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Susan C; Vicini, Stefano; Xiao, Yingxian; Dávila-García, Martha I; Yasuda, Robert P; Wolfe, Barry B; Kellar, Kenneth J

    2004-10-01

    The rat pineal gland contains a high density of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We characterized the pharmacology of the binding sites and function of these receptors, measured the nAChR subunit mRNA, and used subunit-specific antibodies to establish the receptor subtype as defined by subunit composition. In ligand binding studies, [3H]epibatidine ([3H]EB) binds with an affinity of approximately 100 pM to nAChRs in the pineal gland, and the density of these sites is approximately 5 times that in rat cerebral cortex. The affinities of nicotinic drugs for binding sites in the pineal gland are similar to those at alpha3beta4 nAChRs heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In functional studies, the potencies and efficacies of nicotinic drugs to activate or block whole-cell currents in dissociated pinealocytes match closely their potencies and efficacies to activate or block 86Rb+ efflux in the cells expressing heterologous alpha3beta4 nAChRs. Measurements of mRNA indicated the presence of transcripts for alpha3, beta2, and beta4 nAChR subunits but not those for alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, or beta3 subunits. Immunoprecipitation with subunit-specific antibodies showed that virtually all [3H]EB-labeled nAChRs contained alpha3 and beta4 subunits associated in one complex. The beta2 subunit was not associated with this complex. Taken together, these results indicate that virtually all of the nAChRs in the rat pineal gland are the alpha3beta4 nAChR subtype and that the pineal gland can therefore serve as an excellent and convenient model in which to study the pharmacology and function of these receptors in a native tissue.

  17. Novel ligands for the opioid receptors: synthesis and structure-activity relationships among 5'-aryl and 5'-heteroaryl 17-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5 alpha-epoxypyrido[2',3':6,7]morphinans.

    PubMed

    Ananthan, Subramaniam; Khare, Naveen K; Saini, Surendra K; Davis, Peg; Dersch, Christina M; Porreca, Frank; Rothman, Richard B

    2003-09-01

    A series of pyridomorphinans possessing an aryl (10a-s) or heteroaryl (11a-h) substituent at the 5'-position of the pyridine ring of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5 alpha-epoxypyrido[2',3':6,7]morphinan was synthesized and evaluated for binding and functional activity at the opioid delta, mu, and kappa receptors. All of these pyridomorphinans bound with higher affinity at the delta site than at mu or kappa sites. The binding data on isomeric compounds revealed that there exists greater bulk tolerance for substituents placed at the o-position of the phenyl ring than at m- or p-positions. Among the ligands examined, the 2-chlorophenyl (10l), 2-nitrophenyl (10n), 2-pyridyl (11a), and 4-quinolinyl (11g) compounds bound to the delta receptor with subnanomolar affinity. Compound 10c with the p-tolyl substituent displayed the highest mu/delta selectivity (ratio=42) whereas compound 10l with the 2-chlorophenyl substituent displayed the highest kappa/delta selectivity (ratio=23). At 10 microM concentration, the in vitro functional activity determined using [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding assays showed that all of the compounds were antagonists devoid of any significant agonist activity at the delta, mu, and kappa receptors. Antagonist potency determinations of three selected ligands revealed that the p-tolyl compound 10c is a potent delta selective antagonist. In the [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S assays this compound had a functional antagonist K(i) value of 0.2, 4.52, and 7.62 nM at the delta, mu, and kappa receptors, respectively. In the smooth muscle assays 10c displayed delta antagonist potency with a K(e) value of 0.88 nM. As an antagonist, it was 70-fold more potent at the delta receptors in the MVD than at the mu receptors in the GPI. The in vitro delta antagonist profile of this pyridomorphinan 10c resembles that of the widely used delta selective antagonist ligand naltrindole.

  18. Novel alpha1-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways: secreted factors and interactions with the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Papay, Robert; Pluskota, Elzbieta; Gaivin, Robert J; de la Motte, Carol A; Plow, Edward F; Perez, Dianne M

    2006-07-01

    alpha1-Adrenergic receptor (alpha1-ARs) subtypes (alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D) regulate multiple signal pathways, such as phospholipase C, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases. We employed oligonucleotide microarray technology to explore the effects of both short- (1 h) and long-term (18 h) activation of the alpha1A-AR to enable RNA changes to occur downstream of earlier well characterized signaling pathways, promoting novel couplings. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies confirmed that PKC was a critical regulator of alpha1A-AR-mediated gene expression, and secreted interleukin (IL)-6 also contributed to gene expression alterations. We next focused on two novel signaling pathways that might be mediated through alpha1A-AR stimulation because of the clustering of gene expression changes for cell adhesion/motility (syndecan-4 and tenascin-C) and hyaluronan (HA) signaling. We confirmed that alpha1-ARs induced adhesion in three cell types to vitronectin, an interaction that was also integrin-, FGF7-, and PKC-dependent. alpha1-AR activation also inhibited cell migration, which was integrin- and PKC-independent but still required secretion of FGF7. alpha1-AR activation also increased the expression and deposition of HA, a glycosaminoglycan, which displayed two distinct structures: pericellular coats and long cable structures, as well as increasing expression of the HA receptor, CD44. Long cable structures of HA can bind leukocytes, which this suggests that alpha1-ARs may be involved in proinflammatory responses. Our results indicate alpha1-ARs induce the secretion of factors that interact with the extracellular matrix to regulate cell adhesion, motility and proinflammatory responses through novel signaling pathways.

  19. Effects of chronic exposure to an anabolic androgenic steroid cocktail on alpha5-receptor-mediated GABAergic transmission and neural signaling in the forebrain of female mice.

    PubMed

    Penatti, C A A; Costine, B A; Porter, D M; Henderson, L P

    2009-06-30

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that are illicitly self-administered for enhancement of performance and body image, but which also have significant effects on the brain and on behavior. While the stereotypical AAS user is an adult male, AAS abuse in women is rapidly increasing, yet few studies have examined AAS effects in female subjects. We have assessed the effects in female mice of a combination of commonly abused AAS on neuronal activity and neurotransmission mediated by GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN); a nexus in the circuits of the hypothalamus and forebrain that are critical for the expression of social behaviors known to be altered in AAS abuse. Our data indicate that chronic exposure to AAS resulted in androgen receptor (AR)-dependent upregulation of alpha(5), beta(3) and delta subunit mRNAs. Acute application of the alpha(5) subunit-selective inverse agonist, L-655,708 (L6), indicated that a significant fraction of the synaptic current is carried by alpha(5)-containing receptors and that AAS treatment may enhance expression of alpha(5)-containing receptors contributing to synaptic, but not tonic, currents in the MPN. AAS treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in action potential frequency in MPN neurons that was also correlated with an increased sensitivity to L-655,708. Our data demonstrate that chronic exposure to multiple AAS elicits significant changes in GABAergic transmission and neuronal activity that are likely to reflect changes in the expression of alpha(5)-containing synaptic receptors within the MPN.

  20. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout selectively enhances ethanol-, but not beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2005-01-03

    The alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated as a potential site of action for two neurotoxins, ethanol and the Alzheimer's disease related peptide, beta-amyloid. Here, we utilized primary neuronal cultures of cerebral cortex from alpha7 nAChR null mutant mice to examine the role of this receptor in modulating the neurotoxic properties of subchronic, "binge" ethanol and beta-amyloid. Knockout of the alpha7 nAChR gene selectively enhanced ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a gene dosage-related fashion. Susceptibility of cultures to beta-amyloid induced toxicity, however, was unaffected by alpha7 nAChR gene null mutation. Further, beta-amyloid did not inhibit the binding of the highly alpha7-selective radioligand, [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin. On the other hand, in studies in Xenopus oocytes ethanol efficaciously inhibited alpha7 nAChR function. These data suggest that alpha7 nAChRs modulate the neurotoxic effects of binge ethanol, but not the neurotoxicity produced by beta-amyloid. It is hypothesized that inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs by ethanol provides partial protection against the neurotoxic properties of subchronic ethanol.

  1. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  2. Potent and selective agonists of alpha-melanotropin (alphaMSH) action at human melanocortin receptor 5; linear analogs of alpha-melanotropin.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Maria A; MacNeil, Tanya; Tang, Rui; Fong, Tung M; Cabello, M Angeles; Maroto, Marta; Teran, Ana

    2007-05-01

    Alpha-melanotropin, Ac-Ser(1)-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His(6)-Phe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val(13)-NH(2)(1), is a non-selective endogenous agonist for the melanocortin receptor 5; the receptor present in various peripheral tissues and in the brain, cortex and cerebellum. Most of the synthetic analogs of alphaMSH, including a broadly used and more potent the NDP-alphaMSH peptide, Ac-Ser(1)-Tyr-Ser-Nle(4)-Glu-His(6)-D-Phe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val(13)-NH(2), are also not particularly selective for MC5R. To elucidate physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor 5 in rodents and humans, the receptor subtype selective research tools are needed. We report herein syntheses and pharmacological evaluation in vitro of several analogs of NDP-alphaMSH which are highly potent and specific agonists for the human MC5R. The new linear peptides, of structures and solubility properties similar to those of the endogenous ligand alphaMSH, are exemplified by compound 7, Ac-Ser(1)-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-Oic(6)-D-4,4'-Bip(7)-Pip(8)-Trp(9)-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val(13)-NH(2) (Oic: octahydroindole-2-COOH, 4,4'-Bip: 4,4'-biphenylalanine, Pip: pipecolic acid), shortly NODBP-alphaMSH, which has an IC(50)=0.74 nM (binding assay) and EC(50)=0.41 (cAMP production assay) at hMC5R nM and greater than 3500-fold selectivity with respect to the melanocortin receptors 1b, 3 and 4. A shorter peptide derived from NODBP-alphaMSH: Ac-Nle-Glu-Oic(6)-D-4,4'-Bip(7)-Pip(8)-Trp(9) -NH(2) (17) was measured to be an agonist only 10-fold less potent at hMC5R than the full length parent peptide. In the structure of this smaller analog, the Nle-Glu-Oic(6)-D-4,4'-Bip(7)-Pip(8) segment was found to be critical for high agonist potency, while the C-terminal Trp(9) residue was shown to be required for high hMC5R selectivity versus hMC1b,3,4R.

  3. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.; Mishra, R.K.

    1989-02-15

    The existence of specific alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites has been shown in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SH5Y) cells using direct radioligand binding. (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to both Y-79 and SH-SY5Y cell membranes. The binding of alpha 1 specific antagonist, (/sup 3/H)Prazocine, was not detectable in either cell type. Competition studies with antagonists yielded pharmacological characteristics typical of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than phentolamine greater than prazocine. Based on the affinity constants of prazocine and oxymetazoline, it appears that Y-79 cells contain alpha 2A receptor, whereas SH-SY5Y cells probably represent a mixture of alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptors. alpha 2-agonists clonidine and (-)epinephrine inhibition curves yielded high and low affinity states of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions reduced the proportion of high affinity sites of alpha 2 receptors. These two neuronal cell lines of human origin would prove useful in elucidating the action and regulation of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and their interaction with other receptor systems.

  4. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  5. Cbln1 is a ligand for an orphan glutamate receptor delta2, a bidirectional synapse organizer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Keiko; Miura, Eriko; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Kakegawa, Wataru; Emi, Kyoichi; Narumi, Sakae; Fukazawa, Yugo; Ito-Ishida, Aya; Kondo, Tetsuro; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2010-04-16

    Cbln1, secreted from cerebellar granule cells, and the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluD2), expressed by Purkinje cells, are essential for synapse integrity between these neurons in adult mice. Nevertheless, no endogenous binding partners for these molecules have been identified. We found that Cbln1 binds directly to the N-terminal domain of GluD2. GluD2 expression by postsynaptic cells, combined with exogenously applied Cbln1, was necessary and sufficient to induce new synapses in vitro and in the adult cerebellum in vivo. Further, beads coated with recombinant Cbln1 directly induced presynaptic differentiation and indirectly caused clustering of postsynaptic molecules via GluD2. These results indicate that the Cbln1-GluD2 complex is a unique synapse organizer that acts bidirectionally on both pre- and postsynaptic components.

  6. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    PubMed

    Valle, Marta; Maqueda, Ana Elda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans. We measured drug-induced changes in spontaneous brain oscillations and subjective effects in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study involving the oral administration of ayahuasca (0.75mg DMT/kg body weight) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (40mg). Twelve healthy, experienced psychedelic users (5 females) participated in four experimental sessions in which they received the following drug combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+ayahuasca, ketanserin+placebo and ketanserin+ayahuasca. Ayahuasca induced EEG power decreases in the delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Current density in alpha-band oscillations in parietal and occipital cortex was inversely correlated with the intensity of visual imagery induced by ayahuasca. Pretreatment with ketanserin inhibited neurophysiological modifications, reduced the correlation between alpha and visual effects, and attenuated the intensity of the subjective experience. These findings suggest that despite the chemical complexity of ayahuasca, 5-HT2A activation plays a key role in the neurophysiological and visual effects of ayahuasca in humans.

  7. Stoichiometry and pharmacology of two human alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor types.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Mirko; Bermudez, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant nAChR subtype in the brain, where it forms the high-affinity binding site for nicotine. The alpha4beta2 nAChR belongs to a gene family of ligand-gated ion channels that also includes muscle nAChRs, GABAA receptors, and glycine receptors and that assembles into pentameric structures. alpha4 and beta2 nAChR subunits expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes assemble into a mixture of high- and low-affinity functional receptors, giving rise to biphasic ACh concentration-response curves (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001). High- and low-affinity alpha4beta2 nAChRs differ significantly in their functional and pharmacological properties (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 2003) and result from the assembly of alpha4 and beta2 subunits into two distinct stoichiometric arrangements: (alpha4)2(beta2)3(high-affinity subtype) and (alpha4)3(beta2)2 (low-affinity subtype) (Nelson et al., 2003). In this study we have examined the functional and pharmacological properties of high- and low-affinity alpha4beta2 receptors using two-electrode voltage clamp procedures on Xenopus oocytes transfected with high (1:10) or low (10:1) ratios of alpha4/beta2 cDNAs, which yield high (1:10)- or low (10:1)- affinity receptors with monophasic ACh concentration- response curves. Furthermore, to determine the stoichiometry of high- and low-affinity receptors expressed heterologously by Xenopus oocytes, we have determined the stoichiometry of high- and low-affinity alpha4beta2 receptors by mutating a highly conserved hydrophobic residue in the middle (position 9') of the pore-lining domain, which increases agonist potency in a manner that allows predictions on subunit composition (Cooper et al., 1991; Revah et al., 1991; Labarca et al., 1995; Boorman et al., 2000).

  8. The Effect of CRH, Dexamethasone and Naltrexone on the Mu, Delta and Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist Binding in Lamb Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    PubMed

    Pierzchała-Koziec, Krystyna; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta; Oeltgen, Peter; Zubel-Łojek, Joanna; Latacz, Anna; Ocłon, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the opioid receptor binding (mu, delta and kappa) in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex (HPA) of lambs treated in vivo with corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist (NAL), and dexamethasone, a potent cortisol analog (DEX). Experiment was carried out on 3 months old female lambs of polish mountain strain. Lambs received a single i.v. injection of NaCl (control), CRH (alone or in combination with naltrexone), naltrexone or dexamethasone. One hour later animals were decapitated under anaesthesia, tissues were dissected out and receptor binding assays were performed with radioligands for each type of opioid receptors--3H-DAGO, 3H-DPDPE and 3H-EKC for mu, delta and kappa receptor, respectively. Coexistence of specific binding sites for each type of opioid receptor was demonstrated in all levels of HPA axis of control lambs, however their distribution was uneven. Acute treatment with CRH, DEX and NAL caused downregulation or upregulation of mu, delta, kappa receptor binding in each level of HPA axis. CRH effects on mu, delta and kappa opioid receptor binding varied within the HPA axis and were modulated by naltrexone. Treatment with naltrexone increased in vitro mu, delta and kappa receptor binding in most tested structures except delta receptor binding in adrenal (decrease by 52%) and kappa receptor binding in pituitary (decrease by 41%). Dexamethasone significantly decreased the mu, delta and kappa opioid receptor binding in adrenal cortex but differentially affected opioid receptor binding in hypothalamus and pituitary. It seems probable that endogenous opioid peptides acting through mu, delta and kappa receptors interact with the hormones released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  9. Switching agonist/antagonist properties of opiate alkaloids at the delta opioid receptor using mutations based on the structure of the orphanin FQ receptor.

    PubMed

    Meng, F; Wei, Q; Hoversten, M T; Taylor, L P; Akil, H

    2000-07-21

    In an earlier study, we have demonstrated that by mutating five amino acid residues to those conserved in the opioid receptors, the OFQ receptor could be converted to a functional receptor that bound many opioid alkaloids with nanomolar affinities. Surprisingly, when the reciprocal mutations, Lys-214 --> Ala (TM5), Ile-277 --> Val/His-278 --> Gln/Ile-279 --> Val (TM6), and Ile-304 --> Thr (TM7), are introduced in the delta receptor, neither the individual mutations nor their various combinations significantly reduce the binding affinities of opioid alkaloids tested. However, these mutations cause profound alterations in the functional characteristics of the mutant receptors as measured in guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assays. Some agonists become antagonists at some constructs as they lose their ability to activate them. Some alkaloid antagonists are transformed into agonists at other constructs, but their agonistic effects can still be blocked by the peptide antagonist TIPP. Even the delta inverse agonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone becomes an agonist at the mutant containing both the Ile-277 --> Val/His-278 --> Gln/Ile-279 --> Val and Ile-304 --> Thr mutations. Thus, although the mutated residues are thought to be part of the binding pocket, they are critically involved in the control of the delta receptor activation process. These findings shed light on some of the structural bases of ligand efficacy. They are also compatible with the hypothesis that a ligand may achieve high affinity binding in several different ways, each having different effects on receptor activation.

  10. The brain metabolite kynurenic acid inhibits alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity and increases non-alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression: physiopathological implications.

    PubMed

    Hilmas, C; Pereira, E F; Alkondon, M; Rassoulpour, A; Schwarcz, R; Albuquerque, E X

    2001-10-01

    The tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) has long been recognized as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Here, interactions between KYNA and the nicotinic system in the brain were investigated using the patch-clamp technique and HPLC. In the electrophysiological studies, agonists were delivered via a U-shaped tube, and KYNA was applied in admixture with agonists and via the background perfusion. Exposure (>/=4 min) of cultured hippocampal neurons to KYNA (>/=100 nm) inhibited activation of somatodendritic alpha7 nAChRs; the IC(50) for KYNA was approximately 7 microm. The inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs was noncompetitive with respect to the agonist and voltage independent. The slow onset of this effect could not be accounted for by an intracellular action because KYNA (1 mm) in the pipette solution had no effect on alpha7 nAChR activity. KYNA also blocked the activity of preterminal/presynaptic alpha7 nAChRs in hippocampal neurons in cultures and in slices. NMDA receptors were less sensitive than alpha7 nAChRs to KYNA. The IC(50) values for KYNA-induced blockade of NMDA receptors in the absence and presence of glycine (10 microm) were approximately 15 and 235 microm, respectively. Prolonged (3 d) exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to KYNA increased their nicotinic sensitivity, apparently by enhancing alpha4beta2 nAChR expression. Furthermore, as determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection, repeated systemic treatment of rats with nicotine caused a transient reduction followed by an increase in brain KYNA levels. These results demonstrate that nAChRs are targets for KYNA and suggest a functionally significant cross talk between the nicotinic cholinergic system and the kynurenine pathway in the brain.

  11. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus.

  12. Parathyroid-specific interaction of the calcium-sensing receptor and G alpha q.

    PubMed

    Pi, Min; Chen, Ling; Huang, MinZhao; Luo, Qiang; Quarles, L Darryl

    2008-12-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor regulates various parathyroid gland functions, including hormone secretion, gene transcription, and chief cell hyperplasia through G alpha q- and G alpha i-dependent signaling pathways. To determine the specific function of G alpha q in these processes, we generated transgenic mice using the human parathyroid hormone promoter to drive overexpression of a dominant negative G alpha q loop minigene to selectively disrupt G alpha q function in the parathyroid gland. The G alpha q loop mRNA was highly expressed in the parathyroid gland but not in other tissues of these transgenic mice. Gross appearance, body weight, bone mineral density, and survival of the transgenic mice were indistinguishable from those of their wild-type littermates. Adult transgenic mice, however, exhibited an increase in parathyroid hormone mRNA and in its basal serum level as well as in gland size. The response of the parathyroid gland to hypocalcemia was found to be reduced in sensitivity in the transgenic mice when compared to their wild-type controls. Abnormalities of the parathyroid gland function in these transgenic mice were similar to those of heterozygous G alpha q(+/-) and calcium sensing receptor(+/-) mice. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of selectively targeting the parathyroid gland to investigate signaling mechanisms downstream of the calcium receptor.

  13. Interactions of human alpha/beta and gamma/delta T lymphocyte subsets in shear flow with E-selectin and P-selectin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the ability of human alpha/beta and gamma/delta T lymphocytes to adhere to selectin-bearing substrates, an interaction thought to be essential for homing and localization at sites of inflammation. Both T cell populations form rolling adhesions on E- and P-selectin substrates under physiologic flow conditions. Although equivalent to alpha/beta T cells in binding to E-selectin, gamma/delta T cells demonstrated greater ability to adhere to P-selectin that was purified or expressed on the surface of activated, adherent platelets. Under static conditions, 80% of gamma/delta T cells and 53% of alpha/beta T cells formed shear-resistant adhesions to P-selectin, whereas only 30% of gamma/delta and alpha/beta T cells adhered to E- selectin. The enhance ability of gamma/delta T cells to adhere to P- selectin cannot be attributed to differences in expression of the P- selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL-1), as all alpha/beta T cells versus approximately 75% of gamma/delta T cells expressed PSGL-1. Both cell populations expressed a similar percentage of the carbohydrate antigens sialyl LewisX and cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen. Depletion of lymphocyte populations or T cell clones bearing these oligosaccharides with the monoclonal antibody CSLEX-1 and HECA-452, respectively, resulted in a substantial reduction in adhesion to E-selectin and slight reduction in adhesion to P-selectin under flow conditions. Treatment of cells with an endopeptidase that selectively degrades O- sialomucins such as PSGL-1, abolished P-selectin but not E-selectin adhesion. Removal of terminal sialic acids with neuraminidase or protease treatment of cells abrogated cell adhesion to both selectin substrates. These results provide direct evidence for the presence of distinct E- and P-selectin ligands on T lymphocytes and suggest that gamma/delta T cells may be preferentially recruited to inflammatory sites during the early stages of an immune response when P-selectin is

  14. A PTEN-regulated checkpoint regulates surface delivery of delta opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Shiwarski, Daniel J; Tipton, Alycia; Giraldo, Melissa D; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Gold, Michael S; Pradhan, Amynah A; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2017-03-06

    The delta opioid receptor (δR) is a promising alternate target for pain management, because δR agonists show decreased abuse potential compared to current opioid analgesics that target the mu opioid receptor. A critical limitation in developing δR as an analgesic target, however, is that δR agonists show relatively low efficacy in vivo, requiring the use of high doses that often cause adverse effects such as convulsions. Here we tested whether intracellular retention of δR in sensory neurons contributes to this low δR agonist efficacy in vivo by limiting surface δR expression. Using direct visualization of δR trafficking and localization, we define a phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-regulated checkpoint that retains δR in the Golgi and decreases surface delivery in rat and mice sensory neurons. PTEN inhibition releases δR from this checkpoint and stimulates delivery of exogenous and endogenous δR to the neuronal surface both in vitro and in vivo PTEN inhibition in vivo increases the percentage of TG neurons expressing δR on the surface, and allows efficient δR-mediated antihyperalgesia in mice. Together, we define a critical role for PTEN in regulating the surface delivery and bioavailability of the δR, explain the low efficacy of δR agonists in vivo, and provide evidence that active δR relocation is a viable strategy to increase δR antinociception.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTOpioid analgesics like morphine, which target the mu opioid receptor (μR), have been the mainstay of pain management, but their use is highly limited by adverse effects and their variable efficacy in chronic pain. Identifying alternate analgesic targets is therefore of great significance. While the delta opioid receptor (δR) is an attractive option, a critical limiting factor in developing δR as a target has been the low efficacy of δR agonists. Why δR agonists show low efficacy is still under debate. This study provides mechanistic and functional data that intracellular

  15. Sequence and functional expression of a single alpha subunit of an insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J; Buckingham, S D; Shingai, R; Lunt, G G; Goosey, M W; Darlison, M G; Sattelle, D B; Barnard, E A

    1990-01-01

    We report the isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone that encodes a locust (Schistocerca gregaria) nervous system nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit (alpha L1). The calculated molecular weight of the unglycosylated polypeptide, which contains in the proposed extracellular domain two adjacent cysteine residues which are characteristic of alpha (ligand binding) subunits, is 60,641 daltons. Injection into Xenopus oocytes, of RNA synthesized from this clone in vitro, results in expression of functional nicotinic receptors in the oocyte membrane. In these, nicotine opens a cation channel; the receptors are blocked by both alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt) and kappa-bungarotoxin (kappa-Bgt). Reversible block of the expressed insect AChR by mecamylamine, d-tubocurarine, tetraethylammonium, bicuculline and strychnine has also been observed. These data are entirely consistent with previously reported electrophysiological studies on in vivo insect nicotinic receptors and also with biochemical studies on an alpha-Bgt affinity purified locust AChR. Thus, a functional receptor exhibiting the characteristic pharmacology of an in vivo insect nicotinic AChR can be expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection with a single subunit RNA. PMID:1702381

  16. Alpha2 receptor binding in the medulla oblongata in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, J; Panigrahy, A; Filiano, J J; Sleeper, L A; St John, W M; Kinney, H C

    2001-02-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of postnatal infant mortality in the United States. Its etiology remains unknown. We propose that SIDS, or a subset of SIDS, is due to a failure of autoresuscitation, a protective brainstem response to asphyxia or hypoxia, in a vulnerable infant during a critical developmental period. Gasping is an important component of autoresuscitation that is thought to be mediated by the "gasping center" in the lateral tegmentum of the medulla, a region homologous in its cytoarchitecture and chemical anatomy to the intermediate reticular zone (IRZ) in the human. Since we found that [3H]para-aminoclonidine ([3H]PAC) binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors localizes to this region in human infants and, thereby provides a neurochemical marker for it, we tested the hypothesis that [3H]PAC binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors is decreased in the IRZ in SIDS victims. Using quantitative tissue autoradiography with [3H]PAC as the radioligand and phentolamine as the displacer, we analyzed alpha2-receptor binding density in the IRZ, as well as in 7 additional sites for comparison, in 10 SIDS and 10 control medullae. There were no significant differences in alpha2 receptor binding in the IRZ, vagal nuclei, or other medullary sites examined between SIDS and control cases. These results suggest that the putative gasping defect in the IRZ in SIDS victims is not related to [3H]PAC binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors.

  17. Isolation of rat genomic clones encoding subtypes of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. Identification of a unique receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Lanier, S M; Downing, S; Duzic, E; Homcy, C J

    1991-06-05

    alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors (alpha 2-AR) exist as subtypes that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and differ in 1) their ligand recognition properties, 2) their extent of receptor protein glycosylation, and possible 3) their mechanism of signal transduction. Genomic or cDNA clones encoding three receptor subtypes have been characterized; however, both functional and radioligand binding studies in rodents suggest the existence of a fourth receptor subtype. To isolate the rat genes encoding receptor subtypes we screened a rat genomic library with an oligonucleotide probe encompassing the third membrane span of the human C-4 alpha 2-AR. Two intronless rat genes were isolated that encode distinct receptor subtypes (RG10, RG20). RG10 and RG20 encode proteins of 458 and 450 amino acids, respectively, that are 56% homologous and possess the structural features expected of this class of membrane-bound receptors. RG10 identifies a mRNA species of approximately 2500 nucleotides that is found primarily in brain, whereas RG20 identifies a larger mRNA species (approximately 4000 nucleotides) that is found in several tissues including brain, kidney, and salivary gland. RG10 is 88% homologous to the human C-4 alpha 2-AR and exhibits similar binding properties ( [3H]rauwolscine KD = 0.7 +/- 0.3 nM) as determined following transient expression of the receptor in COS-1 cells. RG20 exhibits ligand binding properties distinct from the three receptor subtypes identified by molecular cloning. Saturation binding studies indicate an affinity constant of 15 +/- 1.2 nM for the alpha 2-AR antagonist [3H]rauwolscine, a value 6-20 times higher than that observed for the three cloned receptor subtypes. In competition binding studies the potency order of competing ligands for RG20 is phentolamine greater than idazoxan greater than yohimbine greater than rauwolscine greater than prazosin. Of the three previously cloned alpha 2-AR, RG20 is most closely related to the human C-10 alpha 2-AR

  18. Nicotine trapping causes the persistent desensitization of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors expressed in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li; Flotildes, Karen; Li, Maureen; Cohen, Bruce N

    2003-02-01

    To determine whether prolonged nicotine exposure persistently inactivates rat alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, we measured the voltage-clamped alpha4beta2 response to acetylcholine (ACh) before and 24 h after, 1-h or 12-h incubations in 10 microm nicotine. A 12-h incubation in 10 microm nicotine depressed the alpha4beta2 ACh response for 24 h without affecting total or surface alpha4beta2 expression. To determine whether oocyte-mediated nicotine release caused this depression, we co-incubated an alpha4beta2-expressing oocyte with an un-injected one (pre-incubated in 10 microm nicotine for 12 h) for 24 h and measured the change in the alpha4beta2 ACh response. The response decreased by the same factor after the co-incubation as it did after a 12-h incubation in 10 microm nicotine and a 24-h incubation in nicotine-free media. Thus, oocyte-mediated nicotine release caused the persistent desensitization we observed after a 12-h incubation in 10 microm nicotine. Consistent with this result, measurements of [3H]nicotine release show that oocytes release enough nicotine into the wash media to desensitize alpha4beta2 receptors and that prolonged incubation in 300 microm ACh (which cannot readily cross the membrane or accumulate in acidic vesicles) did not persistently depress the alpha4beta2 response.

  19. Overexpression of the alpha1B-adrenergic receptor causes apoptotic neurodegeneration: multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Zuscik, M J; Sands, S; Ross, S A; Waugh, D J; Gaivin, R J; Morilak, D; Perez, D M

    2000-12-01

    Progress toward elucidating the function of alpha1B-adrenergic receptors (alpha1BARs) in the central nervous system has been constrained by a lack of agonists and antagonists with adequate alpha1B-specificity. We have obviated this constraint by generating transgenic mice engineered to overexpress either wild-type or constitutively active alpha1BARs in tissues that normally express the receptor, including the brain. All transgenic lines showed granulovacular neurodegeneration, beginning in alpha1B-expressing domains of the brain and progressing with age to encompass all areas. The degeneration was apoptotic and did not occur in non-transgenic mice. Correspondingly, transgenic mice showed an age-progressive hindlimb disorder that was parkinsonian-like, as demonstrated by rescue of the dysfunction by 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and considerable dopaminergic-neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Transgenic mice also had a grand mal seizure disorder accompanied by a corresponding dysplasia and neurodegeneration of the cerebral cortex. Both behavioral phenotypes (locomotor impairment and seizure) could be partially rescued with the alpha1AR antagonist terazosin, indicating that alpha1AR signaling participated directly in the pathology. Our results indicate that overstimulation of alpha1BAR leads to apoptotic neurodegeneration with a corresponding multiple system atrophy indicative of Shy-Drager syndrome, a disease whose etiology is unknown.

  20. Coexistence of GABAA and GABAB receptors on A delta and C primary afferents.

    PubMed Central

    Désarmenien, M.; Feltz, P.; Occhipinti, G.; Santangelo, F.; Schlichter, R.

    1984-01-01

    Intracellular recordings from adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurones were performed in vitro and the coexistence of two gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors on the membrane of identified A delta and C primary afferents was demonstrated. Transient applications of GABA (10(-6)-10(-2) M) evoked dose-dependent depolarizations and increased membrane conductance. The responses were mimicked by muscimol, isoguvacine, THIP and 3 amino propane sulphonic acid (3 APS); they were blocked by bicuculline and picrotoxin. Pentobarbitone induced an increase of GABA-induced depolarizations. Perfusion of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 7.5 mM) and intracellular injection of Cs+ ions unmasked the Ca2+ component of action potentials, which appeared as long-lasting plateau depolarizations. Such action potentials were shortened in the presence of methoxyverapamil (D600, 5 X 10(-6)-10(-5) M) and in a medium without Ca+ ions. Prolonged (5-10 min) perfusion of GABA (10(-9)-10(-5) M) shortened the Ca2+ component of action potentials. This effect was mimicked by baclofen (10(-7)-5 X 10(-6) M) and muscimol (5 X 10(-7)-10(-5) M) and was not affected by bicuculline perfusion (5 X 10(-6)-10(-5) M). Isoguvacine (2.5 X 10(-5) M) did not affect action potential duration. It is concluded that two GABA receptors coexist on the membrane of slow conducting primary afferents: the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor mediates depolarizations and the bicuculline-insensitive GABAB receptor shortens the calcium component of action potentials. PMID:6322896

  1. Identification of a signaling cascade that maintains constitutive delta opioid receptor incompetence in peripheral sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Brackley, Allison Doyle; Sarrami, Shayda; Gomez, Ruben; Guerrero, Kristi A; Jeske, Nathaniel A

    2017-04-05

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists are often used to treat severe pain, but can result in adverse side effects. To circumvent systemic side effects, targeting peripheral opioid receptors is an attractive alternative treatment for severe pain. Activation of the delta opioid receptor (DOR) produces similar analgesia with reduced side effects. However, until primed by inflammation, peripheral DOR is analgesically incompetent, raising interest in the mechanism. We recently identified a novel role for G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) that renders DOR analgesically incompetent at the plasma membrane. However, the mechanism that maintains constitutive GRK2 association with DOR is unknown. Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of GRK2 at Ser685 targets it to the plasma membrane. A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP), residing at the plasma membrane in neurons, scaffolds PKA to target proteins to mediate downstream signal. Therefore, we sought to determine whether GRK2-mediated DOR desensitization is directed by PKA via AKAP scaffolding. Membrane fractions from cultured rat sensory neurons following AKAP siRNA-transfection and from AKAP-knockout mice, had less PKA activity, GRK2 Ser685 phosphorylation, and GRK2 plasma membrane targeting than controls. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that GRK2 Ser685 phosphorylation drives GRK2s association with plasma membrane-associated DOR. Moreover, overexpression studies with AKAP mutants indicated that impaired AKAP-mediated PKA scaffolding significantly reduces DOR-GRK2 association at the plasma membrane and consequently increases DOR activity in sensory neurons without a priming event. These findings suggest that AKAP scaffolds PKA to increase plasma membrane targeting and phosphorylation of GRK2 to maintain DOR analgesic incompetence in peripheral sensory neurons.

  2. Correlation between chemical structure, receptor binding, and biological activity of some novel, highly active, 16 alpha, 17 alpha-acetal-substituted glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, E; Thalén, A; Brattsand, R; Gustafsson, J A; Johansson, U; Roempke, K; Saartok, T

    1984-01-01

    The affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor in rat skeletal muscle of some glucocorticoids with a new type of 16 alpha, 17 alpha-acetal substituent has been estimated and correlated to the glucocorticoid activities in three in vivo systems in rats. Budesonide (an approximately 1:1 mixture of the C(22) epimers of 11 beta, 21-dihydroxy-16 alpha, 17 alpha-[(22R,S)-propylmethylenedioxy]-pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione) and the isolated (22R)- and (22S)-epimers bound to the same binding site as the potent glucocorticoids dexamethasone (DEX) or triamcinolone 16 alpha, 17 alpha-acetonide (TA), but with even higher affinity than DEX or TA, despite the lack of a 9 alpha-fluoro atom in budesonide and its epimers. The (22R)-epimer was twice as active as the (22S)-epimer, 4 times more active than TA, and 14 times more active than DEX. The introduction of a 9 alpha-fluoro atom slightly decreased the binding affinity of the (22R)-epimer of budesonide, in contrast to the positive effect of 9 alpha-fluorination of, e.g., 16 alpha, 17 alpha-acetonides. The negative influence of 9 alpha-fluorination of the (22R)-epimer was partially reversed in the 6 alpha, 9 alpha-difluorinated (22R)-epimer. Nevertheless, the fluorinated compounds were more active than DEX and TA (8 and 11 times more active than DEX, and 2 and 3 times more active than TA, in case of the 9 alpha-fluoro- and 6 alpha, 9 alpha-difluoro-derivatives of the (22R)-epimer, respectively). Budesonide is metabolized mainly to 16 alpha-hydroxyprednisolone (11 beta, 16 alpha, 17 alpha, 21-tetrahydroxy-pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione) and 6 beta-hydroxy-budesonide. Both metabolites were very weak competitors for the ligand-binding sites on the receptor (3% and 6% of the affinity of DEX, respectively). The affinity for the receptor in vitro was closely correlated to the topical glucocorticoid activity in vivo for the 12 steroids compared (r = 0.98; R = 0.98), which supports the contention that in vitro tests for receptor affinity are

  3. Cat carotid body chemoreceptor responses before and after nicotine receptor blockade with alpha-bungarotoxin.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, E; Lahiri, S

    1987-01-01

    The nature of nicotine receptors in the carotid body was studied in anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats. Chemoreceptor discharge in single or few-fiber preparations of the carotid sinus nerve was measured during isocapnic hypoxia, hyperoxic hypercapnia and in response to nicotine injections before and after administration of alpha-bungarotoxin (10 cats) and after alpha-bungarotoxin plus mecamylamine (7 cats) which binds to neuromuscular-type nicotine cholinergic receptors. alpha-Bungarotoxin caused a slight enhancement of the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia without affecting the chemoreceptor stimulation by nicotine. Mecamylamine (1-5 mg, i.v.), a ganglionic-type nicotinic receptor blocker, had no further effect on the response to hypoxia while it completely abolished the chemoreceptor stimulation by nicotine. Thus the nicotinic receptors in the cat carotid body which elicit excitation of chemosensory fibers appear to be of the ganglionic-type. Blockade of neuromuscular and ganglionic types of nicotinic receptors in the carotid body by alpha-bungarotoxin and mecamylamine does not attenuate the chemosensory responses to either hypoxia or hypercapnia. These nicotinic receptors therefore, do not appear to play an essential role in hypoxic or hypercapnic chemoreception in the cat carotid body.

  4. Ligand-induced interaction between. alpha. - and. beta. -type platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors: Role of receptor heterodimers in kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakaraj, P.; Raj, S.; Bishayee, S. ); Khan, S.A. )

    1991-02-19

    Two types of PDGF receptors have been cloned and sequenced. Both receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins with a ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase site. The authors have shown earlier that ligand-induced activation of the {beta}-type PDGF receptor is due to the conversion of the monomeric form of the receptor to the dimeric form. In the present studies, they have established the ligand-binding specificity of two receptor types and extended it further to investigate the ligand-induced association state of the {alpha}-receptor and the role of {alpha}-receptor in the activation of {beta}-receptor. These studies were conducted with cells that express one or the other type of PDGF receptor as well as with cells that express both types of receptors. Moreover, ligand-binding characteristics of the receptor were confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the receptor-{sup 125}I-PDGF covalent complex with type-specific anti-PDGF receptor antibodies. These studies revealed that all three isoforms of PDGF bind to {alpha}-receptor, and such binding leads to dimerization as well as activation of the receptor. In contrast, {beta}-receptor can be activated only by PDGF BB and not by PDGF AB or PDGF AA. However, by using antipeptide antibodies that are specific for {alpha}- or {beta}-type PDGF receptor, they demonstrated that in the presence of {alpha}-receptor, {beta}-receptor kinase can be activated by PDGF AB. They present here direct evidence that strongly suggests that such PDGF AB induced activation of {beta}-receptor is due to the formation of a noncovalently linked {alpha}-{beta} receptor heterodimer.

  5. alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and modulation of gabaergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Alkondon, M; Braga, M F; Pereira, E F; Maelicke, A; Albuquerque, E X

    2000-03-30

    The present report provides new findings regarding modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission by alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity in CA1 interneurons of rat hippocampal slices. Recordings were obtained from tight-seal cell-attached patches of the CA1 interneurons, and agonists were delivered to the neurons via a modified U-tube. Application for 6 s of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor-selective agonist choline (> or =1 mM) to all CA1 interneurons tested triggered action potentials that were detected as fast current transients. The activity triggered by choline terminated well before the end of the agonist pulse, was blocked by the alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (50 nM) and was concentration dependent; the higher the concentration of choline the higher the frequency of events and the shorter the delay for detection of the first event. In 40% of the neurons tested, choline-triggered action potentials decreased in amplitude progressively until no more events could be detected despite the presence of the agonist. Primarily, this finding could be explained by Na(+)-channel inactivation associated with membrane depolarization induced by alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation. In 60% of the neurons, the amplitude of choline-induced action potentials was sustained at the intial level, but again the activity did not last as long as the agonist pulse, in this case apparently because of agonist-induced receptor desensitization. These results altogether demonstrate that agonists interacting with alpha7 nicotinic receptors, including the natural transmitter acetylcholine and its metabolite choline, influence GABAergic transmission, not only by activating these receptors, but also by controlling the rate of Na(+)-channel inactivation and/or by inducing receptor desensitization.

  6. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  7. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  8. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  9. 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin-J(2) reveals a new pVHL-independent, lysosomal-dependent mechanism of HIF-1alpha degradation.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Gemma; Arenas, María I; Bienes, Raquel; Calzada, María Jose; Aragonés, Julián; Garcia-Bermejo, Maria Laura; Landazuri, Manuel O; Lucio-Cazaña, Javier

    2009-07-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein is degraded under normoxia by its association to von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) and further proteasomal digestion. However, human renal cells HK-2 treated with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin-J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) accumulate HIF-1alpha in normoxic conditions. Thus, we aimed to investigate the mechanism involved in this accumulation. We found that 15d-PGJ(2) induced an over-accumulation of HIF-1alpha in RCC4 cells, which lack pVHL and in HK-2 cells treated with inhibitors of the pVHL-proteasome pathway. These results indicated that pVHL-proteasome-independent mechanisms are involved, and therefore we aimed to ascertain them. We have identified a new lysosomal-dependent mechanism of HIF-1alpha degradation as a target for 15d-PGJ(2) based on: (1) HIF-1alpha colocalized with the specific lysosomal marker Lamp-2a, (2) 15d-PGJ(2) inhibited the activity of cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease, and (3) inhibition of lysosomal activity did not result in over-accumulation of HIF-1alpha in 15d-PGJ(2)-treated cells. Therefore, expression of HIF-1alpha is also modulated by lysosomal degradation.

  10. Barium permeability of neuronal nicotinic receptor alpha 7 expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sands, S B; Costa, A C; Patrick, J W

    1993-01-01

    The rat alpha 7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was expressed and studied in Xenopus oocytes. The magnitude and reversal potential of instantaneous whole cell currents were examined in solutions containing varying concentrations of either calcium or barium, and in the presence or absence of the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In external barium, application of nicotine elicits an inwardly rectifying response; in calcium the response is larger and has a linear IV relation. Pretreatment of oocytes with BAPTA-AM could not prevent activation of calcium-dependent chloride channels in external Ringer containing calcium. Using an extended GHK equation, the permeability ratio PBa/PNa of the alpha 7 receptor was determined to be about 17. Our results suggest that alpha 7 nicotinic receptors are highly permeable to divalent cations. PMID:8312496

  11. Inhibitory effects of tramadol on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in adrenal chromaffin cells and in Xenopus oocytes expressing alpha 7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Munehiro; Minami, Kouichiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Shigematsu, Akio; Shibuya, Izumi

    2002-05-01

    1. Tramadol has been used clinically as an analgesic; however, the mechanism of its analgesic effects is still unknown. 2. We used bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to investigate effects of tramadol on catecholamine secretion, nicotine-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increases and membrane current changes. We also investigated effects of tramadol on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 3. Tramadol concentration-dependently suppressed carbachol-induced catecholamine secretion to 60% and 27% of the control at the concentration of 10 and 100 microM, respectively, whereas it had little effect on veratridine- or high K(+)-induced catecholamine secretion. 4. Tramadol also suppressed nicotine-induced ([Ca(2+)](i)) increases in a concentration-dependent manner. Tramadol inhibited nicotine-induced inward currents, and the inhibition was unaffected by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. 5. Tramadol inhibited nicotinic currents carried by alpha7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 6. Tramadol inhibited both alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive nicotinic currents in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. 7. In conclusion, tramadol inhibits catecholamine secretion partly by inhibiting nicotinic AChR functions in a naloxone-insensitive manner and alpha7 receptors are one of those inhibited by tramadol.

  12. An Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Megan D.; Chan, Trevor; Swigart, Philip M.; Myagmar, Bat-erdene; Dash, Rajesh; Simpson, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive effects in the heart and cardiac myocytes, and a myocyte survival pathway involving the alpha-1A receptor subtype and ERK activation exists in vitro. However, data in vivo are limited. Here we tested A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl]methanesulfonamide), a selective imidazoline agonist for the alpha-1A. A61603 was the most potent alpha-1-agonist in activating ERK in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. A61603 activated ERK in adult mouse ventricular myocytes and protected the cells from death caused by the anthracycline doxorubicin. A low dose of A61603 (10 ng/kg/d) activated ERK in the mouse heart in vivo, but did not change blood pressure. In male mice, concurrent subcutaneous A61603 infusion at 10 ng/kg/d for 7 days after a single intraperitoneal dose of doxorubicin (25 mg/kg) increased survival, improved cardiac function, heart rate, and cardiac output by echocardiography, and reduced cardiac cell necrosis and apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. All protective effects were lost in alpha-1A-knockout mice. In female mice, doxorubicin at doses higher than in males (35–40 mg/kg) caused less cardiac toxicity than in males. We conclude that the alpha-1A-selective agonist A61603, via the alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, prevents doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in male mice, supporting the theory that alpha-1A adrenergic receptor agonists have potential as novel heart failure therapies. PMID:28081170

  13. Delta Hemolysin and Phenol-Soluble Modulins, but Not Alpha Hemolysin or Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Induce Mast Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hodille, Elisabeth; Cuerq, Charlotte; Badiou, Cédric; Bienvenu, Françoise; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Cartier, Régine; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Plesa, Adriana; Le, Vien T. M.; Diep, Binh A.; Lina, Gérard; Dumitrescu, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are located at host interfaces, such as the skin, and contribute to the first-line defense against pathogens by releasing soluble mediators, including those that induce itching and scratching behavior. Here, we show that delta-hemolysin (Hld) and phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) PSMα1 and PSMα3, but not alpha-hemolysin (Hla) or Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), induce dose-dependent tryptase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by the HMC-1 human mast cell line. Using supernatants from isogenic strains, we verified that tryptase and LDH release was Hld- and PSMα-dependent. PSMα1 and Hld production was detected in 65 and 17% of human Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin abscess specimens, respectively, but they were produced in vitro by all clinical isolates. The results suggest that Hld and PSM-α1 produced in vivo during S. aureus skin infections induce the release of mast cell mediators responsible for itching and scratching behavior, which may enhance skin to skin transmission of S. aureus via the hands. As Hld and PSMs are upregulated by accessory gene regulator (agr), their association may contribute to the elective transmission of S. aureus strains with a functional agr system. PMID:28018862

  14. Upregulation of surface alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors is initiated by receptor desensitization after chronic exposure to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Fenster, C P; Whitworth, T L; Sheffield, E B; Quick, M W; Lester, R A

    1999-06-15

    It is hypothesized that desensitization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) induced by chronic exposure to nicotine initiates upregulation of nAChR number. To test this hypothesis directly, oocytes expressing alpha4beta2 receptors were chronically incubated (24-48 hr) in nicotine, and the resulting changes in specific [3H]nicotine binding to surface receptors on intact oocytes were compared with functional receptor desensitization. Four lines of evidence strongly support the hypothesis. (1) The half-maximal nicotine concentration necessary to produce desensitization (9.7 nM) was the same as that needed to induce upregulation (9.9 nM). (2) The concentration of [3H]nicotine for half-maximal binding to surface nAChRs on intact oocytes was also similar (11.1 nM), as predicted from cyclical desensitization models. (3) Functional desensitization of alpha3beta4 receptors required 10-fold higher nicotine concentrations, and this was mirrored by a 10-fold shift in concentrations necessary for upregulation. (4) Mutant alpha4beta2 receptors that do not recover fully from desensitization, but not wild-type channels, were upregulated after acute (1 hr) applications of nicotine. Interestingly, the nicotine concentration required for half-maximal binding of alpha4beta2 receptors in total cell membrane homogenates was 20-fold lower than that measured for surface nAChRs in intact oocytes. These data suggest that cell homogenate binding assays may not accurately reflect the in vivo desensitization affinity of surface nAChRs and may account for some of the previously reported differences in the efficacy of nicotine for inducing nAChR desensitization and upregulation.

  15. Behavioral Consequences of Delta-Opioid Receptor Activation in the Periaqueductal Gray of Morphine Tolerant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Michael M.; Ashley, Michelle D.; Ingram, Susan L.; Christie, MacDonald J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic morphine administration shifts delta-opioid receptors (DORs) from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. Given that microinjection of morphine into the PAG produces antinociception, it is hypothesized that the movement of DORs to the membrane will allow antinociception to the DOR agonist deltorphin II as a way to compensate for morphine tolerance. Tolerance was induced by twice daily injections of morphine (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, subcutaneous) for 3.5 days. Microinjection of deltorphin into the vPAG 6 hours after the last morphine injection produced a mild antinociception that did not vary in a consistent manner across morphine pretreatment doses or nociceptive tests. In contrast, deltorphin caused a decrease in activity in morphine tolerant rats that was associated with lying in the cage. The decrease in activity and change in behavior indicate that chronic morphine administration alters DORs in the vPAG. However, activation of these receptors does not appear to compensate for the decrease in antinociception caused by morphine tolerance. PMID:19266049

  16. Primary afferent neurons express functional delta opioid receptors in inflamed skin.

    PubMed

    Brederson, Jill-Desiree; Honda, Christopher N

    2015-07-21

    Peripherally-restricted opiate compounds attenuate hyperalgesia in experimental models of inflammatory pain, but have little discernable effect on nociceptive behavior in normal animals. This suggests that activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory axons contributes to decreased afferent activity after injury. Previously, we reported that direct application of morphine to cutaneous receptive fields decreased mechanical and heat-evoked responses in a population of C-fiber nociceptors in inflamed skin. Consistent with reported behavioral studies, direct application of morphine had no effect on fiber activity in control skin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether mechanical responsiveness of nociceptors innervating inflamed skin was attenuated by direct activation of delta opioid receptors (DORs) on peripheral terminals. An ex vivo preparation of rat plantar skin and tibial nerve was used to examine effects of a selective DOR agonist, deltorphin II, on responsiveness of single fibers innervating inflamed skin. Electrical recordings were made eighteen hours after injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the hindpaw. Deltorphin II produced an inhibition of the mechanical responsiveness of single fibers innervating inflamed skin; an effect blocked by the DOR-selective antagonist, naltrindole. The population of units responsive to deltorphin II was identified as consisting of C fiber mechanical nociceptors.

  17. Primary Afferent Neurons Express Functional Delta Opioid Receptors in Inflamed Skin

    PubMed Central

    Brederson, Jill-Desiree; Honda, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally-restricted opiate compounds attenuate hyperalgesia in experimental models of inflammatory pain, but have little discernable effect on nociceptive behavior in normal animals. This suggests that activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory axons contributes to decreased afferent activity after injury. Previously, we reported that direct application of morphine to cutaneous receptive fields decreased mechanical and heat-evoked responses in a population of C-fiber nociceptors in inflamed skin. Consistent with reported behavioral studies, direct application of morphine had no effect on fiber activity in control skin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether mechanical responsiveness of nociceptors innervating inflamed skin was attenuated by direct activation of delta opioid receptors (DOR) on peripheral terminals. An ex vivo preparation of rat plantar skin and tibial nerve was used to examine effects of a selective DOR agonist, deltorphin II, on responsiveness of single fibers innervating inflamed skin. Electrical recordings were made eighteen hours after injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant into the hindpaw. Deltorphin II produced an inhibition of the mechanical responsiveness of single fibers innervating inflamed skin; an effect blocked by the DOR-selective antagonist, naltrindole. The population of units responsive to deltorphin II was identified as consisting of C fiber mechanical nociceptors. PMID:25911583

  18. Role of. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptors in the carotid body response to hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Y.R.; Ernsberger, P.; Cherniack, N.S.; Prabhakar, N.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Clonidine, which acts in part as an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor agonist, depresses ventilation. The authors examined the role of {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors in carotid chemoreceptor activity. The density of {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors was determined in membrane fractions of 18 cat carotid bodies using {sup 125}I-iodoclonidine with 0.1 mM epinephrine or 10 {mu}M SKF-86466 defining nonspecific binding. {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptor density averaged 0.6{plus minus}0.1 fmol/carotid body (mean {plus minus} SEM) and was comparable to other sympathetic target tissues. The authors then studied the effects of an agonist (guanabenz) and an antagonist (SKF-86466; 6-Cl-N-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-H3-benzazepine) specific for {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors on baseline and hypoxia-stimulated carotid body discharge, in 10 anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats. Intracarotid infusion of guanabenz for 5 minutes caused a dose-dependent depression of the baseline activity and reduced the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia by 88.0{plus minus}5.8% of the vehicle-injected controls. Intravenous administration of SKF-86466 reversed the effects of guanabenz on the carotid body activity. in contrast, chemoreceptor depression caused by dopamine was unaffected by SKF-86466. SKF-86466 alone increased baseline discharge and potentiated the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia by 34.0 {plus minus} 9.6% of the controls. These results demonstrate that {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors are present in the cat carotid body and they exert an inhibitory influence on the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia.

  19. delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol excites rat VTA dopamine neurons through activation of cannabinoid CB1 but not opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    French, E D

    1997-05-02

    Behavioral, biochemical and recent electrophysiological data have increasingly implicated the involvement of dopamine in the central actions of cannabinoid compounds. However, the site and mechanism by which cannabinoids stimulate dopamine systems has been somewhat controversial. Central opioid systems have also been suggested to play a role in some cannabinoid-induced behaviors as evidenced by their attenuation in the presence of the opioid antagonist naloxone. However, recent studies using the cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A suggest that the central actions of psychoactive cannabinoids are mediated principally through activation of CB1 receptors. Using single cell electrophysiological recordings in the rat we assessed the effects of both SR141716A and naloxone on delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced activation of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. While dopamine cell firing was dose-dependently increased following cumulative dosing with delta9-THC it was partially or completely inhibited following pretreatment with 0.5 and 2 mg/kg SR141716A, respectively. However, 1 and 10 mg/kg naloxone failed to alter the response to delta9-THC. These data provide the first evidence that delta9-THC-induced changes in mesolimbic dopamine neuronal activity are mediated by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, but a causal link for the involvement of opioid systems could not be established.

  20. Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in canine lower genitourinary tissues: insight into development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Lepor, H.

    1987-10-01

    Radioligand receptor binding methods were used to characterize the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor in the bladder body, bladder base, prostate and urethra of the male dog. Saturation experiments were performed in tissue homogenates using (/sup 125/iodine)-Heat, an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist of high specific activity (2,200 Ci. per mmol.). The equilibrium dissociation constant Kd for (/sup 125/iodine)-Heat binding in the bladder body (0.56 pM.), bladder base (0.81 +/- 0.11 pM.), prostate (0.86 +/- 0.19 pM.) and urethra (0.55 pM.) was similar, suggesting homogeneity of alpha 1-adrenergic binding sites in lower genitourinary tissues. The receptor density in the bladder body, bladder base, prostate and urethra, expressed as fmol. per mg. wet weight, was 0.22 +/- 0.02, 0.82 +/- 0.09, 0.55 +/- 0.06 and 0.27 +/- 0.06, respectively (mean +/- standard error of mean). Competitive binding experiments with (/sup 125/iodine)-Heat and unlabeled prazosin and clonidine confirmed the selectivity of Heat for alpha 1-adrenergic binding sites. Anatomical dissections have revealed that a major component of the smooth muscle of the bladder base and prostate originates from the ureter, whereas a major component of the smooth muscle of the urethra originates from the bladder. The measured alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities support these developmental theories.

  1. Mu and Delta opioid receptors activate the same G proteins in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Alt, A; Clark, M J; Woods, J H; Traynor, J R

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence for interactions between mu and delta opioid systems both in vitro and in vivo. This work examines the hypothesis that interaction between these two receptors can occur intracellularly at the level of G protein in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.The [35S]GTPγS binding assay was used to measure G protein activation following agonist occupation of opioid receptors. The agonists DAMGO (EC50, 45 nM) and SNC80 (EC50, 32 nM) were found to be completely selective for stimulation of [35S]-GTPγS binding through mu and delta opioid receptors respectively. Maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPγS binding produced by SNC80 was 57% of that seen with DAMGO. When combined with a maximally effective concentration of DAMGO, SNC80 caused no additional [35S]-GTPγS binding. This effect was also seen when measured at the level of adenylyl cyclase.Receptor activation increased the dissociation of pre-bound [35S]-GTPγS. In addition, the delta agonist SNC80 promoted the dissociation of [35S]-GTPγS from G proteins initially labelled using the mu agonist DAMGO. Conversely, DAMGO promoted the dissociation of [35S]-GTPγS from G proteins initially labelled using SNC80.Tolerance to DAMGO and SNC80 in membranes from cells exposed to agonist for 18 h was homologous and there was no evidence for alteration in G protein activity.The findings support the hypothesis that mu- and delta-opioid receptors share a common G protein pool, possibly through a close organization of the two receptors and G protein at the plasma membrane. PMID:11786497

  2. Performance comparison of two Olympus InnovX handheld x-ray analyzers for feasibility of measuring arsenic in skin in vivo - Alpha and Delta models.

    PubMed

    Desouza, E D; Gherase, M R; Fleming, D E B; Chettle, D R; O'Meara, J M; McNeill, F E

    2017-05-01

    The Figure-Of-Merit (FOM) performance, a combination of detection limit and dose, is compared between two generations of handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers for the feasibility of in vivo XRF measurement of arsenic (As) in skin. The Olympus InnovX Delta model analyzer (40 kVp using either 37 or 17μA) was found to show improvements in Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) using arsenic As-doped skin calibration phantoms with bulk tissue backing, when compared to the first generation InnovX Alpha model (40kVp, 20μA) in 120s measurements. Differences between two different definitions of MDL are discussed. On the Delta system, an MDL of (0.462±0.002) μg/g As was found in phantoms, with a nylon backing behind to mimic bulk tissue behind skin. The equivalent and effective doses were found to be (10±2) mSv and ~7×10(-3)μSv respectively for the Alpha and (15±4) mSv and ~8×10(-3)μSv respectively for the Delta system in 120s exposures. Combining MDL and effective dose, a lower (better) FOM was found for the Delta, (1.7±0.4) ppm mSv(1/2), compared to (4.4±0.5) ppm mSv(1/2) for the Alpha model system. The Delta analyzer demonstrates improved overall system performance for a rapid 2-min measurement in As skin phantoms, such that it can be considered for use in populations exposed to arsenic.

  3. Evidence that nicotinic alpha(7) receptors are not involved in the hyperlocomotor and rewarding effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grottick, A J; Trube, G; Corrigall, W A; Huwyler, J; Malherbe, P; Wyler, R; Higgins, G A

    2000-09-01

    Neuronal nicotinic receptors are comprised of combinations of alpha(2-9) and beta(2-4) subunits arranged to form a pentameric receptor. Currently, the principal central nervous system (CNS) subtypes are believed to be alpha(4)beta(2) and a homomeric alpha(7) receptor, although other combinations almost certainly exist. The identity of the nicotinic receptor subtype(s) involved in the rewarding effects of nicotine are unknown. In the present study, using some recently described subtype selective nicotinic agonists and antagonists, we investigated the role of the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor in the mediation of nicotine-induced hyperactivity and self-administration in rats. The alpha(7) receptor agonists AR-R 17779 and DMAC failed to stimulate locomotor activity in both nicotine-nontolerant and -sensitized rats. In contrast, nicotine and the putative alpha(4)beta(2) subtype selective agonist SIB1765F increased activity in both experimental conditions. In nicotine-sensitized rats, the high affinity (including the alpha(4)beta(2) subtype) nicotinic antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE), but not the selective alpha(7) antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA), antagonized a nicotine-induced hyperactivity. Similarly, DHbetaE, but not MLA, pretreatment reduced nicotine self-administration. Electrophysiology experiments using Xenopus oocytes expressing the human alpha(7) receptor confirmed AR-R 17779 and DMAC to be potent agonists at this site, and further studies demonstrated the ability of systemically administered AR-R 17779 to penetrate into the CNS. Taken together, these results indicate a negligible role of alpha(7) receptors in nicotine-induced hyperlocomotion and reward in the rat, and support the view for an involvement of a member from the high-affinity nicotinic receptor subclass, possibly alpha(4)beta(2). Issues such as drug potency, CNS penetration, and desensitization of the alpha(7) receptor are discussed.

  4. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Raulli, R.; Crews, F.T.

    1986-03-05

    The potency of various alpha adrenergic compounds on stimulation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis was determined using (/sup 3/H)-inositol labelled cerebral cortical slices. Norepinephrine-induced PI hydrolysis was inhibited by the alpha/sub 1/ selective antagonist prazosin (1 ..mu..M) but not the beta receptor antagonist propranolol (1 ..mu..M). Tramazoline, (-)-ephedrine, and (+/-)-phenylpropanolamine were all found to be partial agonists at 1 mM concentrations. Clonidine, naphazoline, trazodone, and the novel antidepressant mianserin at concentrations of 100 ..mu..M to 1 mM produced no significant increase in PI hydrolysis above control levels. The relationship between responses and receptor binding will be discussed.

  5. T-cell receptor V sub. alpha. and C sub. alpha. alleles associated with multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Oksenberg, J.R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Steinman, L. ); Sherritt, M.; Bernard, C.C. ); Begovich, A.B.; Erlich, H.A. )

    1989-02-01

    Polymorphic markers in genes encoding the {alpha} chain of the human T-cell receptor (TcR) have been detected by Southern blot analysis in Pss I digests. Polymorphic bands were observed at 6.3 and 2.0 kilobases (kb) with frequencies of 0.30 and 0.44, respectively, in the general population. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the authors amplified selected sequences derived from the full-length TcR {alpha} cDNA probe. These PcR products were used as specific probes to demonstrate that the 6.3-kb polymorphic fragment hybridizes to the variable (V)-region probe and the 2.0-kb fragment hybridizes to the constant (C)-region probe. Segregation of the polymorphic bands was analyzed in family studies. To look for associations between these markers and autoimmune diseases, the authors have studied the restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution of the Pss I markers in patients with multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and Graves disease. Significant differences in the frequency of the polymorphic V{sub {alpha}} and C{sub {alpha}} markers were identified between patients and healthy individuals.

  6. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  7. Effects of iodoproxyfan, a potent and selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, on alpha 2 and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Schlicker, E; Pertz, H; Bitschnau, H; Purand, K; Kathmann, M; Elz, S; Schunack, W

    1995-07-01

    We determined the affinity and/or potency of the novel H3 receptor antagonist iodoproxyfan at alpha 2 and 5-HT3 receptors. Iodoproxyfan and rauwolscine (a reference alpha 2 ligand) (i) monophasically displaced 3H-rauwolscine binding to rat brain cortex membranes (pKi 6.79 and 8.59); (ii) facilitated the electrically evoked tritium overflow from superfused mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline (pEC50 6.46 and 7.91) and (iii) produced rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve (CRC) of (unlabelled) noradrenaline for its inhibitory effect on the evoked overflow (pA2 6.65 and 7.88). In the guinea-pig ileum, iodoproxyfan 6.3 mumol/l failed to evoke a contraction by itself but depressed the maximum of the CRC of 5-hydroxytryptamine (pD'2 5.24). Tropisetron (a reference 5-HT3 antagonist) produced rightward shifts of the CRC of 5-hydroxytryptamine (pA2 7.84). In conclusion, the affinity/potency of iodoproxyfan at H3 receptors (range 8.3-9.7 [1]) exceeds that at alpha 2 receptors by at least 1.5 log units and that at 5-HT3 receptors by at least 3 log units.

  8. Design of peptides with alpha,beta-dehydro residues: pseudo-tripeptide N-benzyloxycarbonyl-DeltaLeu-L-Ala-L-Leu-OCH3.

    PubMed

    Makker, Jyoti; Dey, Sharmistha; Kumar, Pravindra; Singh, Tej P

    2002-04-01

    The title peptide N-benzyloxycarbonyl-DeltaLeu-L-Ala-L-Leu-OCH(3) [methyl N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-alpha,beta-dehydroleucyl-L-alanyl-L-leucinate], C(24)H(35)N(3)O(6), was synthesized in the solution phase. The peptide adopts a type II' beta-turn conformation which is stabilized by an intramolecular 4 --> 1 N-H* * *O hydrogen bond. The crystal packing is stabilized by two intermolecular N-H* * *O hydrogen bonds.

  9. Purification and characterization of the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shreeve, S.M.; Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Mariani, A.P.; Venter, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor (..cap alpha../sub 2/-R) from human platelets has been purified to homogeneity using a four step process. An affinity column was prepared by coupling p-aminoclonidine to CH-Sepharose 4B via the p-NH/sub 2/ group. Digitonin solubilized ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R bound to the affinity matrix were eluted with 100 ..mu..M phentolamine and directly applied to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Bound receptors were eluted with a linear gradient of 0-500 mM NaCl, pooled and chromatographed on HPLC size exclusion columns. Three peaks of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding were eluted from HPLC columns (t = 33, 42, 47 min). Radioiodination of HPLC eluates and analysis by SDS-PAGE indicated that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding was associated with a 75-85 kDa protein. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R may exist in monomeric and oligomeric forms in the purified state and support previous target size data which indicate that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R exists as a dimer in the native membrane. The pure radioiodinated ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R (77-85 kDa) is a glycoprotein with terminal sialic acid or N-acetylglucosamine residues and has a pI of 4.1 on column isoelectric focusing. These data are consistent with those previously reported on the partially purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R. Electron micrographs confirm the oligomeric nature and size of the pure ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R.

  10. Cognitive improvement by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from animal models to human pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Timmerman, Daniel B; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    Agonists and positive allosteric modulators of the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are currently being developed for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. This review describes the neurobiological properties of the alpha nAChR and the cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR activation, focusing on the translational aspects in the development of these drugs. The functional properties and anatomical localization of the alpha(7) nAChR makes it well suited to modulate cognitive function. Accordingly, systemic administration of alpha(7) nAChR agonists improves learning, memory, and attentional function in variety of animal models, and pro-cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists have recently been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. The alpha(7) nAChR desensitizes rapidly in vitro, and this has been a major concern in the development of alpha(7) nAChR agonists as putative drugs. Our review of the existing literature shows that development of tolerance to the behavioral effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists does not occur in animal models or humans. However, the long-term memory-enhancing effects seen in animal models are not mimicked in healthy humans and schizophrenic patients, where attentional improvement predominates. This discrepancy may result from inherent differences in testing methods or from species differences in the level of expression of alpha(7) nAChRs in limbic brain regions, and may hamper preclinical evaluation of alpha(7) nAChR activation. It is therefore important to consider the translational power of the animal models used before entering into a clinical evaluation of the pro-cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR activation.

  11. Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.L.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and (Arg8)vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and (/sup 3/H) (Arg8)vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis.

  12. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  13. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Shamina M. . E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan; Lindsley, Loren; Wang, Xiaomei; Shaughnessy, Stacey; Daniels, Thomas G.; Szustakowski, Joseph; Nirmala, N.R.; Wu, Zhidan; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2007-05-25

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

  14. Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B receptors in the OK cell, an opossum kidney cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B (5HT{sub 1B}) receptors, both negatively-coupled to adenylyl cyclase, were characterized in the OK cell line, a renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line derived from the kidney of a North American opossum. In membrane saturation radioligand binding experiments, ({sup 3}H)yohimbine and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine labeled an equivalent number of binding sites. Detailed pharmacological analysis of OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in competition binding assays indicate this receptor is neither an alpha-2A nor an alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtype, although the alpha-2B receptor subtype-selective drugs prazosin, ARC-239 and chlorpromazine have affinities for OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors similar to those at the alpha-2B receptor subtype. Determinations of agonist potency for inhibition of PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP production and radioligand binding analysis using ({sup 125}I)({minus})-cyanopindolol indicate that a 5HT{sub 1B} receptor is expressed in the OK cell line. A biochemical effector system coupled to this receptor subtype has not been previously described. Several compounds appear to be potent agonists at the 5TH{sub 1B} receptor including the beta adrenergic antagonists cyanopindolol, pindolol, propranolol and alprenolol.

  15. Contribution of valine 7' of TMD2 to gating of neuronal alpha3 receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Navedo, Manuel F; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2006-12-01

    The second transmembrane domain (TMD2) of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels forms the channel pore. The functional role of the amino acid residues contributing to the channel pore in neuronal nicotinic alpha3 receptors is not well understood. We characterized the contribution of TMD2 position V7' to channel gating in neuronal nicotinic alpha3 receptors. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute position alpha3 (V7') with four different amino acids (A, F, S, or Y) and coexpressed each mutant subunit with wild-type (WT) beta2 or beta4 subunits in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell voltage clamp experiments show that substitution for an alanine, serine, or phenylalanine decreased by 2.3-6.2-fold the ACh-EC(50) for alpha3beta2 and alpha3beta4 receptor subtypes. Interestingly, mutation V7'Y did not produce a significant change in ACh-EC(50) when coexpressed with the beta2 subunit but showed a significant approximately two-fold increase with beta4. Similar responses were obtained with nicotine as the agonist. The antagonist sensitivity of the mutant channels was assessed by using dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE) and methyllycaconitine (MLA). The apparent potency of DHbetaE as an antagonist increased by approximately 3.7- and 11-fold for the alpha3beta2 V7'S and V7'F mutants, respectively, whereas no evident changes in antagonist potency were observed for the V7'A and V7'Y mutants. The V7'S and V7'F mutations increase MLA antagonist potency for the alpha3beta4 receptor by approximately 6.2- and approximately 9.3-fold, respectively. The V7'A mutation selectively increases the MLA antagonist potency for the alpha3beta4 receptor by approximately 18.7-fold. These results indicate that position V7' contributes to channel gating kinetics and pharmacology of the neuronal nicotinic alpha3 receptors.

  16. Structural Basis for Hormone Recognition by the Human CRFR2[alpha] G Protein-coupled Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Kuntal; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Xu, H. Eric; Pioszak, Augen A.

    2012-05-09

    The mammalian corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)/urocortin (Ucn) peptide hormones include four structurally similar peptides, CRF, Ucn1, Ucn2, and Ucn3, that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and cardiovascular function by activating either of two related class B G protein-coupled receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2. CRF and Ucn1 activate both receptors, whereas Ucn2 and Ucn3 are CRFR2-selective. The molecular basis for selectivity is unclear. Here, we show that the purified N-terminal extracellular domains (ECDs) of human CRFR1 and the CRFR2{alpha} isoform are sufficient to discriminate the peptides, and we present three crystal structures of the CRFR2{alpha} ECD bound to each of the Ucn peptides. The CRFR2{alpha} ECD forms the same fold observed for the CRFR1 and mouse CRFR2{beta} ECDs but contains a unique N-terminal {alpha}-helix formed by its pseudo signal peptide. The CRFR2{alpha} ECD peptide-binding site architecture is similar to that of CRFR1, and binding of the {alpha}-helical Ucn peptides closely resembles CRF binding to CRFR1. Comparing the electrostatic surface potentials of the ECDs suggests a charge compatibility mechanism for ligand discrimination involving a single amino acid difference in the receptors (CRFR1 Glu104/CRFR2{alpha} Pro-100) at a site proximate to peptide residue 35 (Arg in CRF/Ucn1, Ala in Ucn2/3). CRFR1 Glu-104 acts as a selectivity filter preventing Ucn2/3 binding because the nonpolar Ala-35 is incompatible with the negatively charged Glu-104. The structures explain the mechanisms of ligand recognition and discrimination and provide a molecular template for the rational design of therapeutic agents selectively targeting these receptors.

  17. The role of tumour necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptors in the symptomatology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Levent; Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Soygur, Arif Haldun

    2016-07-01

    Background Immunological mechanisms may be responsible for the development and maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. Aim The aim of this study is to measure tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor I (sTNF-αRI), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II (sTNF-αRII) levels in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and to determine their relationship with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods Serum TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered for patients with schizophrenia (n = 35), and the results were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to predict the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII. Results No significant difference was observed in TNF-α levels, but sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia. Serum sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were found to be negatively correlated with the negative subscale score of the PANSS, and sTNF-αRI levels were also negatively correlated with the total score of the PANSS. Smoking, gender, body mass index were not correlated with TNF-α and sTNF-α receptor levels. Conclusions These results suggest that there may be a change in anti-inflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia due to sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels. The study also supports low levels of TNF activity in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists down-regulate alpha2-macroglobulin expression by a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) regulates transcription of genes involved both in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fibrates are PPARα ligands used to normalize lipid and glucose parameters and exert anti-inflammatory effects. Fibrates...

  19. Repeated activation of delta opioid receptors counteracts nerve injury-induced TNF-α up-regulation in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Nunzio; Parenti, Rosalba; Aricò, Giuseppina; Turnaturi, Rita; Scoto, Giovanna Maria; Chiechio, Santina

    2016-01-01

    Despite mu opioid receptor agonists are the cornerstones of moderate-to-severe acute pain treatment, their effectiveness in chronic pain conditions is controversial. In contrast to mu opioid receptor agonists, a number of studies have reported the effectiveness of delta opioid receptor agonists on neuropathic pain strengthening the idea that delta opioid receptors gain importance when chronic pain develops. Among other effects, it has been shown that delta opioid receptor activation in optic nerve astrocytes inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation in response to severe hypoxia. Considering the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-α in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, with this study we sought to correlate the effect of delta opioid receptor agonist on the development of mechanical allodynia to tumor necrosis factor-α expression at the site of nerve injury in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. To this aim, we measured the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain after repeated injections with a delta opioid receptor agonist. Results obtained demonstrated that repeated administrations of the delta opioid receptor agonist SNC80 (10 mg/kg, i.p. for seven consecutive days) significantly inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain and that the improvement of neuropathic symptom was timely related to the reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the rat sciatic nerve. We demonstrated also that when treatment with the delta opioid receptor agonist was suspended both allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α up-regulation in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain were restored. These results show that persistent delta opioid receptor activation significantly attenuates neuropathic pain and negatively regulates sciatic nerve tumor necrosis factor-α expression in chronic constriction injury rats. PMID:27590071

  20. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  1. Suppression of estrogen receptor-alpha transactivation by thyroid transcription factor-2 in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunsook; Gong, Eun-Yeung; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Lee, Keesook

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 was expressed in mammary glands and breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 repressed ER{alpha} transactivation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptors (ERs), which mediate estrogen actions, regulate cell growth and differentiation of a variety of normal tissues and hormone-responsive tumors through interaction with cellular factors. In this study, we show that thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2) is expressed in mammary gland and acts as ER{alpha} co-repressor. TTF-2 inhibited ER{alpha} transactivation in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In addition, TTF-2 directly bound to and formed a complex with ER{alpha}, colocalizing with ER{alpha} in the nucleus. In MCF-7/TTF-2 stable cell lines, TTF-2 repressed the expression of endogenous ER{alpha} target genes such as pS2 and cyclin D1 by interrupting ER{alpha} binding to target promoters and also significantly decreased cell proliferation. Taken together, these data suggest that TTF-2 may modulate the function of ER{alpha} as a corepressor and play a role in ER-dependent proliferation of mammary cells.

  2. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  3. D1 dopamine receptors modulate deltaFosB induction in rat striatum after intermittent morphine administration.

    PubMed

    Muller, Daniella L; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2005-07-01

    Induction of the transcription factor deltaFosB was studied to examine neurochemical adaptations produced by repeated opiate administration. The mechanism of this induction was also investigated. The 35- to 37-kDa isoforms of deltaFosB, also referred to as the chronic Fras, were measured in the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and frontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats after either an acute injection of morphine or an escalating dosing schedule of morphine for 10 days. Heroin was also tested to determine whether the findings extend to other opiates. Results from Western blot analysis using an anti-fosB antibody demonstrate that 10-day intermittent escalating dose morphine produced a significant increase in deltaFosB-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen and frontal cortex, whereas a single injection of morphine had no effect on Fra immunoreactivity. Heroin administered twice daily for 10 days by an intermittent escalating dose schedule also induced deltaFosB in the caudate putamen, but not in the nucleus accumbens or frontal cortex. Daily pretreatment with the selective D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 [R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride] significantly blocked morphine-induced deltaFosB induction in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen, but not in the frontal cortex. These results demonstrate that morphine-induced deltaFosB up-regulation in the striatum, but not in the frontal cortex, is modulated by D1 dopamine receptors, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in the up-regulation of these chronic Fras by morphine is brain region-specific.

  4. The binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in animal species resistant to alpha-bungarotoxin.

    PubMed

    Barchan, D; Ovadia, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1995-07-18

    The ligand binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is located in the alpha-subunit, within a small fragment containing the tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193. We have been analyzing the binding site domain of AChRs from several animal species exhibiting various degrees of resistance to alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Our earlier work on the snake and mongoose AChR, both of which do not bind alpha-BTX, suggested that amino acid substitutions at positions 187, 189, and 194 of the AChR alpha-subunit are important in determining the resistance of these AChRs to alpha-BTX. In the present study, we have examined the correlation between alpha-BTX binding and the structure of the binding site domain of AChR from the hedgehog, shrew, cat, and human. Fragments of the AChR alpha-subunit corresponding to residues 122-205 from these species were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The hedgehog fragment does not bind alpha-BTX, in common with the snake and mongoose AChR, and the human fragment is a partial binder. The shrew and cat fragments bind alpha-BTX to a similar extent as the mouse fragment. The hedgehog and human AChRs have nonaromatic amino acid residues at positions 187 and 189 of the alpha-subunit, as is seen with the "toxin resistant" snake and mongoose, and in contrast with the "toxin binders", which have aromatic residues at these two positions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Identification of alpha1-adrenergic receptors and their involvement in phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the frog heart.

    PubMed

    Lazou, Antigone; Gaitanaki, Catherine; Vaxevanellis, Spiros; Pehtelidou, Anastasia

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors in frog heart and to examine their related signal transduction pathway. alpha(1)-Adrenergic binding sites were studied in purified heart membranes using the specific alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist [(3)H]prazosin. Analysis of the binding data indicated one class of binding sites displaying a K(d) of 4.19 +/- 0.56 nM and a B(max) of 14.66 +/- 1.61 fmol/mg original wet weight. Adrenaline, noradrenaline, or phenylephrine, in the presence of propranolol, competed with [(3)H]prazosin binding with a similar potency and a K(i) value of about 10 microM. The kinetics of adrenaline binding was closely related to its biological effect. Adrenaline concentration dependently increased the production of inositol phosphates in the heart in the presence or absence of propranolol. Maximal stimulation was about 8.5-fold, and the half-maximum effective concentration was 30 and 21 microM in the absence and presence of propranolol, respectively. These data clearly show that alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors are coupled to the phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frog heart. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence supporting the presence of functional alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors in the frog heart.

  6. O Mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan is essential for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus receptor function.

    PubMed

    Imperiali, Mauro; Thoma, Claudio; Pavoni, Ernesto; Brancaccio, Andrea; Callewaert, Nico; Oxenius, Annette

    2005-11-01

    Alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) was identified as a common receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and several other arenaviruses including the human pathogenic Lassa fever virus. Initial work postulated that interactions between arenavirus glycoproteins and alpha-DG are based on protein-protein interactions. We found, however, that susceptibility toward LCMV infection differed in various cell lines despite them expressing comparable levels of DG, suggesting that posttranslational modifications of alpha-DG would be involved in viral receptor function. Here, we demonstrate that glycosylation of alpha-DG, and in particular, O mannosylation, which is a rare type of O-linked glycosylation in mammals, is essential for LCMV receptor function. Cells that are defective in components of the O-mannosylation pathway showed strikingly reduced LCMV infectibility. As defective O mannosylation is associated with severe clinical symptoms in mammals such as congenital muscular dystrophies, it is likely that LCMV and potentially other arenaviruses may have selected this conserved and crucial posttranslational modification as the primary target structure for cell entry and infection.

  7. BDNF up-regulates alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels on subpopulations of hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Massey, Kerri A; Zago, Wagner M; Berg, Darwin K

    2006-12-01

    In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a number of synaptic components. Among these are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing alpha7 subunits (alpha7-nAChRs), which are interesting because of their relative abundance in the hippocampus and their high relative calcium permeability. We show here that BDNF elevates surface and intracellular pools of alpha7-nAChRs on cultured hippocampal neurons and that glutamatergic activity is both necessary and sufficient for the effect. Blocking transmission through NMDA receptors with APV blocked the BDNF effect; increasing spontaneous excitatory activity with the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline replicated the BDNF effect. BDNF antibodies blocked the BDNF-mediated increase but not the bicuculline one, consistent with enhanced glutamatergic activity acting downstream from BDNF. Increased alpha7-nAChR clusters were most prominent on interneuron subtypes known to directly innervate excitatory neurons. The results suggest that BDNF, acting through glutamatergic transmission, can modulate hippocampal output in part by controlling alpha7-nAChR levels.

  8. The human alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor: identification of a 420-kD cell surface glycoprotein specific for the activated conformation of alpha 2-macroglobulin

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Ligand affinity chromatography was used to purify a cell surface alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) receptor. Detergent extracts of human placenta were applied to an affinity matrix consisting of alpha 2M, previously reacted with methylamine, coupled to Sepharose. Elution with EDTA specifically released polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 420 and 39 kD. In some preparations, small amounts of a 90-kD polypeptide were observed. The 420- and 39-kD polypeptides appear specific for the forms of alpha 2M activated by reaction with proteinases or methylamine and do not bind to an affinity matrix consisting of native alpha 2M coupled to Sepharose. Separation of these two polypeptides was accomplished by anion exchange chromatography, and binding activity was exclusively associated with the 420-kD polypeptide. The purified 420-kD protein binds to the conformationally altered forms of alpha 2M that are known to specifically interact with alpha 2M receptors and does not bind to native alpha 2M. Binding of the 420-kD polypeptide to immobilized wheat germ agglutinin indicates that this polypeptide is a glycoprotein. The cell surface localization of the 420-kD glycoprotein was confirmed by affinity chromatography of extracts from surface radioiodinated fibroblasts. These properties suggest that the 420-kD polypeptide is a cell surface receptor for the activated forms of alpha 2M. PMID:1691187

  9. Role of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the growth hormone and prolactin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in man.

    PubMed

    Tatár, P; Vigas, M

    1984-09-01

    The effects of intravenous infusion of the nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine or of the selective alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol secretion during insulin-induced hypoglycemia were studied in 11 healthy young men. The GH response was blunted following each antagonist used, PRL secretion was higher after yohimbine and diminished after phentolamine when compared to controls. The plasma cortisol response was not influenced by either compound. In another series of experiments no effect of an oral administration of prazosin, a selective alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist, on the secretion of GH, PRL and cortisol was found in any of 7 subjects. Prazosin inhibited blood pressure increase during hypoglycemia and induced slight drowsiness and fatigue in the subjects. It is concluded that in man alpha-adrenergic stimulation of GH secretion during hypoglycemia is transmitted via alpha 2-receptors, PRL secretion is mediated via alpha 1-receptors, whereas inhibition of PRL release is mediated via alpha 2-receptors. In this experiment no effect of alpha 1- or alpha 2-blockade on cortisol response to hypoglycemia was seen.

  10. Role of spinal voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha 2 delta-1 subunit in the expression of a neuropathic pain-like state in mice.

    PubMed

    Narita, Minoru; Nakajima, Mayumi; Miyoshi, Kan; Narita, Michiko; Nagumo, Yasuyuki; Miyatake, Mayumi; Yajima, Yoshinori; Yanagida, Kiyomi; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2007-05-08

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of spinal voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha(2)delta-1 subunit in the expression of a neuropathic pain-like state induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice. In cultured spinal neurons, gabapentin (GBP), which displays the inhibitory effect of alpha(2)delta-1 subunit, suppressed the extracellular Ca(2+) influx induced by KCl, whereas it failed to inhibit the intracellular Ca(2+) release induced by inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate. Seven days after sciatic nerve ligation, the protein level of alpha(2)delta-1 subunit in the ipsilateral spinal cord was clearly increased compared to that observed in sham-operated mice. In addition, the mRNA level of alpha(2)delta-1 subunit was significantly increased in the dorsal root ganglion, but not in the spinal cord, of nerve-ligated mice. Under these conditions, a marked decrease in the latency of paw-withdrawal against a thermal stimulation and tactile stimulation, induced by sciatic nerve ligation was abolished by repeated intrathecal (i.t.) treatment with GBP. Additionally, the persistent reduction in the nociceptive threshold by i.t. treatment with GBP at the early stage of the neuropathic pain-like state was maintained for 7 days even after GBP withdrawal. It is of interest to note that a single i.t. post-injection of GBP showed a marked and transient inhibitory effect on the developed neuropathic pain-like state, whereas repeated i.t. post-treatment with GBP produced a persistent inhibitory effect during the treatment. In conclusion, we propose here that the neuropathic pain-like state with sciatic nerve ligation is associated with the increased level of the alpha(2)delta-1 subunit of Ca(2+) channels at the sensory nerve terminal in the spinal dorsal horn of mice. Furthermore, the present data provide evidence that the neuropathic pain may be effectively controlled by repeated treatment with GBP at the early stage.

  11. Enhanced binding of morphine and nalorphine to opioid delta receptor by glucuronate and sulfate conjugations at the 6-position

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, K.; Yamada-Mori, I.; Shigezane, J.; Hirano, T.; Yoshimura, H.

    1987-09-21

    Effect of the modification of morphine and nalorphine by glucuronate and sulfate conjugations at the 3- and 6-positions on the binding to opioid receptors was examined in a particulate fraction of rat brain. Competing potencies of both drugs against (/sup 3/H)morphine and (/sup 3/H)leucine enkephalin bindings were extremely decreased by either glucuronate or sulfate conjugation at the 3-position. On the other hand, the potencies of morphine and nalorphine against (/sup 3/H)leucine enkephalin binding were considerably enhanced by the conjugations at the 6-position, whereas the potencies against (/sup 3/H)morphine binding were decreased. These altered interactions of the conjugates at the 6-position with the two ligands were attributed to their enhanced binding to delta-receptor and reduced binding to /sup +/-receptor by Hill plot and modified Scatchard analysis. Resulted comparable and simultaneous interactions with ..mu..- and delta- receptors were assumed to be a cause of the enhanced ..mu..-receptor-directed analgesia of morphine and elevated same receptor-directed antagonistic effect of nalorphine, which have been found previously in the authors laboratory. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. Demonstration of. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rat pancreatic islets using radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cherksey, B.; Mendelsohn, S.; Zadunaisky, J.; Altszuler, N.

    1982-11-01

    The type of the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors on rat pancreatic islet cells was characterized directly using specific radioligands and displacement agonists and antagonists. Scatchard plots for binding of (/sup 3/H)clonidine (..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist) revealed a dissociation constant, K/sub d/ of 0.542 +/- 0.1 nM and density of binding sites (B/sub max/) of 50.4 +/- 3.6 fmole/mg protein. Similar values were obtained with (/sup 3/H)dihydroergocryptine (antagonist). The various agonists displaced (/sup 3/H)clonidine with the following order of potency: clonidine > epinephrine approx. = norepinephrine > isoproterenol. Yohimbine, the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonist, was very effective in displacing (/sup 3/H)clonidine, whereas the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antagonist, prazosin, was much less effective. The data indicate that the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors on rat pancreatic islets are of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ subtype.

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) {beta} has intrinsic, GR{alpha}-independent transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, Tomoshige; Manoli, Irini; Kelkar, Sujata; Wang, Yonghong; Su, Yan A.; Chrousos, George P.

    2009-04-17

    The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene produces C-terminal GR{beta} and GR{alpha} isoforms through alternative use of specific exons 9{beta} and {alpha}, respectively. We explored the transcriptional activity of GR{beta} on endogenous genes by developing HeLa cells stably expressing EGFP-GR{beta} or EGFP. Microarray analyses revealed that GR{beta} had intrinsic gene-specific transcriptional activity, regulating mRNA expression of a large number of genes negatively or positively. Majority of GR{beta}-responsive genes was distinct from those modulated by GR{alpha}, while GR{beta} and GR{alpha} mutually modulated each other's transcriptional activity in a subpopulation of genes. We did not observe in HCT116 cells nuclear translocation of GR{beta} and activation of this receptor by RU 486, a synthetic steroid previously reported to bind GR{beta} and to induce nuclear translocation. Our results indicate that GR{beta} has intrinsic, GR{alpha}-independent, gene-specific transcriptional activity, in addition to its previously reported dominant negative effect on GR{alpha}-induced transactivation of GRE-driven promoters.

  14. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor: Binding and phosphoinositide breakdown in human myometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Breuiller-Fouche, M.; Doualla-Bell Kotto Maka, F.; Geny, B.; Ferre, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were examined in both inner and outer layers of human pregnant myometrium using radioligand binding of (3H)prazosin. (3H)prazosin bound rapidly and reversibly to a single class of high affinity binding sites in myometrial membrane preparations. Scatchard analysis gave similar values of equilibrium dissociation constants in both myometrial layers. In contrast, more alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were detected in the outer layer than in the inner layer. Antagonist inhibited (3H)prazosin binding with an order of potency of prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than idazoxan. Competition experiments have also revealed that a stable guanine nucleotide decreases the apparent affinity of norepinephrine for myometrial (3H)prazosin binding sites. The functional status of these alpha-1 adrenergic receptors was also assessed by measuring the norepinephrine-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in myometrial tissue. Norepinephrine produced a concentration-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in both myometrial layers. However, norepinephrine-induced increases in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate were only observed in the outer layer. These results indicate that alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in human myometrium at the end of pregnancy are linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and that this response occurs mainly in the outer layer.

  15. Antipsychotic clozapine inhibits the function of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sachin K; Zhang, Li; Morales, Marisela; Oz, Murat

    2007-02-01

    The effects of the antipsychotic clozapine on the function of the cloned alpha(7) subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes was investigated by using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Clozapine reversibly inhibited nicotine (10 microM)-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner (300 nM to 90 microM), with an IC(50) value of 3.2+/-0.4 microM. The effect of clozapine was not dependent on the membrane potential. Clozapine did not affect the activity of endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels since the inhibition by clozapine was unaltered by the intracellularly injected Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing 2mM Ba(2+). Clozapine decreased the maximal nicotine-induced responses without significantly affecting its potency, indicating that it acts as a noncompetitive antagonist on alpha(7)-nACh receptors. In hippocampal slices, the whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons indicated that the increases in the frequency and amplitudes of the GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents induced by bath application of 2 mM choline, a specific agonist for alpha(7)-nACh receptors, were abolished after 10 min application of 5 microM clozapine. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that clozapine inhibits the function of alpha(7)-nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in hippocampal neurons.

  16. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the predominant perfluoroalkyl acids in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA strongly activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in vitro and negatively impacts development ...

  17. Exposure assessment to alpha- and beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene and wood dust in industrial production of wood pellets.

    PubMed

    Edman, K; Lofstedt, H; Berg, P; Eriksson, K; Axelsson, S; Bryngelsson, I; Fedeli, C

    2003-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to measure the exposure to monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene and Delta(3)-carene) and wood dust during industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes. Additional aims were to compare the results from wood dust sampled on a filter with real time measurements using a direct reading instrument and to identify peak exposures to dust. Twenty-four men working at six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes participated in the study. Monoterpenes were measured by diffusive sampling and wood dust was measured as total dust. A data logger (DataRAM) was used for continuous monitoring of dust concentration for 18 of the participants. The sampling time was approximately 8 h. The personal exposure to monoterpenes ranged from 0.64 to 28 mg/m(3) and a statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0002) difference in levels of monoterpenes for workers at different companies was seen. In the companies the personal exposure to wood dust varied between 0.16 and 19 mg/m(3) and for 10 participants the levels exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m(3). The levels of wood dust during the morning shift were significantly (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.04) higher compared with the afternoon shift. Continuous registration of dust concentration showed peak values for several working operations, especially cleaning of truck engines with compressed air. For 24 workers in six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets the personal exposure to monoterpenes was low and to wood dust high compared with the present Swedish OEL and previous studies in Swedish wood industries. Since the DataRAM can identify critical working tasks with high wood dust exposure a reduction in exposure levels could probably be achieved by changes in working routines and by the use of protective equipment.

  18. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  19. Neuropeptide Y inhibits spontaneous alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) release via a Y(5) receptor and suppresses thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced alpha-MSH secretion via a Y(1) receptor in frog melanotrope cells.

    PubMed

    Galas, Ludovic; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Beaujean, Delphine; Fredriksson, Robert; Larhammar, Dan; Lihrmann, Isabelle; Jegou, Sylvie; Fournier, Alain; Chartrel, Nicolas; Vaudry, Hubert

    2002-05-01

    In amphibians, the secretion of alpha-MSH by melanotrope cells is stimulated by TRH and inhibited by NPY. We have previously shown that NPY abrogates the stimulatory effect of TRH on alpha-MSH secretion. The aim of the present study was to characterize the receptor subtypes mediating the action of NPY and to investigate the intracellular mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effect of NPY on basal and TRH-induced alpha-MSH secretion. Y(1) and Y(5) receptor mRNAs were detected by RT-PCR and visualized by in situ hybridization histochemistry in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary. Various NPY analogs inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the spontaneous secretion of alpha-MSH from perifused frog neurointermediate lobes with the following order of potency porcine peptide YY (pPYY) > frog NPY (fNPY) > porcine NPY (pNPY)-2-36) > pNPY-(13-36) > [D-Trp(32)]pNPY > [Leu(31),Pro(34)]pNPY. The stimulatory effect of TRH (10(-8)6 M) on alpha-MSH release was inhibited by fNPY, pPYY, and [Leu(31),Pro(34)]pNPY, but not by pNPY-(13-36) and [D-Trp(32)]pNPY. These data indicate that the inhibitory effect of fNPY on spontaneous alpha-MSH release is preferentially mediated through Y(5) receptors, whereas the suppression of TRH-induced alpha-MSH secretion by fNPY probably involves Y(1) receptors. Pretreatment of neurointermediate lobes with pertussis toxin (PTX; 1 microg/ml; 12 h) did not abolish the inhibitory effect of fNPY on cAMP formation and spontaneous alpha-MSH release, but restored the stimulatory effect of TRH on alpha-MSH secretion, indicating that the adenylyl cyclase pathway is not involved in the action of fNPY on TRH-evoked alpha-MSH secretion. In the majority of melanotrope cells, TRH induces a sustained and biphasic increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Preincubation of cultured cells with fNPY (10(-7) M) or omega-conotoxin GVIA (10(-7) M) suppressed the plateau phase of the Ca(2+) response induced by TRH. However, although fNPY abrogated TRH-evoked alpha

  20. Targeting solid tumors via T cell receptor complementarity-determining region 3delta in an engineered antibody.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhun; Zhang, Tie; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Huiyuan; Yang, Zhi; Cui, Lianxian; He, Wei

    2008-12-18

    Human Vdelta2 gammadelta T lymphocytes killed multiple solid tumors, even displaying comparable therapeutic efficacy with anti-tumor chemical-cis-platinum in an adoptive experiment in both nude and SCID murine model shown in present study. We previously found that T cell receptor (TCR) gammadelta recognize tumors via complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3), briefly named as CDR3delta. Based on characteristics of specific binding of CDR3delta to tumor targets, we developed a novel tumor-targeting antibody, whose CDR3 in heavy chain is replaced by CDR3delta sequence derived from human ovarian carcinoma (OEC) infiltrating gammadelta T cells (gammadeltaTILs). This CDR3delta-grafted antibody OT3 exhibited specific binding activities to OEC line SKOV3 both in vitro and in vivo, which included specific binding to several tumor cell lines, interacting with heat shock protein (HSP) 60 and triggering ADCC against tumors in vitro, as well as displaying tumor imaging by radioisotope 99mTc-labeled antibody OT3 in vivo. Moreover, immunotoxin OT3-DT, CDR3delta-grafted antibody OT3 chemically conjugated with diphtheria toxin (DT) showed the anti-tumor effect on the growth of several solid tumors including OEC, cervix adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and rectum adenocarcinoma to various extents in nude mice. Therefore, we have found and confirmed a novel therapeutic strategy for targeting solid tumors, making use of immune recognition characteristics of gammadelta T cells.

  1. T-cell receptor gamma/delta expressing acute leukemia emerging from sideroblastic anemia: morphological, immunological, and cytogenetic features.

    PubMed

    Meckenstock, G; Fonatsch, C; Heyll, A; Schneider, E M; Kögler, G; Söhngen, D; Aul, C; Schneider, W

    1992-01-01

    Striking numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities (-Y, +8, i(7q), del (10)(q24), and del (11)(q21)) were detected by cytogenetic analysis in a patient's bone marrow with morphological features of both acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic disorder. Surface marker analysis characterized blast cells to be CD2+ CD7+ CD3+ CD4- CD8- expressing gamma/delta-T-cell receptor antigen and coexpressing CD11b and CD16. Exhibiting an identical phenotype as the leukemic cells, a prominent gamma/delta-TCR+ lymphocyte population was found in the bone marrow as well as in the peripheral blood. Cells of the latter compartment coexpressed CD56 and HLA-DR antigens and exhibited nonspecific cytotoxic activity. In the bone marrow cells NSCA could be induced after stimulation with interleukin 2 in vitro. Morphological, immunological, and cytogenetic findings suggest that gamma/delta-T-ALL emerged from a myelodysplastic disorder after sequential steps of malignant transformation. Leukemic cells with "mixed lineage" character may provide evidence for a common progenitor cell in the bone marrow. Assuming that the leukemic cells represent the malignant counterpart of normal CD3+ gamma/delta-TCR+ cells the results may contribute to our understanding of the origin and differentiation as well as the possible steps of malignant transformation of a gamma/delta-TCR+ lymphocyte population.

  2. Heterodimeric interaction between retinoid X receptor alpha and orphan nuclear receptor OR1 reveals dimerization-induced activation as a novel mechanism of nuclear receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebel, F F; Gustafsson, J A

    1997-01-01

    OR1 is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone nuclear receptor superfamily which has been described to mediate transcriptional responses to retinoids and oxysterols. On a DR4 response element, an OR1 heterodimer with the nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) has been described to convey transcriptional activation in both the absence and presence of the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid, the mechanisms of which have remained unclear. Here, we dissect the effects of RXR alpha and OR1 ligand-binding domain interaction on transcriptional regulation and the role of the respective carboxy-terminal activation domains (AF-2s) in the absence and presence of the RXR ligand, employing chimeras of the nuclear receptors containing the heterologous GAL4 DNA-binding domain as well as natural receptors. The results show that the interaction of the RXR and OR1 ligand-binding domains unleashes a transcription activation potential that is mainly dependent on the AF-2 of OR1, indicating that interaction with RXR activates OR1. This defines dimerization-induced activation as a novel function of heterodimeric interaction and mechanism of receptor activation not previously described for nuclear receptors. Moreover, we present evidence that activation of OR1 occurs by a conformational change induced upon heterodimerization with RXR. PMID:9199332

  3. A novel anxiogenic role for the delta opioid receptor expressed in GABAergic forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul Chu Sin; Keyworth, Helen L.; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Charbogne, Pauline; Darcq, Emmanuel; Bailey, Alexis; Filliol, Dominique; Matifas, Audrey; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Befort, Katia; Maldonado, Rafael; Kitchen, Ian; Kieffer, Brigitte L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The delta opioid receptor (DOR) is broadly expressed throughout the nervous system and regulates chronic pain, emotional responses, motivation and memory. Neural circuits underlying DOR activities have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we used conditional mouse mutagenesis to elucidate receptor function in GABAergic neurons of the forebrain. Methods We characterized DOR distribution in the brain of Dlx5/6-CreXOprd1fl/fl (Dlx-DOR) mice, and tested main central DOR functions through behavioral testing. Results DORs proteins were strongly deleted in olfactory bulb and striatum, and remained intact in cortex and basolateral amygdala. Olfactory perception, circadian activity and despair-like behaviors were unchanged. In contrast, locomotor stimulant effects of SNC80 (DOR agonist) and SKF81297 (D1 agonist) were abolished and increased, respectively. Furthermore, Dlx-DOR mice showed lower levels of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze, opposing the known high anxiety in constitutive DOR knockout animals. Also Dlx-DOR mice reached the food more rapidly in a novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) task, despite their lower motivation for food reward observed in an operant paradigm. Finally, c-fos staining after NSF was strongly reduced in amygdala, concordant with the low anxiety phenotype of Dlx-DOR mice. Conclusion Here we demonstrate that DORs expressed in the forebrain mediate the described locomotor effect of SNC80 and inhibit D1-stimulated hyperactivity. Our data also reveal an unanticipated anxiogenic role for this particular DOR subpopulation, with a potential novel adaptive role. DORs therefore exert dual anxiolytic/anxiogenic roles in emotional responses, which may both have implications in the area of anxiety disorders. PMID:25444168

  4. Deletion of glutamate delta-1 receptor in mouse leads to aberrant emotional and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Roopali; Gupta, Subhash C; Hillman, Brandon G; Bhatt, Jay M; Stairs, Dustin J; Dravid, Shashank M

    2012-01-01

    The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate δ1 (GluD1) and glutamate δ2 (GluD2) receptors. While the role of GluD2 in the regulation of cerebellar physiology is well understood, the function of GluD1 in the central nervous system remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that deletion of GluD1 leads to abnormal emotional and social behaviors. We found that GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO) were hyperactive, manifested lower anxiety-like behavior, depression-like behavior in a forced swim test and robust aggression in the resident-intruder test. Chronic lithium rescued the depression-like behavior in GluD1 KO. GluD1 KO mice also manifested deficits in social interaction. In the sociability test, GluD1 KO mice spent more time interacting with an inanimate object compared to a conspecific mouse. D-Cycloserine (DCS) administration was able to rescue social interaction deficits observed in GluD1 KO mice. At a molecular level synaptoneurosome preparations revealed lower GluA1 and GluA2 subunit expression in the prefrontal cortex and higher GluA1, GluK2 and PSD95 expression in the amygdala of GluD1 KO. Moreover, DCS normalized the lower GluA1 expression in prefrontal cortex of GluD1 KO. We propose that deletion of GluD1 leads to aberrant circuitry in prefrontal cortex and amygdala owing to its potential role in presynaptic differentiation and synapse formation. Furthermore, these findings are in agreement with the human genetic studies suggesting a strong association of GRID1 gene with several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder.

  5. L-delta-(alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteine-D-valine synthetase: production of dipeptides containing valine residue at its C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Chia-Yang; Liu, Yu-Tien

    2002-04-12

    L-delta-(alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteine-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) has been recently studied as a model enzyme for peptide synthetases. It was found that in the absence of alpha-aminoadipic acid but in the presence of several cysteine analogues it was incorporated into several analogue dipeptides upon incubation of the potential cysteine analogues with ACVS. [(14)C]Cysteine was incorporated into the[(14)C]cysteinyl-valine analogue dipeptides. Notably, [(14)C]valine incorporation in the presence of N-acylated cysteine analogues was observed. The alpha-aminoadipic acid activation site is influential, inhibitory or promotive, on the production of these putative dipeptide products. The production of dipeptide analogues, containing valine or analogues at the C-terminus, leads to the speculation that the biosynthetic direction of ACV could be from the C-terminus to the N-terminus.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    PubMed Central

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARδ markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased hepatobiliary cholesterol secretion, nor by reduced cholesterol absorption. To test the hypothesis that PPARδ activation leads to stimulation of transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE), we quantified it by intestine perfusions in FVB mice treated with PPARδ agonist GW610742. To exclude the effects on cholesterol absorption, mice were also treated with cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe or ezetimibe/GW610742. GW601742 treatment had little effect on plasma lipid levels but stimulated both fecal neutral sterol excretion (∼200%) and TICE (∼100%). GW610742 decreased intestinal Npc1l1 expression but had no effect on Abcg5/Abcg8. Interestingly, expression of Rab9 and LIMPII, encoding proteins involved in intracellular cholesterol trafficking, was increased upon PPARδ activation. Although treatment with ezetimibe alone had no effect on TICE, it reduced the effect of GW610742 on TICE. These data show that activation of PPARδ stimulates fecal cholesterol excretion in mice, primarily by the two-fold increase in TICE, indicating that this pathway provides an interesting target for the development of drugs aiming at the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:19439761

  7. The presence of mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors in human heart tissue.

    PubMed

    Sobanski, Piotr; Krajnik, Malgorzata; Shaqura, Mohammed; Bloch-Boguslawska, Elzbieta; Schäfer, Michael; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2014-11-01

    Functional evidence suggests that the stimulation of peripheral and central opioid receptors (ORs) is able to modulate heart function. Moreover, selective stimulation of either cardiac or central ORs evokes preconditioning and, therefore, protects the heart against ischemic injury. However, anatomic evidence for OR subtypes in the human heart is scarce. Human heart tissue obtained during autopsy after sudden death was examined immunohistochemically for mu- (MOR), kappa- (KOR), and delta- (DOR) OR subtypes. MOR and DOR immunoreactivity was found mainly in myocardial cells, as well as on sparse individual nerve fibers. KOR immunoreactivity was identified predominantly in myocardial cells and on intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cell-like structures. Double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that DOR colocalized with the neuronal marker PGP9.5, as well as with the sensory neuron marker calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) fibers were detected either in nerve bundles or as sparse individual fibers containing varicose-like structures. Our findings offer the first hint of an anatomic basis for the existence of OR subtypes in the human heart by demonstrating their presence in CGRP-IR sensory nerve fibers, small cells with an eccentric nucleus resembling ICA cells, and myocardial cells. Taken together, this suggests the role of opioids in both the neural transmission and regulation of myocardial cell function.

  8. Identification of regions involved in the binding of alpha-bungarotoxin to the human alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor using synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Marinou, Martha; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2003-01-01

    The neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) binds the neurotoxin alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt). Fine mapping of the alpha-Bgt-binding site on the human alpha7 AChR was performed using synthetic peptides covering the entire extracellular domain of the human alpha7 subunit (residues 1-206). Screening of these peptides for (125)I-alpha-Bgt binding resulted in the identification of at least two toxin-binding sites, one at residues 186-197, which exhibited the best (125)I-alpha-Bgt binding, and one at residues 159-165, with weak toxin-binding capacity; these correspond, respectively, to loops C and IV of the agonist-binding site. Toxin binding to the alpha7(186-197) peptide was almost completely inhibited by unlabelled alpha-Bgt or d -tubocurarine. Alanine substitutions within the sequence 186-198 revealed a predominant contribution of aromatic and negatively charged residues to the binding site. This sequence is homologous to the alpha-Bgt binding site of the alpha1 subunit (residues 188-200 in Torpedo AChR). In competition experiments, the soluble peptides alpha7(186-197) and Torpedo alpha1(184-200) inhibited the binding of (125)I-alpha-Bgt to the immobilized alpha7(186-197) peptide, to native Torpedo AChR, and to the extracellular domain of the human alpha1 subunit. These results suggest that the toxin-binding sites of the neuronal alpha7 and muscle-type AChRs bind to identical or overlapping sites on the alpha-Bgt molecule. In support of this, when synthetic alpha-Bgt peptides were tested for binding to the recombinant extracellular domains of the human alpha7 and alpha1 subunits, and to native Torpedo and alpha7 AChR, the results indicated that alpha-Bgt interacts with both neuronal and muscle-type AChRs through its central loop II and C-terminal tail. PMID:12614199

  9. The outline structure of the T-cell alpha beta receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Chothia, C; Boswell, D R; Lesk, A M

    1988-01-01

    From an analysis of the immunoglobulins of known structure we derive a list of 40 sites crucial for the conserved structure of the variable domains. We show that, with marginal exceptions, the sequences of the T-cell alpha beta receptors contain, at sites homologous to these 40, the same or very similar residues. Thus the V alpha-V beta dimer has a framework structure very close to that of the immunoglobulins. Further comparisons show that parts of the surface of the V alpha-V beta framework are hypervariable. They also show that the loops that form the antigen-binding site are similar in size to those commonly found in the immunoglobulins but have different conformations. Only limited sequence variations occur in the first loop of the antigen-binding site in both V alpha and V beta. This, and their geometrical arrangement, suggest that they mainly interact with the MHC proteins. PMID:3208747

  10. Presynaptic Inhibition of Glutamate Transmission by Alpha-2 Receptors in the VTA

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Rivera, Carlos A.; Figueroa, Johnny; Vázquez, Rafael; Vélez, María; Schwarz, David; Velásquez-Martinez, María C.; Arencibia-Albite, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) forms part of the mesocorticolimbic system and plays a pivotal role in reward and reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse. Glutamate transmission within the VTA controls important aspects of goal-directed behavior and motivation. Noradrenergic receptors also present in the VTA have important functions in the modulation of neuronal activity. Here we studied the effects of alpha-2 noradrenergic receptor activation in the alteration of glutamate neurotransmission in VTA dopaminergic neurons from male Sprague-Dawley rats. We used whole cell patch clamp recordings from putative VTA dopaminergic neurons and measured excitatory postsynaptic currents. Clonidine (40 μM) and UK 13,408 (40 μM), both alpha-2 receptor agonists, reduced (~ 40%) the amplitude of glutamate-induced excitatory postsynaptic currents. After clonidine administration, there was a dose-dependent reduction over the concentration range of 15–40 μM. Using yohimbine (20μM) and two other alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonists, idaxozan (40 μM) and atipemazole (20μM), we demonstrated that the inhibitory action is specifically mediated by alpha-2 receptors. Moreover, by inhibiting protein kinases with H-7 (75 μM), Rp-adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic (11 μM) and chelerythrine (1 μM) it was shown that the clonidine-induced inhibition seems to involve a selective activation of the protein kinase C intracellular pathway. An increased paired-pulse ratios and changes in spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents frequencies but not amplitudes indicated that the alpha-2 agonist’s effect was presynaptically mediated. It is suggested that the suppression of glutamate excitatory inputs onto VTA dopaminergic neurons might be relevant in the regulation of reward and drug seeking behaviors. PMID:22564071

  11. Description of two new alpha variants: Hb Canuts [alpha85(F6)Asp-->His (alpha1)] and Hb Ambroise Pare [alpha117(GH5)Phe-->Ile (alpha2)]; two new beta variants: Hb Beaujolais [beta84(EF8)Thr-->Asn] and Hb Monplaisir [beta147 (Tyr-Lys-Leu-Ala-Phe-Phe-Leu-Leu-Ser-Asn-Phe-Tyr-158-COOH)] and one new delta variant: Hb (A2)North Africa [delta59(E3)Lys-->Met].

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Bererd, Martine; Garcia, Caroline; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Aubry, Martine; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2009-01-01

    We present here five new hemoglobin (Hb) variants which have been identified during routine Hb analysis before their genotypic characterization. Four of these result from a classical missense mutation: Hb Canuts [alpha85(F6)Asp-->His (alpha1)], Hb Ambroise Pare [alpha117(GH5)Phe-->Ile (alpha2)], Hb Beaujolais [beta84(EF8)Thr-->Asn] and HbA(2)-North Africa [delta59(E3)Lys-->Met]. The last one, Hb Monplaisir [beta147 (Tyr-Lys-Leu-Ala-Phe-Phe-Leu-Leu-Ser-Asn-Phe-Tyr-158-COOH)], results from a frameshift mutation at the stop codon of the beta-globin gene which leads to a modified C-terminal sequence in the beta-globin chain. None of these variants seem to have a particular clinical expression in the heterozygous state. The circumstances of the discovery of these five new Hb variants emphasize the fact that an association of techniques is necessary for a complete screening of Hb variants during routine Hb analysis. Globin chain separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) appears to be the most relevant method.

  12. Lack of positive allosteric modulation of mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors by cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Foadi, Nilufar; Leuwer, Martin; Demir, Reyhan; Dengler, Reinhard; Buchholz, Vanessa; de la Roche, Jeanne; Karst, Matthias; Haeseler, Gertrud; Ahrens, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Ajulemic acid and HU210 are non-psychotropic, synthetic cannabinoids. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic plant constituent of cannabis sativa. There are hints that non-cannabinoid receptor mechanisms of these cannabinoids might be mediated via glycine receptors. In this study, we investigated the impact of the amino acid residue serine at position 267 on the glycine-modulatory effects of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. Mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors transiently expressed in HEK293 cells were studied by utilising the whole-cell clamp technique. The mutation of the alpha(1) subunit TM2 serine residue to isoleucine abolished the co-activation and the direct activation of the glycine receptor by the investigated cannabinoids. The nature of the TM2 (267) residue of the glycine alpha(1) subunit is crucial for the glycine-modulatory effect of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. An investigation of the impact of such mutations on the in vivo interaction of cannabinoids with glycine receptors should permit a better understanding of the molecular determinants of action of cannabinoids.

  13. Potentiation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site.

    PubMed

    Young, Gareth T; Zwart, Ruud; Walker, Alison S; Sher, Emanuele; Millar, Neil S

    2008-09-23

    Positive allosteric modulators of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have attracted considerable interest as potential tools for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, despite the potential therapeutic usefulness of these compounds, little is known about their mechanism of action. Here, we have examined two allosteric potentiators of alpha7 nAChRs (PNU-120596 and LY-2087101). From studies with a series of subunit chimeras, we have identified the transmembrane regions of alpha7 as being critical in facilitating potentiation of agonist-evoked responses. Furthermore, we have identified five transmembrane amino acids that, when mutated, significantly reduce potentiation of alpha7 nAChRs. The amino acids we have identified are located within the alpha-helical transmembrane domains TM1 (S222 and A225), TM2 (M253), and TM4 (F455 and C459). Mutation of either A225 or M253 individually have particularly profound effects, reducing potentiation of EC(20) concentrations of acetylcholine to a tenth of the level seen with wild-type alpha7. Reference to homology models of the alpha7 nAChR, based on the 4A structure of the Torpedo nAChR, indicates that the side chains of all five amino acids point toward an intrasubunit cavity located between the four alpha-helical transmembrane domains. Computer docking simulations predict that the allosteric compounds such as PNU-120596 and LY-2087101 may bind within this intrasubunit cavity, much as neurosteroids and volatile anesthetics are thought to interact with GABA(A) and glycine receptors. Our findings suggest that this is a conserved modulatory allosteric site within neurotransmitter-gated ion channels.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a high affinity radioiodinated probe for the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, S.M.; Hess, H.J.; Grodski, A.; Graham, R.M.; Homcy, C.J.

    1986-03-01

    The availability of radioiodinated probes has facilitated the localization and molecular characterization of cell membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters. However, such probes are not available for the study of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of functionalized derivatives of the selective alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, rauwolscine and yohimbine, which can be radiolabeled to high specific activity with 125I. Following demethylation of rauwolscine or yohimbine, the resultant carboxylic acid derivatives were reacted with 4-aminophenethylamine to yield the respective 4-aminophenethyl carboxamides, 17 alpha-hydroxy-20 alpha-yohimban-16 beta-(N-4-amino-phenethyl)carboxamide (rau-pAPC) and 17 alpha-hydroxy-20 beta-yohimban-16 alpha-(N-4-aminophenethyl)carboxamide. In competitive inhibition studies using rat renal membranes and the radioligand (3H)rauwolscine, rau-pAPC (Ki = 11 +/- 1 nM) exhibited a 14-fold greater affinity than the corresponding yohimbine derivative (Ki = 136 +/- 45 nM). The higher affinity compound, rau-pAPC, was radioiodinated by the chloramine T method, and the product, 125I-rau-pAPC (17 alpha-hydroxy-20 alpha-yohimban-16 beta-(N-4-amino-3 -(125I)iodophenethyl)carboxamide), was purified by reverse phase HPLC to high specific activity (2175 Ci/mmol) and its binding characteristics were investigated in rat kidney membranes. Specific binding of 125I-rau-pAPC was saturable and of high affinity as determined by Scatchard analysis (KD = 1.8 +/- 0.3 nM) or from kinetic studies (KD = k2/k1 = 0.056 +/- 0.013 min-1)/4.3 +/- 0.2 X 10(7) M-1 min-1 = 1.3 +/- 0.3 nM).

  15. Chlordecone, a mixed pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) agonist, alters cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Junga; Scheri, Richard C.; Zhang Yuan; Curtis, Lawrence R.

    2008-12-01

    Chlordecone (CD) is one of many banned organochlorine (OC) insecticides that are widespread persistent organic pollutants. OC insecticides alter lipid homeostasis in rodents at doses that are not neurotoxic or carcinogenic. Pretreatment of mice or rats with CD altered tissue distribution of a subsequent dose of [{sup 14}C]CD or [{sup 14}C]cholesterol (CH). Nuclear receptors regulate expression of genes important in the homeostasis of CH and other lipids. In this study, we report that CD suppresses in vitro reporter systems for human liver X receptors (LXRs) and activates those for human farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) in a concentration-dependent manner (0-50 {mu}M). Consistent with human PXR activation in vitro, three days after a single dose of CD (15 mg/kg) hepatic microsomal CYP3A11 protein increases in C57BL/6 mice. CD decreases hepatic CH ester content without altering total CH concentration. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) contents of hepatic lipoprotein-rich and microsomal fractions of CD-treated mice are higher than controls. There is a significant reduction in non-high density lipoprotein CH but not apolipoprotein B-48/100 (apoB-48/100) in plasma from CD-treated mice after a 4 h fast. At 14 days after 15 mg CD/kg apoA-I and apoB-100 proteins but not CYP3A11 protein in hepatic microsomes are similar to controls. This work indicates that altered CH homeostasis is a mode of OC insecticide action of relevance after a single dose. This at least partially explains altered CH tissue distribution in CD-pretreated mice.

  16. Structural Basis of Natural Promoter Recognition by a Unique Nuclear Receptor, HNF4[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Rha, Geun Bae; Melikishvili, Manana; Wu, Guangteng; Adkins, Brandon C.; Fried, Michael G.; Chi, Young-In

    2010-11-09

    HNF4{alpha} (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha}) plays an essential role in the development and function of vertebrate organs, including hepatocytes and pancreatic {beta}-cells by regulating expression of multiple genes involved in organ development, nutrient transport, and diverse metabolic pathways. As such, HNF4{alpha} is a culprit gene product for a monogenic and dominantly inherited form of diabetes, known as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). As a unique member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, HNF4{alpha} recognizes target genes containing two hexanucleotide direct repeat DNA-response elements separated by one base pair (DR1) by exclusively forming a cooperative homodimer. We describe here the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of human HNF4{alpha} DNA binding domain in complex with a high affinity promoter element of another MODY gene, HNF1{alpha}, which reveals the molecular basis of unique target gene selection/recognition, DNA binding cooperativity, and dysfunction caused by diabetes-causing mutations. The predicted effects of MODY mutations have been tested by a set of biochemical and functional studies, which show that, in contrast to other MODY gene products, the subtle disruption of HNF4{alpha} molecular function can cause significant effects in afflicted MODY patients.

  17. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  18. Opioid mediated activity and expression of mu and delta opioid receptors in isolated human term non-labouring myometrium.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Rebecca A; McMorrow, Jason P; Campion, Deirdre P; Carey, Michael F; O'Connor, John J

    2013-01-05

    The existence of opioid receptors in mammalian myometrial tissue is now widely accepted. Previously enkephalin degrading enzymes have been shown to be elevated in pregnant rat uterus and a met-enkephalin analogue has been shown to alter spontaneous contractility of rat myometrium. Here we have undertaken studies to determine the effects of met-enkephalin on in vitro human myometrial contractility and investigate the expression of opioid receptors in pregnant myometrium. Myometrial biopsies were taken from women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. Organ bath experiments were used to investigate the effect of the met-enkephalin analogue [d-Ala 2, d-met 5] enkephalin (DAMEA) on spontaneous contractility. A confocal immunofluorescent technique and real time PCR were used to determine the expression of protein and mRNA, respectively for two opioid receptor subtypes, mu and delta. DAMEA had a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on contractile activity (1 × 10(-7)M-1 × 10(-4)M; 54% reduction in contractile activity, P<0.001 at 1 × 10(-4)M concentration). Mu and delta opioid receptor protein sub-types and their respective mRNA were identified in all tissues sampled. This is the first report of opioid receptor expression and of an opioid mediated uterorelaxant action in term human non-labouring myometrium in vitro.

  19. Inhibition of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha by MK886.

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, J P; Biswal, S S; La, E; Thuillier, P; Datta, K; Fischer, S M; Vanden Heuvel, J P

    2001-01-01

    Although MK886 was originally identified as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), recent data demonstrate that this activity does not underlie its ability to induce apoptosis [Datta, Biswal and Kehrer (1999) Biochem. J. 340, 371--375]. Since FLAP is a fatty-acid binding protein, it is conceivable that MK886 may affect other such proteins. A family of nuclear receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their metabolites, the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), have been implicated in apoptosis and may represent a target for MK886. The ability of MK886 to inhibit PPAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma activity was assessed using reporter assay systems (peroxisome-proliferator response element--luciferase). Using a transient transfection system in monkey kidney fibroblast CV-1 cells, mouse keratinocyte 308 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, 10--20 microM MK886 inhibited Wy14,643 activation of PPAR alpha by approximately 80%. Similar inhibition of PPAR alpha by MK886 was observed with a stable transfection reporter system in CV-1 cells. Only minimal inhibitory effects were seen on PPAR beta and PPAR gamma. MK886 inhibited PPAR alpha by a non-competitive mechanism as shown by its effects on the binding of arachidonic acid to PPAR alpha protein, and a dose-response study using a transient transfection reporter assay in COS-1 cells. An assay assessing PPAR ligand-receptor interactions showed that MK886 prevents the conformational change necessary for active-complex formation. The expression of keratin-1, a protein encoded by a PPAR alpha-responsive gene, was reduced by MK886 in a culture of mouse primary keratinocytes, suggesting that PPAR inhibition has functional consequences in normal cells. Although Jurkat cells express all PPAR isoforms, various PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma agonists were unable to prevent MK886-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with MK886 functioning as a non-competitive inhibitor of PPAR alpha, but may

  20. The incommensurately modulated crystal structure of beta-Pb2BiVO6: interpretation of the phase transition alpha --> beta --> delta and conduction properties of related materials.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Pascal; Labidi, Olfa; Huve, Marielle; Drache, Michel; Wignacourt, Jean Pierre; Petricek, Vaclav

    2009-08-01

    A new polymorph of Pb(2)BiVO(6) was prepared under ambient conditions and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The phase transitions alpha --> beta and beta --> delta were identified in the mother phase; the high-temperature form delta-Pb(2)BiVO(6) eventually decomposes at 753 K to a mixture of Pb(4)BiVO(8) and the high-temperature form of PbBiVO(5) before showing recombination at 923 K. beta-Pb(2)BiVO(6) has an incommensurate monoclinic modulated structure. This crystal structure is twinned and complementary structural investigations of a powder sample of beta-Pb(2)BiVO(6) by TEM diffraction studies confirmed the lattice and incommensurate modulation character. Log sigma = f(T(-1)) dependences for Pb(2)BiVO(6)-related materials (6% M-for-V-substituted compositions; M = Cr, Mn, P) are reported, which allow the characterization (E(a) and isothermal sigma values) of the beta- as well as the delta- and alpha-Pb(2)BiVO(6) varieties.

  1. Characterization of the retina in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Marci L.

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in visual processing and are expressed by inner retinal neurons in all species studied to date (Keyser et al., 2000; Dmitrieva et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), but their distribution in the mouse retina remains unknown. Reductions in alpha7 nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are thought to contribute to memory and visual deficits observed in Alzheimer's and schizophrenia (Coyle et al., 1983; Nordberg et al., 1999; Leonard et al., 2006). However, the alpha7 nAChR knockout (KO) mouse has a mild phenotype (Paylor et al., 1998; Fernandes et al., 2006; Young et al., 2007; Origlia et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of AChRs in wildtype (WT) mouse retina and to assess whether up-regulation of other AChRs in the alpha7 nAChR KO retina may explain the minimal deficits described in the KO mouse. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed that mRNA transcripts for alpha2-7, alpha 9, alpha10, beta2-4 nAChR subunits and m1-m5 muscarinic AChR (mAChR) subtypes were present in WT murine retina. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of alpha3-5, alpha9, and m1-m5 AChR proteins and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated nAChR and mAChR proteins expressed by subsets of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. This is the first reported expression of alpha9 and alpha10 nAChR transcripts and alpha9 nAChR proteins in the retina of any species. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) showed changes in AChR transcript expression in the alpha7 nAChR KO mouse retina relative to WT. Within whole retina alpha2, alpha9, alpha10, beta4, m1 and m4 AChR transcripts were up-regulated, while alpha5 nAChR transcripts were down-regulated. However, cell populations showed subtle differences; m4 mAChR transcripts were up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer and outer portion of the inner nuclear layer (oINL),while beta4 nAChR transcript up-regulation was limited to the oINL. Surprisingly, alpha2, alpha9, beta4, m2 and m4 transcripts were

  2. N,N-Diethyl-4-(phenylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl)benzamide: a novel, exceptionally selective, potent delta opioid receptor agonist with oral bioavailability and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Wei, Z Y; Brown, W; Takasaki, B; Plobeck, N; Delorme, D; Zhou, F; Yang, H; Jones, P; Gawell, L; Gagnon, H; Schmidt, R; Yue, S Y; Walpole, C; Payza, K; St-Onge, S; Labarre, M; Godbout, C; Jakob, A; Butterworth, J; Kamassah, A; Morin, P E; Projean, D; Ducharme, J; Roberts, E

    2000-10-19

    The design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of a novel class of delta opioid receptor agonists, N, N-diethyl-4-(phenylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl)benzamide (6a) and its analogues, are described. These compounds, formally derived from SNC-80 (2) by replacing the piperazine ring with a piperidine ring containing an exocyclic carbon carbon double bond, were found to bind with high affinity and exhibit excellent selectivity for the delta opioid receptor as full agonists. 6a, the simplest structure in the class, exhibited an IC(50) = 0.87 nM for the delta opioid receptors and extremely high selectivity over the mu receptors (mu/delta = 4370) and the kappa receptors (kappa/delta = 8590). Rat liver microsome studies on a selected number of compounds show these olefinic piperidine compounds (6) to be considerably more stable than SNC-80. This novel series of compounds appear to interact with delta opioid receptors in a similar way to SNC-80 since they demonstrate similar SAR. Two general approaches have been established for the synthesis of these compounds, based on dehydration of benzhydryl alcohols (7) and Suzuki coupling reactions of vinyl bromide (8), and are herewith reported.

  3. Estrogen-related receptor alpha modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERRalpha in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERRalpha and ERRalpha-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PGC-1beta, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERRalpha-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPARgamma, and PGC-1alpha in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERRalpha and PGC-1beta mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERRalpha in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERRalpha may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  4. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  5. Alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor subtypes: non-identical triplets with different dancing partners?

    PubMed

    Hague, Chris; Chen, Zhongjian; Uberti, Michelle; Minneman, Kenneth P

    2003-12-12

    Alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors are one of the three subfamilies of G protein coupled receptors activated by epinephrine and norepinephrine to control important functions in many target organs. Three human subtypes (alpha(1A), alpha(1B), alpha(1D)) are derived from separate genes and are highly homologous in their transmembrane domains but not in their amino or carboxyl termini. Recent advances in our understanding of these "non-identical triplets" include development of knockout mice lacking single or multiple subtypes, new insights into subcellular localization and trafficking, identification of allosteric modulators, and increasing evidence for an important role in brain function. Although all three subtypes activate the same G(q/11) signaling pathway, they also appear to interact with different protein binding partners. Recent evidence suggests they may also form dimers, and may initiate independent signals through pathways yet to be clearly elucidated. Thus, this subfamily represents a common phenomenon of a group of similar but non-identical receptor subtypes activated by the same neurotransmitter, whose individual functional roles remain to be clearly established.

  6. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} in epidermal growth factor-induced HaCaT cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Pengfei; Jiang Bimei; Yang Xinghua; Xiao Xianzhong Huang Xu; Long Jianhong; Zhang Pihong; Zhang Minghua; Xiao Muzhang; Xie Tinghong; Huang Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be a potent mitogen for epidermal cells both in vitro and in vivo, thus contributing to the development of an organism. It has recently become clear that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) expression and activation is involved in the cell proliferation. However, little is known about the role of PPAR{beta}/{delta} in EGF-induced proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes. In this study, HaCaT cells were cultured in the presence and absence of EGF and we identified that EGF induced an increase of PPAR{beta}/{delta} mRNA and protein level expression in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, and AG1487, an EGF receptor (EGFR) special inhibitor, caused attenuation of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that EGF significantly increased PPAR{beta}/{delta} binding activity in HaCaT keratinocytes. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (asODNs) against PPAR{beta}/{delta} caused selectively inhibition of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein content induced by EGF and significantly attenuated EGF-mediated cell proliferation. Treatment of the cells with L165041, a specific synthetic ligand for PPAR{beta}/{delta}, significantly enhanced EGF-mediated cell proliferation. Finally, c-Jun ablation inhibited PPAR{beta}/{delta} up-regulation induced by EGF, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that c-Jun bound to the PPAR{beta}/{delta} promoter and the binding increased in EGF-stimulated cells. These results demonstrate that EGF induces PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression in a c-Jun-dependent manner and PPAR{beta}/{delta} plays a vital role in EGF-stimulated proliferation of HaCaT cells.

  7. Up-regulation of the alpha-secretase ADAM10 by retinoic acid receptors and acitretin.

    PubMed

    Tippmann, Frank; Hundt, Jana; Schneider, Anja; Endres, Kristina; Fahrenholz, Falk

    2009-06-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is often connected with nutritional misbalance, such as enhanced cholesterol intake, deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids, or hypovitaminosis. The alpha-secretase ADAM10 has been found to be regulated by retinoic acid, the bioreactive metabolite of vitamin A. Here we show that retinoids induce gene expression of ADAM10 and alpha-secretase activity by nonpermissive retinoid acid receptor/retinoid X receptor (RAR/RXR) heterodimers, whereby alpha- and beta-isotypes of RAR play a major role. However, ligands of other RXR binding partners, such as the vitamin D receptor, do not stimulate alpha-secretase activity. On the basis of these findings, we examined the effect of synthetic retinoids and found a strong enhancement of nonamyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein by the vitamin A analog acitretin: it stimulated ADAM10 promoter activity with an EC(50) of 1.5 microM and led to an increase of mature ADAM10 protein that resulted in a two- to three-fold increase of the ratio between alpha- and beta-secretase activity in neuroblastoma cells. The alpha-secretase stimulation by acitretin was completely inhibited by the ADAM10-specific inhibitor GI254023X. Intracerebral injection of acitretin in APP/PS1-21 transgenic mice led to a reduction of Abeta(40) and Abeta(42). The results of this study may have clinical relevance because acitretin has been approved for the treatment of psoriasis since 1997 and found generally safe for long-term use in humans.

  8. Rapid broad-spectrum analgesia through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha.

    PubMed

    LoVerme, Jesse; Russo, Roberto; La Rana, Giovanna; Fu, Jin; Farthing, Jesse; Mattace-Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria; Hohmann, Andrea; Calignano, Antonio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2006-12-01

    Severe pain remains a major area of unmet medical need. Here we report that agonists of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha) suppress pain behaviors induced in mice by chemical tissue injury, nerve damage, or inflammation. The PPAR-alpha agonists GW7647 [2-(4-(2-(1-cyclohexanebutyl)-3-cyclohexylureido)ethyl)phenylthio)-2-methylpropionic acid], Wy-14643 [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid], and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) reduced nocifensive behaviors elicited in mice by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of formalin or i.p. injection of magnesium sulfate. These effects were absent in PPAR-alpha-null mice yet occurred within minutes of agonist administration in wild-type mice, suggesting that they were mediated through a transcription-independent mechanism. Consistent with this hypothesis, blockade of calcium-operated IK(ca) (K(Ca)3.1) and BK(ca) (K(Ca)1.1) potassium channels prevented the effects of GW7647 and PEA in the formalin test. Three observations suggest that PPAR-alpha agonists may inhibit nocifensive responses by acting on peripheral PPAR-alpha. (i) PEA reduced formalin-induced pain at i.pl. doses that produced no increase in systemic PEA levels; (ii) PPAR-alpha was expressed in dorsal root ganglia neurons of wild-type but not PPAR-alpha-null mice; and (ii) GW7647 and PEA prevented formalin-induced firing of spinal cord nociceptive neurons in rats. In addition to modulating nociception, GW7647 and PEA reduced hyperalgesic responses in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain; these effects were also contingent on PPAR-alpha expression and were observed following either acute or subchronic PPAR-alpha agonist administration. Finally, acute administration of GW7647 and PEA reduced hyperalgesic responses in the complete Freund's adjuvant and carrageenan models of inflammatory pain. Our results suggest that PPAR-alpha agonists may represent a novel class of analgesics.

  9. Identification and characterization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the canine prostate using (/sup 125/I)-Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lepor, H.; Baumann, M.; Shapiro, E.

    1987-11-01

    We have recently utilized radioligand receptor binding methods to characterize muscarinic cholinergic and alpha adrenergic receptors in human prostate adenomas. The primary advantages of radioligand receptor binding methods are that neurotransmitter receptor density is quantitated, the affinity of unlabelled drugs for receptor sites is determined, and receptors can be localized using autoradiography on slide-mounted tissue sections. Recently, (/sup 125/I)-Heat, a selective and high affinity ligand with high specific activity (2200 Ci/mmole) has been used to characterize alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the brain. In this study alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the dog prostate were characterized using (/sup 125/I)-Heat. The Scatchard plots were linear indicating homogeneity of (/sup 125/I)-Heat binding sites. The mean alpha 1 adrenergic receptor density determined from these Scatchard plots was 0.61 +/- 0.07 fmol/mg. wet wt. +/- S.E.M. The binding of (/sup 125/I)-Heat to canine prostate alpha 1 adrenergic binding sites was of high affinity (Kd = 86 +/- 19 pM). Steady state conditions were reached following an incubation interval of 30 minutes and specific binding and tissue concentration were linear within the range of tissue concentrations assayed. The specificity of (/sup 125/I)-Heat for alpha 1 adrenergic binding sites was confirmed by competitive displacement assays using unlabelled clonidine and prazosin. Retrospective analysis of the saturation experiments demonstrated that Bmax can be accurately calculated by determining specific (/sup 125/I)-Heat binding at a single ligand concentration. (/sup 125/I)-Heat is an ideal ligand for studying alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the prostate and its favorable properties should facilitate the autoradiographic localization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the prostate.

  10. Phytol directly activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) and regulates gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Sota; Egawa, Kahori; Ebisu, Shogo; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Fushiki, Tohru; Kawada, Teruo . E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-18

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is one of the indispensable transcription factors for regulating lipid metabolism in various tissues. In our screening for natural compounds that activate PPAR using luciferase assays, a branched-carbon-chain alcohol (a component of chlorophylls), phytol, has been identified as a PPAR{alpha}-specific activator. Phytol induced the increase in PPAR{alpha}-dependent luciferase activity and the degree of in vitro binding of a coactivator, SRC-1, to GST-PPAR{alpha}. Moreover, the addition of phytol upregulated the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes at both mRNA and protein levels in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes. These findings indicate that phytol is functional as a PPAR{alpha} ligand and that it stimulates the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes in intact cells. Because PPAR{alpha} activation enhances circulating lipid clearance, phytol may be important in managing abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  11. Distinct functions for thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta in brain development indicated by differential expression of receptor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, D; Hallböök, F; Persson, H; Vennström, B

    1991-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for correct brain development, and since vertebrates express two thyroid hormone receptor genes (TR alpha and beta), we investigated TR gene expression during chick brain ontogenesis. In situ hybridization analyses showed that TR alpha mRNA was widely expressed from early embryonic stages, whereas TR beta was sharply induced after embryonic day 19 (E19), coinciding with the known hormone-sensitive period. Differential expression of TR mRNAs was striking in the cerebellum: TR beta mRNA was induced in white matter and granule cells after the migratory phase, suggesting a main TR beta function in late, hormone-dependent glial and neuronal maturation. In contrast, TR alpha mRNA was expressed in the earlier proliferating and migrating granule cells, and in the more mature granular and Purkinje cell layers after hatching, indicating a role for TR alpha in both immature and mature neural cells. Surprisingly, both TR genes were expressed in early cerebellar outgrowth at E9, before known hormone requirements, with TR beta mRNA restricted to the ventricular epithelium of the metencephalon and TR alpha expressed in migrating cells and the early granular layer. The results implicate TRs with distinct functions in the early embryonic brain as well as in the late phase of hormone requirement. Images PMID:1991448

  12. Afr1p regulates the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor receptor by a mechanism that is distinct from receptor phosphorylation and endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C; Dube, P; Konopka, J B

    1998-01-01

    The alpha-factor pheromone receptor activates a G protein signaling pathway that induces the conjugation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our previous studies identified AFR1 as a gene that regulates this signaling pathway because overexpression of AFR1 promoted resistance to alpha-factor. AFR1 also showed an interesting genetic relationship with the alpha-factor receptor gene, STE2, suggesting that the receptor is regulated by Afr1p. To investigate the mechanism of this regulation, we tested AFR1 for a role in the two processes that are known to regulate receptor signaling: phosphorylation and down-regulation of ligand-bound receptors by endocytosis. AFR1 overexpression diminished signaling in a strain that lacks the C-terminal phosphorylation sites of the receptor, indicating that AFR1 acts independently of phosphorylation. The effects of AFR1 overexpression were weaker in strains that were defective in receptor endocytosis. However, AFR1 overexpression did not detectably influence receptor endocytosis or the stability of the receptor protein. Instead, gene dosage studies showed that the effects of AFR1 overexpression on signaling were inversely proportional to the number of receptors. These results indicate that AFR1 acts independently of endocytosis, and that the weaker effects of AFR1 in strains that are defective in receptor endocytosis were probably an indirect consequence of their increased receptor number caused by the failure of receptors to undergo ligand-stimulated endocytosis. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of the receptor showed that AFR1 overexpression did not alter the number of cell-surface receptors or the affinity for alpha-factor. Thus, Afr1p prevents alpha-factor receptors from activating G protein signaling by a mechanism that is distinct from other known pathways. PMID:9504911

  13. Effects of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} on human melanocytes and regulation of the FP receptor by ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Glynis . E-mail: Glynis_Scott@urmc.rochester.edu; Jacobs, Stacey; Leopardi, Sonya; Anthony, Frank A.; Learn, Doug; Malaviya, Rama; Pentland, Alice

    2005-04-01

    Prostaglandins are potent lipid hormones that activate multiple signaling pathways resulting in regulation of cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the skin, prostaglandins are rapidly released by keratinocytes following ultraviolet radiation and are chronically present in inflammatory skin lesions. We have shown previously that melanocytes, which provide photoprotection to keratinocytes through the production of melanin, express several receptors for prostaglandins, including the PGE{sub 2} receptors EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} and the PGF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor FP, and that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} stimulates melanocyte dendricity. We now show that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} stimulates the activity and expression of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. Analysis of FP receptor regulation showed that the FP receptor is regulated by ultraviolet radiation in melanocytes in vitro and in human skin in vivo. We also show that ultraviolet irradiation stimulates production of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} by melanocytes. These results show that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} binding to the FP receptor activates signals that stimulate a differentiated phenotype (dendricity and pigmentation) in melanocytes. The regulation of the FP receptor and the stimulation of production of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} in melanocytes in response to ultraviolet radiation suggest that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} could act as an autocrine factor for melanocyte differentiation.

  14. New melanocortin 1 receptor binding motif based on the C-terminal sequence of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Muceniece, Ruta; Mutule, Ilga; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2006-10-01

    The C-terminal tripeptide of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH11-13) possesses strong antiinflammatory activity without known cellular target. In order to better understand the structural requirements for function of such motif, we designed, synthesized and tested out Trp- and Tyr-containing analogues of the alpha-MSH11-13. Seven alpha-MSH11-13 analogues were synthesized and characterized for their binding to the melanocortin receptors recombinantly expressed in insect (Sf9) cells, infected with baculovirus carrying corresponding MC receptor DNA. We also tested these analogues on B16-F1 mouse melanoma cells endogenously expressing the MC1 receptor for binding and for ability to increase cAMP levels as well as on COS-7 cells transfected with the human MC receptors. The data indicate that HS401 (Ac-Tyr-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2) and HS402 (Ac-Lys-Pro-Val-Tyr-NH2) selectively bound to the MC1 receptor and stimulated cAMP generation in a concentration dependent way while the other Tyr- and Trp-containing alpha-MSH11-13 analogues neither bound to MC receptors nor stimulated cAMP. We have thus identified new MC receptor binding motif derived from the C-terminal sequence of alpha-MSH. The tetrapeptides have novel properties as the both act via MC-ergic pathways and also carry the anti-inflammatory alpha-MSH11-13 message sequence.

  15. The alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptor mediates hyperactivity of coloboma mice, a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Kristy J; Hess, Ellen J

    2006-09-01

    Drugs that modify noradrenergic transmission such as atomoxetine and clonidine are increasingly prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the therapeutic targets of these compounds are unknown. Norepinephrine is also implicated in the hyperactivity exhibited by coloboma mice. To identify the receptor subtypes that regulate the hyperactivity, coloboma mice were systematically challenged with adrenergic drugs. The beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol and the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin each had little effect on the hyperactivity. Conversely, the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine reduced the activity of coloboma mice but not control mice. Subtype-selective blockade of alpha(2C)-, but not alpha(2A)- or alpha(2B)-adrenergic receptors, ameliorated hyperactivity of coloboma mice without affecting activity of control mice, suggesting that alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptors mediate the hyperactivity. Localized in the basal ganglia, alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptors are in a prime position to impact locomotor activity and are, therefore, potential targets of pharmacotherapy for ADHD.

  16. Solid-phase synthetic strategy and bioevaluation of a labeled delta-opioid receptor ligand Dmt-Tic-Lys for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Josan, Jatinder S; Morse, David L; Xu, Liping; Trissal, Maria; Baggett, Brenda; Davis, Peg; Vagner, Josef; Gillies, Robert J; Hruby, Victor J

    2009-06-18

    A general solid-phase synthetic strategy is developed to prepare fluorescent and/or lanthanide-labeled derivatives of the delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) ligand H-Dmt-Tic-Lys(R)-OH. The high delta-OR affinity (K(i) = 3 nM) and desirable in vivo characteristics of the Cy5 derivative 1 suggest its usefulness for structure-function studies and receptor localization and as a high-contrast noninvasive molecular marker for live imaging ex vivo or in vivo.

  17. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  18. Role of selective alpha and beta adrenergic receptor mechanisms in rat jejunal longitudinal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roland; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Shaw, Sidney; Haefliger, Simon; Balsiger, Bruno M

    2008-06-01

    Gut motility is modulated by adrenergic mechanisms. The aim of our study was to examine mechanisms of selective adrenergic receptors in rat jejunum. Spontaneous contractile activity of longitudinal muscle strips from rat jejunum was measured in 5-ml tissue chambers. Dose-responses (six doses, 10(-7) -3 x 10(-5)M) to norepinephrine (NE, nonspecific), phenylephrine (PH, alpha1), clonidine (C, alpha2), prenalterol (PR, beta1), ritodrine (RI, beta2), and ZD7714 (ZD, beta3) were evaluated with and without tetrodotoxin (TTX, nerve blocker). NE(3 x 10(-5)M) inhibited 74 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of spontaneous activity. This was the maximum effect. The same dose of RI(beta2), PH(alpha1), or ZD(beta(3)) resulted in an inhibition of only 56 +/- 5, 43 +/- 4, 33 +/- 6, respectively. The calculated concentration to induce 50% inhibition (EC50) of ZD(beta3) was similar to NE, whereas higher concentrations of PH(alpha1) or RI(beta2) were required. C(alpha2) and PR(beta1) had no effect. TTX changed exclusively the EC50 of RI from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.8% (p < 0.04). Contractility was inhibited by NE (nonspecific). PH(alpha1), RI(beta2), and ZD(beta3) mimic the effect of NE. TTX reduced the inhibition by RI. Our results suggest that muscular alpha1, beta2, and beta3 receptor mechanisms mediate adrenergic inhibition of contractility in rat jejunum. beta2 mechanisms seem to involve also neural pathways.

  19. Definition of the interferon-alpha receptor-binding domain on the TYK2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Yan, H; Piazza, F; Krishnan, K; Pine, R; Krolewski, J J

    1998-02-13

    Interferons and cytokines modulate gene expression via a simple, direct signaling pathway containing receptors, JAK tyrosine kinases, and STAT transcription factors. The interferon-alpha pathway is a model for these cascades. Two receptors, IFNaR1 and IFNaR2, associate exclusively in a constitutive manner with two JAK proteins, TYK2 and JAK1, respectively. Defining the molecular interface between JAK proteins and their receptors is critical to understanding the signaling pathway and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutics. This report defines the IFNaR1 interaction domain on TYK2. In vitro binding studies demonstrate that the amino-terminal half of TYK2, which is approximately 600 amino acids long and contains JAK homology (JH) domains 3-7, comprises the maximal binding domain for IFNaR1. A fragment containing amino acids 171-601 (JH3-6) also binds IFNaR1, but with reduced affinity. Glutathione S-transferase-TYK2 fusion proteins approximating either the JH6 or JH3 domain affinity-precipitate IFNaR1, suggesting that these are major sites of interaction within the larger binding domain. TYK2 amino acids 1-601 act in a dominant manner to inhibit the transcription of an interferon-alpha-dependent reporter gene, presumably by displacing endogenous TYK2 from the receptor. This same fragment inhibits interferon-alpha-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of TYK2, STAT1, and STAT2.

  20. Activation and desensitization of nicotinic alpha7-type acetylcholine receptors by benzylidene anabaseines and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Kem, William R; Soti, Ferenc; López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Horenstein, Nicole A

    2009-05-01

    Nicotinic receptor activation is inextricably linked to desensitization. This duality affects our ability to develop useful therapeutics targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Nicotine and some alpha7-selective experimental partial agonists produce a transient activation of alpha7 receptors followed by a period of prolonged residual inhibition or desensitization (RID). The object of the present study was to determine whether RID was primarily due to prolonged desensitization or due to channel block. To make this determination, we used agents that varied significantly in their production of RID and two alpha7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 5-hydroxyindole (5HI), a type 1 PAM that does not prevent desensitization; and 1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(5-methyl-isoxanol-3-yl)-urea (PNU-120596), a type 2 PAM that reactivates desensitized receptors. The RID-producing compounds nicotine and 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (diMeOBA) could obscure the potentiating effects of 5HI. However, through the use of nicotine, diMeOBA, and the RID-negative compound 3-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)anabaseine (diOHBA) in combination with PNU-120596, we confirmed that diMeOBA produces short-lived channel block of alpha7 but that RID is because of the induction of a desensitized state that is stable in the absence of PNU-120596 and activated in the presence of PNU-120596. In contrast, diOHBA produced channel block but only readily reversible desensitization, whereas nicotine produced desensitization that could be converted into activation by PNU-120596 but no demonstrable channel block. Steady-state currents through receptors that would otherwise be desensitized could also be produced by the application of PNU-120596 in the presence of a physiologically relevant concentration of choline (60 microM), which may be significant for the therapeutic development of type 2 PAMs.

  1. A new mouse allele of glutamate receptor delta 2 with cerebellar atrophy and progressive ataxia.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Yuka; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Suzuki, Kinuko; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Koura, Minako; Saigoh, Kazumasa; Kajimura, Naoko; Monobe, Yoko; Kusunoki, Susumu; Matsuda, Junichiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Hayasaka, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar degenerations (SCDs) are a large class of sporadic or hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motion defects and degenerative changes in the cerebellum and other parts of the CNS. Here we report the identification and establishment from a C57BL/6J mouse colony of a novel mouse line developing spontaneous progressive ataxia, which we refer to as ts3. Frequency of the phenotypic expression was consistent with an autosomal recessive Mendelian trait of inheritance, suggesting that a single gene mutation is responsible for the ataxic phenotype of this line. The onset of ataxia was observed at about three weeks of age, which slowly progressed until the hind limbs became entirely paralyzed in many cases. Micro-MRI study revealed significant cerebellar atrophy in all the ataxic mice, although individual variations were observed. Detailed histological analyses demonstrated significant atrophy of the anterior folia with reduced granule cells (GC) and abnormal morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC). Study by ultra-high voltage electron microscopy (UHVEM) further indicated aberrant morphology of PC dendrites and their spines, suggesting both morphological and functional abnormalities of the PC in the mutants. Immunohistochemical studies also revealed defects in parallel fiber (PF)-PC synapse formation and abnormal distal extension of climbing fibers (CF). Based on the phenotypic similarities of the ts3 mutant with other known ataxic mutants, we performed immunohistological analyses and found that expression levels of two genes and their products, glutamate receptor delta2 (grid2) and its ligand, cerebellin1 (Cbln1), are significantly reduced or undetectable. Finally, we sequenced the candidate genes and detected a large deletion in the coding region of the grid2 gene. Our present study suggests that ts3 is a new allele of the grid2 gene, which causes similar but different phenotypes as compared to other grid2 mutants.

  2. Insights into the Relationship between Toll Like Receptors and Gamma Delta T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Asif Amin; Patil, Rushikesh Sudam; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is an important aspect of cancer biology that contributes to tumor initiation, tumor progression and responses to therapy. The composition and characteristics of the tumor microenvironment vary widely and are important in determining the anti-tumor immune response. Successful immunization requires activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Generally, immune system is compromised in patients with cancer due to immune suppression, loss of tumor antigen expression and dysfunction of antigen presenting cells (APC). Thus, therapeutic immunization leading to cancer regression remains a significant challenge. Certain cells of the immune system, including dendritic cells (DCs) and gamma delta (γδ) T cells are capable of driving potent anti-tumor responses. The property of MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity, high potential of cytokine release, tissue tropism and early activation in infections and malignant disease makes γδ T cells as an emerging candidate for immunotherapy. Various strategies are being developed to enhance anti-tumor immune responses of γδ T cells and DCs one of them is the use of novel adjuvants like toll like receptors (TLR) agonists, which enhance γδ T cell function directly or through DC activation, which has ability to prime γδ T cells. TLR agonists are being used clinically either alone or in combination with tumor antigens and has shown initial success in both enhancing immune responses and eliciting anti-tumor activity. TLR activated γδ T cells and DCs nurture each other’s activation. This provides a potent base for first line of defense and manipulation of the adaptive response against pathogens and cancer. The available data provides a strong rationale for initiating combinatorial therapy for the treatment of diseases and this review will summarize the application of adjuvants (TLRs) for boosting immune response of γδ T cells to treat cancer and infectious diseases and their use in combinatorial therapy

  3. A New Mouse Allele of Glutamate Receptor Delta 2 with Cerebellar Atrophy and Progressive Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Yuka; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Suzuki, Kinuko; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Koura, Minako; Saigoh, Kazumasa; Kajimura, Naoko; Monobe, Yoko; Kusunoki, Susumu; Matsuda, Junichiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Hayasaka, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar degenerations (SCDs) are a large class of sporadic or hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motion defects and degenerative changes in the cerebellum and other parts of the CNS. Here we report the identification and establishment from a C57BL/6J mouse colony of a novel mouse line developing spontaneous progressive ataxia, which we refer to as ts3. Frequency of the phenotypic expression was consistent with an autosomal recessive Mendelian trait of inheritance, suggesting that a single gene mutation is responsible for the ataxic phenotype of this line. The onset of ataxia was observed at about three weeks of age, which slowly progressed until the hind limbs became entirely paralyzed in many cases. Micro-MRI study revealed significant cerebellar atrophy in all the ataxic mice, although individual variations were observed. Detailed histological analyses demonstrated significant atrophy of the anterior folia with reduced granule cells (GC) and abnormal morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC). Study by ultra-high voltage electron microscopy (UHVEM) further indicated aberrant morphology of PC dendrites and their spines, suggesting both morphological and functional abnormalities of the PC in the mutants. Immunohistochemical studies also revealed defects in parallel fiber (PF)–PC synapse formation and abnormal distal extension of climbing fibers (CF). Based on the phenotypic similarities of the ts3 mutant with other known ataxic mutants, we performed immunohistological analyses and found that expression levels of two genes and their products, glutamate receptor delta2 (grid2) and its ligand, cerebellin1 (Cbln1), are significantly reduced or undetectable. Finally, we sequenced the candidate genes and detected a large deletion in the coding region of the grid2 gene. Our present study suggests that ts3 is a new allele of the grid2 gene, which causes similar but different phenotypes as compared to other grid2 mutants. PMID

  4. Delta opioid receptors colocalize with corticotropin releasing factor in hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Milner, T A

    2011-04-14

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is an important site at which stress circuits and endogenous opioid systems intersect, likely playing a critical role in the interaction between stress and drug addiction. Prior study findings suggest that the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) may localize to similar neuronal populations within HF lamina. Here, hippocampal sections of male and cycling female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for immunolabeling using antisera directed against the DOR and CRF peptide, as well as interneuron subtype markers somatostatin or parvalbumin, and analyzed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Both DOR- and CRF-labeling was observed in interneurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate hilus. Males and normal cycling females displayed a similar number of CRF immunoreactive neurons co-labeled with DOR and a similar average number of CRF-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus and stratum oriens of CA1 and CA3. In addition, 70% of DOR/CRF dual-labeled neurons in the hilar region co-labeled with somatostatin, suggesting a role for these interneurons in regulating perforant path input to dentate granule cells. Ultrastructural analysis of CRF-labeled axon terminals within the hilar region revealed that proestrus females have a similar number of CRF-labeled axon terminals that contain DORs compared to males but an increased number of CRF-labeled axon terminals without DORs. Taken together, these findings suggest that while DORs are anatomically positioned to modulate CRF immunoreactive interneuron activity and CRF peptide release, their ability to exert such regulatory activity may be compromised in females when estrogen levels are high.

  5. Skn-1a/Oct-11 and {Delta}Np63{alpha} exert antagonizing effects on human keratin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lena, Anna Maria; Cipollone, Rita; Amelio, Ivano; Catani, Maria Valeria; Ramadan, Safaa; Browne, Gareth; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora

    2010-10-29

    Research highlights: {yields} Skn-1a markedly downregulates {Delta}Np63-driven K14 expression. {yields} {Delta}Np63 inhibits Skn-1a-mediated K10 expression. {yields} {Delta}Np63, mutated in SAM domain, is less effecting in K10 downregulation. {yields} Immunolocalization in human skin of the two transcription factors is partially overlapping. {yields} The antagonistic effects of Skn-1a and p63 is through competition for overlapping responsive elements or through an indirect interaction. -- Abstract: The formation of a stratified epidermis requires a carefully controlled balance between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we report the reciprocal effect on keratin expression of {Delta}Np63, pivotal in normal epidermal morphogenesis and maintenance, and Skn-1a/Oct-11, a POU transcription factor that triggers and regulates the differentiation of keratinocytes. The expression of Skn-1a markedly downregulated {Delta}Np63-driven K14 expression in luciferase reporter assays. The extent of downregulation was comparable to the inhibition of Skn-1a-mediated K10 expression upon expression of {Delta}Np63. {Delta}Np63, mutated in the protein-protein interaction domain (SAM domain; mutated in human ectodermal dysplasia syndrome), was significantly less effecting in downregulating K10, raising the possibility of a direct interaction among Skn-1a and {Delta}Np63. Immunolocalization in human skin biopsies revealed that the expression of the two transcription factors is partially overlapping. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments did not, however, demonstrate a direct interaction between {Delta}Np63 and Skn-1a, suggesting that the antagonistic effects of Skn-1a and p63 on keratin promoter transactivation is probably through competition for overlapping binding sites on target gene promoter or through an indirect interaction.

  6. Efficient signal transduction by a chimeric yeast-mammalian G protein alpha subunit Gpa1-Gsalpha covalently fused to the yeast receptor Ste2.

    PubMed Central

    Medici, R; Bianchi, E; Di Segni, G; Tocchini-Valentini, G P

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses G protein-coupled receptors for signal transduction. We show that a fusion protein between the alpha-factor receptor (Ste2) and the Galpha subunit (Gpa1) transduces the signal efficiently in yeast cells devoid of the endogeneous STE2 and GPA1 genes. To evaluate the function of different domains of Galpha, a chimera between the N-terminal region of yeast Gpa1 and the C-terminal region of rat Gsalpha has been constructed. This chimeric Gpa1-Gsalpha is capable of restoring viability to haploid gpa1Delta cells, but signal transduction is prevented. This is consistent with evidence showing that the C-terminus of the homologous Galpha is required for receptor-G protein recognition. Surprisingly, a fusion protein between Ste2 and Gpa1-Gsalpha is able to transduce the signal efficiently. It appears, therefore, that the C-terminus of Galpha is mainly responsible for bringing the G protein into the close proximity of the receptor's intracellular domains, thus ensuring efficient coupling, rather than having a particular role in transmitting the signal. To confirm this conclusion, we show that two proteins interacting with each other (such as Snf1 and Snf4, or Ras and Raf), each of them fused either to the receptor or to the chimeric Galpha, allow efficient signal transduction. PMID:9405353

  7. Regulation of TNF-alpha secretion by a specific melanocortin-1 receptor peptide agonist.

    PubMed

    Ignar, Diane M; Andrews, John L; Jansen, Marilyn; Eilert, Michelle M; Pink, Heather M; Lin, Peiyuan; Sherrill, Ronald G; Szewczyk, Jerzy R; Conway, James G

    2003-05-01

    The lack of specific pharmacological tools has impeded the evaluation of the role of each melanocortin receptor (MCR) subtype in the myriad physiological effects of melanocortins. 154N-5 is an octapeptide (MFRdWFKPV-NH(2)) that was first identified as an MC1R antagonist in Xenopus melanophores [J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 29846]. In this manuscript, we show that 154N-5 is a specific agonist for human and murine MC1R. The peptide has negligible activity at MC3R and MC4R and is 25-fold less potent and a weak agonist at MC5R. 154N-5 was tested in both a cellular and an animal model of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. The inhibitory efficacy of 154N-5 on TNF-alpha secretion in both models was similar to the nonselective agonist NDP-alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-alphaMSH), thus, we conclude that inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by melanocortin peptides is mediated by MC1R. 154N-5 is a valuable new tool for the evaluation of specific contribution of MC1R agonism to physiological and pathological processes.

  8. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptors influence tyrosine hydroxylase activity in retinal dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, P M; Rauch, A L

    1983-12-12

    Dopamine (DA) is a putative neurotransmitter in a population of interneurons in the mammalian retina that are activated by photic stimulation. Pharmacological studies were conducted to determine if alpha 2-adrenergic receptors influence the activity of retinal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a biochemical indicator of changes in the activity of the DA-containing neurons. TH activity was low in dark-adapted retinas and high in light-exposed retinas. Systemic administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and piperoxane, to dark-adapted rats significantly stimulated TH activity. This effect was apparently mediated locally within the retina because the response could also be elicited by direct injection of yohimbine into the vitreous. The dose-response relationships for the effects of alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists on retinal TH activity were similar to those for the effects on brain noradrenergic neurons, where alpha 2-adrenoceptors have been shown to be involved in the autoregulation of neuronal activity. Clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, had no effect when administered alone to dark-adapted rats, but it attenuated the stimulatory effect of yohimbine. In contrast, clonidine decreased TH activity of light-exposed retinas, an effect that was reversed by yohimbine. These observations suggest that alpha 2-adrenoceptors influence the activity of retinal DA-containing neurons.

  9. Synthesis of four stereoisomers of 1-azabiocyclo[2.2.2]OCT-3-YL-{alpha}-fluoroalkyl-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe): Potential imaging ligands for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor (m-AChR) by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Earlier studies with the racemic 1-azabiocyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-fluoroalkyl-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe) mixture had demonstrated high in vitro binding affinity for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor (m-AChR). Pre-treatment of rats with this new agent significantly blocked receptor localization of subsequently injected [I-131]-Z-(-,-)-IQNP, which is an established high affinity m-AChR ligand. Syntheses and characterization of the four FQNPe stereoisomers: (-)(-) FQNPe, (-)(+) FQNPe, (+)(-) FQNPe, and (+)(+) FQNPe will be presented. The interesting NMR spectra of the diastereomeric salts formed in the resolution of racemic {alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy {alpha}-phenylacetic acid will also be discussed.

  10. Hormonal regulation of delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tanya J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Chapleau, Jeanette D; Milner, Teresa A

    2011-02-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that women and men differ in relapse vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior during abstinence periods. As relapse is frequently triggered by exposure of the recovered addict to objects previously associated with drug use and the formation of these associations requires memory systems engaged by the hippocampal formation (HF), studies exploring ovarian hormone modulation of hippocampal function are warranted. Previous studies revealed that ovarian steroids alter endogenous opioid peptide levels and trafficking of mu opioid receptors in the HF, suggesting cooperative interaction between opioids and estrogens in modulating hippocampal excitability. However, whether ovarian steroids affect the levels or trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) in the HF is unknown. Here, hippocampal sections of adult male and normal cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for quantitative immunoperoxidase light microscopy and dual label fluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy using antisera directed against the DOR and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Consistent with previous studies in males, DOR-immunoreactivity (-ir) localized to select interneurons and principal cells in the female HF. In comparison to males, females, regardless of estrous cycle phase, show reduced DOR-ir in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and proestrus (high estrogen) females, in particular, display reduced DOR-ir in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Ultrastructural analysis of DOR-labeled profiles in CA1 revealed that while females generally show fewer DORs in the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, proestrus females, in particular, exhibit DOR internalization and trafficking towards the soma. Dual label studies revealed that DORs are found in NPY-labeled interneurons in the hilus, CA3, and CA1. While DOR colocalization frequency in NPY-labeled neuron somata was similar between animals in the hilus, proestrus females had fewer NPY-labeled neurons that

  11. Localization of the gene encoding the [alpha][sub 2]/[delta] subunit (CACNL2A) of the human skeletal muscle voltage-dependent Ca[sup 2+] channel to chromosome 7q21-q22 by somatic cell hybrid analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, P.A.; Hogan, K.; Gregg, R.G. ); Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario )

    1994-01-01

    Activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) by membrane depolarization triggers key cellular responses such as contraction, secretion, excitation, and electrical signaling. The skeletal muscle L-type VDCC is a heteromultimer complex containing four subunits, [alpha][sub 1],[alpha][sub 2]/[delta],[beta][sub 1], and [gamma]. The [alpha][sub 2]/[delta] subunit, an integral component of the VDCC, appears to modulate the channel kinetics. The [alpha][sub 2]/[delta] gene is expressed in many tissues, including skeletal muscle, brain, heart, and lung, and cDNAs representing the skeletal muscle and brain isoforms have been isolated. DNA sequence comparisons indicate that these cDNAs are encoding by a single gene. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Alpha-Bulges in G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    van der Kant, Rob; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Agonist binding is related to a series of motions in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that result in the separation of transmembrane helices III and VI at their cytosolic ends and subsequent G protein binding. A large number of smaller motions also seem to be associated with activation. Most helices in GPCRs are highly irregular and often contain kinks, with extensive literature already available about the role of prolines in kink formation and the precise function of these kinks. GPCR transmembrane helices also contain many α-bulges. In this article we aim to draw attention to the role of these α-bulges in ligand and G-protein binding, as well as their role in several aspects of the mobility associated with GPCR activation. This mobility includes regularization and translation of helix III in the extracellular direction, a rotation of the entire helix VI, an inward movement of the helices near the extracellular side, and a concerted motion of the cytosolic ends of the helices that makes their orientation appear more circular and that opens up space for the G protein to bind. In several cases, α-bulges either appear or disappear as part of the activation process. PMID:24806342

  13. Folate Receptor Targeted Alpha-Therapy Using Terbium-149

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Cristina; Reber, Josefine; Haller, Stephanie; Dorrer, Holger; Köster, Ulli; Johnston, Karl; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Terbium-149 is among the most interesting therapeutic nuclides for medical applications. It decays by emission of short-range α-particles (Eα = 3.967 MeV) with a half-life of 4.12 h. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticancer efficacy of a 149Tb-labeled DOTA-folate conjugate (cm09) using folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells in vitro and in tumor-bearing mice. 149Tb was produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Radiolabeling of cm09 with purified 149Tb resulted in a specific activity of ~1.2 MBq/nmol. In vitro assays performed with 149Tb-cm09 revealed a reduced KB cell viability in a FR-specific and activity concentration-dependent manner. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with saline only (group A) or with 149Tb-cm09 (group B: 2.2 MBq; group C: 3.0 MBq). A significant tumor growth delay was found in treated animals resulting in an increased average survival time of mice which received 149Tb-cm09 (B: 30.5 d; C: 43 d) compared to untreated controls (A: 21 d). Analysis of blood parameters revealed no signs of acute toxicity to the kidneys or liver in treated mice over the time of investigation. These results demonstrated the potential of folate-based α-radionuclide therapy in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:24633429

  14. Direct influence of C-terminally substituted amino acids in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore on delta-opioid receptor selectivity and antagonism.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2004-07-29

    A series of 17 analogues were developed on the basis of the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R' (denotes chirality; R = charged, neutral, or aromatic functional group; R' = -OH or -NH(2)). These compounds were designed to test the following hypothesis: the physicochemical properties of third-residue substitutions C-terminal to Tic in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore modify delta-opioid receptor selectivity and delta-opioid receptor antagonism through enhanced interactions with the mu-opioid receptor. The data substantiate the following conclusions: (i) all compounds had high receptor affinity [K(i)(delta) = 0.034-1.1 nM], while that for the mu-opioid receptor fluctuated by orders of magnitude [K(i)(mu) = 15.1-3966 nM]; (ii) delta-opioid receptor selectivity [K(i)(mu)/K(i)(delta)] declined 1000-fold from 22,600 to 21; (iii) a C-terminal carboxyl group enhanced selectivity but only as a consequence of the specific residue; (iv) amidated, positive charged residues [Lys-NH(2) (6), Arg-NH(2) (7)], and a negatively charged aromatic residue [Trp-OH (11)] enhanced mu-opioid affinity [K(i)(mu) = 17.0, 15.1, and 15.7 nM, respectively], while Gly-NH(2) (8), Ser-NH(2) (10), and His-OH (12) were nearly one-tenth as active; and (v) D-isomers exhibited mixed effects on mu-opioid receptor affinity (2' < 3' < 4' < 1' < 5') and decreased delta-selectivity in D-Asp-NH(2) (1') and D-Lys(Ac)-OH (5'). The analogues exhibited delta-opioid receptor antagonism (pA(2) = 6.9-10.07) and weak mu-opioid receptor agonism (IC(50) > 1 microM) except H-Dmt-Tic-Glu-NH(2) (3), which was a partial delta-opioid receptor agonist (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). Thus, these C-terminally extended analogues indicated that an amino acid residue containing a single charge, amino or guanidino functionality, or aromatic group substantially altered the delta-opioid receptor activity profile (selectivity and antagonism) of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, which suggests that the C-terminal constituent plays a major role in determining

  15. Characterization of delta-opioid receptors and effect of enkephalins on IRD 98 rat epithelial intestinal cell line.

    PubMed

    Nano, J L; Fournel, S; Rampal, P

    2000-03-01

    Using 3H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH (3H-DADLE) as a radioligand, delta-opioid binding sites on the IRD 98 rat epithelial cell line were identified. These sites were found to be reversible, saturable, specific and displayed high affinity for DADLE. Scatchard analysis revealed a dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.9+/-0.5 nmol/l, a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 1.7 pmol/mg protein, and 5x10(5) binding sites per cell. The presence of opioid receptors suggests the possibility that enkephalins directly control ion transport in enterocytes. In order to verify this hypothesis, investigations were designed to determine whether these receptors are functional and whether enkephalins can inhibit the stimulation of adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis induced by cholera toxin. The increase in cAMP synthesis induced by cholera toxin was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by H-Tyr-D-Ser-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr-OH (DSLET), a delta-agonist. The enkephalinase inhibitor thiorphan potentiated this effect on IRD 98 cells, which contain enkephalinase. The action of DSLET was increased by 40% in the presence of this inhibitor. This effect was reversed by naltrindole, a potent delta-antagonist. Enkephalins can regulate intestinal secretion by acting directly on enterocytes: they thus have an antidiarrheal role, especially in the presence of an enkephalinase inhibitor.

  16. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-01-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake Ac

  17. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-09-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake AcChoR.

  18. Physical and functional interaction of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 transactivator with the retinoic acid receptors RAR alpha and RXR alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Sista, N D; Barry, C; Sampson, K; Pagano, J

    1995-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation, indicated by induction of EBV early antigens from latently infected lymphoid cell lines by phorbol esters, is inhibited by retinoic acid (RA). Viral reactivation, which is triggered by the immediate-early BZLF-1 (Z) viral gene product, is repressed by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RAR alpha and RXR alpha. These proteins negatively regulate Z-mediated transactivation of the promoter for an EBV early gene product, early antigen-diffuse (EaD). Here we confirm a direct physical interaction between the AP1-like protein Z and RXR alpha and map the domains of interaction in the Z protein and RXR alpha. The domain required for homodimerization of Z is separate from that required for its interaction with RXR alpha. Z also has the effect of repressing activation of an RAR-responsive cellular promoter (BRE). Point mutants in the dimerization domain of Z unable to interact with RXR alpha do not repress RXR alpha-mediated transactivation of BRE, the promoter for RAR beta, which suggests that interaction between the two proteins is required for this repressor effect. The domain of RXR alpha required for interaction with Z has been mapped, and is again separate from that required for homodimerization. These results indicate that a 'cross-coupling' or direct interaction between Z and RAR alpha and RXR alpha can modulate the reactivation of latent EBV infection and suggest that, reciprocally, the viral protein Z may influence cellular regulatory pathways. Images PMID:7784177

  19. 5{alpha}-Bile alcohols function as farnesoid X receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko . E-mail: mogami@nihs.go.jp; Kawahara, Yosuke; Tamehiro, Norimasa; Yoshida, Takemi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Ohno, Yasuo; Nagao, Taku; Une, Mizuho

    2006-01-06

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid/alcohol-activated nuclear receptor that regulates lipid homeostasis. Unlike other steroid receptors, FXR binds bile acids in an orientation that allows the steroid nucleus A to face helix 12 in the receptor, a crucial domain for coactivator-recruitment. Because most naturally occurring bile acids and alcohols contain a cis-oriented A, which is distinct from that of other steroids and cholesterol metabolites, we investigated the role of this 5{beta}-configuration in FXR activation. The results showed that the 5{beta}-(A/B cis) bile alcohols 5{beta}-cyprinol and bufol are potent FXR agonists, whereas their 5{alpha}-(A/B trans) counterparts antagonize FXR transactivation and target gene expression. Both isomers bound to FXR, but their ability to induce coactivator-recruitment and thereby induce transactivation differed. These findings suggest a critical role for the A orientation of bile salts in agonist/antagonist function.

  20. PU.1 (Spi-1) and C/EBP alpha regulate expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hohaus, S; Petrovick, M S; Voso, M T; Sun, Z; Zhang, D E; Tenen, D G

    1995-01-01

    Growth factor receptors play an important role in hematopoiesis. In order to further understand the mechanisms directing the expression of these key regulators of hematopoiesis, we initiated a study investigating the transcription factors activating the expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha gene. Here, we demonstrate that the human GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter directs reporter gene activity in a tissue-specific fashion in myelomonocytic cells, which correlates with its expression pattern as analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter contains an important functional site between positions -53 and -41 as identified by deletion analysis of reporter constructs. We show that the myeloid and B cell transcription factor PU.1 binds specifically to this site. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a CCAAT site located upstream of the PU.1 site between positions -70 and -54 is involved in positive-negative regulation of the GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter activity. C/EBP alpha is the major CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) form binding to this site in nuclear extracts of U937 cells. Point mutations of either the PU.1 site or the C/EBP site that abolish the binding of the respective factors result in a significant decrease of GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter activity in myelomonocytic cells only. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in myeloid and B cell extracts, PU.1 forms a novel, specific, more slowly migrating complex (PU-SF) when binding the GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter PU.1 site. This is the first demonstration of a specific interaction with PU.1 on a myeloid PU.1 binding site. The novel complex is distinct from that described previously as binding to B cell enhancer sites and can be formed by addition of PU.1 to extracts from certain nonmyeloid cell types which do not express PU.1, including T cells and epithelial cells, but not from erythroid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PU

  1. The estrogen receptor alpha nuclear localization sequence is critical for fulvestrant-induced degradation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Casa, Angelo J; Hochbaum, Daniel; Sreekumar, Sreeja; Oesterreich, Steffi; Lee, Adrian V

    2015-11-05

    Fulvestrant, a selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD) is a pure competitive antagonist of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Fulvestrant binds ERα and reduces the receptor's half-life by increasing protein turnover, however, its mechanism of action is not fully understood. In this study, we show that removal of the ERα nuclear localization sequence (ERΔNLS) resulted in a predominantly cytoplasmic ERα that was degraded in response to 17-β-estradiol (E2) but was resistant to degradation by fulvestrant. ERΔNLS bound the ligands and exhibited receptor interaction similar to ERα, indicating that the lack of degradation was not due to disruption of these processes. Forcing ERΔNLS into the nucleus with a heterologous SV40-NLS did not restore degradation, suggesting that the NLS domain itself, and not merely receptor localization, is critical for fulvestrant-induced ERα degradation. Indeed, cloning of the endogenous ERα NLS onto the N-terminus of ERΔNLS significantly restored both its nuclear localization and turnover in response to fulvestrant. Moreover, mutation of the sumoylation targets K266 and K268 within the NLS impaired fulvestrant-induced ERα degradation. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the unique role of the ERα NLS in fulvestrant-induced degradation of the receptor.

  2. Transgenic mice demonstrate that epithelial homing of gamma/delta T cells is determined by cell lineages independent of T cell receptor specificity

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    gamma/delta T cells with different TCR repertoires are compartmentalized in different epithelia. This raises the possibility that the TCR-gamma/delta directs homing of T cells to these epithelia. Alternatively, the signals that induce TCR-gamma/delta expression in developing T cells may also induce homing properties in such cells, presumably in the form of cell surface receptors. We have examined this issue by studying the homing of gamma/delta T cells in transgenic mice constructed with specific pairs of rearranged gamma and delta genes. In such mice, most gamma/delta T cells express the transgene-encoded TCR. We find that homing to both skin and gut epithelia is a property of T cells and is not determined by the type of gamma and delta genes used to encode their TCR. We also studied the effect of TCR replacement on the expression of Thy-1 and CD8 proteins on the gamma/delta T cells associated with gut epithelia. Our results show that the expression of the appropriate type of TCR-gamma/delta is not required for the Thy-1 expression by these T cells, suggesting that Thy-1 is not an activation marker. In contrast, CD8 expression by gut gamma/delta T cells seems to depend on the expression of the appropriate type of TCR. PMID:2109035

  3. Receptor-recognized alpha 2-macroglobulin-methylamine elevates intracellular calcium, inositol phosphates and cyclic AMP in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, U K; Chu, C T; Rubenstein, D S; Gawdi, G; Pizzo, S V

    1993-01-01

    Human plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a tetrameric proteinase inhibitor, which undergoes a conformational change upon reaction with either a proteinase or methylamine. As a result, a receptor recognition site is exposed on each subunit of the molecule enabling it to bind to its receptors on macrophages. We have used Fura-2-loaded murine peritoneal macrophages and digital video fluorescence microscopy to examine the effects of receptor binding on second messenger levels. alpha 2M-methylamine caused a rapid 2-4-fold increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) within 5 s of binding to receptors. The agonists induced a focal increase in [Ca2+]i that spread out to other areas of the cell. The increase in [Ca2+]i was dependent on the alpha 2M-methylamine concentration and on the extracellular [Ca2+]. Both sinusoidal and transitory oscillations were observed, which varied from cell to cell. Neither alpha 2M nor boiled alpha 2M-methylamine, forms that are not recognized by the receptor, affected [Ca2+]i in peritoneal macrophages under identical conditions of incubation. The alpha 2M-methylamine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was accompanied by a rapid and transient increase in macrophage inositol phosphates, including inositol tris- and tetrakis-phosphates. Native alpha 2M did not stimulate a rise in inositol phosphates. Finally, binding of alpha 2M-methylamine to macrophages increased cyclic AMP transiently. Thus receptor-recognized alpha-macroglobulins behave as agonists whose receptor binding causes stimulation of signal transduction pathways. Images Figure 2 PMID:7681282

  4. alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated increase in NO production buffers renal medullary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Zou, A P; Cowley, A W

    2000-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating the adrenergic vasoconstrictor response of the renal medullary circulation. In anesthetized rats, intravenous infusion of norepinephrine (NE) at a subpressor dose of 0.1 microgram. kg(-1). min(-1) did not alter renal cortical (CBF) and medullary (MBF) blood flows measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry nor medullary tissue PO(2) (P(m)O(2)) as measured by a polarographic microelectrode. In the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the renal medulla, intravenous infusion of NE significantly reduced MBF by 30% and P(m)O(2) by 37%. With the use of an in vivo microdialysis-oxyhemoglobin NO-trapping technique, we found that intravenous infusion of NE increased interstitial NO concentrations by 43% in the renal medulla. NE-stimulated elevations of tissue NO were completely blocked either by renal medullary interstitial infusion of L-NAME or the alpha(2)-antagonist rauwolscine (30 microgram. kg(-1). min(-1)). Concurrently, intavenous infusion of NE resulted in a significant reduction of MBF in the presence of rauwolscine. The alpha(1)-antagonist prazosin (10 microgram. kg(-1). min(-1) renal medullary interstitial infusion) did not reduce the NE-induced increase in NO production, and NE increased MBF in the presence of prazosin. Microdissection and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the vasa recta expressed the mRNA of alpha(2B)-adrenergic receptors and that medullary thick ascending limb and collecting duct expressed the mRNA of both alpha(2A)- and alpha(2B)-adrenergic receptors. These subtypes of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors may mediate NE-induced NO production in the renal medulla. We conclude that the increase in medullary NO production associated with the activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors counteracts the vasoconstrictor effects of NE in the renal medulla and may play an important role in maintaining a constancy of MBF and medullary

  5. Estrogen Receptors Alpha (ERα) and Beta (ERβ): Subtype-Selective Ligands and Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Paterni, Ilaria; Granchi, Carlotta; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Minutolo, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. Modulation of these receptors by prospective therapeutic agents is currently being considered for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of pathological conditions, such as, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and osteoporosis. This review provides an overview and update of compounds that have been recently reported as modulators of ERs, with a particular focus on their potential clinical applications. PMID:24971815

  6. Characterization of alpha-conotoxin interactions with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcom, J D; Stiles, B G

    1997-01-01

    The venoms of predatory marine cone snails, Conus species, contain numerous peptides and proteins with remarkably diverse pharmacological properties. One group of peptides are the alpha-conotoxins, which consist of 13-19 amino acids constrained by two disulphide bonds. A biologically active fluorescein derivative of Conus geographus alpha-conotoxin GI (FGI) was used in novel solution-phase-binding assays with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and monoclonal antibodies developed against the toxin. The binding of FGI to nAchR or antibody had apparent dissociation constants of 10-100 nM. Structure-function studies with alpha-conotoxin GI analogues composed of a single disulphide loop revealed that different conformational restraints are necessary for effective toxin interactions with nAchR or antibodies. PMID:9359860

  7. Alpha-2 receptor agonists for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Molly R; Schwartz, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Clonidine and guanfacine are alpha-2 receptor agonists that decrease sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is theorized to be related to a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system. Currently, the only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline and paroxetine. Sometimes use of the SSRIs may not lead to full remission and symptoms of hyperarousal often persist. This article specifically reviews the literature on alpha-2 receptor agonist use for the treatment of PTSD and concludes that while the evidence base is limited, these agents might be considered useful when SSRIs fail to treat symptoms of agitation and hyperarousal in patients with PTSD.

  8. Heterogeneity of Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: SAD, a novel developmentally regulated alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Sawruk, E; Schloss, P; Betz, H; Schmitt, B

    1990-01-01

    Two genes, ard and als, are known to encode subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Drosophila. Here we describe the isolation of cDNA clones encoding a novel member (SAD, or alpha 2) of this receptor protein family. The deduced amino acid sequence displays high homology to the ALS protein and shares structural features with ligand binding nAChR alpha-subunits. Sad transcripts accumulate during major periods of neuronal differentiation and, in embryos, are localized in the central nervous system. Expression of SAD cRNA in Xenopus oocytes generates cation channels that are gated by nicotine. These data indicate heterogeneity of nAChRs in Drosophila. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1697262

  9. Photoaffinity labeling of alpha- and beta- scorpion toxin receptors associated with rat brain sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Darbon, H; Jover, E; Couraud, F; Rochat, H

    1983-09-15

    Azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus, a beta-toxin, and azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin V from Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus, an alpha-toxin, have been covalently linked after binding to their receptor sites that are related to the voltage sensitive sodium channel present in rat brain synaptosomes. Both derivatives labeled two polypeptides of 253000 +/- 20000 and 35000 +/- 2000 mol. wt. Labeling was blocked for each derivative by a large excess of the corresponding native toxin but no cross inhibition was obtained. These results suggest that both alpha - and beta - scorpion toxin receptors are located on or near the same two membrane polypeptides which may be part of the voltage dependent sodium channel.

  10. Alpha-2 receptor agonists for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Belkin, Molly R; Schwartz, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Clonidine and guanfacine are alpha-2 receptor agonists that decrease sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is theorized to be related to a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system. Currently, the only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline and paroxetine. Sometimes use of the SSRIs may not lead to full remission and symptoms of hyperarousal often persist. This article specifically reviews the literature on alpha-2 receptor agonist use for the treatment of PTSD and concludes that while the evidence base is limited, these agents might be considered useful when SSRIs fail to treat symptoms of agitation and hyperarousal in patients with PTSD. PMID:26322115

  11. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene coding for the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilka, B.K.; Matsui, H.; Kobilka, T.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Francke, U.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Regan, J.W.

    1987-10-30

    The gene for the human platelet ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor has been cloned with oligonucleotides corresponding to the partial amino acid sequence of the purified receptor. The identity of this gene has been confirmed by the binding of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic ligands to the cloned receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence is most similar to the recently cloned human ..beta../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors; however, similarities to the muscarinic cholinergic receptors are also evident. Two related genes have been identified by low stringency Southern blot analysis. These genes may represent additional ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

  12. TNF-alpha inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation without downregulating the expression of C/EBPbeta and delta.

    PubMed

    Kurebayashi, S; Sumitani, S; Kasayama, S; Jetten, A M; Hirose, T

    2001-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been reported to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in which multiple transcription factors including CCAAT enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma play an important role. Induction of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, which regulate the expression of many adipocyte-related genes, is dependent on the expression of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta at the early phase of adipocyte differentiation. To elucidate the mechanism by which TNF-alpha inhibits adipocyte differentiation, we examined the effect of TNF-alpha on the expression of these transcription factors in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. TNF-alpha did not abrogate the induction of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta in response to differentiation stimuli. In fully differentiated adipocytes, TNF-alpha rapidly induced C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta, whereas it downregulated the expression of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma. Our results suggest that TNF-alpha inhibits adipocyte differentiation independently of the downregulation of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta.

  13. Prothymosin Alpha Selectively Enhances Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activity by Interacting with a Repressor of Estrogen Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Paolo G. V.; Delage-Mourroux, Regis; Kraichely, Dennis M.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.

    2000-01-01

    We find that prothymosin alpha (PTα) selectively enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) but not transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors. This selectivity for ER is explained by PTα interaction not with ER, but with a 37-kDa protein denoted REA, for repressor of estrogen receptor activity, a protein that we have previously shown binds to ER, blocking coactivator binding to ER. We isolated PTα, known to be a chromatin-remodeling protein associated with cell proliferation, using REA as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a cDNA library from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PTα increases the magnitude of ERα transcriptional activity three- to fourfold. It shows lesser enhancement of ERβ transcriptional activity and has no influence on the transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors (progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, or retinoic acid receptor) or on the basal activity of ERs. In contrast, the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 increases transcriptional activity of all of these receptors. Cotransfection of PTα or SRC-1 with increasing amounts of REA, as well as competitive glutathione S-transferase pulldown and mammalian two-hybrid studies, show that REA competes with PTα (or SRC-1) for regulation of ER transcriptional activity and suppresses the ER stimulation by PTα or SRC-1, indicating that REA can function as an anticoactivator in cells. Our data support a model in which PTα, which does not interact with ER, selectively enhances the transcriptional activity of the ER but not that of other nuclear receptors by recruiting the repressive REA protein away from ER, thereby allowing effective coactivation of ER with SRC-1 or other coregulators. The ability of PTα to directly interact in vitro and in vivo with REA, a selective coregulator of the ER, thereby enabling the interaction of ER with coactivators, appears to explain its ability to selectively enhance

  14. NMDA receptor activation inhibits alpha-secretase and promotes neuronal amyloid-beta production.

    PubMed

    Lesné, Sylvain; Ali, Carine; Gabriel, Cecília; Croci, Nicole; MacKenzie, Eric T; Glabe, Charles G; Plotkine, Michel; Marchand-Verrecchia, Catherine; Vivien, Denis; Buisson, Alain

    2005-10-12

    Acute brain injuries have been identified as a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because glutamate plays a pivotal role in these pathologies, we studied the influence of glutamate receptor activation on amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in primary cultures of cortical neurons. We found that sublethal NMDA receptor activation increased the production and secretion of Abeta. This effect was preceded by an increased expression of neuronal Kunitz protease inhibitory domain (KPI) containing amyloid-beta precursor protein (KPI-APP) followed by a shift from alpha-secretase to beta-secretase-mediated APP processing. This shift is a result of the inhibition of the alpha-secretase candidate tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) when associated with neuronal KPI-APPs. This KPI-APP/TACE interaction was also present in AD brains. Thus, our findings reveal a cellular mechanism linking NMDA receptor activation to neuronal Abeta secretion. These results suggest that even mild deregulation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission may increase Abeta production and represent a causal risk factor for developing AD.

  15. Profile of the alpha-bungarotoxin-binding regions on the extracellular part of the alpha-chain of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mulac-Jericevic, B; Atassi, M Z

    1987-01-01

    The continuous alpha-neurotoxin-binding regions on the extracellular part (residues 1-210) of the alpha-chain of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor were localized by reaction of 125I-labelled alpha-bungarotoxin with synthetic overlapping peptides spanning this entire part of the chain. The specificity of the binding was confirmed by inhibition with unlabelled toxin and, for appropriate peptides, with unlabelled anti-(acetylcholine receptor) antibodies. Five toxin-binding regions were localized within residues 1-10, 32-41, 100-115, 122-150 and 182-198. The third, fourth and fifth (and to a lesser extent the first and second) toxin-binding regions overlapped with regions recognized by anti-(acetylcholine receptor) antibodies. The five toxin-binding regions may be distinct sites or, alternatively, different 'faces' in one (or more) sites. PMID:3435488

  16. Different pathways of ( sup 3 H)inositol phosphate formation mediated by. alpha. 1a- and. alpha. 1b-adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.M.; Minneman, K.P. )

    1990-10-15

    The types of inositol phosphates (InsPs) formed in response to activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor subtypes were determined in collagenase-dispersed renal cells and hepatocytes by high pressure liquid chromatography separation. In hepatocytes, which contain only the alpha 1b subtype, norepinephrine stimulated rapid (10-s) formation of (3H)Ins(1,4,5)P3 and (3H)Ins(1,3,4)P3 and slower (5-min) formation of Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1)P. Selective inactivation of alpha 1b receptors by chloroethylclonidine almost completely blocked the effects of norepinephrine in hepatocytes. In renal cells, which contain both alpha 1a and alpha 1b receptors in a 60:40 ratio, norepinephrine did not significantly increase the size of any peaks until 5 min after agonist activation. At this time, only a peak eluting with Ins(1)P and one eluting shortly after Ins(1,4)P2 were significantly elevated. Incubation with norepinephrine for 2 h caused small but significant increases in peaks co-eluting with Ins(1)P and Ins(1,4,5)P3 in renal cells; however, only the increase in Ins(1)P was inhibited by chloroethylclonidine pretreatment. Extraction under neutral conditions suggested that cyclic InsPs may be the primary compounds formed in response to norepinephrine in renal cells. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ caused a 60% reduction in the InsP response to norepinephrine in renal cells but had no effect in hepatocytes. These results suggest that activation of alpha 1a and alpha 1b receptor subtypes results in formation of different InsPs and that the response to alpha 1a activation may require influx of extracellular Ca2+.

  17. Comparison of the in vitro efficacy of mu, delta, kappa and ORL1 receptor agonists and non-selective opioid agonists in dog brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Lester, Patrick A; Traynor, John R

    2006-02-16

    Morphine and related opioid agonists are frequently used in dogs for their analgesic properties, their sedative effects and as adjuncts to anesthesia. Such compounds may be effective through a combined action at mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors. In this work, the in vitro relative agonist efficacy of ligands selective for mu (DAMGO)-, delta (SNC80)- and kappa (U69593)-opioid receptors as well as the opioid receptor-like receptor ORL(1) (orphaninFQ/nociceptin) which may mediate nociceptive or antinociceptive actions was determined using the [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay in membrane homogenates from the frontal cortex, thalamus and spinal cord of beagle dogs. In addition, other analgesics commonly used in the dog were investigated. For the receptor-selective compounds, maximum stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding decreased in the order kappa > ORL1 > delta > mu in cortical homogenates, compared with mu > ORL1 > kappa > delta in thalamic and spinal cord homogenates. For other opioids examined, efficacy decreased in the order etorphine > morphine > fentanyl = oxymorphine > butorphanol = oxycodone = nalbuphine. There was no significant difference in the potency of compounds to stimulate [35S]GTPgammaS binding between cortex and thalamus, with the exception of etorphine. Buprenorphine, the partial mu-opioid receptor agonist and kappa-, delta-opioid receptor antagonist, which does have analgesic efficacy in the dog, showed no agonism in any tissue but was an effective mu-opioid receptor > ORL1 receptor antagonist. The results show that the ability of agonists to stimulate [35S]GTPgammaS binding relates to the receptor distribution of opioid and ORL1 receptors in the dog.

  18. Short- and long-term regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by delta-opioid receptor are mediated by Galphai2 in neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Tetrault, Joan; Wang, Wei; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2006-06-01

    Activation of the opioid receptor results in short-term inhibition of intracellular cAMP levels followed by receptor desensitization and subsequent increase of cAMP above the control level (adenylyl cyclase superactivation). Using adenovirus to deliver pertussis toxin-insensitive mutants of the alpha-subunits of G(i/o) that are expressed in neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells (Galpha(i2), Galpha(i3), and Galpha(o)), we examined the identities of the G proteins involved in the short- and long-term action of the delta-opioid receptor (DOR). Pertussis toxin pretreatment completely abolished the ability of [d-Pen(2), d-Pen(5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE) to inhibit forskolin-stimulated intracellular cAMP production. Expression of the C352L mutant of Galpha(i2), and not the C351L mutants of Galpha(i3) or Galpha(o), rescued the short-term effect of DPDPE after pertussis toxin treatment. The ability of Galpha(i2) in mediating DOR inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity was also reflected in the ability of Galpha(i2), not Galpha(i3) or Galpha(o), to coimmunoprecipitate with DOR. Coincidently, after long-term DPDPE treatment, pertussis toxin treatment eliminated the antagonist naloxone-induced superactivation of adenylyl cyclase activity. Again, only the C352L mutant of Galpha(i2) restored the adenylyl cyclase superactivation after pertussis toxin treatment. More importantly, the C352L mutant of Galpha(i2) remained associated with DOR after long-term agonist and pertussis toxin treatment whereas the wild-type Galpha(i2) did not. These data suggest that Galpha(i2) serves as the signaling molecule in both DOR-mediated short- and long-term regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity.

  19. Binding sites for. alpha. -bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine on a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the. alpha. -subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly-Roberts, D.L.; Lentz, T.L. )

    1991-07-30

    The binding of the competitive antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-Btx) and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine (PCP) to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha}-subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor has been characterized. {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 172-227 peptide in a solid-phase assay and was competed by {alpha}-Btx d-tubocurarine and NaCl. In the presence of 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate, {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 56-residue peptide with a K{sub D} of 3.5 nM, as determined by equilibrium saturation binding studies. Because {alpha}Btx binds to a peptide comprising residues 173-204 with the same affinity and does not bind to a peptide comprising residues 205-227, the competitive antagonist and hence agonist binding site lies between residues 173 and 204. After photoaffinity labeling, ({sup 3}H)PCP was bound to the 172-227 peptide. ({sup 3}H)PCP binding was inhibited by chlorpromazine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. It is concluded that a high-affinity binding site for PCP is located between residues 205 and 227, which includes the first 18 residues of transmembrane segment M1, and that a low-affinity site is located in the competitive antagonist binding site between residues 173 and 204. These results show that a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha} subunit contains three binding sites, one for {alpha}-Btx and two for PCP. Previous studies on the intact receptor indicate high-affinity PCP binding occurs in the receptor channel.

  20. Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals: II. Tissue distribution of 17. cap alpha. -methylestradiol in normal and tumor-bearing rats

    SciTech Connect

    Feenstra, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Nolten, G.M.J.; Reiffers, S.; Talma, A.G.; Wiegman, T.; van der Molen, H.D.; Woldring, M.G.

    1983-06-01

    Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol was synthesized to investigate the potential of the carbon-11-labeled analog as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical. In vitro, 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is bound with high affinity to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptor from rabbit uterus (K/sub d/ = 1.96 x 10/sup -10/M), and it sediments as an 8S hormone-receptor complex in sucrose gradients. The compound shows specific uptake in the uterus of the adult rat, within 1 h after injection. In female rats bearing DMBA-induced tumors, specific uterine and tumor uptakes were observed, although at 30 min the tumor uptake was only 23 to 30% of the uptake in the uterus. Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol with a specific activity of 6 Ci/mmole showed a similar tissue distribution. Our results indicate that a 17 ..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is promising as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical.

  1. Alpha-adrenergic regulation of androgen receptor concentration in the preoptic area of the rat.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Resko, J A

    1989-04-03

    We examined the effect of the pharmacological disruption of the catecholaminergic system on the concentration of nuclear androgen receptor, as measured by the in vitro binding of methyltrienolone ([3H]R1881) to salt extracts of anterior pituitary (AP), preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). Treatment of gonadectomized male and female rats with the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (400 mg/kg b. wt.), 30 min before treatment with dihydrotestosterone (1 mg/animal) produced a decrease in the number of nuclear androgen receptor compared with saline-treated controls (P less than 0.05). This effect was specific for the POA and was not present 15 h after DHT treatment. There was no effect on cytosolic androgen receptor nor was there a drug effect on the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of [3H]R1881 binding to hypothalamus-preoptic area cytosols. Treatment of intact males and castrated, testosterone-treated males with the alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (5 mg/kg b. wt.) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of nuclear AR 2 h following drug treatment (P less than 0.05). There was no effect of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg b. wt.) when given to intact animals, nor was there an effect of idazoxan (5 mg/kg) when given to testosterone-treated animals. The effects of yohimbine and prazosin were restricted to the POA. None of the drugs competed with the binding of [3H]R1881 for the androgen receptor nor did they alter the Kd of cytosol or nuclear androgen receptor. These data provide evidence for an adrenergic interaction with the POA androgen receptor and suggest a role for catecholamines in modulating androgen sensitivity in the rat brain.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a dual kappa-delta opioid receptor agonist analgesic blocking cocaine reward behavior.

    PubMed

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-11-18

    3-Iodobenzoyl naltrexamine (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic belonging to the pharmacologically diverse 6β-amidoepoxymorphinan group of opioids. We present the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of five analogs of IBNtxA. The scaffold of IBNtxA was modified by removing the 14-hydroxy group, incorporating a 7,8 double bond and various N-17 alkyl substituents. The structural modifications resulted in analogs with picomolar affinities for opioid receptors. The lead compound (MP1104) was found to exhibit approximately 15-fold greater antinociceptive potency (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) compared with morphine, mediated through the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite its kappa agonism, this lead derivative did not cause place aversion or preference in mice in a place-conditioning assay, even at doses 3 times the analgesic ED50. However, pretreatment with the lead compound prevented the reward behavior associated with cocaine in a conditioned place preference assay. Together, these results suggest the promise of dual acting kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists as analgesics and treatments for cocaine addiction.

  3. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  4. Cobalt chloride-induced estrogen receptor alpha down-regulation involves hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyoon; Kim, Dukkyung; Lee, SeungKi; Lee, YoungJoo

    2005-05-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is down-regulated under hypoxia via a proteasome-dependent pathway. We studied the mechanism of ERalpha degradation under hypoxic mimetic conditions. Cobalt chloride-induced ERalpha down-regulation was dependent on the expression of newly synthesized protein(s), one possibility of which was hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). To examine the role of HIF-1alpha expression in ERalpha down-regulation under hypoxic-mimetic conditions, we used a constitutively active form of HIF-1alpha, HIF-1alpha/herpes simplex viral protein 16 (VP16), constructed by replacing the transactivation domain of HIF-1alpha with that of VP16. Western blot analysis revealed that HIF-1alpha/VP16 down-regulated ERalpha in a dose-dependent manner via a proteasome-dependent pathway. The kinase pathway inhibitors PD98059, U0126, wortmannin, and SB203580 did not affect the down-regulation. A mammalian two-hybrid screen and immunoprecipitation assays indicated that ERalpha interacted with HIF-1alpha physically. These results suggest that ERalpha down-regulation under hypoxia involves protein-protein interactions between the ERalpha and HIF-1alpha.

  5. Functional effect of point mutations in the alpha-folate receptor gene of CABA I ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, F; Miotti, S; Galmozzi, E; Mazzi, M; Sforzini, S; Canevari, S; Tomassetti, A

    2001-01-01

    The alpha-folate receptor (alpha FR) is overexpressed in 90% of nonmucinous ovarian carcinomas. In addition to the known role of alpha FR binding and mediating the internalization of folates, functional interaction of alpha FR with signaling molecules was recently shown. To identify a model to study the role of alpha FR in ovarian carcinoma, we characterized the alpha FR gene in the ovarian carcinoma cell line CABA I in comparison to a reference line, IGROV1. In CABA I cells, Northern blot analysis revealed an alpha FR transcript of the expected length and FACS analysis indicated receptor expression on the cell membrane; however, RNase protection assay revealed no specific signals. Southern blot and genomic PCR analysis suggested the presence of a rearrangement(s) involving the 5' region of the gene in CABA I cells as compared to IGROV1 cells. Cloning and sequencing of CABA I alpha FR cDNA revealed several point mutations. The partitioning of alpha FR in membrane microdomains from CABA I cells and its association with regulatory molecules was comparable to that of IGROV1 cells. By contrast, the alpha FR expressed on the CABA I cell membrane bound folic acid with lower affinity, and ectopic expression of the corresponding cDNA in CHO cells confirmed impaired folic acid binding. Thus, CABA I cells may provide a tool to delineate functional domains of the alpha FR.

  6. Relationship of changing delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity to (125I)iododeoxyuridine uptake during regeneration of involuted rat prostates

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, S.; Higashi, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Oshima, H. )

    1989-04-01

    To elucidate the phenotypic expression of proliferating prostatic cells, rats were castrated, and the regenerating process of involuted ventral prostates during testosterone propionate (TP) administration was investigated by examining morphology, (5-{sup 125}I)iododeoxyuridine ({sup 125}I-UdR) uptake, DNA content, weight, acid phosphatase, and delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha-reductase) activities. Morphologically, TP treatment initially increased the number of epithelial cells lining glandular lobules and subsequently restored the shape of epithelial cells. {sup 125}I-UdR uptake peaked on Day 3 of TP treatment and stayed at higher levels than for uncastrated controls until Day 14 of treatment. Prostatic weight, protein content, acid phosphatase, and DNA content returned to uncastrated control levels by Day 14 of TP treatment. TP administration markedly stimulated prostatic 5 alpha-reductase activity, which peaked on the Day 5 of treatment and decreased to uncastrated control levels by Day 14 of treatment. It is concluded that TP administration to castrated rats initially induced active mitotic division of the remaining stem cells, followed by formation of differentiated functional epithelial cells. Prostatic 5 alpha-reductase was highly active at the initial phase of active mitotic cell division. The major portion of the increased enzyme activity can be regarded as a phenotypic expression of stem or transient cells of prostatic epithelium.

  7. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha suppresses the expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Ken; Kizaki, Takako; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Jun-Etsu; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Iijima, Takehiko; Okada, Chikako; Noguchi, Izumi; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Ohno, Hideki

    2009-11-01

    Macrophages are distributed in all peripheral tissues and play a critical role in the first line of the innate immune defenses against bacterial infection by phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens through the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1). Within tissues, the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) decreases depending on the distance of cells from the closest O2-supplying blood vessel. However, it is not clear how the expression of MSR1 in macrophages is regulated by low pO2. On the other hand, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha is well known to control hypoxic responses through regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and HIF-1alpha on MSR1 expression and function in the macrophage cell line RAW264. Exposure to 1% O2 or treatment with the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl2) significantly suppressed the expression of MSR1 mRNA, accompanied by a markedly increase in levels of nuclear HIF-1alpha protein. The overexpression of HIF-1alpha in RAW264 cells suppressed the expression of MSR1 mRNA and protein, transcriptional activity of the MSR1 gene, and phagocytic capacity against the Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. The suppression of MSR1 mRNA by hypoxia or CoCl2 was inhibited by YC-1, an inhibitor of HIF-1alpha, or by the depletion of HIF-1alpha expression by small interference RNA. These results indicate that hypoxia transcriptionally suppresses MSR1 expression through HIF-1alpha.

  8. Prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}} regulates cytokine responses of mast cells through the receptors for prostaglandin E

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Izumi; Hishinuma, Takanori; Suzuki, Kaori; Owada, Yuji; Kitanaka, Noriko; Kondo, Hisatake; Goto, Junichi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ono, Masao

    2008-03-14

    There is an increasing body of evidence that prostanoids modulate mast cell functions and contribute to the development of allergic inflammation. The present study aimed to identify an undetermined function of prostaglandin (PG) F{sub 2{alpha}} in mast cell activation and the signaling mechanism involved in it. Simultaneous quantification of prostanoids by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry revealed the constitutive release of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, thromboxane B{sub 2}, and 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} from bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Upon activation of BMMCs by lipopolysaccharide, the cytokine production in BMMCs was enhanced when the culture was supplemented with PGF{sub 2{alpha}}. However, F prostanoid receptor-a selective receptor for PGF{sub 2{alpha}}-was not detected in BMMCs. Further investigations performed using prostanoid receptor antagonists revealed an alternative mechanism wherein the receptors for PGE species-E prostanoid receptors-mediated the PGF{sub 2{alpha}} signal in BMMCs. The present study provides an insight into a novel function of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, i.e., an autocrine accelerator for mast cell activation.

  9. Contribution of position alpha4S336 on functional expression and up-regulation of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Biaggi-Labiosa, Nilza M; Torres-Cintrón, Alexis; Ortiz-Acevedo, Alejandro; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2009-02-01

    Phosphorylation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is believed to play a critical role in its nicotine-induced desensitization and up-regulation. We examined the contribution of a consensus PKC site in the alpha4 M3/M4 intracellular loop (alpha4S336) on the desensitization and up-regulation of alpha4beta2 nAChRs expressed in oocytes. Position alpha4S336 was replaced with either alanine to abolish potential phosphorylation at this site or with aspartic acid to mimic phosphorylation at this same site. Mutations alpha4S336A and alpha4S336D displayed a threefold increase in the ACh-induced response and an increase in ACh EC(50). Epibatidine binding revealed a three and sevenfold increase in surface expression for the alpha4S336A and alpha4S336D mutations, respectively, relative to wild-type, therefore, both mutations enhanced expression of the alpha4beta2 nAChR. Interestingly, the EC(50)'s and peak currents for nicotine activation remained unaffected in both mutants. Both mutations abolished the nicotine-induced up-regulation that is normally observed in the wild-type. The present data suggest that adding or removing a negative charge at this phosphorylation site cannot be explained by a simple straightforward on-and-off mechanism; rather a more complex mechanism(s) may govern the functional expression of the alpha4beta2 nAChR. Along the same line, our data support the idea that phosphorylation at multiple consensus sites in the alpha4 subunit could play a remarkable role on the regulation of the functional expression of the alpha4beta2 nAChR.

  10. EGF AND TGF-{alpha} motogenic activities are mediated by the EGF receptor via distinct matrix-dependent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ian R.; Schor, Ana M.; Schor, Seth L. . E-mail: s.l.schor@dundee.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    EGF and TGF-{alpha} induce an equipotent stimulation of fibroblast migration and proliferation. In spite of their homologous structure and ligation by the same receptor (EGFR), we report that their respective motogenic activities are mediated by different signal transduction intermediates, with p70{sup S6K} participating in EGF signalling and phospholipase C{gamma} in TGF-{alpha} signalling. We additionally demonstrate that EGF and TGF-{alpha} motogenic activities may be resolved into two stages: (a) cell 'activation' by a transient exposure to either cytokine, and (b) the subsequent 'manifestation' of an enhanced migratory phenotype in the absence of cytokine. The cell activation and manifestation stages for each cytokine are mediated by distinct matrix-dependent mechanisms: motogenetic activation by EGF requires the concomitant functionality of EGFR and the hyaluronan receptor CD44, whereas activation by TGF-{alpha} requires EGFR and integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Manifestation of elevated migration no longer requires the continued presence of exogenous cytokine and functional EGFR but does require the above mentioned matrix receptors, as well as their respective ligands, i.e., hyaluronan in the case of EGF, and vitronectin in the case of TGF-{alpha}. In contrast, the mitogenic activities of EGF and TGF-{alpha} are independent of CD44 and {alpha}v{beta}3 functionality. These results demonstrate clear qualitative differences between EGF and TGF-{alpha} pathways and highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in regulating cytokine bioactivity.

  11. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Oz, Murat; Ravindran, Arippa; Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Zhang, Li; Morales, Marisela

    2003-09-01

    The effect of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide on the function of the cloned alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes was investigated by using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Anandamide reversibly inhibited nicotine (10 microM) induced-currents in a concentration-dependent manner (10 nM to 30 microM), with an IC50 value of 229.7 +/- 20.4 nM. The effect of anandamide was neither dependent on the membrane potential nor meditated by endogenous Ca2+ dependent Cl- channels since it was unaffected by intracellularly injected BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing 2 mM Ba2+. Anandamide decreased the maximal nicotine-induced responses without significantly affecting its potency, indicating that it acts as a noncompetitive antagonist on nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) alpha7 receptors. This effect was not mediated by CB1 or CB2 receptors, as neither the selective CB1 receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR 141716A) nor CB2 receptor antagonist N-((1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl-bicyclo-heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR 144528) reduced the inhibition by anandamide. In addition, inhibition of nicotinic responses by anandamide was not sensitive to either pertussis toxin treatment or to the membrane permeable cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP (0.2 mM). Inhibitors of enzymes involved in anandamide metabolism including phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, superoxide dismutase, and indomethacin, or the anandamide transport inhibitor AM404 did not prevent anandamide inhibition of nicotinic responses, suggesting that anandamide itself acted on nicotinic receptors. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits the function of nACh alpha7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a cannabinoid receptor-independent and

  12. Delta, theta, and alpha event-related oscillations in alcoholics during Go/NoGo task: neurocognitive deficits in execution, inhibition, and attention processing

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashwini K.; Kamarajan, Chella; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B.; Stimus, Arthur; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Higher impulsivity observed in alcoholics is thought to be due to neurocognitive functional deficits involving impaired inhibition in several brain regions and/or neuronal circuits. Event-related Oscillations (EROs) offer time-frequency measure of brain rhythms during perceptual and cognitive processing, which provide a detailed view of neuroelectric oscillatory responses to external/internal events. The present study examines evoked power (temporally locked to events) of oscillatory brain signals in alcoholics during an equal probability Go/NoGo task, assessing their functional relevance in execution and inhibition of a motor response. The current study hypothesized that increases in the power of slow frequency bands and their topographical distribution is associated with tasks that have increased cognitive demands, such as the execution and inhibition of a motor response. Therefore, it is hypothesized that alcoholics would show lower spectral power in their topographical densities compared to controls. The sample consisted of 20 right-handed abstinent alcoholic males and 20 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Evoked delta (1.0-3.5 Hz; 200-600 ms), theta (4.0-7.5 Hz; 200-400 ms), slow alpha (8.0-9.5 Hz; 200-300 ms), and fast alpha (10.0-12.5 Hz; 100-200 ms) ERO power were compared across group and task conditions. Compared to controls, alcoholics had higher impulsiveness scores on the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and made more errors on Go trials. Alcoholics showed significantly lower evoked delta, theta, and slow alpha power compared to controls for both Go and NoGo task conditions, and lower evoked fast alpha power compared to controls for only the NoGo condition. The results confirm previous findings and are suggestive of neurocognitive deficits while executing and suppressing a motor response. Based on findings in the alpha frequency ranges, it is further suggested that the inhibitory processing impairments in alcoholics may arise from inadequate

  13. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade by phentolamine increases the efficacy of vasodilators in penile corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, N N; Goldstein, I; Moreland, R B; Traish, A M

    2000-03-01

    Penile trabecular smooth muscle tone, a major determinant of erectile function, is highly regulated by numerous inter- and intracellular pathways. The interaction between pathways mediating contraction and relaxation has not been studied in detail. To this end, we investigated the functional effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade with phentolamine and its interaction with vasodilators (sildenafil, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and PGE1) that elevate cyclic nucleotides on penile cavernosal smooth muscle contractility. In organ bath preparations of cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine, phentolamine significantly enhanced relaxation induced by sildenafil, VIP and PGE1. Sildenafil, VIP or PGE1 also significantly enhanced relaxation induced by phentolamine in cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine. To study the effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade and modification of cyclic nucleotide metabolism during active neurogenic input, cavernosal tissue strips in organ bath preparations were contracted with the non-adrenergic agonist endothelin-1 and subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence or presence of phentolamine and/or sildenafil. EFS (5-40Hz) typically caused biphasic relaxation and contraction responses. Phentolamine alone enhanced relaxation and reduced or prevented contraction to EFS. Sildenafil enhanced relaxation to EFS at lower frequencies (< or = 5 Hz). The combination of phentolamine and sildenafil enhanced EFS-induced relaxation at all frequencies tested. EFS, in the presence of 10 nM phentolamine and 30 nM sildenafil, produced enhanced relaxation responses which were quantitatively similar to those obtained in the presence of 50 nM sildenafil alone. Thus, blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors with phentolamine increases the efficacy of cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasodilators. Furthermore, phentolamine potentiates relaxation and attenuates contraction in response to endogenous

  14. Alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on a platelet precursor cell line, HEL

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, R.M.; Motulsky, H.J.; Rozansky, D.; Insel, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have identified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on human erythroleukemia HEL cells, a suspension-growing, bone-marrow-derived cell line related to human platelets. Intact HEL cells were studied using radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays. The authors identified saturable specific binding of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonist (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (yoh) in cells incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 1 hr (B/sub max/ 5900 +/- 2100 sites/cell, K/sub d/ 3.6 +/- 0.9 nM, n = 7). Competition for (/sup 3/H)yoh binding sites with antagonists confirmed that these sites were similar to human ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from platelets and other resources, as typified by their high affinity for WY-26392, yohimbine and idazoxan, and very low affinity for prazosin. Studies at 37/sup 0/C revealed a low affinity of these sites for catecholamines (K/sub i/ for (-)-epinephrine, 21 ..mu..M; (-)-norepinephrine, 45 ..mu..M, (+)-epinephrine, 80 ..mu..M). When experiments were conducted at 4 /sup 0/C, (-)-epinephrine was able to compete for only 50-60% of the sites specifically labelled by (/sup 3/H)yoh at 37/sup 0/, but (-)-epinephrine had an approximately 10-fold greater affinity for these sites (K/sub i/ at 4 /sup 0/C = 2.4 ..mu..M). In addition, epinephrine inhibited cAMP accumulation stimulated by forskolin and PGE/sub 1/ in HEL cells; this response was inhibited by pertussis toxin. The authors conclude that HEL cells possess ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors linked to G/sub i/ and thus should serve as a useful model to explore metabolism and regulation of these receptors in human cells.

  15. Retrograde inflammatory signaling from neutrophils to endothelial cells by soluble interleukin-6 receptor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Modur, V; Li, Y; Zimmerman, G A; Prescott, S M; McIntyre, T M

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cells initiate the inflammatory response by recruiting and activating leukocytes. IL-6 is not an agonist for this, but we found soluble IL-6 receptor alpha-subunit (IL-6Ralpha), with their constitutive IL-6 synthesis, stimulated endothelial cells to synthesize E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, IL-6, and IL-8, and to bind neutrophils. Neutrophils express significant amounts of IL-6Ralpha and upon stimulation shed it: this material activates endothelial cells through a newly constituted IL-6 receptor. Retrograde signaling from PMN activated in the extravascular compartment to surrounding endothelial cells will recruit more and a wider variety of leukocytes. The limiting signal is a soluble receptor, not a cytokine. PMID:9389739

  16. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-time for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.

  17. Loss of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors during simulated extracorporeal circulation: prevention with prostaglandin E1

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtogel, Y.T.; Musial, J.; Jenkin, B.; Niewiarowski, S.; Edmunds, L.H. Jr.; Colman, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass prolongs bleeding time and increases postoperative blood loss. During in vitro recirculation in an extracorporeal circuit containing a membrane oxygenator and primed with fresh heparinized human blood, the authors previously observed thrombocytopenia, impaired platelet aggregation, and depletion of granular contents, all of which were prevented with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). To investigate these changes further, they studied the number and affinity of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine. Before recirculation, they found 235 alpha 2-adrenergic receptors per platelet, a Kd of 3.37 nmol/L, complete aggregation with 1.04 mumol/L epinephrine, and a platelet count of 281,000 microliters/sup -1/. After 2 minutes of recirculation, 9.44 mumol/L epinephrine was required to produce complete aggregation, and the platelet count was 104,000 microliters-1 (44% of control). After 2 hours of recirculation, the platelet count had increased to 123,000 microliters/sup -1/. However, epinephrine did not induce platelet aggregation even at 100 mumol/L. Moreover, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were not detectable, and affinity for yohimbine could not be calculated. Two minutes after PGE1 0.3 mumol/L was added to the circuit, platelet numbers, response to epinephrine, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites per platelet, and affinity for yohimbine were not significantly different from control values. At 2 hours, the number of alpha 2-adrenergic sites was not significantly changed from control, but the affinity of yohimbine for platelets was significantly decreased 2.5-fold.

  18. In vivo modulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors on striatal glutamate release induced by anatoxin-A.

    PubMed

    Campos, F; Alfonso, M; Durán, R

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies suggest that alpha7 nicotinic receptors located on striatal glutamatergic terminals stimulate the release of glutamate which in turn acts at ionotropic glutamate receptors on dopaminergic terminals to increase dopamine release. However, this mechanism has never been observed in in vivo studies. In the present work, the effect of the nicotinic receptors agonist, anatoxin-a, on striatal glutamate and dopamine release has been studied. Using in vivo microdialysis technique, our results have shown that anatoxin-a evokes glutamate release in a dependent way of activation alpha7 nicotinic receptors. The increase of glutamate is followed by an increase on dopamine levels. These results represent a clear in vivo evidence of the striatal modulation of dopamine by means of glutamate release through alpha7 nicotinic receptors.

  19. Estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression in the cortex: sex differences during development and in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Melinda E; Westberry, Jenne M; Trout, Amanda L

    2011-03-01

    17β-estradiol is a hormone with far-reaching organizational, activational and protective actions in both male and female brains. The organizational effects of early estrogen exposure are essential for long-lasting behavioral and cognitive functions. Estradiol mediates many of its effects through the intracellular receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ). In the rodent cerebral cortex, estrogen receptor expression is high early in postnatal life and declines dramatically as the animal approaches puberty. This decline is accompanied by decreased expression of ERα mRNA. This change in expression is the same in both males and females in the developing isocortex and hippocampus. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene expression is critical for understanding the developmental, as well as changes in postpubertal expression of the estrogen receptor. One mechanism of suppressing gene expression is by the epigenetic modification of the promoter regions by DNA methylation that results in gene silencing. The decrease in ERα mRNA expression during development is accompanied by an increase in promoter methylation. Another example of regulation of ERα gene expression in the adult cortex is the changes that occur following neuronal injury. Many animal studies have demonstrated that the endogenous estrogen, 17β-estradiol, is neuroprotective. Specifically, low levels of estradiol protect the cortex from neuronal death following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In females, this protection is mediated through an ERα-dependent mechanism. ERα expression is rapidly increased following MCAO in females, but not in males. This increase is accompanied by a decrease in methylation of the promoter suggesting a return to the developmental program of gene expression within neurons. Taken together, during development and in adulthood, regulation of ERα gene expression in the

  20. Potentiation of alpha7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by select albumins.

    PubMed

    Conroy, William G; Liu, Qing-Song; Nai, Qiang; Margiotta, Joseph F; Berg, Darwin K

    2003-02-01

    Nicotinic receptors containing alpha7 subunits are ligand-gated ion channels widely distributed in the nervous system; they influence a diverse array of events because of their high relative calcium permeability. We show here that nicotine-induced whole-cell responses generated by such receptors can be dramatically potentiated in a rapidly reversible manner by some but not all albumins. The potentiation involves increases both in potency and efficacy with no obvious differences in rise and fall times of the response. The potentiation is not reduced by removing absorbed components; it is abolished by proteolysis, suggesting that the albumin protein backbone is essential. The fact that some albumins are ineffective indicates that minor differences in amino acid sequence may be critical. Experiments with open channel blockers indicate that the potentiation involves increased responses from active receptors rather than recruitment of receptors from a previously silent pool. Single channel recordings reveal that the potentiation correlates with increased single channel opening probability, reflected in increased frequency of channel opening and increased mean channel open time. The potentiation can be exploited to overcome blockade by noncompetitive inhibitors such as beta-amyloid peptide. The results raise the possibility that endogenous compounds use the site to modulate receptor function in vivo, and suggest that the receptors may represent useful targets for therapeutic intervention in cases where they have been implicated in neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Distinct modes of interaction of the retinoic acid receptor alpha with natural and synthetic retinoids.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, B; Mouchon, A; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    1998-04-30

    Retinoids regulate key cellular processes through their binding to their cognate nuclear receptors, RARs and RXRs. Synthetic ligands mimic most of their biological effects and alteration of their chemical structure confers selectivity for RAR isotypes alpha, beta or gamma. In this study, we have examined the contribution of a domain (L box) of hRARalpha located at the C-terminus of the ligand binding domain (LBD), between helices H11 and H12, to the ligand binding activity of this receptor. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that, in the absence of the ligand-dependent activation domain 2 (AF2-AD), the receptor discriminates between classes of structurally distinct retinoids. This property was lost in the presence of the AF2-AD domain, evidencing major structural transitions in this part of the receptor. We propose that ligand binding occurs in two steps: first, the ligand interacts with the LBD in its opened, holo-receptor conformation in which the L box plays a crucial role in defining the ligand binding repertoire of hRARalpha; secondly, the LBD adopts its closed conformation in which the ligand interacts with the receptor mostly through its carboxylic moiety.

  2. FAAH-/- mice display differential tolerance, dependence, and cannabinoid receptor adaptation after delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and anandamide administration.

    PubMed

    Falenski, Katherine W; Thorpe, Andrew J; Schlosburg, Joel E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Abdullah, Rehab A; Smith, Tricia H; Selley, Dana E; Lichtman, Aron H; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2010-07-01

    Repeated administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, induces profound tolerance that correlates with desensitization and downregulation of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in the CNS. However, the consequences of repeated administration of the endocannabinoid N